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02/12/2012
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ANNEX
SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURES TO BE BUILT IN DISASTER AREAS
CHAPTER I  GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1.1. SCOPE
1.1.1  Requirements of this Specification shall be applicable to newly constructed
buildings as well as to existing buildings.
1.1.2  Provisions to be applied for the prevailing buildings of which the intended use
and / or carrier system shall be changed, the performance shall be evaluated before or after
the earthquake and buildings to be strengthened were given in Section  7.
1.1.3  Requirements of this Specification shall be applicable to reinforced concrete
(castinsitu and pre  stressed or non  pre  stressed prefabricated) buildings, structural
steel buildings and buildinglike structures, and timber, masonry and adobe buildings.
1.1.4  Minimum conditions and rules to be implied to wooden buildings and such kind
of buildings shall be determined by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement until the
provisions of relevant specification shall be put into effect and projects of them shall be
arranged according to those basis.
1.1.5  In addition to buildings and buildinglike structures, nonbuilding structures
permitted to be designed in accordance with the requirements of this Specification are
limited with those specified in 2.12 of Chapter 2. In this context bridges, dams, harbor
structures, tunnels, pipelines, power transmission lines, nuclear power plants, natural gas
storage facilities, underground structures and other structures designed with analysis and
safety rules that are different than those for buildings are outside the scope of this
Specification.
1.1.6  Buildings equipped with special system and equipment between foundation and
soil for the purpose of isolation of building structural system from the earthquake
motion, and buildings incorporating other active and passive control systems are out of
the scope of this Specification.
1.1.7  Rules to be applied to structures which are outside the scope shall be
specifically determined by the Ministries supervising the constructions and such
structures shall be designed to those rules until their own special specifications are
prepared.
The objective of this Part of the Specification is to define the minimum requirements
for the earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings and buildinglike
of structures or their parts subjected to earthquake ground motion.
1.2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1.2.1  The general principle of earthquake resistant design to this Specification is to
prevent structural and nonstructural elements of buildings from any damage in low
intensity earthquakes; to limit the damage in structural and nonstructural elements to
repairable levels in mediumintensity earthquakes, and to prevent the overall or partial
collapse of buildings in highintensity earthquakes in order to avoid the loss of life.
Performance criteria based on the evaluation and reinforcement of the existing buildings
is stated in Chapter 7.
2
1.2.2  The design earthquake considered in this Specification, corresponds to high
intensity earthquake defined in 1.2.1 above. For buildings with Building Importance Factor
of I=1 in accordance with Chapter 2, Table 2.3, the probability of exceedance of the
design earthquake within a period of 50 years is 10 %. Earthquakes with different the
probability of exceedance are defined in Chapter 7 in order to be considered in the
evaluation and reinforcement of the existing buildings.
1.2.3  Seismic zones cited in this Specification are the first, second, third and fourth
seismic zones depicted in Seismic Zoning Map of Turkey prepared by the Ministry of
Public Works and Settlement and issued by the decree of the Council of Ministers dated
18/04/1996 and numbered 96/8109.
1.2.4  Buildings to be built in the seismic zones according to this Specification shall be
in accordance with Turkish Standards and “General Technical Specification” of the
Ministry of Public Works and Settlement in terms of materials and labor.
3
CHAPTER 2  ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS FOR EARTHQUAKE
RESISTANT BUILDINGS
2.0. NOTATION
A (T) = Spectral Acceleration Coefficient
A
o
= Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient
B
a
= Design internal force component of a structural element in the direction of
its principal axis a
B
ax
= Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its
principal axis a due to earthquake in x direction
B
ay
= Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its
principal axis a due to earthquake in y direction perpendicular to x direction
B
b
= Design internal force component of a structural element in the direction of
its principal axis b
B
bx
= Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its
principal axis b due to earthquake in x direction
B
by
= Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its
principal axis b due to earthquake in y direction perpendicular to x direction
B
B
= Any size calculated with the combination of mode contributions in the
ModeSuperposition Method
B
D
= Amplified value of B
B
D
i
= Amplification factor to be applied in Equivalent Seismic Load Method to ±
%5 additional eccentricity at i’th storey of a torsionally irregular building
d
fi
= Displacement calculated at i’th storey of building under fictitious loads F
fi
d
i
= Displacement calculated at i’th storey of building under design seismic
loads
F
fi
= Fictitious load acting at i’th storey in the determination of fundamental
natural vibration period
F
i
= Design seismic load acting at i’th storey in Equivalent Seismic Load Method
f
e
= Equivalent seismic load acting at the mass centre of the mechanical and
electrical equipment
g = Acceleration of gravity (9.81 m / s
2
)
g
i
= Total dead load at i’th storey of building
H
i
= Height of i’th storey of building measured from the top foundation level (In
buildings with rigid peripheral basement walls, height of i’th storey of
building measured from the top of ground floor level)
H
N
= Total height of building measured from the top foundation level (In
buildings with rigid peripheral basement walls, total height of building
measured from the top of the ground floor level)
H
w
= Total height of partition measured from under the foundation or from the
ground floor
h
i
= Height of i’th storey of building [m]
I = Building Importance Factor
w
= Length of partition or piece of strap partition on plan
M
n
= Modal mass of the n’th natural vibration mode
M
xn
= Effective participating mass of the n’th natural vibration mode of building in
the x earthquake direction considered
M
yn
= Effective participating mass of the n’th natural vibration mode of building in
the y earthquake direction considered
m
i
= i’th storey mass of building (m
i
= w
i
/ g)
m
θi
= In the case where floors are modeled as rigid diaphragms, mass moment of
inertia around vertical axis passing through unshifted mass centre of i’th
storey of building
N = Total number of stories of building from the foundation level (In buildings
with rigid peripheral basement walls, total number of stories from the
ground floor level)
4
n = Live Load Participation Factor
q
i
= Total live load at i’th storey of building
R = Structural Behavior Factor
R
down
, R
up
= In case single storey frames with columns hinged at the top are used as top
floor (roof top) in cast – in – situ reinforced concrete, prefabricated and
structural steel buildings, R factors defined for lower stories and the top
floor, respectively.
R
NÇ
= Structural Behavior Factor defined in Table 2.5 for the case where entire
seismic loads are carried by frames of nominal ductility level
R
YP
= Structural Behavior Factor defined in Table 2.5 for the case where entire
seismic loads are carried by walls of high ductility level
R
a
(T) = Seismic Load Reduction Factor
S(T) = Spectrum Coefficient
S
ae
(T) = Elasticity spectrum ordinate [m /s
2
]
S
aR
(T
r
) = Acceleration spectrum ordinate for the r’th natural vibration mode [m /s
2
]
T = Building natural vibration period [s]
T
1
= First natural vibration period of building [s]
T
A
,T
B
= Spectrum Characteristic Periods [s]
T
m
, T
n
= m’th and n’th natural vibration periods of building [s]
V
i
= Storey shear at i’th storey of building in the earthquake direction considered
V
t
= In the Equivalent Seismic Load Method, total equivalent seismic load acting
on the building (base shear) in the earthquake direction considered
V
tB
= In the ModeSuperposition Method, total design seismic load acting on the
building (base shear) obtained by modal combination in the earthquake
direction considered
W = Total weight of building calculated by considering Live Load Participation
Factor
w
e
= Weight of mechanical or electrical equipment
w
i
= Weight of i’th storey of building by considering Live Load Participation
Factor
Y = Sufficient number of natural vibration modes taken into account in the Mode
Superposition Method
α αα α = Coefficient used for determining the gap size of a seismic joint
α αα α
S
= Ratio of sum of shear forces developed at the bases of structural walls of high
ductility level to total shear force developed at the bases for the entire
building
β ββ β = Coefficient used to determine lower limits of response quantities calculated by
ModeSuperposition Method
∆ ∆∆ ∆
i
= Storey drift of i’th storey of building
(∆
i
)
ave
= Average storey drift of i’th storey of building
∆ ∆∆ ∆F
N
= Additional equivalent seismic load acting on the N’th storey (top) of building
δ δδ δ
i
= Effective storey drift of i’th storey of building
( (( (δ δδ δ
i
) )) )
mak
= Maximum effective storey drift of i’th storey of building
η ηη η
bi
= Torsionally Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building
η ηη η
ci
= Strength Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building
η ηη η
ki
= Stiffness Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building
Φ ΦΦ Φ
xin
= In buildings with floors modeled as rigid diaphragms, horizontal component
of n’th mode shape in the x direction at i’th storey of building
Φ ΦΦ Φ
yin
= In buildings with floors modeled as rigid diaphragms, horizontal component
of n’th mode shape in the y direction at i’th storey of building
Φ ΦΦ Φ
θ θθ θin
= In buildings with floors modeled as rigid diaphragms, rotational component
of n’th mode shape around the vertical axis at i’th storey of building
θ θθ θ
i
= Second Order Effect Indicator defined at i’th storey of building
5
2.1. SCOPE
2.1.1  Seismic loads and analysis requirements to be applied to the earthquake resistant
design of all castinsite and prefabricated reinforced concrete buildings, structural steel
buildings and buildinglike structures to be built in seismic zones defined in 1.2.3 are
specified in this chapter. Rules for masonry buildings are specified in Chapter 5,
respectively.
2.1.2  Rules for the analysis of building foundations and soil retaining structures are
specified in Chapter 6.
2.1.3  Nonbuilding structures which are permitted to be analyzed in accordance with the
requirements of this chapter shall be limited to those given in Chapter.12.
2.1.4 – Design loads to be applied for strengthening and evaluating earthquake
performances of existing buildings are specified in Chapter 7.
2.2. GENERAL GUIDELINES AND RULES
2.2.1. General Guidelines for Building Structural Systems
2.2.1.1 – The building structural system resisting seismic loads as a whole as well as
each structural element of the system shall be provided with sufficient stiffness, stability
and strength to ensure an uninterrupted and safe transfer of seismic loads down to the
foundation soil.
2.2.1.2  It is essential that floor systems possess sufficient stiffness and strength to
ensure the safe transfer of lateral seismic loads between the elements of the structural
system. In insufficient cases, appropriate transfer elements shall be arranged on floors.
2.2.1.3  In order to dissipate a significant part of the seismic energy fed into the
building by ductile behavior of structural system, ductile design principles specified in
Chapter 3 and in Chapter 4 of this Specification should be followed.
2.2.1.4  Design and construction of irregular buildings defined in 2.3.1 below should be
avoided. Structural system should be arranged symmetrical or nearly symmetrical in
plan and torsional irregularity defined as type A1 irregularity in Table 2.1 should
preferably be avoided. In this respect, it is essential that stiff structural elements such as
structural walls should be placed so as to increase the torsional stiffness of the building.
On the other hand, vertical irregularities defined as types B1 and B2 in Table 2.1
leading to weak storey or soft storey at any storey should be avoided.
2.2.1.5  Effects of rotations of column and in particular wall supporting foundations on
soils classified as group (C) and (D) in Table 6.1 of Chapter 6 should be taken into
account by appropriate methods of structural modeling.
2.2.2. General Rules for Seismic Loads
2.2.2.1  Unless specified otherwise in this chapter, i n or der t o det er mi ne
seismic loads acting on buildings, Spectral Acceleration Coefficient specified in 2.4
and Seismic Load Reduction Factor specified in 2.5 shall be based on.
6
2.2.2.2  Unless specified otherwise in this Specification, seismic loads shall be
assumed to act nonsimultaneously along the two perpendicular axes of the building in the
horizontal plane. Provisions concerning combined effect of earthquakes in considered axes
are given in 2.7.5.
2.2.2.3  Unless specified otherwise in this Specification, load factors to be used to
determine design internal forces under the combined effects of seismic loads and other
loads according to ultimate strength theory shall be taken from the relevant structural
specifications.
2.2.2.4  It shall be assumed that the wind loads and seismic loads act non
simultaneously, and the most unfavorable response quantity due to wind or earthquake
shall be considered for the design of each structural element. However, even if the
quantities due to wind govern are more unfavorable, rules given in this Specification
shall be applied for dimensioning and detailing of structural elements and their joints.
2.3. IRREGULAR BUILDINGS
2.3.1. Definition of Irregular Buildings
Regarding the definition of irregular buildings whose design and construction should be
avoided because of their unfavorable seismic behavior, types of irregularities in plan
and in elevation are given in Table 2.1 and relevant conditions are given in 2.3.2 below.
2.3.2. Conditions for Irregular Buildings
Conditions related to irregularities defined in Table 2.1 are given below:
2.3.2.1  Irregularity types A1 and B2 are irregularities that govern the selection of the
method of seismic analysis as specified in 2.6 below.
2.3.2.2  In buildings with irregularity types A2 and A3, it shall be verified by
calculation in the first and second seismic zones that the floor systems are capable of
safe transfer of seismic loads between vertical structural elements.
2.3.2.3  In buildings with irregularity type B1, if total infill wall area at i’th storey is
greater than that of the storey immediately above, then infill walls shall not be taken
into account in the determination of η
ci
. In the range 0.60 ≤ (η
ci
)
min
< 0.80, structural
behavior factor given in Table 2.5 shall be multiplied by 1.25 (η
ci
)
min
and applied to the
entire building in both earthquake directions. In no case, however, η
ci <
0.60 shall be
permitted. Otherwise strength and stiffness of the weak storey shall be increased and the
seismic analysis shall be repeated.
2.3.2.4 – In order to be applied in all seismic regions, conditions related to buildings with
irregularity type B3 are specified below:
(a) In all seismic zones, columns at any storey of the building shall in no case be
permitted to rest on the cantilever beams or on top of or at the tip of gussets provided in
the columns underneath.
7
TABLE 2.1  IRREGULAR BUILDINGS
A – IRREGULARITIES IN PLAN Related Items
A1 – Torsional Irregularity :
The case where Torsional Irregularity Factor η
bi
, which is defined for
any of the two orthogonal earthquake directions as the ratio of the
maximum relative storey drift at any storey to the average relative
storey drift at the same storey in the same direction, is greater than 1.2
(Figure 2.1). [η
bi
= (∆
i
)
max
/ (∆
i
)
avr
> 1.2]
Relative storey drifts shall be calculated in accordance with 2.7, by
considering the effects of ± %5 additional eccentricities.
2.3.2.1
A2 – Floor Discontinuities :
In any floor (Figure 2.2);
I  The case where the total area of the openings including those of
stairs and elevator shafts exceeds 1 / 3 of the gross floor area,
II – The case where local floor openings which make the safe transfer
of seismic loads difficult to vertical structural elements,
III – The cases of abrupt reductions in the inplane stiffness and
strength of floors.
2.3.2.2
A3 – Projections in Plan :
The cases where dimensions of projections in both of the two
perpendicular directions in plan exceed the total plan dimensions of
that storey of the building in the respective directions by more than
20% (Figure 2.3).
2.3.2.2
B – IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION Related Items
B1 – Interstorey Strength Irregularity (Weak Storey) :
In reinforced concrete buildings, the case where in each of the
orthogonal earthquake directions, Strength Irregularity Factor η
ci
which is defined as the ratio of the effective shear area of any storey to
the effective shear area of the storey immediately above, is less than
0.80. [η
ci
= (¿A
e
)
i
/ (¿A
e
)
i+1
< 0.80]
Definition of effective shear area in any storey :
¿A
e
= ¿A
w
+ ¿A
g
+ 0.15 ¿A
k
(See 3.0 for notations)
2.3.2.3
B2 – Interstorey Stiffness Irregularity (Soft Storey) :
The case where in each of the two orthogonal earthquake directions,
Stiffness Irregularity Factor η
ki
, which is defined as the ratio of the
average relative storey drift at any i’th storey to the average relative
storey drift at the storey immediately above or below, is greater than
2.0. [η
ki
= (∆
i
/ h
i
)
avr
/ (∆
i+1
/ h
i +1
)
avr
> 2.0 or
η
ki
= (∆
i
/ h
i
)
avr
/ (∆
i  1
/ h
i 1
)
avr
> 2.0]
Relative storey drifts shall be calculated in accordance with 2.7, by
considering the effects of ± %5 additional eccentricities.
2.3.2.1
B3  Discontinuity of Vertical Structural Elements :
The cases where vertical structural elements (columns or structural
walls) are removed at some stories and supported by beams or
gusseted columns underneath, or the structural walls of upper stories
are supported by columns or beams underneath (Figure 2.4).
2.3.2.4
8
(∆
i
)
min
(∆
i
)
max
i +1’st storey
floor
Earthquake
Direction
i’th storey
Floor
In the case where floors behave as rigid diaphragms
In their own planes:
(∆
i
)
avr
= 1/2 [(∆
i
)
max
+ (∆
i
)
min
]
Torsional irregularity factor :
η
bi
= (∆
i
)
max
/ (∆
i
)
ort
Torsional irregularity: η
bi
> 1.2
Figure 2.1
A
b
A
b1
A
b2
A
b
= A
b1
+ A
b2
Type A2 irregularity  I
A
b
/ A > 1/3
Ab
: Total area of openings
A : Gross floor area
A A
Type A2 irregularity  II
Section A  A
Type A2 irregularity  II and III
Figure 2.2
9
a
y
L
y
a
y
L
y
L
y
a
y
a
y
a
x
a
x
a
x
L
x
L
x
a
x
a
x
L
x
Type A3 irregularity:
a
x
> 0.2 L
x
and at the same time a
y
> 0.2 L
y
Figure 2.3
See 2.3.2.4 (a) See 2.3.2.4 (b)
See 2.3.2.4 (c) See 2.3.2.4 (d)
Figure 2.4
(b) In the case where a column rests on a beam which is supported at both ends, all
internal force components induced by the combined effect of vertical loads and
seismic loads shall be increased by 50 % at all sections of the beam and at all
sections of the other beams and columns adjoining to the beam in the earthquake
direction considered.
(c) Structural walls at upper stories shall in no case be permitted to rest on the columns
below.
(d) Structural walls shall in no case be permitted in their own plane to rest on the beam
span at any storey of the building.
10
2.4. DEFINITION OF ELASTIC SEISMIC LOADS: SPECTRAL ACCELERATION
COEFFICIENT
The Spectral Acceleration Coefficient, A (T), which shall be considered as the basis for
the determination of seismic loads is given by Equation (2.1). Elastic Spectral
Acceleration, S
ae
(T) which is the ordinate of Elastic Acceleration Spectrum defined for 5
% damped rate is derived by multiplying Spectral Acceleration Coefficient with gravity,
g.
A (T) = A
o
I S (T) (2.1)
S
ae
(T) = A (T) g
2.4.1. Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient
The Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient, A
o
, appearing in Equation (2.1) is
specified in Table 2. 2.
TABLE 2.2  EFFECTIVE GROUND ACCELERATION COEFFICIENT (A
o
)
Seismic Zone A
o
1 0.40
2 0.30
3 0.20
4 0.10
2.4.2. Building Importance Factor
The Building Importance Factor, I, appearing in Equation (2.1) is specified in Table
2.3.
TABLE 2.3  BUILDING IMPORTANCE FACTOR (I)
Purpose of Occupancy or Type
of Building
Importance
Factor (I)
1. Buildings required to be utilized after the earthquake and
buildings containing hazardous materials
a) Buildings required to be utilized immediately after the earthquake
(Hospitals, dispensaries, health wards, fire fighting buildings and
facilities, PTT and other telecommunication facilities, transportation
stations and terminals, power generation and distribution facilities;
governorate, county and municipality administration buildings, first
aid and emergency planning stations)
b) Buildings containing or storing toxic, explosive and flammable
materials, etc.
1.5
2. Intensively and longterm occupied buildings and
buildings preserving valuable goods
a) Schools, other educational buildings and facilities, dormitories and
hostels, military barracks, prisons, etc.
b) Museums
1.4
3. Intensively but shortterm occupied buildings
Sport facilities, cinema, theatre and concert halls, etc.
1.2
4. Other buildings
Buildings other than above defined buildings. (Residential and office
buildings, hotels, buildinglike industrial structures, etc.)
1.0
11
2.4.3. Spectrum Coefficient
2.4.3.1  The Spectrum Coefficient, S(T), appearing in Equation (2.1) shall be
determined by Equation (2.2), depending on the local site conditions and the
building natural period, T (Figure 2.5):
A
A
A B
0.8
B
B
( ) = 1 + 1.5 (0 )
( ) = 2.5 ( )
( ) = 2.5 ( )
T
S T T T
T
S T T T T
T
S T T T
T
≤ ≤
< ≤
 
<

\ .
(2.2)
Spectrum Characteristic Periods, T
A
and T
B
, appearing in Equation (2.2) are
specified in Table 2.4, depending on Local Site Classes defined in Table 6.2 of Chapter
6.
TABLE 2.4  SPECTRUM CHARACTERISTIC PERIODS (T
A
, T
B
)
Local Site Class
according to Table 6.2
T
A
(second)
T
B
(second)
Z1 0.10 0.30
Z2 0.15 0.40
Z3 0.15 0.60
Z4 0.20 0.90
2.4.3.2  In case where the requirements specified in 6.2.1.2 and 6.2.1.3 of Chapter
6 are not met, spectrum characteristic periods defined in Table 2.4 for local site class
Z4 shall be used.
2.4.4. Special Design Acceleration Spectra
In required cases, elastic acceleration spectrum may be determined through special
investigations by considering local seismic and site conditions. However spectral
acceleration coefficients corresponding to so obtained acceleration spectrum ordinates
shall in no case be less than those determined by Equation (2.1) based on
relevant characteristic periods specified in Table 2.4.
S(T)
2.5
1.0
T
A
T
B
Figure 2.5
S(T) = 2. 5 (T
B
/ T)
0. 8
12
2.5. REDUCTION OF ELASTIC SEISMIC LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD
REDUCTION FACTOR
In order to consider the specific nonlinear behavior of the structural system during
earthquake, elastic seismic loads to be determined in terms of spectral acceleration
coefficient defined in 2.4 shall be divided to below defined Seismic Load Reduction
Factor to account for. Seismic Load Reduction Factor, shall be determined by
Equation (2.3) in terms of Structural System Behavior Factor, R, defined in Table
2.5 for various structural systems, and the natural vibration period T.
a A
A
a A
( ) = 1.5 + ( 1.5) (0 )
( ) = ( )
T
R T R T T
T
R T R T T
− ≤ ≤
<
(2.3)
2.5.1. General Conditions on Ductility Levels of Structural Systems
2.5.1.1  Definitions of and requirements to be fulfilled for structural systems of high
ductility level and structural systems of nominal ductility level whose Structural
System Behavior Factors are given in Table 2.5, are given in Chapter 3 for
reinforced concrete buildings and in Chapter 4 for structural steel buildings.
2.5.1.2  In structural systems denoted as being high ductility level in Table 2.5,
ductility levels shall be high in both lateral earthquake directions. Systems which
have high or combined ductility level in one earthquake direction and nominal
ductility level in the perpendicular earthquake direction shall be deemed to be structural
systems of nominal ductility level in both directions.
2.5.1.3 – Systems which have the same ductility level in both directions or high in one
direction and mixed in other direction, different R coefficients can be used in different
directions.
2.5.1.4 – Bare or infilled joist and waffle slab systems whose columns and beams do not
satisfy the requirements given in 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5, and reinforced concrete flat slab
systems without structural walls shall be treated as systems of nominal ductility level.
2.5.1.5 – In the first and second seismic zones;
(a) Except paragraph (b) below, structural systems of high ductility level shall be used for
the reinforced concrete buildings with structural systems comprised of frames only.
(b) In reinforced concrete buildings with Building Importance Factor I = 1.2 and I = 1.0
according to the Table 2.3, structural systems comprised of frames of nominal ductility
level can only be built on the condition that H
N
≤ 16 m.
(c) In all buildings with Building Importance Factor of I = 1.5 and I = 1.4 according to
Table 2.3, structural systems of high ductility level or structural systems with mixed
ductility level defined in 2.5.4.1 shall be used.
2.5.1.6 – Structural systems of nominal ductility level without structural walls can only be
permitted to be built in the third and fourth seismic zones with the following conditions:
(a) Reinforced concrete buildings defined in 2.5.1.4, can be built on the condition that
H
N
≤ 13 m.
13
(b) – Excluding the systems indicated in 2.5.1.4, reinforced concrete and structural
steel buildings comprised only of frames of nominal ductility level are permitted to be
built on the condition that H
N
≤ 25 m.
TABLE 2.5  STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR FACTORS (R)
BUILDING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
Systems of
Nominal
Ductility
Level
Systems of
High
Ductility
Level
(1) CASTINSITE REINFORCED CONCRETE
BUILDINGS
(1.1) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by
frames................................................................................
(1.2) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by
coupled structural walls......................................................
(1.3) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by
solid structural walls...........................................................
(1.4) Buildings in which seismic loads are jointly resisted
by frames and solid and / or coupled structural walls............
4
4
4
4
8
7
6
7
(2) PREFABRICATED REINFORCED CONCRETE
BUILDINGS
(2.1) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by
frames with connections capable of cyclic moment transfer
(2.2) Singlestorey buildings in which seismic loads are
fully resisted by columns with hinged upper connections
(2.3) Prefabricated buildings with hinged frame connections
in which seismic loads are fully resisted by prefabricated or
cast – in – situ solid structural walls and / or coupled
structural walls.
(2.4) Buildings in which seismic loads are jointly resisted
by frames with connections capable of cyclic moment
transfer and castinsitu solid and / or coupled structural
walls
3
3
7
3
5
6
(3) STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS
(3.1) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by
frames.................................................................................
(3.2) Single – storey buildings in which seismic loads are
fully resisted by columns with connections hinged at the
top…..…………………………………………………….
(3.3) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by
braced frames or castinsitu reinforced concrete structural
walls
(a) Centrically braced frames ……………..................
(b) Eccentrically braced frames …………………………
(c) Reinforced concrete structural walls.............................
(3.4) Buildings in which seismic loads are jointly resisted
by structural steel braced frames or castinsitu
reinforced concrete structural walls
(a) Centrically braced frames....................................... (b)
Eccentrically braced frames......................................... (c)
Reinforced concrete structural walls.............................
5

4

4
5

4
8
4
5
7
6
6
8
7
14
2.5.2. Conditions for Reinforced Concrete Solid Structural Wall  Frame Systems of
High Ductility Level
Requirements for buildings where seismic loads are jointly resisted by reinforced
concrete solid structural walls of high ductility level and reinforced concrete or
structural steel frames of high ductility level are given below:
2.5.2.1 – In order to use R = 7 for cast – in – situ reinforced concrete and structural steel
frame systems or R = 6 for prefabricated reinforced concrete frame systems as it is given
in Table 2.5, sum of shear forces developed at the bases of solid structural walls under
seismic loads shall not exceed 75% of the total shear force developed at the bases for the
entire building (α
S
≤ 0.75).
2.5.2.2 – In the case where the requirement 2.5.2.1 cannot be satisfied, coefficient R to
be used in the range 0.75 < α
S
≤ 1.0 shall be calculated by the expression R = 10 − 4 α
S
for
cast – in – situ reinforced concrete and structural steel frame systems and by R = 9 − 4 α
S
for prefabricated reinforced concrete frame systems.
2.5.2.3 – In structural walls in which H
w
/
w
≤ 2.0, internal forces calculated according to
R coefficients defined above shall be increased by being multiplied with [3 / (1 + H
w
/
w
)]. However, this coefficient is not taken more than 2.
2.5.3. Conditions on Mandatory Use of Structural Walls in Certain Systems of
Nominal Ductility Level
Systems of nominal ductility level defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of 2.5.1.6 can be built
in all seismic regions and over the height limit defined in the same paragraphs. But in this
case, it is mandatory to use solid or coupled reinforced concrete structural walls of
nominal or high ductility level in reinforced concrete buildings through the full height of
the building with the following conditions fulfilled and centrically or eccentrically braced
frames of nominal or high ductility level in structural steel buildings.
2.5.3.1 – When structural walls of nominal ductility level are used in the structural
system, sum of shear forces developed at the bases of structural walls according to
seismic loads shall be more than 75% of the total shear force developed for the
entire building in each earthquake direction.
2.5.3.2 When structural walls of high ductility level are used in the structural
system, requirements specified in 2.5.4.1 below for mixed structural systems shall be
applied.
2.5.4. Conditions for Mixed Structural Systems in Terms of Ductility Level
2.5.4.1 – Systems of nominal ductility level defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of 2.5.1.6
are permitted to be mixed with structural walls of high ductility level. In so
obtained systems of mixed ductility level, solid or coupled reinforced concrete structural
walls of high ductility or for steel buildings structural steel eccentric or centric braced
frames may be used provided that the following conditions are met.
15
(a) In the seismic analysis of such mixed systems, frames and structural walls (or
braced frames) shall be jointly considered, however in each earthquake direction it
shall be α
S
≥ 0.40.
(b) In the case where α
S
≥ 2/3 in both earthquake directions, R factor defined in Table
2.5 for the case where seismic loads are fully resisted by structural of high ductility
level (R = R
YP
), may be used for the entire structural system.
(c) In the range 0.40 < α
S
< 2/3, the expression R = R
NÇ
+ 1.5 α
S
(R
YP
− R
NÇ
) shall be
applied to the entire structural system in both earthquake directions.
2.5.4.2 – Reinforced concrete rigid peripheral walls used in basements of buildings shall
not be taken into consideration as parts of structural wall systems or structural wall
frame systems appearing in Table 2.5. Rules to be applied in analysis of such buildings
are given in 2.7.2.4 and 2.8.3.2.
2.5.5. Conditions for Systems with Hinged Connections
2.5.5.1 – In reinforced concrete buildings made of single – storey frames with columns
hinged at the top;
(a) In case cast – in – situ reinforced concrete columns are used, R factor defined in item
(2.2) of Table 2.5 shall be used for prefabricated buildings.
(b) Conditions concerning reinforced concrete prefabricated and structural steel buildings,
whose R factors are given in items (2.2) and (3.2) of Table 2.5, are given in 2.5.5.2.
Conditions relating to usage of such frames as top floor (roof top) in cast – in – situ
reinforced concrete, prefabricated and structural steel buildings are defined in 2.5.5.3.
2.5.5.2 – A single mezzanine floor can be constructed inside such buildings provided that
it is not larger than 25 % of place area of the building. Structural system of mezzanine
floor shall be taken into account in the seismic analysis of such buildings together
with the main structural frames. In this case, combined system shall be arranged as the
system of high ductility level in prefabricated reinforced concrete buildings. In combined
system, existence of torsional irregularity shall be controlled and if it exists, it shall be
taken into account in analysis. Connections of mezzanine floor with main structural
frames can be hinged or monolithic.
2.5.5.3 – In case single storey frames with columns hinged at the top are used as top floor
(roof top) in cast – in – situ reinforced concrete, prefabricated and structural steel
buildings, for the top floor, R factor (R
up
) defined in items (2.2) or (3.2) of Table 2.5 and
for the lower floors, R factor (R
down
) which may be defined differently shall be used with
together provided that following conditions are met.
(a) At the beginning, seismic analysis shall be made for entire building according to 2.7 or
2.8 by taking R = R
down
. Reduced and effective relative storey drifts defined in 2.10.1 shall
be obtained for entire building from this analysis.
(b) Internal forces of the top floor shall be obtained by multiplying internal forces
calculated in (a) with (R
down
/ R
up
) ratio.
(c) On the other hand, internal forces of lower floors shall be composed of sum of two
sides. First side is the internal forces calculated in (a). Second side shall be calculated by
acting structural system of lower floors by multiplying the forces calculated in (b) as
support reactions of top floor columns with (1 – R
up
/ R
down
).
16
2.6. SELECTION OF ANALYSIS METHOD
2.6.1. Analysis Methods
Methods to be used for the seismic analysis of buildings and buildinglike structures
are, Equivalent Seismic Load Method given in 2.7, Mode – Superposition Method given
in 2.8 and Analysis Methods in the Time Domain given in 2.9. Methods given in 2.8 and
2.9 may be used for the seismic analysis of all buildings and buildinglike structures.
2.6.2. Application Limits of Equivalent Seismic Load Method
Buildings for which Equivalent Seismic Load Method given in 2.7 is applicable are
summarized in Table 2.6. Methods given in 2.8 or 2.9 shall be used for the seismic
analysis of buildings outside the scope of Table 2.6.
TABLE 2.6  BUILDINGS FOR WHICH EQUIVALENT SEISMIC LOAD
METHOD IS APPLICABLE
Seismic
Zone
Type of Building
Total Height
Limit
1, 2
Buildings in which torsional irregularity coefficient
satisfies the condition η
bi
≤ 2.0 at every storey
H
N
≤ 25 m
1, 2
Buildings in which torsional irregularity coefficient
satisfies the condition η
bi
≤ 2.0 at every storey and at
the same time without type B2 irregularity
H
N
≤ 40 m
3, 4 All buildings H
N
≤ 40 m
2.7. EQUIVALENT SEISMIC LOAD METHOD
2.7.1. Determination of Total Equivalent Seismic Load
2.7.1.1 – Total Equivalent Seismic Load (base shear), V
t
, acting on the entire building in
the earthquake direction considered shall be determined by Equation (2.4).
1
t o
a 1
( )
= 0.10
( )
WA T
V A I W
R T
≥ (2.4)
The first natural vibration period of the building, T
1
, shall be calculated in accordance
with 2.7.4.
2.7.1.2 – Total building weight, W, to be used in Equation (2.4) as the seismic weight
shall be determined by Equation (2.5).
¿
=
=
N
i
i
w W
1
(2.5)
Storey weights w
i
of Equation (2.5) shall be calculated by Equation (2.6).
w
i
= g
i
+ n q
i (2.6)
Live Load Participation Factor, n, appearing in Equation (2.6) is given in Table 2.7. In
industrial buildings, n = 1 shall be taken for fixed equipment weights while crane
payloads shall not be taken into account in the calculation of storey weights 30 % of
snow loads shall be considered in calculation of weight of roof top to be used in
determination of seismic loads.
17
TABLE 2.7  LIVE LOAD PARTICIPATION FACTOR (n)
Purpose of Occupancy of Building n
Depot, warehouse, etc. 0.80
School, dormitory, sport facility, cinema, theatre, concert hall, car park,
restaurant, shop, etc.
0.60
Residence, office, hotel, hospital, etc. 0.30
2.7.2. Determination of Design Seismic Loads Acting at Storey Levels
2.7.2.1 – Total equivalent seismic load determined by Equation (2.4) is expressed by
Equation (2.7) as the sum of equivalent seismic loads acting at storey levels (Fig. 2.6a):
N
t N i
i=1
= + V F F ∆ ¿ (2.7)
2.7.2.2 – Additional equivalent seismic load, ∆F
N
, acting at the N’th storey (top) of the
building shall be determined by Equation (2.8).
∆F
N
= 0.0075 N V
t
(2.8)
2.7.2.3 – Excluding ∆F
N
, remaining part of the total equivalent seismic load shall be
distributed to stories of the building (including N’th storey) in accordance with
Equation (2.9).
i i
i t N
N
j j
j=1
= ( )
w H
F V F
w H
− ∆
¿
(2.9)
2.7.2.4 – In buildings with reinforced concrete peripheral walls at their basements being
very rigid relative to upper stories and basement floors behaving as rigid diaphragms in
horizontal planes, equivalent seismic loads acting on the basement stories and on the
upper stories shall be calculated independently as in the following. These loads shall be
applied together with structural system composed of combination of upper and lower
stories.
(a) In determining the total equivalent seismic load and equivalent storey seismic loads
in accordance with 2.7.1.1, 2.7.2.2 and 2.7.2.3, appropriate R factor shall be selected
from Table 2.5 without considering the rigid peripheral basement walls and seismic
weights of the upper stories only shall be taken into account. In this case, foundation top
level appearing in the relevant definitions and expressions shall be replaced by the
ground floor level. Fictitious loads used for the calculation of the first natural vibration
period in accordance with 2.7.4.1 shall also be based on seismic weights of the upper
stories only (Fig. 2.6b).
(b) In calculating equivalent seismic loads acting on rigid basement stories, seismic
weights of basements only shall be taken into account and Spectrum Coefficient
shall be taken as S (T) = 1. In determining equivalent seismic loads acting on each
basement storey, spectral acceleration obtained from Equation (2.1) shall be multiplied
directly with the respective weight of the storey and resulting elastic loads shall be
reduced by dividing them to R
a
(T) = 1.5 (Fig. 2.6c).
(c) Strength of flooring system of ground storey, in its self – plane, surrounded by multi
rigid walls and located at the passage from upper stories to sub – basement shall be
controlled according to internal forces obtained in this analysis.
18
w
w
F
N
+ ∆F
N
w
N
FN + ∆FN
wN
F
i
w
i
F
i
i w
2 H
i
H
N
w
1
V
t
H
i
2
w
1
H
N
F
bk
w
bk
V
t
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.6
F
bk
= A
o
I w
bk
/ 1.5
(c)
2.7.3. Displacement Components to be Considered and Application Points of
Seismic Loads
2.7.3.1 – In buildings where floors behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms, two lateral
displacement components and the rotation around the vertical axis shall be taken into
account at each floor as independent static displacement components. In order to
consider eccentricity effect, at each floor, equivalent seismic loads determined in
accordance with 2.7.2 shall be applied on the points obtained by shifting the actual mass
centre by + 5% and − 5% times the floor length in the perpendicular direction to the
earthquake direction considered as well as to storey mass center (Fig. 2.7).
2.7.3.2  In buildings where type A2 irregularity (defined in Table 2.1) exists and floors
do not behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms, sufficient number of independent static
displacement components shall be considered to account for the inplane deformation
of floors. In order to consider additional eccentricity effects, each of the
individual masses distributed over each floor shall be shifted by + 5% and − 5% times
the floor length in perpendicular direction to the earthquake direction considered (Fig. 2.8).
2.7.3.3  In the case where type A1 irregularity defined in Table 2.1 exists at any i’th
storey such that the condition 1.2 < η
bi
≤ 2.0 is satisfied, ± 5% additional eccentricity
applied to this floor accor di ng t o 2. 7. 3. 1 and / or 2. 7. 3. 2 shall be amplified by
multiplying with coefficient D
i
given by Equation (2.10) for both earthquake directions.
2
bi
i
=
1.2
D
η  

\ .
(2.10)
19
B
x
e
y
x earthquake
e
y
Direction
B
y
e
x
e
x
e
y
= 0.05 B
y
e
x
= 0.05 B
x
y Earthquake
direction
Figure 2.7
B
x
e
jx
e
jx
e
jx
= 0.05 B
x
Figure 2.8
2.7.4. Determination of First Natural Vibration Period of Building
2.7.4.1 – In the case Equivalent Seismic Load Method is applied, the first natural
vibration period of building in the direction of earthquake is not taken more than the value
calculated by Equation (2.11).
1 2
N
2
i fi
i=1
1
N
fi fi
i=1
= 2
/
m d
T
F d
 
¿

π


¿
\ .
(2.11)
F
fi
referring to the fictitious load acting on the i’th storey shall be obtained from
Equation(6.9) by substituting any value (for example unit value) in place of (V
t
− ∆F
N
)
(Figure 2.9).
2.7.4.2 – In buildings in which N > 13 excluding basement(s), natural period is not taken
more than 0.1 N as being independent from the value calculated in Equation (2.11).
20
w
N
w
i
H
i
F
fi
= 
N
¿ (w
j
H
j
)
j = 1
F
fi
w
i
d
fi
H
i
Figure 2.9
2.7.5. Internal Forces in the Directions of Elements at Principal Axis
Under combined effect of the earthquakes in the directions of x and y acting on structural
system respectively, internal forces in the directions of principal axes a and b of elements of
structural system shall be obtained by Equation (2.12) so as to yield the most unfavorable
results (Figure 2.10).
a ax ay a ax ay
b bx by b bx by
= ± ± 0.30 veya = ± 0.30 ±
= ± ± 0.30 veya = ± 0.30 ±
B B B B B B
B B B B B B
(2.12)
X earthquake direction
Y earthquake direction
Figure 2.10
2.8. MODE SUPERPOSITION METHOD
In this method, maximum internal forces and displacements are determined by the
statistical combination of maximum contributions obtained from each of the sufficient
number of natural vibration modes considered.
2.8.1. Acceleration Spectrum
Reduced acceleration spectrum ordinate to be taken into account in any n’th vibration
mode shall be determined by Equation (2.13).
21
ae n
aR n
a n
( )
( ) =
( )
S T
S T
R T
(2.13)
In the case where elastic design acceleration spectrum is determined through special
investigations in accordance with 2.4.4, relevant spectrum ordinate shall be considered in
Equation (2.13) in lieu of S
ae
(T
n
).
2.8.2. Dynamic Degrees of Freedom to be considered
2.8.2.1 – In buildings where floors behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms, two
horizontal degrees of freedom in perpendicular directions and a rotational degree of
freedom with respect to the vertical axis passing through the mass center shall be
considered at each storey. Modal seismic loads shall be calculated for those degrees of
freedom at each storey, but in order to consider additional eccentricity effects, they shall
be applied to the points obtained by shifting the actual mass center by +5 % and −5 %
of the floor length in perpendicular direction to the earthquake direction and to the
mass center as an additional load (Figure 2.7).
2.8.2.2 – In buildings where floor discontinuities defined under the title of A2
irregularity exists and floors do not behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms, sufficient
number of dynamic degrees of freedom shall be considered to account for the in
plane deformation of floors. In order to consider additional eccentricity effects, each of
the modal seismic loads acting on the individual masses distributed over each floor
shall be shifted by +5 % and −5 % of the floor length in perpendicular direction to the
earthquake direction (Fig. 2. 8). In such buildings, internal force and displacement
quantities due to additional eccentricity effects alone may also be calculated in
accordance with 2.7. Such quantities shall be directly added to those combined in
accordance with below given 2.8.4 without taking into account additional eccentricity
effects.
2.8.3. Sufficient Number of Vibration Modes to be considered
2.8.3.1  Sufficient number of vibration modes, Y, to be taken into account in the
analysis shall be determined to the criterion that the sum of effective participating
masses calculated for each mode in each of the given x and y lateral earthquake
directions perpendicular to each other shall in no case be less than 90 % of the total
building mass.
2
Y Y N
xn
xn i
n=1 n=1 i=1
n
2
Y Y N
yn
yn i
n=1 n=1 i=1
n
= 0.90
= 0.90
L
M m
M
L
M m
M
≥ ¿ ¿ ¿
≥ ¿ ¿ ¿
(2.14)
The expressions of L
xn
, L
yn
and modal mass M
n
appearing in Equation (2.14) are given
below for buildings where floors behave as rigid diaphragms:
N N
xn i xin yn i yin
i=1 i=1
N
2 2 2
n i xin i yin i in
i=1
= 4 ; = 4
= ( 4 + 4 + 4 )
L m L m
M m m m
θ θ
¿ ¿
¿
(2.15)
22
2.8.3.2  In analysis of buildings with reinforced concrete peripheral walls at their
basements being very rigid relative to upper stories and basement floors behaving as rigid
diaphragms in horizontal planes, it may be sufficed with the consideration of vibration
modes which are effective in the upper stories only. In this case, in the analysis performed by
the Mode Superposition Method which corresponds to the analysis by Equivalent Seismic
Load Method as given in Paragraph (a) of 2.7.2.4, the coefficient R selected from Table
2.5 shall be used without considering the rigid peripheral basement walls whereas the
upper storey masses only shall be taken into account. Paragraphs (b) and (c) of 2.7.2.4 shall
be applied as they are given.
2.8.4. Combination of Modal Contributions
Rules to be applied for the statistical combination of nonsimultaneous maximum
contributions of response quantities calculated for each vibration mode, such as base shear,
storey shear, internal force components, displacement and storey drift, are specified in
the following provided that they are applied independently for each response
quantity:
2.8.4.1 – In the cases where natural periods of any two vibration mode with T
m
< T
n
always satisfy the condition T
m
/ T
n
< 0.80, Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) Rule
may be applied for the combination of maximum modal contributions.
2.8.4.2  In the cases where the above given condition is not satisfied, Complete
Quadratic Combination (CQC) Rule shall be applied for the combination of maximum
modal contributions. In the calculation of cross correlation coefficients to be used in
the application of the rule, modal damping factors shall be taken as 5 % for all modes.
2.8.5. Lower Limits of Response Quantities
In the case where the ratio of the base shear in the given earthquake direction, V
tB
,
which is obtained through modal combination according to 2.8.4, to the base shear, V
t
,
obtained by Equivalent Seismic Load Method through Equation 2.4 is less than the
below given value of β (V
tB
< β V
t
), all internal force and displacement quantities
determined by Mode Superposition Method shall be amplified in accordance with
Equation (2.16).
t
D B
tB
=
V
B B
V
β
(2.16)
In the case where at least one of the irregularities of type A1, B2 or B3 defined in
Table 2.1 exists in a building β= 0.90, whereas none of them exists β= 0.80 shall be
used in Equation (2.16).
2.8.6. Internal Forces in the Directions of Elements at Principal Axis
Under combined effect of the earthquakes in the directions of x and y acting on structural
system respectively, directional combination rule given in 2.7.5 shall be applied to the
internal forces obtained by combining elements of structural system in accordance with
2.8.4 and in the direction of a and b principal axes.
23
2.9. ANALYSIS METHODS IN TIME DOMAIN
Artificially generated, previously recorded or simulated ground motions may be used for
the linear or nonlinear elastic analysis of buildings and buildinglike structures in the time
domain.
2.9.1. Artificially Generated Seismic Ground Motions
In order to use artificially generated ground motions, at least three seismic ground motions
shall be generated in accordance with the following properties.
(a) The duration of strong motion part of the acceleration shall neither be less than 5
times of the first natural vibration period of the building nor less than 15 seconds.
(b) Average of spectral acceleration values of simulated seismic ground motion
corresponding to period zero shall not be less than A
o
g.
(c) Average of spectral acceleration values to be recalculated for each simulated
acceleration record with 5 % damping ratio shall not be less than 90 % of elastic spectral
accelerations S
ae
(T) defined in 2.4 for the periods between 0.2T
1
and 2T
1
according to first
period T
1
in the direction of earthquakes considered. In the case where nonlinear elastic
analysis is performed in the time domain, spectral acceleration values to be based on in
order to obtain reduced seismic ground motion shall be calculated by Equation (2.13).
2.9.2. Recorded or Simulated Seismic Ground Motions
Recorded earthquakes or physically simulated ground motions to source and wave
propagation characteristics may be used. While generating such ground motions, floor
conditions should be taken into account concordantly. In case of using recorded or
simulated seismic ground motions at least three seismic ground motions shall be generated
and those motions shall satisfy all the conditions given in 2.9.1.
2.9.3. Analysis in Time Domain
In case of making nonlinear elastic analysis in time domain, internal force – transformation
cohesions representing dynamic behavior of elements of structural system under cycling
loads shall be defined by utilizing related literature provided that their theoretical and
experimental validities are proven. In linear and nonlinear analysis, in case of using three
ground motions the maximum of results, and in case of using at least seven ground
motions average of results shall be taken for the design.
2.10. LIMITATION OF RELATIVE STOREY DRIFTS, SECOND ORDER
EFFECTS AND SEISMIC JOINTS
2.10.1. Calculation and Limitation of Effective Relative Storey Drifts
2.10.1.1 – Reduced relative storey drift, ∆
i
, of any column or structural wall shall be
determined by Equation (2.17) as the difference of displacements between the two
consecutive stories.
∆
i
= d
i
− d
i − 1
(2.17)
24
In Equation (2.17) d
i
and d
i − 1
represent lateral displacements obtained from the analysis
according to reduced seismic loads at the ends of any column or structural wall at stories i
and (i  1). However, the condition in 2.7.4.2 and the condition of minimum equivalent
seismic load defined in Equation (2.4) may not be considered in calculation of d
i and
∆
i
.
2.10.1.2 – Effective relative storey drift, o
i
, for columns and structural walls of the i’th
storey of a building for each earthquake direction shall be obtained from Equation (2.18).
i i
= R δ ∆ (2.18)
2.10.1.3 – The maximum value of effective relative storey drifts, o
i
, within a storey,
(o
i
)
max
, calculated by Equation (2.18) for columns and structural walls of the i’th storey of a
building for each earthquake direction shall satisfy the condition given by Equation (2.19):
i max
i
( )
0 02
h
δ
≤ . (2.19)
This limit can be increased maximum of 50 % in single – storey buildings in which seismic
loads are fully resisted by structural steel frames with connections capable of cyclic moment
transfer.
2.10.1.4 – In the case where the condition specified by Equation (2.19) is not satisfied at
any storey, the earthquake analysis shall be repeated by increasing the stiffness of the
structural system. The serviceability of nonstructural brittle elements (such as facade
elements) under effective relative storey drifts shall be verified by calculation even if the
above given conditions satisfied.
2.10.2. Second – Order Effects
Unless a more refined analysis considering the nonlinear elastic behavior of structural
system is performed, secondorder effects may be taken into account as follows.
2.10.2.1 – In the case where Second – Order Effect Indicator, θ
i
, satisfies the condition
given by Equation (2.20) for the earthquake direction considered at each storey, second –
order effects shall be evaluated in accordance with currently enforced specifications of
reinforced concrete or structural steel design.
( )
12 . 0 ≤
∆
=
¿
=
i i
N
i j
j avr i
i
h V
w
θ (2.20)
Here (∆
i
)
avr
shall be determined in accordance with 2.10.1.1 as the average value of
reduced relative storey drifts calculated for i’th storey columns and structural walls within
the storey.
2.10.2.2 – In the case where the condition given by Equation (2.20) is not satisfied,
seismic analysis shall be repeated by sufficiently increasing the stiffness of the
structural system.
2.10.3. Seismic Joints
Excluding the effects of differential settlements and rotations of foundations and the
effects of temperature change, the conditions are indicated concerning sizes of gaps to be
retained in the seismic joints between building blocks or between the old and newly
constructed buildings:
25
2.10.3.1  Unless a more unfavorable value is obtained in accordance with 2.10.3.2 below,
sizes of gaps shall not be less than the value found as result of multiplication of coefficient α
specified below with square root of sum of squares of displacements obtained in adjacent
buildings or blocks for each storey. Storey displacements to be considered shall be the
average values of reduced displacements d
i
calculated within a storey at the column or
structural wall joints. In case the seismic analysis is not possible for the existing old building,
the storey displacements of old building shall not be assumed to be less than those obtained for
the new building at the same stories.
(a) α = R / 4 if all floor levels of adjacent buildings or building blocks are the same at all
stories.
(b) α = R / 2 shall be valid for entire building i f any of the floor levels of adjacent
buildings or building blocks are not the same.
2.10.3.2 – Minimum size of gaps shall be at least 30 mm up to 6 m height and from
thereon a minimum 10 mm shall be added for each 3 m height increment.
2.10.3.3  Seismic joints shall be arranged so as to allow the independent movement
of building blocks in all earthquake directions.
2.11. SEISMIC LOADS APPLIED TO STRUCTURAL APPENDAGES,
ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS, MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT
2.11.1 – Equivalent seismic loads to be applied to structural appendages which are
connected to structural system but serving independently such as balconies, parapets,
chimneys, etc. and to all non – structural architectural elements such as facade and
partition panels, etc.; to be used in analysis of mechanical and electrical equipments and
also connections of these to structural system of building are given by Equation (2.21).
i
e o e
N
= 0.5 1 + 2
H
f A I w
H
 

\ .
(2.21)
The seismic load calculated shall be acted to center of gravity of related element so as to
give the most unfavorable internal forces in the horizontal direction. Half of equivalent
seismic load calculated in Equation (2.21) shall be acted vertically to the elements which
are not in the vertical direction.
2.11.2 – In the case where the sum of weights of mechanical or electrical equipment
indicated by w
e
in Equation (2.21) at any i’th storey is greater than 0.2w
i
, equipment
weights and stiffness properties of their connections shall be taken into account in the
structural analysis.
2.11.3 – Equation(2.21) may not be applied in industrial buildings where floor
acceleration spectrum is determined by appropriate methods defining the peak
acceleration at the floor where mechanical or electrical equipment are located.
2. 11. 4  Twice of the seismic load obtained from Equation (2.21) shall be considered
in the analysis of emergency electric back – up and fire fighting systems, for all equipment
attached to the infill walls and for their connections.
26
6.12. NON – BUILDING STRUCTURES
Non – building structures permitted to be analyzed in accordance with the requirements of
this chapter and the corresponding Structural Behavior Factors, (R), to be applied to
such structures are given in Table 2.8. Applicable seismic load reduction factors shall be
determined in accordance with Equation (2.3). Where applicable, Building Importance
Factors specified in Table 2.3 shall be used for non – building structures. However Live
Load Participation Factors specified in Table 2.7 shall not be applied. Except snow
loads and crane payloads, unreduced weights of all solid and liquid materials stored and
mechanical equipment shall be used.
TABLE 2.8  STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR FACTORS FOR NON
BUILDING STRUCTURES
TYPE OF STRUCTURE
R
Elevated liquid tanks, pressurized tanks, bunkers, vessels carried by
frames of high ductility level or steel eccentric braced frames
4
Elevated liquid tanks, pressurized tanks, bunkers, vessels carried by
frames of nominal ductility level or steel centric braced frames
2
Cast – in – situ reinforced concrete silos, industrial chimneys and suchlike
structural systems with uniformly distributed mass along height
(*)
3
Reinforced concrete cooling towers
(*)
3
Space truss steel towers, steel silos and industrial chimneys with
uniformly distributed mass along height
(*)
4
Guyed steel high posts and guyed steel
2
Inverted pendulum type structures carried by a single structural element
with mass concentrated at the top
2
Industrial type steel storage racks 4
(*)
Seismic analysis of such structures shall be performed in accordance with 2.8 or
2.9 by considering discrete dynamic degrees of freedom defining the structure sufficiently.
2.13. REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS REPORTS
The following requirements shall be applied for the analysis reports that include seismic
analysis of buildings:
2.13.1 – Types of irregularities specified in Table 2.1 shall be evaluated in detail for the
building to be designed and, if any, existing irregularities shall be identified.
2.13.2 – The selected structural system of high or nominal ductility level shall be clearly
defined with respect to the requirements of Chapter 3 or Chapter 4, and the selection
of the applicable R factor from Table 2.5 shall be explained.
2.13.3 – The selection of the applicable analysis method in accordance with 2.6 shall be
clearly explained by considering the seismic zone in which the building exists, building
height and structural irregularities involved.
27
2.13.4 – The following rules shall be applied in the cases where the analysis is
performed by computer:
(a) Analysis report shall include threedimensional illustrations of structural system by
indicating the joint and element numbering.
(b) All input data as well as output data including internal forces and displacements
shall be included in the analysis report in an easily understandable format. When
requested by the approval authority, all computer files shall be delivered in electronically.
(c) The title, author and the version of the computer software used in the analysis shall
be clearly indicated.
(d) When requested by the approval authority, theory manual and user’s guide of the
computer software shall be included in the analysis report.
2.14. INSTALLATION OF ACCELEROMETERS
Upon endorsement by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, strong motion
accelerometer shall be permitted to be installed by the ministry or university institutions
on the public, private or corporate buildings and other structures for the purpose of
recording the strong earthquake motions, and owners or operators of buildings or
structures shall be responsible from the safety of such instruments.
28
CHAPTER 3  EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR
REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS
2.0. NOTATIONS
Dimensioned expressions used in this chapter with the following notations are in
Newton [N] for forces, millimeter [mm] for lengths and Mega Pascal [MPa] = [N/mm
2
]
for stresses.
A
c
= Gross section area of column or wall end zone
A
ch
= Gross section area of a solid wall, wall segment of a coupled wall, a floor or a
floor segment of a perforated floor
A
ck
= Concrete core area within outer edges of confinement reinforcement
¿A
e
= Effective shear area at any storey for the earthquake direction considered
¿A
g
= Sum of section areas of structural elements at any storey behaving as structural
walls in the direction parallel to the earthquake direction considered
¿A
k
= Sum of masonry infill wall areas (excluding door and window openings) at any
storey in the direction parallel to the earthquake direction considered
A
os
= Section area of spiral reinforcement
¿A
p
= Sum of plan areas of all stories of building
A
s1
= Total area of tension reinforcement placed on one side of the beamcolumn loop
at the top to resist the negative beam moment
A
s2
= Total area of tension reinforcement placed on the other side of the beam –
column loop with respect to A
s1
at the bottom to resist negative beam moment
A
sd
= Total reinforcement area of each of the cross rebar bundles in coupling beam
A
sh
= Along the height corresponding to transverse reinforcement spacing s, sum of
projections of cross section areas of all legs of hoops and crossties of columns or
wall end zones in the direction perpendicular to b
k
considered
A
w
= Effective web area of column cross section (excluding protrusions in the direction
perpendicular to the earthquake direction)
¿A
w
= Sum of effective web areas of column cross sections, A
w
’s at any storey
a = Lateral distance between legs of hoops and / or crossties of columns or wall end
regions
b
j
= In the earthquake direction considered, column width in case the beam into the
joint has the same width as column or expands in both sides of the column,
otherwise twice the smaller of the distances measured from the vertical centerline
of beam to the edges of column (It shall not exceed beam width plus joint depth)
b
k
= For each of the orthogonal lateral directions, cross section dimension of concrete
core of column or wall end zone (distance between the centers or outermost
rebars)
b
w
= Width of beam web, thickness of wall web
D = Concrete core diameter of circular column (distance between the centers of spiral
reinforcement)
d = Effective beam height
f
cd
= Design compressive strength of concrete
f
ck
= Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete
f
ctd
= Design tensile strength of concrete
f
yd
= Design yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement
f
yk
= Characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement
f
ywk
= Characteristic yield strength of transverse reinforcement
H
cr
= Critical wall height
29
H
w
= Total structural wall height measured from top foundation level or ground floor
level
h = Column cross section dimension in the earthquake direction considered
h
k
= Beam height
b
= Development length of tensile reinforcement as given in TS500
n
= Clear height of column between beams, clear span of beam between column or
wall faces
w
= Length of wall or segment of coupled wall in plan
M
a
= Moment at the bottom of column clear height which is used for the calculation of
column shear force
(M
d
)
t
= Moment calculated under the combined effect of seismic loads and vertical loads
multiplied with load coefficients at the bottom section of structural wall.
M
pa
= Moment capacity calculated at the bottom of column clear height by considering
f
ck
, f
yk
and strain hardening of steel
M
pi
= Positive or negative moment capacity calculated at column face on left end i of a
beam by considering f
ck
, f
yk
and strain hardening of steel
M
pj
= Negative or positive moment capacity calculated at column face on right end j of
a beam by considering f
ck
, f
yk
and strain hardening of steel
¿M
p
= Sum of moment capacities of beams framing into a loop
M
pü
= Ultimate moment capacity calculated at the top of column clear height by
considering f
ck
, f
yk
and strain hardening of steel
(M
d
)
t
= Moment capacity calculated at the bottom section of wall by considering f
ck
, f
yk
and strain hardening of steel
M
ra
= Ultimate moment resistance calculated at the bottom of column or wall clear
height by considering f
cd
and f
yd
M
ri
= Positive or negative ultimate moment resistance calculated at column or wall face
on left end i of a beam by considering f
cd
and f
yd
M
rj
= Negative or positive ultimate moment resistance calculated at column or wall face
on right end j of a beam by considering f
cd
and f
yd
(M
r
)
t
= Ultimate moment resistance calculated at bottom section of wall by considering
f
cd
and f
yd
M
rü
= Ultimate moment resistance calculated at the top of column or wall clear height
by considering f
cd
and f
yd
M
ü
= Moment at the top of column clear height which is used for the calculation of
column shear force
N
d
= Axial force calculated under combined effect of seismic loads and vertical loads
multiplied with load coefficients
N
dm
= Greater of the axial pressure forces calculated under combined effect of seismic
loads and vertical loads
s = Spacing of transverse reinforcement, step of spiral reinforcement
V
c
= Contribution of concrete to shear strength
V
d
= Shear force calculated under combined effect of seismic loads and vertical loads
multiplied with load coefficients
V
dy
= Simple beam – shear force developed at any section of the beam due to vertical
loads
V
e
= Shear force taken into account for the calculation of transverse reinforcement of
column, beam or wall
V
ik
= Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in
accordance with Chapter 2 at all columns of the i’th storey
30
V
is
= Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in
accordance with Chapter 2 at the i’th storey columns where Equation (3.3) is
satisfied at both bottom and top loops
V
kol
= Smaller of the shear forces at above and below the loop calculated in accordance
with Chapter 2
V
r
= Shear strength of a section of column, beam or wall
V
t
= Total seismic load acting on a building (base shear) according to Chapter 2
α
i
= Ratio of V
is
/ V
ik
calculated for any i’th storey
∅ = Reinforcement diameter
γ = Angle of cross rebar bundle used in coupling beam with the horizontal axis
ρ
= Tension reinforcement ratio at the top and bottom of beam support section
ρ
s
= Volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement of column [ρ
s
= 4 A
os
/ (D s)]
ρ
sh
= Volumetric ratio of horizontal web reinforcement of wall [(ρ
sh
)
min
= 0.0025]
31
3.1. SCOPE
7.1.1  Dimensioning and reinforcing of all structural elements of reinforced concrete
buildings to be built in seismic zones shall be performed, along with currently enforced
relevant standards and codes, primarily in accordance with the requirements of this
chapter. Requirements for reinforced concrete building foundations are given in
Chapter 6.
3.1.2  Requirements and rules specified in this chapter are applicable to cast  in  situ
monolithic reinforced concrete buildings, and unless otherwise stated, prefabricated
buildings whose structural systems are comprised of reinforced and / or pre  stressed
concrete elements.
3.1.3  Lateral load carrying systems of reinforced concrete buildings covered in this
chapter may be comprised of frames only, of walls only or of combination of frames
and walls.
3.1.4  Reinforced concrete buildings with concrete strength exceeding that of C 50 and
buildings where steel profiles are used as reinforcement in structural elements are outside
the scope of this chapter.
3.2. GENERAL RULES
3.2.1. Classification of Reinforced Concrete Structural Systems
Lateral load resisting structural systems of reinforced concrete buildings shall be
classified with respect to their seismic behavior into two classes defined below.
Special cases and requirements regarding the mixed use of such classes of systems are
given in 2.5.4 of Chapter 2.
3.2.1.1  Reinforced concrete structural systems given below are defined as Systems of
High Ductility Level:
(a) Frame type structural systems comprised of columns and beams dimensioned and
reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5.
(b) Structural systems comprised of solid or coupled structural walls dimensioned and
reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3.6.
(c) Frame  wall structural systems made of combining two systems defined above.
3.2.1.2  Reinforced concrete structural systems given below are defined as Systems of
Nominal Ductility Level:
(a) Frame type structural systems comprised of columns and beams dimensioned and
reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9.
(b) Structural systems comprised of solid or coupled structural walls dimensioned and
reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3.10.
(c) Frame  wall structural systems made of combining two systems defined above.
32
3.2.2. Relevant Standards
Cast  in  situ and prefabricated reinforced concrete structural systems shall be designed,
along with the requirements of this chapter, according to the seismic loads and analysis
requirements given in Chapter 2, to other loads specified in TS  498 and TS  9967; and
to the requirements as well as material and load factors specified in TS  500, TS  708,
TS  3233 and TS  9967.
3.2.3. Section Stiffnesses to be used in Structural Analysis
Section stiffnesses for uncracked sections shall be used in the structural analysis to be
performed with the methods given in Chapter 2. However respective values for cracked
sections may be used for beams framing into walls in their own plane and for coupling
beams of the coupled structural walls.
3.2.4. Method to be used in Section Design
The use of the Ultimate Strength Method given in TS  500 is mandatory in earthquake
resistant dimensioning and reinforcement calculations of reinforced concrete structural
elements in all seismic zones.
3.2.5. Material
3.2.5.1  In all buildings to be built in seismic zones, concrete with strength less than C
20 shall not be used.
3.2.5.2  In all seismic zones, it i s necessary t o use concrete produced with concrete
quality control requirements specified in TS  500 and concrete placed with using vibrators.
However, in case of the usage of self  placed concretes, placing concrete with vibrator is
not required.
3.2.5.3  Unribbed reinforcement steel can not be used exempt hoops and crossties with
flooring reinforcement. With the exception of elements mentioned in 3.2.5.4 below,
reinforcing steel with strength exceeding that of S 420 shall not be used reinforced concrete
structural elements. The rupture strain of reinforcement to be used shall not be less than
10 %. Experimentally obtained average yield strength of reinforcing steel shall not be
more than 1.3 times the characteristic yield strength specified in the relevant steel standard.
In addition, experimentally obtained average rupture strength shall not be less than 1.25 times
the average yield strength obtained as well from the experiment.
3.2.5.4  Reinforcing steel with strength exceeding that of S 420 may be used in flat
slabs, in the slabs of joist floors, in peripheral external walls of basements, in the webs of
structural walls of buildings in which entire seismic loads are resisted by such walls of full
building height satisfying both of the conditions given by Equation (3.14) in 3.6.1.2, and
as pre  stressing steel in prefabricated buildings.
3.2.6. Development Length of Tensile Reinforcement
Unless stated otherwise in this chapter, development lengths of tensile rebars with and
without hooks shall be determined in accordance with TS  500.
33
3.2.7. Welded Splices and Mechanically Connected Reinforcement
3.2.7.1  Welded lap splices of longitudinal reinforcement shall be made by certified
welders. Butt weld splices shall not be permitted. Carbon equivalency of the reinforcement
steel to be welded shall not exceed the limit value given in TS  500.
3.2.7.2  Tension test shall be applied to at least 2 % of welded splices and mechanical
connections of longitudinal reinforcement provided that number of tests shall not be less
than 5. Experimentally determined tensile strength of the connection shall not be less than
the rupture strength given in TS  500.
3.2.7.3  Transverse reinforcement shall not be permitted to be welded to longitudinal
reinforcement.
3.2.7.4  Frames of steel windows and doors, anchors, connection plates, elements of
plumbing system, machinery and equipment shall not be permitted to be welded to
longitudinal and transverse reinforcement.
3.2.8. Special Seismic Hoops and Crossties
Hoops and crossties used in columns, beam  column joints, wall end zones and beam
confinement zones of all reinforced concrete systems of high ductility level or normal
ductility level in all seismic zones shall be special seismic hoops and special seismic
crossties for which requirements are given below (Fig.3.1):
Diameter ≥ 5 φ
hoop
≥ 6 φ (10φ)
≥ 80 mm (100 mm)
Figure 3.1
34
3.2.8.1  Special seismic hoops shall always have 135 degree hooks at both ends.
However, 90 degree hook may be made at one end of the special seismic crossties. In
this case, crossties with 135 degree and 90 degree hooks shall be placed on one face of a
column or wall in a staggered form in both horizontal and vertical directions. 135
degree hooks shall be bent around a circle with at least 5∅ diameter where ∅ denotes the
diameter of transverse reinforcing bar. Lengths of hooks measured from tangent point shall
not be less than 10 ∅ and 100 mm for plain bars, 6 ∅ and 80 mm for ribbed bars.
3.2.8.2  Special seismic hoops shall engage the longitudinal reinforcement from outside
with hooks closed around the same rebar. Diameter and spacing of special seismic crossties
shall be the same as those of hoops. Crossties shall be connected to longitudinal
reinforcement always at both ends. Hoops and crossties shall be firmly tied such that they
shall not move during concrete pouring.
3.3. COLUMNS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL
3.3.1. Crosssection Requirements
3.3.1.1  Shorter dimension of columns with rectangular section shall not be less than
250 mm and section area shall not be less than 75000 mm
2
. Diameter of circular columns
shall be at least 300 mm.
3.3.1.2  In order the gross section are of column to be the biggest one of axial pressure
strengths calculated under the combined effect of N
dm
vertical loads and seismic loads, gross
section area of column shall satisfy the condition A
c
≥ N
dmax
/ (0.50 f
ck
).
3.3.2. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements
3.3.2.1  Longitudinal column reinforcement shall not be less than 1 %, nor shall it be
more than 4 % of gross section area. Minimum number of rebars shall be 4∅16 or 6∅14 for
rectangular columns and 6∅14 for circular columns.
3.3.2.2  Longitudinal reinforcement ratio shall not exceed 6 % at lap spliced sections.
3.3.3. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement
3.3.3.1  Lap splices of column longitudinal reinforcement should be made, as much as
possible, within the column central zone defined in 3.3.4.2. In this case the splice length shall
be equal to the development length !
b
given in TS  500 for tension bars.
3.3.3.2  In the case where lap splices of column longitudinal reinforcement are made at the
bottom end of the column, the following requirements shall be met:
(a) In the case where 50 % of longitudinal reinforcement or less is spliced at the bottom
end of column, lap splice length shall be at least 1.25 times !
b
.
(b) In the case where more than 50 % of longitudinal reinforcement is spliced at the
bottom end of column, lap splice length shall be at least 1.5 times !
b
. The same condition
shall apply to starter bars protruding from the foundation.
(c) In both cases given above, minimum transverse reinforcement defined in 3.3.4.1
shall be used along the length of the lap splice.
35
3.3.3.3  In the case where the column crosssection changes between consecutive
stories, slope of the longitudinal reinforcement within the beam  column joint shall not be
more than 1 / 6 with respect to the vertical. When the change in cross section is more or in
the case of top storey columns; development length of the column longitudinal
reinforcement within the other side of the beam above shall not be less than 1.5 times the
development length I
b
given in TS  500 for tension reinforcement, nor shall it be less
than 40 ∅. In the case of no beam present on the other side, development shall be
achieved, if necessary, by downward bending of rebar along the far face of the column.
Length of 90 degree bent horizontal hook or downward bent vertical hook shall be at least 12
∅ (Fig. 3.2).
3.3.3.4  Longitudinal distance between mechanical or welded connections on adjacent
longitudinal rebars shall not be less than 600 mm.
(a + b) ≥ 1.5 I
b
(a + b) ≥ 40 φ
b ≥ 12 φ
e ≥ 1.5 I
b
e ≥ 40 φ
Figure 3.2
(a + b + c) ≥ 1.5 I
b
(a + b + c) ≥ 40 φ
c ≥ 12 φ
3.3.4. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements
Unless a more unfavorable situation governs in accordance with below given 3.3.7.6, the
minimum transverse reinforcement requirements of columns are those specified in 3.3.4.1
for column confinement zones and in 3.3.4.2 for the column central zone (Fig.3.3).
Special seismic hoops and special seismic crossties defined in 3.2.8 shall be used along
the full length of the column.
3.3.4.1  Special confinement zones shall be arranged at the bottom and top ends of each
column. Length of each of the confinement zones shall not be less than smaller of column
cross section dimensions (diameter in circular columns), 1 / 6 the clear height of column
measured upward from floor level or downward from the bottom face of the deepest beam
framing into the column, and 500 mm. Such reinforcement shall be extended into the
foundation for a length equal to at least twice the smaller of column cross section
dimensions. Requirements for transverse reinforcement to be used in confinement zones are
given below. Those reinforcements shall be continued through the length not less than 25
times of the diameter of biggest longitudinal reinforcement and not less than 300 mm inside
the foundation. However, on the column which are supported to pot foundations,
longitudinal reinforcements in the confinement zones shall be continued through the length
of the pot.
36
(a) Transverse reinforcement with a diameter less than ∅ 8 shall not be used in
confinement zones. Along the column, spacing of hoops and crossties shall not be more
than 1 / 3 the smaller cross section dimension and 100 mm, nor shall it be less than 50
mm. Lateral distance between legs of hoops and crossties, a, shall not be more than 25
times the hoop diameter. Pitch of the continuous spirals shall not be more than 1 / 5 the
core diameter and 80 mm.
(b) In the case where N
d
> 0.20 A
c
f
ck
in columns with hoops, minimum total area of
transverse reinforcement to be used in confinement zones shall be calculated to satisfy the
more unfavorable of the requirements given in Equation (3.1). In this calculation, core
diameter of column, b
k,
shall be considered separately for each direction (Fig. 3.3).
A
sh
≥ 0.30 s b
k
[(A
c /
A
ck)
− 1] (f
ck
/ f
ywk
) (3.1)
A
sh
≥ 0.075 s b
k
(f
ck
/ f
ywk
)
(c) In the case where N
d
> 0.20 A
c
f
ck
in columns with spirals, minimum volumetric ratio
of transverse reinforcement to be used in confinement zones shall be calculated to satisfy
the more unfavorable of the requirements given in Equation (3.2).
ρ
s
≥ 0.45 [(A
c /
A
ck)
− 1] (fck
/ f
ywk)
(3.2)
ρ
s
≥ 0.12 (fck
/ f
ywk)
(d) In the case where N
d
≤ 0.20 A
c
f
ck,
at least 2 / 3 the transverse reinforcement given by
Equation (3.1) and Equation (3.2) shall be used as a minimum transverse reinforcement
in column confinement zones.
3.3.4.2  Column central zone is the region between the confinement zones defined at the
bottom and top ends of the column (Fig. 3.3). Transverse reinforcement with a diameter
less than ∅ 8 shall not be used along the column central zone. Along this zone, spacing
of hoops and crossties shall not be more than half the smaller cross section dimension and
200 mm. Lateral distance between the legs of hoops and / or crossties, a, shall not be more
than 25 times the hoop diameter.
3.3.5. Requirement of Having Columns Stronger Than Beams
3.3.5.1  In structural systems comprised of frames only or of combination of frames and
walls, sum of ultimate moment resistances of columns framing into a beamcolumn joint
shall be at least 20% more than the sum of ultimate moment resistances of beams framing
into the same joint (Fig. 3.4):
(M
ra +
M
rü
) ≥ ≥≥ ≥ 1.2 (M
ri +
M
rj
) (3.3)
3.3.5.2  In order that Equation (3.3) is applied, beams framing into the joint shall satisfy
the dimensional requirements given in 3.4.1.1.
3.3.5.3  Eq (3.3) shall be applied separately for both earthquake directions and senses to
yield the most unfavorable result (Fig. 3.4). In calculating the column ultimate moment
resistances, axial forces N
d
shall be taken to yield the minimum moments consistent with the
sense of earthquake direction.
37
Figure 3.3
38
3.3.5.4 – Special situations regarding the application of Equation (7.3) are described
in the following:
(a) Equation (3.3) need not to be applied in the case where Nd _ 0.10 Ac fck in both
columns framing into the joint.
(b) Equation (3.3) need not to be checked in single storey buildings and in joints of
topmost storey of multistorey buildings.
(b) Equation (3.3) need not to be checked in the case where a wall connected by beams
works like a column in its weak direction.
Earthquake direction Earthquake direction
Figure 3.4
3.3.6. The Case Where Some Columns Cannot Satisfy the Requirement of Having
Columns Stronger Than Beams
3.3.6.1 – In structural systems comprised of frames only or of combination of walls and
frames, Equation (3.3) may be permitted not to be satisfied in a given earthquake
direction at some joints at the bottom and / or top of an i’th storey, provided that Equation
(3.4) given below is satisfied.
α
i
= V
is
/ V
ik
≥ 0.70 (3.4)
Columns satisfying the condition of N
d
≤ 0.10 A
c
f
ck
may be taken into account in the
calculation of V
is
even if they do not satisfy Equation (3.3).
3.3.6.2 – In the case where Equation (3.4) is satisfied, bending moments and shear forces
of columns satisfying Equation (3.3) at both bottom and top joints shall be
amplified by multiplying with the ratio (1/α
i
) within the range of 0.70 < α
i
< 1.00.
3.3.6.3 – In the case where Equation (3.4) is not satisfied at any storey, all frames of
structural systems which may be comprised of frames only or of combination of walls and
frames shall be considered as frames of nominal ductility level, and the analysis shall
be repeated by changing the Structural Behavior Factor according to Table 2.5. As it is
mentioned in 2.5.4.1 in Chapter 2, it is possible, however, to combine frames of
nominal ductility level with structural walls of high ductility level.
39
3.3.7. Shear Safety of Columns
3.3.7.1 – Shear force, V
e,
to be taken into account for the design of column transverse
reinforcement shall be calculated by Equation (3.5).
V
e =
(M
a
+ M
ü
) / !
n
(3.5)
In determining M
a
and M
ü
of Equation (3.5), below given 3.3.7.2 shall be applied for
the case where Equation (3.3) is satisfied at both bottom and top joints of the column,
whereas 3.3.7.3 shall be applied otherwise (Fig.3.5).
3.3.7.2 – Sum of ultimate moment capacities, ¿ M
p
, at the ends of beams framing into the
joint where Equation (3.3) is satisfied shall be calculated:
¿ M
p
= M
pi
+ M
pj
(3.6)
In the case where a more rigorous analysis is not performed, it may be assumed to be M
pi
≅ 1.4 M
ri
and M
pj
≅ 1.4 M
rj
. The moment ¿ M
p
shall be distributed to columns in proportion
to the moments obtained in accordance with Chapter 2 at column ends framing into the
joint, and such distributed moments obtained at the bottom or top end of the column shall
be considered in Equation (3.5) as M
a
or M
ü
, respectively. Equation (3.6) shall be applied
separately for both senses of earthquake direction and the largest value of ¿ M
p
shall be
considered in the distribution.
Even if Equation (3.3) is satisfied, calculation of M
a
and M
ü
of Equation (3.5) may be
performed conservatively in accordance with below given 3.3.7.3.
3.3.7.3 – End moments of columns framing into the joint where Equation (3.3) is not
satisfied shall be calculated as the ultimate moment capacities and shall be substituted
into Equation (3.5) as M
a
and / or M
ü
. In the case where a more rigorous analysis is not
performed, it may be assumed to be M
pa
≅ 1.4 M
ra
and M
pü
≅ 1.4 M
rü
. In the calculation of
moments M
pa
and M
pü
, axial force N
d
shall be taken into account so as to maximize those
moments, being consistent with the sense of earthquake direction.
7.3.7.4 – The moment M
a
at the bottom of a column framing into the foundation shall also
be calculated as the ultimate moment capacity in accordance with 3.3.7.3.
7.3.7.5 – Shear force ,V
e
, obtained according to Equation (3.5), shall not be less than
the shear force calculated under factored gravity and seismic loads combined, and in
addition it shall satisfy the conditions given by Equation (3.7) below. In the case where
the condition given by Equation (3.7b) is not satisfied, cross section dimensions shall be
increased as required and the seismic analysis shall be repeated.
V
e
≤ V
r
(3.7)
V
e
≤ 0.22 A
w
f
cd
40
3.3.7.6 – In calculating the column transverse reinforcement for shear force, V
e
, contribution
of concrete to the shear strength of the section, V
c
, shall be determined in accordance with
TS  500. However, in the calculation of transverse reinforcement along the column
confinement zones specified in 3.3.4.1, the coefficient of shearing force of concrete shall be
taken as V
c
= 0 in case shearing force made of only seismic loads is bigger than the half of
the total shearing force and at the same time provided the condition N
d
≤ 0.05 A
c
f
ck
.
Calculation of M
ü
Calculation of M
a
M
hü(i)
: Moment obtained at top end of i’th storey column according to Chapter 2.
M
ha(i)
: Moment obtained at bottom end of i’th storey column according to Chapter 2.
Figure 3.5
3.3.8. Conditions Related to Short Columns
Short columns may be developed due to structural arrangements or due to openings provided
in infill walls between columns (Fig. 3.6). In cases where short columns cannot be
avoided, shear force for transverse reinforcement shall be calculated by Equation
(3.5). The moments in Equation (3.5) shall be calculated at bottom and top ends of the
short column as M
a
≅1.4 M
ra
and M
ü
≅1.4
rü
with
n
being the length of the short column.
In addition, calculated shear force shall satisfy the conditions given by Equation (3.7). The
minimum transverse reinforcement requirements and conditions of arrangement defined in
3.3.4.1 for column confinement zones shall be applied along the length of the short
column. Transverse reinforcement shall be extended along the full storey length of
columns which are transformed into short columns in between infill walls (Fig. 3.6)
41
.
V
e
1.4 M
rü
1.4 M
ra
V
e
Deep
beam
or
Infill wall
Figure 3.6
3.4. BEAMS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL
3.4.1. Cross  section Requirements
3.4.1.1 – Dimensional requirements of cross  section of beams forming frames together
with columns, or of beams connected to structural walls in their own planes are given
below:
(a) Width of the beam web shall be at least 250 mm. Web width shall not exceed the
sum of the beam height and the width of the supporting column in the perpendicular
direction to the beam axis.
(b) Beam height shall not be less than 3 times the thickness of floor slab and 300 mm,
nor shall it more than 3.5 times the beam web width.
(c) Beam height should not be more than 1 / 4 the clear span. Otherwise below given
3.4.2.5 shall be applied.
(d) Limitations specified above in relation to beam width and heights are not applicable to
reinforced concrete or pre  stressed / prefabricated beams with hinge connections to
columns, to coupling beams of coupled structural walls, and to the secondary beams
which are connected to frame beams outside the beamcolumn joints.
3.4.1.2  It is essential that design axial force satisfies the condition N
d
≤ 0.1 A
c
f
ck
in
order that any structural element be sized and reinforced as a beam. Otherwise such
elements shall be sized and reinforced as a column in accordance with 3.3.
3.4.2. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements
3.4.2.1 – The requirement given by Equation (3.8) shall be applied as the minimum
ratio of top tension reinforcement at beams supports.
ρ
≥ 0, 8 f
ctd
/ f
yd
(3.8)
42
3.4.2.2 – Diameter of longitudinal rebars shall not be less than 12 mm. At least two
rebars each at the bottom and top of the beam shall be continuously provided along the
full span length of the beam.
3.4.2.3 – In the first and second seismic zones, bottom reinforcement at a beam support
shall not be less than 50 % of the top reinforcement provided at the same support.
However this percentage may be decreased to 30 % in the third and fourth seismic
zones.
3.4.2.4 – Ratio of tensile reinforcement along beam spans and at supports shall not be
more than the maximum value specified in TS  500 and 2 %.
3.4.2.5 – In the special cases where the condition given in paragraph (c) of 3.4.1.1 is not
satisfied, web reinforcement shall be provided along the beam height on both sides of
the web. Total area of web reinforcement shall not be less than 30 % of the greater of the
sum of top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement at right or left support sections.
Diameter of web reinforcement shall not be less than 12 mm and spacing shall not be
more than 300 mm. For the development of web reinforcement similar to that of
longitudinal reinforcement, paragraph (b), and (c) of 3.4.3.1 shall be applied.
3.4.3. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement
3.4.3.1 – Requirements for the placement and development of the longitudinal reinforcement
are given below (Fig. 3.7):
(a) At least 1 / 4 the maximum of the top support reinforcement at the ends of a beam
shall be extended continuously along the full span length. The remaining part of the top
support reinforcement shall be arranged in accordance with TS  500.
(b) In cases where beams framing into columns are not extended to the other side of
columns, bottom and top beam reinforcement shall be extended up to the face of the other
side of the confined core of the column and then shall be bent 90 degrees from inside
the hoops. In this case, total length of the horizontal part of the longitudinal rebar inside
the column and the 90 degree bent vertical part shall not be less than the straight
development length specified in TS  500. Horizontal part of the 90 degree bent shall not
be less than 0.4
b
and vertical part shall not be less than 12 ∅. In walls and columns which
u value is more than straight development length
b and also more than 50
∅, development
of longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided straight without making 90 degree
hook.
(c) In the case where beams frame into columns from both sides, beam bottom rebars
shall be extended to the adjacent span from the column face by at least the development
length
b
given in TS  500. In cases where this is not possible because of reasons such as
the depth difference in beams, development shall be achieved in a way similar to
paragraph(b) above, i.e., to the case where beam is not extended to the other side of
the column.
43
1 / 4 the max support reinforcement
(See TS  500 for other rules of arrangement)
Bottom
reinforcement of
adjacent span
Bottom
reinforcement of
adjacent span
a
b
(a + b) ≥ I
b
a ≥ 0. 4 I
b
b ≥ 12 φ
b
Figure 3.7
3.4.3.2 Requirements related to splicing of longitudinal reinforcement are given below:
(a) Lap splicing shall not be made along beam confinement zones defined in 3.4.4
below, within beam  column joints, and in regions where reinforcement has a possibility of
yielding, such as the midspan region for bottom reinforcement. In places outside such
regions where lap splicing can be made, special seismic hoops defined in 3.2.8 shall be
used. Spacing of such hoops shall not exceed 1 / 4 of the beam depth and 100 mm. It is not
necessary to use special seismic hoops in the span center of the upper assembly rebar.
(b) Mechanical connections or welded lap splices shall only be applied to every alternate
bar at a section and longitudinal distance between two consecutive splices shall not be less
than 600 mm.
3.4.4. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements
A region with a length twice the beam depth measured from the column face of a beam
support shall be defined as confinement zone and special seismic hoops defined in 3.2.8
shall be used along this region. In the confinement zone, distance of the first hoop to the
column face shall be max. 50 mm. Unless a more unfavorable value is obtained from
3.4.5.3, hoop spacing shall not exceed 1 / 4 of the beam depth, 8 times the minimum
diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement and 150 mm (Fig.3.8). Outside the confinement
zone, minimum transverse reinforcement requirements specified in TS  500 shall be applied.
44
≤ 50 mm s
k
Beam
Confinement
zone
= 2 h
k
Beam central zone
(Minimum transverse
reinforcement according to TS500)
Beam
Confinement
zone
= 2 h
k
s
k
≤ h
k
/ 4
s
k
≤ 8φ (φ = min. longitudinal rebar diameter)
s
k
≤ 150 mm
Figure 3.8
3.4.5. Shear Safety of Beams
3.4.5.1  Shear force, V
e
, to be taken into account for beam transverse reinforcement shall
be calculated by Equation (3.9) such that the most unfavorable result is obtained by
separately considering the cases of earthquake acting from left to right or from right to left
(Fig.3.9).
V
e =
V
dy
± (M
pi
+ M
pj
) / !
n
(3.9)
Unless a more rigorous analysis is performed, ultimate moment capacities at the beam ends
may be taken as M
pi
≅ 1.4 M
ri
and M
pj
≅ 1.4 M
rj
.
3.4.5.2 – Shear force, V
e
, calculated by Equation (3.9) shall satisfy the conditions given below
by Equation (3.10). In the case where the condition given by Equation (3.10b) is
not satisfied, crosssection dimensions shall be increased as required and the seismic
analysis shall be repeated.
V
e
≤ V
r
(3.10)
V
e
≤ 0.22 b
w
d f
cd
45
M
pi
≈1.4 M
ri
M
pj
≈1.4 M
rj
n
V
dyi
V
dyj
(M
pi
+ M
pj
) /
n
Figure 3.9
3.4.5.3  In calculating the beam transverse reinforcement for shear force, V
e
,
contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the section, V
c
, shall be determined in
accordance with TS  500. However, in calculating the transverse reinforcement along the
beam confinement zones defined in 3.4.4, the coefficient of shearing force of concrete shall
be taken as V
c
= 0 in case shearing force made of only seismic loads is bigger than the half
of the total shearing force. In no case shall the contribution of inclined longitudinal bars to
the shear strength be taken into account.
3.5. BEAM  COLUMN JOINTS OF FRAME SYSTEMS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL
3.5.1. Confined and Unconfined Joints
Beam  column joints of frame systems comprised of columns and beams of high ductility
level shall be separated into two classes as defined below.
(a) In the case where beams frame into all four sides of a column and where the width of
each beam is not less than 3 / 4 the adjoining column width, such a beamcolumn joint shall
be defined as a confined joint.
(b) All joints not satisfying the above given conditions shall be defined as unconfined
joint.
3.5.2. Shear Safety of BeamColumn Joints
3.5.2.1 – Shear force in beamcolumn joints along the earthquake direction considered
(Fig.3.10) shall be calculated by Equation (3.11).
V
e
= 1.25 f
yk
(A
s1
+ A
s2
) − V
kol
(3.11)
In the case where beam frames into column from only one side and discontinuous on the
other side, it shall be A
s2
= 0.
46
3.5.2.2 – The shear force calculated by Equation (3.11) in a joint along the given
earthquake direction shall in no case exceed the limits given below (Fig.3.10). In the
cases where those limits are exceeded, crosssection dimensions of column and/or beam
shall be increased and the seismic analysis shall be repeated.
(a) In confined joints: V
e
≤ 0.60 b
j
h f
cd
(3.12)
(b) In unconfined joints:
V
e
≤ 0.45 b
j
h f
cd
(3.13)
3.5.2.3 – Requirements for minimum transverse reinforcement in beam  column joints are
given below (Fig. 3.3):
(a) In confined joints, at least 40 % of the amount of transverse reinforcement existing in
the confinement zone of the column below shall be provided along the height of the joint.
However, diameter of transverse reinforcement shall not be less than 8 mm and its spacing
shall not exceed 150 mm.
(b) In unconfined joints, at least 60 % of the amount of transverse reinforcement existing in
the confinement zone of the column below shall be provided along the height of the joint.
However in this case, diameter of transverse reinforcement shall not be less than 8 mm and
its spacing shall not exceed 100 mm.
Confined joint conditions
b
w1
and b
w2
≥ 3 / 4 b
b
w3
and b
w4
≥ 3 / 4 h
(See 3.5.1)
V
a
A
s1
1.25A
s1
f
yk
C
1
C
2
1.25A
s2
f
yk
A
s2
V
ü
1
V
kol
= min (V
a
, V
ü
)
(See. 3.5.2.1)
Earthquake
Direction
b
j
= b, In the case b
w1
and b
w2 _ b
In the case b
w1
and b
w2 < b
b
j
= 2 min (b
1
, b
2
)
b
j
≤ (b
w1
+ h) (for b
w1
< b
w2)
Figure 3.10
47
3.6. STRUCTURAL WALLS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL
3.6.1. CrossSection Requirements
3.6.1.1 – Structural walls are the vertical elements of the structural system where the ratio
of length to thickness in plan is equal to at least seven. With the exception of the special
case given in 3.6.1.2 and 3.6.1.3 below, wall thickness shall not be less than 1 / 20 the
storey height and 200 mm. In those walls, limits of the wall thickness in the end
points are given 3.6.2.1 below.
3.6.1.2 – In buildings where seismic loads are fully carried by structural walls along the
full height of building, wall thickness shall not be less than 1 / 20 the highest storey
height and 150 mm, provided that both two of the conditions given by Equation
(3.14) are satisfied.
¿ A
g
/ ¿ A
p
≥ 0.002 (3.14)
V
t
/ ¿A
g
≤ 0.5 f
ctd
Equation (3.14) shall be applied at the ground floor level in buildings with stiff
peripheral walls in basement stories, whereas it shall be applied at foundation top level
for other buildings.
3.6.1.3 – On the walls situated in lateral direction with the elements that the length is equal
to at least to 1 / 5 of the storey length and have storey length bigger than 6 m, wall
thickness in the ground may be equal to at least 1 / 20 of horizontal length between the
points where its situated in lateral direction. However this thickness should not be less
than 300 mm.
3.6.2. Wall End Zones and Critical Wall Height
3.6.2.1  Wall end zones shall be developed on both ends of walls where H
w
/
w
> 2.0
(Fig. 3.11). With the exemption of buildings specified in 3.6.1.2, wall thickness shall not
be less than 1 / 15 of the storey height and 200 mm. In cases where wall end zones
situated to lateral direction with the elements that the length is equal to at least to 1 / 5 of
the storey height, wall thickness in the ground may be equal to at least 1 / 20 of horizontal
length between the points where its situated in lateral direction. However this thickness
should not be less than 1 / 20 of the storey height and 300 mm. Wall end zones may be
developed within the wall itself or within an adjoining wall or in an enlarged section at the
edge of the wall.
3.6.2.2 – The critical wall height measured from the foundation level shall be
determined as to satisfy the unfavorable one of the following conditions given in
Equation (3.15) provided that it does not exceed 2
w
.
H
cr
≥
w
(3.15)
H
cr
≥ H
w
/ 6
Here H
w
, is the wall height measured from level that reduce more than 20 % of length of the
wall in plan or from the top of the ground. In buildings where the stiffnesses of reinforced
concrete peripheral walls in basement stories are excessive compared to upper stories,
and where basement slabs behave as rigid diaphragms in horizontal planes, H
w
and H
cr
shall be considered upwards from the ground floor. In such buildings critical wall height
shall be extended downwards along the height of first basement storey below the ground
floor.
48
3.6.2.3 – In structural walls with rectangular cross section, the plan length of each of the
end zones along the above defined critical wall height shall not be less than 20 % of the
total plan length of the wall, nor shall it be two times the wall thickness. The plan length
of each of the end zones along the wall section above the critical wall height shall not
be less than 10 % of the total plan length of the wall, nor shall it be less than the wall
thickness (Fig. 3.11).
3.6.2.4 – In the case where wall end zones are arranged within an adjoining walls or at
enlarged sections at the edges of the wall, cross section area of each of the wall end zones shall
be equal at least to the area defined in 3.6.2.3 for rectangular section walls.
3.6.3. Web Reinforcement Requirements
3.6.3.1 – Total cross section area of each of the vertical and horizontal web reinforcement on
both faces of structural wall shall not be less than 0.0025 of the gross section area of the
wall web remaining in between the wall end zones. In the case where H
w
/
w
≤ 2.0, wall
web section shall be considered as the full section of the wall. The spacing of
longitudinal and transverse reinforcement in wall web shall not be more than 250 mm
(Fig. 3.11).
3.6.3.2 – In buildings where both conditions given by Equation(3.14) of 3.6.1.2 above
are satisfied, each of the total vertical and horizontal web reinforcement ratios may
be decreased to 0.0015. However in such a case, reinforcement spacing shall not
exceed 300 mm.
3.6.3.3 – Excluding the wall end zones, reinforcement mesh on both faces of the wall
web shall be tied each other by at least 4 special seismic crossties per unit square meter
of the wall surface. However, excluding the wall end zones, at least 10 special seismic
crossties per unit square meter of the wall surface shall be used along the critical wall
height defined in 3.6.2.2. Crosstie diameter shall be at least equal to that of the horizontal
reinforcement.
3.6.4. Arrangement of Web Reinforcement
Horizontal web reinforcement may be arranged as explained below in 3.6.4.1 or in
3.6.4.2 (Fig. 3.11). Horizontal web reinforcement so arranged may be taken into account
in determining the confinement reinforcement to be provided in accordance with below
given 3.6.5.2 at wall end zones along the critical wall height.
3.6.4.1 – Horizontal web rebars shall be bent 90 degree at the outer edge of the wall end
zone and tied to the vertical corner reinforcement at the other face by a 135 degree
hook.
3.6.4.2 – In the case where horizontal web rebars are terminated at the wall end without
90 degree bent, ⊃ shaped horizontal bars with the same diameter of web reinforcement
shall be placed at both ends of the wall. Those bars shall be extended inside the wall
web by at least the development length measured from the inner boundary of the wall
end zone. However, in case development length of the web reinforcement is less than or
equal to length of wall end zone, ⊃ shaped bars should not be placed. In this case, total
area of the transverse in the wall end zones on unit length shall not less than the total area
on the unit length of the horizontal reinforcement in the wall web.
49
3.6.5. Reinforcement Requirements at Wall End Zones
3.6.5.1 – The ratio of the total area of vertical reinforcement at each wall end zone to the
gross wall cross section area shall not be less than 0.001. However this ratio shall be
increased to 0.002 along the critical wall height defined in 3.6.2.2. Amount of vertical
reinforcement at each wall end zone shall not be less than 4∅14 (Fig. 3.11).
3.6.5.2 – Vertical reinforcement at wall end zones shall be confined as similar to
columns, by transverse reinforcement made of hoops and crossties, in accordance with
the below given rules.
(a) Diameter of transverse reinforcement to be used at wall end zones shall not be less
than 8 mm. Horizontal distance between the legs of hoops and / or crossties, a, shall not
be more than 25 times the diameter of hoops or crossties.
(b) At least 2 / 3 of the transverse reinforcement determined by Equation(3.1) in 3.3.4.1
for the confinement zones of columns shall be provided at wall end zones along the
critical wall height defined in 3.6.2.2. Vertical spacing of hoops and / or crossties shall
not be more than half the wall thickness and 100 mm, nor shall it be less than 50 mm
(Fig. 3.11). Such reinforcement shall be extended into the foundation by at least a
height equal to twice the wall thickness.
Figure 3.11
50
(c) Vertical spacing of hoops and / or crossties at wall end zones outside the critical wall
height shall not be more than the wall thickness and 200 mm (Fig. 3.11).
3.6.6. Design Bending Moments
3.6.6.1  In walls satisfying the condition H
w
/
w
> 2.0, design bending moments along the
critical wall height determined according to 3.6.2.2 shall be taken as a constant value
being equal to the bending moment calculated at the wall base in accordance with Chapter
2. Above the critical wall height, a linear bending moment diagram shall be applicable
which is parallel to the line connecting the moments calculated at the base and at the top
of the wall (Fig. 3.12). In buildings with rigid peripheral walls at basements, the constant
wall bending moment shall be considered along the critical wall height defined in 3.6.2.2.
In all sections of the walls satisfying H
w
/
w
_ 2.0, design bending moments shall be taken
as equal to bending moments calculated according to Chapter 2.
Design
Bending
Moment
Design
bending
moment
H
w
H
w
H
cr
Bending
Moment
(Analysis)
Structural system comprised
of walls only
H
cr
Bending
moment
(analysis)
Structural system comprised
of walls and frames
Figure 3.12
3.6.6.2 – In the case where H
w
/
w
> 2.0, ultimate moment resistances of wall cross
sections at each storey shall satisfy in their strong direction the condition given by
Equation(3.3) for columns. Otherwise, seismic analysis shall be repeated by
increasing the wall dimensions and / or reinforcement.
3.6.6.3 – In walls satisfying the condition H
w
/
w
> 2.0, design shear force based on the
calculation of any considered transverse reinforcement in section, V
e
, shall be calculated
with Equation (3.16).
(3.16)
V
e
= µ
v
( )
( )
d
t d
t
p
V
M
M
51
Dynamic magnification coefficient of shear force placed in this correlation shall be taken
as µ
v
= 1.5. In the case where a more rigorous analysis is not performed, (M
p
)
t
≅ 1.4 (M
r
)
t
can be taken as the hardening moment capacity in the ground of wall. Design shear forces
in all section of the wall satisfying H
w
/
w
_ 2.0, shall be taken as equal to shear forces
calculated according to Chapter 2.
3.6.7. Shear Safety of Structural Walls
3.6.7.1 – Shear strength of wall cross sections, V
r
, shall be calculated by Equation (3.17).
V
r
= A
ch
(0.65 f
ctd
+ ρ
sh
f
yd)
(3.17)
The shear force V
d
shall satisfy the conditions defined below:
V
d
≤ V
r
(3.18)
V
d
≤ 0.22 A
ch
f
cd
Otherwise transverse reinforcement of the wall and / or wall cross sections shall be
increased so as to satisfy the above conditions.
3.6.7.2  By considering the shear force transferred to that section, vertical reinforcement at
construction joints at the foundation level and at the above stories, shall be controlled with
shear friction design defined in TS500.
3.6.8. Rules and Requirements for Coupled Structural Walls
3.6.8.1 – All rules and requirements given above for structural walls are equally valid
for each of the wall segments forming the coupled structural walls.
3.6.8.2 – Sum of the base moments developed along the given earthquake direction at
the wall segments forming a coupled structural wall system shall not be more than 2 / 3
the total overturning moment developed in the coupled structural wall system due to
seismic loads (Fig. 3.13). In the case where this condition is not satisfied, each of the
wall segments forming the coupled structural wall shall be treated as a solid structural
wall, and R factor taken from Table 2.5 of Chapter 2 shall be changed accordingly.
M
left
M
right
T
T
(M
a
+ M
b
) ≤ 2/3 ¿ F
wi
H
i
F
wi
: Seismic load acting at
i’th storey on
coupled structural wall system
Figure 3.13
52
3.6.8.3 – In the reinforcement design of wall segments forming the coupled structural
wall, it may be allowed to transfer at most 30 % of the moment of the wall segment in
tension to the wall segment in compression (redistribution).
3.6.8.4 – Rules related to the shear reinforcement of coupling beams are given below:
(a) In the case where any of the conditions below is satisfied, calculation of shear
reinforcement of coupling beams shall be performed in accordance with 3.4.5.
n
> 3 h
k
(3.19)
V
d
≤ 1.5 b
w
d f
ctd
(b) In the case where none of the conditions given by Equation (3.19) is satisfied, the
special shear reinforcement to be provided for the coupling beam shall be determined
by methods whose validity are proven by tests, or cross rebars shall be used to resist the
shear of the coupling beam (Fig. 3.14). Total reinforcement area of each bundle of cross
rebars shall be determined by Equation (3.20).
A
sd
= V
d
/ (2 f
yd
sin γ) (3.20)
There shall be at least four rebars in each bundle of cross rebars and they shall be
extended into the wall segments by at least 1.5 !
b
. Bundles shall be confined with special
seismic hoops whose diameter shall not be more than 8 mm and their spacing shall not
be more than 8 times the cross rebar diameter and 100 mm. In addition to cross rebars,
coupling beam shall be provided with the minimum amount of hoops and horizontal
web reinforcement specified in TS500 (Fig. 3.14).
Figure 3.14
53
3.7. COLUMNS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL
3.7.1. Cross  section Requirements
Cross  section requirements given in 3.3.1 for columns of high ductility level are equally
applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.
3.7.2. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements
Longitudinal reinforcement requirements given in 3.3.2 for columns of high ductility
level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.
3.7.3. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement
Requirements related to the arrangement of longitudinal reinforcement given in 3.3.3 for
columns of high ductility level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.
In the case where reinforcement lap splices are made at the bottom end of the column,
minimum transverse reinforcement defined in 3.7.4.1 shall be used along the length of the
lap splice.
3.7.4. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements
The minimum transverse reinforcement requirements of columns are specified in 3.7.4.1 for
column confinement zones and in 3.7.4.2 for the column central zone. Special seismic
hoops and special seismic crossties defined in 3.2.8 shall be used along all regions of
column.
3.7.4.1 – The definition given in 3.3.4.1 for the length of each of the confinement zones is
equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level. In columns of nominal ductility
level, spacing of transverse reinforcement along the confinement zones shall not be more
than 1/ 3 of the cross  section size, 8 times of the diameter of minimum longitudinal
reinforcement and 150mm.
3.7.4.2 – In relation to the column central zone, definition and the minimum transverse
reinforcement requirements given in 3.3.4.2, as well as the conditions given in 3.3.4.3 are
equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level. Transverse reinforcement in
column central zone shall be determined in accordance with 3.7.5.3.
3.7.5. Shear Safety of Columns
3.7.5.1 – In columns of nominal ductility level, the shear force, V
d
, obtained under the
combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads given in Chapter 2 shall be taken
into account in the determination of transverse reinforcement.
3.7.5.2 – In relation to the upper bound of shear force, the condition given by Equation
(3.7) for columns of high ductility level is equally applicable to columns of nominal
ductility level, provided that V
d
shall be considered in lieu of V
e
.
3.7.5.3 – In the determination of transverse reinforcement according to the shear force
defined in 3.7.5.1, the contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the section, V
c
,
shall be determined in accordance with TS  500 by taking into account the minimum
axial force, N
d
, calculated under gravity loads combined with seismic loads.
3.7.6. Conditions Related to Short Columns
In relation to short columns, conditions given in 3.3.8 for columns of high ductility level are
equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.
54
3.8. BEAMS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL
3.8.1. Crosssection Requirements
Crosssection requirements given in 3.4.1.1 for beams of high ductility level are equally
applicable to beams of nominal ductility level.
3.8.2. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements
Longitudinal reinforcement requirements given in 3.4.2 for beams of high ductility level are
equally applicable to beams of nominal ductility level.
3.8.3. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement
Requirements related to the arrangement of longitudinal reinforcement given in 3.4.3 for
columns of high ductility level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.
3.8.4. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements
A region with a length twice the beam depth measured from the column face of a beam
support shall be defined as confinement zone and special seismic hoops defined in 3.2.8
shall be used along this region. In the confinement zone, distance of the first hoop to the
column face shall be max. 50 mm. Unless a more unfavorable value is obtained from the
below given 3.8.5, hoop spacing shall not exceed 1 / 3 of the beam depth, 10 times the
minimum diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement and 200 mm. Outside the confinement
zone, minimum transverse reinforcement requirements specified in TS  500 shall be
applied.
3.8.5. Shear Safety of Beams
3.8.5.1 – In beams of nominal ductility level, the shear force, V
d
, obtained under the
combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads given in Chapter 2 shall be taken
into account in the determination of transverse reinforcement.
3.8.5.2 – In relation to the upper bound of shear force, the condition given by Equation
(3.10) for beams of high ductility level is equally applicable to beams of nominal
ductility level, provided that V
d
shall be considered in lieu of V
e
.
3.8.5.3 – In the determination of transverse reinforcement according to the shear force
defined in 3.8.5.1, the contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the section, V
c
,
shall be determined in accordance with TS  500. In no case shall the contribution of inclined
longitudinal bars to the shear strength be taken into account.
3.9. BEAMCOLUMN JOINTS OF FRAME SYSTEMS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY
LEVEL
Rules and conditions given in 3.5 in relation to beam  column joints of frame systems
formed by columns and beams of high ductility level are equally applicable to beam 
column joints of systems of nominal ductility level with the exception of 3.5.2.1 and 3.5.2.2.
55
3.10. STRUCTURAL WALLS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL
Structural walls of nominal ductility level shall be dimensioned and reinforced in
accordance with the internal forces developed under the combined effect of gravity
loads and seismic loads. With the exception of rules and conditions given in 3.6.6, 3.6.8.2,
3.6.8.3 as well as the definitions and conditions given in relation to the critical wall
height, rules and conditions given in 3.6 for structural walls of high ductility level are
equally applicable to structural walls of nominal ductility level. However in 3.6.7.1, 1.5 V
d
shall be taken instead of V
e
.
3.11. SLABS
3.11.1 – Slabs shall possess sufficient stiffness and strength to enable the safe distribution
of seismic loads acting on storey masses to the vertical elements of the structural system.
3.11.2 – In all seismic zones, slab thickness of all castinsitu or prefabricated, bare or
infilled joist floor systems shall not be less than 50 mm. However it is mandatory that
shear connectors be made between joists and the slab, and their adequacy be proven by
calculation to insure the safe transfer of inplane shear forces developed under gravity
loads and seismic loads. Requirements given in TS  500 for the slab thicknesses of other
floor systems are applicable.
3.11.3 – In relation to the shear strength of slab systems, conditions given in 3.6.7 for the
shear strength of structural walls of high ductility level are equally applicable except 3.6.7.1.
3.12. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS
Prefabricated buildings which are constructed through assembling the structural
elements manufactured in factory conditions shall comply with the following special
requirements in addition to the other requirements specified in this regulation.
3.12.1. Frames with Hinge Connections
3.12.1.1 – Hinge connections made of weld, shall possess sufficient strength to resist at least
2 times of the connection strength to be occurred from the earthquake according to Chapter
2 and other hinged connections shall also possess sufficient strength to resist at least 1.5 of
it. In confinement calculations safety tensions shall be increased maximum 15 %.
3.12.2. Moment Resisting Frames
3.12.2.1 – It shall be proven through analytical methods with appropriate references
from the literature or tests that moment resisting connections of prefabricated building
frames possess strength and ductility that are equivalent to the monolithic behavior
under cyclic and repeated loading due to earthquakes.
3.12.2.2 – Connections shall possess sufficient strength to transfer moments, shear
forces and axial forces to be developed at the ultimate strength level without any
reduction in strength and ductility. In welded connections and other type of connections, 1.5
times and 1.2 times the seismic connection forces, respectively, obtained according to
Chapter 2 shall be taken into account.
56
3.12.2.3 – Connections must be arranged in sufficient distance from the potential plastic
hinges that can develop within the elements connected.
3.12.3. Conditions Concerning Pre  Stressing Elements
With the exception of floor elements and beam type elements with hinge connections to the
columns, full pre  stressing shall not be permitted in prefabricated structural elements to be
used in seismic zones. Limited pre  stressing application, in addition to pre  stressing steel,
can be provided by means of using pre  stressing steel in an amount to be obtained
sufficient ductility in elements or stressing of a pre  stressing steel with a low tensile force.
Tensile of the pre stressing steel under the effects of earthquake shall not exceed the value
calculated with dividing the elastic limit to safety coefficient of material.
3.13. REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE APPLICATION DESIGN
DRAWINGS
3.13.1. General Requirements
3.13.1.1 – Quality classes of concrete and reinforcing steel to be used in the building
shall be indicated on all drawings.
3.13.1.2 – The Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient, the Building Importance
Factor considered in the design, the Local Site Class selected from Table 6.2 and the
Structural Behavior Factor determined from Table 2.5 shall be indicated on all floor
framing plan drawings.
3.13.1.3 – Hook bending detail of special seismic hoops and special seismic crossties
defined in 3.2.8 (Fig. 3.1) shall be shown on all detail drawings of columns, beams and
structural walls.
3.13.2. Column and Beam Details
3.13.2.1 – Position, diameter and number of vertical rebars within the cross  section
shall be shown in detail on column application drawings. Further, horizontal sections shall
be taken at each beam  column joint showing in plan the rebars extended upwards from
the column below and longitudinal rebars of all beams framing into the column. Hence it
shall be clearly shown that column and beam rebars are arranged in such a way that they
shall not hinder the proper pouring of concrete into the joint. Ore reinforcement of wall and
column from the dig shall be indicated in the drawing with number, diameter and spacing
with expansions of transverse reinforcement concerning those.
3.13.2.2 – Vertical sections shall be taken with vertical rebar detailing clearly shown for
each type of column with fully identical longitudinal and transverse reinforcement.
Vertical columns sections shall include rebar splicing regions, lap lengths, beam  column
joint at the top of the column. In this respect, standard details valid for all beams  columns
joints of the building shall not be accepted.
3.13.2.3 – Lengths of column confinement zones as well as diameters, numbers, spacing
and crosssectional details of transverse reinforcement provided along those regions,
along the column central zone and within the top beam  column joint shall be clearly
indicated on the drawings, separately for each column type.
57
3.13.2.4 – In the application drawings of structural walls; positions, diameters and
numbers of vertical bars in the web and wall end zones shall be indicated. In addition,
vertical sections shall be taken for each wall type showing the vertical layout of rebars.
Critical wall height shall be clearly indicated on the vertical section. Diameters,
numbers, spacing and cross  sectional details of transverse reinforcement provided along
the critical wall height and other sections of the wall shall be clearly indicated on the
drawings.
3.13.3. Beam Details
In beam details, lengths of confinement zones at beam supports as well as diameters,
numbers, spacing and crosssectional details of transverse reinforcement provided along
those regions and along the beam central zone shall be clearly indicated on the
drawings, separately for each beam.
58
CHAPTER 4  EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS
Dimensioned expressions used in this chapter with the following notations are in
Newton [N] for forces, millimeter [mm] for lengths and MegaPascal [MPa] = [N/mm
2
] for
stresses.
4.0. NOTATION
A
= Area of Cross  Section
A
k
= Area of shearing
A
n
= Useful cross  section area
b = Width
b
cf
= Flange width of column section
b
bf
= Flange width of beam section
D = Outside diameter in circular ring sections
D
a
= Increase coefficient of yield stress
d
b
= Length of cross  section beam
d
c
= Length of cross  section column
E = Notation for seismic load
E
s
= Elasticity modulus of structural steel
e = Length of bond beam
G = Notation for dead load
H
avr
= Average storey heights on the up and down of the loop point
h = Height of web plate
h
i
= Storey height of the i’th floor of the building
b
= Distance between the points where the beam is supported in lateral direction
n
= Distance between the possible plastic joint points in the edges of the beams
M
d
= Bending moment calculated under the combined effects of seismic loads and
gravity loads
M
p
= Bending moment capacity calculated at the bottom end of the column
M
pa
= Moment calculated at the bottom end of column
M
pi
= Positive or negative plastic moment calculated at the left end i of the beam
M
pj
= Negative or positive plastic moment calculated at the right end j of the beam
M
pn
= Reduced moment capacity
M
pü
= Moment calculated at the top end of column
M
vi
= Additional bending moment occurred on the surface of the column due to
shearing force in the possible plastic joints at the left end i of the beam
M
vj
= Additional bending moment occurred on the surface of the column due to
shearing force in the possible plastic joints at the right end j of the beam
N
bp
= Axial pressure capacity
N
çp
= Axial tensile capacity
N
d
= Factored axial force calculated under simultaneous action of vertical loads and
seismic loads
Q = Notation for live load
R = Behavioral coefficient of structural system
r
y
= Radius inertia in the lateral direction of the 1 / 3 of the part that is under the
compressive strength of the beam flange and web
t = Thickness
t
bf
= Flange thickness of the beam section
t
cf
= Flange thickness of the column section
t
min
= Minimum plate thickness in the sliding zone
t
p
= Including the reinforcing plates, total plate thickness in the sliding zone
59
t
t
= Thickness of the reinforcing plate
t
w
= Web thickness
u = Length of the periphery of reinforcing plate
V
d
= Shearing force calculated under the combined effect of gravity loads and
seismic loads
V
dy
= Simple beam shearing force occurred due to gravity loads in the surface of the
beam which combines with column
V
e
= Necessary shearing strength of the beam  column confinement zone
V
ke
= Necessary shearing strength of the sliding zone
V
ik
= Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in
accordance with Chapter 2 at all columns of the i’th storey in the peripheries of
framed or framed  wall systems
V
is
= Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in
accordance with Chapter 2 at the i’th storey columns where Equation (4.3) is
satisfied at both bottom and top joints in the peripheries of framed or framed 
wall systems
V
p
= Shearing force capacity
V
pn
= Reduced shearing force capacity
W
p
= Plastic moment of resistance
α
i
= Ratio of V
is
/ V
ik
calculated for any i’th storey
A
i
= Relative storey drift at the i’th floor of the building
p
= Turning angle of the bond beam
O
o
= Increase coefficient
o
a
= Yield stress of the structural steel
o
bem
= Depending on the slenderness of the element, pressure safety stress calculated
according to TS  648
o
em
= Safety stress
0
p
= Relative floor drift angle
60
4.1. SCOPE
4.1.1  Dimensioning of all structural elements of structural steel buildings to be built in
seismic zones and design of their joints shall be performed, along with currently
enforced relevant standards and codes, primarily in accordance with the requirements of
this chapter.
4.1.2  Lateral load carrying systems of structural steel buildings covered in this chapter
may be comprised of steel frames only, of steel braced frames only or of combination of
frames with steel braced frames or reinforced concrete structural walls. Steel carrying
systems of armoured concrete floorings that work compositely with the steel beams are also
under the scope of this Chapter.
4.1.3  Requirements for structural steel building foundations are given in Chapter 6.
4.2. GENERAL RULES
4.2.1. Classification of Steel Structural Systems
Lateral load carrying systems of structural steel buildings shall be classified with
respect to their seismic behavior into two classes defined in 4.2.1.1 and 4.2.1.2 below.
Special cases and requirements regarding the mixed use of such classes of systems are
given in 2.5.4 of Chapter 2 and also in 4.2.1.3 and 4.2.1.4. In the case where reinforced
concrete structural walls are used as part of the structural system, rules given in 3.6 or 3.10
of Chapter 3 shall be applied.
4.2.1.1  Structural steel systems given below are defined as Systems of High Ductility
Level:
(a) Frame type structural systems complying with the requirements of 4.3.
(b) Lat eral carryi ng syst ems comprised of centric steel braced frames that provides the
conditions specified in 4.6 and centric steel braced frames complying with the requirements
of 4.8.
(c) Steel braced wall  frame systems made of combining the two systems defined in
paragraph (a) and (b) above.
4.2.1.2 – Structural steel systems given below are defined as Systems of Nominal
Ductility Level:
(a) Frame type structural systems complying with the requirements of 4.4.
(b) Structural systems comprised of concentric steel braced frames complying with the
requirements of 4.7.
(c) Steel braced wall  frame systems made of combining the two systems defined
above.
4.2.1.3 – In case the lateral load carrying systems specified above are differ from each
other in both two lateral seismic direction, conditions of R coefficients are given in 2.5.1.2
and 2.5.1.3 and also conditions concerning R coefficients to be applied in mixed use in
any direction are given in 2.5.4.
61
4.2.1.4 – Conditions concerning steel or armored concrete  steel combined buildings
consist maximum two different lateral carrying system in vertical direction and R
coefficients to be applied to those are given in 2.5.5.2.
4.2.2. Relevant Standards
4.2.2.1  Design of structural steel systems covered in the scope of this chapter
shall be performed according to the seismic loads and analysis requirements given in
Chapter 2 of this Specification, to other loads specified in TS  498, to the requirements
of TS  648 based on allowable stress method. In special cases where the rules in relevant
standards are different, rules in this Chapter shall be taken as basis.
4.2.2.1  For the matters outside the rules given in this Chapter, rules in TS  3357 and TS 
648 shall be complied. based on allowable stress method and to those of TS  4561
based on ultimate strength design method. For the matters outside the scope of those
standards and hereby Regulation, then it can be benefited from the internationally accepted
standards and regulations.
4.2.3. Material Conditions and Material Safety Factors
4.2.3.1 – Within the scope of this Regulation, all structural steels that have weld ability
and defined in the other internally accepted standards or in TS  648 can be used. On
the plates that have at least 50 mm thickness on the rolling profiles with 40 mm walled
thickness of flanges and artificial profiles made of those plates, minimum value of
Charpy  V  Notch (CVN) (Notch Resistance) shall be 27 Nm (27 J) in 218 C on the
tests carried out in accordance with ASTM A673 or equivalent standards.
4.2.3.2 – Bolts to be used in the combination and joints of the elements under the effect of
seismic load shall be ISO 8.8, 10.9 or high quality. These bolts shall be pre  stressed with
all pre  stress strength applicable to them in the joints that transmit moment, whereas on the
other joints those shall be pre  stressed with half of it. ISO 4.6 and 5.6 quality bolts can be
used in the combinations and joints of the elements that are not under the effect of seismic
loads and in the details of foundation connections.
4.2.3.3 – On the welded joints, electrodes shall be used in accordance with the steel material
and welded method and yield strength of the electrode will not be less than the yield
strength of the combined materials. On the welded column  beam joints of the frames that
transmit moment, full penetration butt weld or butt wells seams shall be used. On the
minimum value of electrodes of Charpy  V  Notch (CVN) (Notch Resistance) shall be
27 Nm (27 J) in  298 C in those welds.
4.2.3.4 – On the elements that are under the effect of seismic load, welded and bolted joints
can not be used together in the same joint points.
4.2.3.5 – On the section calculations made according to Safety Stress Method under the
combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads, safety stresses shall be increased utmost
33 %. On the design of combinations and joints based on the safety stresses, this increment
will not exceed 15 %. Also combinations and joints shall be controlled according to element
capacities or increased seismic effects in such a way that specified in the relevant articles of
this Chapter.
62
4.2.3.6 – As prescribed in the articles 4.3.2.1, 4.3.4.1, 4.8.6 and 4.9.1 of this Chapter, on the
calculation of required capacities of structural steel elements and joint details, values of
D
a
a
increased yield stress shall be used instead of the value of yield stress
a
. D
a
factors to
be used in the calculation of increased yield stress are given in the Table 4.1 depending on
the class and element type of the structural steel.
TABLE 4.1 – D
a
INCREASE COEFFICIENTS
Class and Element Type of Structural Steel
D
a
Rolling profiles made of Fe 37 steel 1.2
Rolling profiles made of other structural steels 1.1
Plates made of all structural steels 1.1
4.2.4. Increased Seismic Effects
On the required points of the articles 4.3.1.2, 4.3.5.3, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.3, 4.6.3.1, 4.6.5.2,
4.7.2.1, 4.8.6.4 and 4.9.1 of this Chapter, on the design of structural steel elements and
combination details, increased seismic effects given below are taken into consideration.
Loads that give increased seismic effects are defined as:
1.0 G + 1.0 Q ± Ω
o
E (4.1a)
Or in case of unfavorable results
0
0 9 . G E ±Ω (4.1b)
Values of Increase Coefficient, Ω
o,
to be applied to internal forces formed of seismic loads
calculated according to Chapter 2, are given in the Table 4.2 depending on the types of
structural steel systems.
TABLE 4.2 – INCREASE COEFFICIENTS
Type of Structural Systems
Ω
o
Frames Of High Ductility Level 2.5
Frames Of Normal Ductility Level 2.0
Centric Steel Braced Frames (Frames of High or Normal Ductility Level) 2.0
Eccentric Steel Braced Frames 2.5
4.2.5. Inner Force Capacities and Boundary Values of Tensile
In order to use in necessary cases, tensile boundary values of inner force capacities and
boundary values of tensile of the structural elements are defined as follows:
Inner force capacities of structural elements:
Bending moment capacity :
p p a
M W = σ (4.2a)
Shearing force capacity :
p a k
0 60 V A = σ . (4.2b)
Axial pressure capacity :
bp bem
1 7 . N A = σ (4.2c)
Axial tensile capacity :
çp a net
N A = σ (4.2d)
Tensile Boundary Values of Combination Elements:
63
Full penetration weld : σ
a
Partial penetration butt weld
Or filled weld : 1.7 σ
em
Bolted combinations : 1.7 σ
em
Here, σ
em
indicates safety stresses of relevant combination element (normal stress, sliding
and crushing stress).
4.3. FRAMES OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL
Rules to be respected in dimensioning of the frames of high ductility level are given
below.
4.3.1. Crosssection Requirements
4.3.1.1  Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness
ratio of the frames of high ductility level in the beams  columns are given in Table 4.3.
4.3.1.2  Besides providing necessary tensile controls under the axial force and bending
moments occur due to the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic, columns shall also
have the sufficient resistance capacity under the axial pressure and tensile force (without
considering bending moments) occur from the condition of increased load according to
Equation (4.1a) and Equation (4.1b) in the first and second seismic zones. Axial pressure
and tensile capacities of column cross  sections shall be calculated with Equation (4.2c)
and Equation (4.2d).
4.3.2. Requirement of Having Columns Stronger Than Beams
4.3.2.1  In frame systems or in the frames of frame  wall (braced frame) systems, sum of
the plastic moments of columns framing into a beam  column joint in the earthquake
direction shall be bigger than 1.1D
a
times of the total of bending moment capacities on the
surface of the beams which joint in that loop point (Fig. 4.1):
Earthquake
direction
M
pa M
pa
Earthquake
direction
M
pü
Figure 4.1
M
pü
TABLE 4.3 – CROSS  SECTION CONDITIONS
Limit Values
Description of
Elements
Slenderness
Ratios
Systems of High Ductility
Level
Systems of Normal
Ductility Level
I Sections
U Sections
Under bending effect
b/t
s a
0.3 E σ
s a
0.4 E σ
I Sections
U Sections
Under bending effect
h/t
w s a
3.2 E σ
s a
4.0 E σ
T Sections
L Sections
Under pressure effect
h/t
w
s a
0.3 E σ
s a
0.4 E σ
For,
d a
N A σ _ 0.10
d
s a
a
3.2 1 1.7
N
E
A
σ
σ
 
−


\ .
For,
d a
N A σ _ 0.10
d
s a
a
4.0 1 1.7
N
E
A
σ
σ
 
−


\ .
I Sections
U Sections
Under bending and
pressure effects
h/t
w
For,
d a
N A σ > 0.10
d
s a
a
1.33 2.1
N
E
A
σ
σ
 
−


\ .
For,
d a
N A σ > 0.10
d
s a
a
1.66 2.1
N
E
A
σ
σ
 
−


\ .
Circular ring sections
under bending or
axial pressure effect
(pipes)
D/t
s
a
0.05
E
σ
s
a
0.07
E
σ
Rectangular sections
under bending or
axial pressure effect
b/t
or
h/t
w
s a
0.7 E σ
s a
1.1 E σ
Descriptions
b : Width of half  flange in I sections
U sections and flange width in rectangular sections
h : I , U , T sections and web length in rectangular sections
long side length in L sections
D : Outer diameter in the circular ring sections (in pipes)
t : I , U , T sections and flange thickness in rectangular sections
thickness in the circular sections (pipes)
t
w
: I , U , T, L sections and web thickness in rectangular sections
(M
pa
+ M
pü
) ≥ 1.1D
a
(M
pi
+
M
vj
+ M
pj
+ M
vj
) (4.3)
In case of using weakened beam sections or forming gussets at the end of beams, terms of
M
vj
and M
vj
in this equation, indicate the additional bending moments occurred on the
surface of the column due to shearing forces in the possible plastic joints at the end zones of
beam. In case plastic moments form in the beam’s sections of the surface of columns, these
terms take zero value.
4.3.2.2  Equation (4.3) shall be applied separately for both senses of earthquake direction
to yield the most unfavorable result. In calculating the column plastic moments, axial forces
shall be considered to yield the minimum moments capacities with the sense of earthquake
direction.
4.3.2.3  Equation (4.3) need not to be checked in single storey buildings and in joints of
topmost storey of multi  storey buildings.
4.3.3. The Case Where Some Columns Cannot Satisfy the Requirement of Having
Columns Stronger Than Beams
4.3.3.1 – In structural systems comprised of frames only or of combination of frames
and walls (braced frames), Equation (4.3) may be permitted not to be satisfied in a given
earthquake direction at some joints at the bottom and / or top of an i’th storey, provided
that Equation (4.4) given below is satisfied.
α
i
= V
is
/ V
ik
≥ 0.70 (4.4)
4.3.3.2 – In the case where Equation (4.4) is satisfied, bending moments and shear forces
of columns satisfying Equation (4.3) at both bottom and top joints shall be amplified by
multiplying with the ratio (1 / α
i
) within the range of 0.70 < α
i
< 1.00. In the case where
columns is not satisfied Equation (4.3), it shall be calculated under the effects of
gravity load and seismic load forming its sections.
4.3.3.3 – In the case where Equation (4.4) is not satisfied at any storey, all frames of
structural systems which may be comprised of frames only or of combination of frames
and walls shall be considered as Frames of Nominal Ductility Level, and the analysis shall
be repeated by changing the Structural Behavior Factor according to Table 2.5. As it is
mentioned in 2.5.4.1 in Chapter 2, it is possible, however, to combine frames of nominal
ductility level with structural walls of high ductility level.
4.3.4. Confinement Zones of Beam  Column
4.3.4.1 – In the beam  column joints that transfer moment of the frames with high ductility
level, the following three conditions shall be covered together:
a) Confinement shall have the capacity to be provided at least 0.04 radian Angle of Relative
Storey Drift (relative storey drift / storey height). Therefore, details that availability is
proved with scientific and / or analytical methods shall be used. Several samples of bolted
and welded confinement detail and application boundaries of them are given in Information
Annex 4A.
b) Necessary bending strength of the joint on the surface of the column will not be less than
0.80 X 1.1D
a
times of the bending moment capacity on the surface of column of combined
beam. However, upper limit of this strength shall conform to the biggest bending moment
transferred to confinement by joint columns to loop point. Additionally, it will not exceed
the bending moment occurred under the combined effects of seismic loads calculated for the
R = 1.5 value of the reduced coefficient of gravity loads and seismic loads. In case of using
weakened beam cross  sections or forming gussets at the end zones of the beams, capacity
of bending moment on the surface of column shall be calculated by adding beam plastic
moment with additional bending moments occurred on the surface of the column due to
shearing forces in the possible plastic joints at the end zones of beam.
c) Shearing force, V
e
, to be based on dimensioning of the joint shall be calculated with
Equation (4.5).
pi pj
e dy a
n
( )
1 1
M M
V V R
+
= ±
. (4.5)
4.3.4.2 – On the calculation of combination’s bearing capacity, tensile boundary values
given in the 4.2.5 shall be used.
4.3.4.3 – On the calculation of the bearing capacity of the combination, sliding zone limited
by column and beam flanges shall be dimensioned provided the following conditions:
a) Necessary shearing strength, V
ke
, of the sliding zone shall be taken equal to shearing
force occurred 0.80 times of the sum of bending moment capacities of beams on the surface
of the column combined at the loop point.
ke p
b ort
1 1
0 8 ( ) V M
d H
= − ¿ . (4.6)
Figure 4.2
b) Shearing force capacity, V
p
, shall be calculated with the following Equation:
2
cf cf
p a c p
b c p
3
0 6 1
b t
V d t
d d t
(
= σ +
(
(
¸ ¸
. (4.7)
In order to sliding zone to have necessary shearing strength the following condition has to
be provided:
p ke
V V ≥ (4.8)
In case this condition is not provided, necessary amount of reinforcing plate shall be used or
strutting plates shall be added to sliding zone diagonally.
c) Minimum thickness, t
min
, of the each web plates of the column and reinforcing plates, if
used, shall be provided the below condition (Figure 4.3).
min
180 t u ≥ / (4.9)
In cases where this condition is not provided, by welding interoperation of reinforcing plates
and web plate of the column and it shall be controlled whether the sum of plate thicknesses
provide the Equation (4.9) or not.
d) In cases where reinforcing plates are used in sliding zone, for connecting those plates to
cap plates of column, full penetrated butt weld or fillet weld shall be used. These welds shall
be controlled in such a way that safely transfer shearing force corresponded by reinforcing
plate. On this calculation, welding stress capacities given in (4.2.5) shall be used.
Reinforcing plates
Figure 4.3
4.3.4.4 – In details of beam  column joints that transfer moment, by placing ductility plates
on both sides of column web in the level of beam flanges, it shall be provided to safely
transfer the tensile and pressure strengths on the beam ends to column (and to next beam in
the bilateral beam  column joints).
a) Thicknesses of ductility plates shall not be less than the cap thickness of the combined
beam in the unilateral beam joints where not less than the biggest flange thickness of the
combined beams in case there are bilateral beam combinations to column.
b) Full penetration butt weld shall be used for the connection of ductility plates to webs and
flanges of column. For the connection of the ductility plate to column web, fillet weld can
also be used. (Figure 4.2). However, this weld should have the thickness and length to
transfer a force equal to shearing force in the plane of ductility plate to column web.
c) Ductility plate can not be required if the flange thickness of column provides the
following two conditions:
cf bf bf
0 54 t b t ≥ . (4.10a)
and
bf
cf
6
b
t ≥ (4.10b)
4.3.5 – Column and Beam Splices
4.3.5.1 – Column splices made with full penetration butt weld or bolted shall be away from
beam  column joint by at least 1 / 3 of the net storey height. Additionally, this distance shall
not less than 1.20 m in the splices made of with fillet weld or butt weld without full
penetration.
4.3.5.2 – Beam splices shall be made away from the beam  column connection by a distance
at least two times of the beam height.
4.3.5.3 – Bending capacity of the column  beam splices shall not be less than the bending
capacity of the combined element and also shearing force capacity shall not be less than the
value given in Equation (4.5). Besides, in the first and second seismic zones, axial force
capacity of the column splices shall be also sufficient under the axial pressure and tensile
force (without considering bending moments) calculated with Equation (4.1a) and
Equation (4.1b). On the calculation of bearing capacities of the additional elements,
boundary tensile values of weld and bolt given in (4.2.5) shall be used.
4.3.6 – Supporting the Beam Flanges Laterally
4.3.6.1 – Up and down flanges of the beams shall be supported laterally.
b
distance between
the points where the beams are supported shall provide the following condition.
a
s y
b
E r
σ
086 . 0 ≤ (4.11)
In addition, points effected by the single loads, points where beam cross  section changes
suddenly and points where plastic hinge can occur during the non  linear deformation of the
system shall also be supported.
4.3.6.2 – Necessary pressure and tensile strength of lateral supports shall not be less than
0.02 of the axial tensile capacity of beam flange.
4.3.6.3 – On the systems where armoured concrete floorings operate compositely with steel
beams, it is not necessary to comply above conditions at the flanges of the beams bonded to
the armoured concrete flooring.
4.4. FRAMES OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL
Rules to be respected on the calculation of frames of nominal ductility level are given
below.
4.4.1 – Cross  Section Conditions
4.4.1.1  Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness
ratio of the frames of nominal ductility level in the beams  columns are given in Table 4.3.
However provided with the control of necessary local buckling, exceeding these boundaries
can be permitted in utmost two storey buildings.
4.4.1.2  Requirements given above in 4.3.1.2 for the columns of frames of high ductility
level are also applicable to frames of nominal ductility level.
4.4.1.3  Requirements given above in 4.3.2, 4.3.3 for frames of high ductility level are not
mandatory to be applied for frames of nominal ductility level.
4.4.2 – Confinement Zones of Beam  Column
4.4.2.1 – Necessary tensile controls shall be carried out under internal forces occurred from
the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads in the confinements of beam 
column of the frames of nominal ductility level. Besides, bearing capacity of the
combination shall provide the smallest ones of the internal forces defined below:
a) Bending moment capacity of the beam which combined the column calculated in such a
way defined in 4.3.4.1 (b) and necessary shearing force strength calculated with Equation
(4.5).
b) Bending moment and shear force occurred due to increased load situations given in the
Equation (4.1a) and Equation (4.1.b).
4.4.2.2 – On the calculation of the confinement’s bearing capacity, boundary values of
tensile given in 4.2.5 shall be used.
4.4.2.3 – In the detail of beam column confinement, sliding zone (Figure 4.2) which is
limited by the flanges of column and beam shall be dimensioned in a way that provides the
following conditions.
a) On the calculation of necessary shearing force strength of Sliding Zone, V
ke
, the
shearing force occurred due to increased seismic load given in Equation (4.1a) and
Equation (4.1b) and the smallest one of shearing force calculated with Equation (4.6) shall
be used.
b) Shearing force strength of the sliding zone, V
p
, shall be calculated with Equation (4.7).
In order sliding zone to have sufficient shearing strength it is necessary to provided
Equation (4.8).
c) Rules given in 4.3.4.3 [c] and 4.3.4.3 (d) for the calculation of sliding zone of frames of
high ductility level are also available for the frames of nominal ductility level.
4.4.2.4 – Rules given in 4.3.4.4 for the calculation of continuity plates in the frames of high
ductility level are also available for the frames of nominal ductility level.
4.4.3 – Column and Beam Joints
Rules given in 4.3.5 for the joints of column and beam in frames of high ductility level are also
available for the frames of nominal ductility level.
4.5  CENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC STEEL BRACED FRAMES
Steel braced frames of high ductility level are defined as lateral load resisting structural
elements comprised of hinged joints or frames that transfer moment with braces connected
centrically and eccentrically to them. Lateral load bearing capacity of such kind of systems,
besides bending strengths, mostly or completely provided with the axial force strengths of
the elements. Steel braced frames are divided into two depending on the order of braces:
a) Centric Steel Braced Frames (Figure 4.4)
b) Eccentric Steel Braced Frames (Figure 4.5)
Centric Steel Braced Frames in which the braces are connected centrically to loop points of
frames can be dimensioned as the systems of high ductility level or the systems of nominal
ductility level. On the other hand, Eccentric Steel Braced Frames in which the braces are
connected eccentrically to loop points of frames can be dimensioned as the systems of high
ductility level.
Diyagonal çapraz X V V çapraz çapraz Ters çapraz çapraz K
Figure 4.4
kiri ba kirii
kolon
ç
a
p
r
a
z
e e
e e
Figure 4.5
4.6. STEEL BRACED FRAMES OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL
Steel braced frames of high ductility level, even in case of buckling of some pressure
elements, are dimensioned in a way that avoid significant strength loss in the system.
Requirements to be applied in the dimensioning of such systems are as specified below:
4.6.1. Conditions of Cross Section
4.6.1.1  Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness
ratio of the frames of high ductility level in the beams  columns and braces are given in
Table 4.3.
4.6.1.2  Slenderness ratio (bar buckling length / radius of inertia) at all pressure elements
of roof and vertical plane brace systems shall not be exceed
a s
E σ / 0 . 4
4.6.1.3  Spaces of brace plates in multi  partite crosses shall be determined in such a way
that slenderness ratio of the single element between two sequential brace plates does not
exceed 0.40 times the slenderness ratio of all bar. In case it is shown that buckling of the
multi  partite cross does not shearing effect on brace plate, spaces of brace plates shall be
determined in such a way that slenderness ratio of the single bar between two brace plates
does not exceed 0.75 times the active slenderness ratio of multi  partite bar. Total shearing
force capacity of brace plates shall not less than axial the tensile capacity of each bar
element. In each bar at least two brace plate shall be used and the plates shall be placed as
equal intermittently. Bolt brace plates are not permitted to place on middle three  third of
clear space of the bar.
4.6.2. Transfer of Horizontal Loads
Vertical centric cross elements on one axis of the building shall be arranged in such a way
that at least 30 % and utmost 70 % of horizontal forces affected in the earthquake on the
direction of that axis and on each direction of the earthquake cover by crosses which operate
when pushed.
4.6.3. Joints of Crosses
4.6.3.1  On the joint details of crosses, necessary tensile controls shall be made under the
internal forces formed of the combined effect of gravity loads and earthquake. Besides,
bearing capacity of the joint shall also provide the smallest one of the internal forces define
below.
a) Axial force (tensile or pressure) capacity of cross
b) Depending on the capacities of other elements combined at the loop point, the biggest
axial force that can transfer to mentioned cross
c) Transverse axial force occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation
(4.1.a) and Equation (4.1b).
4.6.3.2  On the calculation of the bearing capacity of joint, boundary values of tensile as
given in 4.2.5 shall be used.
4.6.3.3  Plates of loop point that tie crosses to columns and / or beams shall also provide
the following two conditions:
a) Bending capacity in the plane of loop point’s plate shall not less than the bending
capacity of the cross jointed to loop point.
b) In order to prevent buckling of loop point’s plate outside the plane, distance of the end
of cross to the surface of beam or column shall not more than two times of the thickness of
loop plate. In cases where this rule is not followed,
4.6.4  Additional Conditions for Special Cross Arrangements
4.6.4.1  Additional conditions that have to be provided by V  shaped or opposite V 
shaped cross systems are given below:
a) Beams which connect to crosses shall be perpetual.
b) Crosses shall be dimensioned under the effect of gravity loads and seismic loads.
However, in case the crosses are ignored, beams and end joints which are connected to
crosses shall be dimensioned in a way that carries safely the gravity loads on itself.
c) Conditions given in 4.3.6 for the beams of frames of high ductility level are also
available for the beams which are connected to crosses.
4.6.4.2  K  shaped (where the crosses are connected to mid point of the column) cross
order is not permitted for eccentric steel braced frames with high ductility level.
4.6.5  Joints of Column
4.6.5.1  Column joints shall be made at the center of 1 / 3 zone of column free level.
4.6.5.2  Bending strength of column joints shall not less than 50 % of the bending capacity
of combined smallest elements whereas shear force strength shall not less than the shearing
capacity of the combined smallest elements. Besides, it shall be sufficient under the axial
force bearing power of the column joints (without considering bending moments) and
tensile and pressure forces formed due to increased seismic loads as given in Equation
(4.1a) and Equation (4.1b) in the first and second seismic zones. On calculation of joint
elements, weld and bolt tensile capacities ad given in 4.2.5 shall be used.
4.7. CENTRIC STEEL BRACED FRAMES WITH NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL
Rules to be applies on the steel braced frames of nominal ductility level are specified blow.
4.7.1. Conditions of Cross  Section
4.7.1.1  Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness
ratio of the frames of nominal ductility level in the beams  columns are given in Table 4.3.
However provided with the control of necessary local buckling, exceeding these boundaries
can be permitted in utmost two storey buildings.
4.7.1.2  Slenderness ratio (bar buckling length / radius of inertia) at all pressure elements
of roof and vertical plane brace systems shall not be exceed
a s
E σ / 0 . 4
4.7.1.3  Rules concerning brace plates of TS 648 on the multi  partite crosses are
applicable. At least two brace plate shall be used in each bar.
4.7.1.4  In the case where braces are designed to resist tension only, slenderness ratio of
braces shall not exceed 250. However, this rule may not be applied in case the cross
elements in utmost two storey buildings are dimensioned in such a way that carries the
multiplication of tensile force calculated according to Chapter 2 and O coefficient in Table
4.2.
4.7.2. Joints of Crosses
4.7.2.1  On the joint details of crosses, necessary tensile controls shall be made under the
internal forces formed of the combined effect of gravity loads and earthquake. Besides,
bearing capacity of the joint shall also provide the smallest one of the internal forces define
below:
a) Axial force (tensile or pressure) capacity of cross
b) Transverse axial force occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation
(4.1.a) and Equation (4.1b).
c) The biggest force to be transferred to the mentioned cross by the other elements
combined to loop point.
4.7.3.2  On the calculation of the bearing capacity of joint, boundary values of tensile as
given in 4.2.5 shall be used.
4.7.2.3  Requirements given in 4.6.3.3 for centric steel braced frames of high ductility level
are also available for the centric steel braced frames of nominal ductility level.
4.7.3. Additional Conditions for Special Cross Arrangements
4.7.3.1  Requirements given in 4.6.4.1 (a) and 4.6.4.1 (b) for centric steel braced frames of
high ductility level are also available for the centric steel braced frames of nominal ductility
level.
4.7.3.2  Conditions given in 4.4.4 for the beams of frames of nominal ductility level are
also available for the beams which are connected to crosses.
4.8. ECCENTRIC STEEL BRACED FRAMES OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL
Eccentric steel braced frames of high ductility level are the horizontal structural systems in
which brace plates under the seismic effects have the feature of significant non  linear
deformation. These systems, during the plastic deformation of brace plates, are dimensioned
in a way that provide other beams, except columns, crosses and brace plates, remain in
elastic zone. Requirements to be applied in dimensioning of the eccentric steel braced
frames of high ductility level are given below.
4.8.1. Conditions of Cross  Section
4.8.1.1  Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness
ratio of the frames of nominal ductility level in the beams  columns are given in Table 4.3.
However provided with the control of necessary local buckling, exceeding these boundaries
can be permitted in utmost two storey buildings.
4.8.1.2  Slenderness ratio (bar buckling length / radius of inertia) at all pressure elements
of roof and vertical plane brace systems shall not be exceed
a s
E σ / 0 . 4
4.8.1.3  Conditions given in 4.4.4 for the multi  partite crosses are also available for the
eccentric steel braced frames.
4.8.2. Brace Beams
4.8.2.1  In the eccentric steel braced frames of high ductility level, there shall be one brace
beam at least one end of each cross element.
4.8.2.2  Length of the brace beam, except the special condition in 4.8.8.1, may be
determined as follow.
p p p p
1 0 5 0 . / . / M V e M V ≤ ≤ (4.13)
M
p
bending moment and V
p
shear force capacity in this correlation shall be accounted with
Equation (4.2a) and Equation (4.2b).
4.8.2.3  Brace beams shall be dimensioned under the design internal forces (shear force,
bending moment and axial force) formed of seismic effects calculated according to Chapter
2 and gravity loads.
4.8.2.4  Design shear load of brace beam, V
d
, shall provide the both following conditions.
d p
V V ≤ (4.14)
d p
2 V M e ≤ / (4.15)
4.8.2.5  In case the axial design force of brace beam is,
d a
0 15 / . N A σ > (4.16)
Following values shall be used in Equation (4.14) and Equation (4.15) instead of M
p
, and V
p
d
pn p
a
1 18 1
N
M M
A
(
= −
(
σ
¸ ¸
.
2
pn p d a
1 ( / ) V V N A = − σ (4.18)
4.8.2.6  Web plate of the brace beam shall be single  piece and there won’t be any support
plate in the web plane. There won’t be any spacing on web plate.
4.8.3. Lateral Supporting of the Brace Beam
4.8.3.1  Up and bottom flanges of brace beam shall be supported on both ends of the beam
whereas in brace beams arranged on the side of column shall be laterally supported on one
end of the beam. Necessary strength of lateral supports shall not be less than 0.006 of the
axial tensile capacity of beam flange.
4.8.3.2  Beside beam section outside the brace beam shall be supported laterally with
bf s a
0.45 / b E σ spaces. Necessary strength of these supports shall not be less than 0.001 of
the axial tensile capacity of beam flange.
4.8.3.3  In the steel structural systems where armoured slabs operate compositely with steel
beams it is not necessary to obey the above conditions.
4.8.4. Turning Angle of Brace Beams
Depending on the relative storey drift of i’th storey in which brace beam is located A
i
,
defined in Chapter 2,
i
p
i
0 R
h
∆
= (4.19)
Due to the angle of storey drift determined with above equation,
p
¸ turning angle of brace
beam occurred between brace beam and storey beam of this beam’s extension shall not
exceed the boundary values as given below (Figure 4.6):
i
p
p
γ
p θp =
= p θ p
γ
i
p θ
i
γ
p
i
i
θp
p
γ
γ
p θp =
γ θ
e
i
h
R
h
L
e
L
L
L
e
R e
e e
R
h
L
L
e 2
Figure 4.6
(a) 0.10 radian in case the length of brace beam is equal to or smaller than 1.6 M
p
/ V
p
.
(b) 0.03 radian in case the length of brace beam is equal to or smaller than 2.6 M
p
/ V
p
.
Linear interpolation shall be made in case the length of brace beam is between these two
boundary values.
4.8.5. Rigidity (Stiffening) Plates
4.8.5.1 – Rigidity plates shall be placed at the end of cross elements where the cross
elements directly transfer load to brace beam and extensions. Rigidity plates unless
otherwise stated, shall be placed on both sides of the web plate of brace beam and shall be
in the length as web plate and in the width as half flange plate (Figure 4.7).Thickness of
rigidity plates shall not less than 0.75 of the thickness of web plate and 10 mm. Constant
fillet welds that connect rigidity plates to web of the brace beam shall have the capacity to
transfer forces formed of the multiplication of cross  section area of rigidity plates and
yield stress of material.
(4.8.5.1)
(4.8.5.2)
çapraz ve ba kirii
eksenleri ba kirii
içinde kesiecektir.
rijitlik levhaları
sürekli
köe
kaynaı
ara rijitlik
levhaları
rijitlik
levhaları
e
a
a
aa kesiti
Figure 4.7
4.8.5.2 – In addition to the rigidity plates at the end of connection beams inter rigidity
plates as defined below shall be placed:
(a) On the brace beams with a length smaller than 1.6 M
p
/ V
p
, inter  spaces of inter
rigidity plates shall not be less than (30 t
w
– d
b
/ 5) incase turning angle of brace beam is
0.10 radian whereas it shall not be less than (52 t
w
– d
b
/ 5) in case turning angle of brace
beam is smaller than 0.03. Linear interpolation shall be made for the inter values of
turning angle.
(b) On the brace beams with length taller than
p p
2.6 / M V and shorter than
p p
5 / M V , one
each rigidity plate shall be placed
bf
1.5b distance from the end of brace beams.
(c) On the brace beams with a length between
p p
1.6 / M V and
p p
2.6 / M V , inter rigidity
plates as specified in (a) and (b) shall be used together.
(d) On the brace beams with a length taller than
p p
5 / M V , inter rigidity plates may not be
used.
4.8.6. Crosses, Storey Beams and Columns
4.8.6.1 – Load that causes plasticity of the brace beam shall be determined by means of
the multiplication of internal forces formed due to seismic loads and calculated according
to Chapter 2 with the biggest one of the M
p
M
d
and V
p
/ V
d
Design Increment Factors
calculated as a result of section choose in the brace beam.
4.8.6.2 – Crosses shall be dimensioned according to internal forces formed of 1.25D
a
times of load that causes the plasticity of brace beam.
4.8.6.3 – Section storey beam located outside the brace beam shall be dimensioned
according to internal forces formed of 1.1D
a
times of load that causes the plasticity of
brace beam.
4.8.6.4 – Necessary tensile controls shall be made on the columns under internal forces
formed of the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads. Besides, bearing capacity
of the column shall also provide the smallest one of the internal forces define below:
(a) Internal forces formed of 1.1D
a
times of load that causes the plasticity of brace beam.
(b) Internal forces occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation (4.1.a)
and Equation (4.1b).
4.8.6.5 – Internal force capacities of the cross  sections of crosses, storey beams and
columns shall be calculated with the correlations as given in Equation (4.2).
4.8.7. Joint of Cross and Brace Beam
Joint details of crosses with brace beam shall be dimensioned according to internal forces
calculated as specified in 4.8.6.2.
4.8.8. Joint of Brace Beam  Column
4.8.8.1 – Length of the brace beam that joints to column shall provide the following
condition:
p p
1.6 / e M V ≤ (4.20)
4.8.8.2 – Necessary bending and shearing strengths of joint on the surface of column shall
respectively not be less than the capacity of bending moment of brace beam, M
p
, and
shearing force V
p
. Full penetration butt welding shall be applied for the connection of
brace beam flanges to column (Figure 4.8).
tam penetrasyonlu
küt kaynak
rijitlik
levhaları
(4.8.5.2)
(4.8.5.1)
çapraz ve ba kirii
eksenleri ba kirii
içinde kesiecektir.
ara rijitlik
levhaları
rijitlik levhaları
sürekli
köe
kaynaı
e
a
aa kesiti
a
Figure 4.8
4.8.9 Beam  Column Joint
Joint details of the part of storey beam with column located outside the brace beam shall
be made as hinged inside the beam  web plane. However, this connection shall be
dimensioned transversely as equal to 0.01 of the axial tensile capacity of beam flanges and
according to buckling moment formed by forces with opposite direction.
4.9. DETAILS OF FOUNDATION CONNECTION
4.9.1 – On the foundation details of the elements of structural steel system, necessary
tensile controls shall be made by predicating the support reactions formed of the combined
effect of gravity loads and seismic loads. Besides, bearing capacity of the detail of
foundation connection shall also provide smallest ones among the internal forces define
below:
(a) The bending moment formed of 1.1D
a
times of the bending moment capacity of
column which joints to foundation with total gravity and horizontal forces formed of
1.1D
a
times of the axial load capacities of column and crosses which joint to foundation.
(b) Internal forces occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation (4.1.a)
and Equation (4.1b).
4.9.2 – Boundary tensile values as given in 4.2.5 shall be used on the calculation of the
bearing capacity of connection detail.
4.10. RULES CONCERNING THE STATEMENT OF PROJECT AND
IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS
4.10.1. Statement of Project
4.10.1.1 – Information specified in 2.13 of Chapter 2 shall be in the statement of project
concerning the statement of earthquake.
4.10.1.2 – Besides, information listed below shall be in the statement of project:
(a) Material qualities and characteristic strengths of the latten and profile that forms
structural system with bolts used in the joints and confinements, type of electrode.
(b) Loads that give the increased seismic effects and load combinations based on design.
4.10.1.3– Besides the dimensioning calculations of structural elements and verifications of
stability, calculations of combination and joint details with capacity control verifications
concerning these details shall be given in detailed in the scope of the project statement.
4.10.2. Rules Concerning the Drawings of Steel Implementation Project
4.10.2.1 – Following sections shall be in the steel implementation projects:
(a) General construction plans concerning roof slabs and storey slabs
(b) Column implantation (layout) plan
(c) Anchorage plan and details
(d) Front views and sections in sufficient amount
(e) Detailed drawings of columns and beams that composed the structural system with
crosses of roof, horizontal plane and vertical plane
(f) Details of all combinations and joints
4.10.2.2 – Material qualities of profiles and latten used in building with bolt types used in
combinations with the type of electrodes to be used shall be specified in all sections.
4.10.2.3 – Factor of Effective Ground Acceleration, Building Importance Factor, Local
Soil Class as considered in design and Load  Bearing System Behavioral Factor
determined according to Table 2.5 shall be specified in all construction sections.
4.10.2.4 – In the details of blot combination and joints, type of used bolt, diameters of
bolts and drills, features of washer and nuts with pre  stress force to be implied to bolts
shall be specified.
4.10.2.5 – Weld type, thickness of weld and welding length to be implied shall be given in
details of welded combinations and joints and also geometrical sizes of welding bent shall
be given in butt welds which require to open welding bent.
INFORMATION ANNEX 4A – BEAM  COLUMN COMBINATION DETAILS IN
MOMENT TRANSFERRED FRAMES
4A.0. NOTATIONS
b
bf
= Flange width of beam section
d
b
= Height of beam cross  section
4A.1. SCOPE AND GENERAL MATTERS
4A.1.1 – As estimated in 4.3.4.1 (a), in this Chapter several bolted and welded
combination details samples are given which are proved with scientific and / or analytical
methods that the samples have the capacity to provide at least 0.04 radian Relative Storey
Drift Angle (relative storey drift / storey height)
1
.
4A.1.2 – These details may be used within the limits of implementation concerning
moment transferred beam  column combinations of frames of high ductility level.
4A.1.3 – As for the moment transferred beam  column combinations of frames of
nominal ductility level those mentioned details may be used definitively.
4A.1.4 – Strength calculations and capacity control verifications of combination details
shall be carried out in accordance with 4.3.4 and 4.4.2 respectively for the frames of
nominal and high ductility level.
4A.2. COMBINATION DETAILS OF BEAM  COLUMN
Implementation boundaries that contain combination details of bolted and welded moment
transferred beam  column with the usage terms of these details in frames of high ductility
level are given below.
4A.2.1. Combination Details for Bolted Rider Plate
Beam  column combination detail for bolted rider plate is given in Figure 4A.1. In the
detail, rider plate made of Fe 37 steel combined to flange plates of beam with full
penetration butt weld and also combined to web plate with double  sided fillet weld. For
the connection of rider plate to column, full pre  stressed bolts with at least ISO 8.8
quality shall be used.
For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for
the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in
Table 4A.1.
1
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2000), Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for
New Steel MomentFrame Buildings, FEMA 350, FEMA, Washington, D.C.
takviye levhaları
(gerektiinde)
tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak
en az ISO 8.8 kalitesinde
tam öngermeli bulon
im (gerektiinde)
süreklilik levhaları
(gerektiinde)
Fe 37 alın levhası
Figure 4A.1
TABLE 4A.1 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION
DETAILSOF BOLTED RIDER PLATE BEAM  COLUMN
Parameter of Combination Detail Implementation Boundaries
Cross  section height of beam _ 750 mm
Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height _ 7
Thickness of beam flange _ 20 mm
Cross  section height of column _ 600 mm
Class of bolt 8.8 or 10.9
Conditions of bolted pre  stress Full pre  stress
Material class of rider plate Fe 37
Weld of flange plate Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.2. Combination Details of Supported Rider Plate Beam  Column
Beam  column combination detail for bolted rider plate supported with rigidity plates is
given in Figure 4A.2. In the detail, rider plate made of Fe 37 steel combined to flange
plates of beam with butt weld and also combined to rigidity plate with double  sided fillet
weld. For the connection of rider plate to column, full pre  stressed bolts with at least ISO
8.8 quality shall be used.
For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for
the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in
Table 4A.2.
takviye levhaları
(gerektiinde)
süreklilik levhaları
(gerektiinde)
im (gerektiinde)
en az ISO 8.8 kalitesinde
tam öngermeli bulon
tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak
Fe 37 alın levhası
rijitlik levhası
25
25
30°
Figure 4A.2
TABLE 4A.2 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION
DETAILSOF BOLTED SUPPORTED RIDER PLATE BEAM  COLUMN
Parameter of Combination Detail Implementation Boundaries
Cross  section height of beam _ 1000 mm
Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height _ 7
Thickness of beam flange _ 25 mm
Cross  section height of column _ 600 mm
Class of bolt 8.8 or 10.9
Conditions of bolted pre  stress Full pre  stress
Material class of rider plate Fe 37
Weld of flange plate Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.3. Combination Details of Bolted Non  Rider Plate
Beam  column combination detail for bolted non rider plate is given in Figure 4A.3. In
the detail, connection of beam to column is provided with joint flange plate and sliding
plate in web. Joint flange plate combined to column with butt weld and also sliding plate
combined with butt weld and fillet weld. For the connection of beam flange and web
plates to joint flange plate and sliding plate, bolts with at least ISO 8.8 quality shall be
used.
For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for
the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in
Table 4A.3.
tam penetrasyonlu
küt kaynak
en az ISO 8.8 kalitesinde
tam öngermeli bulon
im
(gerektiinde)
ek balık levhası
süreklilik levhaları
(gerektiinde)
takviye levhaları
(gerektiinde)
en az ISO 8.8
kalitesinde bulon
kayma levhası
veya
veya
Figure 4A.3
TABLE 4A.3 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION
DETAILSOF BOLTED NON  RIDER PLATE BEAM  COLUMN
Parameter of Combination Detail Implementation Boundaries
Cross  section height of beam _ 800 mm
Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height _ 8
Thickness of beam flange _ 20 mm
Cross  section height of column _ 600 mm
Class of bolt 8.8 or 10.9
Biggest bolt size M 30
Pre  stress Conditions of flange plate bolts Full pre  stress
Material class of joint flange plate Fe 37, Fe 52
Weld of joint flange plate Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.4. Welded Combination Detail
Welded combination detail is given in Figure 4A.4. In the detail, connection of beam
flange plates to column is provided with full penetration butt weld. Web plate of beam
combined to column by using sliding plate with butt weld and also fillet weld. As shown
in detail, access spaces for weld are necessary for butt welds in beam flanges.
For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for
the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in
Table 4A.4.
kaynak ulaım
delii
süreklilik levhaları
(gerektiinde)
takviye levhaları
(gerektiinde)
2
5
50
montaj bulonu
kayma levhası
veya
tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak
Figure 4A.4
TABLE 4A.4 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION
DETAILSOF WELDED BEAM  COLUMN
Parameter of Combination Detail Implementation Boundaries
Cross  section height of beam _ 1000 mm
Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height _ 7
Thickness of beam flange _ 25 mm
Cross  section height of column _ 600 mm
Access space for weld Necessary
Weld of flange plate Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.5. Combination Detail for Welded Joint Flange Plate
Combination detail for welded joint flange plate is given in Figure A4.5. In the detail,
combination of joint flange plates to column is provided with full penetration butt weld
and combination to beam flange is provided with peripheral fillet weld. Web plate of
beam combined to column by using sliding plate with butt weld and also fillet weld.
Access spaces for weld are not necessary in this detail.
For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for
the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in
Table 4A.5.
takviye levhaları
(gerektiinde)
süreklilik levhaları
(gerektiinde)
montaj bulonu
veya
kayma levhası
ek balık levhası
tam penetrasyonlu
küt kaynak
veya
ek balık levhası
Figure 4A.5
TABLE 4A.5 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION
DETAILSOF WELDED BEAM  COLUMN WITH JOINT FLANGE
Parameter of Combination Detail Implementation Boundaries
Cross  section height of beam _ 1000 mm
Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height _ 7
Thickness of beam flange _ 25 mm
Cross  section height of column _ 600 mm
Material of joint flange plate Fe 52
Weld of joint flange plate Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.6. Welded Combination Detail of Weakened Beam Cross  Section
Welded combination detail of weakened beam cross  section is given in Figure 4A.6. In
the detail which has same features with welded combination detail, additionally weakened
cross  section beam is used. Estimated geometrical sizes for weakened beam cross 
section are shown in figure.
For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for
the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in
Table 4A.6.
montaj bulonu
kaynak ulaım delii
d
b
kiri enkesiti
b
bf
0.200.25 b
bf
0.50.75 b
bf
d
b
0.650.85
yarıçap~
=
d
b
veya
kayma levhası
takviye levhaları
(gerektiinde)
süreklilik levhaları
(gerektiinde)
zayıflatılmı
0.80
tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak
( $ekil 4A.4 'e bakınız.)
Figure 4A.6
TABLE 4A.6 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION
DETAILSOF BEAM  COLUMN WELDED WITH WEAKENED BEAM CROSS 
SECTION
Parameter of Combination Detail Implementation Boundaries
Cross  section height of beam _ 1000 mm
Weight of beam unit length ≤ 450 kg/m
Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height _ 7
Thickness of beam flange _ 45 mm
Cross  section height of column _ 600 mm
Access space for weld Necessary
Weld of joint flange plate Full penetration butt weld
CHAPTER 5 – EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR
MASONRY BUILDINGS
5.1. SCOPE
Dimensioning and reinforcing of masonry buildings and buildinglike structures to be
constructed in seismic zones with loadbearing walls of natural or artificial materials, to
resist both vertical and lateral loads shall be performed, along with currently enforced
relevant standards and codes, primarily in accordance with the requirements of this
chapter. Requirements for masonry building foundations are given in Chapter 6.
5.2. GENERAL RULES
5.2.1 – Sliding stress on the walls of building which is generated by seismic loads defined
by taking S (T
1
) = 2.5 and R
a
(T
1
) = 2.5 according to Chapter 2, shall be calculated and it
shall be provided not to exceed permitted limit values.
5.2.2 – With the exception of the case given in 5.6.2 below, number of stories permitted
for masonry buildings is given in Table 5.1 depending on seismic zones.
TABLE 10.1 – MAXIMUM NUMBER OF STORIES PERMITTED
Seismic Zone Maximum number of Stories
1 2
2, 3 3
4 4
5.2.3 – Maximum number of stories given in Table 5.1 correspond to ground storey
plus the upper stories. Area of a penthouse built in addition to those stories can not
exceed 25 % of gross area of building at foundation level. The penthouse whose storey
area is more than 25 % of gross area of the building shall be deemed to be a full storey. In
addition, a single basement may be built. In the case where more than a single basement
is constructed, maximum number of stories given in Table 5.1 shall be reduced by one. In
all seismic zones, masonry buildings with adobe walls can be constructed utmost single
storey without considering basement.
5.2.4 – Storey height of masonry buildings shall be utmost 3.0 m from one floor top
level to the other. In masonry buildings with adobe walls, storey height can not be more
than 2.70 m and basement height can not be more than 2.40 m if it exists.
5.2.5 – Loadbearing walls of masonry buildings shall be arranged in plan, as much as
possible, regularly and symmetric or nearly symmetric with respect to the main axes.
Construction of partial basement shall be avoided.
5.2.6  In plan, loadbearing walls shall be constructed so as to be placed one over the
other.
5.3. ANALYSIS OF STRESS OF MASONRY WALLS
It shall be indicated that pressure and sliding stresses to be developed under the effect of
vertical loads and seismic analysis loads to be calculated by the method given in this
section do not exceed pressure and sliding stresses permitted according to type of masonry
wall used in walls. If the stresses are exceeded, a new calculation shall be made by
increasing structural solid wall areas. Calculation of stress shall not be made for masonry
buildings with adobe walls.
5.3.1.1 – Because shear strength of walls is dependent on vertical stresses existing on the
walls, it is required to calculate stress of walls of masonry buildings under vertical loads.
5.3.1.2 – Comparison of pressure stresses generated on walls with stresses permitted
according to type of masonry wall shall be carried out. Loads coming from walls and
floorings shall be taken into account in this analysis. The stress to be derived by dividing
into cross section of the wall reduced as the cross sections of door and window spaces on
the wall shall not be more than the pressure stress permitted according to type of the wall.
5.3.2 – Pressure Safety Stress on Walls
This stress can be calculated by various methods given below:
(a) 0.25 of wall strength calculated by pressure strength tests for wall particles made at
equal strength as the pressure strength of masonnary unit and mortar to be used in
construction of wall is the pressure safety stress.
(b) Wall safety stress can be taken from Table 5.2 depending on the mortar class used in
walls and the average free pressure strength of wall material given in TS – 2510.
(c) If strength test of wall particles is not made, 0.50 of free pressure strength obtained
experientially for the block used in wall is pressure strength of wall f
d
and 0.25 of this
strength is the pressure safety stress f
em
of wall.
(d) If pressure strength of masonnary unit used in wall is not given or strength test of wall
is not made pressure strength stress for masonnary unit used in wall shall be taken from
Table 5.3.
5.3.2.1 – Pressure strengths of masonnary units and mortar used in wall shall be
determined by tests applied in accordance with concerned standards.
5.3.2.2 – Pressure strength stresses for walls shall be reduced by quantities given in Table
5.4 according to slenderness rates of walls.
TABLE 5.2 – PRESSURE SAFETY STRESSES FOR WALLS DEPENDING ON
MORTAR CLASS AND FREE PRESSURE STRENGTH OF WALL MATERIAL
Mortar Class Used in the Wall (MPa) Average Free Pressure Strength
of Wall Material
(MPa)
A
(15)
B
(11)
C
(5)
D
(2)
E
(0.5)
25 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8
16 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.7
11 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6
7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5
5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4
TABLE 5.3 – PRESSURE SAFETY STRESSES OF WALLS IN WHICH FREE
PRESSURE STRENGTH IS UNKNOWN
Type of Masonnary Unit and Mortar
Used in the Wall
Pressure Safety Stress of Wall
f
em
(MPa)
Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is
less than 35 %, with lime mortar supported
with cement)
1.0
Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is
in between 35 – 45 %, with lime mortar
supported with cement)
0.8
Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is
more than 45 %, with lime mortar
supported with cement)
0.5
Filled block brick or clay brick (with lime
mortar supported with cement)
0.8
Stone wall (with lime mortar supported
with cement)
0.3
Gas concrete (with adhesive) 0.6
Filled concrete briquette (with cement
mortar)
0.8
TABLE 5.4 – REDUCING COEFFICIENTS FOR SAFETY STRESSES
ACCORDING TO SLENDERNESS RATE
Slenderness rate
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Reducing
coefficient
1.0 0.95 0.89 0.84 0.78 0.73 0.67 0.62 0.56 0.51
5.3.3. Calculation of Sliding Stress
Calculation of sliding stresses generated parallel to horizontal joints of walls by seismic
design load shall be made as explained in this chapter.
5.3.3.1 – Relative sliding rigidity of solid wall parts rest among door or window spaces in
each axis of masonry building shall be calculated by the expression k A / h. In here, A is
horizontal cross section of solid wall part and h is the smallest of heights of spaces at both
two sides of solid wall part. If cross section of the wall is rectangular k = 1.0, if the wall
has an end element or there is a grinder or stay wall perpendicular to the wall on the edge
of the wall k = 1.2 shall be taken.
5.3.3.2 – Sliding rigidity of a wall axis is the sum of sliding rigidities of wall parts on this
axis. Center of sliding rigidity of building shall be calculated by using sliding rigidity of
wall axes.
5.3.3.3 – Shear force on walls shall be calculated in the direction of both orthogonal axes
of the building by considering storey torsion moment as well as storey shear force.
5.3.3.4 – Sliding stress developed on the wall shall be calculated by dividing seismic force
on the wall into horizontal cross section area of the wall and it shall be compared with
sliding safety stress of wall t
em
.
em o
+ τ = τ µσ (5.1)
In this equation t
em
= sliding safety stress of wall (MPa), t
o
= cracking safety stress of wall
(MPa), µ = coefficient of friction (it can be taken as 0.5) and σ is vertical wall stress
(MPa). Cracking safety stress of wall, t
o,
shall be taken from Table 5.5 according to type
of masonnary unit used in the wall.
TABLE 5.5 – CRACKING SAFETY STRESS OF WALLS
Type of Masonnary Unit and Mortar Used in the
Wall
Cracking Safety Stress of
Wall τ ττ τ
o
(MPa )
Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is less than 35
%, with lime mortar supported with cement)
0.25
Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is more than
35 %, with lime mortar supported with cement)
0.12
Solid block brick or clay brick (with lime mortar
supported with cement)
0.15
Stone wall (with lime mortar supported with cement) 0.10
Gas concrete (with adhesive) 0.15
Solid concrete briquette (with cement mortar) 0.20
5.3.4. Elasticity Module
Elasticity Module (E
d
) of masonnary units used in wall construction shall be calculated by
Equation (5.2).
d d
200 E f = (5.2)
5.4. LOAD – BEARING WALLS
5.4.1. Materials of Load – Bearing Walls
5.4.1.1 – Natural stone, solid brick, bricks and block bricks with hole ratios which are not
exceeded the maximum void ratios permitted in TS – 2510 and TS EN 771 – 1 as material
of load – bearing walls, structural materials and elements of gas concrete, lime sandstone,
solid concrete blocks, adobe or similar masonnary units may be used as masonry materials
in the construction of load – bearing walls in accordance with Turkish Standards.
5.4.1.2 – Concrete blocks with holes, light aggregated concrete masonnary units,
bricks and block bricks with hole ratios which are exceeded the maximum void ratios
permitted in TS – 2510 and TS – 705 (TS EN 771 – 1) as material of load – bearing walls,
other bricks manufactured for infill walls in accordance with TS  4377 and similarly
formed blocks shall never be used as loadbearing wall material.
5.4.1.3 – Natural stone loadbearing walls shall be used only in the basement and ground
stories of masonry buildings.
5.4.1.4 – Concrete loadbearing walls shall be used only in the basements of masonry
buildings.
5.4.2. Strength of Wall Materials
5.4.2.1 – Strength and other specialties of natural and artificial masonnary units used in
construction of walls and of mortars connecting those shall be as follows. These
conditions are not valid for adobe. Adobe can only be used in adobe buildings.
5.4.4.2 – According to gross pressure area, minimum pressure strength of natural
and artificial masonnary units to be used in load – bearing walls shall be 5.0 MPa at
least. Pressure strength of natural stones to be used in basement stories shall be 10.0
MPa at least. In the case where concrete walls are constructed in basements, minimum
quality of concrete to be used shall be C16.
5.4.2.3 – Lime mortar supported with cement (cement / lime / sand volumetric ratio =
1 / 2 /9) or cement mortar (cement/sand volumetric ratio = 1 / 4) shall be used in load
– bearing walls or cement mortar.
5.4.2.4 – Pressure safety stress of walls (f
em
) shall be calculated by using one of the
methods given in 5.3.2.
5.4.2.5 – Sliding safety stress of walls shall be calculated according to Equation (5.1).
5.4.3. Minimum Thickness of LoadBearing Walls
The minimum thicknesses of loadbearing walls, excluding plaster thicknesses, are given
in Table 5.6 depending on the number of stories in masonry building. In the case of no
basement, minimum wall thicknesses given in the Table 5.6 shall be valid for ground
storey and upper stories. In penthouses permitted in accordance with 5.2.3, wall
thickness specified for the storey below shall be applied.
TABLE 5.6 – MINIMUM THICKNESSES OF LOAD – BEARING WALLS
Seismic Zone
Permitted
Stories
Natural
Stone
(mm)
Concrete
(mm)
Brick and Gas
concrete
Others
(mm)
1, 2, 3 and 4
Basement storey
Ground storey
500
500
250

1
1
200
200
1, 2, 3 and 4
Basement storey
Ground storey
First storey
500
500

250


1.5
1
1
300
200
200
2, 3 and 4
Basement storey
Ground storey
First storey
Second storey
500
500


250



1.5
1.5
1
1
300
300
200
200
4
Basement storey
Ground storey
First storey
Second storey
Third storey
500
500



250




1.5
1.5
1.5
1
1
300
300
300
200
200
5.4.3.1 – In buildings with adobe walls, external load – bearing walls shall be at least
1.5 brick size, whereas internal adobe loadbearing walls shall be at least 1 brick size.
Nominal adobe brick dimensions to be used in load – bearing walls shall be 120 x 300 x
400 (main) and 120 x 190 x 400 (lamb) or 120 x 250 x 300 (main) and 120 x 180 x 300
(lamb) in mm’s.
5.4.4. Total Length Limit for Load – Bearing Walls
The ratio of the total length of masonry loadbearing walls in each of the orthogonal
directions in plan (excluding window and door openings), to gross floor area (excluding
cantilever floors) shall not be less than (0.2 I) m/m
2
where I, represents Building
Importance Factor defined in Chapter 2.
Earthquake direction
d
/ A ≥ 0. 2 I m / m
2
d
: Length of hatched area (m)
A: Gross floor area (m
2
)
I: Building importance factor (Chapter 2)
Figure 5.1
5.4.5. Maximum Unsupported Length of LoadBearing Walls
5.4.5.1 – Unsupported length of any loadbearing wall between the load – bearing wall
axes in the perpendicular direction in plan shall not exceed 5.5 m. in the first seismic zone
and 7.5 m in other seismic zones. Maximum unsupported length of wall in masonry
buildings with adobe walls shall be 4.5 m.
5.4.5.2 – In the case the condition given in 5.4.5.1 above is not satisfied, reinforced
concrete vertical bond beams shall be constructed along the full storey height at the
corners of building and in walls with axis to axis spacing in plan not more than 4.0 m.
However unsupported length of such walls shall not be more than 16 m (Figure 5.2).
I
1
I
2
I
3
Unsupported wall length:
1
,
2
and
3
≤ 5.5 m (1
st
Seismic zone)
(See 5.4.5.1)
≤ 7.0 m (2
nd
, 3rd
and
4
th
seismic zones)
≤ 4.0 m ≤ 4.0 m
Vertical bond
Beam
Vertical bond
Beam
≤ 16.0 m
Vertical bond
Beam
Figure 5.2
5.4.6. Openings in LoadBearing Walls
The following rules shall be followed in openings to be provided in load – bearing walls
(Figure 5.3):
5.4.6.1 – Plan length of the solid wall segment to be set between the corner of a building
and the nearest window or door opening to the corner shall not be less than 1.50 m in the
first and second seismic zones and 1.0 m in the third and fourth seismic zones. This
quantity shall be at least 1.0 m in buildings with adobe walls in all seismic zones.
5.4.6.2 – Excluding the corners of buildings, plan lengths of the solid wall segments
between the window and door openings shall not be less than 1.0 m in the first and second
seismic zones and 0.8 m in the third and fourth seismic zones. This quantity shall be at
least 1.0 m in buildings with adobe walls in all seismic zones.
5.4.6.3 – In the case where reinforced concrete vertical bond beams according to 5.5.3 are
made on both sides of the window and door openings, condition of minimum lengths of
wall segments given in 5.4.6.1 and 5.4.6.2 may be decreased by 20%. If two timber pillars
with section of 0.10 m x 0.10 m are set on both two sides of the window and door
openings, solid wall segment between two openings may be 0.80 m in buildings with
adobe walls. These timber pillars shall be connected to the timber bond beams of window
and door.
5.4.6.4 – Excluding the corners of buildings, plan length of a solid wall segment between
intersection of the walls and the nearest window or door opening to the intersection of the
orthogonal walls shall not be less than 0.50 m in the all seismic zones. In case where
reinforced concrete vertical bond beams according to 5.5.3 are exist on both sides of the
openings along the height of the storey solid wall segment may be less than 0.50 m
.
5.4.6.5 – Plan length of each window or door opening shall not be more than 3.0 m. In
buildings with adobe walls, door openings shall not be more than 1.0 m in horizontal axis
and 1.90 m in vertical axis; window openings shall not be more than 0.90 m in horizontal
axis and 1.20 m in vertical axis.
5.4.6.6 – Total plan lengths of window or door openings along the unsupported length
of any wall defined in 5.4.5 shall not be more than 40% of the unsupported wall
length.
5.4.6.7 – In the case where reinforced concrete vertical bond beams according to 5.5.3 are
made on both sides of the window or door openings, the maximum length of
openings defined in 5.4.6.6 and the maximum ratio of openings defined in 5.4.6.5 may be
increased by 20%. This condition is not valid for buildings with adobe walls.
1.5 m
1
st
and 2
nd
Seismic Zone
1.0 m
1.0 m
3
rd
and 4
th
Seismic Zone
0.8 m 0.5 m
I
b1
I
b2
b1
and
b2
≤ 3.0 m
(
b1
+
b2
) ≤ 0.40
n
n
(Unsupported wall length)
Figure 5.3
5.5. LINTELS AND BOND BEAMS
5.5.1. Lintels
5.5.1.1 – Each of seating lengths of window and door lintels on the walls shall not be less
than 15% of lintel clear span and less than 200 mm.
5.5.1.2 – Cross sections dimensions of lintels as well as longitudinal transverse
reinforcement shall not be less than the values given in 5.5.2.1 for horizontal bond beams.
5.5.1.3 – Timber lintel may be set over and under the window and door in buildings with
adobe walls. Timber lintels shall be made with two square timbers with section of 100 mm
x 100 mm. Each of seating lengths of timber lintels on the walls shall not be less than 200
mm.
5.5.2. Horizontal Bond Beams
5.5.2.1 – Reinforced concrete horizontal bond beams satisfying the following
conditions shall be made at places where each of the slabs, including stair landings, is
supported by structural walls such that they shall be cast (monolithically) with the
reinforced concrete slabs.
(a) Width of horizontal bond beams shall be equal to the width of wall, and their height
shall not be less than 200 mm.
(b) Concrete quality for bond beams shall be at least C 16, Ø 8 hoops with a maximum
spacing of 250 mm shall be set with together longitudinal reinforcement at least 6Ø10
on stone walls with three at the bottom and three at the top, and at least 4 Ø10 on other
load – bearing walls. Longitudinal rebars shall be appropriately overlapped at the corners
and intersections to achieve continuity (Figure 5.4).
5.5.2.2 – In rubble stone walls, reinforced concrete bond beams shall be made
excluding the slab and stair landing levels in accordance with the rules given in 5.5.2.1
with vertical axis to axis spacing not more than 1.5 m.
5.5.2.3 – Timber bond beams may be made in adobe masonry walls. Timber bond beams
shall be tar emulsified two elements of square sections of 10 cm x 10 cm which are to be
placed with outer faces coinciding with the exterior and interior wall surfaces. These
pieces shall be tied each other at every 50 cm with nail jointed timber elements of
cross section of 5 cm x 10 cm and holes in between shall be filled with stone aggregate.
≤ 25 cm
φ8
≥ 40φ
≤ 25 cm
≥ 40φ
min φ10
≤ 25 cm
φ8
≥ 40φ
≤ 25 cm
Min Ø10
Figure 5.4
5.5.3. Vertical Bond Beams
5.5.3.1 – In order to enhance the earthquake resistance of masonry buildings, it shall be
appropriate to construct reinforced concrete vertical bond beams in full storey height on
the corners of buildings, along the vertical intersections of the load – bearing walls and on
both sides of the door and window openings.
5.5.3.2 – Vertical bond beams shall be constructed by reinforcing and concreting the
section in between the formworks to be placed parallel to the walls, following the
construction of load – bearing walls on both sides (Figure 5.5).
5.5.3.3 – Cross section dimensions of vertical bond beams shall be equal to thicknesses of
walls intersecting at corners of the buildings and at the intersections of the load – bearing
walls. In vertical bond beams to be constructed on both sides of window and door
openings, cross section dimensions of the bond beam perpendicular to the wall shall not
be less than the wall thickness, whereas the other cross section dimension shall not be less
than 200 mm.
5.5.3.4 – Concrete quality for vertical bond beams shall be at least C16, Ø8 hoops with a
maximum spacing of 200 mm shall be set with together longitudinal reinforcement at
least 6Ø12 on stone walls with three parallel to both wall faces and at least 4Ø12 on other
load – bearing walls. Longitudinal starter bars shall be provided at the foundation and at
the intermediate floors for longitudinal rebars (Figure 5.5).
200 mm
200 mm
200 mm
Figure 5.5
5.6 SLABS
5.6.1 – Floor slabs of masonry buildings shall be reinforced concrete plate slabs or joist
floors whose dimensions and reinforcements are designed in accordance with the
requirements of TS500.
5.6.2 – Masonry buildings with slabs other than those defined in 5.6.1 above, shall be
constructed in all seismic zones with maximum two stories excluding the basement, if
any. In such buildings, horizontal bond beams supporting the slabs shall also be
constructed in accordance with 5.5.2. Buildings with adobe walls shall be constructed with
maximum one storey excluding basement.
5.6.3 – Cantilever elements such as balconies, cornices and eaves of roofs shall be made
only as an extension of floor slabs and the clear cantilever length shall not be more than
1.5 m. Clear cantilever length of cantilevered stairs shall be at most 1.0 m. This condition
is not valid for buildings with adobe walls.
5.7. ROOFS
5.7.1 – Roofs of the masonry buildings may be constructed as reinforced concrete terrace
roof, timber or steel truss roof bearing on roof slab.
5.7.2 – Connections of the timber roof elements to the roof slabs or to horizontal bond
beams on load – bearing walls shall be made in accordance with the rules given in TS –
2510.
5.7.3 – In the case where the height of the end wall resting on the horizontal bond beam at
the top storey exceeds 2.0 m, vertical and inclined bond beams shall be constructed
(Figure 5.6).
5.7.4 – Roofs of the buildings with adobe walls shall be constructed in a way not to
exceed external walls at most 500 mm and to be as light as possible. Soil roof shall not be
made in first and second seismic zones. Soil cover thickness of soil roof shall not be more
than 150 mm in third and fourth seismic zones. Roofs of adobe buildings may be
constructed as timber spring or reinforced concrete plate.
Reinforced Concrete Bond Beam
Figure 5.6
5.8. NON – BEARING WALLS
5.8.1 – Thickness of nonbearing partition walls shall be at least 100 mm. Such walls
shall be constructed by connecting to load – bearing walls on both edges along the
vertical intersection. At least 10 mm gap shall be allowed between the top of the non –
bearing walls and floor bottom of the top slab, however required measures shall be taken
in order to prevent the toppling of wall out – of – plane by the effect of seismic loads
perpendicular to its plane.
5.8.2 – Height of parapets on terraces made of masonry wall material shall not be more
than 600 mm. Required measures shall be taken in order to prevent toppling of such
parapets under the seismic loads.
5.8.3 – Height of garden walls made of masonry wall material shall not be more than
1.0 m from the pavement level.
CHAPTER 6 – EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR
FOUNDATION SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
6.0. NOTATION
A
o
= Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient defined in Chapter 2.
C
h
= Equivalent lateral seismic coefficient used in calculation of the soil pressure
C
v
= Equivalent vertical seismic coefficient used in calculation of the soil pressure
H = Total height of uniform soil deposit or sum of layer thicknesses in case of
layered soils
h
1
= Thickness of the topmost soil layer
I = Building Importance Factor defined in Chapter 2.
i = Slope angle which the soil surface on the side of active or passive pressure
creates upwards with horizontal axis
K
as
= Static active pressure coefficient
K
ad
= Dynamic active pressure coefficient
K
at
= Total active pressure coefficient
K
ps
= Static passive pressure coefficient
K
pd
= Dynamic passive pressure coefficient
K
pt
= Total passive pressure coefficient
P
ad
= Resultant of dynamic active pressure force due to soil mass
P
pd
= Resultant of dynamic passive pressure force due to soil mass
p
ad
(z) = Variation function of dynamic active pressure due to soil mass with respect to
depth
p
pd
(z) = Variation function of dynamic passive pressure due to soil mass with respect to
depth
p
v
(z) = Variation function of vertical soil pressure with respect to depth
Q
ad
= Resultant of dynamic active pressure force due to uniformly distributed
external load
Q
pd
= Resultant of dynamic passive pressure force due to uniformly distributed
external load
q
ad
(z) = Variation function of dynamic active pressure due to uniformly distributed
external load with respect to depth with respect to depth
q
pd
(z) = Variation function of dynamic passive pressure due to uniformly distributed
external load with respect to depth
q
o
= Amplitude of uniformly distributed surcharge
R
za
= Reduction factor used in determining the dynamic internal forces applicable to
section design of soil retaining walls
z = Depth measured downwards from free soil surface
z
cd
= Depth of the resultant of active or passive pressure force measured downwards
from soil surface layer
α = Angle of wall – soil interface with vertical towards active or passive pressure
δ = Friction angle between soil and wall
ϕ = Internal friction angle of soil
∅ = Rebar diameter
γ = Dry unit volume weight of soil
γ
b
= Submerged unit volume weight of soil
γ
s
= Saturated unit volume weight of soil
λ = An angle calculated for determining total active and passive pressure
coefficients in terms of equivalent seismic coefficients
6.1. SCOPE
Determination of soil conditions of new buildings to be constructed and existing buildings
to be enhanced in seismic zones; design of reinforced concrete, structural steel and
masonry building foundations and soil retaining structures shall be performed, along
with the applicable codes and standards in relevant areas, primarily in accordance with
the rules and requirements of this chapter.
6.2. DETERMINATION OF SOIL CONDITIONS
6.2.1. Soil Groups and Local Site Classes
6.2.1.1 – Soil groups and local site classes to be considered as the bases of determination
of local soil conditions are given in Table 6.1 and Table 6.2, respectively. Values
concerning soil parameters in Table 6.1 are to be considered as standard values given for
guidance in determining the soil groups.
6.2.1.2 – Soil investigations based on required site and laboratory tests are mandatory for
below given buildings with related reports prepared and attached to design documents.
Soil groups and local site classes defined in accordance with Table 6.1 and Table 6.2
shall be clearly indicated in reports.
(a) All buildings with total height exceeding 60 m in the first and second seismic zones,
(b) Irrespective of the building height, buildings in all seismic zones with Building
Importance Factor of I = 1.5 and I = 1.4 according to Table 2.3 of Chapter 2.
6.2.1.3 – Regarding the buildings outside the scope of above given 6.2.1.2, in the first and
second seismic zones, it is mandatory to indicate available local information or
observation results to be used in determination of soil groups and local site classes in
accordance with the definitions in Table 6.1 and Table 6.2 or to quote published
references relating this subject in the seismic analysis.
6.2.1.4 – In the first and second seismic zones, determination of horizontal bedding
parameters as well as horizontal and axial load carrying capacities of piles under seismic
loads in Group (C) and (D) soils according to Table 6.1 shall be carried out on the
basis of soil investigations including in – situ and laboratory tests.
6.2.2. Investigation of Liquefaction Potential
In all seismic zones, it is mandatory to investigate whether the Liquefaction Potential
exists in Group (D) soils according to Table 6.1, by using appropriate analysis methods
based on in – situ and laboratory tests in the cases the ground water level is less than 10 m
from the soil surface and to document these results.
TABLE 6.1  SOIL GROUPS
Soil
Group
Description of
Soil Group
Standard
Penetration
(N/30)
Relative
Density
(%)
Unconfined.
Compressive
Strength
(kPa)
Drift Wave
Velocity
(m / s)
(A)
1. Massive volcanic rocks,
unweathered sound
metamorphic rocks, stiff
cemented sedimentary rocks
2. Very dense sand, gravel...
3. Hard clay and silty clay…
> 50
> 32
85 100
> 1000
> 400
> 1000
> 700
> 700
(B)
1. Soft volcanic rocks such as
tuff and agglomerate,
weathered cemented
sedimentary rocks with
planes of discontinuity……
2. Dense sand, gravel..........
3. Very stiff clay, silty clay…
30 50
16 32
65 85
500 1000
200 400
700 1000
400 700
300 700
(C)
1. Highly weathered soft
metamorphic rocks and
cemented sedimentary rocks
with planes of discontinuity
2. Medium dense sand and
gravel......………………….
3. Stiff clay and silty clay.....
10 30
8 16
35 65
< 500
100 200
400 700
200 400
200 300
(D)
1. Soft, deep alluvial layers
with high ground water level
2. Loose sand.................…..
3. Soft clay and silty clay…..
< 10
< 8
< 35
< 100
< 200
< 200
< 200
TABLE 6.2  LOCAL SITE CLASSES
Local Site
Class
Soil Group according to Table 6.1 and
Topmost Soil Layer Thickness (h
1
)
Z1
Group (A) soils
Group (B) soils with h
1
≤ 15 m
Z2
Group (B) soils with h
1
> 15 m
Group (C) soils with h
1
≤ 15 m
Z3
Group (C) soils with 15 m < h
1
≤ 50 m
Group (D) soils with h
1
≤ 10 m
Z4
Group (C) soils with h
1
> 50 m
Group (D) soils with h
1
> 10 m
NOTES ON TABLE 6.2:
(a) In the case where the thickness of the topmost soil layer under the foundation base is
less than 3 m, the layer below may be considered as the topmost soil layer
indicated in Table 6.2.
(b) In the case where the foundation system is comprised of vertical piles or piles with a
slope of 1 / 6 or less inclined with respect to vertical, the topmost soil layer indicated in
Table 6.2 may be deemed to be the layer at the lower tip of the shortest pile. However in
such a case, it is essential to take piles into account as structural elements together with
the superstructure in the seismic analysis to be performed in accordance with Chapter 2,
or to idealize horizontal and vertical pile rigidities with equivalent springs under the pile
caps. By considering group effect in the analysis, rigidity and inertia properties of pile
caps and tie beams together with horizontal and vertical bedding of piles to the soil (soil
– pile interaction).
(c) In cases where conditions given in paragraph (b) above are not applied or pile
inclination with respect to vertical exceeds 1 / 6 in the third and fourth seismic zones in
accordance with 6.3.3.1, the topmost soil layer indicated in Table 6.2 shall be taken as
the first layer under the pile caps.
6.3. RULES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FOUNDATIONS
6.3.1. General Rules
Building foundations shall be constructed on the bases of principles of soil mechanics and
foundation construction, by considering the properties of underlying soils such that any
damage in the superstructure due to settlements or differential settlements during
earthquake is avoided. Rules given in this chapter for foundations are applicable to the
foundations of reinforced concrete, structural steel and masonry buildings.
6.3.2. Soil Safety Stresses and Safety Ultimate Load of Piles
6.3.2.1 – Soil safety stress and safety ultimate load of pile for horizontal and axial loads in
foundations with pile specified with respect to static loads may be increased in the case of
seismic loading by at most 50 % for foundation soils classified as Group (A), (B) and (C)
in Table 6.1.
6.3.2.2 – Soil safety stress and safety ultimate load of piles shall not be increased in the
case of seismic loading for foundation soils classified as Group (D) in Table 6.1.
6.3.3. Requirements for Piled Foundations
6.3.3.1 – Inclined piles with more than 1 / 6 inclination with respect to vertical shall not be
used in the first and second seismic zones.
6.3.3.2 – Piled foundations shall be analyzed with respect to earthquake induced lateral
loads and effects in addition to axial loads.
6.3.3.3 – In the first and second seismic zones, longitudinal reinforcement ratio of cast –
in – situ cased or uncased bored piles shall not be less than 0.008 within the top 1 / 3 of
the pile length under the pile cap, which shall not be less than 3 m. Diameter of
spiral reinforcement to be provided within this zone shall not be less than 8 mm
and the pitch of spirals shall not be more than 200 mm, however pitch of spirals
shall be reduced to 100 mm within a length of at least twice the pile diameter from the top
6.3.3.4 – Longitudinal reinforcement ratio of reinforced concrete prefabricated driven
piles shall not be less than 0.01. In the first and second seismic zones, diameter of
transverse reinforcement within the top 1 / 3 of the pile length under the pile cap shall not
be less than 8 mm. Hoop spacing or pitch of spirals within this length shall not be more
than 200 mm, however hoop spacing pitch of spirals shall be reduced to 100 mm within a
length of at least twice the pile diameter top (twice the greatest dimension of piles with
rectangular crosssection) from the from the top. Transverse reinforcement requirements
shall be equally applicable to pre – stressed prefabricated driven piles.
6.3.4. Foundation Tie Beams
6.3.4.1 – In reinforced concrete and structural steel buildings, tie beams shall be
provided to connect individual foundations or pile caps in both directions or to
connect continuous foundations at column or structural wall axes. Tie beams may be
omitted or their numbers may be reduced on foundation soils classified as Group (A) in
Table 6.1.
6.3.4.2 – Consistent with the foundation excavation, tie beams may be constructed at any
level between the bottom of the foundation and the bottom of the column.
6.3.4.3 – The minimum requirements to be satisfied by tie beams are given in Table 6.3
depending on the seismic zone of the building and the soil groups defined in Table 6.1.
TABLE 6.3 – MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR TIE BEAMS
DESCRIPTION OF
REQUIREMENT
Seismic
Zone
Soil
Group
(A)
Soil
Group
(B)
Soil
Group
(C)
Soil
Group
(D)
1. Minimum axial force of
tie beam
(*)
1, 2
3, 4
6 %
4 %
8 %
6 %
10 %
8 %
12 %
10 %
2. Minimum cross – section
dimension (mm)
(**)
1, 2
3, 4
250
250
250
250
300
250
300
250
3. Minimum crosssection
area (mm
2
)
1, 2
3, 4
62500
62500
75000
62500
90000
75000
90000
75000
4. Minimum longitudinal
reinforcement
1, 2
3, 4
4∅14
4∅14
4∅16
4∅14
4∅16
4∅16
4∅18
4∅16
(*)
As a percentage of the greatest axial force of columns or structural walls tie beams are
connected to.
(**)
The minimum cross – section dimension shall not be less than 1/30 of the clear span of
the tie beam.
6.3.4.4 – Tie beams shall be considered in the section design as resisting against both
pressure and tension forces. In the case of resistance against pressure, buckling effect
may be neglected in tie beams confined by soil or floor concrete. In the case of tension,
it shall be considered that tension forces are resisted by only reinforcement. Hoop
diameter of tie beams shall not be less than 8 mm and their spacing shall not be more than
200 mm.
6.3.4.5 – Tie beams may be replaced by reinforced concrete slabs. In such a case slab
thickness shall not be less than 150 mm. It shall be demonstrated by calculation that the
slab and its reinforcement safely transfer the forces equal to those given for tie beams in
Table 6.3.
6.3.5. Under – Wall Foundations of Masonry Buildings
6.3.5.1 – Foundations of masonry buildings shall be constructed as reinforced concrete
under – wall foundations under the load bearing walls. Depth of an under – wall
foundation shall be determined by considering the soil characteristics, ground water level
and the local frost depth. In buildings without basement, top level of stone or concrete
walls to be constructed on the foundations shall be at least 0.50 m above the
pavement level.
6.3.5.2 – Concrete quality of under – wall foundations shall be at least C16.
Requirements on the dimensions and the reinforcement of under – wall foundations are
given in Table 6.4 depending on the soil groups defined in Table 6.1.
6.3.5.3 – Foundations may be constructed with steps on sloped ground made of
soils classified in Table 6.1 as Group (A), (B) or (C). Requirements for stepped
foundations are also given in Table 6.4.
6.3.5.4 – Lateral spacing between the longitudinal rebars to be placed under – wall
foundations shall not exceed 0.30 m at the top and bottom; appropriate overlapping shall
be provided to achieve continuity at corners, junctions and in stepped foundations.
TABLE 6.4 – REQUIREMENTS FOR UNDER – WALL FOUNDATIONS
DESCRIPTION OF REQUIREMENT
Soil
Group
(A),(B)
Soil
Group
(C)
Soil
Group
(D)
Minimum foundation width (mm)
Shoe width (from both sides) to be added to wall thickness (mm)
500
2 x 150
600
2 x 200
700
2 x 250
Minimum foundation height (mm) 300 400 400
Minimum longitudinal reinforcement at the top and bottom 3∅12 3∅14 4∅14
Minimum hoop at foundations ∅8 / 30 ∅8 / 30 ∅8 / 30
Minimum lateral spacing of steps (mm) 1000 1500
Minimum step overlapping length (mm) 300 400
Maximum step height (mm) 300 300
6.4. SEISMIC SOIL PRESSURES AND SOIL RETAINING STRUCTURES
6.4.1. Total Active and Passive Pressure Coefficients
6.4.1.1 – Total Active Pressure Coefficient, K
at
, and Total Passive Pressure
Coefficient, K
pt
, which shall be used to calculate the sum of static soil pressure and
additional dynamic soil pressure induced by earthquake are given by Equation (6.1), by
neglecting the soil cohesion in order to remain on the conservative side.
2
2
v
at
2
(1 ) cos ( ) sin( ) sin( )
= 1+
cos( ) cos( ) cos cos cos( )
C i
K
i
−
(
± ϕ−λ −α ϕ+ δ ϕ−λ −
(
δ + α+ λ −α λ α δ + α+ λ
(
¸ ¸
(6.1a)
2
2
v
pt
2
(1 ) cos ( ) sin( ) sin( )
= 1
cos( ) cos( ) cos cos cos( )
C i
K
i
−
(
± ϕ−λ + α ϕ+ δ ϕ−λ +
−
(
δ −α+ λ −α λ α δ −α+ λ
(
¸ ¸
(6.1b)
6.4.1.2 – The angle λ in Equation (6.1) is defined by Equation (6.2).
(a) For dry soils,
h
v
= arctan
(1 )
C
C
(
λ
(
±
¸ ¸
(6.2a)
(b) For submerged soils,
s h
b v
= arctan
(1 )
C
C
( γ
λ
(
γ ±
¸ ¸
(6.2b)
6.4.1.3 – In the case of submerged or saturated soils, δ in Equation (6.1) shall be
replaced by δ/2.
6.4.1.4 – Equivalent lateral seismic coefficient, C
h
, appearing in Equation (6.2) is
defined by Equation (6.3).
(a) In soil retaining structures behaving as vertical free cantilevers,
h o
= 0.2 (I + 1) C A (6.3a)
(b) In soil retaining structures and elements horizontally supported by building floors or
soil anchors,
h o
= 0.3 (I + 1) C A (6.3b)
106
6.4.1.5 – Equivalent vertical seismic coefficient, C
v
, appearing in Equation (6.1) and
Equation (6.2) is defined by Equation (6.4). However, it shall be C
v
= 0 in basement
walls which are horizontally supported by building floors.
h
v
2
=
3
C
C (6.4)
The cases + C
v
or − C
v
shall be considered as consistent with Equation (6.2) to yield more
unfavorable lateral soil pressure by Equation (6.1).
6.4.2. Dynamic Active and Passive Soil Pressures
6.4.2.1 – Dynamic active pressure coefficient, K
ad
, and dynamic passive pressure
coefficient, K
pd
, induced by earthquake shall be determined by Equation (6.5).
K
ad
= K
at
− K
as
(6.5a)
K
pd
= K
pt
− K
ps
(6.5b)
Static active pressure coefficient, K
as
, and static passive pressure coefficient, K
ps
,
appearing in Equation (6.5) may be obtained by substituting λ = 0 and C
v
= 0 in Equation
(6.1).
6.4.2.2 – Variation of dynamic active and passive soil pressures along the depth of soil
which is induced by soil mass in addition to static soil pressure in case of earthquake
which are induced in addition to static soil pressure by the soil mass during earthquake,
is defined by Equation (6.6).
p
ad
(z) = 3 K
ad
(1 − z / H) p
v
(z) (6.6a)
p
pd
(z) = 3 K
pd
(1 − z / H) p
v
(z) (6.6b)
In the special case of uniform and dry soil, the positive value of the resultant P
ad
of
dynamic active soil pressure and the negative value of the resultant P
pd
of dynamic
passive soil pressure which are induced in addition to static soil because of earthquake
and z
cd
which indicates the depths of such resultants measured from the top soil level, are
obtained as given by Equation (6.7) and Equation (6.8), respectively, by integrating
Equation (6.6) along the soil depth by taking p
v
(z) = γ z:
P
ad
= 0. 5 γ K
ad
H
2
(6.7a)
P
pd
= 0. 5 γ K
pd
H
2
(6.7b)
z
cd
= H / 2 (6.8)
In the case of submerged soil, γ
b
shall be considered in lieu of γ in determining p
v
(z)
and hydrodynamic pressure of water shall not be calculated additionally. In the case of
saturated soil, γ
s
shall be used in lieu of γ.
6.4.2.3 – Variation of dynamic active and passive pressures along the depth of soil
which are induced in addition to static soil pressure by uniformly distributed external
loads in case of earthquake, are defined by Equation (6.9).
q
ad
(z) = 2 q
o
K
ad
(1 − z / H) cos α / cos (α − i) (6.9a)
107
q
pd
(z) = 2 q
o
K
pd
(1 − z / H) cos α / cos (α − i)
(6.9b)
In the case where soil characteristics are uniform, the resultants Q
ad
and Q
pd
of active
(positive) and passive (negative) soil pressures which are induced in addition to static soil
pressure by contribution of earthquake and z
cd
which indicates the depths of such
resultants measured from the top soil level, are obtained as given by Equation (6.10) and
Equation (6.11), respectively, by integrating Equation (6.9) along the soil depth.
Q
ad
= q
o
K
ad
H cos α / cos (α − i)
(6.10a)
Q
pd
= q
o
K
pd
H cos α / cos (α − i) (6.10b)
z
cd
= H / 3 (6.11)
6.4.3. Dynamic Soil Pressures in Layered Soils
Expressions given above by Equation (6.6) and Equation (6.9) can be applied also for
case of layered soils. In such a case, the coefficients K
ad
or K
pd
pertinent for the layer
concerned shall be used and the depth z shall always be measured downwards from the
free soil surface. Resultants of dynamic active or passive pressures of each layer and their
depths within the layer may be obtained by integrating Equation (6.6) and Equation (6.9)
along the depth of the relevant layer.
6.4.4. Requirements for Soil Retaining Structures
6.4.4.1 – In the analysis performed by considering dynamic soil pressures given by
Equation (6.6) and Equation (6.9) in addition to static soil pressures and inertia forces of
the structure which acts on its self mass, safety factor against sliding shall be taken at least
1.0 and safety factor against overturning shall be taken at least 1.2.
6.4.4.2 – Internal forces to be taken into account in the section design of reinforced
concrete soil retaining walls and reinforced concrete or steel sheet pile walls shall be those
obtained by dividing the internal forces calculated according to the dynamic soil pressures
given in Equation (6.6) and Equation (6.9) into the coefficient R
za
= 1.5, in addition to
internal forces induced by static soil pressures. It may be taken R
za
= 2.5 for temporary
steel sheet pile walls.
108
CHAPTER 7 – EVALUATION AND INVIGORATE OF THE EXISTING
BUILDINGS
7.0. NOTATION
A
c
= Gross section area of column or wall end zone
a
1
(i)
= Modal acceleration belonging to the first mode made in the end of the (i)’th
drive step
b = Width of the horizontal plate in steel spiral.
bw = The body width of the cross section
d = Effective beam and column height
d
1
(i)
= Modal displacement belonging to the first mode obtained at the and end of (i)’th
impulse step.
d
1
(p)
= Modal displacement request belonging to the first mode.
(EI)
e
= Effective deflection rigidity of the cracked cross section.
(EI)
o
= Deflection rigidity of the cracked cross section
f
cm
= Strength of the existing concrete defined according to 7.2
f
ctm
= Tensile strength of the existing concrete defined according to 7.2
f
yw
= Outflow strength of the steel in steel spiral.
H
w
= Total height of partition measured from under the foundation or from the
ground floor
h = Column cross section dimension in the working direction
h
wall
= Height of the filling wall
h
ji
= Storey height of the j’th column or curtain in i’th storey
h
k
= Length of the column
L
p
= Size of plastic joint
wall
= Height of filling wall
w
= Length of partition or piece of strap partition on plan
M
x1
= Effective mass belonging to first (prevalent) defined for linear elastic
behavior in the x earthquake direction
N
d
= Factored axial force calculated under simultaneous action of vertical loads
and seismic loads
N
k
= Axial force correspond to moment capacity calculated with the existing
reinforcement strength defined according to 7.2.
R
a
= Inhibition Coefficient of the Power of Earthquake
r
= Ratio of exposure/capacity
r
s
= The limit value of ratio of exposure/capacity
s
= Space between horizontal plates in steel spiral.
S
di1
= Nonlinear spectral displacement belonging to first mode
t
j
= Thickness of the horizontal plates in steel spiral.
u
(i)
xN1
= Displacement belonging to first mode obtained from the end of the i’th
impulse step in the direction of (x) earthquake at the top of the building (N’th
storey)
u
(p)
xN1
= Top displacement request in the direction of (x) earthquake at the top of the
building (N’th storey)
V
e
= Shear force taken into account for the calculation of transverse reinforcement of
column, beam or wall
V
j
= Additional shearing strength provided with steel spiral.
V
r
= Shearing strength of the column, beam and curtain cross section
V
(i)
x1
= Base shearing force belonging to first mode (prevalent mode) obtained at the
end of I’th impulse step in direction of x earthquake
cg
= Deformation of concrete pressure unit in the outermost fibrous of the section
inside of the lateral reinforcement binders.
109
cu
= Deformation of concrete pressure unit in the outermost fibrous of the section
of the cross section
s
= Deformation of reinforcement steel unit
q
p
= Plastically curvature request
q
t
= Total curvature request
q
y
= Mode figure width in the direction of (x) earthquake at the top of the
building (N’th storey)
m
xN1
= Coefficient of the Level of Torsion defined in I’th storey
I
x1
= Additive factor belonging to first mode in the direction of x earthquake
η ηη η
bi
= Torsionally Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building
ì
= Equivalent Earthquake Power Derogation Factor
0
p
= Plastic drift volition
ρ ρρ ρ = Tension reinforcement ratio
ρ ρρ ρ
b
= Balanced reinforcement ratio
ρ ρρ ρ
s
= Volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement which are exist in the cross section and
arranged as “special seismic hoops and crossties” according to 3.2.8
ρ ρρ ρ
sm
= Volumetric ratio of the transverse reinforcement necessary to be existed in the cross
section according to 3.3.4, 3.4.4
ρ ρρ ρ
’
= Pressure reinforcement ratio
w
e
= Width of polymer ribbon with fiber.
110
7.1. SCOPE
7.1.1 – Rules of calculation to be used in the assessment of performances of the existing
buildings and building  type structures in earthquake zones under the impact of an
earthquake, principles to be followed in decisions of strengthening, and principles of design
for strengthening for buildings that decision of strengthening is made are defined in this
section.
7.1.2 – Calculation methods and assessment essentials given in this section do not apply to
steel and masonry buildings. However, the existing data regarding the existing steel and
masonry buildings will also be collected in this section. Calculations and assessment for
existing and strengthened steel buildings will be carried out according to the essentials for
newly built structures defined in Sections 2 and 4. Calculations and assessment for existing
and strengthened masonry buildings will be carried out within the frame of the essentials
defined in Section 5.
7.1.3 – The existing prefabricated reinforced concrete buildings can be assessed according
to the rules given in Sections 2 and 3, or else, 7.6 can be used for the determining of the
performances of these buildings. However, rules of 3.12 will prevail for the assessment
of the confinement zones.
7.1.4 – Rules given in this section do not apply to nonbuildingtype structures mentioned in
2.12. Furthermore, assessment and strengthening of registered buildings with historical and
cultural value and monuments are outside the scope of this Regulation.
7.1.5 – Earthquake performance of damaged buildings following an earthquake causing
damage in the building cannot be determined with the methods given in this section.
7.1.6 – To Strengthen a damaged building following an earthquake causing damage in the
building, and then to determine the earthquake performance of the strengthened building,
essentials given in this section shall be used. The civil engineer responsible for the project
will decide in what extent the strength and rigidity of the existing elements of the damaged
building will be taken into consideration when strengthening the damaged building.
7.2. DATA COLLECTION FROM BUILDINGS
7.2.1. Scope of Data to Be Collected from Buildings
7.2.1.1 – Data regarding the details and sizes of the elements to be used in determining the
capacities of the elements of the supporting systems of the existing buildings and
information regarding the geometry and material characteristics of the supporting systems
will be achieved from the projects and reports of such buildings, from observations and
measurements to be carried out on the building, and from trials performed on the material
samples taken from the building.
7.2.1.2 – The procedures to be performed in the scope of data collection from buildings are
defining of the structural system, determining the geometry, foundation system and ground
properties of the building, determining the existing damage, if any, and / or repairs,
measuring the dimensions of the elements, determining the material characteristics, and
checking the compliance of all these data with the project of the building, if any.
111
7.2.1.3 – The procedures of examination, data collection and arrangement, assessment,
material sample collection, and trials within the scope of data collection from buildings shall
be performed under the responsibility civil engineers.
7.2.2. Levels of information
According to the scope of the data obtained from the examination of the buildings
concerning the existing situation, information level for each building type, and
consequently, the information level coefficients mentioned in 7.2.16 shall be completed.
Information levels shall be classified as limited, medium, and comprehensive, respectively.
Information level shall be used for the calculations of capacities of supporting elements.
7.2.2.1 – In the limited information level, there are no projects of the supporting system.
Characteristics of the supporting system are determined with measurements performed.
Limited information level cannot be applied to “Buildings that Immediate Use Is required
Following an Earthquake” and “Buildings Intensely Inhabited by People for Long Periods”
defined in Table 7.7.
7.2.2.2 – In the limited information level, in case the project for the supporting system of
the building are not present, then more measurements are performed as compared to the case
of limited information. If such projects are present, then measurements defined for the
limited level are performed to confirm the information in the project.
7.2.2.3 – In the comprehensive information level, the project for the supporting system of the
building are present. Measurements sufficient to confirm the information in the project are
performed.
7.2.3. The Existing Material Strength
Strength of the materials to be used in the calculation of the capacities of the supporting
elements is defined as the existing materials strength.
7.2.4. Limited Information Level in Reinforced Concrete Buildings
7.2.4.1 – Geometry of the Building: The measured drawings of the supporting system shall
be prepared with field work. In case the architectural projects are present, these can be used
as aids to the works for preparation of measured drawings. Information obtained must
include the locations, axis openings, heights and dimensions of all the reinforced concrete
elements and nonbearing walls, and must be sufficient for the creation of a calculation
model for the building. Foundation system shall be determined by digging examination
holes of sufficient numbers in or outside the building. Short columns or similar
irregularities in the building shall be entered on the floor plan and sections. Relation of the
building with the neighboring buildings (separated, adjoining, jointing present / absent)
shall be determined.
7.2.4.2 – Details of elements: Projects or application drawings are not present. It is assumed
that the amount of reinforcement in the reinforcement elements and details meet the
minimum requirements for reinforcement for the date that the building was constructed.
With the purpose of confirming this assumption, or to determine to what extent it is true,
reinforcements and lengths of reinforcement laps shall be determined by scraping off the
concrete covers of 10 % of bulkheads and columns and 5 % of beams, and at least one in
each floor. Such scraping must be performed on the onethirds of the lengths the columns
112
and beams in the middle of the opening; however, same must be performed on the
overlapping parts of at least three columns with the purpose of determining the length of
overlapping. Scraped surfaces shall be covered afterwards with highstrength repair mortar.
In addition, number of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement elements of 20 % of the
elements that have not been scraped shall be determined using devices for reinforcement
determining devices. The coefficient of actual reinforcement expressing the ratio of the
amount of reinforcement the actually found in reinforced columns and beams to the
minimum reinforcement shall be separately determined for columns and beams. This
coefficient shall be applied to all the other elements that reinforcement has not been
determined, and the possible amount of reinforcement shall thus be determined.
7.2.4.3 – Characteristics of Materials: At least two samples of concrete (borehole sample)
shall be collected from columns or bulkheads in each floor according to the conditions
stated in TS10465, and tests shall be performed to determine the lowest pressure strength to
be considered as the existing concrete strength. Reinforcement class shall be determined
according to the visual examination as explained in the paragraph above, and the
characteristic yield strength of the steel in this class shall be taken as the existing steel
strength. In this examination, elements showing corrosion in reinforcement shall be marked
on the plan, and this condition shall be taken into consideration in element capacity
calculations.
7.2.5. Medium Level Information in Reinforced Concrete Buildings
7.2.5.1 – Geometry of the Building: In case the reinforcement projects for the building are
present, compliance of the geometry to the project shall be checked. In case there are no
projects, then measured drawings shall be prepared by field work. Information obtained
must include the locations in each floor, openings, heights and dimensions of all the
reinforced concrete elements and nonbearing walls, and must be sufficient for the creation
of a calculation model for the building. Information regarding the geometry of the building
must include the details required for a precise description of the mass of the building. Short
columns or similar irregularities in the building shall be entered on the floor plan and
sections. Relation of the building with the neighboring buildings (separated, adjoining,
jointing present/absent) shall be determined. Foundation system shall be determined by
digging examination holes of sufficient numbers in or outside the building.
7.2.5.2 – Details of elements: In case project or manufacturing drawings are not present,
then conditions in 7.2.4.2 apply; however, number of bulkheads, columns and beams that
concrete covers shall be scraped off for the checking of reinforcement shall not be less than
20 % of the total number of columns in a certain floor, and 10 % of the number of beams,
and at least two in each floor. In case project or manufacturing drawings are present, then
conditions stated in 7.2.4.2 shall be applied with the numbers stated therein. In addition,
number of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement elements of 20 % of the elements that
have not been scraped shall be determined using devices for reinforcementdetermining
devices. The coefficient of actual reinforcement expressing the ratio of the amount of
reinforcement the actually found in reinforced columns and beams to the minimum
reinforcement shall be separately determined for columns and beams. This coefficient used
to determine the capacities of elements cannot exceed 1. This coefficient shall be applied to
all the other elements that reinforcement has not been determined, and the possible amount
of reinforcement shall thus be determined.
113
7.2.5.3 – Characteristics of Materials: One concrete sample (borehole sample) shall be
collected from columns or bulkheads in each floor not less than 3 in number, and also not
less than 9 from the entire building and one sample from each 400 square meters for the
tests to be performed according to the conditions stated in TS  10465. The mean – standard
deviation values found for the samples shall be taken as the existing concrete strength when
calculating the capacities of the elements. Distribution of the concrete strength throughout the
building can be checked with the readings of adjusted concrete test hammer to the borehole
sample test results or similar undamaged examination tools. Reinforcement class shall be
determined by visual examination on surfaces scraped as described in the paragraph above,
and the characteristic strength of the steel of this class shall be taken as the existing steel
strength in capacity calculations. In this examination, elements showing corrosion in
reinforcement shall be marked on the plan, and this condition shall be taken into
consideration in element capacity calculations.
7.2.6. Comprehensive Information Level in Reinforced Concrete Buildings
7.2.6.1 – Geometry of the Building: Reinforcement projects for the building are present.
Compliance with the projects of the actual geometry is checked with the measurements
performed in the building. In case the projects show important conflicts with the
measurements, then the projects are ignored, and the building is examined according to the
rules for medium level information. Short columns or similar irregularities in the building
shall be entered on the floor plan and sections. Relation of the building with the
neighboring buildings (separated, adjoining, jointing present/absent) shall be determined.
Information regarding the geometry of the building must include the required details for a
precise description of the mass of the building. Foundation system shall be determined by
digging examination holes of sufficient numbers in or outside the building.
7.2.6.2 – Details of elements: Detail projects of reinforcement of the building are present.
Procedures stated in 7.2.4.2 for checking of the compliance of reinforcement with the
project shall be applied on the same number of reinforcement elements. In addition,
locations and numbers of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement elements of 20 % of the
elements that have not been scraped shall be determined using devices for reinforcement
determining devices. In case there are any conflicts between the project and the application,
then coefficient of actual reinforcement expressing the ratio of the amount of reinforcement
the actually found in reinforced columns and beams to the minimum reinforcement shall be
separately determined for columns and beams. This coefficient used to determine the
capacities of elements cannot exceed 1. This coefficient shall be applied to all the other
elements that reinforcement has not been determined, and the possible amount of
reinforcement shall thus be determined.
7.2.6.3 – Characteristics of Materials: One concrete sample (borehole sample) shall be
collected from columns or bulkheads in each floor not less than 3 in number, and also not
less than 9 from the entire building and one sample from each 200 square meters for the
tests to be performed according to the conditions stated in TS  10465. The mean – standard
deviation values found for the samples shall be taken as the existing concrete strength when
calculating the capacities of the elements. Distribution of the concrete strength throughout the
building can be checked with the readings of adjusted concrete test hammer to the borehole
sample test results or similar undamaged examination tools. Reinforcement class shall be
determined on surfaces scraped as described in the paragraph above, and tests shall be
performed on one sample for each steel class (S220, S420, et c. ), and yield strength and
breaking strength, and deformation characteristics of the steel shall determined and
compliance with the project shall be determined. If it complies with the project, the
characteristic strength of the steel used in the project shall be taken as the existing steel
114
strength. If not, tests shall be performed on at least three more samples, and the least
favorable value shall be taken as the existing steel strength in the element capacity
calculations. In this examination, elements showing corrosion in reinforcement shall be
marked on the plan, and this condition shall be taken into consideration in element capacity
calculations.
7.2.7. Limited Information Level in Steel Constructions
Limited information level in steel constructions is not valid.
7.2.8. Medium Information Level in Steel Constructions
7.2.8.1 – Geometry of the Building: Conditions given in 7.2.5.1 are valid as they are,
except that the term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “steel”.
7.2.8.2 – Details of elements: In case steel projects or manufacturing drawings are not
present, boring controls of all the steel elements and other elements of other types (columns,
beams, joints, crosses, flooring) shall be performed, and welding characteristics and joining
details shall be established in detail. In case the application projects and manufacturing
drawings are present, then the precise dimension controls shall be performed for 20 % of the
said elements.
7.2.8.3 – Characteristics of Materials: In case steel projects are not present, then one
sample shall be cut off from each steel construction type, and tests shall be performed to
determine the strength and deformation characteristics. Likewise, a welding sample shall be
cut off to perform tests. Such cut off places shall be filled and repaired. One sample bolt
shall be taken for tests from bolted connections. The mean strengths obtained from tests
shall be taken as existing steel strength for the calculation of the strengths of elements. In
case steel projects are present, then the characteristic strengths foreseen in the project shall
be taken as existing steel strength.
7.2.9. Comprehensive Information Level in Steel Constructions
7.2.9.1 – Geometry of the Building: Conditions given 7.2.6.1 are valid as they are, except
that the term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “steel”.
7.2.9.2 – Details of elements: Steel detail projects of the building are present. Dimensions of
the elements shown in the project and details of joints shall be confirmed by checking in at
least 20% of the total numbers of each element and joint types.
7.2.9.3 – Characteristics of Materials: Steel class mentioned in the project shall be
controlled by cutting a sample from at least steel element. Likewise, a sample shall be cut
off from one welded joint shown in the project and tested to control the compliance of steel
with the project. Such cut off places shall be filled and repaired. One sample bolt shall be
taken for tests from bolted connections. In case compliance with the project is confirmed,
then mean strengths obtained from tests shall be taken as existing steel strength for the
calculation of the strengths of elements. Otherwise, at least three samples shall be collected
for tests, and the least favorable value shall be taken as the existing steel strength.
115
7.2.10. Limited Information Level in Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Limited information level in prefabricated reinforced concrete constructions is not valid.
7.2.11. Medium Information Level in Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Conditions mentioned in 7.2.5.1 are valid for the geometry of the building, except that the
term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “reinforced concrete”. Conditions mentioned in
7.2.8.2 are valid for the details of elements, except that the term “steel” shall be replaced
with “prefabricated reinforced”. Although conditions mentioned in 7.2.5.3 are valid for
determining the characteristics of materials, number of samples of materials shall be half as
much, provided that these samples shall not be less than three in total for each floor, and not
less than 9 for the entire building.
7.2.12. Comprehensive Information Level in Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete
Buildings
Conditions mentioned in 7.2.6.1 are valid for the geometry of the building, except that the
term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “reinforced concrete”. Conditions mentioned in
7.2.9.2 are valid for the details of elements, except that the term “steel” shall be replaced
with “prefabricated reinforced”. Test shall be performed on at least one sample (borehole
sample) collected for each 500 square meters for determining concrete compression
strength. Total number of borehole samples collected from the building shall be at least 9.
Of the mean concrete compression strength obtained in tests and the value shown in the
project for concrete compression strength, one with the smaller value shall be taken as the
existing concrete strength in the calculation of the capacities of the elements. The
reinforcement strength to be used in the calculations of capacities of the elements shall be the
characteristic strengths shown in the project for that particular steel class.
7.2.13. Limited Information Level in Masonry Buildings
7.2.13.1 – Geometry of the Building: In case the architectural projects are present,
compliance of the existing geometry with the project shall be checked with visual
examination. In case there are no architectural projects present, then the measured system
drawings shall be prepared for the building. Information obtained must include the locations
of masonry walls in each floor, their length, thickness, spaces, and heights of floors.
Foundation system shall be determined by digging examination holes of sufficient numbers
in or outside the building.
7.2.13.2 – Details: Types of the roof and floor, methods of joining to walls, and conditions
of girdles and headpieces shall be determined visually.
7.2.13.3 – Characteristics of Materials: Types of materials used in walls shall be visually
determined by scraping the plaster on one part of the wall. Cutting resistances of walls for
each type of wall given in Section 5 shall be taken as the basis for building strength
calculations.
7.2.14. Medium Information Level in Masonry Buildings
In addition to the procedures for limited information level, joints of walls and stability of
walls shall be investigated.
116
7.2.15. Comprehensive Information Level in Masonry Buildings
In addition to the procedures for medium information level, at least 3 samples of wall pieces
shall be collected from the building to determine the characteristics of the materials used in
walls, and the mean values obtained from tests performed on these shall be used for the
calculations according to Section 5.
7.2.16. Information Level Coefficients
(a) Information Level Coefficients to be applied to element capacities according to the level
of information obtained from the building examined are given in Table 7.1.
(b) Unless otherwise specified, material strengths shall not be divided by material
coefficients given in the relevant design regulations. The existing material strengths shall be
used in the calculations of element capacities.
TABLE 7.1 – INFORMATION LEVEL COEFFICIENTS FOR BUILDINGS
Information level Information level coefficient
Limited 0.75
Medium 0.90
Comprehensive 1.00
7.3. LIMITS OF DAMAGE IN CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS AND AREAS OF DAMAGE
7.3.1. Damage limits in cross sections
Three limit conditions have been defined for ductile elements on the cross section. These are
Minimum Damage Limit (MN), Safety Limit (GV) and Collapsing Limit (GÇ). Minimum
damage limit defines the beginning of the behavior beyond elasticity, safety limit defines the
limit of the behavior beyond elasticity that the section is capable of safely ensuring the
strength, and collapsing limit defines the limit of the behavior before collapsing. This
classification does not apply to elements damaged in a brittle condition.
7.3.2. Sectional Damaged Areas
Elements that the damages with critical sections do not reach MN are within the Minimum
Damage Region, those inbetween MN and GV are within Marked Damage Region, those
inbetween GV and GÇ are in Advanced Damage Region, and those going beyond GÇ are
within Collapsing Region (Figure 7.1).
Internal Force
GV GÇ
MN
Minimum
Damage
Region
Marked
Damage
Region
Advanced
Damage
Region
Collapsing Region
Figure 7.1
Deformation
117
7.3.3. Definition of Damages in Cross Sections and Elements
Damage regions that cross sections belong to shall be decided according to the comparison
of the internal forces and / or deformation calculated using the methods described in 7.5 or
7.6 with the numerical values corresponding to cross section damage limits described in
7.3.1. Damage of the element shall be decided according to the cross section of the element
that with greatest damage.
7.4. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND RULES RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
7.4.1 – According to this section of the Regulation, objective of the earthquake damage
calculation is to determine the earthquake performances of the existing or reinforced
buildings. With this purpose, the linear elastic defined in 7.5 or the linear nonelastic
calculation methods defined in 7.6 may be used. However, the performance evaluations
conducted using these methods that are based on different theoretical perceptions should
not be expected to give exactly the same results. The general principles and rules defined
below apply for both methods.
7.4.2 – Elastic (nonreduced) acceleration spectrum given in 2.4 will be used for the
definition of the earthquake, however, the modifications introduced on 7.8 will be
considered for different exceeding probabilities. Building Importance Factor defined in
2.4.2 will not be applied in the seismic calculation. (I =1.0).
7.4.3 – The seismic performance of the buildings will be evaluated under the collective
impacts of the gravity loads and the seismic impacts affecting the building. Live gravity
loads will be defined in a way that they will be in conformity with the masses taken into
consideration in seismic calculation as per 7.4.7.
7.4.4 – Seismic forces will be applied to both sides of the building in both directions,
individually.
7.4.5 – The ground parameters that will be used in seismic calculations will be determined
according to Section 6.
7.4.6 – Loadbearing system model of the building will be prepared accurately to calculate
inner force, translocation and deformations that will arise in the structural components due
to the seismic effects and the collective effects of the gravity loads.
7.4.7 – The floor weights that will be considered in seismic calculation will be
calculated according to 2.7.1.2 and the floor masses will be defined in conformity with
the floor weights.
7.4.8 – For the buildings where the slabs act as rigid diaphragms on the horizontal axis,
two horizontal translocation per floor and independence levels for the rotations around the
horizontal axis will be considered. Independence levels of the floors will be defined for the
center of mass of each floor and additional eccentricity will not be applied.
7.4.9 – The ambiguities regarding the loadbearing systems of the existing buildings will
be reflected on the calculation methods via the information level coefficients defined in 7.2
in accordance with the scope of the information gathered regarding the building.
118
7.4.10 – The columns that are defined as short column as per 3.3.8 will be defined in the
load  bearing system model with their actual free lengths.
7.4.11 – The conditions regarding the definition of the interaction diagrams of the
reinforced concrete sections under uniaxial or biaxial bending and axial force effects are
given below:
(a) Current strengths of the concrete and reinforcement steels determined in accordance
with the information level defined in 7.2 will be taken as the basis in the analysis.
(b) Maximum pressure unit deformation of the concrete and the reinforcement steel can be
taken as 0.003 and 0.01, respectively.
(c) Linearizing in a proper way, interaction diagrams can be modeled as multiline or
multiaxis diagrams.
7.4.12 – While defining the component sizes of the reinforced concrete systems,
confinement zones can be considered as infinitely rigid end zones.
7.4.13 – Active bending rigidities (EI)
e
of the cracked section will be used for the reinforced
concrete components under bending effect. Unless a more accurate calculation as made, the
value given below will be substituted for active bending rigidities:
(a) For beams: (EI)
e
= 0.40 (EI)
o
(b) For columns and frames, (EI)
e
= 0.40 (EI)
o
if N
D
/ (A
c
f
cm
) ≤ 0.10
(EI)
e
= 0.80 (EI)
o if
N
D
/ (A
c
f
cm
) ≥ 0.40
Linear interpolation can be applied for the intermediate values of the axial pressure force
N
D.
N
D
will be determined via a pregravity load calculation in which bending rigidities of
the noncracked sections (EI)
o
are used and the total masses used and corresponding loads
referred to in the seismic calculations are considered. And the calculation for the gravity
load that provides the initial conditions for the seismic calculation will be made using the
bending rigidity (EI)
e
determined by the way given above and will be restructured in
accordance with the loads in accordance with the masses which the seismic calculations are
based on. The same rigidities will also be used in seismic calculation.
7.4.14 – Platform concrete and the reinforcements in the platform can be included in the
calculation of positive and negative plastic momentums of the beams with reinforced
concrete platforms.
7.4.15 – In the section capacity calculation in case of the reinforced concrete components
with insufficient coupling or splicing length, yield tensile of the related reinforcement can
be diminished by the amount of the shortage in the coupling and splicing length.
7.4.16 – Ground features will be reflected in the analysis model for the cases where the
deformation in the ground may affect the structural behavior.
7.4.17 – Other modeling principles defined in Section 2 are valid.
119
7.5. DETERMINING THE BUILDING PERFORMANCE IN EARTHQUAKE WITH
LINEAR ELASTIC CALCULATION METHODS
7.5.1. Calculation Methods
Linear elastic calculation methods to be used for the determination of seismic performances
of buildings are the calculations methods defined in 2.7 and 2.8. Additional rules as stated
below shall be applied concerning these methods.
7.5.1.1 – Equivalent seismic load method shall be implied to buildings not exceed 25 m and
8 storey and also have
bi
< 1.4 buckling disorder calculated without considering joint
eccentricity. On the calculation of total equivalent seismic load (ground shearing force)
according to Equation (2.4) R
a
=1 is taken and right side of the equation is multiplied with λ
factor. λ Factor is taken as 1.0 in one and two storey buildings except cellar and 0.85 in
others.
7.5.1.2 – While using the Mod Combination Method, R
a
=1 is taken in the Equation (2.13).
On the calculation of internal forces and capacities of elements that are adaptable to applied
seismic direction and course, internal force directions obtained in the mode that is dominant
in this direction shall be based.
7.5.2. Determination of Damage Level in the Structural Elements of Armoured
Concrete Buildings
7.5.2.1– In the description of damage boundaries of ductile elements with linear elastic
calculation methods, numerical values figured as (r) shall be used in the effect / capacity
ratios of beams, column and wall elements and sections of strengthened masonnary filled
walls.
7.5.2.2 – Armoured concrete elements are classified as “ductile” if their fracture type is
bending and “brittle” if it is shearing.
a) In order the beams, columns and walls to be considered as ductile element, V
e
Shearing
force calculated in accordance with the bending capacity in the critical sections of those
element should not exceed the shearing capacity V
r
calculated according to TS  500 by
using the values of current material strength that are comply with information level as
defined in 7.2. Calculation of V
e
for columns shall be made according to 3.3.7, for beams
according to 3.4.5 and for walls according to 3.6.6 but in Equation (3.16) R
a
= 1 is taken.
On the calculation of V
e
for columns, beams and walls, bearing force moments shall be used
instead of hardening bearing forces. In case the total shearing force calculated with gravity
loads by taking R
a
= 1 is less than V
e
, then this shearing force shall be used instead of V
e
.
b) In order the beams, columns and walls to be considered as ductile element also it is
necessary to provide H
w
/
w
> 2.0 condition.
c) Armoured concrete elements that are not provide the conditions for ductile element
given in (a) and (b) are defined as brittle damaged elements.
7.5.2.3 – Effect / capacity ratio of ductile beam, column and wall sections is determined by
dividing the section moment calculated under seismic load by taking R
a
= 1 to over moment
capacity. On the calculation of effect / capacity direction of the applied earthquake shall be
taken into consideration.
120
a) Over moment capacity of section is the difference between bending moment capacity of
the section and moment effect calculated on the section under gravity loads. Moment effect
calculated under gravity loads in the supports of the beam can be reduced maximum 15 %
according to retransfer principle.
b) Effect / capacity ratios of column and wall sections can be calculated in such a way as
defined in Information Annex 7A.
c) Armoured concrete columns that provide the conditions of 3.3.4 in terms of the
transverse reinforcement conditions in the coating zone, armoured concrete beams that
provide 3.4.4 and armored concrete walls that provide 3.6.5.2 in the end zones are
considered as “coated” and those that are not provide the conditions are considered as “un 
coated” elements. It is necessary for the elements that are considered as “un  coated” for the
coating elements being arranged with “special seismic hoops and crossties” according to
3.2.8 and reinforcement spaces of those should be provide the conditions as defined above.
7.5.2.4 – Effect / capacity ratio of strengthened filled walls are the shearing force strength of
shearing force calculated under the effect of earthquake. Shearing forces formed in the
strengthened filled walls which are modeled with diagonal bars shall be taken into
consideration as the horizontal concurrent of the axial force of the bar. Calculation of
shearing force strength of the strengthened masonnary filled walls is given in Information
Annex 7F.
7.5.2.5 – It is decided that the elements are located in which damage zone by comparing
effect / capacity ratio of beam, column and wall sections and strengthened filled walls (r)
with boundary values given in Table 7.2  7.5. Besides, on the determination of damage
zones of strengthened filled walls in the armoured concrete buildings boundary ratios of
relative storey drift given in Table 7.5 shall also be taken into consideration. Ratio of
relative storey drift shall be obtained by dividing the maximum relative storey drift to storey
height. For intermediate  values given in Table 7.2  7.5 linear interpolations shall be
applied.
TABLE 7.2 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF
THE DAMAGE FOR ARMOURED CONCRETE BEAMS
Ductile Beams Damage Boundary
b
′ −
Coating
w ctm
V
b d f
(1)
MN GV GÇ
_ 0.0 Available ≤ 0.65 3 7 10
_ 0.0 Available ≥ 1.30 2.5 5 8
_ 0.5 Available ≤ 0.65 3 5 7
_ 0.5 Available ≥ 1.30 2.5 4 5
_ 0.0 Not available ≤ 0.65 2.5 4 6
_ 0.0 Not available ≥ 1.30 2 3 5
_ 0.5 Not available ≤ 0.65 2.5 4 6
_ 0.5 Not available ≥ 1.30 1.5 2.5 4
(1) V
e
shearing force shall be calculated according to 7.5.2.2 (a) in accordance with the direction of earthquake.
121
TABLE 7.3 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF
THE DAMAGE FOR ARMOURED CONCRETE COLUMNS
Ductile Columns Damage Boundary
c c
N
A f
(1)
Coating
w ctm
V
b d f
(2)
MN GV GÇ
≤ 0.1 Available ≤ 0.65 3 6 8
≤ 0.1 Available ≥ 1.30 2.5 5 6
≥ 0.4 Available ≤ 0.65 2 4 6
≥ 0.4 Available ≥ 1.30 2 3 5
≤ 0.1 Not available ≤ 0.65 2 3.5 5
≤ 0.1 Not available ≥ 1.30 1.5 2.5 3.5
≥ 0.4 Not available ≤ 0.65 1.5 2 3
≥ 0.4 Not available ≥ 1.30 1 1.5 2
(1) N
K
axial force shall be calculated according to Information Annex 7A.
(2) V
e
shearing force shall be calculated according to 7.5.2.2 (a) in accordance with the direction of earthquake.
TABLE 7.4 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF
THE DAMAGE FOR ARMOURED CONCRETE WALLS
Ductile Walls Damage Boundary
Coating
MN GV GÇ
Available 3 6 8
Not Available 2 4 6
TABLE 7.5 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF
THE DAMAGE FOR STRENGTHENED FILLED WALLS AND RATIOS OF
RELATIVE STOREY DRIFT
Damage Boundary Ratio range of
wall
/ h
wall
0.5  2.0 MN GV GÇ
Effect / Capacity Ratios (r) 1 2 
Ratios Of Relative Storey Drift 0.0015 0.0035 
7.5.2.6 – In the joints of armoured column  beam, shearing force to be calculated from
Equation (3.11) and affects the joint for all boundary conditions should not exceed the
shearing forces given 3.5.2.2. However, in Equation (3.11) V
e
calculated without
considering hardening according to 3.3.7 shall be used instead of V
kol
, whereas in the
calculation of strength in Equation (3.12) and Equation (3.13) current concrete strength
determined according to information level in 7.2 shall be used instead of f
cd
. In case the
shearing force of joint exceeds the shearing strength, column  bema confinement zone shall
be defines as brittle damaged element.
7.5.3. Control of Relative Storey Drifts
In the calculation made with linear elastic methods in each earthquake direction, relative
storey drifts of column, beam or walls in each storey of the building shall not exceed the
value given in Table 7.6. δ
ji
indicates the relative storey drift calculated as a replacement
difference between bottom and top ends of the j’th column or wall in i’th storey whereas
h
ji
indicates the height of the relevant element.
122
TABLE 7.6  BOUNDARIES OF RELATIVE STROREY DRIFT
Damage Boundary Ratio of Relative
Storey Drift MN GV GC
δ
ji /
h
ji
0.01 0.03 0.04
7.6. DETERIMINING THE SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE BUILDING
USING INELASTIC LINEAR METHODS
7.6.1. Definition
The aim of the inelastic linear measurement methods to be used for determining the
structural performances of the buildings under seismic effect and for the strengthening
analyses is enabling the measurement of the plastic deformation volitions regarding the
ductile behavior and inner force volitions concerning the brittle behavior for a given
earthquake. Afterwards, the magnitudes of the mentioned volitions are compared with the
deformation and inner force capacities that are defined in this section and structural
performance evaluation shall be conducted both at sectional and building level.
7.6.2. Scope
The inelastic linear analysis methods included in the scope of this Regulation are
Incremental Equivalence Seismic Load Method, Incremental Mode Combination Method
and Measurement within the Scope of Time Definition Method. First two are the methods
that shall be used for the Incremental Repulsion Analysis that is taken as a basis for
determining the non  linear seismic performances and for the strengthening measurements
included in this Regulation.
7.6.3. The Procedure for the Performance Evaluation via Incremental Repulsion
Analysis
The steps that shall be taken during the inelastic non  linear performance evaluation
conducted applying the Incremental Repulsion Analysis is summarized below.
(a) In addition to the general principles and rules defined in 7.4, the rules defined 7.6.4
shall be followed to idealize the nonlinear behavior of the loadbearing system and
construct the analysis model.
(b) Before applying the incremental repulsion analysis, a nonlinear static analysis in which
the gravity loads that are in accordance with the masses are taken into consideration shall
be conducted. The results of this analysis shall be considered as the initial conditions of the
incremental repulsion analysis.
(c) In case the incremental repulsion analysis is conducted via applying the Incremental
Equivalence Seismic Load Method defined in 7.6.5, the “modal capacity diagram”
belonging to the primary (dominant) mode the coordinates of which are defined as “modal
translocation – modal acceleration” shall be derived. The modal translocation volition
belonging to the primary (dominant) mode shall be set taking the elastic behaviors spectrum
defined in 2.4 and the modifications applied on this spectrum in 7.8 for different exceeding
probabilities together with the mentioned diagram into consideration. In the final step, the
translocation, plastic deformation (plastic rotation) and inner force volitions that
corresponds to the modal translocation volition shall be calculated.
123
(d) In case the incremental repulsion analysis is conducted via applying the Incremental
Mode Combination Method defined in 7.6.6, modal translocation volitions will as well be
derived together with the “modal capacity diagrams” for all modes taken into consideration
and the translocation, plastic deformation (plastic rotation) and inner force volitions that
will arise accordingly in the loadbearing system shall be calculated.
e) The plastic rotation volitions that are calculated out of ductile sections shall be utilized for
deriving plastic bending volitions and total bending volitions in accordance with 7.6.8. Afterwards,
the unit deformation volitions of reinforced concrete sections, concretes and reinforcement
steels shall be calculated accordingly. Performance evaluations regarding the ductile
behavior in sectional level shall be conducted via comparing the mentioned values of
volition with the unit deformation capacities defined in 7.6.9 for various damage thresholds.
Moreover, the deformation volitions calculated in terms of relative storey drifts of the
strengthened filled wall shall be compared with the deformation capacities defined in 7.6.10.
The shear force volitions derived from the analysis on the other hand shall be compared
with the capacities defined in 7.6.11 and performance evaluation regarding the brittle
behavior shall be conducted at sectional level.
7.6.4. Idealizing the Inelastic Non  linear Behavior
7.6.4.1 – In order to idealize the inelastic nonlinear behavior in respect to the materials, the models
that are proved to be valid in the literature can be utilized. However, due to its practicability and
extensiveness in engineering practices, stacked plastic behavior model is taken as a basis
point for the inelastic nonlinear analysis applied in the following sections. In this model
that corresponds to the plastic support hypothesis in case of simple bending, it is assumed
that the plastic deformations are formed in an evenlydistributed manner all along the finite
length zones in which the inner forces in the beam, column and frametype loadbearing
components idealized as stick components reach to their plastic capacities. The length of
the plastic deformation zone referred to as plastic support length (L
p
) shall be taken as the
half of the section length (h) in the active direction (L
p =
0.5 h). For the frames where H
w
/
w
≤ 2.0, the plastic deformations under the bending effect will not be taken into
consideration.
7.6.4.2 – The length of the plastic deformation zones that undergo plastic deformation only
under axial force shall be assumed to be equal to the open length of the related component.
7.6.4.3 – The plastic section that represents the stacked plastic deformation should be
positioned in the middle of the plastic deformation zone that is theoretically defined in
7.6.4.1. However, the approximate idealizations mentioned below can be allowed for
practical applications.
(a) In columns and beams, the plastic sections can be placed right out of the columnbeam
confinement zone, in other words on the end zones of the net ports of columns or beams.
However, the fact that plastic hinges may be formed as well in the beam bays due to the
effects of the gravity loads should be taken into consideration.
(b) In reinforced concrete frames, plastic sections may be allowed to be placed on the
bottom end zone of the frame zone for each floor. U, T, L or boxsection frames should be
idealized as a single frame all arms of which works cooperatively. In case there are rigid
frames in the basement floors of the buildings, the plastic sections of this frames following
on to the upper stairs of the building should be placed starting above from the basement.
124
7.6.4.4 – The interaction diagrams that are defined in accordance with the rules defined in
7.4.11 shall be taken as the yield surfaces for the reinforced concrete sections that are
plasticized under the effect of uniaxial or biaxial bending and axial force. When they are
linearized in accordance with 7.4.11(c), the yield surfaces can be modeled as yield lines
and yield planes in case of twodimensional and threedimensional behaviors, respectively.
7.6.4.5 – The information in the following paragraphs shall be considered regarding the
inner force – plastic deformation correlations that shall be used in repulsion analysis model.
(a) The strain hardening effect (rise in the momentum in accordance with the rise in the
plastic rotation) in the inner force – plastic deformation correlations can be left
approximately (Figure 7.2a).
In such a case, the condition of the plastic deformation vector being approximately
perpendicular to the yield surface, provided that the inner forces remain over the yield
surface, shall be taken into consideration during the steps following the plasticizing of the
sections under the impact of the uniaxial or biaxial bending and axial force.
(b) In case the strain hardening effect is taken into consideration (Figure 7.2b), the
requirements the inner forces and the plastic deformation vector should satisfy during the
repulsion steps following the plasticization in the sections under the effect of uniaxial or
biaxial bending and axial force shall be defined in accordance with an appropriate strain
hardening model to be obtained from the related literature.
Figure 7.2
7.6.4.6 – Any filled wall that is strengthened in accordance with 7.10.4 shall be idealized as
per 7.6.4.2 as a two  edge hinged diagonal equivalent pressure and / or draw bar as defined
in the Information Annex 7F. The axial rigidity and axial yield strength regarding the
initial linear elastic behavior of the equivalent stick that shall be modeled as an elastro 
plastic (nonhardening) component in the repulsion analysis shall be determined as per the
Information Annex 7F. The shear strength defined for the wall is the horizontal
component of the axial yield strength of the diagonal equivalent pressure stick. When
necessary, yield strength of the diagonal equivalent draw bar shall be obtained from
Equation (7F.6).
7.6.5. Repulsion Analysis with Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method
7.6.5.1 – The aim of the Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method is implementing
the nonlinear repulsion analysis under the effect of equivalent seismic loads that are
gradually increased in a monotonic way up to the seismic volition threshold provided that it
shall be proportional to the vibration mode type of the primary (dominant in the seismic
direction). In each step of the repulsion analysis following the gravity load analysis, the
translocation, plastic deformation and inner force increments and cumulative values of
these increments and finally the maximum values corresponding to the seismic volition
shall be calculated.
M
pa
M
θ
p
(a)
M
pb
M
θ
p
(b)
125
7.6.5.2 – To be able to use the Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method, the number
of floors of the building excluding the basement should not be above 8 and the bending
irregularity coefficient that is calculated in accordance with the elastic linear behavior
without considering additional eccentricity should meet the condition q
bi
< 1.4 for each
floors. Moreover, in accordance with the earthquake taken into consideration, the ratio of
the active mass of the primary (dominant) vibration mode calculated taking the linear
elastic behavior as a basis point to the total mass of the building (except for the masses of
the basement floors covered by the rigid frames) should be above 0.70.
7.6.5.3 – During incremental repulsion analysis, the distribution of the equivalent seismic
load can be assumed to remain constant, independent of the plastic section formations in
the loadbearing system. In such a case, load distribution shall be determined in a way that
it shall be proportional to the value derived by multiplying the natural vibration mode
shape magnitude of the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) that is computed for the
linear elastic behavior at the first step of the analysis with the magnitude of the related
mass. In the buildings where floor slabs are idealized as rigid diaphragms, two
perpendicular horizontal drifts in the center of mass of each floor and the rotation around
the vertical axis passing through the center of mass shall be considered as the magnitudes
of the primary (dominant) natural vibration mode shapes.
7.6.5.4 – By means of the repulsion analysis conducted in accordance with the constant
load distribution defined in 7.6.5.3, the repulsion curve the coordinates of which are “top
translocation – ground shear force” shall be obtained. Top translocation is the
translocation that is calculated in each repulsion step and that takes place in the center of
mass of the top floor of the building for the earthquakes in the direction x that are taken
into consideration. And the ground shear force is the sum of the equivalent seismic loads of
each step for the earthquake in the direction of x. With the help of the coordinate
transformation applied to the repulsion curve, the modal capacity diagram the coordinates
of which are “modal translocation – modal acceleration” can be obtained via the method
defined below:
(a) The modal acceleration for the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) mode for
the (i)’ th step, a
1
(i)
, is derived with the following method:
(i)
(i) x1
1
x1
=
V
a
M
(7.1)
(b) The following equation can be used to calculate the modal translocation for the
primary (dominant in the seismic direction) mode for the (i)’ th step, d
1
(i)
:
(i)
(i) xN1
1
xN1 x1
=
u
d
Φ Γ
(7.2)
The contribution coefficient for the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) mode,
x1
Γ ,
is computed in the following way, utilizing the values L
x1
and M
1
that are defined for the
linear elastic behavior of the loadbearing system for the earthquake in the direction x and
is given in
Chapter Equation (2.15):
x1
x1
1
=
L
M
Γ (7.3)
126
7.6.5.5 – As an alternative to 7.6.5.3, during the incremental repulsion analysis,
equivalent seismic load distribution can be considered as varying in each repulsion step
compared to the previous steps. In such a case, the load distribution shall be defined as
proportional to the value obtained from multiplying the magnitudes of the primary
(dominant) natural vibration mode shapes that are calculated considering all plastic sections
formed in the loadbearing system before each repulsion step with the magnitude of the
related mass. In the buildings where floor slabs are idealized as rigid diaphragms, the
magnitudes of the primary (dominant) natural vibration mode shapes shall be defined as
given in 7.6.5.3.
7.6.5.6 – The maximum modal translocation of the primary (dominant) mode, i.e. modal
translocation volition shall be set taking the elastic behaviors spectrum defined in 2.4 and
the modifications applied on this spectrum in 7.8 for different exceeding probabilities
together with the modal capacity diagram derived as a result of the repulsion analysis as per
the information given in 7.6.5.4. As a definition, modal translocation volition
(p)
1
d is
equivalent with the non  linear spectral translocation S
di1.
(p)
1 di1
= d S (7.4)
The calculations regarding the determination of nonlinear spectral translocation S
di1
is
given in Information Annex 7C.
7.6.5.7 – By substituting the modal translocation volition d
1
(p)
that is determined according
to Equation (7.4) for the final repulsion step i = p in Equation (7.2)’, the top the top
translocation volition
(p)
xN1
u for the x seismic direction, shall be obtained.
(p) (p)
xN1 xN1 x1 1
= u d Φ Γ (7.5)
All other volition magnitudes (translocation, deformation and inner force volitions)
corresponding to this value shall be obtained from the existing repulsion analysis file or
shall be computed with a new repulsion analysis that shall be conducted until the top
translocation volition is reached.
7.6.6. Repulsion Analysis with Incremental Mode Combination Method
The aim of the Incremental Mode Combination Method is incrementally implementing the
Mode Combination Method taking modal translocations that are gradually and
monotonically increased in a way that shall be proportional to the sufficient number of
natural vibration mode shapes representing the loadbearing system behavior and that are
scaled in a way that they shall be in harmony with each other or taking the modal seismic
loads that shall be in harmony with the mentioned modal. Such repulsion analysis method
that is based on the “step by step linear elastic” behavior in the load  bearing system for
each repulsion step between the formations of two sequential plastic sections is explained
in Information Annex 7D.
7.6.7. Calculation with the Nonlinear within the Scope of Time Definition Method
7.6.7.1 – The aim of the Calculation with the Non  linear within the Scope of Time
Definition Method is integrating the movement equation of the system step by step taking
the nonlinear behavior of the loadbearing system. During the analysis, translocation,
plastic deformation and inner force that come up in the system in each increment and the
maximum values of these magnitudes that correspond to the seismic volition are calculated.
127
7.6.7.2 – The artificial, recorded or simulated earth movements that shall be used in the analysis
to be conducted in the time definition scope shall be determined as per 2.9.1 and 2.9.2 and
2.9.3 shall be taken into consideration through the analysis.
7.6.8. Determining the Unit Deformation Volitions
7.6.8.1 – The plastic bending volition dependent on the 0
p
plastic rotation volition that shall be
obtained in any section as a result of the repulsion analysis conducted as per 7.6.5 or 7.6.6 or
obtained as a output information onto the calculation conducted within the scope of time
definition as per 7.6.7 shall be calculated as follows:
p
p
p
=
L
θ
φ (7.6)
7.6.8.2 – The total bending volition φ
t
of the section shall be obtained adding the φ
y
equivalent yield bending that is defined with the twoline momentumbending relationship
obtained from the analysis conducted under the axial force volition of the section
by means
of using a reinforcement steel model that as well considers the strain hardening together
with a concrete model chosen in accordance with the aim to the φ
p plastic bending
volition defined with the Equation (7.6):
φ
t
= φ
y
+ φ
p
(7.7)
The unit pressure deformation volition in the reinforced concrete systems and the unit
deformation volition in the reinforcement steel shall be calculated applying momentum
bending analysis in accordance with the total bending volition defined with Equation (7.7).
7.6.8.3 – If any other choice is not introduced, Information Annex 7B can be utilized for
coated or uncoated concrete and reinforcement steel models.
7.6.9. Section Unit Deformation Capacities of Reinforced Concrete Components
7.6.9.1 – The seismic volitions obtained in accordance with 7.6.8 in terms of unit
deformation volitions for concrete or reinforcement steel shall be compared with the unit
deformation capacities given below so as to determine the performance of the loadbearing
systems at sectional level.
7.6.9.2 – The upper bounds (capacity) of deformation for different sectional damage
thresholds for the ductile loadbearing system components that undergo plastic
deformations are defined below:
The transverse reinforcements that consider the following:
(a) For Mi ni mum Sect i onal Damage Boundar y (MN), upper bounds of the concrete
unit pressure deformation in the outmost fiber of the section and the reinforcement steel unit
deformation volitions:
(c
cu
)
MN
= 0.0035 ; (c
s
)
MN
= 0.010 (7.8)
(b) For Section Security Bound (GV), upper bounds of the concrete unit pressure
deformation in the outmost fiber of hoop and the reinforcement steel unit deformation
volitions:
(c
cg) GV
= 0.0035 + 0.01 (p
s
/ p
sm
)
≤ 0.0135 ; (c
s
)
GV
= 0.040
(7.9)
128
(c) For Section Collapse Bound (GÇ), upper bounds of the concrete unit pressure deformation
in the outmost fiber of hoop and the reinforcement steel unit deformation volitions:
cg GC s sm s GC
(c ) = 0.004 + 0.013 (p p ) 0.018 ; (c ) = 0.060 / ≤ ≤≤ ≤ (7.10)
Should be regulated as “special earthquake hoops and crossties” as per 3.2.8.
7.6.10. Deformation Capacities of the Strengthened Filled Walls
The allowed boundary values (capacities) for the relative floor drifts that are obtained onto the
repulsion analysis conducted via modeling the filled walls that are strengthened in accordance
with 7.10.4 and Information Annex 7F together with the columns and beams surrounding the
walls in accordance with 7.6.4.6 are listed in the second row of Table 7.5.
7.6.11. Shear Force Capacities of the Reinforced Concrete LoadBearing System
Components
7.6.11.1 – The shear strengths that shall be used in brittle bending controls of all reinforced
concrete loadbearing components except for the confinements of columns and beams shall be
determined in accordance with the TS500 standard. The current strength values that are
defined in accordance with the information levels set in 7.2 shall be utilized in shear force
calculations. The components the shear force strengths of which are smaller than their shear
force volition shall be defined as brittle damaged components.
7.6.11.2 – The shear force volitions that shall be calculated using Equation (3.11) for
reinforced concrete columnbeam confinements should not exceed the shear strength
given in 3.5.2.2. However, in Equation (3.11) the shear force volition calculated in the non
linear analysis for the related column shall be used instead of V
kol,
and the current concrete
strength that shall be determined in accordance with the information level defined in 7.2 shall
be taken as a basis point in the strength calculation in Equation (3.12) or Equation (3.13)
instead of f
cd.
In case the shear force volition exceeds the shear strength, columnbeam
confinement section shall be defined as brittle damaged component.
7.7. DETERMINING THE SEÎSMÎC PERFORMANCE OF THE BUILDING
7.7.1. Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings
The seismic performance of the buildings are related to the condition of the damages that are
expected to come out under the effect of the earthquakes applied and is defined taking four
different damage levels as basis. The seismic performance of the buildings are determined
applying the calculation methods defined in 7.5 and 7.6 and deciding on the damage areas of
the components. The rules to be applied so as to determine the seismic performance of the
buildings are given below. The rules given here are related to the reinforced concrete and
prefabricated buildings. The rules to be applied for masonnary buildings are given in 7.7.6.
7.7.2. Ready for Use Performance Level
Onto the results of the calculations regarding all earthquakes applied in any floors, at most 10
% of the beams exceed the Significant Damage Zone and all other loadbearing components
remain in the Minimum Damage Zone. Such buildings can be agreed to be in the Ready for
Use Performance Level provided that the brittle damaged components, if any, are
strengthened.
129
7.7.3. Life Safety Performance Level
The buildings that satisfy the conditions mentioned below can be agreed to be in Life Safety
Performance Level provided that the brittle damaged components, if any, are strengthened:
(a) As the result of the calculations made for each earthquake direction applies on each
floor, at most 30 % of the beams except for the secondary ones (that does not take place in
the horizontal loadbearing system) and at most the proportion of the columns defined in
paragraph (b) can exceed the Advanced Damage Zone.
(b) The total contribution of the columns in the Advanced Damage Zone to the shear
force that is borne by the columns in each floor should not exceed 20 %. For the top
floor, the ratio of the total shear forces of the columns in the Significant Damage Zone
to the total shear forces of all the columns at that floor can be at most 40 %.
(c) All other load  bearing components are in Minimum Damage Zone or Significant
Damage Zone. However, the shear forces borne by the columns which exceeds the Minimum
Damage Bound both in upper and lower sections for any floor should not be more than 30 %
of the shear force borne by all columns of the floor (In calculation with linear elastic method,
the columns that satisfy Equation (3.3) both in upper and lower confinement points are not
included in this calculation).
7.7.4. Pre  Collapse Performance Level
The buildings that meet the conditions given below are agreed to be in the Pre  Collapse
Performance Level provided that the fact that all components that are brittle damaged are in
the Collapse Zone.
(a) Onto the results of the calculations regarding all earthquakes applied in any floors, at
most 20 % of the beams except for the secondary ones (that does not take place in the
horizontal loadbearing system) can enter the Collapse Zone.
(b) All other loadbearing components are in Minimum Damage Zone, Significant
Damage Zone or in the Advanced Damage Zone. However, the shear forces borne by the
columns which exceeds the Minimum Damage Bound both in upper and lower sections for
any floor should not be more than 30 % of the shear force borne by all columns of the floor
(In calculation with linear elastic method, the columns that satisfy Equation (3.3) both in
upper and lower confinement points are not included in this calculation).
(c) Usage of the building under these circumstances poses threats towards life safety.
7.7.5. Collapse Level
If the building does not satisfy the Pre  Collapse Performance Level, it is in the Collapse
Level. Usage of the building under these circumstances poses threats towards life safety.
7.7.6. Determining the Seismic Performance of Masonnary Buildings
The performance level of the masonnary buildings shall be determined onto the evaluations
made in accordance with 7.2 and the calculations made in accordance with Section 5. If the
shear strength of all walls of the masonnary building in both two directions is enough to bear
the shear forces that form under the effects of the earthquakes applied, the building is decided
to satisfy Ready for Usage Performance Level. If the contribution of the walls that do not
satisfy this condition due to the earthquakes applied in any floor to the floor shear force is
below 20 %, the building shall be decided to satisfy the Life Safety Performance Level. Only
the walls with low performance should be strengthened at least up to the level defined in
7F.2. Except for these situations the buildings are assumed to be in the Collapse Level.
130
7.8. TARGETED PERFORMANCE LEVELS FOR THE BUILDINGS
7.8.1. The acceleration spectrum defined for tobebuilt buildings in 2.4 takes the
earthquakes for which the possibility to be exceeded in 50 years is 10 % according to 1.2.2.
In addition to this earthquake level, two different seismic given below are defined to evaluate
the existing buildings and to be utilized in strengthening designs:
(a) The coordinates of the acceleration spectrum of the earthquakes for which the possibility
to be exceeded in 50 years is 50 % shall be taken as approximately the half of the coordinates
of the spectrum defined in 2.4.
(b) The coordinates of the acceleration spectrum of the earthquakes for which the possibility
to be exceeded in 50 years is 2 % is decided to be taken as approximately 1.5 times of the
coordinates of the spectrum defined in 2.4.
7.8.2. The earthquakes levels that the seismic performances of existing or tobestrengthened
buildings shall be based on and the minimum performance targets for the buildings at the
mentioned earthquakes levels are given in Table 7.7.
TABLE 7.7 – MINIMUM BUILDING PERFORMANCE TARGETS
ANTICIPATED FOR DIFFERENT EARTHQUAKE LEVELS
Probability for the Earthquake
to be exceeded
The usage purpose and the
Type of the Building
50 % in
50 years
10 % in
50 years
2 % in
50 years
The buildings that should be used after earthquakes:
Hospitals, heath facilities, fire stations, communications and
energy facilities, transportation stations, provincial or
district administrative bodies, disaster management centers
etc.
–
RU
LS
The buildings that people stay in for a long time period:
Schools, accommodations, dormitories, pensions, military
posts, prisons, museums, etc.
–
RU
LS
The buildings that people visit densely and stay in for a
short time period: cinema, theatre and concert halls, culture
centers, sports facilities
RU LS –
Buildings containing hazardous materials: The buildings
containing toxic, flammable and explosive materials and the
buildings in which the mentioned materials are stored.
– RU PC
Other buildings: The buildings that does not fit the
definitions given above (houses, offices, hotel, tourist
facilities, industrial buildings, etc.)
– LS –
RU: Ready for Usage; LS: Life Safety; PC: PreCollapse (See 7.7)
7.9. STRENGTHENING THE BUILDINGS
Strengthening the buildings covers applications such as eliminating the defects that will lead
to seismic damages, adding new components that will contribute to the enhancement of
earthquake safety, diminishing the mass, improving the seismic behavior of existing
components and maintaining the continuity of force distribution.
131
7.9.1. Determining the Seismic Safety of the Buildings Strengthened
The calculation methods and evaluation basis given in this section shall be used in
determining the seismic performance of the buildings and components strengthened.
7.9.2. The Design of the Components to be added to the Buildings
The special rules given in this section together with the rules in Section 3 and / or Section 4
and other standards and regulations in effect shall be followed regarding the design of the
components to be added to the buildings with strengthening purposes.
7.9.3. Strengthening Types
Strengthening applications shall be evaluated under two different scopes, at component level
and building system level, for each loadbearing system type.
7.9.3.1 – The applications applied to improve the strength and deformation capacities of the
seismic loadbearing building components as beam, column, frame and confinement zones
are defined as component strengthening.
7.9.3.2 – The applications introduced with the aims of improving the strength and
deformation capacity of the loadbearing system of the building and ensuring the continuity
of the inner force distribution, adding new components to the building, strengthening the
confinement zones and diminishing the mass of the building to minimize the seismic effects
are called system strengthening.
7.10. STRENGTHENING REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS
The component and system strengthening methods given in this section covers techniques
frequently used in practice. However, the strengthening methods that are not included in this
section can as well be applied provided that the general perception and principles of the
section are followed.
7.10.1. Coating the Columns
Following methods can be used to improve shear and pressure strength of the columns to
enhance the ductility of the columns and to eliminate the weaknesses of the lap splicing. The
bending capacity of the columns can’t be improved using these methods.
7.10.1.1 – Reinforced Concrete Coating: It shall be applied via pealing off the rusted area or
rumpling the surface of the existing column. Reinforced concrete coating should have the
thickness that is enough to be able to install horizontal and vertical reinforcements, pour
concrete and sustain the minimum rust area. Minimum coating thickness is 100 mm.
Concrete coating should begin from the top of the base floor slab and ends at the bottom of
the top floor slab. For the coating activity that shall be held with the aim of improving the
axial pressure strength, the rules defined in 3.3.4.2 shall be followed throughout the total
height of the column for the transverse reinforcement in the coating concrete. Coated gross
sectional dimensions and the design strength of the coating concrete shall be used in
calculating the shear and pressure strength of the coated column, but the strengths derived
shall be diminished via multiplying the values with 0.9.
132
7.10.1.2 – Steel Coating: Steel coating is constituted by installing four longitudinal angle
bracelets to the edges of rectangular reinforced concrete columns and welding the angle
bracelets to the horizontal plates positioned within specific spacing. There shouldn’t be any
gap between the angle bracelets and reinforced concrete surfaces. Horizontal plates should be
continuous in all four surfaces. For the steel coating to improve the axial load capacity of the
column, the angles should be continuous (the gaps should be eliminated) between the floor
and ceiling slabs and the fact that pressure transfer is enabled via the cap plates should be
shown in the calculations. If required, preloading can be applied to the angle bracelets and
the axial pressure load on the existing concrete column section resulting from the gravity
load can be diminished. The additional shear strength introduced with the steel coating shall
be calculated using Equation (7.11).
j
j yw
t bd
V f
s
=
(7.11)
In Equation (7.11), t
j
, b, and s represents the thickness, width and the spacing of the
horizontal plates and d represents the useful height of the section. To eliminate the
weaknesses of lap splicing using steel coating, the length of the coating should be at least 50
% higher than that of the splicing zone and the steel coating should be tightened with at least
16 mmdiameter bolted anchor that shall be fitted to the reciprocal surfaces of the column in
the reinforcement splicing zone. In case the splicing adjunction is applied in the floor edge of
the column, at least two rows of bolted anchoring shall be applied in 250 and 500 mm above
the slab floor, respectively.
7.10.1.3 – Coating with fiber polymer (FP): Coating is enabled via coating and fixating the
FP layer around the column provided that the fibers are parallel to the transverse
reinforcements. By means of FP coating, ductility capacity, shear and pressure strengths of
the reinforced concrete columns and reinforcement coupling strength, when the splicing
length of the longitudinal reinforcement is insufficient, are improved. For the FP method, full
coating (coating the whole section circle) method should be applied and at least 200 mm
splicing should be made after coating. FP shall be applied for the rectangular columns via
rolling the edges of the beams at least with 30 mm di amet er. FP application should be held
in accordance with the method recommended by the producer firm. The calculation methods
regarding the improvement in the shear, axial pressure and coupling strengths and ductility of
the columns coated with FP ar e gi ven i n Information Appendix 7E.
7.10.2. Improving the Bending Capacity of the Columns
Columns sections can be expanded to improve the bending capacity of the columns. This
application as well improves the shear and pressure strengths of the columns. The continuity
of the longitudinal reinforcements attached to the column expanded should be ensured.
Longitudinal reinforcements will pass through the holes bore on floor slabs and shall be fitted
bending into the slot bore in the upper surface of the slab. The necessary horizontal
reinforcement shall be fitted via boring holes in beams in the columnbeam splicing zones or
applying anchoring to the beams. The expanded section of the column shall be coated with
transverse reinforcement in accordance with 3.3.4. The rusting area of the expanded column
shall be thick enough to cover the horizontal and vertical reinforcement fitted. In other words,
the plaster layer on the surface of the existing column shall be pealed of and concrete surfaces
shall be roughened up to ensure the adherence of the old and the new concrete. Coated gross
sectional dimensions and the design characteristics of the coating concrete shall be used in
calculating the shear and pressure strength of the coated column, but the strengths derived shall
be diminished via multiplying the values with 0.9.
133
7.10.3. Coating the Beams
The purpose of coating the reinforced concrete beams is improving the shear strengths and in
some cases the ductility capacities of the beams. Bending capacities of the beams can’t be
improved using the methods given below.
7.10.3.1 – Adding External Hoop: In the beam support sections where the shear strength is
insufficient, required number of hoops shall be added externally to the both surfaces of the
beam, as shown in Figure 7.3. The sticks attached to a steel profile, positioned under the
beam, with bolts shall be passed through the holes bore on upper slabs and shall be fitted
bending into the slot bore in the upper surface of the slab. Afterwards, the holes formed on
the concrete shall be filled with concrete. This method can as well be applied implementing
different details under the same principles. The shear force of the beams improved by the
addition of external hoops shall be calculated as per TS500 standard. Externally added
hoops doesn’t have coating effect, they don’t improve beam ductility. During the application,
profiles and bolts should be protected from the outside effects.
7.10.3.2 – Coating with fiber polymer (FP): Full coating (coating the whole section circle)
method should be used for improving the beam ductility and shear force with FP coating.
The beam shear force strengthened with FP can be calculated using Equation (7E.1) given in
Information Annex 7E. In case non  continuous FP (in form of strings), the spacing
between the strings shouldn’t exceed the value
(w
f
+ d 4).
FP shall be applied via rolling the
edges of the beams at least with 30 mm di amet er. For the FP coating, at least 200 mm
splicing should be made after coating. FP application should be held in accordance with the
method recommended by the produced firm.
7.10.4. Strengthening the Filled Walls
Provided that the method is applied at most for three floors except for the basement, the
rigidity and shear strength of the filled wall in the reinforced concrete frame constantly
continuous from the top of the grounding up to the top may be improved using the
strengthening methods defined in Information Annex 7F.
7.10.5. Improving the Reinforced Concrete Loadbearing Systems onsite cast
Reinforced Concrete Frames
The reinforced concrete loadbearing systems with insufficient lateral rigidity can be
strengthened using onsite cast reinforced concrete frames. Reinforced concrete frames can
be fixed within the existing frame plane or as a confinement to the frame plane.
Outer Hoop
Steel profile
Repair Concrete
134
7.10.5.1 – Installing Reinforced Concrete Walls within the Frame Plane: The frames to be
added to the reinforced concrete system shall be designed in the frame axis and shall be
continuous from the grounding to the top elevation of the frame. With this purpose, the
transverse reinforcements on the end zone of the wall and the longitudinal reinforcements in
the wall body when required shall be ensured to be continuous. The walls shall be
connected to the frame they are on with anchor sticks and they shall be ensured to work
together with the frame. Anchor sticks will have the strength enough to meet the slip tensile
that will come out between the existing frame components and the added reinforced
concrete wall components due to the seismic load. The distribution of the slip tensile in the
interfaces along the frame components shall be calculated in accordance with the common
principles of mechanics. Friction shear principles stated in TS  500 shall be the basis point
in designing the anchor sticks. Minimum anchor stick diameter should be 16 mm, minimum
anchor depth should be one times of the stick diameter and the widest spacing between
sticks should be 40 cm. In case there aren’t any existing columns in the end zone of the
wall, wall end zone shall be constructed as per 3.6.5. If there isn’t any column in the end
zone of the wall, the existing column can be utilized as an end zone. When necessary, end
zone of the wall shall be constructed via expanding the existing column in accordance with
7.10.2 or constructing a hidden column inside the wall adjacent to the existing column. In
both cases, the vertical reinforcements to be added to the end zones of the wall should be
ensured to be continuous between the floors. Grounding shall be laid under the wall in
accordance with the rules given in 6.3.1. Wall grounding shall be sized in a way that will
enable the inner forces created in wall floor to be securely transferred to the grounding
floor.
So as to diminish the eccentricity possible to be formed in the wall grounding, axial
pressure loads of the existing columns can be utilized via expanding the wall grounding in a
way that it will cover neighboring columns. Precautions required to enable the wall
grounding to work together with the existing grounding system should be taken.
7.10.5.2 – Attaching Reinforced Concrete Wall Adjacent to the Frame Plane: The walls to
be added to the reinforced concrete system shall be designed to be adjacent to the frame
outside the outer frame axis and shall be continuous beginning from the grounding up to the
top elevation of the wall. The walls shall be connected to the frame they are adjacent to with
anchor sticks to ensure that they work together with the frame. Anchor sticks will have the
strength enough to meet the slip tensile that will come out in the interfaces between the
existing frame components and the added eccentric wall components due to the seismic
load. The rules stated in 7.10.5.1 shall be followed in the design of anchor sticks.
In case there aren’t any existing columns in the end zone of the wall, wall end zone shall be
constructed as per 3.6.5. If there isn’t any column in the end zone of the wall, the existing
column can be utilized as an end zone. When necessary, end zone of the wall shall be
constructed via expanding the existing column in accordance with 7.10.2. Grounding shall
be laid under the wall in accordance with the rules given in 6.3.1. Wall grounding shall be
sized in a way that will enable the inner forces created in wall floor to be securely
transferred to the grounding floor. So as to diminish the eccentricity possible to be formed
in the wall grounding, axial pressure loads of the existing columns can be utilized via
expanding the wall grounding in a way that it will cover neighboring columns. Precautions
required to enable the wall grounding to work together with the existing grounding system
should be taken.
135
7.10.6. Adding New Frames to the Reinforced Concrete System
The horizontal loads can be distributed via adding new frames to the exterior of the
reinforced concrete system. The grounding of the frames to be added to the system shall be
organized together with the grounding of the existing building. To sustain that the new
frames will work together with the loadbearing system of the existing building, the frames
shall be attached to the slabs in a way that will enable load transfer.
7.10.7. Diminishing the Mass of the Reinforced Concrete System
Mass reduction is not a structure strengthening method. However, as the gravity loads and
seismic forces that affect the building will diminish proportional to the reducing mass the
structural safety shall be improved. The closer the mass to be reduced or removed to the top
elevations of the building, the more effectiveness on increasing the seismic security shall be.
The most effective mass reduction methods are reversing and removing the top floor or
floors of the building, replacing the existing roof with a lighter one, taking installation
weights on the roof such as water tanks to the ground and replacing heavy balconies,
parapets, partition walls and slabs with lighter components.
136
INFORMATION ANNEX 7A
DETERMINATION OF EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS OF COLUMNS AND
WALLS DOGRUSAL IN DESIGN WITH LINEAR ELASTICITY METHODS
7A.0. NOTATION
M
A
= Residual moment capacity
M
D
= Moment composed from vertical powers
M
E
= Moment consisted under the earthquake power
M
K
= Moment capacity calculated in accordance with existing material strength
according to 7.2.
N
A
= Axial power correspond to momentary moment capacity
N
D
= Axial power consisted from vertical powers
N
E
= Axial power consisted under the earthquake power
N
K
= Axial power correspond to cross section moment capacity
r
= Ratio of exposure / capacity
r
s
= The limit value of ratio of exposure / capacity
7A.1. Effect / Capacity Ratios in Columns and Walls
On the calculation made with linear elasticity methods, methods to be implemented for
determining the effect / capacity ratios in the sections of columns and walls under the effect
of moment  axial force are specified in following paragraphs.
7A.1.1 – Moment  axial force interaction diagram of any column or wall section that
linearized according to 7.4.11(c) is seen in Figure 7A.1. Coordinates of point D in Figure
corresponds to M
D
– N
D
couple formed of gravity loads. Vertical and horizontal projections
of second line segment which starts from D point and step out of interaction diagram
corresponds to M
E
– N
E
couple obtained from seismic design for R
a
= 1 and comply with
the direction of earthquake(In Figure 7A.1 two condition where M
E
indicators are different
is shown separately). Coordinates of second line segment where intersects point K is M
K
moment capacity of column or wall section or the N
K
axial force that corresponds to it.
7A.1.2 – According to 7.5.2.3, redundant moment capacity M
A
and corresponding axial
force N
A
defined as follows:
M
A
= M
K
– M
D
(7A.1a)
N
A
= N
K
– N
D
(7A.1b)
And effect / capacity ratios of columns and walls may be defined as follows:
s
A
E
A
E
r
N
N
M
M
r ≤ = = (7A.2)
In case M
K
or N
K
as the coordinates of K intersection point in Figure 7A.1 is obtained
geometrically or numerically, then by using Equation (7A.1) and Equation (7A.2) the
effect / capacity ratio of the section under bending and axial force can be directly
determined as far as M
D
or N
D
is known from gravity load design and M
E
or N
E
is known
from seismic design. The axial force N
K
which correspond to moment capacity of the column
section is the axial force to be considered in Table 7.3 that defines boundary of damage.
137
N
N
E
(M
K
; N
K
)
K
N
A
(M
D
; N
D
)
D
M
M
A
M
E
N
7A.1.3 – Effect / capacity ratio of column or wall may also be determined with a successive
approach method. For that purpose, estimation is made for r in the beginning. As N
E
is
known from seismic calculation N
A
is calculated from Equation (7A.2) and also as N
D
is
known N
K
is found from Equation (7A.1b). Accordingly, M
K
moment capacity is obtained
from section calculation and by subtracting M
D
from this value M
A
is calculated from
Equation (7A.1a). By using M
A
and M
E
new value of r is determined from Equation
(7A.2) and by turning back to beginning pass through the forward step of the successive
approach. Value of r in the last step of successive approach which is obtained nearly
sufficient to the previous step is defines as the effect / capacity ratio of the section under
bending and axial force. M
A
and N
A
values in the last step are put their places in Equation
(7A.1) and M
K
and N
K
are calculated. The obtained N
K
is the axial force to be considered in
Table 7.3 that defines the damage boundaries.
7A.1.4 – Effect / capacity ratio specified above for the unidirectional bending / axial force
is also implied similarly for bidirectional bending / axial force.
7A.2. Special Conditions
7A.1 can not be implied in case the end of second line in Figure 7A.1 remains in the
interaction diagram. It is obvious that the calculation of the ratio of effect / capacity is not
required in this situation as against to r < 1.
Figure 7A.1
138
7A.3. Upper boundary of axial forces of column and wall
In the relevant column and columns on it, upper boundary of the N
K
axial force which is
calculated in a way as specified above in the pressure or tensile conditions can be defined
as the axial force obtained as a result of the transfer of V
e
shear forces calculated in
accordance with the direction of earthquake implied according to 3.4.5.1 without
considering hardening.
139
INFORMATION ANNEX 7B
TENSILE  DEFORMATION CORELATIONS FOR CONCRETE AND STEEL
REINFORCEMENT
7B.0. NOTATION
A
s
= Longitudinal reinforcement area
a
i
= Distance between vertical reinforcement axis in the cross section bordering
b
o
= Size of the cross section between the axis of lateral reinforcement binders
which covers the hub concrete
E
c
= Elasticity module of concrete
E
s
= Elasticity module of reinforcement steel
f
c
= Concrete pressure stress in coated concrete.
f
cc
= Coated concrete strength
f
co
= Concrete pressure stress in noncoated concrete.
f
e
= Effective winding pressure
f
s
= Tension in reinforcement steel
f
sy
= Yield strength of the reinforcement steel
f
su
= Breaking strength of the reinforcement steel
f
yw
= Yield strength of the transversely reinforcement
h
o
= Size of the cross section between the axis of lateral reinforcement binders
which covers the hub concrete
k
e
= Enswathed Effectiveness Coefficient
s
= Lateral reinforcement binders space
ρ ρρ ρ
s
= Volumetric ratio of total transversely reinforcement (in rectangular cross
sections ρ ρρ ρ
s
=
ρ ρρ ρ
x+
ρ ρρ ρ
y
ρ ρρ ρ
x,
ρ ρρ ρ
y
= Volumetric ratio of transversely reinforcement in direction represents.
c
= Deformation of pressure concrete unit
cu
= Deformation of maximum pressure unit in coated concrete
sy
= Yield unit deformation of reinforcement steel
s
= Yield unit deformation of reinforcement steel in the beginning of strain
hardening
su
= Breaking unit deformation of reinforcement steel
7B.1. Coated and Uncoated Concrete Models
On the performance evaluation with Linear Inelastic Methods according to 7.6, in order to
use in cases where any other model is not chosen, the following tensile  deformation
corelations are defined for coated and uncoated concrete (Figure 7B.1)
*
.
(a) Concrete compressive stress in coated concrete f
c
, is given with the following
corelation as the function of compressive unit deformation c
c
:
cc
c
r
=
1
f x r
f
r x − +
(7B.1)
Relation between coated concrete strength f
cc
and uncoated concrete strength f
co
in this
correlation is given below.
e e
cc c co c
co co
= ; = 2.254 1+7.94 2 1 254 .
f f
f f
f f
λ λ − − (7B.2)
*
Mander, J.B.,Priestley, M.J.N., Park, R. (1988). Theoretical Stress  Strain Model for Confined Concrete,
Journal of Structural Division (ASCE), 114 (8), 1804 1826
140
f
e
effective coating pressure in here, can be taken as the average of values given below for
the two perpendicular directions in rectangular sections:
ex e x yw ey e y yw
= ; = f k f f k f ρ ρ (7B.3)
In these correlations f
yw
yield stress of the transverse reinforcement indicates the
volumetric ratios of transverse reinforcements in p
x
and p
y
relevant directions whereas k
e
indicates coating performance factor as defined below.
1
2
s i
e
o o o o o o
= 1 1 1 1
6 2 2
A a s s
k
b h b h b h
−
    
¿
− − − −
   

\ .\ .\ . \ .
(7B.4)
Here a
i
indicates the distance between the axes of vertical reinforcements in the periphery
of section, b
o
and h
o
indicates the section sizes remain among the axes of hoops that coats
the core concrete, s indicates the distance between the axes of hoops in vertical direction,
A
s
indicates area of longitudinal reinforcement. Correlations concerning x and r variable of
normalized concrete unit deformation in Equation (7B.1) are given below.
c
cc co c co
cc
= ; = [1 5( 1)] ; 0 002 . x
ε
ε ε + λ − ε ≅
ε
(7B.5)
c cc
c co sec
c sec cc
= ; 5000 [ ] ; =
E f
r E f MPa E
E E
≅
− ε
(7B.6)
Maximum compressive unit deformation in coated concrete c
cu
is given below:
s yw su
cu
cc
1 4
= 0 004
.
.
f
f
ρ ε
ε + (7B.7)
Here p
s
indicates the total volumetric area of transverse reinforcement (in rectangular
sections p
s
= p
x
+ p
y
), c
su
indicates the unit deformation due to strain under maximum
tensile in transverse reinforcement steel.
(b) Equation (7B.1) as given for coated concrete is also available for uncoated concrete in
the zone up to c
c
= 0.004. f
cc
= f
co
ve c
cc
= c
co
is taken in Equation (7B.5) and Equation
(7B.6) as the effective coating pressure f
e
= 0 in uncoated concrete and accordingly ì
c
=1
from the Equation (7B.2). f
c
= 0 is defined in c
c
= 0.005. In 0.004 < c
c
_ 0.005 range,
tensile  deformation relation is linear.
Figure 7B.1
f
c
f
cc
f
co
c
co=0.002
c
cc
c
cu 0.004 0.005 c
c
Coated
Uncoated
141
7B.2. Reinforcement Steel Model
In order to use in the performance evaluation with Linear Inelastic Methods according to
7.6, the following tensile  deformation corelations are defined for reinforcement steel.
(Figure 7B.2):
s s s s sy
s sy sy s sh
2
su s
s su su sy
2
su sh
= ( )
= ( )
( )
= ( )
( )
f E
f f
f f f f
ε ε ≤ ε
ε < ε ≤ ε
ε − ε
− −
ε − ε
sh s su
( ) ε < ε ≤ ε
(7B.8)
Elasticity modulus of reinforcement steel is E
s
= 2*10
5
MPa. Information concerning
reinforcement steel with quality S220 and S420 can be taken from the following table.
Quality f
sy
(Mpa) c
sy
c
sh
c
su
f
su
(Mpa)
S220 220 0.0011 0.011 0.16 275
S420 420 0.0021 0.008 0.10 550
Figure 7B.2
f
s
f
sy
c
sy
c
sh
c
su
f
su
c
s
142
INFORMATION ANNEX 7C
DETERMINATION OF NON  LINEAR SPECTRAL REPLACEMENT
7C.0. NOTATION
a
1
= Modal acceleration belonging to first (prevalent) mode
a
y1
= Equivalent yield acceleration belonging to first mode
C
R1
= Spectral displacement ratio belonging to first mode
d
1
= Modal displacement belonging to first (prevalent) mode
d
y1
= Equivalent yield displacement belonging to first mode
d
(p)
1
= Maximum modal displacement (modal displacement request) belonging to
first mode achieved at the end of last p’th impulse step
R
y1
= Strength Decrease Coefficient belonging to first mode
S
(1)
ac1
= Elastic spectral acceleration belonging to first mode at the first step of the
impulse analyze
S
(1)
de1
= Linear elastic spectral displacement belonging to first mode at the first step of
the impulse analyze
S
de1
= Nonlinear elastic spectral displacement belonging to first mode
T
B
= Characteristic period in acceleration spectrums defined in 6.4
T
(1)
1
= Natural vibration period belonging to first vibration mode (prevalent in
earthquake direction) in impulse step (i=1)at the beginning
(1)
1
= Natural angular frequency belonging to first vibration mode (prevalent in
earthquake direction) in impulse step (i=1)at the beginning
B
= Natural angular frequency correspond to characteristic period in acceleration
spectrum defined in 6.4
7C.1. Linear and Non  Linear Spectral Replacements
Non  linear inelastic spectral replacement,
di1
S , in the first step of the drift analysis, shall
be obtained with Equation (7C.1) depending on the linear elastic spectral
replacement
de1
S which corresponds to
(1)
1
T beginning period regarding the first (dominant)
mode calculated as based on linear elastic behavior:
di1 R1 de1
= S C S (7C.1)
Linear elastic spectral replacement
de1
S is calculated from elastic spectral acceleration
ae1
S regarding first mode in the first step of drift analysis:
ae1
de1
(1) 2
1
=
(e )
S
S (7C.2)
7C.2. Ratio of Spectral Replacement
Ratio of spectral replacement C
R1
, in Equation (7C.1) is determined according to 7C.2.1
or 7C.2.2 depending on the value
(1) (1)
1 1
( = 2 /e ) T π of starting period
(1)
1
T .
7C.2.1 – In case where the starting period
(1)
1
T is equal to or more than the characteristic
period T
B
in the acceleration spectrum defined in 2.4, (
(1)
1 B
T T ≥
or
(1) 2 2
1 B
(e ) e ≤ ), non 
linear inelastic spectral replacement
di1
S is taken as equal to
de1
S linear elastic spectral
replacement regarding also the conjugated linear elastic system which’s natural period is
also
(1)
1
T in accordance with equal replacement rule. Accordingly, spectral replacement
ratio in Equation (7C.1) is as follows:
R1
= 1 C (7C.3)
143
In Figure 7C.1 and following Figure 7C.2, model capacity diagram that the coordinates
are (d
1
, a
1
) and belong to first (dominant) vibration mode and behavioral spectrum that the
coordinates are “spectral replacement (S
d
) – spectral acceleration (S
a
)” are drawn
together.
7C.2.2 – In case where the starting period
(1)
1
T is less than the characteristic period T
B
in
the acceleration spectrum defined in 2.4,
(1)
1 B
T T < or
(1) 2 2
1 B
(e ) e > ), spectral replacement
ratio C
R1
in Equation (7C.1) shall be calculated with successive approach method as
follows:
Figure 7C.1
(a) Modal capacity diagram obtained as a result of drift analysis, as shown in Figure 7C.2
(a), is turned approximately into a bilinear diagram. Slope of the starting line of this
diagram is taken as equal (
(1) (1)
1 1
= 2 /e T π ) with Eigen value
(1) 2
1
(e ) pertaining to the first
mode that is the slope of the line in the first step (i=1) of drift analysis.
(b) As accepted C
R1
= 1 in the first step of successive approach, in other words by using
Equation (7C.3) coordinates of equivalent yield point is determined with equal areas rule.
C
R1
is defined as follows as based
o
y1
a seen in Figure 7C.2 (a):
(1)
y1 B 1
R1
y1
1 + ( 1) /
= 1
R T T
C
R
−
≥ (7C.4)
In this correlation, R
y1
indicates the strength reduce factor pertaining to first mode:
ae1
y1
y1
=
S
R
a
(7C.5)
d
1,
S
d
(p)
1 di1 de1
= = d S S
(1) 2
1
(e )
S
ae1
a
1,
S
a
2 2
B B
e =(2 / ) T π
144
(c) By using C
R1
in Equation (7C.4), coordinates of equivalent yield point is redetermined
with equal areas rule by taking
di1
S calculated according to Equation (7C.1) as basis, as
shown in Figure 7C.2 (b) and accordingly a
y1
, R
y1
and C
R1
are calculated again. When the
results obtained from successive two steps reasonably close up then the successive
approached is concluded.
Figure 7C.2
(a)
a
1,
S
a
S
ae1
(1) 2
1
(e )
o
y1
a
S
di1
S
de
d
1,
S
d
(b)
(p)
1 di1
= d S
S
de1
d
1,
S
d
a
y1
S
ae1
a
1,
S
a
o
y1
a
(1) 2
1
(e )
145
INFORMATION ANNEX 7D
IMPULSE ANALYZE WITH INCREMENTAL MODE COMBINATION
7D.0. NOTATION
(i)
n
a = Modal acceleration belonging to n’th mode at the end of (i)’th impulse step.
a
yn
= Equivalent outflow acceleration belonging to n’th mode
C
Rn
= Spectral displacement ratio belonging to n’th mode
(i)
n
d = Modal displacement belonging to n’th mode at the end of (i)’th impulse step
(i)
F
= Cumulative scale factor belonging to (i)’th impulse step
(i)
j,x
M = Bending moment formed around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section at the end
of (i)’th impulse step,
(i)
j,x
M
= Bending moment calculated around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section at the
(i)’th impulse step, in the result of linear mode combination analyze with
taking
(i)
=1 F ∆
.
(i)
j,y
M = Bending moment formed around the y axis in (j) plastic cross section at the
end of (i)’th impulse step,
(i)
j,y
M
= Bending moment calculated around the y axis in (j) plastic cross section at the
(i)’th impulse step, in the result of linear mode combination analyze with
taking
(i)
=1 F ∆
.
m
s
= Mass of any (s) degrees of freedom
(i)
j
N = Axial force formed in (j) plastic cross section at the end of (i)’th impulse step
(i)
j
N
= Axial force calculated in (j) plastic cross section at the (i)’th impulse step, in
the result of linear mode combination analyze with taking
(i)
=1 F ∆
R
yn
= Strength Decrease Coefficient belonging to n’th mode
(i)
j
r = Typical displacement, plastically deformation or internal force which are
formed in any (j) point or cross section at the end of (i)’th impulse step
(i)
j
r = Typical displacement, plastically deformation or internal force calculated in (j)
point or cross section at the (i)’th impulse step, in the result of linear mode
combination analyze with taking
(i)
=1 F ∆
.
(1)
aen
S = Elastic spectral acceleration belonging to n’th mode in the first step of the
impulses analyzes.
(1)
den
S = Linear Elastic spectral displacement belonging to n’th mode in the first step of
the impulses analyze
T
B
= Characteristic period in acceleration spectrum defined in 6.4’de
(1)
n
T = Natural vibration period belonging to n’th vibration mode in the impulse step
at the beginning (i=1)
jk,x
α = Coefficient which is defining (k)’th yield platform or line concerning with the
moment around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section
jk,y
α = Coefficient which is defining (k)’th yield platform or line concerning with the
moment around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section
jk
β = Coefficient which is defining (k)’th yield platform or line concerning with the
axial force in (j) plastic cross section
146
(i)
n
a ∆ = Modal acceleration increase belonging to n’th mode in the (i)’th impulse step
(i)
n
d ∆ = Modal displacement increase belonging to n’th mode in the (i)’th impulse step
(i)
F ∆
= Increasing spectrum scale coefficient in the (i)’th impulse step
(i)
sn
Af = Increasing of the displacement effecting any (s) degrees of freedom of the
system for n’th natural vibration mode in the (i)’th impulse step
(i)
sn
Au = Increasing of the earthquake load effecting any (s) degrees of freedom of the
system for n’th natural vibration mode in the (i)’th impulse step
(i)
sn
4 = Amplitude belonging to (s) degrees of freedom of n’th mode figure which was
determined by considering plastic cross section configuration in that step at the
(i)’th impulse step
(i)
xn
I = Contribution factor belonging to n’th natural vibration mode for the
earthquake in x direction at the (i)’th impulse step
B
e = Natural angular frequency correspond to T
B
characteristic period in
acceleration spectrum defined in 6.4’de
(i)
n
e = Natural angular frequency belonging to (s) degrees of freedom of n’th mode
figure this was determined by considering plastic cross section configuration
in that step at the (i)’th impulse step
(1)
n
e = Natural angular frequency belonging to n’th vibration mode in the impulse step
at the beginning (i=1)
(p)
n
e = At the last impulse step (i=p)
7D.1. Introduction
7D.1.1 – The most significant disadvantage of conducting repulsion analysis using the
Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method explained in 7.6.5 is the assumption
proposing that the seismic behavior of the loadbearing system is solely composed of the
behavior in the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) natural vibration mode. Due to
this reason, the applicability of the method is limited to the fewfloor buildings and the
buildings that are symmetric or nearly symmetric to the seismic direction according to the
plans. Although various repulsion analysis methods that can be applied to the buildings that
doesn’t satisfy these conditions as they consider multiple vibration modes are proposed, the
majority of these deal only with determining the global strength and deformation capacities
of the loadbearing system. There are a limited number of methods that aim at deriving the
volition values required to make performance evaluation under the effect of a certain
earthquake [1–5]
∗
. By means of the Incremental Mode Combination Method
explained in this Information Appendix, the contributions of individual modes to the
formation of each plastic section can be considered in the repulsion analysis [4, 5], and the
plastic rotations and inner force volitions can directly be derived without requiring any
additional analysis.
7D.1.2 – In repulsion analyses conducted under Incremental Mode Combination Method,
“stepbystep linear elastic” behavior in each repulsion step between the plastic section
formation between two subsequent sections is taken as a basis. Considering the modal
translocations monotonically increased via modal scaling, a linear behavior spectrum in
each step of which mode combination rules are applied is obtained. Utilizing the results of
this analysis, the plastic section formed at the end of the step is determined and
translocation, plastic deformation and inner force increments together with the incremental
values corresponding to these increments and thus the maximum values corresponding to
the seismic volition are calculated [4, 5].
147
7D.2. Modal scaling
7D.2.1 – The translocation increment in an (i)
th
linear repulsion step in the formation of
two subsequent plastic sections for any independence level (s) for a typical n
th
natural
vibration mode can be written as the following:
(i) (i) (i) (i)
sn sn xn n
A = 4 I A u d (7D.1)
7D.2.2  With adding the
(i)
n
d ∆ that represents modal replacement increase in the (n)
th
at
the(i)
th
drift step and located in Equation (7D.1) to the modal replacement at the end of the
previous drift step, cumulative modal replacement at the end of the (i)
th
step is obtained as
follows:
(i) (i 1) (i)
n n n
= + d d d
−
∆ (7D.2)
In order to consider relative contributions of the modes, according to equal replacement rule
pertaining to single degree of freedom system, cumulative modal replacement, is defined
proportionally to elastic spectral replacement
(1)
den
S in the first step (i= 1) at the same mode:
(i) (1) (i)
n den
= d S F
(7D.3)
Here
(i)
F
indicates the cumulative spectrum scale factor which is considered as constant for
all modes in the (i)
th
drift step. As a result of Equation (7D.2) and Equation (7D.3), modal
replacement increase in the n
th
mode is defined as follows:
(i) (1) (i)
n den
= d S F ∆ ∆
(7D.4)
Here
(i)
F ∆
is also indicates the incremental spectrum scale factor which is considered as
constant for all modes in the (i)
th
drift step. Thus, all modal replacement increases are figured
with single parameter. Relation between incremental and cumulative spectrum scale factors
are formulated as below:
(i) (i 1) (i)
= + 1 F F F
−
∆ ≤
(7D.5)
(1)
den
S Elastic spectral replacement defined for the first (i= 1) drift step at the above
correlations can be obtained from elastic spectral replacement defined according to 2.4 for
the same step:
(1)
(1) aen
den
(1) 2
n
=
(e )
S
S (7D.6)
7D.2.3 – Modal scaling correlations given with Equation (7D.3) and Equation (7D.4),
correspond to monolithically increasing elastic spectral replacement during each drift step
where a new plastic section formed. In other words, seismic effects in terms of spectral
replacements are increased in definite amount in the each drift step starting from zero.
First plastic
section step
Mid  Step
Last step
d, S
d
a, S
a
n=1
n=2
n=
n=
Figure 7D.1
148
At the end of the linear elastic first step where first plastic section in the system is formed
scaled condition of behavioral spectrum
(1)
( 1) F ≤
drawn at the coordinates of “spectral
replacement (S
d
) – spectral acceleration (S
a
)” by using Equation (7D.6) is shown in
Figure 7D.1. Scaled condition of spectrum at the end of any following (i)
th
inter  step
(i)
( 1) F ≤
is also seen similarly. At the end of the last step of (p)
th
drift, in accordance with
the equal replacement rule, elastic behavioral spectrum is obtained
(p)
( = 1). F
Also modal
capacity diagrams to be obtained below and defined with the coordinates of “Modal
replacement (d) – modal acceleration (a)” are schematically shown in Figure 7D. 1 for
the first four mode of a considered typical structural system
7D.3. Drift Analysis Algorithm with Incremental Mod Combination Method
By grounding the modal scaling transaction defined above, main steps of the drift analysis to
be applied with incremental mode combination method are summarized below:
7D.3.1 – In the practical implementation of the Incremental Mode Combination Method,
linear Mod Combination Analysis is made by taking
(i)
= 1 F ∆
in the each (i)
th
drift step. In
the analysis, by grounding the axial forces at the end of the previous step, effects of second
stage can be taken into consideration. Number of mode to be considered is determined
according to 2.8.3 as based on the biggest modals in the first drift step (i=1). In this analysis;
(a) According to Equation (7D.1) and Equation (7D.4), elastic spectral replacement
(1)
den
S
in the first drift step (i=1) is taken into account as an earthquake data for a typical n
th
mode.
This introduction information is used exactly in all drift steps without any change.
(b) For the calculations of all replacements, deformations, modal contributions to internal
force magnitudes, Complete Quadric Combination Rule (CQC) specified in 2.8.4 is applied.
In the implementation of this rule, critical damping ratio is taken as 0.05 in all modes.
7D.3.2 – At the end of any (i)
th
drift step between sequential two plastic section, typical
magnitude
(i)
j
r represents any replacement, plastic deformation or internal force formed in
any (j) point or section of the structural system is formulated in terms of incremental scale
factor
(i)
F ∆
pertaining only to (i)
th
step as unknown as below:
(i) (i 1) (i) (i)
j j j
= + r r r F
−
∆
(7D.7)
Definitions concerning this correlation are given below:
(a) At the end of a linear mod combination analysis made according to 7D.3.1 in the (i)
th
drift step by taking
(i)
= 1 F ∆
,
(i)
j
r represents a typical replacement, plastic deformation or
internal force calculated in the (j) point or section. Because the indicators became
disappeared due to the implementation of Complete Quadric Combination (CQC) modal
combination rule; indicator in the mode where the biggest absolute value is obtained from
typical replacement, plastic deformation or internal force is taken into account.
(b)
(i)
j
r represents the typical magnitude to be obtained according to 7D.3.5 after the
calculation of
(i)
F ∆
according to 7D.3.4 at the end of (i)
th
drift step. Whereas
(i 1)
j
r
−
shows
the magnitude obtained at the end of the previous (i  1)
th
drift step. In this context, step zero
(i–1=0), which is before the first drift step (i=1) corresponds to the typical magnitude
obtained from the gravity load analysis that is necessarily made before the drift analysis.
149
7D.3.3 – General correlation given in Equation (7D.7) in the each drift step is specially
written for the bending moment in every potential plastic section in the beams, for the
internal forces that form the coordinates of yield surface in the columns and walls. For the
biaxial bending and axial force in three  dimensional behavior condition:
(i) (i 1) (i) (i)
j,x j,x j,x
(i) (i 1) (i) (i)
j,y j,y j,y
(i) (i 1) (i) (i)
j j j
= +
= +
= +
M M M F
M M M F
N N N F
−
−
−
∆
∆
∆
(7D.8)
7D.3.4 – In case of a three  dimensional behavior as considered generally, analytical
formulation of the (k)
th
plane part that corresponds any of the yield surfaces linearized
according to 7.6.4.5 in the section (j) is formulated as follow:
jk,x j,x jk,y j,y jk j
+ + = 1 M M N α α β (7D.9)
With placing the magnitudes in Equation (7D.8) to Equation (7D.9), incremental scale
factor pertaining to (i)
th
step is calculated without the need of successive approach:
(i 1) (i 1) (i 1)
jk,x j,x jk,y j,y jk j (i)
jk
(i) (i) (i)
jk,x j,x jk,y j,y jk j
1
( ) =
+ +
M M N
F
M M N
− − −
− α − α − β
∆
α α β
(7D.10)
In any of (j) potential plastic section, after finding the positive and smallest
(i)
jk
( ) F ∆
values
obtained for all (k) yield surfaces (lines), the smallest one of them calculated in the structural
system is obtained as the
(i)
F ∆
incremental scale factor at the end of (i)
th
step. And the
section (j) which is corresponding to this value is determined the place of the newly
established plastic section in the system.
7D.3.5 – After obtaining
(i)
F ∆
in the (i)
th
drift step;
(a) Cumulative spectrum scale factor
(i)
F
is calculated from the Equation (7D.5).
(b)
(i)
j
r , any typical replacement, plastic deformation or internal force magnitude formed in
the any (j) point or section of the structural system is obtained according to Equation (7D.7).
(c) Modal replacement increments pertaining to considered all modes are calculated from
Equation (7D.4). Cumulative modal replacements at the end of the (i)
th
drift step are
calculated from Equation (7D.2) or Equation (7D.3).
7D.3.6 – Modal acceleration increments pertaining to all modes in the (i)
th
step are calculated
with the following correlation:
(i) (i) 2 (i)
n n n
= (e ) a d ∆ ∆ (7D.11)
However not used directly from the formulation of the Incremental Mode Combination
Method as stated here, as a description, modal seismic load increment
(i)
sn
Af that affects the (s)
freedom degree in the (n)
th
mode is given above depending on the modal acceleration
increment
(i)
n
a ∆ :
(i) (i) (i) (i)
sn s sn xn n
A = 4 I A f m a (7D.12)
Cumulative modal acceleration values at the end of the (i)
th
drift step are calculated with the
below formula:
(i) (i 1) (i)
n n n
= + a a a
−
∆ (7D.13)
150
7D.3.7 – Typical modal capacity diagrams in which modal replacements are indicated in
horizontal axis and modal accelerations are indicated in vertical axis is shown in Figure
7D.1. As a description, slope of a line section between two sequential plastic sections in the
typical capacity diagram pertaining to n
th
mode is equal to the square of the natural angular
frequency of the n
th
mode in that step in accordance with the Equation (7D.11)
(i) 2
n
(e ) , in
other words, equals to n
th
Eigen value. As a result of the spread of the plastic replacements,
Eigen values of some modes due to the effects of second stage, accordingly the slopes the
relevant modal capacity diagrams can take negative values after a definite drift step. It should
be taken into consideration that the effects of second stage can change the shapes of modes.
Whereas its effects on the modal seismic prompts are generally in allowable levels
7D.3.8 – After the completion of a drift stage, by considering the plastic section formed at
the end of that stage, necessary changes are made in the rigidity matrix of system and
transactions are started for the new drift stage. 7.6.4.7 Should be considered in the drift
stages that follow the plasticity in the sections under the effects of uniaxial or biaxial
bending or axial forces.
7D.4. Determination of Prompt Magnitudes
7D.4.1– Modal replacements in the Incremental Mod Combination Method reaches their
maximum values with all other modes. At the end of each drift step, it is controlled
whether the cumulative spectrum scale factor which is calculated with Equation (7D.5)
exceeds the unit value as a maximum value or not. In case of non  exceedance, the
analysis continued as defined above. In case of an exceedance;
(a) The obtained drift stage is defined as the last stage and represented by (p) superscript.
Taking i = p, and considering
(p)
= 1 F
, incremental spectrum scale factor concerning the
last stage is calculated with Equation (7D.5):
(p) (p 1)
= 1 F F
−
∆ −
(7D.14)
(b) However it is necessary to re  define the modal replacement in the n
th
mode defined
with Equation (7D.4) at the last drift stage as follows:
(p) (1) (p)
n Rn den
= d C S F ∆ ∆
(7D.15)
In any of the mode in case C
Rn
> 1 according to 7D.4.2,
(1)
Rn den
C S is taken as data for
earthquake instead of
(1)
den
S in 7D.3.1 and with the Method of Mod Combination
(p)
j
r value
pertaining to typical magnitude is re  calculated.
(c) Maximum value of typical replacement, plastic deformation and internal force, in other
words typical prompt magnitude are obtained according to Equation (7D.7):
(p) (p 1) (p) (p)
j j j
= + r r r F
−
∆
(7D.16)
7D.4.2 –
Rn
C spectral replacement ratio regarding any considered n
th
mode is calculated as
follows:
(a) In case the condition
(1)
n B
T T > [or
(1) 2 2
n B
(e ) e < ] is covered then
Rn
C = 1 is taken.
(b) In case where
(1)
n B
T T < [or
(1) 2 2
n B
(e ) e > ] then
Rn
C can be approximately determined as
follows:
(p) 2
(p) n
n
(1) 2
n
(e )
=
(e )
λ ;
151
(1)
yn B n (p)
Rn n
yn
(1)
yn B n (p)
Rn n
(p)
n yn
1 + ( 1) /
= 1 ( 0 10)
1 + ( 1) /
= 1 ( 0 10)
10
.
.
R T T
C
R
R T T
C
R
−
≥ λ ≤
−
≥ λ >
λ
(7D.17)
In this correlation R
yn
, indicates the strength reduce factor obtained from the bilinear
modal capacity diagram drawn for n’th mode:
(1)
aen
yn
yn
=
S
R
a
(7D.18)
Related to the successive approach concerning bilinear modal capacity diagram, the
approach given for the first mode (dominant) and Information Annex 7C are useful (See
Figure 7C.2).
7D.5. Special Conditions
7D.5.1 – If it is assumed that solely the primary (dominant in the earthquake direction) mode has
impact on the loadbearing system behavior, all of the equations given below regarding the
Incremental Mode Combination Method can only be used for the dominant mode, without
introducing any modifications. The repulsion analysis for this special condition is reduced
in the singlemode repulsion analysis in which the load distribution in every repulsion step
is assumed to be variable for the Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method according
to 7.6.5.5. For this solution in which the modal scaling is not considered, the magnitudes
obtained during all repulsion analysis steps before the final step where i = p are independent
of the earthquake selected.
7D.5.2 – In case the loadbearing system behavior is linear elastic, Incremental Mode
Combination Method is reduced to the linear Mode Combination Method. Since the modal
translocation volition will be obtained without any plastic deformation coming out as the
yield surfaces are fictitiously expanded, the repulsion analysis in such a case will terminate
after a single step and the modal capacity diagrams given in Figure 7D.1’will consist only
of line segments for each.
7D.6. References
[1] Chopra, A.K, Goel, R.K (2002). A modal pushover analysis for estimating seismic
demands for buildings, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics; 31(3): 561582.
[2] Goel, R.K, Chopra, A.K, (2004). Evaluation of Modal and FEMA Pushover Analyses:
SAC Buildings. Earthquake Spectra; 20(1): 225–254.
[3] Goel, R.K, Chopra, A.K, (2005). Extension of Modal Pushover Analysis to compute
member forces, Earthquake Spectra; 21(1): 125–139.
[4] Aydınoglu, M. N. (2003). An incremental response spectrum analysis based on
inelastic spectral displacements for multimode seismic performance evaluation. Bulletin
of Earthquake Engineering; 1(1): 3–36.
[5] Aydınoglu, M. N. (2004). An improved pushover procedure for engineering practice:
Incremental Response Spectrum Analysis (IRSA). International Workshop on Performance
 based Seismic Design: Concepts and Implementation, edited by P. Fajfar and H.
Krawinkler, Bled, Slovenia, 28 June – 1 July 2004, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center,
University of California, Berkeley, PEER Report 2004/05: 345–356
152
INFORMATION ANNEX 7E
INCREMENT CALCULATION OF STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY IN THE
COULMNS COATED WITH FIBER POLYMER
7E.0. NOTATIONS
A
s
= Column reinforcement area (for single bar)
b = Width of the horizontal plates.
b
w
= Cross section body width
d = Effective height of the cross section
d′ = Thickness of the corrosion allocation.
E
f
= Elasticity module of the fibrous polymer
f
cc
= Compressive strength of the concrete enswathed with fibrous polymer.
f
cm
= Compressive strength of the existing concrete defined according to 7.2
f
ym
= Outflow strength of the existing steel defined according to 7.2
h = Dimension of cross section in the direction of
f
hs
= Tension defiant 0.001 unit lengthening in transversely reinforcement
f
l
= lateral pressure provided by fibrous polymer
L
s
= Existing overlap length
n = Number of overlapped reinforcement
n
f
= LP winding plate number in one side
p = Perimeter of core cross section
r
c
= Truncation radius made in the corners
s
f
= Distance of the fibrous polymer band from axis to axis
t
f
= Effective thickness for one plate of fibrous polymer
V
c
= Contribution of the concrete to the shearing force strength
V
f
= Contribution of the fibrous polymer to the shearing force strength
V
max
= Shearing force defined in order to limit main pressure tensions
V
r
= Shearing strength of the column or cross section
V
s
= Contribution of the transversely reinforcement to the shearing power
strength
w
f
= Width of the fibrous polymer band
c
cc
= Unit shortening correspond to coated concrete pressure strength
c
f
= Effective unit lengthening limit of the fibrous polymer
c
fu
= Breaking unit lengthening of the fibrous polymer
a
κ = Cross section figure coefficient of performance
φ = Diameter of reinforcement
p
f
= Volume ratio of the fibrous polymer
7E.1. Increasing the Shearing strength of the Columns
Shearing force strength of column and beams coated with FP is calculated with Equation
(7E.1).
r c s f max
V V V V V = + + ≤ (7E.1)
Values of the concrete contribution to shearing force strength
c
V , contribution of transverse
reinforcement
s
V and
max
V defined in order to limit principle pressure tensile shall be
calculated only with current material strengths determined according to 7.2 with the
Equation suggested by TS  500. In case the coating realized with strips, contribution of FP
coating
f
V to shearing force strength shall be calculated with Equation (7E.2).
153
f f f f f
f
f
2 n t w E d
V
s
ε
= (7E.2)
In Equation (7E.2), n
f
indicates the number of FP coating layers on one side, t
f
indicates
effective thickness for one FP layer, w
f
indicates the width of the FB strip, E
f
indicates the
elasticity modulus of FP, ε
f
indicates the effective unit extension boundary of FP, d
indicates the useful height of element, and s
f
indicates spaces of FP strips from axis to axis
(Figure 7E.1). In case the coating is made continuously, w
f
= s
f
is taken. Effective unit
extension value is taken according to Equation (7E.3).
f
f fu
c 0.004
c 0.50c
≤
≤
(7E.3)
In the Equation (7E.3) ε
fu
is the unit breaking strain of FP. In case transient FB is used (in
strips), spaces of FP strips s
f
shall not exceed
f
( 4) w d + value.
a) Kolonlar b) Kirisler
d
Lifli
polimer
tam sargı
w
f
s
f
r
c
Tabla
Figure 7E.1
7E.2. Increasing the Axial Pressure Strength of Columns
In order to increase axial pressure strengths of the columns with FP coating, ratio of the
long dimension of column section shall not more than two times the short dimension of the
column section. By turning the cross  sections of columns from rectangular to ellipse
effectiveness of the FB may be increased. Ratio of long dimension to short dimension in
may be maximum three in ellipse sections. While calculating axial load strength of a
column coated with FP, f
cc
value determined with Equation (7E.4) shall be used instead of
f
cd
for the pressure strength of the concrete.
( )
cc cm 1 cm cm
1+2.4( / ) 1 2 . f f f f f = ≥ (7E.4)
In the Equation (7E.4)
cm
f is the current pressure strength of un  coated concrete and
l
f is
the lateral pressure amount provided by FP coating.
l
f shall be calculated according to
Equation (7E.5).
l a f f f
1
k p c
2
f E = (7E.5)
In the Equation (7E.5) ε
f
shall be calculated with Equation (7E.3). In this Equation
a
k is
the effectiveness factor of section shapes, and
f
ρ is the volumetric ratio of Fp.
a
k is given
for several sections in Equation (7E.6).
154
a
2 2
c c
1
k
( 2 ) ( 2 )
1
3
Dairesel kesit
b
Elips kesit
h
b r h r
Dikdörtgen kesit
bh
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦ 
=
´ `

\ .
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
− + −
¦ ¦ −
¦ )
¹
(7E.6)
B and h shown in Equation (7E.6) are the lengths of the short and long sides for
rectangular cross sections, relevant dimensions for the short and long sizes of elliptic cross
sections and r
c
is the radius of rolling in rectangular cross sections (Figure 7E.2).
a)Dairesel Kolon b) Dörtgen Kolon c) Eliptik Kolon
h
b
r
c
h
b
Dolgu
beton
h
r
c
r
c
$ekil 7E.2
7E.3. Increasing the ductility of columns
In order to increase the ductility of columns via FP coiling, the ratio of the length of the
long edge of the column to that of the short edge should not be higher than two. This ratio
can not be higher than three in elliptic cross sections. Unit shortening (ε
cc
) that coincides
with the concrete pressure tolerance in a column that is coiled via FP can be determined by
Equation (7E.7).
( )
0 75
cc 1 cm
= 0 002 1 15( )
.
. / f f ε + (7E.7)
f
l
in Equation (7E.7) shall be calculated by Equation (7E.5). In order to increase the
ductility via FP coiling the minimum tolerance increase determined by Equation (7E.4)
shall be maintained.
(a) While using linear elastic calculation methods, whenever the ε
cc
value of any column,
as calculated by Equation (7E.7), is greater than 0.018, the column is accepted as coiled;
otherwise it is accepted as uncoiled.
(b) For linear inelastic calculation methods, while obtaining the momentumcurvature
relation of the FP coiled cross sections, an idealized stretchingdeformation relation that
shall be composed of two lines may be used for the FP coiled concretes. The stretching
and deformation values of this relation can be taken as f
c
(capacity) and 0.002. Values at
the last point of the stretchingdeformation relation are calculated by Equation (7E.4) and
Equation (7E.7). In the FP coiled armored concrete carrier system elements, where plastic
deformation has occurred, maximum concrete unit shortening value for the cave in the
cross section is equal to the value calculated by Equation (7E.7), that for the security limit
is 75% of to the value calculated by Equation (7E.7) and minimum damage limit shall be
taken as 0.004 depending on the performance levels. These values and the unit lengthening
values of the equipment steel can not exceed the upper limits set in 7.6.9.
155
7E.4. Coating for Insufficient Overlapping Length in the Columns
Because coating effect is insufficient for the columns that the section length ratio is more
than two or the columns that the longitudinal reinforcements are smooth surface,
strengthening of the overlapping zones can not be made with FP coating. Necessary FP
thickness for covering insufficiency of overlapping length on the columns of which
longitudinal reinforcements are ribbed shall be calculated according to Equation (7E.8).
w k hs
f
f
500 ( ) b f f
t
E
−
= (7E.8)
In the Equation (7E.8) b
w
is the width of the section,
hs
f is the tensile that corresponds
0.001 unit extension in the transverse reinforcement. κ
a
factor should be calculated
according to Equation (7E.6) for different sections. In the Equation (7E.8)
k
f value shall
be calculated according to Equation (7E.9).
s ym
k
s
2
2
A f
f
p
d L
n
=
(
′ + φ+
(
¸ ¸
( )
(7E.9)
In the Equation (7E.9)
s
A is the area of column reinforcement (for single strip), f
ym
is the
yield strength of current reinforcement, p is the periphery of core section, n is the
overlapped reinforcement number, φ is the diameter of reinforcement, d′ is the thickness
of rust and
s
L is the existing overlapping length.
156
INFORMATION ANNEX 7F
METHODS FOR STRENGTHENING OF THE INFILLED WALLS
7F.0. NOTATIONS
A
wall
= Horizontal cross section area of the filling wall
a
wall
= Width of the equivalent pressure bar (mm)
E
c
= Elasticity module of frame concrete
E
dp
= Elasticity module of the prefabricate concrete wall panel
E
wall
= Elasticity module of filling wall
f
dp
= Pressure strength of the prefabricate concrete wall panel
f
wall
= Pressure strength of filling wall
f
yd
= Design yield strength of the mesh reinforcement steel
h
wall
= Height of the filling wall (mm)
I
k
= Inertial moment of the column (mm
4
)
k
wall
= Axial rigidity of the equivalent pressure bar
k
t
= Axial rigidity of the wall drawbar which was strengthened with fibrous
polymer
l
min
= Minimum depth of anchorage bar
r
wall
= Diagonal length of filling wall
s
max
= Maximum distance of anchorage bar
t
dp
= Thickness of the prefabricate concrete wall panel (mm)
t
wall
= Thickness of the filling wall
T
f
= Tensile strength of the wall drawbar which was strengthened with fibrous
polymer
t
f
= Thickness of the fibrous polymer
V
wall
= Shearing force strength of the filling wall
ø
min
= Minimum diameter of anchorage bar
wall
= Coefficient of equivalent pressure bar
p
sh
= Ratio of horizontal body reinforcement in the curtain and wall to the brut
cross sectional area of curtain body
θ θθ θ
i
= Angle of equivalent pressure bar with horizontal one
r
wall
= Sliding strength of the filling wall
r
dp
= Sliding strength of the prefabricate concrete wall panel
7F.1. Strengthening the Filled Walls
The rigidity and the shear strength of the filled walls in the reinforced concrete frame that is
continuous beginning from the top of grounding up to the top may be improved using the
methods given below provided that the methods are applied as per7.10.4 to at most three
floor buildings excluding the basement floor.
7F.2. Strengthening the Filled Walls using Matted Steel Reinforced Special Plaster
The rigidity and the shear strength of the filled walls can be improved with specialmixture
matted steelreinforced plaster layer to be applied on the wall surface.
(a) The thickness of the plaster layer should be minimum 30 mm and the rust space of the
matted reinforcement should be minimum 20 mm. Specialmixture plaster will be made with
4 volume sand, 1 volume cement and 1 volume lime mixture. The pressure strength of the
plaster made in this mixture composition will be minimum 5.
(b) The ratio of the diagonal length of the wall to be strengthened to the thickness before the
strengthening is applied should be lower than 30. For this type of applications, formation of
pressure stick in the existing frame should be ensured and the anchors necessary to maintain
the load transfer to the frame should be designed. Because of this requirement, there should
a splicing of at least 30 mm deep between the wall surface the application will be made on
and the outer surface of the frame components (Figure 7F.1). Otherwise, this type of wall
strengthening cannot be applied.
157
(c) The minimum value of the diameter of the frame anchoring stick that will be used
between the reinforcement  plaster layer and the frame components should be 12 mm,
minimum anchor depth should be ten times of the stick diameter and the widest stick
splicing should be 300 mm. Moreover, so as to enable the reinforced plaster layer and the
existing filled wall to work together, body anchoring perpendicular to the wall axis should
be applied as four anchors per one square meter wall area. The body anchoring sticks to be
applied perpendicular to the wall will be buried in the mortar joints of the filled wall
provided that the minimum diameter of the stick of 8 mm and the anchoring dept will be at
least ten times of the stick diameter. All anchor sticks applied perpendicular or parallel to the
wall axis will be implemented in the holes to be born with an epoxy  based material and the
edges will be put through the matted reinforcement, bending the edges 90˚ to become in L
shape. The details on the application are shown in Figure 7F.1.
(d) To enable the forces arising in the strengthened filled walls to be transferred to the ground,
required grounding arrangement should be implemented. The walls strengthened with matted
steel reinforcement will be included in the structure model in accordance with the principles
given below.
7F.2.1 – Modeling Principles: The rigidity and strength features to be used so as for the
filled walls strengthened with matted steel reinforcement to be represented in the structure
model are defined below. Filled walls that are designed in reinforced concrete frames and
the ratio of the diagonal length to the thickness for which is below 30 will be taken into
consideration in the structural modeling. The walls that include splicing the ratio of which to
wall surface doesn’t exceed 10 % may be included in the structure modeling provided that
the positions of the splicing don’t block the formation of diagonal pressure stick. Filled walls
strengthened with matted steel will be represented with equivalent diagonal stick
components that receive pressure force in the direction that the earthquake is applied.
(a) Rigidity: The thickness of the equivalent pressure stick is equal to the thickness of the
strengthened filled wall. The width a
wall
will be calculated using Equation (7F.1).
wall k wall wall
r h a
4 , 0
) ( 175 . 0
−
= λ
(7F.1)
In this formulation, a
wall
is the width of the stick (mm), h
c
is the length of the column (mm)
and wall is the diagonal length of the filled wall (mm). λ
wall
will be calculated using
Equation (7F.2).
4
1
4
20 sin
(
¸
(
¸
=
wall k c
wall wall
wall
h I E
t E
λ
(7F.2)
In Equation (7F.2), E
wall
and E
c
represent the elasticity module of the filled wall and the
frame concrete, t
wall
and h
wall
represents the thickness and the height of the strengthened wall
(mm), I
k
represents the inertia momentum of the column (mm
4
) and θ represents the angle
between the diagonal and the horizontal surface. The axial rigidity of the diagonal pressure
stick will be calculated using Equation (7F.3).
wall
wall wall wall
wall
r
E t a
k =
(7F.3)
Shear Strength: The horizontal component of the equivalent pressure force strength of the
diagonal stick will be considered as the shear force of the filled wall strengthened with
matted steel reinforcement. The shear strength of the filled wall, V
wall
, with horizontal section
area A
wall
, pressure strength f
wall
and shear strength τ
wall
will be calculated with Equation
(7F.4).
wall wall sh yd wall wall wall
f A f A V 22 . 0 ) ( ≤ + = ρ τ
(7F.4)
158
Here f
yd
represents the design yield strength of the matted reinforcement, and p
sh
represents
the ratio of the horizontal body reinforcements of the wall to the gross cross section area.
Matted reinforcement should have the same reinforcement area in horizontal and vertical
axes.
7F.2.2 – Material Qualifications: The recommended values for filled walls built with
different types of bricks in accordance with the E
wall
, f
wall
and τwall mentioned above are
given below. The composite sectional structure of the strengthened wall can be considered in
pressure and shear forces of the elasticity module.
Manufactured air brick:
E
wall
= 1000 MPa; f
wall
= 1.0 MPa; τ
wall
= 0.15 MPa (7F.5a)
Blend brick:
E
wall
= 1000 MPa; f
wall
= 2.0 MPa; τ
wall
= 0.25 MPa (7F.5b)
Gas concrete:
E
wall
= 1000 MPa; f
wall
= 1.5 MPa; τ
wall
= 0.20 MPa (7F.5c)
Figure 7F.1
159
7F.3. Strengthening Filled Walls with Fiber Polymer
The rigidity and the shear strength of the filled walls with lengthheight ratio between 0.5
and 2 can be improved by means of the fiber polymer (FP) applied to the wall surface.
(a) For these kinds of applications the formation of the pressure stick in the existing frame
should be ensured and anchors required sustain load transfer to the frame should be
arranged. For this reason, there should a splicing of at least 30 mm deep between the wall
surface the application will be made on and the outer surface of the frame components.
Otherwise, this type of wall strengthening cannot be applied.
(b) The details regarding the diagonalfiber polymer straps are shown in Figure 7F.2.
Square FP plates the width of which is not lower than the 1.5 times of the strap width will be
used to ensure the load distribution in the edge zones and to be able to install sufficient
number of anchors between the reinforced concrete frame and the FP straps. Fiber polymer
will be applied to both sides of the wall and the FP straps will be fixed to the wall by means
of the FP bolts passing through the whole wall thickness. The gap between the FP bolts
cannot be over 600 mm and the distance between the belt and the diagonal strap edge cannot
be over 150 mm. FP anchors will be used to enable the load transfer between the diagonal FP
strap and the frame. FP anchors will be formed via feeding the FP straps with epoxy and
rolling them around a silicon stick. The end edges of the FP anchors will be given shape of a
fan and minimum 4 anchors will be fitted by injecting epoxy to the dustfree hole, born in the
concrete in a manner that the diagonal will be in the direction of the FP strap. The width of
the FP rolled around the stick to prepare the anchor should not be below 100 mm. the
diameter and the width of the anchor hole will not be below 10 mm and 150 mm,
respectively. For the anchor prepared following the way explained, the one smaller in value
among 20 kN and 30 % of the shear strength of the FP rolled around the silicon stick will
be considered as the shear strength.
Figure 7F.2
(c) To enable the forces arising in the strengthened filled walls to be transferred to the ground,
required grounding arrangement should be implemented. The walls strengthened with fiber
polymers will be included in the structure models as per the principles given below.
7F.3.1 – Modeling Principles: The filled walls strengthened with fiber polymer will be
represented in the structure model by the couple diagonal pressure and pulling sticks.
(a) Pressure Sticks: The rigidity and the shear force of the pressure sticks will be calculated
in accordance with 7F.2.1 (a) and (b).
160
(b) Pulling Sticks: Pulling strength of the pulling stick T
f
will be calculated using
Equation (7F.6).
f f f f
t w E T 003 . 0 =
(7F.6)
Shear strength of the pulling stick will be considered as the horizontal component of the
pulling strength. Axial rigidity of the pulling stick will be calculates using Equation (7F.7).
wall
f f f
t
r
E t w
k =
(7F.7)
Here, E
f
, w
f
and t
f
represent the elasticity module, width and the thickness of the fiber
polymer strap, respectively, while r
wall
represents the diagonal length of the filled wall. The
value taken for w
f
cannot be bigger than the width calculated using Equation (7F.1).
7F.4. Strengthening the Filled Walls using Prefabricated Concrete Panels
The shear strength and the rigidity of the filled walls can be improved using precasting
concrete panel components. This type of strengthening should be applied to the walls for
which the lengthheight ratio varies between 0.5 and 2.
(a) Precasting panels will be fitted in a way that the panel certainly remains within the
frame, they won’t be fitted eccentrically. For this type of applications, formation of pressure
stick in the existing frame should be ensured and the anchors necessary to maintain the load
transfer to the frame should be designed. Because of this requirement, there should be
number of equalwidth splicing that is at least as thick as the wall between the wall surface
the application will be made on and the outer surface of the frame components (Figure
7F.3). Otherwise, this type of wall strengthening cannot be applied.
(b) The ratio of the diagonal length of the walls to be strengthened with prefabricated
concrete panels to the prestrengthening thickness should be smaller than 30. Pressure
strength of the precasting panel concrete will be minimum 40 MPa. To minimize the
shrinkage cracks and the cracks to be possibly formed during the movement, matted
reinforcement in single axis will be put in the middle of the panel. Matted reinforcement rate
in each axis will not be below 0.001. Minimum and maximum panel thicknesses will be 40
mm and 60 mm, respectively. The panels will be fitted to the walls using an epoxybased
adhesive. The adhesive will as well be applied to the areas between the components to bind
the panel components. The strength of concrete adhesion for the epoxybased adhesive to be
used will be minimum 2.5 MPa. The minimum anchor stick diameter that will be applied
between the precasting panels and the frame components will be 12 mm and the anchor
depth will be at least ten times of the stick diameter. The anchors should be applied to all
edges of the panels in connection with the frames and will be fitted to the frame using an
epoxybased adhesive. The panel edges in connection with the anchor should be produced
in a way that it contains gears leaving space for the anchor stick (Figure 7F.3).
(c) Prefabricated concrete panels can be in square or squarelike rectangular shape provided
that its weight enables it to be carried easily by two people or can be produced in form of
straps that can take place among the floors of the building. To enable the forces arising in the
strengthened filled walls to be transferred to the ground, required grounding arrangement should be
implemented. The walls strengthened with prefabricated concrete panels will be included in
the structure model in accordance with the principles given below.
7F.4.1 – Modeling Principles: Filled walls that are designed in reinforced concrete frames
and the ratio of the diagonal length to the thickness for which is below 30 will be taken into
consideration in the structural modeling. Filled walls strengthened with prefabricated
concrete panels will be represented with equivalent diagonal stick components that receive
pressure force in the direction that the earthquake is applied.
Figure F.3
(a) Rigidity: The rigidity of the equivalent pressure stick will be calculated as per 7F2.1 (a).
Instead of E
wall
and t
wall
, elasticity module and the thickness of the prefabricated concrete
panel E
dp
and t
dp
should be substituted in Equation (7F.3). The existing filled wall will not
be included in the calculation.
(b) Shear Strength: The shear strength of the filled wall strengthened with
prefabricated concrete panels will be considered as the horizontal component of the
equivalent pressure force strength of the diagonal stick. The reinforcement fitted in the panel
components will not be taken into consideration in calculating the shear force of the
strengthened filled wall. Moreover, the existing filled wall will as well not be considered in
the calculation. Shear strength of the strengthened filled wall, V
wall,
for which A
dp
represents
the horizontal section area, f
dp
represents the pressure strength and τ
dp
represents the
slipping strength, will be calculated using Equation (7F.8).
dp dp dp dp wall
f A A v 08 . 0 ≤ = τ
(7F.8)
1.2.2  The design earthquake considered in this Specification, corresponds to highintensity earthquake defined in 1.2.1 above. For buildings with Building Importance Factor of I=1 in accordance with Chapter 2, Table 2.3, the probability of exceedance of the design earthquake within a period of 50 years is 10 %. Earthquakes with different the probability of exceedance are defined in Chapter 7 in order to be considered in the evaluation and reinforcement of the existing buildings. 1.2.3  Seismic zones cited in this Specification are the first, second, third and fourth seismic zones depicted in Seismic Zoning Map of Turkey prepared by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement and issued by the decree of the Council of Ministers dated 18/04/1996 and numbered 96/8109. 1.2.4  Buildings to be built in the seismic zones according to this Specification shall be in accordance with Turkish Standards and “General Technical Specification” of the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement in terms of materials and labor.
2
CHAPTER 2  ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS 2.0. NOTATION A (T) = Spectral Acceleration Coefficient = Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient Ao Ba = Design internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its principal axis a = Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its Bax principal axis a due to earthquake in x direction Bay = Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its principal axis a due to earthquake in y direction perpendicular to x direction Bb = Design internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its principal axis b Bbx = Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its principal axis b due to earthquake in x direction Bby = Internal force component of a structural element in the direction of its principal axis b due to earthquake in y direction perpendicular to x direction = Any size calculated with the combination of mode contributions in the BB ModeSuperposition Method BD = Amplified value of BB Di = Amplification factor to be applied in Equivalent Seismic Load Method to ± %5 additional eccentricity at i’th storey of a torsionally irregular building dfi = Displacement calculated at i’th storey of building under fictitious loads Ffi di = Displacement calculated at i’th storey of building under design seismic loads Ffi = Fictitious load acting at i’th storey in the determination of fundamental natural vibration period Fi = Design seismic load acting at i’th storey in Equivalent Seismic Load Method fe = Equivalent seismic load acting at the mass centre of the mechanical and electrical equipment g = Acceleration of gravity (9.81 m / s2) gi = Total dead load at i’th storey of building Hi = Height of i’th storey of building measured from the top foundation level (In buildings with rigid peripheral basement walls, height of i’th storey of building measured from the top of ground floor level) HN = Total height of building measured from the top foundation level (In buildings with rigid peripheral basement walls, total height of building measured from the top of the ground floor level) Hw = Total height of partition measured from under the foundation or from the ground floor hi = Height of i’th storey of building [m] I = Building Importance Factor = Length of partition or piece of strap partition on plan w Mn = Modal mass of the n’th natural vibration mode Mxn = Effective participating mass of the n’th natural vibration mode of building in the x earthquake direction considered Myn = Effective participating mass of the n’th natural vibration mode of building in the y earthquake direction considered mi = i’th storey mass of building (mi = wi / g) mθi = In the case where floors are modeled as rigid diaphragms, mass moment of inertia around vertical axis passing through unshifted mass centre of i’th storey of building N = Total number of stories of building from the foundation level (In buildings with rigid peripheral basement walls, total number of stories from the ground floor level) 3
TB Tm . R factors defined for lower stories and the top floor. rotational component of n’th mode shape around the vertical axis at i’th storey of building Second Order Effect Indicator defined at i’th storey of building 4 . total design seismic load acting on the building (base shear) obtained by modal combination in the earthquake direction considered Total weight of building calculated by considering Live Load Participation Factor Weight of mechanical or electrical equipment Weight of i’th storey of building by considering Live Load Participation Factor Sufficient number of natural vibration modes taken into account in the ModeSuperposition Method Coefficient used for determining the gap size of a seismic joint Ratio of sum of shear forces developed at the bases of structural walls of high ductility level to total shear force developed at the bases for the entire building Coefficient used to determine lower limits of response quantities calculated by ModeSuperposition Method Storey drift of i’th storey of building Average storey drift of i’th storey of building Additional equivalent seismic load acting on the N’th storey (top) of building Effective storey drift of i’th storey of building Maximum effective storey drift of i’th storey of building Torsionally Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building Strength Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building Stiffness Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building In buildings with floors modeled as rigid diaphragms. prefabricated and structural steel buildings.5 for the case where entire seismic loads are carried by walls of high ductility level Seismic Load Reduction Factor Spectrum Coefficient Elasticity spectrum ordinate [m /s2] Acceleration spectrum ordinate for the r’th natural vibration mode [m /s2] Building natural vibration period [s] First natural vibration period of building [s] Spectrum Characteristic Periods [s] m’th and n’th natural vibration periods of building [s] Storey shear at i’th storey of building in the earthquake direction considered In the Equivalent Seismic Load Method. total equivalent seismic load acting on the building (base shear) in the earthquake direction considered In the ModeSuperposition Method. respectively. horizontal component of n’th mode shape in the y direction at i’th storey of building In buildings with floors modeled as rigid diaphragms.5 for the case where entire seismic loads are carried by frames of nominal ductility level Structural Behavior Factor defined in Table 2. Tn Vi Vt VtB W we wi Y α αS β ∆i (∆i)ave ∆FN δi (δi)mak ηbi ηci ηki Φxin Φyin Φθin θi = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Live Load Participation Factor Total live load at i’th storey of building Structural Behavior Factor In case single storey frames with columns hinged at the top are used as top floor (roof top) in cast – in – situ reinforced concrete. Structural Behavior Factor defined in Table 2. horizontal component of n’th mode shape in the x direction at i’th storey of building In buildings with floors modeled as rigid diaphragms.n qi R = = = Rdown. Rup = RNÇ RYP Ra(T) S(T) Sae(T) SaR(Tr) T T1 TA .
1.2 .It is essential that floor systems possess sufficient stiffness and strength to ensure the safe transfer of lateral seismic loads between the elements of the structural system.Design and construction of irregular buildings defined in 2. it is essential that stiff structural elements such as structural walls should be placed so as to increase the torsional stiffness of the building.Rules for the analysis of building foundations and soil retaining structures are specified in Chapter 6.Seismic loads and analysis requirements to be applied to the earthquake resistant design of all castinsite and prefabricated reinforced concrete buildings.3 .2.1.Unless specified otherwise in this chapter.3 .3.2. respectively. In insufficient cases.2. In this respect. i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e seismic loads acting on buildings. Spectral Acceleration Coefficient specified in 2.Nonbuilding structures which are permitted to be analyzed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter shall be limited to those given in Chapter.5 shall be based on.1.2.4 – Design loads to be applied for strengthening and evaluating earthquake performances of existing buildings are specified in Chapter 7. SCOPE 2.1 should preferably be avoided.1. 2.1. General Guidelines for Building Structural Systems 2. vertical irregularities defined as types B1 and B2 in Table 2.1.4 . 2. 2.1 .4 and Seismic Load Reduction Factor specified in 2.Effects of rotations of column and in particular wall supporting foundations on soils classified as group (C) and (D) in Table 6. 2.2.1. 2.12.2.1 of Chapter 6 should be taken into account by appropriate methods of structural modeling. 2.1 leading to weak storey or soft storey at any storey should be avoided. Rules for masonry buildings are specified in Chapter 5. 5 .2.5 .1.In order to dissipate a significant part of the seismic energy fed into the building by ductile behavior of structural system.2.1 .2 . stability and strength to ensure an uninterrupted and safe transfer of seismic loads down to the foundation soil.1.1.2. General Rules for Seismic Loads 2.2. ductile design principles specified in Chapter 3 and in Chapter 4 of this Specification should be followed.2.1.2. GENERAL GUIDELINES AND RULES 2. structural steel buildings and buildinglike structures to be built in seismic zones defined in 1. appropriate transfer elements shall be arranged on floors.1 – The building structural system resisting seismic loads as a whole as well as each structural element of the system shall be provided with sufficient stiffness.2.3 are specified in this chapter.1 below should be avoided. 2. Structural system should be arranged symmetrical or nearly symmetrical in plan and torsional irregularity defined as type A1 irregularity in Table 2. On the other hand. 2. 2.
2. Otherwise strength and stiffness of the weak storey shall be increased and the seismic analysis shall be repeated.Unless specified otherwise in this Specification.In buildings with irregularity type B1.Unless specified otherwise in this Specification. However.5. conditions related to buildings with irregularity type B3 are specified below: (a) In all seismic zones.6 below.2.3. 2. it shall be verified by calculation in the first and second seismic zones that the floor systems are capable of safe transfer of seismic loads between vertical structural elements.2. types of irregularities in plan and in elevation are given in Table 2. 2. In the range 0.In buildings with irregularity types A2 and A3.60 ≤ (ηci) min < 0. seismic loads shall be assumed to act nonsimultaneously along the two perpendicular axes of the building in the horizontal plane. 2.2.2. however.1. 2. and the most unfavorable response quantity due to wind or earthquake shall be considered for the design of each structural element.2.2. columns at any storey of the building shall in no case be permitted to rest on the cantilever beams or on top of or at the tip of gussets provided in the columns underneath.3.2 .7. rules given in this Specification shall be applied for dimensioning and detailing of structural elements and their joints.25 (ηci)min and applied to the entire building in both earthquake directions.4 .3.3. Conditions for Irregular Buildings Conditions related to irregularities defined in Table 2.2.5 shall be multiplied by 1.1 and relevant conditions are given in 2. Definition of Irregular Buildings Regarding the definition of irregular buildings whose design and construction should be avoided because of their unfavorable seismic behavior.60 shall be permitted. IRREGULAR BUILDINGS 2. even if the quantities due to wind govern are more unfavorable.It shall be assumed that the wind loads and seismic loads act nonsimultaneously.3.80.2.2 .3. 2. ηci < 0.3.2 below. In no case. if total infill wall area at i’th storey is greater than that of the storey immediately above.2. Provisions concerning combined effect of earthquakes in considered axes are given in 2. 2. then infill walls shall not be taken into account in the determination of ηci.3 . 6 .2.2. load factors to be used to determine design internal forces under the combined effects of seismic loads and other loads according to ultimate strength theory shall be taken from the relevant structural specifications.Irregularity types A1 and B2 are irregularities that govern the selection of the method of seismic analysis as specified in 2.4 – In order to be applied in all seismic regions. structural behavior factor given in Table 2.3 .1 are given below: 2.3.2.1 .
III – The cases of abrupt reductions in the inplane stiffness and strength of floors.3.2.TABLE 2. [ηbi = (∆i)max / (∆i)avr > 1.3. by considering the effects of ± %5 additional eccentricities.3). [ηci = ( Ae)i / ( Ae)i+1 < 0. 2.2 II – The case where local floor openings which make the safe transfer of seismic loads difficult to vertical structural elements.3.1 maximum relative storey drift at any storey to the average relative storey drift at the same storey in the same direction.0] Relative storey drifts shall be calculated in accordance with 2. the case where in each of the orthogonal earthquake directions.2 (Figure 2.1 storey drift at the storey immediately above or below.1 / hi 1) avr > 2.80] Definition of effective shear area in any storey : Ae = Aw + Ag + 0.2. or the structural walls of upper stories are supported by columns or beams underneath (Figure 2. is greater than 1.2 that storey of the building in the respective directions by more than 20% (Figure 2. which is defined as the ratio of the average relative storey drift at any i’th storey to the average relative 2.7. 7 . which is defined for any of the two orthogonal earthquake directions as the ratio of the 2. [ηki = (∆i / hi) avr / (∆i+1 / hi +1) avr > 2.1 .3.4). by considering the effects of ± %5 additional eccentricities. is less than 0.2).0. Strength Irregularity Factor ηci which is defined as the ratio of the effective shear area of any storey to 2.4 gusseted columns underneath. Stiffness Irregularity Factor ηki .7.2] Relative storey drifts shall be calculated in accordance with 2.Discontinuity of Vertical Structural Elements : The cases where vertical structural elements (columns or structural walls) are removed at some stories and supported by beams or 2.1). I . A2 – Floor Discontinuities : In any floor (Figure 2.2.3.3.2.0 or ηki = (∆i / hi) avr / (∆i . is greater than 2.2.3 the effective shear area of the storey immediately above. B – IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION Related Items B1 – Interstorey Strength Irregularity (Weak Storey) : In reinforced concrete buildings.15 Ak (See 3.80. A3 – Projections in Plan : The cases where dimensions of projections in both of the two perpendicular directions in plan exceed the total plan dimensions of 2.The case where the total area of the openings including those of stairs and elevator shafts exceeds 1 / 3 of the gross floor area.0 for notations) B2 – Interstorey Stiffness Irregularity (Soft Storey) : The case where in each of the two orthogonal earthquake directions. B3 .IRREGULAR BUILDINGS A – IRREGULARITIES IN PLAN Related Items A1 – Torsional Irregularity : The case where Torsional Irregularity Factor ηbi.2.
1 Ab Ab1 Ab = Ab1 + Ab2 Ab2 Type A2 irregularity .2 8 .I Ab / A > 1/3 Ab : Total area of openings A : Gross floor area A A Type A2 irregularity .(∆i)min (∆i)max i +1’st storey floor Earthquake Direction i’th storey Floor In the case where floors behave as rigid diaphragms In their own planes: (∆i)avr = 1/2 [(∆i)max + (∆i)min] Torsional irregularity factor : ηbi = (∆i)max / (∆i)ort Torsional irregularity: ηbi > 1.A Type A2 irregularity .2 Figure 2.II and III Figure 2.II Section A .
all internal force components induced by the combined effect of vertical loads and seismic loads shall be increased by 50 % at all sections of the beam and at all sections of the other beams and columns adjoining to the beam in the earthquake direction considered.2.3. 9 .4 See 2.3.2.3 See 2.ay Ly ay Lx ax ax Lx ax ay ax Lx ax Ly ay Ly Type A3 irregularity: ax > 0.3.2 Lx and at the same time ay > 0.2 Ly Figure 2. (c) Structural walls at upper stories shall in no case be permitted to rest on the columns below.2.3.4 (b) See 2.4 (c) Figure 2. (d) Structural walls shall in no case be permitted in their own plane to rest on the beam span at any storey of the building.2.4 (d) (b) In the case where a column rests on a beam which is supported at both ends.4 (a) See 2.
prisons.1).) 10 Importance Factor (I) 1.2. Building Importance Factor The Building Importance Factor. (Residential and office buildings. Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient The Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient. military barracks.2.4. hotels. etc. buildinglike industrial structures. PTT and other telecommunication facilities. transportation stations and terminals. 2. Intensively and longterm occupied buildings and buildings preserving valuable goods a) Schools. dormitories and hostels.20 4 0. I. explosive and flammable materials. 2. b) Museums 3. Other buildings Buildings other than above defined buildings.40 2 0. power generation and distribution facilities. fire fighting buildings and facilities. Sae (T) which is the ordinate of Elastic Acceleration Spectrum defined for 5 % damped rate is derived by multiplying Spectral Acceleration Coefficient with gravity. TABLE 2. county and municipality administration buildings. which shall be considered as the basis for the determination of seismic loads is given by Equation (2. A (T).2 1. governorate.4. Elastic Spectral Acceleration. DEFINITION OF ELASTIC SEISMIC LOADS: SPECTRAL ACCELERATION COEFFICIENT The Spectral Acceleration Coefficient. cinema. 4. first aid and emergency planning stations) b) Buildings containing or storing toxic. appearing in Equation (2. other educational buildings and facilities. dispensaries.1) Sae (T) = A (T) g 2.1) is specified in Table 2. etc.1) is specified in Table 2.10 2. TABLE 2. etc. Buildings required to be utilized after the earthquake and buildings containing hazardous materials a) Buildings required to be utilized immediately after the earthquake (Hospitals.30 3 0.EFFECTIVE GROUND ACCELERATION COEFFICIENT (Ao) Seismic Zone Ao 1 0. theatre and concert halls. health wards.2 .5 1. appearing in Equation (2.1.0 . etc. g.3.4. Intensively but shortterm occupied buildings Sport facilities.BUILDING IMPORTANCE FACTOR (I) Purpose of Occupancy or Type of Building 1. A (T) = Ao I S (T) (2.4 1.3 . Ao.
However spectral acceleration coefficients corresponding to so obtained acceleration spectrum ordinates shall in no case be less than those determined by Equation (2.8 T S (T ) = 2.20 TB (second) 0.30 0.4. S(T).SPECTRUM CHARACTERISTIC PERIODS (TA.2.3.5): T S (T ) = 1 + 1.2 of Chapter 6.4.2.0 TA TB Figure 2.2 .4. TABLE 2. TA and TB .2) 0. TB) Local Site Class according to Table 6.The Spectrum Coefficient. T (Figure 2.2). spectrum characteristic periods defined in Table 2.3.1) shall be determined by Equation (2.2) are specified in Table 2.4.40 0.4.4. Spectrum Coefficient 2. appearing in Equation (2.10 0.2 and 6. depending on the local site conditions and the building natural period.1) based on relevant characteristic periods specified in Table 2.1.5 S(T) = 2. S(T) 2. elastic acceleration spectrum may be determined through special investigations by considering local seismic and site conditions.3 of Chapter 6 are not met.15 0.In case where the requirements specified in 6.1.5 (0 ≤ T ≤ TA ) TA S (T ) = 2.5 B (TB < T ) T Spectrum Characteristic Periods.4 for local site class Z4 shall be used.15 0.60 0.3.4. 5 (TB / T) 1.5 0. depending on Local Site Classes defined in Table 6.5 (TA < T ≤ TB ) (2.2 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 TA (second) 0. Special Design Acceleration Spectra In required cases.1 .2. 8 11 .90 2. 2.4 . appearing in Equation (2.
3.1. General Conditions on Ductility Levels of Structural Systems 2. (c) In all buildings with Building Importance Factor of I = 1. R.1.5 for various structural systems.5. 12 .1.5.In structural systems denoted as being high ductility level in Table 2.4 – Bare or infilled joist and waffle slab systems whose columns and beams do not satisfy the requirements given in 3. structural systems of high ductility level or structural systems with mixed ductility level defined in 2. 2. (b) In reinforced concrete buildings with Building Importance Factor I = 1.4 and 3.5. ductility levels shall be high in both lateral earthquake directions.3.5.1. 3. Seismic Load Reduction Factor. shall be determined by Equation (2.4 shall be divided to below defined Seismic Load Reduction Factor to account for.1 . 2. defined in Table 2.1.5. and reinforced concrete flat slab systems without structural walls shall be treated as systems of nominal ductility level.5.Definitions of and requirements to be fulfilled for structural systems of high ductility level and structural systems of nominal ductility level whose Structural System Behavior Factors are given in Table 2.5. REDUCTION OF ELASTIC SEISMIC LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD REDUCTION FACTOR In order to consider the specific nonlinear behavior of the structural system during earthquake.4.3) TA Ra (T ) = R (TA < T ) 2.2 .1 shall be used.5. can be built on the condition that HN ≤ 13 m.5. 2. elastic seismic loads to be determined in terms of spectral acceleration coefficient defined in 2. 2.5 + (R − 1.2.1. T Ra (T ) = 1.1.5 – In the first and second seismic zones.5. and the natural vibration period T. Systems which have high or combined ductility level in one earthquake direction and nominal ductility level in the perpendicular earthquake direction shall be deemed to be structural systems of nominal ductility level in both directions.5. structural systems of high ductility level shall be used for the reinforced concrete buildings with structural systems comprised of frames only.4.1.3. (a) Except paragraph (b) below.3 – Systems which have the same ductility level in both directions or high in one direction and mixed in other direction. different R coefficients can be used in different directions.0 according to the Table 2. 2.5.3) in terms of Structural System Behavior Factor.4 according to Table 2.2 and I = 1. structural systems comprised of frames of nominal ductility level can only be built on the condition that HN ≤ 16 m. are given in Chapter 3 for reinforced concrete buildings and in Chapter 4 for structural steel buildings.5.5) (0 ≤ T ≤ TA ) (2.5 and I = 1.6 – Structural systems of nominal ductility level without structural walls can only be permitted to be built in the third and fourth seismic zones with the following conditions: (a) Reinforced concrete buildings defined in 2.
........... reinforced concrete and structural steel buildings comprised only of frames of nominal ductility level are permitted to be built on the condition that HN ≤ 25 m....................................... (2.......... 4 (3..........5....................2) Single – storey buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by columns with connections hinged at the top….......1) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by frames with connections capable of cyclic moment transfer 3 7 (2.......... (b) 5 6 Eccentrically braced frames...................3) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by solid structural walls..................1.....4) Buildings in which seismic loads are jointly resisted by frames with connections capable of cyclic moment transfer and castinsitu solid and / or coupled structural 3 6 walls (3) STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS (3...........3) Prefabricated buildings with hinged frame connections in which seismic loads are fully resisted by prefabricated or cast – in – situ solid structural walls and / or coupled 5 structural walls............................ 6 4 (3........................ 4 8 (1.............4.......1) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by frames.......................................(b) – Excluding the systems indicated in 2.....STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR FACTORS (R) Systems of Systems of Nominal High BUILDING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM Ductility Ductility Level Level (1) CASTINSITE REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS (1.3) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by braced frames or castinsitu reinforced concrete structural walls (a) Centrically braced frames ……………..……………………………………………………......... 4 7 (2) PREFABRICATED REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS (2.......................................2) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by coupled structural walls......1) Buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by frames................ (c) 8 Reinforced concrete structural walls...... TABLE 2....5 .................. 5 4 (b) Eccentrically braced frames ………………………… 7 (c) Reinforced concrete structural walls.................................................. 5 8 (3... 7 4 13 ..... 4 6 (1......4) Buildings in which seismic loads are jointly resisted by structural steel braced frames or castinsitu reinforced concrete structural walls (a) Centrically braced frames...2) Singlestorey buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by columns with hinged upper connections 3 (2....4) Buildings in which seismic loads are jointly resisted by frames and solid and / or coupled structural walls....... 4 7 (1...........
requirements specified in 2.75). sum of shear forces developed at the bases of structural walls according to seismic loads shall be more than 75% of the total shear force developed for the entire building in each earthquake direction.Frame Systems of High Ductility Level Requirements for buildings where seismic loads are jointly resisted by reinforced concrete solid structural walls of high ductility level and reinforced concrete or structural steel frames of high ductility level are given below: 2.5.2. However.3. Conditions for Mixed Structural Systems in Terms of Ductility Level 2.5. internal forces calculated according to R coefficients defined above shall be increased by being multiplied with [3 / (1 + Hw / w)].5.2. it is mandatory to use solid or coupled reinforced concrete structural walls of nominal or high ductility level in reinforced concrete buildings through the full height of the building with the following conditions fulfilled and centrically or eccentrically braced frames of nominal or high ductility level in structural steel buildings.1 – When structural walls of nominal ductility level are used in the structural system. solid or coupled reinforced concrete structural walls of high ductility or for steel buildings structural steel eccentric or centric braced frames may be used provided that the following conditions are met.5.1 cannot be satisfied.2.2 When structural walls of high ductility level are used in the structural system.1. 2.5.5.2.5.6 can be built in all seismic regions and over the height limit defined in the same paragraphs. 2.5. But in this case.1.2 – In the case where the requirement 2.5.4.5. 2. 14 .0 shall be calculated by the expression R = 10 − 4 αS for cast – in – situ reinforced concrete and structural steel frame systems and by R = 9 − 4 αS for prefabricated reinforced concrete frame systems. 2.0.2.5. Conditions on Mandatory Use of Structural Walls in Certain Systems of Nominal Ductility Level Systems of nominal ductility level defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of 2. 2.1 below for mixed structural systems shall be applied. In so obtained systems of mixed ductility level.4. sum of shear forces developed at the bases of solid structural walls under seismic loads shall not exceed 75% of the total shear force developed at the bases for the entire building (αS ≤ 0. this coefficient is not taken more than 2.4.5. 2.5.1 – In order to use R = 7 for cast – in – situ reinforced concrete and structural steel frame systems or R = 6 for prefabricated reinforced concrete frame systems as it is given in Table 2.2. Conditions for Reinforced Concrete Solid Structural Wall .6 are permitted to be mixed with structural walls of high ductility level.1 – Systems of nominal ductility level defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of 2.75 < αS ≤ 1. coefficient R to be used in the range 0.3.3.5.3 – In structural walls in which Hw / w ≤ 2.
7. however in each earthquake direction it shall be αS ≥ 0. prefabricated and structural steel buildings are defined in 2.3. seismic analysis shall be made for entire building according to 2. Connections of mezzanine floor with main structural frames can be hinged or monolithic. (a) At the beginning. R factor (Rdown) which may be defined differently shall be used with together provided that following conditions are met.2.5. are given in 2. In this case. First side is the internal forces calculated in (a). (c) In the range 0. Conditions for Systems with Hinged Connections 2.5.5.8.5.5 shall be used for prefabricated buildings.5 αS (RYP − RNÇ) shall be applied to the entire structural system in both earthquake directions.5.5.5. it shall be taken into account in analysis.5. R factor (Rup) defined in items (2.5. Rules to be applied in analysis of such buildings are given in 2.3.5.2) of Table 2. Conditions relating to usage of such frames as top floor (roof top) in cast – in – situ reinforced concrete.10.40. 2.5 and for the lower floors.2) or (3.2) and (3. for the top floor. R factor defined in item (2. the expression R = RNÇ + 1. In combined system. (b) In the case where αS ≥ 2/3 in both earthquake directions.5.5. combined system shall be arranged as the system of high ductility level in prefabricated reinforced concrete buildings.2) of Table 2. (a) In case cast – in – situ reinforced concrete columns are used.2 – A single mezzanine floor can be constructed inside such buildings provided that it is not larger than 25 % of place area of the building. Structural system of mezzanine floor shall be taken into account in the seismic analysis of such buildings together with the main structural frames.8 by taking R = Rdown. 2.5.1 shall be obtained for entire building from this analysis. 2.(a) In the seismic analysis of such mixed systems.4.4 and 2. Reduced and effective relative storey drifts defined in 2.2 – Reinforced concrete rigid peripheral walls used in basements of buildings shall not be taken into consideration as parts of structural wall systems or structural wallframe systems appearing in Table 2.40 < αS < 2/3. (b) Conditions concerning reinforced concrete prefabricated and structural steel buildings.5 for the case where seismic loads are fully resisted by structural of high ductility level (R = RYP). prefabricated and structural steel buildings.5.2. R factor defined in Table 2. internal forces of lower floors shall be composed of sum of two sides. frames and structural walls (or braced frames) shall be jointly considered. (c) On the other hand.1 – In reinforced concrete buildings made of single – storey frames with columns hinged at the top. existence of torsional irregularity shall be controlled and if it exists.2) of Table 2.5. (b) Internal forces of the top floor shall be obtained by multiplying internal forces calculated in (a) with (Rdown / Rup) ratio.7 or 2. 15 .2. whose R factors are given in items (2. 2.3 – In case single storey frames with columns hinged at the top are used as top floor (roof top) in cast – in – situ reinforced concrete. may be used for the entire structural system. Second side shall be calculated by acting structural system of lower floors by multiplying the forces calculated in (b) as support reactions of top floor columns with (1 – Rup / Rdown).
6) is given in Table 2. In industrial buildings.7. n.6. 2 HN ≤ 25 m satisfies the condition ηbi ≤ 2.4) Ra (T1 ) The first natural vibration period of the building. Vt.7.8 or 2.4. Analysis Methods Methods to be used for the seismic analysis of buildings and buildinglike structures are.5) shall be calculated by Equation (2.6. 2. acting on the entire building in the earthquake direction considered shall be determined by Equation (2.6. EQUIVALENT SEISMIC LOAD METHOD 2.7 is applicable are summarized in Table 2. WA(T1 ) Vt = ≥ 0.6 .9 shall be used for the seismic analysis of buildings outside the scope of Table 2. Methods given in 2.0 at every storey Buildings in which torsional irregularity coefficient 1. shall be calculated in accordance with 2.2.6).6.2.8 and 2. 2 satisfies the condition ηbi ≤ 2.7. to be used in Equation (2. Mode – Superposition Method given in 2. 2.5) Storey weights wi of Equation (2.1 – Total Equivalent Seismic Load (base shear).9. 16 .0 at every storey and at HN ≤ 40 m the same time without type B2 irregularity All buildings 3.10 Ao I W (2. Equivalent Seismic Load Method given in 2.BUILDINGS FOR WHICH EQUIVALENT SEISMIC LOAD METHOD IS APPLICABLE Seismic Total Height Type of Building Zone Limit Buildings in which torsional irregularity coefficient 1. W= N i =1 wi (2.1.5). TABLE 2. w i = gi + n q i (2.1.7. W.9 may be used for the seismic analysis of all buildings and buildinglike structures.4) as the seismic weight shall be determined by Equation (2.7.1. 4 HN ≤ 40 m 2.2 – Total building weight.7. Application Limits of Equivalent Seismic Load Method Buildings for which Equivalent Seismic Load Method given in 2.8 and Analysis Methods in the Time Domain given in 2. Determination of Total Equivalent Seismic Load 2. T1.4).6. appearing in Equation (2.7. n = 1 shall be taken for fixed equipment weights while crane payloads shall not be taken into account in the calculation of storey weights 30 % of snow loads shall be considered in calculation of weight of roof top to be used in determination of seismic loads. Methods given in 2. SELECTION OF ANALYSIS METHOD 2.1.6) Live Load Participation Factor.
remaining part of the total equivalent seismic load shall be distributed to stories of the building (including N’th storey) in accordance with Equation (2. Residence.6a): n 0.2. Fictitious loads used for the calculation of the first natural vibration period in accordance with 2.60 0.2. (b) In calculating equivalent seismic loads acting on rigid basement stories.7) as the sum of equivalent seismic loads acting at storey levels (Fig. hotel. shop. theatre. acting at the N’th storey (top) of the building shall be determined by Equation (2.1 shall also be based on seismic weights of the upper stories only (Fig.5 without considering the rigid peripheral basement walls and seismic weights of the upper stories only shall be taken into account. Determination of Design Seismic Loads Acting at Storey Levels 2. concert hall. 2. office.3 – Excluding ∆FN .4) is expressed by Equation (2.7 . etc.8) 2.3.2.5 (Fig. equivalent seismic loads acting on the basement stories and on the upper stories shall be calculated independently as in the following. etc. (a) In determining the total equivalent seismic load and equivalent storey seismic loads in accordance with 2.7.7.30 Vt = ∆FN + N i=1 Fi (2. 17 . ∆FN = 0. cinema.8). in its self – plane.0075 N Vt (2. 2. restaurant. hospital.1.2 and 2. etc.6c).1) shall be multiplied directly with the respective weight of the storey and resulting elastic loads shall be reduced by dividing them to Ra (T) = 1. surrounded by multi rigid walls and located at the passage from upper stories to sub – basement shall be controlled according to internal forces obtained in this analysis.2.2 – Additional equivalent seismic load.LIVE LOAD PARTICIPATION FACTOR (n) Purpose of Occupancy of Building Depot.TABLE 2. 2. ∆FN. car park. dormitory. wH Fi = (Vt − ∆FN ) N i i (2. 2.7. 2.9). warehouse. spectral acceleration obtained from Equation (2.1 – Total equivalent seismic load determined by Equation (2. appropriate R factor shall be selected from Table 2.7.1. In determining equivalent seismic loads acting on each basement storey.6b).7. In this case. (c) Strength of flooring system of ground storey.7. seismic weights of basements only shall be taken into account and Spectrum Coefficient shall be taken as S (T) = 1. School.2.2.7. foundation top level appearing in the relevant definitions and expressions shall be replaced by the ground floor level.80 0.9) wj H j j=1 2.4 – In buildings with reinforced concrete peripheral walls at their basements being very rigid relative to upper stories and basement floors behaving as rigid diaphragms in horizontal planes.7) 2. These loads shall be applied together with structural system composed of combination of upper and lower stories.2.7.7.4. sport facility.
3.7).7.2 < ηbi ≤ 2. at each floor. ηbi Di = 1. 2 shall be amplified by multiplying with coefficient Di given by Equation (2.3.10) 18 .In the case where type A1 irregularity defined in Table 2. 3 .FN + ∆FN wN FN + ∆FN wN Fi wi HN Fi wi HN Vt w2 w1 Hi w2 w1 Vt (a) Hi Fbk wbk Fbk = Ao I wbk / 1.2 shall be applied on the points obtained by shifting the actual mass centre by + 5% and − 5% times the floor length in the perpendicular direction to the earthquake direction considered as well as to storey mass center (Fig.0 is satisfied. 1 a n d / o r 2 . 7 .1) exists and floors do not behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms.7.1 exists at any i’th storey such that the condition 1. each of the individual masses distributed over each floor shall be shifted by + 5% and − 5% times the floor length in perpendicular direction to the earthquake direction considered (Fig.In buildings where type A2 irregularity (defined in Table 2. In order to consider eccentricity effect. ± 5% additional eccentricity applied to this floor a c c o r d i n g t o 2 . 2.7.10) for both earthquake directions. equivalent seismic loads determined in accordance with 2. 2. 2. 3 .5 (b) (c) Figure 2. two lateral displacement components and the rotation around the vertical axis shall be taken into account at each floor as independent static displacement components. In order to consider additional eccentricity effects.2 .7. 7 .2 2 (2.3.6 2.7. Displacement Components to be Considered and Application Points of Seismic Loads 2.3. 2. sufficient number of independent static displacement components shall be considered to account for the inplane deformation of floors.3 .1 – In buildings where floors behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms.8).
the first natural vibration period of building in the direction of earthquake is not taken more than the value calculated by Equation (2.Bx ey x earthquake Direction ey By ex ex = 0.7.4.1 – In the case Equivalent Seismic Load Method is applied.2 – In buildings in which N > 13 excluding basement(s).9).11).4.9) by substituting any value (for example unit value) in place of (Vt − ∆FN) (Figure 2.11) Ffi referring to the fictitious load acting on the i’th storey shall be obtained from Equation(6.4.1 N as being independent from the value calculated in Equation (2. 19 .7 Bx ejx ejx ejx = 0.05 Bx y Earthquake direction ex ey = 0. 2.7.05 By Figure 2. N T1 = 2π i=1 N i=1 2 mi d fi 1/ 2 Ffi d fi (2.05 Bx Figure 2. Determination of First Natural Vibration Period of Building 2.7.8 2.11). natural period is not taken more than 0.
2. Ba = ± Bax ± 0.7.1.9 2.10).30 Bax ± Bay veya Bb = ± 0.30 Bbx ± Bby (2.10 2. maximum internal forces and displacements are determined by the statistical combination of maximum contributions obtained from each of the sufficient number of natural vibration modes considered.8.5.13). Acceleration Spectrum Reduced acceleration spectrum ordinate to be taken into account in any n’th vibration mode shall be determined by Equation (2.wN Ffi = wi Hi N Ffi wi dfi Hi j=1 (wj Hj) Figure 2. 20 .30 Bby veya Ba = ± 0. MODE SUPERPOSITION METHOD In this method. Internal Forces in the Directions of Elements at Principal Axis Under combined effect of the earthquakes in the directions of x and y acting on structural system respectively. internal forces in the directions of principal axes a and b of elements of structural system shall be obtained by Equation (2.30 Bay Bb = ± Bbx ± 0.8.12) X earthquake direction Y earthquake direction Figure 2.12) so as to yield the most unfavorable results (Figure 2.
SaR (Tn ) = 2.8. sufficient number of dynamic degrees of freedom shall be considered to account for the inplane deformation of floors.1 .15) mθi 21 . they shall be applied to the points obtained by shifting the actual mass center b y +5 % and −5 % of the floor length in perpendicular direction to the earthquake direction and to the mass center as an additional load (Figure 2. 2 . two horizontal degrees of freedom in perpendicular directions and a rotational degree of freedom with respect to the vertical axis passing through the mass center shall be considered at each storey.3. Dynamic Degrees of Freedom to be considered 2.90 mi n=1 n=1 M n i=1 Y n=1 M yn = Y n=1 2 Lyn Mn ≥ 0. Such quantities shall be directly added to those combined in accordance with below given 2.14) mi The expressions of Lxn.13) in lieu of Sae(Tn). 2.2.8.90 N i=1 (2. relevant spectrum ordinate shall be considered in Equation (2.3. internal force and displacement quantities due to additional eccentricity effects alone may also be calculated in accordance with 2. Lyn and modal mass Mn appearing in Equation (2. Y Y L2 N xn M xn = ≥ 0. but in order to consider additional eccentricity effects.2.4 without taking into account additional eccentricity effects. In order to consider additional eccentricity effects. mi Lyn = 2 yin + N i=1 mi yin 2 θin ) Mn = N i=1 2 xin + (2. 2.8. Sufficient Number of Vibration Modes to be considered 2.14) are given below for buildings where floors behave as rigid diaphragms: Lxn = N i=1 mi (mi xin .8. Modal seismic loads shall be calculated for those degrees of freedom at each storey. Y.4.2.7.1 – In buildings where floors behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms. each of the modal seismic loads acting on the individual masses distributed over each floor shall be shifted by +5 % and −5 % of the floor length in perpendicular direction to the earthquake direction (Fig. In such buildings. 8 ).13) Ra (Tn ) In the case where elastic design acceleration spectrum is determined through special investigations in accordance with 2.8.8.Sae (Tn ) (2. to be taken into account in the analysis shall be determined to the criterion that the sum of effective participating masses calculated for each mode in each of the given x and y lateral earthquake directions perpendicular to each other shall in no case be less than 90 % of the total building mass.7).Sufficient number of vibration modes.4.2 – In buildings where floor discontinuities defined under the title of A2 irregularity exists and floors do not behave as rigid horizontal diaphragms.
modal damping factors shall be taken as 5 % for all modes.In analysis of buildings with reinforced concrete peripheral walls at their basements being very rigid relative to upper stories and basement floors behaving as rigid diaphragms in horizontal planes. storey shear.7.5 shall be applied to the internal forces obtained by combining elements of structural system in accordance with 2. the coefficient R selected from Table 2.8.In the cases where the above given condition is not satisfied. Lower Limits of Response Quantities In the case where the ratio of the base shear in the given earthquake direction.2.4 and in the direction of a and b principal axes.80. displacement and storey drift. In the calculation of cross correlation coefficients to be used in the application of the rule. 2.8.4. in the analysis performed by the Mode Superposition Method which corresponds to the analysis by Equivalent Seismic Load Method as given in Paragraph (a) of 2.4 shall be applied as they are given.3. Internal Forces in the Directions of Elements at Principal Axis Under combined effect of the earthquakes in the directions of x and y acting on structural system respectively. Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) Rule shall be applied for the combination of maximum modal contributions.4.7.80 shall be used in Equation (2.8.1 exists in a building β= 0. 2. all internal force and displacement quantities determined by Mode Superposition Method shall be amplified in accordance with Equation (2. to the base shear. obtained by Equivalent Seismic Load Method through Equation 2.2. such as base shear.2 .16).8. internal force components.2 .1 – In the cases where natural periods of any two vibration mode with Tm < Tn always satisfy the condition Tm / Tn < 0.4.8. BD = β Vt BB VtB (2.8.8. In this case. B2 or B3 defined in Table 2. Paragraphs (b) and (c) of 2. Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) Rule may be applied for the combination of maximum modal contributions. which is obtained through modal combination according to 2.16) In the case where at least one of the irregularities of type A1.16).4.5 shall be used without considering the rigid peripheral basement walls whereas the upper storey masses only shall be taken into account. whereas none of them exists β= 0. it may be sufficed with the consideration of vibration modes which are effective in the upper stories only. 22 . Vt . 2. Combination of Modal Contributions Rules to be applied for the statistical combination of nonsimultaneous maximum contributions of response quantities calculated for each vibration mode. 2.90.5.7. are specified in the following provided that they are applied independently for each response quantity: 2.4.2. directional combination rule given in 2.8.4 is less than the below given value of β (VtB < β Vt).6. VtB .
10. SECOND ORDER EFFECTS AND SEISMIC JOINTS 2.9. ∆i. and in case of using at least seven ground motions average of results shall be taken for the design.2. In case of using recorded or simulated seismic ground motions at least three seismic ground motions shall be generated and those motions shall satisfy all the conditions given in 2. at least three seismic ground motions shall be generated in accordance with the following properties.10. Analysis in Time Domain In case of making nonlinear elastic analysis in time domain. ∆i = di − di − 1 (2. (a) The duration of strong motion part of the acceleration shall neither be less than 5 times o f the first natural vibration period of the building nor less than 15 seconds.9. ANALYSIS METHODS IN TIME DOMAIN Artificially generated. spectral acceleration values to be based on in order to obtain reduced seismic ground motion shall be calculated by Equation (2.9. (c) Average of spectral acceleration values to be recalculated for each simulated acceleration record with 5 % damping ratio shall not be less than 90 % of elastic spectral accelerations Sae(T) defined in 2. floor conditions should be taken into account concordantly. Artificially Generated Seismic Ground Motions In order to use artificially generated ground motions. previously recorded or simulated ground motions may be used for the linear or nonlinear elastic analysis of buildings and buildinglike structures in the time domain.1.9.10. Calculation and Limitation of Effective Relative Storey Drifts 2.4 for the periods between 0. In linear and nonlinear analysis. 2.2.13).1.1. (b) Average of spectral acceleration values of simulated seismic ground motion corresponding to period zero shall not be less than A o g.17) 23 . 2. Recorded or Simulated Seismic Ground Motions Recorded earthquakes or physically simulated ground motions to source and wave propagation characteristics may be used. in case of using three ground motions the maximum of results.9. of any column or structural wall shall be determined by Equation (2. 2. In the case where nonlinear elastic analysis is performed in the time domain. internal force – transformation cohesions representing dynamic behavior of elements of structural system under cycling loads shall be defined by utilizing related literature provided that their theoretical and experimental validities are proven.3.1. 2. LIMITATION OF RELATIVE STOREY DRIFTS.17) as the difference of displacements between the two consecutive stories.1 – Reduced relative storey drift. While generating such ground motions.2T1 and 2T1 according to first period T1 in the direction of earthquakes considered.
10. within a storey.10. seismic analysis shall be repeated by sufficiently increasing the stiffness of the structural system. satisfies the condition given by Equation (2.17) di and di − 1 represent lateral displacements obtained from the analysis according to reduced seismic loads at the ends of any column or structural wall at stories i and (i . secondorder effects may be taken into account as follows. the condition in 2.2.18).In Equation (2. θi.02 hi This limit can be increased maximum of 50 % in single – storey buildings in which seismic loads are fully resisted by structural steel frames with connections capable of cyclic moment transfer. i. ≤ 0.20) is not satisfied.19) is not satisfied at any storey.10.2.20) Vi hi Here (∆i)avr shall be determined in accordance with 2. 2.2 – Effective relative storey drift.2. the conditions are indicated concerning sizes of gaps to be retained in the seismic joints between building blocks or between the old and newly constructed buildings: θi = (∆i )avr N j =i wj 24 .12 (2. i.1). The serviceability of nonstructural brittle elements (such as facade elements) under effective relative storey drifts shall be verified by calculation even if the above given conditions satisfied.3.1 as the average value of reduced relative storey drifts calculated for i’th storey columns and structural walls within the storey.18) for columns and structural walls of the i’th storey of a building for each earthquake direction shall satisfy the condition given by Equation (2. Seismic Joints Excluding the effects of differential settlements and rotations of foundations and the effects of temperature change.19): (δi ) max (2. the earthquake analysis shall be repeated by increasing the stiffness of the structural system.18) 2.3 – The maximum value of effective relative storey drifts.4 – In the case where the condition specified by Equation (2.1. calculated by Equation (2. ( i)max.2 – In the case where the condition given by Equation (2. δi = R ∆ i (2.7. 2.20) for the earthquake direction considered at each storey.10.4) may not be considered in calculation of di and ∆i.1.1. However. second – order effects shall be evaluated in accordance with currently enforced specifications of reinforced concrete or structural steel design. 2.10. 2.1. 2.19) ≤ 0. 2.1 – In the case where Second – Order Effect Indicator. for columns and structural walls of the i’th storey of a building for each earthquake direction shall be obtained from Equation (2.10.10.10.4.2 and the condition of minimum equivalent seismic load defined in Equation (2. Second – Order Effects Unless a more refined analysis considering the nonlinear elastic behavior of structural system is performed.
parapets.10. and to all non – structural architectural elements such as facade and partition panels.11.21) shall be acted vertically to the elements which are not in the vertical direction.2 – Minimum size of gaps shall be at least 30 mm up to 6 m height and from thereon a minimum 10 mm shall be added for each 3 m height increment.2 below.10. SEISMIC LOADS APPLIED TO STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS.21) may not be applied in industrial buildings where floor acceleration spectrum is determined by appropriate methods defining the peak acceleration at the floor where mechanical or electrical equipment are located..21).3. Half of equivalent seismic load calculated in Equation (2. for all equipment attached to the infill walls and for their connections. H (2.3.5 Ao I we 1 + 2 i HN The seismic load calculated shall be acted to center of gravity of related element so as to give the most unfavorable internal forces in the horizontal direction. 2. chimneys. (a) α = R / 4 if all floor levels of adjacent buildings or building blocks are the same at all stories. 25 . to be used in analysis of mechanical and electrical equipments and also connections of these to structural system of building are given by Equation (2.Seismic joints shall be arranged so as to allow the independent movement of building blocks in all earthquake directions.3. ELECTRICAL 2. 2 .1 – Equivalent seismic loads to be applied to structural appendages which are connected to structural system but serving independently such as balconies. 2.2wi. etc. Storey displacements to be considered shall be the average values of reduced displacements di calculated within a storey at the column or structural wall joints.21) f e = 0. sizes of gaps shall not be less than the value found as result of multiplication of coefficient α specified below with square root of sum of squares of displacements obtained in adjacent buildings or blocks for each storey.11. equipment weights and stiffness properties of their connections shall be taken into account in the structural analysis. etc.10.3 . 2. MECHANICAL AND EQUIPMENT APPENDAGES.21) shall be considered in the analysis of emergency electric back – up and fire fighting systems.3 – Equation(2.Twice o f the seismic load obtained from Equation (2.2 – In the case where the sum of weights of mechanical or electrical equipment indicated by we in Equation (2. 4 . 1 1 .1 . 2.10.11.21) at any i’th storey is greater than 0.11.3.2. In case the seismic analysis is not possible for the existing old building. 2. (b) α = R / 2 shall be valid for entire building i f any of the floor levels of adjacent buildings or building blocks are not the same.Unless a more unfavorable value is obtained in accordance with 2. the storey displacements of old building shall not be assumed to be less than those obtained for the new building at the same stories.
Except snow loads and crane payloads. and the selection of the applicable R factor from Table 2.13. NON – BUILDING STRUCTURES Non – building structures permitted to be analyzed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and the corresponding Structural Behavior Factors.1 shall be evaluated in detail for the building to be designed and. 2.STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BEHAVIOUR FACTORS FOR NONBUILDING STRUCTURES TYPE OF STRUCTURE Elevated liquid tanks. Where applicable.8.8 .9 by considering discrete dynamic degrees of freedom defining the structure sufficiently.12. steel silos and industrial chimneys with uniformly distributed mass along height (*) Guyed steel high posts and guyed steel Inverted pendulum type structures carried by a single structural element with mass concentrated at the top Industrial type steel storage racks R 4 2 3 3 4 2 2 4 (*)Seismic analysis of such structures shall be performed in accordance with 2.13. building height and structural irregularities involved.3 – The selection of the applicable analysis method in accordance with 2. Applicable seismic load reduction factors shall be determined in accordance with Equation (2. industrial chimneys and suchlike structural systems with uniformly distributed mass along height (*) Reinforced concrete cooling towers (*) Space truss steel towers. unreduced weights of all solid and liquid materials stored and mechanical equipment shall be used. REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS REPORTS The following requirements shall be applied for the analysis reports that include seismic analysis of buildings: 2.2 – The selected structural system of high or nominal ductility level shall be clearly defined with respect to the requirements of Chapter 3 or Chapter 4. pressurized tanks. TABLE 2. pressurized tanks.13.6. bunkers. vessels carried by frames of nominal ductility level or steel centric braced frames Cast – in – situ reinforced concrete silos. 2.13. However Live Load Participation Factors specified in Table 2. if any.3 shall be used for non – building structures. 26 .6 shall be clearly explained by considering the seismic zone in which the building exists. vessels carried by frames of high ductility level or steel eccentric braced frames Elevated liquid tanks. (R).8 or 2. 2.7 shall not be applied. to be applied to such structures are given in Table 2. bunkers. Building Importance Factors specified in Table 2.5 shall be explained.1 – Types of irregularities specified in Table 2. existing irregularities shall be identified.3).
4 – The following rules shall be applied in the cases where the analysis is performed by computer: (a) Analysis report shall include threedimensional illustrations of structural system by indicating the joint and element numbering. (c) The title.14. When requested by the approval authority. (b) All input data as well as output data including internal forces and displacements shall be included in the analysis report in an easily understandable format. author and the version of the computer software used in the analysis shall be clearly indicated. all computer files shall be delivered in electronically. (d) When requested by the approval authority. private or corporate buildings and other structures for the purpose of recording the strong earthquake motions. INSTALLATION OF ACCELEROMETERS Upon endorsement by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. and owners or operators of buildings or structures shall be responsible from the safety of such instruments. strong motion accelerometer shall be permitted to be installed by the ministry or university institutions on the public. 2.13. theory manual and user’s guide of the computer software shall be included in the analysis report. 27 .2.
a floor or a floor segment of a perforated floor = Concrete core area within outer edges of confinement reinforcement = Effective shear area at any storey for the earthquake direction considered = Sum of section areas of structural elements at any storey behaving as structural walls in the direction parallel to the earthquake direction considered = Sum of masonry infill wall areas (excluding door and window openings) at any storey in the direction parallel to the earthquake direction considered = Section area of spiral reinforcement = Sum of plan areas of all stories of building = Total area of tension reinforcement placed on one side of the beamcolumn loop at the top to resist the negative beam moment = Total area of tension reinforcement placed on the other side of the beam – column loop with respect to As1 at the bottom to resist negative beam moment = Total reinforcement area of each of the cross rebar bundles in coupling beam = Along the height corresponding to transverse reinforcement spacing s. Aw’s at any storey = Lateral distance between legs of hoops and / or crossties of columns or wall end regions = In the earthquake direction considered. thickness of wall web = Concrete core diameter of circular column (distance between the centers of spiral reinforcement) = Effective beam height = Design compressive strength of concrete = Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete = Design tensile strength of concrete = Design yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement = Characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement = Characteristic yield strength of transverse reinforcement = Critical wall height bj bk bw D d fcd fck fctd fyd fyk fywk Hcr 28 .EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS 2. millimeter [mm] for lengths and Mega Pascal [MPa] = [N/mm ] for stresses. sum of projections of cross section areas of all legs of hoops and crossties of columns or wall end zones in the direction perpendicular to bk considered = Effective web area of column cross section (excluding protrusions in the direction perpendicular to the earthquake direction) = Sum of effective web areas of column cross sections. NOTATIONS Dimensioned expressions used in this chapter with the following notations are in 2 Newton [N] for forces. Ac Ach Ack Ae Ag Ak Aos Ap As1 As2 Asd Ash Aw a Aw = Gross section area of column or wall end zone = Gross section area of a solid wall. wall segment of a coupled wall. cross section dimension of concrete core of column or wall end zone (distance between the centers or outermost rebars) = Width of beam web.CHAPTER 3 .0. otherwise twice the smaller of the distances measured from the vertical centerline of beam to the edges of column (It shall not exceed beam width plus joint depth) = For each of the orthogonal lateral directions. column width in case the beam into the joint has the same width as column or expands in both sides of the column.
fyk and strain hardening of steel Mpj = Negative or positive moment capacity calculated at column face on right end j of a beam by considering fck. fyk and strain hardening of steel Mpi = Positive or negative moment capacity calculated at column face on left end i of a beam by considering fck . Mpa = Moment capacity calculated at the bottom of column clear height by considering fck. fyk and strain hardening of steel Mra = Ultimate moment resistance calculated at the bottom of column or wall clear height by considering fcd and fyd = Positive or negative ultimate moment resistance calculated at column or wall face Mri on left end i of a beam by considering fcd and fyd Mrj = Negative or positive ultimate moment resistance calculated at column or wall face on right end j of a beam by considering fcd and fyd (Mr)t = Ultimate moment resistance calculated at bottom section of wall by considering fcd and fyd Mrü = Ultimate moment resistance calculated at the top of column or wall clear height by considering fcd and fyd = Moment at the top of column clear height which is used for the calculation of Mü column shear force Nd = Axial force calculated under combined effect of seismic loads and vertical loads multiplied with load coefficients Ndm = Greater of the axial pressure forces calculated under combined effect of seismic loads and vertical loads s = Spacing of transverse reinforcement. fyk and strain hardening of steel Mp = Sum of moment capacities of beams framing into a loop Mpü = Ultimate moment capacity calculated at the top of column clear height by considering fck. step of spiral reinforcement Vc = Contribution of concrete to shear strength Vd = Shear force calculated under combined effect of seismic loads and vertical loads multiplied with load coefficients Vdy = Simple beam – shear force developed at any section of the beam due to vertical loads Ve = Shear force taken into account for the calculation of transverse reinforcement of column. beam or wall Vik = Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in accordance with Chapter 2 at all columns of the i’th storey Hw 29 . clear span of beam between column or n wall faces = Length of wall or segment of coupled wall in plan w Ma = Moment at the bottom of column clear height which is used for the calculation of column shear force (Md)t = Moment calculated under the combined effect of seismic loads and vertical loads multiplied with load coefficients at the bottom section of structural wall.= Total structural wall height measured from top foundation level or ground floor level h = Column cross section dimension in the earthquake direction considered hk = Beam height = Development length of tensile reinforcement as given in TS500 b = Clear height of column between beams. fyk and strain hardening of steel (Md)t = Moment capacity calculated at the bottom section of wall by considering fck .
Vis Vkol Vr Vt αi ∅ γ ρ ρs ρsh = Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in accordance with Chapter 2 at the i’th storey columns where Equation (3. beam or wall = Total seismic load acting on a building (base shear) according to Chapter 2 = Ratio of Vis / Vik calculated for any i’th storey = Reinforcement diameter = Angle of cross rebar bundle used in coupling beam with the horizontal axis = Tension reinforcement ratio at the top and bottom of beam support section = Volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement of column [ρs = 4 Aos / (D s)] = Volumetric ratio of horizontal web reinforcement of wall [(ρsh) min = 0.0025] 30 .3) is satisfied at both bottom and top loops = Smaller of the shear forces at above and below the loop calculated in accordance with Chapter 2 = Shear strength of a section of column.
Reinforced concrete buildings with concrete strength exceeding that of C 50 and buildings where steel profiles are used as reinforcement in structural elements are outside the scope of this chapter. Special cases and requirements regarding the mixed use of such classes of systems are given in 2. SCOPE 7.Lateral load carrying systems of reinforced concrete buildings covered in this chapter may be comprised of frames only.Reinforced concrete structural systems given below are defined as Systems of Nominal Ductility Level: (a) Frame type structural systems comprised of columns and beams dimensioned and reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3. (c) Frame .7.9. 3. and unless otherwise stated.stressed concrete elements.10. 3.1 .1 .Requirements and rules specified in this chapter are applicable to cast .5. prefabricated buildings whose structural systems are comprised of reinforced and / or pre . GENERAL RULES 3.5. along with currently enforced relevant standards and codes. 31 . 3. primarily in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.8 and 3.4 of Chapter 2.Reinforced concrete structural systems given below are defined as Systems of High Ductility Level: (a) Frame type structural systems comprised of columns and beams dimensioned and reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3.2.1.2.situ monolithic reinforced concrete buildings.2. 3.2 .1.1.3 . Requirements for reinforced concrete building foundations are given in Chapter 6. 3. 3.2 .2. (c) Frame .1.1. of walls only or of combination of frames and walls.1.wall structural systems made of combining two systems defined above.4 . 3.in .1. (b) Structural systems comprised of solid or coupled structural walls dimensioned and reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3.3. (b) Structural systems comprised of solid or coupled structural walls dimensioned and reinforced in accordance with the requirements of 3.Dimensioning and reinforcing of all structural elements of reinforced concrete buildings to be built in seismic zones shall be performed. 3.6.3.wall structural systems made of combining two systems defined above. Classification of Reinforced Concrete Structural Systems Lateral load resisting structural systems of reinforced concrete buildings shall be classified with respect to their seismic behavior into two classes defined below.4 and 3.1.
Relevant Standards Cast .2. in the webs of structural walls of buildings in which entire seismic loads are resisted by such walls of full building height satisfying both of the conditions given by Equation (3.6.500. reinforcing steel with strength exceeding that of S 420 shall not be used reinforced concrete structural elements. experimentally obtained average rupture strength shall not be less than 1.In all buildings to be built in seismic zones.9967. in case of the usage of self .3 times the characteristic yield strength specified in the relevant steel standard.5.4 below.5. TS .3. 3. and as pre .500 and concrete placed with using vibrators.498 and TS . 3. development lengths of tensile rebars with and without hooks shall be determined in accordance with TS .708.2.2.2.500.9967.1.5.In all seismic zones. Development Length of Tensile Reinforcement Unless stated otherwise in this chapter.situ and prefabricated reinforced concrete structural systems shall be designed. 3.3 . to other loads specified in TS . Experimentally obtained average yield strength of reinforcing steel shall not be more than 1.4 . along with the requirements of this chapter.2. according to the seismic loads and analysis requirements given in Chapter 2.2.Unribbed reinforcement steel can not be used exempt hoops and crossties with flooring reinforcement.4.6. 3. in the slabs of joist floors.2. 3. However. it is necessary t o u s e concrete produced with concrete quality control requirements specified in TS .25 times the average yield strength obtained as well from the experiment.2.5.2. and to the requirements as well as material and load factors specified in TS .3. 3.14) in 3.placed concretes. placing concrete with vibrator is not required. 3. In addition. TS . However respective values for cracked sections may be used for beams framing into walls in their own plane and for coupling beams of the coupled structural walls. 32 .500 is mandatory in earthquake resistant dimensioning and reinforcement calculations of reinforced concrete structural elements in all seismic zones.3233 and TS . With the exception of elements mentioned in 3.Reinforcing steel with strength exceeding that of S 420 may be used in flat slabs.2.1 . concrete with strength less than C 20 shall not be used.in .2.stressing steel in prefabricated buildings.2. in peripheral external walls of basements. The rupture strain of reinforcement to be used shall not be less than 10 %.5.5. Section Stiffnesses to be used in Structural Analysis Section stiffnesses for uncracked sections shall be used in the structural analysis to be performed with the methods given in Chapter 2. Method to be used in Section Design The use of the Ultimate Strength Method given in TS .2 . Material 3.
Butt weld splices shall not be permitted. 3.7.2.1 33 . Experimentally determined tensile strength of the connection shall not be less than the rupture strength given in TS .2.Tension test shall be applied to at least 2 % of welded splices and mechanical connections of longitudinal reinforcement provided that number of tests shall not be less than 5.500.7.3. connection plates.Welded lap splices of longitudinal reinforcement shall be made by certified welders. Special Seismic Hoops and Crossties Hoops and crossties used in columns.3.8.1 .2.2 .Frames of steel windows and doors.500. beam . anchors.2.2.7.7. 3. wall end zones and beam confinement zones of all reinforced concrete systems of high ductility level or normal ductility level in all seismic zones shall be special seismic hoops and special seismic crossties for which requirements are given below (Fig.4 . Welded Splices and Mechanically Connected Reinforcement 3.7.1): Diameter ≥ 5 φhoop ≥ 6 φ (10φ) ≥ 80 mm (100 mm) Figure 3.column joints. 3. elements of plumbing system. 3. Carbon equivalency of the reinforcement steel to be welded shall not exceed the limit value given in TS .3 .2.Transverse reinforcement shall not be permitted to be welded to longitudinal reinforcement. machinery and equipment shall not be permitted to be welded to longitudinal and transverse reinforcement.
3.1 . The same condition shall apply to starter bars protruding from the foundation.2 .4. Crossties shall be connected to longitudinal reinforcement always at both ends.3. 3. the following requirements shall be met: (a) In the case where 50 % of longitudinal reinforcement or less is spliced at the bottom end of column.3.1 . Diameter and spacing of special seismic crossties shall be the same as those of hoops.In the case where lap splices of column longitudinal reinforcement are made at the bottom end of the column. Diameter of circular columns shall be at least 300 mm.8.500 for tension bars. minimum transverse reinforcement defined in 3. crossties with 135 degree and 90 degree hooks shall be placed on one face of a column or wall in a staggered form in both horizontal and vertical directions. (b) In the case where more than 50 % of longitudinal reinforcement is spliced at the bottom end of column.3. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements 3.3.8.3.2.Special seismic hoops shall engage the longitudinal reinforcement from outside with hooks closed around the same rebar.3. Lengths of hooks measured from tangent point shall not be less than 10 ∅ and 100 mm for plain bars.25 times b. 3.Longitudinal column reinforcement shall not be less than 1 %. as much as possible. 34 . 3.2.Shorter dimension of columns with rectangular section shall not be less than 250 mm and section area shall not be less than 75000 mm2.1 . 3.In order the gross section are of column to be the biggest one of axial pressure strengths calculated under the combined effect of Ndm vertical loads and seismic loads. Crosssection Requirements 3.2. COLUMNS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL 3.5 times b. 3.3. In this case the splice length shall be equal to the development length b given in TS .Lap splices of column longitudinal reinforcement should be made.1. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement 3.3. (c) In both cases given above.1 . lap splice length shall be at least 1.2 .4.Longitudinal reinforcement ratio shall not exceed 6 % at lap spliced sections. lap splice length shall be at least 1. within the column central zone defined in 3. Minimum number of rebars shall be 4∅16 or 6∅14 for rectangular columns and 6∅14 for circular columns.1. 6 ∅ and 80 mm for ribbed bars. However.2.2.3.3. 3.50 fck).2 .Special seismic hoops shall always have 135 degree hooks at both ends.2.2 . gross section area of column shall satisfy the condition Ac ≥ Ndmax / (0. Hoops and crossties shall be firmly tied such that they shall not move during concrete pouring.3.3. nor shall it be more than 4 % of gross section area.3.3. 135 degree hooks shall be bent around a circle with at least 5∅ diameter where ∅ denotes the diameter of transverse reinforcing bar. In this case. 90 degree hook may be made at one end of the special seismic crossties.1 shall be used along the length of the lap splice.3. 3.1.
3.4.3. and 500 mm.5 b e ≥ 40 φ (a + b + c) ≥ 1.2 3.4. longitudinal reinforcements in the confinement zones shall be continued through the length of the pot.3. development shall be achieved.3.3.1 . the minimum transverse reinforcement requirements of columns are those specified in 3. if necessary.4 . by downward bending of rebar along the far face of the column. In the case of no beam present on the other side. Such reinforcement shall be extended into the foundation for a length equal to at least twice the smaller of column cross section dimensions.5 b (a + b + c) ≥ 40 φ c ≥ 12 φ Figure 3. Those reinforcements shall be continued through the length not less than 25 times of the diameter of biggest longitudinal reinforcement and not less than 300 mm inside the foundation.5 b (a + b) ≥ 40 φ b ≥ 12 φ e ≥ 1. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements Unless a more unfavorable situation governs in accordance with below given 3. Length of each of the confinement zones shall not be less than smaller of column cross section dimensions (diameter in circular columns). 3.2). nor shall it be less than 40 ∅.7. development length of the column longitudinal reinforcement within the other side of the beam above shall not be less than 1.3.4.3.3. 35 .In the case where the column crosssection changes between consecutive stories.2 for the column central zone (Fig. Requirements for transverse reinforcement to be used in confinement zones are given below. However. Length of 90 degree bent horizontal hook or downward bent vertical hook shall be at least 12 ∅ (Fig.3. 1 / 6 the clear height of column measured upward from floor level or downward from the bottom face of the deepest beam framing into the column.3. slope of the longitudinal reinforcement within the beam .5 times the development length b given in TS . on the column which are supported to pot foundations.500 for tension reinforcement.6.3 . 3. Special seismic hoops and special seismic crossties defined in 3.2. When the change in cross section is more or in the case of top storey columns.8 shall be used along the full length of the column.Special confinement zones shall be arranged at the bottom and top ends of each column.3.3). (a + b) ≥ 1.column joint shall not be more than 1 / 6 with respect to the vertical.1 for column confinement zones and in 3.3.Longitudinal distance between mechanical or welded connections on adjacent longitudinal rebars shall not be less than 600 mm.4.
3) is applied.4): (Mra + Mrü) ≥ 1. nor shall it be less than 50 mm.Column central zone is the region between the confinement zones defined at the bottom and top ends of the column (Fig.1) and Equation (3.5.(a) Transverse reinforcement with a diameter less than ∅ 8 shall not be used in confinement zones.5. 3. shall not be more than 25 times the hoop diameter. Along this zone.1) (c) In the case where Nd > 0. In this calculation.3. core diameter of column. Requirement of Having Columns Stronger Than Beams 3. 3. sum of ultimate moment resistances of columns framing into a beamcolumn joint shall be at least 20% more than the sum of ultimate moment resistances of beams framing into the same joint (Fig. In calculating the column ultimate moment resistances. 3.075 s bk (fck / fywk) (3. at least 2 / 3 the transverse reinforcement given by Equation (3.2) (d) In the case where Nd ≤ 0.3).12 (fck / fywk) (3. spacing of hoops and crossties shall not be more than half the smaller cross section dimension and 200 mm.45 [(Ac / Ack) − 1] (fck / fywk) ρs ≥ 0. beams framing into the joint shall satisfy the dimensional requirements given in 3. 3. ρs ≥ 0.4).1). axial forces Nd shall be taken to yield the minimum moments consistent with the sense of earthquake direction.20 Ac fck.30 s bk [(Ac / Ack) − 1] (fck / fywk) Ash ≥ 0. a. shall be considered separately for each direction (Fig. 3.5.Eq (3.3. Lateral distance between the legs of hoops and / or crossties.In structural systems comprised of frames only or of combination of frames and walls.3).20 Ac fck in columns with spirals. Ash ≥ 0. 36 .2 . 3. (b) In the case where Nd > 0.3 .3.4. Pitch of the continuous spirals shall not be more than 1 / 5 the core diameter and 80 mm.4.1.2 (Mri + Mrj) (3.20 Ac fck in columns with hoops. shall not be more than 25 times the hoop diameter.2 .5.2).2) shall be used as a minimum transverse reinforcement in column confinement zones. spacing of hoops and crossties shall not be more than 1 / 3 the smaller cross section dimension and 100 mm. minimum total area of transverse reinforcement to be used in confinement zones shall be calculated to satisfy the more unfavorable of the requirements given in Equation (3. 3.3. Transverse reinforcement with a diameter less than ∅ 8 shall not be used along the column central zone. a.1.In order that Equation (3. Along the column.3) 3.3.3) shall be applied separately for both earthquake directions and senses to yield the most unfavorable result (Fig. bk. Lateral distance between legs of hoops and crossties. minimum volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcement to be used in confinement zones shall be calculated to satisfy the more unfavorable of the requirements given in Equation (3.1 .
Figure 3.3 37 .
3. 38 . 0. and the analysis shall be repeated by changing the Structural Behavior Factor according to Table 2. 3.4 – Special situations regarding the application of Equation (7.3) need not to be checked in single storey buildings and in joints of topmost storey of multistorey buildings.3. provided that Equation (3.1 in Chapter 2.4) is not satisfied at any storey. to combine frames of nominal ductility level with structural walls of high ductility level.1 – In structural systems comprised of frames only or of combination of walls and frames. all frames of structural systems which may be comprised of frames only or of combination of walls and frames shall be considered as frames of nominal ductility level.5. Earthquake direction Earthquake direction Figure 3.3. As it is mentioned in 2.10 Ac fck may be taken into account in the calculation of Vis even if they do not satisfy Equation (3. (b) Equation (3.4) given below is satisfied.5.3) at both bottom and top joints shall be amplified by multiplying with the ratio (1/αi) within the range of 0. αi = Vis / Vik ≥ 0.3).3) may be permitted not to be satisfied in a given earthquake direction at some joints at the bottom and / or top of an i’th storey.4 3.00.3 – In the case where Equation (3.2 – In the case where Equation (3.4) is satisfied.70 < αi < 1.70 (3.4.6.6. The Case Where Some Columns Cannot Satisfy the Requirement of Having Columns Stronger Than Beams 3.3) need not to be applied in the case where Nd columns framing into the joint.3.6. it is possible.4) Columns satisfying the condition of Nd ≤ 0.6.3. bending moments and shear forces of columns satisfying Equation (3. however. Equation (3.3.3) need not to be checked in the case where a wall connected by beams works like a column in its weak direction.3) are described in the following: (a) Equation (3.5.10 Ac fck in both (b) Equation (3.3.
at the ends of beams framing into the joint where Equation (3.7.7) below. Even if Equation (3.3.4 Mrü.3) is not satisfied shall be calculated as the ultimate moment capacities and shall be substituted into Equation (3.3.4 Mrj. shall not be less than the shear force calculated under factored gravity and seismic loads combined.6) In the case where a more rigorous analysis is not performed.3 – End moments of columns framing into the joint where Equation (3.3) is satisfied shall be calculated: Mp = Mpi + Mpj (3. cross section dimensions shall be increased as required and the seismic analysis shall be repeated.3 shall be applied otherwise (Fig.5 – Shear force .5).5). below given 3.7.7.3. 3. In the case where the condition given by Equation (3.4 – The moment Ma at the bottom of a column framing into the foundation shall also be calculated as the ultimate moment capacity in accordance with 3. 7. Ve = (Ma + Mü) / n (3.3. it may be assumed to be Mpi ≅ 1. Mp. 7.7) 39 .6) shall be applied separately for both senses of earthquake direction and the largest value of Mp shall be considered in the distribution. The moment Mp shall be distributed to columns in proportion to the moments obtained in accordance with Chapter 2 at column ends framing into the joint. calculation of Ma and Mü of Equation (3.5). Ve. In the case where a more rigorous analysis is not performed. Shear Safety of Columns 3.2 shall be applied for the case where Equation (3.2 – Sum of ultimate moment capacities.3.7.3) is satisfied.7.3.4 Mra and Mpü ≅ 1.3.3. Ve ≤ Vr Ve ≤ 0. Equation (3.22 Aw fcd (3.5).5) may be performed conservatively in accordance with below given 3. 3. In the calculation of moments Mpa and Mpü. and such distributed moments obtained at the bottom or top end of the column shall be considered in Equation (3.3.7b) is not satisfied. obtained according to Equation (3.1 – Shear force.5) In determining Ma and Mü of Equation (3.3. axial force Nd shall be taken into account so as to maximize those moments.5) as Ma or Mü.7. it may be assumed to be Mpa ≅ 1.5) as Ma and / or Mü . to be taken into account for the design of column transverse reinforcement shall be calculated by Equation (3.3.3.Ve.7.3. being consistent with the sense of earthquake direction.3) is satisfied at both bottom and top joints of the column.7.3. and in addition it shall satisfy the conditions given by Equation (3. whereas 3.7.4 Mri and Mpj ≅ 1. respectively.7.
In addition.3.05 Ac fck. Mha(i): Moment obtained at bottom end of i’th storey column according to Chapter 2. the coefficient of shearing force of concrete shall be taken as Vc= 0 in case shearing force made of only seismic loads is bigger than the half of the total shearing force and at the same time provided the condition Nd ≤ 0. shear force for transverse reinforcement shall be calculated by Equation (3. The moments in Equation (3. in the calculation of transverse reinforcement along the column confinement zones specified in 3. Calculation of Mü Calculation of Ma Mhü(i): Moment obtained at top end of i’th storey column according to Chapter 2.3.500. 3.6) 40 .1 for column confinement zones shall be applied along the length of the short column.7). The minimum transverse reinforcement requirements and conditions of arrangement defined in 3. Figure 3.1.5 3. Transverse reinforcement shall be extended along the full storey length of columns which are transformed into short columns in between infill walls (Fig. 3. Vc. shall be determined in accordance with TS .3. contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the section.3.4.8. Ve.4 rü with n being the length of the short column.5).6). calculated shear force shall satisfy the conditions given by Equation (3.4.4 Mra and Mü ≅1. However. In cases where short columns cannot be avoided.3.5) shall be calculated at bottom and top ends of the short column as Ma ≅1.7. Conditions Related to Short Columns Short columns may be developed due to structural arrangements or due to openings provided in infill walls between columns (Fig.6 – In calculating the column transverse reinforcement for shear force.
1.2. to coupling beams of coupled structural walls.section Requirements 3. 8 fctd / fyd (3. (b) Beam height shall not be less than 3 times the thickness of floor slab and 300 mm. Cross .4 Mrü 1.stressed / prefabricated beams with hinge connections to columns.4. and to the secondary beams which are connected to frame beams outside the beamcolumn joints. (c) Beam height should not be more than 1 / 4 the clear span.4.1.4. Web width shall not exceed the sum of the beam height and the width of the supporting column in the perpendicular direction to the beam axis.section of beams forming frames together with columns. Ve 1.5 times the beam web width.3. 3.2. Otherwise below given 3. Otherwise such elements shall be sized and reinforced as a column in accordance with 3.4 Mra Ve Deep beam or Infill wall Figure 3. nor shall it more than 3.6 3.It is essential that design axial force satisfies the condition Nd ≤ 0.1 – The requirement given by Equation (3.4. (d) Limitations specified above in relation to beam width and heights are not applicable to reinforced concrete or pre .1..4. or of beams connected to structural walls in their own planes are given below: (a) Width of the beam web shall be at least 250 mm.4.2 .8) shall be applied as the minimum ratio of top tension reinforcement at beams supports. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements 3.1 – Dimensional requirements of cross .1 Ac fck in order that any structural element be sized and reinforced as a beam.4. 3. BEAMS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL 3.2. ρ ≥ 0.8) 41 .5 shall be applied.
The remaining part of the top support reinforcement shall be arranged in accordance with TS . bottom and top beam reinforcement shall be extended up to the face of the other side of the confined core of the column and then shall be bent 90 degrees from inside the hoops.4. 3. beam bottom rebars shall be extended to the adjacent span from the column face by at least the development length b given in TS . (c) In the case where beams frame into columns from both sides.4. to the case where beam is not extended to the other side of the column.3 – In the first and second seismic zones.500.e. For the development of web reinforcement similar to that of longitudinal reinforcement.2.1 is not satisfied. 3.3. Diameter of web reinforcement shall not be less than 12 mm and spacing shall not be more than 300 mm.1 – Requirements for the placement and development of the longitudinal reinforcement are given below (Fig.4. In this case. 3. 3.4. At least two rebars each at the bottom and top of the beam shall be continuously provided along the full span length of the beam. development of longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided straight without making 90 degree hook.2.4.2.7): (a) At least 1 / 4 the maximum of the top support reinforcement at the ends of a beam shall be extended continuously along the full span length. web reinforcement shall be provided along the beam height on both sides of the web. paragraph (b).4 b and vertical part shall not be less than 12 ∅.2 – Diameter of longitudinal rebars shall not be less than 12 mm.1 shall be applied.2. total length of the horizontal part of the longitudinal rebar inside the column and the 90 degree bent vertical part shall not be less than the straight development length specified in TS . Total area of web reinforcement shall not be less than 30 % of the greater of the sum of top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement at right or left support sections. development shall be achieved in a way similar to paragraph(b) above. In cases where this is not possible because of reasons such as the depth difference in beams. (b) In cases where beams framing into columns are not extended to the other side of columns. and (c) of 3. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement 3. However this percentage may be decreased to 30 % in the third and fourth seismic zones. 42 .3.5 – In the special cases where the condition given in paragraph (c) of 3.3.500..1. In walls and columns which value is more than straight development length b and also more than 50 ∅. 3.3.500. bottom reinforcement at a beam support shall not be less than 50 % of the top reinforcement provided at the same support. i.4.4. Horizontal part of the 90 degree bent shall not be less than 0.500 and 2 %.4 – Ratio of tensile reinforcement along beam spans and at supports shall not be more than the maximum value specified in TS .4.
3.3.8 shall be used along this region. Unless a more unfavorable value is obtained from 3.500 shall be applied.1 / 4 the max support reinforcement (See TS . 8 times the minimum diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement and 150 mm (Fig.500 for other rules of arrangement) Bottom reinforcement of adjacent span Bottom reinforcement of adjacent span a b b (a + b) ≥ b a ≥ 0. within beam .4 below. distance of the first hoop to the column face shall be max. In the confinement zone. 50 mm.3.4.4.4. 43 . minimum transverse reinforcement requirements specified in TS . special seismic hoops defined in 3.4. It is not necessary to use special seismic hoops in the span center of the upper assembly rebar. Spacing of such hoops shall not exceed 1 / 4 of the beam depth and 100 mm.3.4.8 shall be used.2.column joints. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements A region with a length twice the beam depth measured from the column face of a beam support shall be defined as confinement zone and special seismic hoops defined in 3. and in regions where reinforcement has a possibility of yielding. 4 b ≥ 12 φ b Figure 3.5. Outside the confinement zone.2 Requirements related to splicing of longitudinal reinforcement are given below: (a) Lap splicing shall not be made along beam confinement zones defined in 3. (b) Mechanical connections or welded lap splices shall only be applied to every alternate bar at a section and longitudinal distance between two consecutive splices shall not be less than 600 mm.2.7 3. hoop spacing shall not exceed 1 / 4 of the beam depth.8). In places outside such regions where lap splicing can be made. such as the midspan region for bottom reinforcement.
10). Ve = Vdy ± (Mpi + Mpj) / n (3.4 Mri and Mpj ≅ 1.5.5.8 3.1 . crosssection dimensions shall be increased as required and the seismic analysis shall be repeated.9) such that the most unfavorable result is obtained by separately considering the cases of earthquake acting from left to right or from right to left (Fig. Shear Safety of Beams 3.22 bw d fcd (3.3.4 Mrj.5. calculated by Equation (3. ultimate moment capacities at the beam ends may be taken as Mpi ≅ 1.9) shall satisfy the conditions given below by Equation (3.2 – Shear force.10) 44 .9). In the case where the condition given by Equation (3. longitudinal rebar diameter) sk ≤ 150 mm Figure 3.10b) is not satisfied. 3.4. Ve ≤ Vr Ve ≤ 0.≤ 50 mm sk Beam Beam Beam central zone Confinement Confinement (Minimum transverse zone zone reinforcement according to TS500) = 2 hk = 2 hk s k ≤ hk / 4 sk ≤ 8φ (φ = min.9) Unless a more rigorous analysis is performed.4. Ve.4. Ve.Shear force. to be taken into account for beam transverse reinforcement shall be calculated by Equation (3.
Shear Safety of BeamColumn Joints 3.9 3. (a) In the case where beams frame into all four sides of a column and where the width of each beam is not less than 3 / 4 the adjoining column width.11). However.3 . 3.5. the coefficient of shearing force of concrete shall be taken as Vc= 0 in case shearing force made of only seismic loads is bigger than the half of the total shearing force.1 – Shear force in beamcolumn joints along the earthquake direction considered (Fig.5.2.4 Mri Mpj ≈1. in calculating the transverse reinforcement along the beam confinement zones defined in 3.4. 3.25 fyk (As1 + As2) − Vkol (3. 45 . Confined and Unconfined Joints Beam .5.1. BEAM .500.Mpi ≈1. shall be determined in accordance with TS . it shall be As2 = 0.10) shall be calculated by Equation (3.11) In the case where beam frames into column from only one side and discontinuous on the other side.column joints of frame systems comprised of columns and beams of high ductility level shall be separated into two classes as defined below.4 Mrj n Vdyi Vdyj (Mpi + Mpj) / n Figure 3. In no case shall the contribution of inclined longitudinal bars to the shear strength be taken into account.5. Vc.In calculating the beam transverse reinforcement for shear force.2.4. Ve.3. contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the section.4. such a beamcolumn joint shall be defined as a confined joint.5. (b) All joints not satisfying the above given conditions shall be defined as unconfined joint.COLUMN JOINTS OF FRAME SYSTEMS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL 3. Ve = 1.
3): (a) In confined joints.3 – Requirements for minimum transverse reinforcement in beam . (b) In unconfined joints. at least 40 % of the amount of transverse reinforcement existing in the confinement zone of the column below shall be provided along the height of the joint. However.2 – The shear force calculated by Equation (3.25A s2fyk As2 Vü Vkol = min (Va.10 46 . 3. In the case bw1 and bw2 In the case bw1 and bw2 < b bj = 2 min (b1. diameter of transverse reinforcement shall not be less than 8 mm and its spacing shall not exceed 150 mm.5. In the cases where those limits are exceeded.2.column joints are given below (Fig.2.5.5.5.25As1fyk C1 C2 1.45 bj h fcd (3. b2) bj ≤ (bw1 + h) (for bw1 < bw2) b Figure 3.1) Va As1 1.3.1) Earthquake Direction 1 bj= b.12) (3. crosssection dimensions of column and/or beam shall be increased and the seismic analysis shall be repeated.60 bj h fcd Ve ≤ 0. (a) In confined joints: (b) In unconfined joints: Ve ≤ 0.2. Confined joint conditions bw1 and bw2 ≥ 3 / 4 b bw3 and bw4 ≥ 3 / 4 h (See 3.3.10). diameter of transverse reinforcement shall not be less than 8 mm and its spacing shall not exceed 100 mm. at least 60 % of the amount of transverse reinforcement existing in the confinement zone of the column below shall be provided along the height of the joint.11) in a joint along the given earthquake direction shall in no case exceed the limits given below (Fig.13) 3. Vü) (See. However in this case. 3.
3.2 – The critical wall height measured from the foundation level shall be determined as to satisfy the unfavorable one of the following conditions given in Equation (3. With the exception of the special case given in 3.15) Hcr ≥ Hw / 6 Here Hw.1 – Structural walls are the vertical elements of the structural system where the ratio of length to thickness in plan is equal to at least seven.6.1.2.Wall end zones shall be developed on both ends of walls where Hw / w > 2. In such buildings critical wall height shall be extended downwards along the height of first basement storey below the ground floor.6.14) are satisfied.6.2.2. Ag / Ap ≥ 0. limits of the wall thickness in the end points are given 3.0 (Fig.6. is the wall height measured from level that reduce more than 20 % of length of the wall in plan or from the top of the ground.1.14) Vt / Ag ≤ 0. Wall End Zones and Critical Wall Height 3.3 below. whereas it shall be applied at foundation top level for other buildings. However this thickness should not be less than 300 mm. wall thickness in the ground may be equal to at least 1 / 20 of horizontal length between the points where its situated in lateral direction.2 and 3. In buildings where the stiffnesses of reinforced concrete peripheral walls in basement stories are excessive compared to upper stories.1. and where basement slabs behave as rigid diaphragms in horizontal planes.2. wall thickness shall not be less than 1 / 20 the highest storey height and 150 mm. Hcr ≥ w (3.11).2.1. wall thickness shall not be less than 1 / 20 the storey height and 200 mm.2 – In buildings where seismic loads are fully carried by structural walls along the full height of building.6. With the exemption of buildings specified in 3. wall thickness shall not be less than 1 / 15 of the storey height and 200 mm.6.6.15) provided that it does not exceed 2 w . However this thickness should not be less than 1 / 20 of the storey height and 300 mm. STRUCTURAL WALLS OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL 3.6. CrossSection Requirements 3.002 (3.14) shall be applied at the ground floor level in buildings with stiff peripheral walls in basement stories.1 below. Hw and Hcr shall be considered upwards from the ground floor.6.3 – On the walls situated in lateral direction with the elements that the length is equal to at least to 1 / 5 of the storey length and have storey length bigger than 6 m.6. In those walls. 3.6. 3. 3.6.1 .1. Wall end zones may be developed within the wall itself or within an adjoining wall or in an enlarged section at the edge of the wall. 47 .1.3. provided that both two of the conditions given by Equation (3. 3. wall thickness in the ground may be equal to at least 1 / 20 of horizontal length between the points where its situated in lateral direction.5 fctd Equation (3. In cases where wall end zones situated to lateral direction with the elements that the length is equal to at least to 1 / 5 of the storey height.1.
reinforcement mesh on both faces of the wall web shall be tied each other by at least 4 special seismic crossties per unit square meter of the wall surface. 3. total area of the transverse in the wall end zones on unit length shall not less than the total area on the unit length of the horizontal reinforcement in the wall web. In this case. reinforcement spacing shall not exceed 300 mm.3 – Excluding the wall end zones.1 – Total cross section area of each of the vertical and horizontal web reinforcement on both faces of structural wall shall not be less than 0.0015.6.4. However.1 – Horizontal web rebars shall be bent 90 degree at the outer edge of the wall end zone and tied to the vertical corner reinforcement at the other face by a 135 degree hook.4. ⊃ shaped bars should not be placed.6.3.2.6.6.11).2 at wall end zones along the critical wall height. However in such a case.6.6. The spacing of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement in wall web shall not be more than 250 mm (Fig.3.4. Those bars shall be extended inside the wall web by at least the development length measured from the inner boundary of the wall end zone. 3.11). 3.1. Horizontal web reinforcement so arranged may be taken into account in determining the confinement reinforcement to be provided in accordance with below given 3.6. cross section area of each of the wall end zones shall be equal at least to the area defined in 3. each of the total vertical and horizontal web reinforcement ratios may be decreased to 0. 3.6. Arrangement of Web Reinforcement Horizontal web reinforcement may be arranged as explained below in 3.2.2. excluding the wall end zones.4 – In the case where wall end zones are arranged within an adjoining walls or at enlarged sections at the edges of the wall.2 above are satisfied.0025 of the gross section area of the wall web remaining in between the wall end zones.6. 3. Crosstie diameter shall be at least equal to that of the horizontal reinforcement.3.11).4. However. 3. nor shall it be less than the wall thickness (Fig.6.2 – In buildings where both conditions given by Equation(3. wall web section shall be considered as the full section of the wall. 3. nor shall it be two times the wall thickness.6. 3. ⊃ shaped horizontal bars with the same diameter of web reinforcement shall be placed at both ends of the wall.1 or in 3.3.2 (Fig. Web Reinforcement Requirements 3.3.14) of 3.5. in case development length of the web reinforcement is less than or equal to length of wall end zone.3 – In structural walls with rectangular cross section. the plan length of each of the end zones along the above defined critical wall height shall not be less than 20 % of the total plan length of the wall. The plan length of each of the end zones along the wall section above the critical wall height shall not be less than 10 % of the total plan length of the wall. 3. In the case where Hw / w ≤ 2.4.0.2. 48 .6.6.3 for rectangular section walls. at least 10 special seismic crossties per unit square meter of the wall surface shall be used along the critical wall height defined in 3.6.6. 3.2 – In the case where horizontal web rebars are terminated at the wall end without 90 degree bent.2.
nor shall it be less than 50 mm (Fig.5. However this ratio shall be increased to 0. Such reinforcement shall be extended into the foundation by at least a height equal to twice the wall thickness.001.2. 3. 3.4. (b) At least 2 / 3 of the transverse reinforcement determined by Equation(3.11).2.002 along the critical wall height defined in 3. Figure 3. 3.2 – Vertical reinforcement at wall end zones shall be confined as similar to columns. a. Horizontal distance between the legs of hoops and / or crossties.1 – The ratio of the total area of vertical reinforcement at each wall end zone to the gross wall cross section area shall not be less than 0.2.3.6.5.11).3.6.6.1 for the confinement zones of columns shall be provided at wall end zones along the critical wall height defined in 3.11 49 . by transverse reinforcement made of hoops and crossties. (a) Diameter of transverse reinforcement to be used at wall end zones shall not be less than 8 mm.6. Reinforcement Requirements at Wall End Zones 3. shall not be more than 25 times the diameter of hoops or crossties. Vertical spacing of hoops and / or crossties shall not be more than half the wall thickness and 100 mm.5. in accordance with the below given rules.1) in 3.6.2. Amount of vertical reinforcement at each wall end zone shall not be less than 4∅14 (Fig.
6.12).3 – In walls satisfying the condition Hw / w > 2.2. seismic analysis shall be repeated by increasing the wall dimensions and / or reinforcement. Otherwise. Design Bending Moments 3.0.2 shall be taken as a constant value being equal to the bending moment calculated at the wall base in accordance with Chapter 2. ultimate moment resistances of wall cross sections at each storey shall satisfy in their strong direction the condition given by Equation(3.16) 50 . design shear force based on the calculation of any considered transverse reinforcement in section.6.6.0. 3.6. Ve= v (M d )t (M ) p t Vd (3. Ve.3) for columns. design bending moments shall be taken as equal to bending moments calculated according to Chapter 2.12 3.6.6. 3. 3. Above the critical wall height.0.2.0.In walls satisfying the condition Hw / w > 2.11).2 – In the case where Hw / w > 2.2. 3.(c) Vertical spacing of hoops and / or crossties at wall end zones outside the critical wall height shall not be more than the wall thickness and 200 mm (Fig.6. design bending moments along the critical wall height determined according to 3. the constant wall bending moment shall be considered along the critical wall height defined in 3. shall be calculated with Equation (3. In buildings with rigid peripheral walls at basements.1 .16).6. Design Bending Moment Hw Design bending moment Hw Hcr Bending Moment (Analysis) Structural system comprised of walls only Hcr Bending moment (analysis) Structural system comprised of walls and frames Figure 3.6. In all sections of the walls satisfying Hw / w 2.6. a linear bending moment diagram shall be applicable which is parallel to the line connecting the moments calculated at the base and at the top of the wall (Fig.
17). 3.1 – All rules and requirements given above for structural walls are equally valid for each of the wall segments forming the coupled structural walls.6. shall be controlled with shear friction design defined in TS500. Rules and Requirements for Coupled Structural Walls 3.8.5. Design shear forces in all section of the wall satisfying Hw / w 2.5 of Chapter 2 shall be changed accordingly.7.18) Otherwise transverse reinforcement of the wall and / or wall cross sections shall be increased so as to satisfy the above conditions.8.13 51 .0.1 – Shear strength of wall cross sections. In the case where this condition is not satisfied. vertical reinforcement at construction joints at the foundation level and at the above stories.8.6.7. Vr. shall be taken as equal to shear forces calculated according to Chapter 2. Mleft T Mright T (Ma + Mb) ≤ 2/3 Fwi Hi Fwi: Seismic load acting at i’th storey on coupled structural wall system Figure 3.65 fctd + ρsh fyd) The shear force Vd shall satisfy the conditions defined below: Vd ≤ Vr Vd ≤ 0. Shear Safety of Structural Walls 3.6. Vr = Ach (0.13). shall be calculated by Equation (3. 3.22 Ach fcd (3.6.6. (Mp)t ≅ 1. 3.17) (3.By considering the shear force transferred to that section.6. 3. and R factor taken from Table 2. 3.2 . In the case where a more rigorous analysis is not performed.2 – Sum of the base moments developed along the given earthquake direction at the wall segments forming a coupled structural wall system shall not be more than 2 / 3 the total overturning moment developed in the coupled structural wall system due to seismic loads (Fig. each of the wall segments forming the coupled structural wall shall be treated as a solid structural wall.4 (Mr)t can be taken as the hardening moment capacity in the ground of wall.Dynamic magnification coefficient of shear force placed in this correlation shall be taken as v= 1.7.
3 – In the reinforcement design of wall segments forming the coupled structural wall. it may be allowed to transfer at most 30 % of the moment of the wall segment in tension to the wall segment in compression (redistribution). Figure 3.14 52 .3.14).20).5.6.4.4 – Rules related to the shear reinforcement of coupling beams are given below: (a) In the case where any of the conditions below is satisfied.5 b. 3. coupling beam shall be provided with the minimum amount of hoops and horizontal web reinforcement specified in TS500 (Fig.14).19) (b) In the case where none of the conditions given by Equation (3. 3. Total reinforcement area of each bundle of cross rebars shall be determined by Equation (3. Bundles shall be confined with special seismic hoops whose diameter shall not be more than 8 mm and their spacing shall not be more than 8 times the cross rebar diameter and 100 mm. In addition to cross rebars. or cross rebars shall be used to resist the shear of the coupling beam (Fig.20) There shall be at least four rebars in each bundle of cross rebars and they shall be extended into the wall segments by at least 1. Asd = Vd / (2 fyd sin γ) (3. n > 3 hk Vd ≤ 1. the special shear reinforcement to be provided for the coupling beam shall be determined by methods whose validity are proven by tests.19) is satisfied.6.8. calculation of shear reinforcement of coupling beams shall be performed in accordance with 3. 3.8.5 bw d fctd (3.
2 for the column central zone.7. In the case where reinforcement lap splices are made at the bottom end of the column.500 by taking into account the minimum axial force. 3. COLUMNS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL 3.1 – The definition given in 3.7.7. minimum transverse reinforcement defined in 3.1.8 for columns of high ductility level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements related to the arrangement of longitudinal reinforcement given in 3.3. Transverse reinforcement in column central zone shall be determined in accordance with 3. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements Longitudinal reinforcement requirements given in 3.4. Cross .4.7.7) for columns of high ductility level is equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level. definition and the minimum transverse reinforcement requirements given in 3. calculated under gravity loads combined with seismic loads. as well as the conditions given in 3.1 for columns of high ductility level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.1 for the length of each of the confinement zones is equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.3.7.4.7.5. Vc.7. obtained under the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads given in Chapter 2 shall be taken into account in the determination of transverse reinforcement.7.3. spacing of transverse reinforcement along the confinement zones shall not be more than 1/ 3 of the cross .1 for column confinement zones and in 3.3 for columns of high ductility level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level. In columns of nominal ductility level.7.3.3.3. Special seismic hoops and special seismic crossties defined in 3.1 – In columns of nominal ductility level.7. the condition given by Equation (3.3 are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level.7. 3.3 – In the determination of transverse reinforcement according to the shear force defined in 3.2 – In relation to the column central zone.2.1.6.4.7. 3.1 shall be used along the length of the lap splice. 3. 3.7. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements The minimum transverse reinforcement requirements of columns are specified in 3.3.4. Vd.3. shall be determined in accordance with TS .2 for columns of high ductility level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level. the shear force.2.4.7. 3.7. the contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the section.section Requirements Cross .5. 3.section size.7.3. Nd.4. 3.3.5. provided that Vd shall be considered in lieu of Ve .4. 3.7.section requirements given in 3. Shear Safety of Columns 3.2.2 – In relation to the upper bound of shear force. Conditions Related to Short Columns In relation to short columns.4. conditions given in 3.5.5. 53 . 8 times of the diameter of minimum longitudinal reinforcement and 150mm.5.8 shall be used along all regions of column.
2.8.5.4. distance of the first hoop to the column face shall be max.500.8.3 for columns of high ductility level are equally applicable to columns of nominal ductility level. provided that Vd shall be considered in lieu of Ve . 3.8. Outside the confinement zone. 3.5.5.5. Shear Safety of Beams 3. the shear force.3.500 shall be applied.1 for beams of high ductility level are equally applicable to beams of nominal ductility level.5. hoop spacing shall not exceed 1 / 3 o f the beam depth.8. Unless a more unfavorable value is obtained from the below given 3. Arrangement of Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements related to the arrangement of longitudinal reinforcement given in 3. Crosssection Requirements Crosssection requirements given in 3.1.8.8.3 – In the determination of transverse reinforcement according to the shear force defined in 3.4. BEAMS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL 3.2.1. shall be determined in accordance with TS . 3. 3. BEAMCOLUMN JOINTS OF FRAME SYSTEMS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL Rules and conditions given in 3.5 in relation to beam .8 shall be used along this region. the contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the section.2 for beams of high ductility level are equally applicable to beams of nominal ductility level. 54 . 50 mm. obtained under the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads given in Chapter 2 shall be taken into account in the determination of transverse reinforcement.8.8.1 – In beams of nominal ductility level. 3.1 and 3. Vc.8. Vd.8.5.10) for beams of high ductility level is equally applicable to beams of nominal ductility level. 10 times the minimum diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement and 200 mm. minimum transverse reinforcement requirements specified in TS . 3.5. Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirements Longitudinal reinforcement requirements given in 3.8.3.5.4.2 – In relation to the upper bound of shear force. In the confinement zone. 3.column joints of frame systems formed by columns and beams of high ductility level are equally applicable to beam column joints of systems of nominal ductility level with the exception of 3.9.2. Transverse Reinforcement Requirements A region with a length twice the beam depth measured from the column face of a beam support shall be defined as confinement zone and special seismic hoops defined in 3.4.2. the condition given by Equation (3.2.1. In no case shall the contribution of inclined longitudinal bars to the shear strength be taken into account.
3.10. STRUCTURAL WALLS OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL
Structural walls of nominal ductility level shall be dimensioned and reinforced in accordance with the internal forces developed under the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads. With the exception of rules and conditions given in 3.6.6, 3.6.8.2, 3.6.8.3 as well as the definitions and conditions given in relation to the critical wall height, rules and conditions given in 3.6 for structural walls of high ductility level are equally applicable to structural walls of nominal ductility level. However in 3.6.7.1, 1.5 Vd shall be taken instead of Ve.
3.11. SLABS 3.11.1 – Slabs shall possess sufficient stiffness and strength to enable the safe distribution of seismic loads acting on storey masses to the vertical elements of the structural system. 3.11.2 – In all seismic zones, slab thickness of all castinsitu or prefabricated, bare or infilled joist floor systems shall not be less than 50 mm. However it is mandatory that shear connectors be made between joists and the slab, and their adequacy be proven by calculation to insure the safe transfer of inplane shear forces developed under gravity loads and seismic loads. Requirements given in TS  500 for the slab thicknesses of other floor systems are applicable. 3.11.3 – In relation to the shear strength of slab systems, conditions given in 3.6.7 for the shear strength of structural walls of high ductility level are equally applicable except 3.6.7.1. 3.12. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS
Prefabricated buildings which are constructed through assembling the structural elements manufactured in factory conditions shall comply with the following special requirements in addition to the other requirements specified in this regulation.
3.12.1. Frames with Hinge Connections 3.12.1.1 – Hinge connections made of weld, shall possess sufficient strength to resist at least 2 times of the connection strength to be occurred from the earthquake according to Chapter 2 and other hinged connections shall also possess sufficient strength to resist at least 1.5 of it. In confinement calculations safety tensions shall be increased maximum 15 %. 3.12.2. Moment Resisting Frames 3.12.2.1 – It shall be proven through analytical methods with appropriate references from the literature or tests that moment resisting connections of prefabricated building frames possess strength and ductility that are equivalent to the monolithic behavior under cyclic and repeated loading due to earthquakes. 3.12.2.2 – Connections shall possess sufficient strength to transfer moments, shear forces and axial forces to be developed at the ultimate strength level without any reduction in strength and ductility. In welded connections and other type of connections, 1.5 times and 1.2 times the seismic connection forces, respectively, obtained according to Chapter 2 shall be taken into account.
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3.12.2.3 – Connections must be arranged in sufficient distance from the potential plastic hinges that can develop within the elements connected. 3.12.3. Conditions Concerning Pre  Stressing Elements
With the exception of floor elements and beam type elements with hinge connections to the columns, full pre  stressing shall not be permitted in prefabricated structural elements to be used in seismic zones. Limited pre  stressing application, in addition to pre  stressing steel, can be provided by means of using pre  stressing steel in an amount to be obtained sufficient ductility in elements or stressing of a pre  stressing steel with a low tensile force. Tensile of the pre stressing steel under the effects of earthquake shall not exceed the value calculated with dividing the elastic limit to safety coefficient of material.
3.13. REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE APPLICATION DESIGN DRAWINGS 3.13.1. General Requirements 3.13.1.1 – Quality classes of concrete and reinforcing steel to be used in the building shall be indicated on all drawings. 3.13.1.2 – The Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient, the Building Importance Factor considered in the design, the Local Site Class selected from Table 6.2 and the Structural Behavior Factor determined from Table 2.5 shall be indicated on all floor framing plan drawings. 3.13.1.3 – Hook bending detail of special seismic hoops and special seismic crossties defined in 3.2.8 (Fig. 3.1) shall be shown on all detail drawings of columns, beams and structural walls. 3.13.2. Column and Beam Details 3.13.2.1 – Position, diameter and number of vertical rebars within the cross  section shall be shown in detail on column application drawings. Further, horizontal sections shall be taken at each beam  column joint showing in plan the rebars extended upwards from the column below and longitudinal rebars of all beams framing into the column. Hence it shall be clearly shown that column and beam rebars are arranged in such a way that they shall not hinder the proper pouring of concrete into the joint. Ore reinforcement of wall and column from the dig shall be indicated in the drawing with number, diameter and spacing with expansions of transverse reinforcement concerning those. 3.13.2.2 – Vertical sections shall be taken with vertical rebar detailing clearly shown for each type of column with fully identical longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Vertical columns sections shall include rebar splicing regions, lap lengths, beam  column joint at the top of the column. In this respect, standard details valid for all beams  columns joints of the building shall not be accepted. 3.13.2.3 – Lengths of column confinement zones as well as diameters, numbers, spacing and crosssectional details of transverse reinforcement provided along those regions, along the column central zone and within the top beam  column joint shall be clearly indicated on the drawings, separately for each column type.
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3.13.2.4 – In the application drawings of structural walls; positions, diameters and numbers of vertical bars in the web and wall end zones shall be indicated. In addition, vertical sections shall be taken for each wall type showing the vertical layout of rebars. Critical wall height shall be clearly indicated on the vertical section. Diameters, numbers, spacing and cross  sectional details of transverse reinforcement provided along the critical wall height and other sections of the wall shall be clearly indicated on the drawings. 3.13.3. Beam Details
In beam details, lengths of confinement zones at beam supports as well as diameters, numbers, spacing and crosssectional details of transverse reinforcement provided along those regions and along the beam central zone shall be clearly indicated on the drawings, separately for each beam.
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section column = Notation for seismic load = Elasticity modulus of structural steel = Length of bond beam = Notation for dead load = Average storey heights on the up and down of the loop point = Height of web plate = Storey height of the i’th floor of the building = Distance between the points where the beam is supported in lateral direction = Distance between the possible plastic joint points in the edges of the beams = Bending moment calculated under the combined effects of seismic loads and gravity loads = Bending moment capacity calculated at the bottom end of the column = Moment calculated at the bottom end of column = Positive or negative plastic moment calculated at the left end i of the beam = Negative or positive plastic moment calculated at the right end j of the beam = Reduced moment capacity = Moment calculated at the top end of column = Additional bending moment occurred on the surface of the column due to shearing force in the possible plastic joints at the left end i of the beam = Additional bending moment occurred on the surface of the column due to shearing force in the possible plastic joints at the right end j of the beam = Axial pressure capacity = Axial tensile capacity = Factored axial force calculated under simultaneous action of vertical loads and seismic loads = Notation for live load = Behavioral coefficient of structural system = Radius inertia in the lateral direction of the 1 / 3 of the part that is under the compressive strength of the beam flange and web = Thickness = Flange thickness of the beam section = Flange thickness of the column section = Minimum plate thickness in the sliding zone = Including the reinforcing plates. total plate thickness in the sliding zone 58 .section area = Width = Flange width of column section = Flange width of beam section = Outside diameter in circular ring sections = Increase coefficient of yield stress = Length of cross . millimeter [mm] for lengths and MegaPascal [MPa] = [N/mm2] for stresses. NOTATION A Ak An b bcf bbf D Da db dc E Es e G Havr h hi b Md Mp Mpa Mpi Mpj Mpn Mpü Mvi Mvj Nbp Nçp Nd Q R ry t tbf tcf tmin tp n = Area of Cross .CHAPTER 4 .Section = Area of shearing = Useful cross .section beam = Length of cross .0. 4.EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS Dimensioned expressions used in this chapter with the following notations are in Newton [N] for forces.
wall systems = Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in accordance with Chapter 2 at the i’th storey columns where Equation (4.648 = Safety stress = Relative floor drift angle 59 .3) is satisfied at both bottom and top joints in the peripheries of framed or framed wall systems = Shearing force capacity = Reduced shearing force capacity = Plastic moment of resistance = Ratio of Vis / Vik calculated for any i’th storey = Relative storey drift at the i’th floor of the building = Turning angle of the bond beam = Increase coefficient = Yield stress of the structural steel = Depending on the slenderness of the element. pressure safety stress calculated according to TS .column confinement zone = Necessary shearing strength of the sliding zone = Sum of shear forces calculated in the earthquake direction considered in accordance with Chapter 2 at all columns of the i’th storey in the peripheries of framed or framed .tt tw u Vd Vdy Ve Vke Vik Vis Vp Vpn Wp αi p i o a bem em p = Thickness of the reinforcing plate = Web thickness = Length of the periphery of reinforcing plate = Shearing force calculated under the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads = Simple beam shearing force occurred due to gravity loads in the surface of the beam which combines with column = Necessary shearing strength of the beam .
8.1. along with currently enforced relevant standards and codes.1 and 4.5. (c) Steel braced wall .2. Steel carrying systems of armoured concrete floorings that work compositely with the steel beams are also under the scope of this Chapter.2. GENERAL RULES 4.1. conditions of R coefficients are given in 2.1. SCOPE 4. 4.7.Structural steel systems given below are defined as Systems of High Ductility Level: (a) Frame type structural systems complying with the requirements of 4. (c) Steel braced wall .1.5.5.1 . primarily in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.10 of Chapter 3 shall be applied.1.1.5.6 and centric steel braced frames complying with the requirements of 4. 4. 4. 4.1. 4.2 and 2.4. In the case where reinforced concrete structural walls are used as part of the structural system.1.2.4.3 – In case the lateral load carrying systems specified above are differ from each other in both two lateral seismic direction. of steel braced frames only or of combination of frames with steel braced frames or reinforced concrete structural walls.2.2 – Structural steel systems given below are defined as Systems of Nominal Ductility Level: (a) Frame type structural systems complying with the requirements of 4.4. (b) Lateral carrying systems comprised of centric steel braced frames that provides the conditions specified in 4.1.3 .2. 4.4.frame systems made of combining the two systems defined above.3 and 4.3.1.2. rules given in 3.frame systems made of combining the two systems defined in paragraph (a) and (b) above.1.1.1. 60 .3 and also conditions concerning R coefficients to be applied in mixed use in any direction are given in 2. Classification of Steel Structural Systems Lateral load carrying systems of structural steel buildings shall be classified with respect to their seismic behavior into two classes defined in 4.Dimensioning of all structural elements of structural steel buildings to be built in seismic zones and design of their joints shall be performed.2 . Special cases and requirements regarding the mixed use of such classes of systems are given in 2.4 of Chapter 2 and also in 4.2 below.1.Lateral load carrying systems of structural steel buildings covered in this chapter may be comprised of steel frames only.Requirements for structural steel building foundations are given in Chapter 6.2. (b) Structural systems comprised of concentric steel braced frames complying with the requirements of 4.2.6 or 3.2.1 .
4 – On the elements that are under the effect of seismic load.3.Notch (CVN) (Notch Resistance) shall be 27 Nm (27 J) in 218 C on the tests carried out in accordance with ASTM A673 or equivalent standards. 4. 4.3.9 or high quality.steel combined buildings consist maximum two different lateral carrying system in vertical direction and R coefficients to be applied to those are given in 2. On the welded column . ISO 4.V .498.6 quality bolts can be used in the combinations and joints of the elements that are not under the effect of seismic loads and in the details of foundation connections. These bolts shall be pre .2. all structural steels that have weld ability and defined in the other internally accepted standards or in TS . Also combinations and joints shall be controlled according to element capacities or increased seismic effects in such a way that specified in the relevant articles of this Chapter.4.1 .1 .6 and 5. based on allowable stress method and to those of TS .stress strength applicable to them in the joints that transmit moment.stressed with half of it.5 – On the section calculations made according to Safety Stress Method under the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads.2. minimum value of Charpy .3.3. whereas on the other joints those shall be pre . 4. 10.5.2.2.8.2.Design of structural steel systems covered in the scope of this chapter shall be performed according to the seismic loads and analysis requirements given in Chapter 2 of this Specification.stressed with all pre . On the design of combinations and joints based on the safety stresses.V .For the matters outside the rules given in this Chapter.2. 4.2. to other loads specified in TS .3.beam joints of the frames that transmit moment. On the minimum value of electrodes of Charpy .2. On the plates that have at least 50 mm thickness on the rolling profiles with 40 mm walled thickness of flanges and artificial profiles made of those plates.2. Relevant Standards 4. 4.1. then it can be benefited from the internationally accepted standards and regulations.2.2.5. 4. 61 .648 based on allowable stress method.3 – On the welded joints. full penetration butt weld or butt wells seams shall be used.3. 4. electrodes shall be used in accordance with the steel material and welded method and yield strength of the electrode will not be less than the yield strength of the combined materials.2. rules in this Chapter shall be taken as basis. For the matters outside the scope of those standards and hereby Regulation.2.4 – Conditions concerning steel or armored concrete . to the requirements of TS . welded and bolted joints can not be used together in the same joint points. rules in TS . In special cases where the rules in relevant standards are different.648 can be used.4561 based on ultimate strength design method.1 – Within the scope of this Regulation.298 C in those welds.2 – Bolts to be used in the combination and joints of the elements under the effect of seismic load shall be ISO 8.2.Notch (CVN) (Notch Resistance) shall be 27 Nm (27 J) in . safety stresses shall be increased utmost 33 %. Material Conditions and Material Safety Factors 4. this increment will not exceed 15 %.3357 and TS 648 shall be complied.
on the design of structural steel elements and combination details.3.1 1.4.2. Increased Seismic Effects On the required points of the articles 4.3.1a) Values of Increase Coefficient.4.6.2.2c) (4. on the calculation of required capacities of structural steel elements and joint details.60 σa Ak : N bp = 1.2b) (4.3. TABLE 4.7 σbem A : N çp = σa Anet (4.2. 4.1b) (4.8.3.5. increased seismic effects given below are taken into consideration. 4. Inner Force Capacities and Boundary Values of Tensile 2.1 of this Chapter. Loads that give increased seismic effects are defined as: 1.2.3. Ωo.0 G + 1. 4.5 In order to use in necessary cases.3.2 – INCREASE COEFFICIENTS Type of Structural Systems Ωo Frames Of High Ductility Level Frames Of Normal Ductility Level Centric Steel Braced Frames (Frames of High or Normal Ductility Level) Eccentric Steel Braced Frames 4.1.0 Q ± Ωo E Or in case of unfavorable results 0 .3.4 and 4.3.7.1.1.4.1.5.1 of this Chapter. are given in the Table 4. to be applied to internal forces formed of seismic loads calculated according to Chapter 2.2 depending on the types of structural steel systems. 4.5 2.6 and 4.1 depending on the class and element type of the structural steel.2a) (4.6.1.2d) Tensile Boundary Values of Combination Elements: 62 .2 1.1.2. 4.9.2.4. 4.2.2. 4. Da factors to be used in the calculation of increased yield stress are given in the Table 4. tensile boundary values of inner force capacities and boundary values of tensile of the structural elements are defined as follows: Inner force capacities of structural elements: Bending moment capacity Shearing force capacity Axial pressure capacity Axial tensile capacity : M p = Wp σa : Vp = 0. values of Da a increased yield stress shall be used instead of the value of yield stress a.0 2.1 – Da INCREASE COEFFICIENTS Class and Element Type of Structural Steel Da 1.0 2.8. TABLE 4.1 Rolling profiles made of Fe 37 steel Rolling profiles made of other structural steels Plates made of all structural steels 4.9. 4.2.6.4.5.9 G ± Ω 0 E (4.6 – As prescribed in the articles 4. 4.
7 σem : 1.column joint in the earthquake direction shall be bigger than 1. Axial pressure and tensile capacities of column cross .In frame systems or in the frames of frame .1a) and Equation (4.Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness ratio of the frames of high ductility level in the beams .3. 4. Requirement of Having Columns Stronger Than Beams 4. 4.7 σem Here.2d). sliding and crushing stress).1.3.2.1b) in the first and second seismic zones. σem indicates safety stresses of relevant combination element (normal stress.1 . 4.3. 4. FRAMES OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL Rules to be respected in dimensioning of the frames of high ductility level are given below. sum of the plastic moments of columns framing into a beam .wall (braced frame) systems.3.1Da times of the total of bending moment capacities on the surface of the beams which joint in that loop point (Fig.2. columns shall also have the sufficient resistance capacity under the axial pressure and tensile force (without considering bending moments) occur from the condition of increased load according to Equation (4.2c) and Equation (4.2 .sections shall be calculated with Equation (4.1.1 63 .Full penetration weld Partial penetration butt weld Or filled weld Bolted combinations : σa : 1.1.columns are given in Table 4.Besides providing necessary tensile controls under the axial force and bending moments occur due to the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic. Crosssection Requirements 4.3.1): Earthquake direction Mpa Mpa Earthquake direction Mpü Mpü Figure 4.3.1 .3. 4.
7 0.10 1. T sections and flange thickness in rectangular sections thickness in the circular sections (pipes) I .1 − Nd σa A Circular ring sections under bending or axial pressure effect (pipes) Rectangular sections under bending or axial pressure effect Descriptions D/t b/ t or h/ t w 0.2 Es σ a 4.TABLE 4.0 Es σ a 1 − 1. N d σ a A 0.4 Es σ a For.07 σa Es 0.3 – CROSS . N d σ a A > 0.flange in I sections U sections and flange width in rectangular sections I .7 Es σ a 1.33 Es σ a 2. N d σ a A > 0. U .1 Es σ a b h D t tw : : : : : Width of half .10 Nd σa A I Sections U Sections Under bending and pressure effects 3.2 Es σ a 1 − 1. L sections and web thickness in rectangular sections . T.7 h/ t w For. N d σ a A 4. U . U .10 1.0 Es σ a 0.SECTION CONDITIONS Limit Values Description of Slenderness Systems of High Ductility Systems of Normal Elements Ratios Level Ductility Level I Sections U Sections b/ t 0.4 Es σ a Under bending effect I Sections U Sections Under bending effect T Sections L Sections Under pressure effect h/ t w h/ t w 3.1 − Nd σa A For. T sections and web length in rectangular sections long side length in L sections Outer diameter in the circular ring sections (in pipes) I .3 Es σ a 0.66 Es σ a 2.05 σa Es 0.3 Es σ a For.10 Nd σa A 0.
3. αi = Vis / Vik ≥ 0.3. .00.1 – In the beam .column joints that transfer moment of the frames with high ductility level. As it is mentioned in 2. 4.2 .3 – In the case where Equation (4. The Case Where Some Columns Cannot Satisfy the Requirement of Having Columns Stronger Than Beams 4.Column 4. provided that Equation (4. 4. In calculating the column plastic moments.4. In case plastic moments form in the beam’s sections of the surface of columns.3.3.3) In case of using weakened beam sections or forming gussets at the end of beams.Equation (4.3.70 < αi < 1.5.(Mpa + Mpü) ≥ 1. terms of Mvj and Mvj in this equation.3. Equation (4. it is possible.3.3 . the following three conditions shall be covered together: a) Confinement shall have the capacity to be provided at least 0.3. 4.4.2. details that availability is proved with scientific and / or analytical methods shall be used.Equation (4.1 – In structural systems comprised of frames only or of combination of frames and walls (braced frames). bending moments and shear forces of columns satisfying Equation (4.4) is satisfied.3.4) 4.3) shall be applied separately for both senses of earthquake direction to yield the most unfavorable result.1 in Chapter 2.1Da (Mpi + Mvj + Mpj + Mvj) (4.2 – In the case where Equation (4.4.3). all frames of structural systems which may be comprised of frames only or of combination of frames and walls shall be considered as Frames of Nominal Ductility Level. it shall be calculated under the effects of gravity load and seismic load forming its sections.04 radian Angle of Relative Storey Drift (relative storey drift / storey height). Therefore.3) need not to be checked in single storey buildings and in joints of topmost storey of multi .70 (4.3.4) is not satisfied at any storey. Confinement Zones of Beam . indicate the additional bending moments occurred on the surface of the column due to shearing forces in the possible plastic joints at the end zones of beam. however.storey buildings.2. axial forces shall be considered to yield the minimum moments capacities with the sense of earthquake direction.3.3.3) may be permitted not to be satisfied in a given earthquake direction at some joints at the bottom and / or top of an i’th storey. to combine frames of nominal ductility level with structural walls of high ductility level. and the analysis shall be repeated by changing the Structural Behavior Factor according to Table 2.5. Several samples of bolted and welded confinement detail and application boundaries of them are given in Information Annex 4A.3) at both bottom and top joints shall be amplified by multiplying with the ratio (1 / αi) within the range of 0. In the case where columns is not satisfied Equation (4. 4. 4.4) given below is satisfied. these terms take zero value.
Ve. 1 1 Vke = 0.3.5) 4.2 – On the calculation of combination’s bearing capacity.8 M p ( − ) (4. Ve = Vdy ± 1.80 times of the sum of bending moment capacities of beams on the surface of the column combined at the loop point.b) Necessary bending strength of the joint on the surface of the column will not be less than 0.4.1Da times of the bending moment capacity on the surface of column of combined beam. c) Shearing force. of the sliding zone shall be taken equal to shearing force occurred 0. it will not exceed the bending moment occurred under the combined effects of seismic loads calculated for the R = 1.sections or forming gussets at the end zones of the beams.5 shall be used. upper limit of this strength shall conform to the biggest bending moment transferred to confinement by joint columns to loop point. Vke. capacity of bending moment on the surface of column shall be calculated by adding beam plastic moment with additional bending moments occurred on the surface of the column due to shearing forces in the possible plastic joints at the end zones of beam.5). In case of using weakened beam cross .3.6) d b H ort Figure 4.80 X 1.5 value of the reduced coefficient of gravity loads and seismic loads.1Ra (M pi + M pj ) n (4.2 . Additionally. 4. However.2. sliding zone limited by column and beam flanges shall be dimensioned provided the following conditions: a) Necessary shearing strength. to be based on dimensioning of the joint shall be calculated with Equation (4.3 – On the calculation of the bearing capacity of the combination. tensile boundary values given in the 4.4.
column joints).4. For the connection of the ductility plate to column web. if used. However. c) Minimum thickness. d) In cases where reinforcing plates are used in sliding zone. by welding interoperation of reinforcing plates and web plate of the column and it shall be controlled whether the sum of plate thicknesses provide the Equation (4. shall be provided the below condition (Figure 4.3.b) Shearing force capacity. it shall be provided to safely transfer the tensile and pressure strengths on the beam ends to column (and to next beam in the bilateral beam . full penetrated butt weld or fillet weld shall be used. On this calculation.column joints that transfer moment. for connecting those plates to cap plates of column. of the each web plates of the column and reinforcing plates.6 σa d c tp 1 + d b d c tp (4.3 4. welding stress capacities given in (4. by placing ductility plates on both sides of column web in the level of beam flanges. t min.9) or not. (Figure 4. shall be calculated with the following Equation: 2 3bcf tcf Vp = 0.8) In case this condition is not provided. These welds shall be controlled in such a way that safely transfer shearing force corresponded by reinforcing plate. necessary amount of reinforcing plate shall be used or strutting plates shall be added to sliding zone diagonally. Reinforcing plates Figure 4. Vp.2.7) In order to sliding zone to have necessary shearing strength the following condition has to be provided: Vp ≥ Vke (4. this weld should have the thickness and length to .9) In cases where this condition is not provided. tmin ≥ u / 180 (4.2). a) Thicknesses of ductility plates shall not be less than the cap thickness of the combined beam in the unilateral beam joints where not less than the biggest flange thickness of the combined beams in case there are bilateral beam combinations to column.3). fillet weld can also be used.5) shall be used.4 – In details of beam . b) Full penetration butt weld shall be used for the connection of ductility plates to webs and flanges of column.
4.10b) 4.transfer a force equal to shearing force in the plane of ductility plate to column web.3.5.54 bbf tbf (4. b distance between the points where the beams are supported shall provide the following condition.3.3. this distance shall not less than 1.linear deformation of the system shall also be supported.086 ry E s (4.20 m in the splices made of with fillet weld or butt weld without full penetration.02 of the axial tensile capacity of beam flange.section changes suddenly and points where plastic hinge can occur during the non .3 – On the systems where armoured concrete floorings operate compositely with steel beams. 4.5 – Column and Beam Splices (4. . boundary tensile values of weld and bolt given in (4.3.6.3. it is not necessary to comply above conditions at the flanges of the beams bonded to the armoured concrete flooring.3. 4.2 – Necessary pressure and tensile strength of lateral supports shall not be less than 0.3. 4.2 – Beam splices shall be made away from the beam .3 – Bending capacity of the column . points where beam cross .1 – Up and down flanges of the beams shall be supported laterally.5.2.1 – Column splices made with full penetration butt weld or bolted shall be away from beam .3.10a) and b tcf ≥ bf 6 4.column joint by at least 1 / 3 of the net storey height.6. On the calculation of bearing capacities of the additional elements.6. points effected by the single loads. in the first and second seismic zones.1a) and Equation (4. 4. Besides.5).5. ≤ 0.5) shall be used.6 – Supporting the Beam Flanges Laterally 4.beam splices shall not be less than the bending capacity of the combined element and also shearing force capacity shall not be less than the value given in Equation (4.11) b σa In addition.column connection by a distance at least two times of the beam height.1b). axial force capacity of the column splices shall be also sufficient under the axial pressure and tensile force (without considering bending moments) calculated with Equation (4. c) Ductility plate can not be required if the flange thickness of column provides the following two conditions: tcf ≥ 0. Additionally.
bearing capacity of the combination shall provide the smallest ones of the internal forces defined below: a) Bending moment capacity of the beam which combined the column calculated in such a way defined in 4.2. 4.2 – On the calculation of the confinement’s bearing capacity.4.1b) and the smallest one of shearing force calculated with Equation (4. c) Rules given in 4.4.1 – Cross . 4. a) On the calculation of necessary shearing force strength of Sliding Zone. the shearing force occurred due to increased seismic load given in Equation (4. 4.4.3.1 (b) and necessary shearing force strength calculated with Equation (4.2 – Confinement Zones of Beam . .4.5).3 (d) for the calculation of sliding zone of frames of high ductility level are also available for the frames of nominal ductility level.3.Requirements given above in 4.5 shall be used.4. 4.3 .4.Section Conditions 4.1.4.1.4.b).4.8). Vp. Besides.Column 4. However provided with the control of necessary local buckling.4.1.4.6) shall be used.1 – Necessary tensile controls shall be carried out under internal forces occurred from the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads in the confinements of beam column of the frames of nominal ductility level.3. exceeding these boundaries can be permitted in utmost two storey buildings. shall be calculated with Equation (4. boundary values of tensile given in 4. b) Bending moment and shear force occurred due to increased load situations given in the Equation (4.3 [c] and 4.2.2 .2) which is limited by the flanges of column and beam shall be dimensioned in a way that provides the following conditions.3 for frames of high ductility level are not mandatory to be applied for frames of nominal ductility level.1.4.1a) and Equation (4. In order sliding zone to have sufficient shearing strength it is necessary to provided Equation (4. 4. 4.2 for the columns of frames of high ductility level are also applicable to frames of nominal ductility level.2.Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness ratio of the frames of nominal ductility level in the beams .7).2.3 – In the detail of beam column confinement.3.3. 4.2.Requirements given above in 4.1 .1.3.1a) and Equation (4.3. FRAMES OF NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL Rules to be respected on the calculation of frames of nominal ductility level are given below.4. Vke. sliding zone (Figure 4.columns are given in Table 4. b) Shearing force strength of the sliding zone.
Steel braced frames are divided into two depending on the order of braces: a) Centric Steel Braced Frames (Figure 4.4.4.4 kiri ba kiri i e e kolon e e az pr ça Figure 4.3.5) Centric Steel Braced Frames in which the braces are connected centrically to loop points of frames can be dimensioned as the systems of high ductility level or the systems of nominal ductility level.5 .4 for the calculation of continuity plates in the frames of high ductility level are also available for the frames of nominal ductility level.CENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC STEEL BRACED FRAMES Steel braced frames of high ductility level are defined as lateral load resisting structural elements comprised of hinged joints or frames that transfer moment with braces connected centrically and eccentrically to them.5 . Lateral load bearing capacity of such kind of systems. On the other hand. Eccentric Steel Braced Frames in which the braces are connected eccentrically to loop points of frames can be dimensioned as the systems of high ductility level. mostly or completely provided with the axial force strengths of the elements.4) b) Eccentric Steel Braced Frames (Figure 4.4.4 – Rules given in 4.3.4. besides bending strengths.3 – Column and Beam Joints Rules given in 4. Diyagonal çapraz X çapraz Ters V çapraz V çapraz K çapraz Figure 4. 4.2. 4.5 for the joints of column and beam in frames of high ductility level are also available for the frames of nominal ductility level.
Slenderness ratio (bar buckling length / radius of inertia) at all pressure elements of roof and vertical plane brace systems shall not be exceed 4.3 . STEEL BRACED FRAMES OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL Steel braced frames of high ductility level.3.2 .5 shall be used.2 .1 .3.1.Spaces of brace plates in multi .6.3.6.1. Requirements to be applied in the dimensioning of such systems are as specified below: 4. a) Axial force (tensile or pressure) capacity of cross b) Depending on the capacities of other elements combined at the loop point. the biggest axial force that can transfer to mentioned cross c) Transverse axial force occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation (4. Joints of Crosses 4.6.1. are dimensioned in a way that avoid significant strength loss in the system. necessary tensile controls shall be made under the internal forces formed of the combined effect of gravity loads and earthquake.6.2.3.a) and Equation (4. 4. 4.On the joint details of crosses. 4. Bolt brace plates are not permitted to place on middle three .columns and braces are given in Table 4. In each bar at least two brace plate shall be used and the plates shall be placed as equal intermittently. Total shearing force capacity of brace plates shall not less than axial the tensile capacity of each bar element.6. Conditions of Cross Section 4. .partite crosses shall be determined in such a way that slenderness ratio of the single element between two sequential brace plates does not exceed 0.2.partite cross does not shearing effect on brace plate.1.4.6.0 E s / σ a 4.1b). Besides. bearing capacity of the joint shall also provide the smallest one of the internal forces define below.Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness ratio of the frames of high ductility level in the beams . 4.On the calculation of the bearing capacity of joint.6.third of clear space of the bar. Transfer of Horizontal Loads Vertical centric cross elements on one axis of the building shall be arranged in such a way that at least 30 % and utmost 70 % of horizontal forces affected in the earthquake on the direction of that axis and on each direction of the earthquake cover by crosses which operate when pushed.1 . boundary values of tensile as given in 4.6. spaces of brace plates shall be determined in such a way that slenderness ratio of the single bar between two brace plates does not exceed 0. even in case of buckling of some pressure elements. In case it is shown that buckling of the multi .partite bar.1.6.40 times the slenderness ratio of all bar.75 times the active slenderness ratio of multi .
1.1 . Conditions of Cross . 4.Slenderness ratio (bar buckling length / radius of inertia) at all pressure elements of roof and vertical plane brace systems shall not be exceed 4.1b) in the first and second seismic zones.5.3.4.2 . In cases where this rule is not followed. b) Crosses shall be dimensioned under the effect of gravity loads and seismic loads. CENTRIC STEEL BRACED FRAMES WITH NOMINAL DUCTILITY LEVEL Rules to be applies on the steel braced frames of nominal ductility level are specified blow.4.6.2 .6. On calculation of joint elements. exceeding these boundaries can be permitted in utmost two storey buildings. 4. 4.Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness ratio of the frames of nominal ductility level in the beams . 4.1.6.3.shaped (where the crosses are connected to mid point of the column) cross order is not permitted for eccentric steel braced frames with high ductility level.Bending strength of column joints shall not less than 50 % of the bending capacity of combined smallest elements whereas shear force strength shall not less than the shearing capacity of the combined smallest elements.1 .Column joints shall be made at the center of 1 / 3 zone of column free level. 4.5 shall be used.6.1.1 .1a) and Equation (4. 4. weld and bolt tensile capacities ad given in 4.7. b) In order to prevent buckling of loop point’s plate outside the plane. 4.Section 4.2.columns are given in Table 4.0 E s / σ a . distance of the end of cross to the surface of beam or column shall not more than two times of the thickness of loop plate. it shall be sufficient under the axial force bearing power of the column joints (without considering bending moments) and tensile and pressure forces formed due to increased seismic loads as given in Equation (4.3 .3.K .Joints of Column 4.Additional conditions that have to be provided by V .4.Plates of loop point that tie crosses to columns and / or beams shall also provide the following two conditions: a) Bending capacity in the plane of loop point’s plate shall not less than the bending capacity of the cross jointed to loop point. c) Conditions given in 4.5.7. Besides. However.Additional Conditions for Special Cross Arrangements 4.6.7.7.6 for the beams of frames of high ductility level are also available for the beams which are connected to crosses.2 . in case the crosses are ignored.shaped or opposite V shaped cross systems are given below: a) Beams which connect to crosses shall be perpetual. However provided with the control of necessary local buckling.5 .4 . beams and end joints which are connected to crosses shall be dimensioned in a way that carries safely the gravity loads on itself.6.6.
partite crosses are applicable. 4.4.1.Conditions given in 4.3. Joints of Crosses 4.3. 4. At least two brace plate shall be used in each bar. remain in elastic zone. Requirements to be applied in dimensioning of the eccentric steel braced frames of high ductility level are given below.linear deformation. 4.On the calculation of the bearing capacity of joint.2.1.4 .8. 4.3.columns are given in Table 4. except columns.7. necessary tensile controls shall be made under the internal forces formed of the combined effect of gravity loads and earthquake.4.Requirements given in 4.7.7.Requirements given in 4.7. c) The biggest force to be transferred to the mentioned cross by the other elements combined to loop point. Additional Conditions for Special Cross Arrangements 4. Conditions of Cross .1.4.5 shall be used. .2.3.2 .6.1 .1. ECCENTRIC STEEL BRACED FRAMES OF HIGH DUCTILITY LEVEL Eccentric steel braced frames of high ductility level are the horizontal structural systems in which brace plates under the seismic effects have the feature of significant non . However. Besides. 4.In the case where braces are designed to resist tension only. 4.2 .8.Requirements concerning flange width / thickness ratio and web depth / thickness ratio of the frames of nominal ductility level in the beams .7.3 . boundary values of tensile as given in 4.7. slenderness ratio of braces shall not exceed 250. exceeding these boundaries can be permitted in utmost two storey buildings.2.7. during the plastic deformation of brace plates.1 .7. bearing capacity of the joint shall also provide the smallest one of the internal forces define below: a) Axial force (tensile or pressure) capacity of cross b) Transverse axial force occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation (4.6.On the joint details of crosses.Rules concerning brace plates of TS 648 on the multi .3. These systems.3.2.8.7.a) and Equation (4.4.1.1 (a) and 4.2.1 (b) for centric steel braced frames of high ductility level are also available for the centric steel braced frames of nominal ductility level.6.4 for the beams of frames of nominal ductility level are also available for the beams which are connected to crosses. this rule may not be applied in case the cross elements in utmost two storey buildings are dimensioned in such a way that carries the multiplication of tensile force calculated according to Chapter 2 and coefficient in Table 4. crosses and brace plates. 4.Section 4. However provided with the control of necessary local buckling.1 . are dimensioned in a way that provide other beams.3 .1b).3 for centric steel braced frames of high ductility level are also available for the centric steel braced frames of nominal ductility level. 4.
Web plate of the brace beam shall be single .8.2.8. 4. and Vp N M pn = 1.8.2. there shall be one brace beam at least one end of each cross element.8.18 M p 1 − d σa A Vpn = Vp 1 − (N d /σ a A) 2 (4.006 of the axial tensile capacity of beam flange.0 M p / Vp ≤ e ≤ 5.Slenderness ratio (bar buckling length / radius of inertia) at all pressure elements of roof and vertical plane brace systems shall not be exceed 4.Length of the brace beam.3.2.2. Necessary strength of lateral supports shall not be less than 0.piece and there won’t be any support plate in the web plane. bending moment and axial force) formed of seismic effects calculated according to Chapter 2 and gravity loads. Lateral Supporting of the Brace Beam 4.In the eccentric steel braced frames of high ductility level. 4.8.0 E s / σ a 4. shall provide the both following conditions. Brace Beams 4.15 (4.8.3. N d / σa A > 0.4 for the multi .2 .15) instead of Mp.18) 4.Design shear load of brace beam.Up and bottom flanges of brace beam shall be supported on both ends of the beam whereas in brace beams arranged on the side of column shall be laterally supported on one end of the beam.Brace beams shall be dimensioned under the design internal forces (shear force.2.8.1.2a) and Equation (4.8.15) (4. except the special condition in 4. Vd ≤ Vp (4.Conditions given in 4. may be determined as follow.partite crosses are also available for the eccentric steel braced frames.13) Mp bending moment and Vp shear force capacity in this correlation shall be accounted with Equation (4.2.8. 4. There won’t be any spacing on web plate.8.6 . 1.4.2 .16) Following values shall be used in Equation (4.1 . 4. 4.2b).14) and Equation (4.14) Vd ≤ 2M p / e 4. Vd.5 .3 . .8.In case the axial design force of brace beam is.2.1.8.0 M p / Vp (4.3 .4.8.1.1 .4 .
8.In the steel structural systems where armoured slabs operate compositely with steel beams it is not necessary to obey the above conditions. Turning Angle of Brace Beams Depending on the relative storey drift of i’th storey in which brace beam is located defined in Chapter 2. 4.3 .6): =R R i e R i e hi θp γp hi θp γp L γp = L θp e L γp = L θp e e R i e hi θp γp L γp = L θp 2e Figure 4.Beside beam section outside the brace beam shall be supported laterally with 0.8.2 . p i. p turning angle of brace beam occurred between brace beam and storey beam of this beam’s extension shall not exceed the boundary values as given below (Figure 4.3.8.4.45bbf Es / σ a spaces.4.3.6 . 4.001 of the axial tensile capacity of beam flange. Necessary strength of these supports shall not be less than 0.19) hi Due to the angle of storey drift determined with above equation. ∆i (4.
6 M p / Vp and shorter than 5M p / Vp .2 – In addition to the rigidity plates at the end of connection beams inter rigidity plates as defined below shall be placed: (a) On the brace beams with a length smaller than 1.10 radian in case the length of brace beam is equal to or smaller than 1.6 Mp / Vp. Constant fillet welds that connect rigidity plates to web of the brace beam shall have the capacity to transfer forces formed of the multiplication of cross .1 – Rigidity plates shall be placed at the end of cross elements where the cross elements directly transfer load to brace beam and extensions.8. (c) On the brace beams with a length between 1. (d) On the brace beams with a length taller than 5M p / Vp .03 radian in case the length of brace beam is equal to or smaller than 2. (b) On the brace beams with length taller than 2.7 4.spaces of inter rigidity plates shall not be less than (30 tw – db / 5) incase turning angle of brace beam is 0. one each rigidity plate shall be placed 1. e a sürekli kö e kayna ı a ara rijitlik levhaları (4. Rigidity plates unless otherwise stated.6 Mp / Vp. (b) 0.5.8.Thickness of rigidity plates shall not less than 0.6 M p / Vp and 2. 4. Rigidity (Stiffening) Plates 4.5.75 of the thickness of web plate and 10 mm.6 Mp / Vp.7). .8. inter rigidity plates as specified in (a) and (b) shall be used together.03.6 M p / Vp . rijitlik levhaları (4. Linear interpolation shall be made in case the length of brace beam is between these two boundary values.5bbf distance from the end of brace beams.10 radian whereas it shall not be less than (52 tw – db / 5) in case turning angle of brace beam is smaller than 0.5.8.(a) 0.1) çapraz ve ba kiri i eksenleri ba kiri i içinde kesi ecektir.2) rijitlik levhaları aa kesiti Figure 4.8. inter .5.5. inter rigidity plates may not be used. shall be placed on both sides of the web plate of brace beam and shall be in the length as web plate and in the width as half flange plate (Figure 4. Linear interpolation shall be made for the inter values of turning angle.section area of rigidity plates and yield stress of material.
and shearing force Vp.6. bearing capacity of the column shall also provide the smallest one of the internal forces define below: (a) Internal forces formed of 1.1 – Load that causes plasticity of the brace beam shall be determined by means of the multiplication of internal forces formed due to seismic loads and calculated according to Chapter 2 with the biggest one of the Mp Md and Vp / Vd Design Increment Factors calculated as a result of section choose in the brace beam.8. Full penetration butt welding shall be applied for the connection of brace beam flanges to column (Figure 4.8.7. Mp.8.8.25Da times of load that causes the plasticity of brace beam.8. .2 – Crosses shall be dimensioned according to internal forces formed of 1.2.6.1b).8.1 – Length of the brace beam that joints to column shall provide the following condition: e ≤ 1.6.6M p / Vp (4.2). 4. Storey Beams and Columns 4.5 – Internal force capacities of the cross . Joint of Brace Beam .6.sections of crosses.20) 4. 4.8.8). Joint of Cross and Brace Beam Joint details of crosses with brace beam shall be dimensioned according to internal forces calculated as specified in 4. (b) Internal forces occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation (4.8.8.4.1.6.4 – Necessary tensile controls shall be made on the columns under internal forces formed of the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads.6.2 – Necessary bending and shearing strengths of joint on the surface of column shall respectively not be less than the capacity of bending moment of brace beam. 4.1Da times of load that causes the plasticity of brace beam. Besides.3 – Section storey beam located outside the brace beam shall be dimensioned according to internal forces formed of 1.a) and Equation (4.8.8.1Da times of load that causes the plasticity of brace beam.Column 4. 4. 4.8.6. storey beams and columns shall be calculated with the correlations as given in Equation (4.8. Crosses.8. 4.
1Da times of the bending moment capacity of column which joints to foundation with total gravity and horizontal forces formed of 1.1) çapraz ve ba kiri i eksenleri ba kiri i içinde kesi ecektir.1b). DETAILS OF FOUNDATION CONNECTION 4.rijitlik levhaları (4.01 of the axial tensile capacity of beam flanges and according to buckling moment formed by forces with opposite direction. bearing capacity of the detail of foundation connection shall also provide smallest ones among the internal forces define below: (a) The bending moment formed of 1.8. 4.8.1.2. e a sürekli kö e kayna ı a ara rijitlik levhaları (4. Besides.9. this connection shall be dimensioned transversely as equal to 0.8.5.9 Beam . .5 shall be used on the calculation of the bearing capacity of connection detail.web plane.1Da times of the axial load capacities of column and crosses which joint to foundation. (b) Internal forces occurred due to increased load conditions as given in Equation (4.2) tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak rijitlik levhaları aa kesiti 4.9.2 – Boundary tensile values as given in 4.1 – On the foundation details of the elements of structural steel system.Column Joint Figure 4.a) and Equation (4. 4.8 Joint details of the part of storey beam with column located outside the brace beam shall be made as hinged inside the beam .5. However.9. necessary tensile controls shall be made by predicating the support reactions formed of the combined effect of gravity loads and seismic loads.
1. horizontal plane and vertical plane (f) Details of all combinations and joints 4.1.2.10.13 of Chapter 2 shall be in the statement of project concerning the statement of earthquake. type of used bolt. information listed below shall be in the statement of project: (a) Material qualities and characteristic strengths of the latten and profile that forms structural system with bolts used in the joints and confinements.10.2.10.1 – Information specified in 2. RULES CONCERNING THE STATEMENT IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS 4.4 – In the details of blot combination and joints.4.2. 4. Statement of Project OF PROJECT AND 4.stress force to be implied to bolts shall be specified. calculations of combination and joint details with capacity control verifications concerning these details shall be given in detailed in the scope of the project statement.1. Local Soil Class as considered in design and Load .2.10. 4.3 – Factor of Effective Ground Acceleration. Building Importance Factor.1.2.10. .Bearing System Behavioral Factor determined according to Table 2.5 shall be specified in all construction sections. 4.1 – Following sections shall be in the steel implementation projects: (a) General construction plans concerning roof slabs and storey slabs (b) Column implantation (layout) plan (c) Anchorage plan and details (d) Front views and sections in sufficient amount (e) Detailed drawings of columns and beams that composed the structural system with crosses of roof. thickness of weld and welding length to be implied shall be given in details of welded combinations and joints and also geometrical sizes of welding bent shall be given in butt welds which require to open welding bent. 4. Rules Concerning the Drawings of Steel Implementation Project 4.10. type of electrode.3– Besides the dimensioning calculations of structural elements and verifications of stability. (b) Loads that give the increased seismic effects and load combinations based on design.10.10.2.10.10. 4. 4. diameters of bolts and drills.10.2 – Material qualities of profiles and latten used in building with bolt types used in combinations with the type of electrodes to be used shall be specified in all sections.2 – Besides.5 – Weld type. features of washer and nuts with pre .
4A. full pre .column with the usage terms of these details in frames of high ductility level are given below.stressed bolts with at least ISO 8.1. SCOPE AND GENERAL MATTERS 4A.4. 4A. NOTATIONS bbf db = Flange width of beam section = Height of beam cross . .3.3 – As for the moment transferred beam .2 – These details may be used within the limits of implementation concerning moment transferred beam .1. In the detail. FEMA.4.1. 4A.COLUMN Implementation boundaries that contain combination details of bolted and welded moment transferred beam . it is necessary for the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in Table 4A.1.2. FEMA 350.column combinations of frames of nominal ductility level those mentioned details may be used definitively.0.2 respectively for the frames of nominal and high ductility level. Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel MomentFrame Buildings. in this Chapter several bolted and welded combination details samples are given which are proved with scientific and / or analytical methods that the samples have the capacity to provide at least 0.column combinations of frames of high ductility level. Washington.8 quality shall be used.4 – Strength calculations and capacity control verifications of combination details shall be carried out in accordance with 4.1 – As estimated in 4. rider plate made of Fe 37 steel combined to flange plates of beam with full penetration butt weld and also combined to web plate with double . 4A.3.section 4A.column combination detail for bolted rider plate is given in Figure 4A.2.4 and 4.COLUMN COMBINATION DETAILS IN MOMENT TRANSFERRED FRAMES 4A.04 radian Relative Storey Drift Angle (relative storey drift / storey height)1.INFORMATION ANNEX 4A – BEAM .1 (a). COMBINATION DETAILS OF BEAM .C.1. Combination Details for Bolted Rider Plate Beam . 4A. D. 1 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2000).1.1. For the connection of rider plate to column.sided fillet weld.1. For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level.
Combination Details of Supported Rider Plate Beam .2.Fe 37 alın levhası tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak takviye levhaları (gerekti inde) süreklilik levhaları (gerekti inde) en az ISO 8.1 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION DETAILSOF BOLTED RIDER PLATE BEAM . .COLUMN Parameter of Combination Detail Cross . In the detail.2.2.stress Fe 37 Full penetration butt weld 4A.8 kalitesinde tam öngermeli bulon im (gerekti inde) Figure 4A.8 or 10.sided fillet weld.2. For the connection of rider plate to column. full pre .section height of column Class of bolt Conditions of bolted pre .section height Thickness of beam flange Cross .Column Beam .9 Full pre .stressed bolts with at least ISO 8. rider plate made of Fe 37 steel combined to flange plates of beam with butt weld and also combined to rigidity plate with double .section height of beam Ratio of beam spacing / cross .stress Material class of rider plate Weld of flange plate Implementation Boundaries 750 mm 7 20 mm 600 mm 8.8 quality shall be used. For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level. it is necessary for the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in Table 4A.column combination detail for bolted rider plate supported with rigidity plates is given in Figure 4A.1 TABLE 4A.
25
Fe 37 alın levhası rijitlik levhası tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak
takviye levhaları (gerekti inde)
25
süreklilik levhaları (gerekti inde)
30°
en az ISO 8.8 kalitesinde tam öngermeli bulon
im (gerekti inde)
Figure 4A.2 TABLE 4A.2 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION DETAILSOF BOLTED SUPPORTED RIDER PLATE BEAM  COLUMN
Parameter of Combination Detail Cross  section height of beam Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height Thickness of beam flange Cross  section height of column Class of bolt Conditions of bolted pre  stress Material class of rider plate Weld of flange plate Implementation Boundaries 1000 mm 7 25 mm 600 mm 8.8 or 10.9 Full pre  stress Fe 37 Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.3. Combination Details of Bolted Non  Rider Plate
Beam  column combination detail for bolted non rider plate is given in Figure 4A.3. In the detail, connection of beam to column is provided with joint flange plate and sliding plate in web. Joint flange plate combined to column with butt weld and also sliding plate combined with butt weld and fillet weld. For the connection of beam flange and web plates to joint flange plate and sliding plate, bolts with at least ISO 8.8 quality shall be used. For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in Table 4A.3.
veya
tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak en az ISO 8.8 kalitesinde tam öngermeli bulon
takviye levhaları (gerekti inde)
en az ISO 8.8 kalitesinde bulon süreklilik levhaları (gerekti inde) veya kayma levhası
im (gerekti inde) ek ba lık levhası
Figure 4A.3 TABLE 4A.3 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION DETAILSOF BOLTED NON  RIDER PLATE BEAM  COLUMN
Parameter of Combination Detail Cross  section height of beam Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height Thickness of beam flange Cross  section height of column Class of bolt Biggest bolt size Pre  stress Conditions of flange plate bolts Material class of joint flange plate Weld of joint flange plate Implementation Boundaries 800 mm 8 20 mm 600 mm 8.8 or 10.9 M 30 Full pre  stress Fe 37, Fe 52 Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.4. Welded Combination Detail
Welded combination detail is given in Figure 4A.4. In the detail, connection of beam flange plates to column is provided with full penetration butt weld. Web plate of beam combined to column by using sliding plate with butt weld and also fillet weld. As shown in detail, access spaces for weld are necessary for butt welds in beam flanges. For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in Table 4A.4.
tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak 50 takviye levhaları (gerekti inde) 25 montaj bulonu süreklilik levhaları (gerekti inde) veya kayma levhası
kaynak ula ım deli i
Figure 4A.4 TABLE 4A.4 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION DETAILSOF WELDED BEAM  COLUMN
Parameter of Combination Detail Cross  section height of beam Ratio of beam spacing / cross  section height Thickness of beam flange Cross  section height of column Access space for weld Weld of flange plate Implementation Boundaries 1000 mm 7 25 mm 600 mm Necessary Full penetration butt weld
4A.2.5. Combination Detail for Welded Joint Flange Plate
Combination detail for welded joint flange plate is given in Figure A4.5. In the detail, combination of joint flange plates to column is provided with full penetration butt weld and combination to beam flange is provided with peripheral fillet weld. Web plate of beam combined to column by using sliding plate with butt weld and also fillet weld. Access spaces for weld are not necessary in this detail.
For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level, it is necessary for the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in Table 4A.5.
6. Welded Combination Detail of Weakened Beam Cross . additionally weakened cross . it is necessary for the parameters of combination detail to provide the implementation boundary given in Table 4A.6.section beam is used. Estimated geometrical sizes for weakened beam cross section are shown in figure.section height Thickness of beam flange Cross .Section Welded combination detail of weakened beam cross .section is given in Figure 4A.section height of beam Ratio of beam spacing / cross . In the detail which has same features with welded combination detail. For the implementation of this detail on frames of high ductility level.section height of column Material of joint flange plate Weld of joint flange plate Implementation Boundaries 1000 mm 7 25 mm 600 mm Fe 52 Full penetration butt weld 4A.2.COLUMN WITH JOINT FLANGE Parameter of Combination Detail Cross .5 TABLE 4A.5 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION DETAILSOF WELDED BEAM .6. .ek ba lık levhası veya tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak ek ba lık levhası takviye levhaları (gerekti inde) kayma levhası montaj bulonu süreklilik levhaları (gerekti inde) veya Figure 4A.
section height of beam Weight of beam unit length Ratio of beam spacing / cross .section height of column Access space for weld Weld of joint flange plate Implementation Boundaries 1000 mm ≤ 450 kg/m 7 45 mm 600 mm Necessary Full penetration butt weld .6 – IMPLEMENTATION BOUNDARIES OF THE COMBINATION DETAILSOF BEAM .COLUMN WELDED WITH WEAKENED BEAM CROSS SECTION Parameter of Combination Detail Cross .85 d b b bf 0.75 b bf 0.80 d b = 0.6 TABLE 4A.section height Thickness of beam flange Cross .200.25 b bf zayıflatılmı kiri enkesiti takviye levhaları (gerekti inde) montaj bulonu süreklilik levhaları (gerekti inde) db veya kayma levhası kaynak ula ım deli i tam penetrasyonlu küt kaynak e ( ekil 4A.yarıçap~ 0.) Figure 4A.4 ' bakınız.50.650.
1 depending on seismic zones. SCOPE Dimensioning and reinforcing of masonry buildings and buildinglike structures to be constructed in seismic zones with loadbearing walls of natural or artificial materials. a new calculation shall be made by increasing structural solid wall areas. shall be calculated and it shall be provided not to exceed permitted limit values. 5. to resist both vertical and lateral loads shall be performed. Calculation of stress shall not be made for masonry buildings with adobe walls. In the case where more than a single basement is constructed.5 and Ra (T1) = 2. regularly and symmetric or nearly symmetric with respect to the main axes. In masonry buildings with adobe walls. along with currently enforced relevant standards and codes.5 according to Chapter 2. In all seismic zones.1 – MAXIMUM NUMBER OF STORIES PERMITTED Seismic Zone Maximum number of Stories 1 2 2. masonry buildings with adobe walls can be constructed utmost single storey without considering basement. The penthouse whose storey area is more than 25 % of gross area of the building shall be deemed to be a full storey. 5. primarily in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.1 shall be reduced by one.5 – Loadbearing walls of masonry buildings shall be arranged in plan. In addition. loadbearing walls shall be constructed so as to be placed one over the other.1 correspond to ground storey plus the upper stories. 3 3 4 4 5. 5. . TABLE 10. GENERAL RULES 5.2.2.0 m from one floor top level to the other. Requirements for masonry building foundations are given in Chapter 6.3.1 – Sliding stress on the walls of building which is generated by seismic loads defined by taking S (T1) = 2. as much as possible.2 below. If the stresses are exceeded.2 – With the exception of the case given in 5. a single basement may be built.2.70 m and basement height can not be more than 2.2. 5.2.6.40 m if it exists.CHAPTER 5 – EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY BUILDINGS 5. 5.2.1.In plan.6 . 5. Construction of partial basement shall be avoided. Area of a penthouse built in addition to those stories can not exceed 25 % of gross area of building at foundation level. storey height can not be more than 2. maximum number of stories given in Table 5. ANALYSIS OF STRESS OF MASONRY WALLS It shall be indicated that pressure and sliding stresses to be developed under the effect of vertical loads and seismic analysis loads to be calculated by the method given in this section do not exceed pressure and sliding stresses permitted according to type of masonry wall used in walls.3 – Maximum number of stories given in Table 5.4 – Storey height of masonry buildings shall be utmost 3.2. number of stories permitted for masonry buildings is given in Table 5.
5 0.2 – Pressure strength stresses for walls shall be reduced by quantities given in Table 5.2 depending on the mortar class used in walls and the average free pressure strength of wall material given in TS – 2510. 0. The stress to be derived by dividing into cross section of the wall reduced as the cross sections of door and window spaces on the wall shall not be more than the pressure stress permitted according to type of the wall. (c) If strength test of wall particles is not made.8 0.8 0.3.4 1.4 .7 0.3. Loads coming from walls and floorings shall be taken into account in this analysis.1 – Pressure strengths of masonnary units and mortar used in wall shall be determined by tests applied in accordance with concerned standards.7 0.1.7 0.2 1.5) 1.8 1.4 1.5 0.0 0. 5.8 0. 5.3.0 0.6 0.3.25 of this strength is the pressure safety stress fem of wall.1 – Because shear strength of walls is dependent on vertical stresses existing on the walls.3.3.7 1.6 0.2.2 – Pressure Safety Stress on Walls This stress can be calculated by various methods given below: (a) 0.5 0.2 – Comparison of pressure stresses generated on walls with stresses permitted according to type of masonry wall shall be carried out.50 of free pressure strength obtained experientially for the block used in wall is pressure strength of wall fd and 0.4 according to slenderness rates of walls. TABLE 5. 5.1.2 1.5.2 – PRESSURE SAFETY STRESSES FOR WALLS DEPENDING ON MORTAR CLASS AND FREE PRESSURE STRENGTH OF WALL MATERIAL Average Free Pressure Strength of Wall Material (MPa) 25 16 11 7 5 Mortar Class Used in the Wall (MPa) A B C D E (15) (11) (5) (2) (0.25 of wall strength calculated by pressure strength tests for wall particles made at equal strength as the pressure strength of masonnary unit and mortar to be used in construction of wall is the pressure safety stress. (d) If pressure strength of masonnary unit used in wall is not given or strength test of wall is not made pressure strength stress for masonnary unit used in wall shall be taken from Table 5. 5. it is required to calculate stress of walls of masonry buildings under vertical loads.4 0.0 0.8 1.9 0.2. (b) Wall safety stress can be taken from Table 5.6 0.
5. τem = τo + µσ (5.3 – PRESSURE SAFETY STRESSES OF WALLS IN WHICH FREE PRESSURE STRENGTH IS UNKNOWN Type of Masonnary Unit and Mortar Pressure Safety Stress of Wall Used in the Wall fem (MPa) Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is less than 35 %.4 – Sliding stress developed on the wall shall be calculated by dividing seismic force on the wall into horizontal cross section area of the wall and it shall be compared with sliding safety stress of wall em. If cross section of the wall is rectangular k = 1.78 0.56 5. with lime mortar 0.6 Filled concrete briquette (with cement 0.2 – Sliding rigidity of a wall axis is the sum of sliding rigidities of wall parts on this axis.3. Calculation of Sliding Stress Calculation of sliding stresses generated parallel to horizontal joints of walls by seismic design load shall be made as explained in this chapter.3 – Shear force on walls shall be calculated in the direction of both orthogonal axes of the building by considering storey torsion moment as well as storey shear force.3.2 shall be taken.1 – Relative sliding rigidity of solid wall parts rest among door or window spaces in each axis of masonry building shall be calculated by the expression k A / h.3.8 mortar supported with cement) Stone wall (with lime mortar supported 0. 5.3. In here.8 mortar) TABLE 5.8 supported with cement) Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is more than 45 %.89 0.3.62 0.84 0. if the wall has an end element or there is a grinder or stay wall perpendicular to the wall on the edge of the wall k = 1. A is horizontal cross section of solid wall part and h is the smallest of heights of spaces at both two sides of solid wall part.5 supported with cement) Filled block brick or clay brick (with lime 0.0. 5. Center of sliding rigidity of building shall be calculated by using sliding rigidity of wall axes.67 0.3.4 – REDUCING COEFFICIENTS FOR SAFETY STRESSES ACCORDING TO SLENDERNESS RATE Slenderness rate 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Reducing coefficient 24 0.3. 5.0 0.TABLE 5.1) . with lime mortar supported 1.3. with lime mortar 0.0 with cement) Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is in between 35 – 45 %.95 0.73 0.3 with cement) Gas concrete (with adhesive) 0.51 1.3.3.
Elasticity Module Elasticity Module (Ed) of masonnary units used in wall construction shall be calculated by Equation (5.In this equation em = sliding safety stress of wall (MPa).5) and σ is vertical wall stress (MPa). Strength of Wall Materials 5. .25 %.15 Solid concrete briquette (with cement mortar) 0.4. bricks and block bricks with hole ratios which are not exceeded the maximum void ratios permitted in TS – 2510 and TS EN 771 – 1 as material of load – bearing walls.2).4. µ = coefficient of friction (it can be taken as 0. o = cracking safety stress of wall (MPa).4.5 – CRACKING SAFETY STRESS OF WALLS Cracking Safety Stress of Type of Masonnary Unit and Mortar Used in the Wall Wall τo (MPa ) Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is less than 35 0.2) 5. with lime mortar supported with cement) Vertical hallow block brick (hallow rate is more than 0.4.10 Gas concrete (with adhesive) 0. Adobe can only be used in adobe buildings.1.2. These conditions are not valid for adobe. light aggregated concrete masonnary units. with lime mortar supported with cement) Solid block brick or clay brick (with lime mortar 0.4.1.5 according to type of masonnary unit used in the wall. o. Cracking safety stress of wall. 5.4377 and similarly formed blocks shall never be used as loadbearing wall material.1. Materials of Load – Bearing Walls 5.3 – Natural stone loadbearing walls shall be used only in the basement and ground stories of masonry buildings. 5. bricks and block bricks with hole ratios which are exceeded the maximum void ratios permitted in TS – 2510 and TS – 705 (TS EN 771 – 1) as material of load – bearing walls.20 5.4.4. lime sandstone. Ed = 200 f d (5.1 – Strength and other specialties of natural and artificial masonnary units used in construction of walls and of mortars connecting those shall be as follows. adobe or similar masonnary units may be used as masonry materials in the construction of load – bearing walls in accordance with Turkish Standards.15 supported with cement) Stone wall (with lime mortar supported with cement) 0. TABLE 5.1.4.1. structural materials and elements of gas concrete.1 – Natural stone. solid concrete blocks.2.3. LOAD – BEARING WALLS 5. other bricks manufactured for infill walls in accordance with TS .4. 5.12 35 %.2 – Concrete blocks with holes.4 – Concrete loadbearing walls shall be used only in the basements of masonry buildings. shall be taken from Table 5. solid brick. 5.
5 300 First storey 1. 3 and 4 Basement storey Ground storey 500 1 200 Basement storey 500 250 1.5 – Sliding safety stress of walls shall be calculated according to Equation (5.3. excluding plaster thicknesses. external load – bearing walls shall be at least .2. Nominal adobe brick dimensions to be used in load – bearing walls shall be 120 x 300 x 400 (main) and 120 x 190 x 400 (lamb) or 120 x 250 x 300 (main) and 120 x 180 x 300 (lamb) in mm’s. 3 and 4 Ground storey First storey 1 200 Basement storey 500 250 1.5 300 4 Second storey 1 200 Third storey 1 200 1. whereas internal adobe loadbearing walls shall be at least 1 brick size. 3 and 4 First storey 1 200 Second storey 1 200 Basement storey 500 250 1. TABLE 5. are given in Table 5. 5.5 300 Ground storey 500 1.6 shall be valid for ground storey and upper stories.2. minimum wall thicknesses given in the Table 5.4. In the case of no basement.5. 2. wall thickness specified for the storey below shall be applied.6 – MINIMUM THICKNESSES OF LOAD – BEARING WALLS Natural Concrete Brick and Gas Others Permitted Seismic Zone Stone Stories (mm) concrete (mm) (mm) 500 250 1 200 1. minimum pressure strength of natural and artificial masonnary units to be used in load – bearing walls shall be 5.0 MPa at least.2 – According to gross pressure area.4.3.4.1 – In buildings with adobe walls. Minimum Thickness of LoadBearing Walls The minimum thicknesses of loadbearing walls.4 – Pressure safety stress of walls (fem) shall be calculated by using one of the methods given in 5.3.5 300 500 1 200 1.3. In penthouses permitted in accordance with 5. minimum quality of concrete to be used shall be C16.5 300 2. 5.2. 2.3 – Lime mortar supported with cement (cement / lime / sand volumetric ratio = 1 / 2 /9) or cement mortar (cement/sand volumetric ratio = 1 / 4) shall be used in load – bearing walls or cement mortar.5 brick size. 5. In the case where concrete walls are constructed in basements. Pressure strength of natural stones to be used in basement stories shall be 10.4. 5.0 MPa at least. 5.5 300 Ground storey 500 1.4.2.1).2.4.4.6 depending on the number of stories in masonry building.
5 m in other seismic zones.5. .4. However unsupported length of such walls shall not be more than 16 m (Figure 5.5.4.4.2 – In the case the condition given in 5.1 above is not satisfied. 2 I m / m d: 2 Earthquake direction Length of hatched area (m) 2 A: Gross floor area (m ) I: Building importance factor (Chapter 2) Figure 5.5 m. to gross floor area (excluding cantilever floors) shall not be less than (0.5. 5.4.4. represents Building Importance Factor defined in Chapter 2.0 m.2 I) m/m2 where I. d / A ≥ 0.1 – Unsupported length of any loadbearing wall between the load – bearing wall axes in the perpendicular direction in plan shall not exceed 5.5 m. Maximum unsupported length of wall in masonry buildings with adobe walls shall be 4.5.2). reinforced concrete vertical bond beams shall be constructed along the full storey height at the corners of building and in walls with axis to axis spacing in plan not more than 4.5. Total Length Limit for Load – Bearing Walls The ratio of the total length of masonry loadbearing walls in each of the orthogonal directions in plan (excluding window and door openings).1 5.4. Maximum Unsupported Length of LoadBearing Walls 5. in the first seismic zone and 7.
0 m Vertical bond Beam Vertical bond Beam ≤ 16. window openings shall not be more than 0. 5.0 m in buildings with adobe walls in all seismic zones.6.4. solid wall segment between two openings may be 0.1 – Plan length of the solid wall segment to be set between the corner of a building and the nearest window or door opening to the corner shall not be less than 1.4.5 m (1st Seismic zone) ≤ 7.5 – Plan length of each window or door opening shall not be more than 3.4.20 m in vertical axis.8 m in the third and fourth seismic zones.5.1) ≤ 4.2 – Excluding the corners of buildings.50 m .4.0 m.2 may be decreased by 20%.0 m Vertical bond Beam Figure 5.3 are exist on both sides of the openings along the height of the storey solid wall segment may be less than 0.0 m in buildings with adobe walls in all seismic zones.0 m in the first and second seismic zones and 0. plan lengths of the solid wall segments between the window and door openings shall not be less than 1.50 m in the first and second seismic zones and 1.0 m in the third and fourth seismic zones. 5. plan length of a solid wall segment between intersection of the walls and the nearest window or door opening to the intersection of the orthogonal walls shall not be less than 0. . In buildings with adobe walls. If two timber pillars with section of 0.90 m in vertical axis. This quantity shall be at least 1.50 m in the all seismic zones. Openings in LoadBearing Walls The following rules shall be followed in openings to be provided in load – bearing walls (Figure 5.6.2 5.6.1 and 5.6. 5. 5.6.6.6.4.4.6.5.0 m in horizontal axis and 1.0 m 3 ≤ 5. 3rd and 4th seismic zones) ≤ 4. 2 and (See 5.4.90 m in horizontal axis and 1.3 – In the case where reinforced concrete vertical bond beams according to 5.4 – Excluding the corners of buildings.5.3): 5.1 2 3 Unsupported wall length: 1. These timber pillars shall be connected to the timber bond beams of window and door.3 are made on both sides of the window and door openings.4.10 m are set on both two sides of the window and door openings. condition of minimum lengths of wall segments given in 5.10 m x 0. door openings shall not be more than 1. This quantity shall be at least 1. In case where reinforced concrete vertical bond beams according to 5.4.0 m (2nd.80 m in buildings with adobe walls.
0 m 0.2.4.1.5. and their height shall not be less than 200 mm. LINTELS AND BOND BEAMS 5.4. This condition is not valid for buildings with adobe walls. Timber lintels shall be made with two square timbers with section of 100 mm x 100 mm.5. Each of seating lengths of timber lintels on the walls shall not be less than 200 mm. is supported by structural walls such that they shall be cast (monolithically) with the reinforced concrete slabs.5. Longitudinal rebars shall be appropriately overlapped at the corners and intersections to achieve continuity (Figure 5.1.6.5.0 m ( b1 + b2) ≤ 0.5 may be increased by 20%.2.2 – Cross sections dimensions of lintels as well as longitudinal transverse reinforcement shall not be less than the values given in 5. 1.2. Ø 8 hoops with a maximum spacing of 250 mm shall be set with together longitudinal reinforcement at least 6Ø10 on stone walls with three at the bottom and three at the top.1 for horizontal bond beams.5 m b1 and b2 ≤ 3.5.4.6.40 n n (Unsupported wall length) Figure 5. 5.1 – Each of seating lengths of window and door lintels on the walls shall not be less than 15% of lintel clear span and less than 200 mm. .1. Lintels 5.1 – Reinforced concrete horizontal bond beams satisfying the following conditions shall be made at places where each of the slabs.7 – In the case where reinforced concrete vertical bond beams according to 5. and at least 4 Ø10 on other load – bearing walls. (a) Width of horizontal bond beams shall be equal to the width of wall. 5.6.3 – Timber lintel may be set over and under the window and door in buildings with adobe walls.3 are made on both sides of the window or door openings.6 and the maximum ratio of openings defined in 5. 5.4). (b) Concrete quality for bond beams shall be at least C 16.1.0 m 1st and 2nd Seismic Zone 3rd and 4th Seismic Zone b1 1.6.5.5.5. the maximum length of openings defined in 5.5.5 shall not be more than 40% of the unsupported wall length.4. 5.5 m 1.5.6 – Total plan lengths of window or door openings along the unsupported length of any wall defined in 5.8 m b2 0. including stair landings.4.3 5. Horizontal Bond Beams 5.
5 m.4 . ≤ 25 cm φ8 ≥ 40φ ≤ 25 cm ≥ 40φ min φ10 ≤ 25 cm φ8 ≥ 40φ ≤ 25 cm Min Ø10 Figure 5.2. 5.3 – Timber bond beams may be made in adobe masonry walls.5.2.1 with vertical axis to axis spacing not more than 1.5. These pieces shall be tied each other at every 50 cm with nail jointed timber elements of cross section of 5 cm x 10 cm and holes in between shall be filled with stone aggregate.2 – In rubble stone walls.5.5. reinforced concrete bond beams shall be made excluding the slab and stair landing levels in accordance with the rules given in 5.2. Timber bond beams shall be tar emulsified two elements of square sections of 10 cm x 10 cm which are to be placed with outer faces coinciding with the exterior and interior wall surfaces.
4 – Concrete quality for vertical bond beams shall be at least C16.3.3. following the construction of load – bearing walls on both sides (Figure 5. .5).2 – Vertical bond beams shall be constructed by reinforcing and concreting the section in between the formworks to be placed parallel to the walls. Longitudinal starter bars shall be provided at the foundation and at the intermediate floors for longitudinal rebars (Figure 5. cross section dimensions of the bond beam perpendicular to the wall shall not be less than the wall thickness.3.5).5.5.3. 5. Ø8 hoops with a maximum spacing of 200 mm shall be set with together longitudinal reinforcement at least 6Ø12 on stone walls with three parallel to both wall faces and at least 4Ø12 on other load – bearing walls.1 – Floor slabs of masonry buildings shall be reinforced concrete plate slabs or joist floors whose dimensions and reinforcements are designed in accordance with the requirements of TS500.1 – In order to enhance the earthquake resistance of masonry buildings.5. Vertical Bond Beams 5. In vertical bond beams to be constructed on both sides of window and door openings. whereas the other cross section dimension shall not be less than 200 mm.5. 5. 5. along the vertical intersections of the load – bearing walls and on both sides of the door and window openings.6.3 – Cross section dimensions of vertical bond beams shall be equal to thicknesses of walls intersecting at corners of the buildings and at the intersections of the load – bearing walls.5. 200 mm 200 mm 200 mm Figure 5. it shall be appropriate to construct reinforced concrete vertical bond beams in full storey height on the corners of buildings.5 5.3.5.6 SLABS 5.
7. Soil cover thickness of soil roof shall not be more than 150 mm in third and fourth seismic zones. This condition is not valid for buildings with adobe walls. if any. shall be constructed in all seismic zones with maximum two stories excluding the basement. cornices and eaves of roofs shall be made only as an extension of floor slabs and the clear cantilever length shall not be more than 1.6.3 – In the case where the height of the end wall resting on the horizontal bond beam at the top storey exceeds 2.0 m. Reinforced Concrete Bond Beam Figure 5.7. Soil roof shall not be made in first and second seismic zones.6 . 5. 5. Clear cantilever length of cantilevered stairs shall be at most 1. timber or steel truss roof bearing on roof slab.6. In such buildings.2 – Connections of the timber roof elements to the roof slabs or to horizontal bond beams on load – bearing walls shall be made in accordance with the rules given in TS – 2510.6.7.4 – Roofs of the buildings with adobe walls shall be constructed in a way not to exceed external walls at most 500 mm and to be as light as possible.6). 5. horizontal bond beams supporting the slabs shall also be constructed in accordance with 5.1 above. Buildings with adobe walls shall be constructed with maximum one storey excluding basement.5.2 – Masonry buildings with slabs other than those defined in 5. 5.1 – Roofs of the masonry buildings may be constructed as reinforced concrete terrace roof.5 m. vertical and inclined bond beams shall be constructed (Figure 5.7. ROOFS 5.7.0 m.3 – Cantilever elements such as balconies.2. 5. Roofs of adobe buildings may be constructed as timber spring or reinforced concrete plate.5.
however required measures shall be taken in order to prevent the toppling of wall out – of – plane by the effect of seismic loads perpendicular to its plane. Required measures shall be taken in order to prevent toppling of such parapets under the seismic loads.0 m from the pavement level.8.8.1 – Thickness of nonbearing partition walls shall be at least 1 0 0 m m . 5. . NON – BEARING WALLS 5.8.3 – Height of garden walls made of masonry wall material shall not be more than 1.5. 5.8. At least 10 mm gap shall be allowed between the top of the non – bearing walls and floor bottom of the top slab.2 – Height of parapets on terraces made of masonry wall material shall not be more than 600 mm. Such walls shall be constructed by connecting to load – bearing walls on both edges along the vertical intersection.
= Equivalent lateral seismic coefficient used in calculation of the soil pressure = Equivalent vertical seismic coefficient used in calculation of the soil pressure = Total height of uniform soil deposit or sum of layer thicknesses in case of layered soils = Thickness of the topmost soil layer = Building Importance Factor defined in Chapter 2. NOTATION Ao Ch Cv H h1 I i Kas Kad Kat Kps Kpd Kpt Pad Ppd pad (z) ppd (z) pv (z) Qad Qpd qad (z) qpd (z) qo Rza z zcd = Effective Ground Acceleration Coefficient defined in Chapter 2. = Slope angle which the soil surface on the side of active or passive pressure creates upwards with horizontal axis = Static active pressure coefficient = Dynamic active pressure coefficient = Total active pressure coefficient = Static passive pressure coefficient = Dynamic passive pressure coefficient = Total passive pressure coefficient = Resultant of dynamic active pressure force due to soil mass = Resultant of dynamic passive pressure force due to soil mass = Variation function of dynamic active pressure due to soil mass with respect to depth = Variation function of dynamic passive pressure due to soil mass with respect to depth = Variation function of vertical soil pressure with respect to depth = Resultant of dynamic active pressure force due to uniformly distributed external load = Resultant of dynamic passive pressure force due to uniformly distributed external load = Variation function of dynamic active pressure due to uniformly distributed external load with respect to depth with respect to depth = Variation function of dynamic passive pressure due to uniformly distributed external load with respect to depth = Amplitude of uniformly distributed surcharge = Reduction factor used in determining the dynamic internal forces applicable to section design of soil retaining walls = Depth measured downwards from free soil surface = Depth of the resultant of active or passive pressure force measured downwards from soil surface layer = Angle of wall – soil interface with vertical towards active or passive pressure = Friction angle between soil and wall = Internal friction angle of soil = Rebar diameter = Dry unit volume weight of soil = Submerged unit volume weight of soil = Saturated unit volume weight of soil = An angle calculated for determining total active and passive pressure coefficients in terms of equivalent seismic coefficients α δ ϕ ∅ γ γb γs λ .CHAPTER 6 – EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR FOUNDATION SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 6.0.
4 – In the first and second seismic zones.2 or to quote published references relating this subject in the seismic analysis. . determination of horizontal bedding parameters as well as horizontal and axial load carrying capacities of piles under seismic loads in Group (C) and (D) soils according to Table 6. structural steel and masonry building foundations and soil retaining structures shall be performed. respectively. Soil Groups and Local Site Classes 6.1. SCOPE Determination of soil conditions of new buildings to be constructed and existing buildings to be enhanced in seismic zones.2. (a) All buildings with total height exceeding 60 m in the first and second seismic zones.2. Investigation of Liquefaction Potential In all seismic zones.1.5 and I = 1.1. primarily in accordance with the rules and requirements of this chapter. 6.2.1 and Table 6.6.3 of Chapter 2.2.1. DETERMINATION OF SOIL CONDITIONS 6.1.2.1 shall be carried out on the basis of soil investigations including in – situ and laboratory tests.4 according to Table 2. it is mandatory to indicate available local information or observation results to be used in determination of soil groups and local site classes in accordance with the definitions in Table 6.2 shall be clearly indicated in reports.2. design of reinforced concrete. Soil groups and local site classes defined in accordance with Table 6.1 and Table 6.2. 6.2.1. along with the applicable codes and standards in relevant areas.3 – Regarding the buildings outside the scope of above given 6.1 are to be considered as standard values given for guidance in determining the soil groups.2 – Soil investigations based on required site and laboratory tests are mandatory for below given buildings with related reports prepared and attached to design documents. it is mandatory to investigate whether the Liquefaction Potential exists in Group (D) soils according to Table 6.2. 6. Values concerning soil parameters in Table 6. 6. buildings in all seismic zones with Building Importance Factor of I = 1. by using appropriate analysis methods based on in – situ and laboratory tests in the cases the ground water level is less than 10 m from the soil surface and to document these results.1 and Table 6.2.1 – Soil groups and local site classes to be considered as the bases of determination of local soil conditions are given in Table 6.2. in the first and second seismic zones.1. (b) Irrespective of the building height. 6.1.
.... 8 16 1. > 50 3....…..TABLE 6. <8 85 100 > 1000 > 400 > 1000 > 700 > 700 65 85 500 200 1000 400 700 400 300 1000 700 700 < 500 35 65 100 200 400 200 200 700 400 300 < 35 < 100 < 200 < 200 < 200 TABLE 6. 30 50 3.1 and Topmost Soil Layer Thickness (h1) Group (A) soils Group (B) soils with h1 ≤ 15 m Group (B) soils with h1 > 15 m Group (C) soils with h1 ≤ 15 m Group (C) soils with 15 m < h1 ≤ 50 m Group (D) soils with h1 ≤ 10 m Group (C) soils with h1 > 50 m Group (D) soils with h1 > 10 m .. gravel.………………….. silty clay… 16 32 1.. Massive volcanic rocks...... Highly weathered soft metamorphic rocks and cemented sedimentary rocks with planes of discontinuity 2. Very dense sand..LOCAL SITE CLASSES Local Site Class Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Soil Group according to Table 6. unweathered sound metamorphic rocks.... Medium dense sand and gravel.. stiff cemented sedimentary rocks 2..1 .. Soft volcanic rocks such as tuff and agglomerate.. Hard clay and silty clay… > 32 1. 10 30 3.. Very stiff clay. gravel.2 .... < 10 3.. deep alluvial layers with high ground water level 2. Dense sand. Compressive Strength (kPa) Drift Wave Velocity (m / s) (A) (B) (C) (D) 1.... weathered cemented sedimentary rocks with planes of discontinuity…… 2. Loose sand. Soft clay and silty clay…..SOIL GROUPS Soil Group Description of Soil Group Standard Penetration (N/30) Relative Density (%) Unconfined.. Soft..... Stiff clay and silty clay.
3. Soil Safety Stresses and Safety Ultimate Load of Piles 6.2 may be deemed to be the layer at the lower tip of the shortest pile.3.1.3.1 – Inclined piles with more than 1 / 6 inclination with respect to vertical shall not be used in the first and second seismic zones.NOTES ON TABLE 6. (B) and (C) in Table 6.2.2. 6. rigidity and inertia properties of pile caps and tie beams together with horizontal and vertical bedding of piles to the soil (soil – pile interaction).1.3. 6.1 – Soil safety stress and safety ultimate load of pile for horizontal and axial loads in foundations with pile specified with respect to static loads may be increased in the case of seismic loading by at most 50 % for foundation soils classified as Group (A). By considering group effect in the analysis. 6.2 shall be taken as the first layer under the pile caps. Requirements for Piled Foundations 6. (b) In the case where the foundation system is comprised of vertical piles or piles with a slope of 1 / 6 or less inclined with respect to vertical.2.3.3. the layer below may be considered as the topmost soil layer indicated in Table 6.3. it is essential to take piles into account as structural elements together with the superstructure in the seismic analysis to be performed in accordance with Chapter 2.1.3. structural steel and masonry buildings. (c) In cases where conditions given in paragraph (b) above are not applied or pile inclination with respect to vertical exceeds 1 / 6 in the third and fourth seismic zones in accordance with 6. or to idealize horizontal and vertical pile rigidities with equivalent springs under the pile caps. . the topmost soil layer indicated in Table 6.1.2 – Piled foundations shall be analyzed with respect to earthquake induced lateral loads and effects in addition to axial loads. 6. the topmost soil layer indicated in Table 6.3. General Rules Building foundations shall be constructed on the bases of principles of soil mechanics and foundation construction.3.3.3.2: (a) In the case where the thickness of the topmost soil layer under the foundation base is less than 3 m.2. Rules given in this chapter for foundations are applicable to the foundations of reinforced concrete.3. 6. However in such a case.2 – Soil safety stress and safety ultimate load of piles shall not be increased in the case of seismic loading for foundation soils classified as Group (D) in Table 6. by considering the properties of underlying soils such that any damage in the superstructure due to settlements or differential settlements during earthquake is avoided. RULES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FOUNDATIONS 6.
3. tie beams may be constructed at any level between the bottom of the foundation and the bottom of the column.1.3. . which shall not be less than 3 m.3.4.3 – MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR TIE BEAMS DESCRIPTION OF REQUIREMENT 1. (**) The minimum cross – section dimension shall not be less than 1/30 of the clear span of the tie beam. Hoop spacing or pitch of spirals within this length shall not be more than 200 mm. TABLE 6. 4 1. Foundation Tie Beams 6.008 within the top 1 / 3 of the pile length under the pile cap.3 – The minimum requirements to be satisfied by tie beams are given in Table 6.1 – In reinforced concrete and structural steel buildings.4 – Longitudinal reinforcement ratio of reinforced concrete prefabricated driven piles shall not be less than 0. 6. however pitch of spirals shall be reduced to 100 mm within a length of at least twice the pile diameter from the top 6.3.3. however hoop spacing pitch of spirals shall be reduced to 100 mm within a length of at least twice the pile diameter top (twice the greatest dimension of piles with rectangular crosssection) from the from the top. Minimum axial force of tie beam (*) 2. 2 3. Transverse reinforcement requirements shall be equally applicable to pre – stressed prefabricated driven piles. diameter of transverse reinforcement within the top 1 / 3 of the pile length under the pile cap shall not be less than 8 mm.3. 6. 4 1.3 depending on the seismic zone of the building and the soil groups defined in Table 6. Minimum longitudinal reinforcement (*) Seismic Zone 1. Minimum crosssection area (mm2) 4.3 – In the first and second seismic zones.1. 4 Soil Group (A) 6% 4% 250 250 62500 62500 4∅14 4∅14 Soil Group (B) 8% 6% 250 250 75000 62500 4∅16 4∅14 Soil Group (C) 10 % 8% 300 250 90000 75000 4∅16 4∅16 Soil Group (D) 12 % 10 % 300 250 90000 75000 4∅18 4∅16 As a percentage of the greatest axial force of columns or structural walls tie beams are connected to. Tie beams may be omitted or their numbers may be reduced on foundation soils classified as Group (A) in Table 6. 2 3.4.6.3.3. Diameter of spiral reinforcement to be provided within this zone shall not be less than 8 mm and the pitch of spirals shall not be more than 200 mm.4. In the first and second seismic zones.4. tie beams shall be provided to connect individual foundations or pile caps in both directions or to connect continuous foundations at column or structural wall axes. 2 3. 2 3. 6.2 – Consistent with the foundation excavation.01. longitudinal reinforcement ratio of cast – in – situ cased or uncased bored piles shall not be less than 0. Minimum cross – section dimension (mm) (**) 3. 4 1.
6.3.4.4 – Tie beams shall be considered in the section design as resisting against both pressure and tension forces. In the case of resistance against pressure, buckling effect may be neglected in tie beams confined by soil or floor concrete. In the case of tension, it shall be considered that tension forces are resisted by only reinforcement. Hoop diameter of tie beams shall not be less than 8 mm and their spacing shall not be more than 200 mm. 6.3.4.5 – Tie beams may be replaced by reinforced concrete slabs. In such a case slab thickness shall not be less than 150 mm. It shall be demonstrated by calculation that the slab and its reinforcement safely transfer the forces equal to those given for tie beams in Table 6.3. 6.3.5. Under – Wall Foundations of Masonry Buildings 6.3.5.1 – Foundations of masonry buildings shall be constructed as reinforced concrete under – wall foundations under the load bearing walls. Depth of an under – wall foundation shall be determined by considering the soil characteristics, ground water level and the local frost depth. In buildings without basement, top level of stone or concrete walls to be constructed on the foundations shall be at least 0.50 m above the pavement level. 6.3.5.2 – Concrete quality of under – wall foundations shall be at least C16. Requirements on the dimensions and the reinforcement of under – wall foundations are given in Table 6.4 depending on the soil groups defined in Table 6.1. 6.3.5.3 – Foundations may be constructed with steps on sloped ground made of soils classified in Table 6.1 as Group (A), (B) or (C). Requirements for stepped foundations are also given in Table 6.4. 6.3.5.4 – Lateral spacing between the longitudinal rebars to be placed under – wall foundations shall not exceed 0.30 m at the top and bottom; appropriate overlapping shall be provided to achieve continuity at corners, junctions and in stepped foundations. TABLE 6.4 – REQUIREMENTS FOR UNDER – WALL FOUNDATIONS
Soil Group (A),(B) Minimum foundation width (mm) 500 Shoe width (from both sides) to be added to wall thickness (mm) 2 x 150 Minimum foundation height (mm) 300 Minimum longitudinal reinforcement at the top and bottom 3∅12 Minimum hoop at foundations ∅8 / 30 Minimum lateral spacing of steps (mm) 1000 Minimum step overlapping length (mm) 300 Maximum step height (mm) 300 DESCRIPTION OF REQUIREMENT
Soil Group (C) 600 2 x 200 400 3∅14 ∅8 / 30 1500 400 300
Soil Group (D) 700 2 x 250 400 4∅14 ∅8 / 30
6.4. SEISMIC SOIL PRESSURES AND SOIL RETAINING STRUCTURES 6.4.1. Total Active and Passive Pressure Coefficients 6.4.1.1 – Total Active Pressure Coefficient, Kat, and Total Passive Pressure Coefficient, Kpt, which shall be used to calculate the sum of static soil pressure and additional dynamic soil pressure induced by earthquake are given by Equation (6.1), by neglecting the soil cohesion in order to remain on the conservative side.
sin(ϕ + δ) sin(ϕ − λ − i ) K at = 1+ 2 cos(δ + α + λ ) cos(i − α) cosλ cos α cos(δ + α + λ) (1 ± Cv ) cos 2 (ϕ − λ − α)
−2
(6.1a)
−2
(1 ± Cv ) cos 2 (ϕ − λ + α) sin(ϕ + δ) sin(ϕ − λ + i ) K pt = 1− 2 cos(δ − α + λ) cos(i − α) cosλ cos α cos(δ − α + λ)
(6.1b)
6.4.1.2 – The angle λ in Equation (6.1) is defined by Equation (6.2). (a) For dry soils,
λ = arctan Ch (1 ± Cv )
(6.2a)
(b) For submerged soils,
γs Ch γ b (1 ± Cv )
λ = arctan
(6.2b)
6.4.1.3 – In the case of submerged or saturated soils, δ in Equation (6.1) shall be replaced by δ/2. 6.4.1.4 – Equivalent lateral seismic coefficient, Ch, appearing in Equation (6.2) is defined by Equation (6.3). (a) In soil retaining structures behaving as vertical free cantilevers,
Ch = 0.2 (I + 1) Ao
(6.3a)
(b) In soil retaining structures and elements horizontally supported by building floors or soil anchors, Ch = 0.3 (I + 1) Ao (6.3b)
6.4.1.5 – Equivalent vertical seismic coefficient, Cv, appearing in Equation (6.1) and Equation (6.2) is defined by Equation (6.4). However, it shall be Cv = 0 in basement walls which are horizontally supported by building floors.
Cv = 2C h 3
(6.4)
The cases + Cv or − Cv shall be considered as consistent with Equation (6.2) to yield more unfavorable lateral soil pressure by Equation (6.1).
6.4.2. Dynamic Active and Passive Soil Pressures 6.4.2.1 – Dynamic active pressure coefficient, Kad, and dynamic passive pressure coefficient, Kpd, induced by earthquake shall be determined by Equation (6.5).
Kad = Kat − Kas Kpd = Kpt − Kps
(6.5a) (6.5b)
Static active pressure coefficient, Kas, and static passive pressure coefficient, Kps, appearing in Equation (6.5) may be obtained by substituting λ = 0 and Cv = 0 in Equation (6.1).
6.4.2.2 – Variation of dynamic active and passive soil pressures along the depth of soil which is induced by soil mass in addition to static soil pressure in case of earthquake which are induced in addition to static soil pressure by the soil mass during earthquake, is defined by Equation (6.6).
pad (z) = 3 Kad (1 − z / H) pv (z) ppd (z) = 3 Kpd (1 − z / H) pv (z)
(6.6a) (6.6b)
In the special case of uniform and dry soil, the positive value of the resultant Pad of dynamic active soil pressure and the negative value of the resultant Ppd of dynamic passive soil pressure which are induced in addition to static soil because of earthquake and zcd which indicates the depths of such resultants measured from the top soil level, are obtained as given by Equation (6.7) and Equation (6.8), respectively, by integrating Equation (6.6) along the soil depth by taking pv (z) = γ z: Pad = 0. 5 γ Kad H2 Ppd = 0. 5 γ Kpd H2 zcd = H / 2
(6.7a) (6.7b) (6.8)
In the case of submerged soil, γb shall be considered in lieu of γ in determining pv (z) and hydrodynamic pressure of water shall not be calculated additionally. In the case of saturated soil, γs shall be used in lieu of γ.
6.4.2.3 – Variation of dynamic active and passive pressures along the depth of soil which are induced in addition to static soil pressure by uniformly distributed external loads in case of earthquake, are defined by Equation (6.9).
qad (z) = 2 qo Kad (1 − z / H) cos α / cos (α − i)
(6.9a)
106
3.1 – In the analysis performed by considering dynamic soil pressures given by Equation (6. are obtained as given by Equation (6. It may be taken Rza = 2. Qad = qo Kad H cos α / cos (α − i) Qpd = qo Kpd H cos α / cos (α − i) zcd = H / 3 (6.5.4.4. Resultants of dynamic active or passive pressures of each layer and their depths within the layer may be obtained by integrating Equation (6. in addition to internal forces induced by static soil pressures. by integrating Equation (6.9) can be applied also for case of layered soils.2.4. respectively.qpd (z) = 2 qo Kpd (1 − z / H) cos α / cos (α − i) (6. In such a case. 107 .6) and Equation (6.11).10) and Equation (6.9b) In the case where soil characteristics are uniform.9) into the coefficient Rza = 1.0 and safety factor against overturning shall be taken at least 1.4.4.5 for temporary steel sheet pile walls.9) along the soil depth. the resultants Qad and Qpd of active (positive) and passive (negative) soil pressures which are induced in addition to static soil pressure by contribution of earthquake and zcd which indicates the depths of such resultants measured from the top soil level. the coefficients Kad or Kpd pertinent for the layer concerned shall be used and the depth z shall always be measured downwards from the free soil surface. 6.4.9) in addition to static soil pressures and inertia forces of the structure which acts on its self mass. 6. Dynamic Soil Pressures in Layered Soils Expressions given above by Equation (6.6) and Equation (6.6) and Equation (6. safety factor against sliding shall be taken at least 1.10b) (6.4.11) 6.2 – Internal forces to be taken into account in the section design of reinforced concrete soil retaining walls and reinforced concrete or steel sheet pile walls shall be those obtained by dividing the internal forces calculated according to the dynamic soil pressures given in Equation (6. Requirements for Soil Retaining Structures 6.6) and Equation (6.10a) (6.9) along the depth of the relevant layer.
NOTATION Ac a1(i) = = Gross section area of column or wall end zone Modal acceleration belonging to the first mode made in the end of the (i)’th drive step Width of the horizontal plate in steel spiral. Total height of partition measured from under the foundation or from the ground floor Column cross section dimension in the working direction Height of the filling wall Storey height of the j’th column or curtain in i’th storey Length of the column Size of plastic joint Height of filling wall Length of partition or piece of strap partition on plan Effective mass belonging to first (prevalent) defined for linear elastic behavior in the x earthquake direction Factored axial force calculated under simultaneous action of vertical loads and seismic loads Axial force correspond to moment capacity calculated with the existing reinforcement strength defined according to 7. Deflection rigidity of the cracked cross section Strength of the existing concrete defined according to 7.2 Outflow strength of the steel in steel spiral. Shearing strength of the column. Effective deflection rigidity of the cracked cross section. beam and curtain cross section Base shearing force belonging to first mode (prevalent mode) obtained at the end of I’th impulse step in direction of x earthquake Deformation of concrete pressure unit in the outermost fibrous of the section inside of the lateral reinforcement binders. Modal displacement request belonging to the first mode. Inhibition Coefficient of the Power of Earthquake Ratio of exposure/capacity The limit value of ratio of exposure/capacity Space between horizontal plates in steel spiral.0.2 Tensile strength of the existing concrete defined according to 7. The body width of the cross section Effective beam and column height Modal displacement belonging to the first mode obtained at the and end of (i)’th impulse step. b bw d d1(i) d1(p) (EI)e (EI)o fcm fctm fyw Hw h hwall hji hk Lp wall = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Mx1 Nd Nk Ra r rs s Sdi1 tj u(i)xN1 w = = = = = = = = = u(p)xN1 = Ve = Vj Vr V(i)x1 cg = = = = 108 .CHAPTER 7 – EVALUATION AND INVIGORATE OF THE EXISTING BUILDINGS 7.2. Displacement belonging to first mode obtained from the end of the i’th impulse step in the direction of (x) earthquake at the top of the building (N’th storey) Top displacement request in the direction of (x) earthquake at the top of the building (N’th storey) Shear force taken into account for the calculation of transverse reinforcement of column. beam or wall Additional shearing strength provided with steel spiral. Nonlinear spectral displacement belonging to first mode Thickness of the horizontal plates in steel spiral.
4. 109 .4 Pressure reinforcement ratio Width of polymer ribbon with fiber.3.cu s p t y xN1 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ηbi x1 ρ ρb ρs p ρsm ρ’ we Deformation of concrete pressure unit in the outermost fibrous of the section of the cross section Deformation of reinforcement steel unit Plastically curvature request Total curvature request Mode figure width in the direction of (x) earthquake at the top of the building (N’th storey) Coefficient of the Level of Torsion defined in I’th storey Additive factor belonging to first mode in the direction of x earthquake Torsionally Irregularity Factor defined at i’th storey of building Equivalent Earthquake Power Derogation Factor Plastic drift volition Tension reinforcement ratio Balanced reinforcement ratio Volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement which are exist in the cross section and arranged as “special seismic hoops and crossties” according to 3.2.8 Volumetric ratio of the transverse reinforcement necessary to be existed in the cross section according to 3. 3.4.
1.5 – Earthquake performance of damaged buildings following an earthquake causing damage in the building cannot be determined with the methods given in this section.6 – To Strengthen a damaged building following an earthquake causing damage in the building.3 – The existing prefabricated reinforced concrete buildings can be assessed according to the rules given in Sections 2 and 3.12 will prevail for the assessment of the confinement zones.1 – Rules of calculation to be used in the assessment of performances of the existing buildings and building . Calculations and assessment for existing and strengthened steel buildings will be carried out according to the essentials for newly built structures defined in Sections 2 and 4.1.2 – The procedures to be performed in the scope of data collection from buildings are defining of the structural system.1.2. and principles of design for strengthening for buildings that decision of strengthening is made are defined in this section.1. Furthermore. rules of 3.7. Scope of Data to Be Collected from Buildings 7. Calculations and assessment for existing and strengthened masonry buildings will be carried out within the frame of the essentials defined in Section 5.1 – Data regarding the details and sizes of the elements to be used in determining the capacities of the elements of the supporting systems of the existing buildings and information regarding the geometry and material characteristics of the supporting systems will be achieved from the projects and reports of such buildings. assessment and strengthening of registered buildings with historical and cultural value and monuments are outside the scope of this Regulation.12. and from trials performed on the material samples taken from the building. However.4 – Rules given in this section do not apply to nonbuildingtype structures mentioned in 2. the existing data regarding the existing steel and masonry buildings will also be collected in this section.6 can be used for the determining of the performances of these buildings. measuring the dimensions of the elements. and / or repairs. determining the material characteristics. 7. if any. 7. and checking the compliance of all these data with the project of the building.1. 7.1. 7. foundation system and ground properties of the building.type structures in earthquake zones under the impact of an earthquake.2 – Calculation methods and assessment essentials given in this section do not apply to steel and masonry buildings. 7. determining the existing damage.1.2. or else. if any. 7. 7. However.1.2. DATA COLLECTION FROM BUILDINGS 7. SCOPE 7. from observations and measurements to be carried out on the building. 110 . determining the geometry. and then to determine the earthquake performance of the strengthened building.1.1.2. The civil engineer responsible for the project will decide in what extent the strength and rigidity of the existing elements of the damaged building will be taken into consideration when strengthening the damaged building. essentials given in this section shall be used. 7. principles to be followed in decisions of strengthening.
1 – In the limited information level.4. It is assumed that the amount of reinforcement in the reinforcement elements and details meet the minimum requirements for reinforcement for the date that the building was constructed.2. these can be used as aids to the works for preparation of measured drawings. and trials within the scope of data collection from buildings shall be performed under the responsibility civil engineers. Foundation system shall be determined by digging examination holes of sufficient numbers in. Levels of information According to the scope of the data obtained from the examination of the buildings concerning the existing situation.1. 7. Short columns or similar irregularities in the building shall be entered on the floor plan and sections.2 – Details of elements: Projects or application drawings are not present. assessment. Limited Information Level in Reinforced Concrete Buildings 7. Information level shall be used for the calculations of capacities of supporting elements.2. heights and dimensions of all the reinforced concrete elements and nonbearing walls. Characteristics of the supporting system are determined with measurements performed.2.2. In case the architectural projects are present. Information obtained must include the locations. Measurements sufficient to confirm the information in the project are performed.4.2.2. there are no projects of the supporting system. in case the project for the supporting system of the building are not present. 7. then measurements defined for the limited level are performed to confirm the information in the project.3 – The procedures of examination.7. respectively. and comprehensive. and consequently. the project for the supporting system of the building are present.16 shall be completed. Limited information level cannot be applied to “Buildings that Immediate Use Is required Following an Earthquake” and “Buildings Intensely Inhabited by People for Long Periods” defined in Table 7. Such scraping must be performed on the onethirds of the lengths the columns 111 . information level for each building type.2. material sample collection.4.2. 7.3.2.or outside the building.2. Information levels shall be classified as limited. and must be sufficient for the creation of a calculation model for the building. adjoining. The Existing Material Strength Strength of the materials to be used in the calculation of the capacities of the supporting elements is defined as the existing materials strength.2.7. 7.2 – In the limited information level. 7. axis openings.2.2. and at least one in each floor. then more measurements are performed as compared to the case of limited information. reinforcements and lengths of reinforcement laps shall be determined by scraping off the concrete covers of 10 % of bulkheads and columns and 5 % of beams. If such projects are present. jointing present / absent) shall be determined. 7.3 – In the comprehensive information level. medium. or to determine to what extent it is true.2.1 – Geometry of the Building: The measured drawings of the supporting system shall be prepared with field work. Relation of the building with the neighboring buildings (separated. data collection and arrangement. 7. With the purpose of confirming this assumption. the information level coefficients mentioned in 7.
4. and tests shall be performed to determine the lowest pressure strength to be considered as the existing concrete strength.5. The coefficient of actual reinforcement expressing the ratio of the amount of reinforcement the actually found in reinforced columns and beams to the minimum reinforcement shall be separately determined for columns and beams. Scraped surfaces shall be covered afterwards with highstrength repair mortar. jointing present/absent) shall be determined. number of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement elements of 20 % of the elements that have not been scraped shall be determined using devices for reinforcementdetermining devices. then conditions stated in 7. Foundation system shall be determined by digging examination holes of sufficient numbers in. This coefficient shall be applied to all the other elements that reinforcement has not been determined. 7. number of bulkheads. openings. The coefficient of actual reinforcement expressing the ratio of the amount of reinforcement the actually found in reinforced columns and beams to the minimum reinforcement shall be separately determined for columns and beams. elements showing corrosion in reinforcement shall be marked on the plan.2. Relation of the building with the neighboring buildings (separated.2 shall be applied with the numbers stated therein. In this examination. This coefficient shall be applied to all the other elements that reinforcement has not been determined.2.or outside the building. and the possible amount of reinforcement shall thus be determined. heights and dimensions of all the reinforced concrete elements and nonbearing walls. and must be sufficient for the creation of a calculation model for the building. compliance of the geometry to the project shall be checked.4. 7.2.5.2.2.2 apply. 112 .2 – Details of elements: In case project or manufacturing drawings are not present. and 10 % of the number of beams. and the possible amount of reinforcement shall thus be determined. In addition. same must be performed on the overlapping parts of at least three columns with the purpose of determining the length of overlapping. Information regarding the geometry of the building must include the details required for a precise description of the mass of the building. then conditions in 7. This coefficient used to determine the capacities of elements cannot exceed 1. Medium Level Information in Reinforced Concrete Buildings 7.5. columns and beams that concrete covers shall be scraped off for the checking of reinforcement shall not be less than 20 % of the total number of columns in a certain floor. then measured drawings shall be prepared by field work. Reinforcement class shall be determined according to the visual examination as explained in the paragraph above.2.4.1 – Geometry of the Building: In case the reinforcement projects for the building are present. In addition. number of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement elements of 20 % of the elements that have not been scraped shall be determined using devices for reinforcementdetermining devices.3 – Characteristics of Materials: At least two samples of concrete (borehole sample) shall be collected from columns or bulkheads in each floor according to the conditions stated in TS10465. adjoining. 7. Information obtained must include the locations in each floor. however. however. and at least two in each floor. and the characteristic yield strength of the steel in this class shall be taken as the existing steel strength. In case there are no projects. Short columns or similar irregularities in the building shall be entered on the floor plan and sections. and this condition shall be taken into consideration in element capacity calculations. In case project or manufacturing drawings are present.and beams in the middle of the opening.
In case there are any conflicts between the project and the application. and also not less than 9 from the entire building and one sample from each 200 square meters for the tests to be performed according to the conditions stated in TS . e t c . 7. Reinforcement class shall be determined by visual examination on surfaces scraped as described in the paragraph above. and yield strength and breaking strength.2.6. 7.2.2 – Details of elements: Detail projects of reinforcement of the building are present. and the building is examined according to the rules for medium level information. jointing present/absent) shall be determined. Information regarding the geometry of the building must include the required details for a precise description of the mass of the building.6. Distribution of the concrete strength throughout the building can be checked with the readings of adjusted concrete test hammer to the borehole sample test results or similar undamaged examination tools. and tests shall be performed on one sample for each steel class (S220.7.2.2.or outside the building. then the projects are ignored. This coefficient shall be applied to all the other elements that reinforcement has not been determined. 7. This coefficient used to determine the capacities of elements cannot exceed 1. The mean – standard deviation values found for the samples shall be taken as the existing concrete strength when calculating the capacities of the elements. and deformation characteristics of the steel shall determined and compliance with the project shall be determined.3 – Characteristics of Materials: One concrete sample (borehole sample) shall be collected from columns or bulkheads in each floor not less than 3 in number.10465. Relation of the building with the neighboring buildings (separated. Comprehensive Information Level in Reinforced Concrete Buildings 7. locations and numbers of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement elements of 20 % of the elements that have not been scraped shall be determined using devices for reinforcementdetermining devices.6. adjoining. ).5. and the possible amount of reinforcement shall thus be determined. In this examination. and this condition shall be taken into consideration in element capacity calculations.4.2.3 – Characteristics of Materials: One concrete sample (borehole sample) shall be collected from columns or bulkheads in each floor not less than 3 in number.2. then coefficient of actual reinforcement expressing the ratio of the amount of reinforcement the actually found in reinforced columns and beams to the minimum reinforcement shall be separately determined for columns and beams. Reinforcement class shall be determined on surfaces scraped as described in the paragraph above. Distribution of the concrete strength throughout the building can be checked with the readings of adjusted concrete test hammer to the borehole sample test results or similar undamaged examination tools. S420. Short columns or similar irregularities in the building shall be entered on the floor plan and sections.1 – Geometry of the Building: Reinforcement projects for the building are present.10465. and the characteristic strength of the steel of this class shall be taken as the existing steel strength in capacity calculations. In case the projects show important conflicts with the measurements. If it complies with the project. Foundation system shall be determined by digging examination holes of sufficient numbers in. Compliance with the projects of the actual geometry is checked with the measurements performed in the building. In addition. and also not less than 9 from the entire building and one sample from each 400 square meters for the tests to be performed according to the conditions stated in TS . The mean – standard deviation values found for the samples shall be taken as the existing concrete strength when calculating the capacities of the elements.2 for checking of the compliance of reinforcement with the project shall be applied on the same number of reinforcement elements. Procedures stated in 7.6. elements showing corrosion in reinforcement shall be marked on the plan. the characteristic strength of the steel used in the project shall be taken as the existing steel 113 .
8. boring controls of all the steel elements and other elements of other types (columns. In this examination. then the precise dimension controls shall be performed for 20 % of the said elements. 114 . flooring) shall be performed. and tests shall be performed to determine the strength and deformation characteristics.7. joints. Dimensions of the elements shown in the project and details of joints shall be confirmed by checking in at least 20% of the total numbers of each element and joint types. Limited Information Level in Steel Constructions Limited information level in steel constructions is not valid. beams.3 – Characteristics of Materials: In case steel projects are not present. and the least favorable value shall be taken as the existing steel strength in the element capacity calculations.2. and welding characteristics and joining details shall be established in detail. The mean strengths obtained from tests shall be taken as existing steel strength for the calculation of the strengths of elements.8.9.2.9. In case steel projects are present. One sample bolt shall be taken for tests from bolted connections.2. and the least favorable value shall be taken as the existing steel strength. at least three samples shall be collected for tests.1 are valid as they are. Comprehensive Information Level in Steel Constructions 7.9. 7.9. then the characteristic strengths foreseen in the project shall be taken as existing steel strength. Such cut off places shall be filled and repaired.2.6. Likewise. 7. except that the term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “steel”.1 are valid as they are.8. 7. 7. a welding sample shall be cut off to perform tests. In case compliance with the project is confirmed.2. Medium Information Level in Steel Constructions 7. then one sample shall be cut off from each steel construction type.2. One sample bolt shall be taken for tests from bolted connections. crosses.2 – Details of elements: In case steel projects or manufacturing drawings are not present.1 – Geometry of the Building: Conditions given 7. If not. elements showing corrosion in reinforcement shall be marked on the plan. tests shall be performed on at least three more samples.3 – Characteristics of Materials: Steel class mentioned in the project shall be controlled by cutting a sample from at least steel element.2. In case the application projects and manufacturing drawings are present. and this condition shall be taken into consideration in element capacity calculations. Otherwise.2. a sample shall be cut off from one welded joint shown in the project and tested to control the compliance of steel with the project. 7.2. Likewise.strength. except that the term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “steel”. then mean strengths obtained from tests shall be taken as existing steel strength for the calculation of the strengths of elements. Such cut off places shall be filled and repaired.2. 7.5.2 – Details of elements: Steel detail projects of the building are present.1 – Geometry of the Building: Conditions given in 7.8.2. 7.
2.2. Conditions mentioned in 7. Although conditions mentioned in 7. spaces.1 are valid for the geometry of the building.2. Cutting resistances of walls for each type of wall given in Section 5 shall be taken as the basis for building strength calculations. Conditions mentioned in 7. and heights of floors.10. thickness. Medium Information Level in Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Buildings Conditions mentioned in 7.2.12. joints of walls and stability of walls shall be investigated. compliance of the existing geometry with the project shall be checked with visual examination. provided that these samples shall not be less than three in total for each floor. one with the smaller value shall be taken as the existing concrete strength in the calculation of the capacities of the elements.2. 7. and conditions of girdles and headpieces shall be determined visually.11.5. Test shall be performed on at least one sample (borehole sample) collected for each 500 square meters for determining concrete compression strength. except that the term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “reinforced concrete”.9. 7.7. Limited Information Level in Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Buildings Limited information level in prefabricated reinforced concrete constructions is not valid.1 are valid for the geometry of the building.2. except that the term “reinforced” shall be replaced with “reinforced concrete”. 7.2.1 – Geometry of the Building: In case the architectural projects are present. then the measured system drawings shall be prepared for the building. Medium Information Level in Masonry Buildings In addition to the procedures for limited information level. 7. 7.2. In case there are no architectural projects present.14. Of the mean concrete compression strength obtained in tests and the value shown in the project for concrete compression strength. Information obtained must include the locations of masonry walls in each floor. 7. Foundation system shall be determined by digging examination holes of sufficient numbers in. their length.13.13.8. Total number of borehole samples collected from the building shall be at least 9.2.2 are valid for the details of elements. The reinforcement strength to be used in the calculations of capacities of the elements shall be the characteristic strengths shown in the project for that particular steel class. Comprehensive Information Level in Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Buildings Conditions mentioned in 7.13. Limited Information Level in Masonry Buildings 7. methods of joining to walls.2 are valid for the details of elements. 115 .2. except that the term “steel” shall be replaced with “prefabricated reinforced”.2. and not less than 9 for the entire building.3 – Characteristics of Materials: Types of materials used in walls shall be visually determined by scraping the plaster on one part of the wall. except that the term “steel” shall be replaced with “prefabricated reinforced”.or outside the building.13.3 are valid for determining the characteristics of materials. number of samples of materials shall be half as much.2.5.2 – Details: Types of the roof and floor.2.6.
and collapsing limit defines the limit of the behavior before collapsing.7.1. Internal Force GV MN GÇ Minimum Damage Region Marked Damage Region Advanced Damage Region Collapsing Region Figure 7.1 – INFORMATION LEVEL COEFFICIENTS FOR BUILDINGS Information level Limited Medium Comprehensive Information level coefficient 0. TABLE 7.16. The existing material strengths shall be used in the calculations of element capacities. These are Minimum Damage Limit (MN).15. those inbetween MN and GV are within Marked Damage Region. at least 3 samples of wall pieces shall be collected from the building to determine the characteristics of the materials used in walls.00 7.2.2.3. safety limit defines the limit of the behavior beyond elasticity that the section is capable of safely ensuring the strength. Comprehensive Information Level in Masonry Buildings In addition to the procedures for medium information level. This classification does not apply to elements damaged in a brittle condition. LIMITS OF DAMAGE IN CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS AND AREAS OF DAMAGE 7. those inbetween GV and GÇ are in Advanced Damage Region.3.75 0.1. Safety Limit (GV) and Collapsing Limit (GÇ). Information Level Coefficients (a) Information Level Coefficients to be applied to element capacities according to the level of information obtained from the building examined are given in Table 7. Sectional Damaged Areas Elements that the damages with critical sections do not reach MN are within the Minimum Damage Region.2. Minimum damage limit defines the beginning of the behavior beyond elasticity.1). and the mean values obtained from tests performed on these shall be used for the calculations according to Section 5.1 116 Deformation . 7.3. 7. (b) Unless otherwise specified.90 1. material strengths shall not be divided by material coefficients given in the relevant design regulations. and those going beyond GÇ are within Collapsing Region (Figure 7. Damage limits in cross sections Three limit conditions have been defined for ductile elements on the cross section.
4. 7. Independence levels of the floors will be defined for the center of mass of each floor and additional eccentricity will not be applied.3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND RULES RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE 7.4 – Seismic forces will be applied to both sides of the building in both directions.4. Definition of Damages in Cross Sections and Elements Damage regions that cross sections belong to shall be decided according to the comparison of the internal forces and / or deformation calculated using the methods described in 7. Building Importance Factor defined in 2.0).2 – Elastic (nonreduced) acceleration spectrum given in 2.7. Live gravity loads will be defined in a way that they will be in conformity with the masses taken into consideration in seismic calculation as per 7. 7. two horizontal translocation per floor and independence levels for the rotations around the horizontal axis will be considered.7. However. 7.3. 7.3 – The seismic performance of the buildings will be evaluated under the collective impacts of the gravity loads and the seismic impacts affecting the building.7. The general principles and rules defined below apply for both methods. (I =1. the performance evaluations conducted using these methods that are based on different theoretical perceptions should not be expected to give exactly the same results. 7.4.9 – The ambiguities regarding the loadbearing systems of the existing buildings will be reflected on the calculation methods via the information level coefficients defined in 7. objective of the earthquake damage calculation is to determine the earthquake performances of the existing or reinforced buildings.7 – The floor weights that will be considered in seismic calculation will be calculated according to 2.6 with the numerical values corresponding to cross section damage limits described in 7. however.4 will be used for the definition of the earthquake.5 or the linear nonelastic calculation methods defined in 7. 7.2 will not be applied in the seismic calculation. With this purpose.8 will be considered for different exceeding probabilities.5 or 7.4. translocation and deformations that will arise in the structural components due to the seismic effects and the collective effects of the gravity loads.1.4. the modifications introduced on 7.4.4. the linear elastic defined in 7. Damage of the element shall be decided according to the cross section of the element that with greatest damage. 7. 7. 117 .8 – For the buildings where the slabs act as rigid diaphragms on the horizontal axis.5 – The ground parameters that will be used in seismic calculations will be determined according to Section 6.1. 7. individually.4.2 and the floor masses will be defined in conformity with the floor weights.4.4.6 – Loadbearing system model of the building will be prepared accurately to calculate inner force.4.6 may be used.2 in accordance with the scope of the information gathered regarding the building.1 – According to this section of the Regulation.3.4.
003 and 0. 7. respectively.11 – The conditions regarding the definition of the interaction diagrams of the reinforced concrete sections under uniaxial or biaxial bending and axial force effects are given below: (a) Current strengths of the concrete and reinforcement steels determined in accordance with the information level defined in 7.4.40 if ND / (Ac fcm) ≤ 0. 7.80 (EI)o if ND / (Ac fcm) ≥ 0. 118 .40 (EI)o (EI)e = 0.4.40 (EI)o (b) For columns and frames.12 – While defining the component sizes of the reinforced concrete systems.bearing system model with their actual free lengths.10 Linear interpolation can be applied for the intermediate values of the axial pressure force ND. 7.15 – In the section capacity calculation in case of the reinforced concrete components with insufficient coupling or splicing length.10 – The columns that are defined as short column as per 3. confinement zones can be considered as infinitely rigid end zones.16 – Ground features will be reflected in the analysis model for the cases where the deformation in the ground may affect the structural behavior. 7.8 will be defined in the load . The same rigidities will also be used in seismic calculation. Unless a more accurate calculation as made.13 – Active bending rigidities (EI)e of the cracked section will be used for the reinforced concrete components under bending effect. 7.4. (b) Maximum pressure unit deformation of the concrete and the reinforcement steel can be taken as 0. interaction diagrams can be modeled as multiline or multiaxis diagrams. (c) Linearizing in a proper way.17 – Other modeling principles defined in Section 2 are valid.7.3.2 will be taken as the basis in the analysis. yield tensile of the related reinforcement can be diminished by the amount of the shortage in the coupling and splicing length.4.4.14 – Platform concrete and the reinforcements in the platform can be included in the calculation of positive and negative plastic momentums of the beams with reinforced concrete platforms.01. 7. And the calculation for the gravity load that provides the initial conditions for the seismic calculation will be made using the bending rigidity (EI)e determined by the way given above and will be restructured in accordance with the loads in accordance with the masses which the seismic calculations are based on. ND will be determined via a pregravity load calculation in which bending rigidities of the noncracked sections (EI)o are used and the total masses used and corresponding loads referred to in the seismic calculations are considered. the value given below will be substituted for active bending rigidities: (a) For beams: (EI)e = 0. (EI)e = 0.4.4. 7.4.
columns and walls to be considered as ductile element also it is necessary to provide Hw/ w > 2. On the calculation of internal forces and capacities of elements that are adaptable to applied seismic direction and course.5.0 condition. 7.5.2.3 – Effect / capacity ratio of ductile beam.4) Ra=1 is taken and right side of the equation is multiplied with λ factor. 7. 7.0 in one and two storey buildings except cellar and 0. Ra=1 is taken in the Equation (2. c) Armoured concrete elements that are not provide the conditions for ductile element given in (a) and (b) are defined as brittle damaged elements. On the calculation of total equivalent seismic load (ground shearing force) according to Equation (2.2.2.5. column and wall elements and sections of strengthened masonnary filled walls.1. Determination of Damage Level in the Structural Elements of Armoured Concrete Buildings 7.3.5.8.500 by using the values of current material strength that are comply with information level as defined in 7. column and wall sections is determined by dividing the section moment calculated under seismic load by taking Ra= 1 to over moment capacity. bearing force moments shall be used instead of hardening bearing forces.6.2 – Armoured concrete elements are classified as “ductile” if their fracture type is bending and “brittle” if it is shearing.1– In the description of damage boundaries of ductile elements with linear elastic calculation methods.6 but in Equation (3.4 buckling disorder calculated without considering joint eccentricity. DETERMINING THE BUILDING PERFORMANCE IN EARTHQUAKE WITH LINEAR ELASTIC CALCULATION METHODS 7. Calculation Methods Linear elastic calculation methods to be used for the determination of seismic performances of buildings are the calculations methods defined in 2.7. Calculation of Ve for columns shall be made according to 3.2. Ve Shearing force calculated in accordance with the bending capacity in the critical sections of those element should not exceed the shearing capacity Vr calculated according to TS .5 and for walls according to 3. columns and walls to be considered as ductile element. beams and walls. λ Factor is taken as 1.7 and 2. On the calculation of Ve for columns.5.4. On the calculation of effect / capacity direction of the applied earthquake shall be taken into consideration.2. 119 . b) In order the beams. a) In order the beams.1.7. numerical values figured as (r) shall be used in the effect / capacity ratios of beams. for beams according to 3. 7.13).1 – Equivalent seismic load method shall be implied to buildings not exceed 25 m and 8 storey and also have bi < 1.2 – While using the Mod Combination Method. internal force directions obtained in the mode that is dominant in this direction shall be based.5. In case the total shearing force calculated with gravity loads by taking Ra= 1 is less than Ve. then this shearing force shall be used instead of Ve.5. Additional rules as stated below shall be applied concerning these methods.1.16) Ra= 1 is taken. 7.5.85 in others.
0 0.5 0.2. Ratio of relative storey drift shall be obtained by dividing the maximum relative storey drift to storey height. 120 .0 0.5 3 2. b) Effect / capacity ratios of column and wall sections can be calculated in such a way as defined in Information Annex 7A.5. column and wall sections and strengthened filled walls (r) with boundary values given in Table 7.coated” for the coating elements being arranged with “special seismic hoops and crossties” according to 3.4. 7.65 ≥ 1.30 ≤ 0.5.5 GV 7 5 5 4 4 3 4 2.30 ≤ 0. For intermediate .2.5.5 GÇ 10 8 7 5 6 5 6 4 0.5 – It is decided that the elements are located in which damage zone by comparing effect / capacity ratio of beam. TABLE 7.2.5 2.2 (a) in accordance with the direction of earthquake.4 and armored concrete walls that provide 3.5 linear interpolations shall be applied.2 in the end zones are considered as “coated” and those that are not provide the conditions are considered as “un coated” elements. It is necessary for the elements that are considered as “un .30 ≤ 0. Moment effect calculated under gravity loads in the supports of the beam can be reduced maximum 15 % according to retransfer principle.2 .values given in Table 7.3.5 0.2.5 1.5. on the determination of damage zones of strengthened filled walls in the armoured concrete buildings boundary ratios of relative storey drift given in Table 7.7.5 shall also be taken into consideration. 7.8 and reinforcement spaces of those should be provide the conditions as defined above.6.65 ≥ 1.2 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF THE DAMAGE FOR ARMOURED CONCRETE BEAMS Ductile Beams Damage Boundary V bw d fctm ≤ 0.5 (1) Ve shearing force shall be calculated according to 7.5 2 2.4 – Effect / capacity ratio of strengthened filled walls are the shearing force strength of shearing force calculated under the effect of earthquake.2 .30 (1) − ′ b Coating Available Available Available Available Not available Not available Not available Not available MN 3 2. Calculation of shearing force strength of the strengthened masonnary filled walls is given in Information Annex 7F. Besides.5 0.65 ≥ 1.0 0. armoured concrete beams that provide 3.a) Over moment capacity of section is the difference between bending moment capacity of the section and moment effect calculated on the section under gravity loads. c) Armoured concrete columns that provide the conditions of 3.0 0.4 in terms of the transverse reinforcement conditions in the coating zone. Shearing forces formed in the strengthened filled walls which are modeled with diagonal bars shall be taken into consideration as the horizontal concurrent of the axial force of the bar.65 ≥ 1.5.7.
beam.6. column .1 ≤ 0.30 Damage Boundary (2) MN 3 2.2. TABLE 7.4 ≥ 0.65 ≥ 1.5 GÇ 8 6 6 5 5 3.65 ≥ 1.TABLE 7.0 Effect / Capacity Ratios (r) Ratios Of Relative Storey Drift MN 1 0. Control of Relative Storey Drifts In the calculation made with linear elastic methods in each earthquake direction.13) current concrete strength determined according to information level in 7. whereas in the calculation of strength in Equation (3. In case the shearing force of joint exceeds the shearing strength. However.0015 Damage Boundary GV 2 0.3 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF THE DAMAGE FOR ARMOURED CONCRETE COLUMNS Ductile Columns N (1) Ac f c ≤ 0.5. relative storey drifts of column.2.4 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF THE DAMAGE FOR ARMOURED CONCRETE WALLS Ductile Walls Coating Available Not Available MN 3 2 Damage Boundary GV 6 4 GÇ 8 6 TABLE 7.12) and Equation (3. beam or walls in each storey of the building shall not exceed the value given in Table 7.5 1 GV 6 5 4 3 3. in Equation (3.4 ≥ 0.0035 GÇ  7.5.5 3 2 (1) NK axial force shall be calculated according to Information Annex 7A.30 ≤ 0.5 2 1.11) and affects the joint for all boundary conditions should not exceed the shearing forces given 3.4 ≤ 0. (2) Ve shearing force shall be calculated according to 7.5 2 2 2 1.3.30 ≤ 0.65 ≥ 1.bema confinement zone shall be defines as brittle damaged element.65 ≥ 1. shearing force to be calculated from Equation (3.2. 121 .6 – In the joints of armoured column .11) Ve calculated without considering hardening according to 3.2.30 ≤ 0.2 shall be used instead of fcd.5.5 1. 7.2.5 .5 – EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS (r) DEFINES THE BOUNDARY OF THE DAMAGE FOR STRENGTHENED FILLED WALLS AND RATIOS OF RELATIVE STOREY DRIFT Ratio range of wall / hwall 0.1 ≥ 0.5.1 ≤ 0.4 Coating Available Available Available Available Not available Not available Not available Not available V bw d f ctm ≤ 0.1 ≥ 0. δji indicates the relative storey drift calculated as a replacement difference between bottom and top ends of the j’th column or wall in i’th storey whereas hji indicates the height of the relevant element.7 shall be used instead of Vkol.5 2.2 (a) in accordance with the direction of earthquake.3.
The Procedure for the Performance Evaluation via Incremental Repulsion Analysis The steps that shall be taken during the inelastic non .TABLE 7.01 Damage Boundary GV 0. plastic deformation (plastic rotation) and inner force volitions that corresponds to the modal translocation volition shall be calculated.8 for different exceeding probabilities together with the mentioned diagram into consideration.6. 7.linear seismic performances and for the strengthening measurements included in this Regulation. The results of this analysis shall be considered as the initial conditions of the incremental repulsion analysis.03 GC 0. 7.2.6. the rules defined 7.6 . 122 .4 and the modifications applied on this spectrum in 7. Incremental Mode Combination Method and Measurement within the Scope of Time Definition Method. (c) In case the incremental repulsion analysis is conducted via applying the Incremental Equivalence Seismic Load Method defined in 7. Definition The aim of the inelastic linear measurement methods to be used for determining the structural performances of the buildings under seismic effect and for the strengthening analyses is enabling the measurement of the plastic deformation volitions regarding the ductile behavior and inner force volitions concerning the brittle behavior for a given earthquake.1. Scope The inelastic linear analysis methods included in the scope of this Regulation are Incremental Equivalence Seismic Load Method. (b) Before applying the incremental repulsion analysis.4.6.4 shall be followed to idealize the nonlinear behavior of the loadbearing system and construct the analysis model. The modal translocation volition belonging to the primary (dominant) mode shall be set taking the elastic behaviors spectrum defined in 2.linear performance evaluation conducted applying the Incremental Repulsion Analysis is summarized below.BOUNDARIES OF RELATIVE STROREY DRIFT Ratio of Relative Storey Drift δji / hji MN 0. Afterwards.04 7. a nonlinear static analysis in which the gravity loads that are in accordance with the masses are taken into consideration shall be conducted. the translocation. First two are the methods that shall be used for the Incremental Repulsion Analysis that is taken as a basis for determining the non . DETERIMINING THE SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE BUILDING USING INELASTIC LINEAR METHODS 7.3. the magnitudes of the mentioned volitions are compared with the deformation and inner force capacities that are defined in this section and structural performance evaluation shall be conducted both at sectional and building level.6.6. In the final step. (a) In addition to the general principles and rules defined in 7.6. the “modal capacity diagram” belonging to the primary (dominant) mode the coordinates of which are defined as “modal translocation – modal acceleration” shall be derived.5.
e) The plastic rotation volitions that are calculated out of ductile sections shall be utilized for deriving plastic bending volitions and total bending volitions in accordance with 7. However. it is assumed that the plastic deformations are formed in an evenlydistributed manner all along the finitelength zones in which the inner forces in the beam. concretes and reinforcement steels shall be calculated accordingly.6. the plastic deformations under the bending effect will not be taken into consideration.4. stacked plastic behavior model is taken as a basis point for the inelastic nonlinear analysis applied in the following sections. U. 7. 7. Idealizing the Inelastic Non .5 h).(d) In case the incremental repulsion analysis is conducted via applying the Incremental Mode Combination Method defined in 7. T.linear Behavior 7. The length of the plastic deformation zone referred to as plastic support length (Lp) shall be taken as the half of the section length (h) in the active direction (Lp = 0.1. modal translocation volitions will as well be derived together with the “modal capacity diagrams” for all modes taken into consideration and the translocation.6.1 – In order to idealize the inelastic nonlinear behavior in respect to the materials.6.6. The shear force volitions derived from the analysis on the other hand shall be compared with the capacities defined in 7.6. the approximate idealizations mentioned below can be allowed for practical applications.9 for various damage thresholds.6. plastic sections may be allowed to be placed on the bottom end zone of the frame zone for each floor.4. the fact that plastic hinges may be formed as well in the beam bays due to the effects of the gravity loads should be taken into consideration. In this model that corresponds to the plastic support hypothesis in case of simple bending. the models that are proved to be valid in the literature can be utilized. the deformation volitions calculated in terms of relative storey drifts of the strengthened filled wall shall be compared with the deformation capacities defined in 7.6. Performance evaluations regarding the ductile behavior in sectional level shall be conducted via comparing the mentioned values of volition with the unit deformation capacities defined in 7. For the frames where Hw / w ≤ 2.10.11 and performance evaluation regarding the brittle behavior shall be conducted at sectional level. plastic deformation (plastic rotation) and inner force volitions that will arise accordingly in the loadbearing system shall be calculated.3 – The plastic section that represents the stacked plastic deformation should be positioned in the middle of the plastic deformation zone that is theoretically defined in 7. 7.8.6. the unit deformation volitions of reinforced concrete sections. (b) In reinforced concrete frames. in other words on the end zones of the net ports of columns or beams. 123 .2 – The length of the plastic deformation zones that undergo plastic deformation only under axial force shall be assumed to be equal to the open length of the related component. column and frametype loadbearing components idealized as stick components reach to their plastic capacities. L or boxsection frames should be idealized as a single frame all arms of which works cooperatively.6.4.4. (a) In columns and beams. Afterwards. the plastic sections can be placed right out of the columnbeam confinement zone.4. the plastic sections of this frames following on to the upper stairs of the building should be placed starting above from the basement. due to its practicability and extensiveness in engineering practices.0.6.6. However. Moreover. In case there are rigid frames in the basement floors of the buildings. However.
When they are linearized in accordance with 7.1 – The aim of the Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method is implementing the nonlinear repulsion analysis under the effect of equivalent seismic loads that are gradually increased in a monotonic way up to the seismic volition threshold provided that it shall be proportional to the vibration mode type of the primary (dominant in the seismic direction).4. Repulsion Analysis with Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method 7.6 – Any filled wall that is strengthened in accordance with 7.6. When necessary. the condition of the plastic deformation vector being approximately perpendicular to the yield surface.2 as a two . (a) The strain hardening effect (rise in the momentum in accordance with the rise in the plastic rotation) in the inner force – plastic deformation correlations can be left approximately (Figure 7.11 shall be taken as the yield surfaces for the reinforced concrete sections that are plasticized under the effect of uniaxial or biaxial bending and axial force.4.6. shall be taken into consideration during the steps following the plasticizing of the sections under the impact of the uniaxial or biaxial bending and axial force.4 – The interaction diagrams that are defined in accordance with the rules defined in 7. provided that the inner forces remain over the yield surface.5.10.6). 124 .2a).11(c).2b).6. In each step of the repulsion analysis following the gravity load analysis.2 7. yield strength of the diagonal equivalent draw bar shall be obtained from Equation (7F.6.edge hinged diagonal equivalent pressure and / or draw bar as defined in the Information Annex 7F. the translocation.5 – The information in the following paragraphs shall be considered regarding the inner force – plastic deformation correlations that shall be used in repulsion analysis model. The axial rigidity and axial yield strength regarding the initial linear elastic behavior of the equivalent stick that shall be modeled as an elastro plastic (nonhardening) component in the repulsion analysis shall be determined as per the Information Annex 7F. (b) In case the strain hardening effect is taken into consideration (Figure 7.6.6.4.4. 7. the yield surfaces can be modeled as yield lines and yield planes in case of twodimensional and threedimensional behaviors.7. the requirements the inner forces and the plastic deformation vector should satisfy during the repulsion steps following the plasticization in the sections under the effect of uniaxial or biaxial bending and axial force shall be defined in accordance with an appropriate strain hardening model to be obtained from the related literature. In such a case. The shear strength defined for the wall is the horizontal component of the axial yield strength of the diagonal equivalent pressure stick.4. plastic deformation and inner force increments and cumulative values of these increments and finally the maximum values corresponding to the seismic volition shall be calculated.5.4.4 shall be idealized as per 7. 7. respectively. M Mpa Mpb M θp θp (a) (b) Figure 7.
the number of floors of the building excluding the basement should not be above 8 and the bending irregularity coefficient that is calculated in accordance with the elastic linear behavior without considering additional eccentricity should meet the condition bi < 1. the distribution of the equivalent seismic load can be assumed to remain constant.4 – By means of the repulsion analysis conducted in accordance with the constant load distribution defined in 7. And the ground shear force is the sum of the equivalent seismic loads of each step for the earthquake in the direction of x. Top translocation is the translocation that is calculated in each repulsion step and that takes place in the center of mass of the top floor of the building for the earthquakes in the direction x that are taken into consideration.15): Γ x1 = Lx1 M1 125 (7. With the help of the coordinate transformation applied to the repulsion curve.5.5. the repulsion curve the coordinates of which are “top translocation – ground shear force” shall be obtained. Moreover. independent of the plastic section formations in the loadbearing system.3) . two perpendicular horizontal drifts in the center of mass of each floor and the rotation around the vertical axis passing through the center of mass shall be considered as the magnitudes of the primary (dominant) natural vibration mode shapes.2) Φ xN1 Γ x1 The contribution coefficient for the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) mode. In such a case. In the buildings where floor slabs are idealized as rigid diaphragms.3 – During incremental repulsion analysis. 7. is derived with the following method: (i) a1 = (i) Vx1 M x1 (7.6. the modal capacity diagram the coordinates of which are “modal translocation – modal acceleration” can be obtained via the method defined below: (a) The modal acceleration for the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) mode for the (i)’ th step. utilizing the values Lx1 and M1 that are defined for the linear elastic behavior of the loadbearing system for the earthquake in the direction x and is given in Chapter Equation (2. d 1(i): (i) uxN1 d1(i) = (7. a1(i). the ratio of the active mass of the primary (dominant) vibration mode calculated taking the linear elastic behavior as a basis point to the total mass of the building (except for the masses of the basement floors covered by the rigid frames) should be above 0.4 for each floors. in accordance with the earthquake taken into consideration.6.5.6.1) (b) The following equation can be used to calculate the modal translocation for the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) mode for the (i)’ th step. is computed in the following way.3. load distribution shall be determined in a way that it shall be proportional to the value derived by multiplying the natural vibration mode shape magnitude of the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) that is computed for the linear elastic behavior at the first step of the analysis with the magnitude of the related mass.5. Γ x1 . 7.2 – To be able to use the Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method.6.7.70.
Calculation with the Nonlinear within the Scope of Time Definition Method 7.linear within the Scope of Time Definition Method is integrating the movement equation of the system step by step taking the nonlinear behavior of the loadbearing system.5.6.5 – As an alternative to 7. As a definition. deformation and inner force volitions) corresponding to this value shall be obtained from the existing repulsion analysis file or shall be computed with a new repulsion analysis that shall be conducted until the top translocation volition is reached. Such repulsion analysis method that is based on the “step by step linear elastic” behavior in the load .7.4) for the final repulsion step i = p in Equation (7.6. modal translocation volition d1(p) is equivalent with the non .e.6.7 – By substituting the modal translocation volition d1 (p) that is determined according to Equation (7.6. the top the top (p) translocation volition uxN1 for the x seismic direction. i. translocation. 7.4 and the modifications applied on this spectrum in 7. (p) uxN1 = Φ xN1 Γ x1 d1(p) (7.5.6.3. 126 . During the analysis.2)’. during the incremental repulsion analysis.7.5. d1(p) = Sdi1 (7. the magnitudes of the primary (dominant) natural vibration mode shapes shall be defined as given in 7.4) The calculations regarding the determination of nonlinear spectral translocation Sdi1 is given in Information Annex 7C.6 – The maximum modal translocation of the primary (dominant) mode.1 – The aim of the Calculation with the Non .linear spectral translocation Sdi1. equivalent seismic load distribution can be considered as varying in each repulsion step compared to the previous steps. modal translocation volition shall be set taking the elastic behaviors spectrum defined in 2.6. 7. shall be obtained. the load distribution shall be defined as proportional to the value obtained from multiplying the magnitudes of the primary (dominant) natural vibration mode shapes that are calculated considering all plastic sections formed in the loadbearing system before each repulsion step with the magnitude of the related mass.bearing system for each repulsion step between the formations of two sequential plastic sections is explained in Information Annex 7D. plastic deformation and inner force that come up in the system in each increment and the maximum values of these magnitudes that correspond to the seismic volition are calculated. 7.6.3. Repulsion Analysis with Incremental Mode Combination Method The aim of the Incremental Mode Combination Method is incrementally implementing the Mode Combination Method taking modal translocations that are gradually and monotonically increased in a way that shall be proportional to the sufficient number of natural vibration mode shapes representing the loadbearing system behavior and that are scaled in a way that they shall be in harmony with each other or taking the modal seismic loads that shall be in harmony with the mentioned modal. 7.6.6.5.5. In such a case. In the buildings where floor slabs are idealized as rigid diaphragms.4.8 for different exceeding probabilities together with the modal capacity diagram derived as a result of the repulsion analysis as per the information given in 7.7.6.5.5) All other volition magnitudes (translocation.
0035 + 0. 7.6.6.9. recorded or simulated earth movements that shall be used in the analysis to be conducted in the time definition scope shall be determined as per 2.8.7.9.6.9.6) Lp 7.6 or obtained as a output information onto the calculation conducted within the scope of time definition as per 7.6. 7.6. 7.2 – The artificial. ( s) GV = 0.1 and 2.1 – The plastic bending volition dependent on the p plastic rotation volition that shall be obtained in any section as a result of the repulsion analysis conducted as per 7.9.8.010 (7.6.7 shall be calculated as follows: θp φp = (7. 7.8.7.2 and 2.6.7) φt = φ y + φp The unit pressure deformation volition in the reinforced concrete systems and the unit deformation volition in the reinforcement steel shall be calculated applying momentumbending analysis in accordance with the total bending volition defined with Equation (7.3 shall be taken into consideration through the analysis.01 ( s / sm) ≤ 0.2 – The upper bounds (capacity) of deformation for different sectional damage thresholds for the ductile loadbearing system components that undergo plastic deformations are defined below: The transverse reinforcements that consider the following: (a) For M i n i m u m S e c t i o n a l D a m a g e B o u n d a r y (MN).8 in terms of unit deformation volitions for concrete or reinforcement steel shall be compared with the unit deformation capacities given below so as to determine the performance of the loadbearing systems at sectional level. Determining the Unit Deformation Volitions 7.6. upper bounds of the concrete unit pressure deformation in the outmost fiber of the section and the reinforcement steel unit deformation volitions: ( cu) MN= 0.6.6. ( s) MN = 0. Information Annex 7B can be utilized for coated or uncoated concrete and reinforcement steel models.9.2 – The total bending volition φt of the section shall be obtained adding the φy equivalent yield bending that is defined with the twoline momentumbending relationship obtained from the analysis conducted under the axial force volition of the section by means of using a reinforcement steel model that as well considers the strain hardening together with a concrete model chosen in accordance with the aim to the φp plastic bending volition defined with the Equation (7.9) 127 . upper bounds of the concrete unit pressure deformation in the outmost fiber of hoop and the reinforcement steel unit deformation volitions: ( cg) GV = 0.3 – If any other choice is not introduced.6): (7.8.1 – The seismic volitions obtained in accordance with 7.9.7).5 or 7.6. Section Unit Deformation Capacities of Reinforced Concrete Components 7.8) (b) For Section Security Bound (GV).6.0135 .040 (7.0035 .
The rules to be applied so as to determine the seismic performance of the buildings are given below. 7.7.6 are listed in the second row of Table 7. In case the shear force volition exceeds the shear strength.6. 128 . ( s )GC = 0.11. Ready for Use Performance Level Onto the results of the calculations regarding all earthquakes applied in any floors. Deformation Capacities of the Strengthened Filled Walls The allowed boundary values (capacities) for the relative floor drifts that are obtained onto the repulsion analysis conducted via modeling the filled walls that are strengthened in accordance with 7.6. if any.6. 7. at most 10 % of the beams exceed the Significant Damage Zone and all other loadbearing components remain in the Minimum Damage Zone.5.6.11.6 and deciding on the damage areas of the components.018 . The components the shear force strengths of which are smaller than their shear force volition shall be defined as brittle damaged components.11) the shear force volition calculated in the nonlinear analysis for the related column shall be used instead of Vkol.2. Shear Force Capacities of the Reinforced Concrete LoadBearing System Components 7. The rules to be applied for masonnary buildings are given in 7. upper bounds of the concrete unit pressure deformation in the outmost fiber of hoop and the reinforcement steel unit deformation volitions: ( cg )GC = 0.060 (7. However.2. The current strength values that are defined in accordance with the information levels set in 7. DETERMINING THE SE SM C PERFORMANCE OF THE BUILDING 7.2 shall be utilized in shear force calculations. columnbeam confinement section shall be defined as brittle damaged component.013 ( s / sm ) ≤ 0.2.1. The rules given here are related to the reinforced concrete and prefabricated buildings.2.5 and 7.6.7.5.2 – The shear force volitions that shall be calculated using Equation (3.7. Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings The seismic performance of the buildings are related to the condition of the damages that are expected to come out under the effect of the earthquakes applied and is defined taking four different damage levels as basis. and the current concrete strength that shall be determined in accordance with the information level defined in 7.12) or Equation (3.8.10.7. 7. in Equation (3.(c) For Section Collapse Bound (GÇ). 7.10.2 shall be taken as a basis point in the strength calculation in Equation (3. Such buildings can be agreed to be in the Ready for Use Performance Level provided that the brittle damaged components.4. The seismic performance of the buildings are determined applying the calculation methods defined in 7.004 + 0.11) for reinforced concrete columnbeam confinements should not exceed the shear strength given in 3. are strengthened. 7.4 and Information Annex 7F together with the columns and beams surrounding the walls in accordance with 7.10) Should be regulated as “special earthquake hoops and crossties” as per 3.13) instead of fcd.1 – The shear strengths that shall be used in brittle bending controls of all reinforced concrete loadbearing components except for the confinements of columns and beams shall be determined in accordance with the TS500 standard.11.6.
For the top floor. Only the walls with low performance should be strengthened at least up to the level defined in 7F. the ratio of the total shear forces of the columns in the Significant Damage Zone to the total shear forces of all the columns at that floor can be at most 40 %.bearing components are in Minimum Damage Zone or Significant Damage Zone. 129 .Collapse Performance Level provided that the fact that all components that are brittle damaged are in the Collapse Zone.7. Pre . (a) Onto the results of the calculations regarding all earthquakes applied in any floors.3) both in upper and lower confinement points are not included in this calculation).7.4.3) both in upper and lower confinement points are not included in this calculation). 7. Collapse Level If the building does not satisfy the Pre . Life Safety Performance Level The buildings that satisfy the conditions mentioned below can be agreed to be in Life Safety Performance Level provided that the brittle damaged components. Significant Damage Zone or in the Advanced Damage Zone. at most 30 % of the beams except for the secondary ones (that does not take place in the horizontal loadbearing system) and at most the proportion of the columns defined in paragraph (b) can exceed the Advanced Damage Zone.2 and the calculations made in accordance with Section 5. 7. are strengthened: (a) As the result of the calculations made for each earthquake direction applies on each floor.3. the building is decided to satisfy Ready for Usage Performance Level. it is in the Collapse Level. However. if any. If the contribution of the walls that do not satisfy this condition due to the earthquakes applied in any floor to the floor shear force is below 20 %. Usage of the building under these circumstances poses threats towards life safety. (b) All other loadbearing components are in Minimum Damage Zone. (c) All other load . the columns that satisfy Equation (3.Collapse Performance Level The buildings that meet the conditions given below are agreed to be in the Pre . at most 20 % of the beams except for the secondary ones (that does not take place in the horizontal loadbearing system) can enter the Collapse Zone. the building shall be decided to satisfy the Life Safety Performance Level.7. the columns that satisfy Equation (3. the shear forces borne by the columns which exceeds the Minimum Damage Bound both in upper and lower sections for any floor should not be more than 30 % of the shear force borne by all columns of the floor (In calculation with linear elastic method.6.5. 7. (c) Usage of the building under these circumstances poses threats towards life safety. Determining the Seismic Performance of Masonnary Buildings The performance level of the masonnary buildings shall be determined onto the evaluations made in accordance with 7. However.7. Except for these situations the buildings are assumed to be in the Collapse Level.7. If the shear strength of all walls of the masonnary building in both two directions is enough to bear the shear forces that form under the effects of the earthquakes applied. the shear forces borne by the columns which exceeds the Minimum Damage Bound both in upper and lower sections for any floor should not be more than 30 % of the shear force borne by all columns of the floor (In calculation with linear elastic method.2. (b) The total contribution of the columns in the Advanced Damage Zone to the shear force that is borne by the columns in each floor should not exceed 20 %.Collapse Performance Level.
The acceleration spectrum defined for tobebuilt buildings in 2.) RU: Ready for Usage. two different seismic given below are defined to evaluate the existing buildings and to be utilized in strengthening designs: (a) The coordinates of the acceleration spectrum of the earthquakes for which the possibility to be exceeded in 50 years is 50 % shall be taken as approximately the half of the coordinates of the spectrum defined in 2. provincial or district administrative bodies. tourist facilities. theatre and concert halls.9. PC: PreCollapse (See 7. TABLE 7. hotel.7. fire stations.8.1. The buildings that people stay in for a long time period: Schools. offices. prisons. The earthquakes levels that the seismic performances of existing or tobestrengthened buildings shall be based on and the minimum performance targets for the buildings at the mentioned earthquakes levels are given in Table 7. 7.4 takes the earthquakes for which the possibility to be exceeded in 50 years is 10 % according to 1. etc. STRENGTHENING THE BUILDINGS Strengthening the buildings covers applications such as eliminating the defects that will lead to seismic damages.7.2. LS: Life Safety.4. flammable and explosive materials and the buildings in which the mentioned materials are stored. museums.2. TARGETED PERFORMANCE LEVELS FOR THE BUILDINGS 7. adding new components that will contribute to the enhancement of earthquake safety. disaster management centers etc. sports facilities Buildings containing hazardous materials: The buildings – containing toxic. Other buildings: The buildings that does not fit the – definitions given above (houses.8. transportation stations.2. pensions. culture centers. dormitories. diminishing the mass. 130 . In addition to this earthquake level.7 – MINIMUM BUILDING PERFORMANCE TARGETS ANTICIPATED FOR DIFFERENT EARTHQUAKE LEVELS The usage purpose and the Type of the Building The buildings that should be used after earthquakes: Hospitals. communications and – energy facilities.7) Probability for the Earthquake to be exceeded 50 % in 10 % in 2 % in 50 years 50 years 50 years RU LS RU LS RU LS LS – PC – 7. improving the seismic behavior of existing components and maintaining the continuity of force distribution. industrial buildings. (b) The coordinates of the acceleration spectrum of the earthquakes for which the possibility to be exceeded in 50 years is 2 % is decided to be taken as approximately 1.5 times of the coordinates of the spectrum defined in 2. accommodations.8. The buildings that people visit densely and stay in for a RU short time period: cinema. military – posts. heath facilities.4. etc.
Determining the Seismic Safety of the Buildings Strengthened The calculation methods and evaluation basis given in this section shall be used in determining the seismic performance of the buildings and components strengthened. 7.1 – The applications applied to improve the strength and deformation capacities of the seismic loadbearing building components as beam. frame and confinement zones are defined as component strengthening. 7.9. column. 7.1. Strengthening Types Strengthening applications shall be evaluated under two different scopes.3. pour concrete and sustain the minimum rust area.2 shall be followed throughout the total height of the column for the transverse reinforcement in the coating concrete. Minimum coating thickness is 100 mm.9.10. strengthening the confinement zones and diminishing the mass of the building to minimize the seismic effects are called system strengthening.10. at component level and building system level. However.9.1.1 – Reinforced Concrete Coating: It shall be applied via pealing off the rusted area or rumpling the surface of the existing column. 7.3.3. Concrete coating should begin from the top of the base floor slab and ends at the bottom of the top floor slab.9. the rules defined in 3. STRENGTHENING REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS The component and system strengthening methods given in this section covers techniques frequently used in practice. Reinforced concrete coating should have the thickness that is enough to be able to install horizontal and vertical reinforcements. adding new components to the building. For the coating activity that shall be held with the aim of improving the axial pressure strength.9. 131 .10. The bending capacity of the columns can’t be improved using these methods. 7.2.4. Coated gross sectional dimensions and the design strength of the coating concrete shall be used in calculating the shear and pressure strength of the coated column. 7. the strengthening methods that are not included in this section can as well be applied provided that the general perception and principles of the section are followed.7.1.3.2 – The applications introduced with the aims of improving the strength and deformation capacity of the loadbearing system of the building and ensuring the continuity of the inner force distribution. 7. for each loadbearing system type. Coating the Columns Following methods can be used to improve shear and pressure strength of the columns to enhance the ductility of the columns and to eliminate the weaknesses of the lap splicing.9. but the strengths derived shall be diminished via multiplying the values with 0. The Design of the Components to be added to the Buildings The special rules given in this section together with the rules in Section 3 and / or Section 4 and other standards and regulations in effect shall be followed regarding the design of the components to be added to the buildings with strengthening purposes.
There shouldn’t be any gap between the angle bracelets and reinforced concrete surfaces. The rusting area of the expanded column shall be thick enough to cover the horizontal and vertical reinforcement fitted. the plaster layer on the surface of the existing column shall be pealed of and concrete surfaces shall be roughened up to ensure the adherence of the old and the new concrete.11) Vj = j f yw s In Equation (7. Coated gross sectional dimensions and the design characteristics of the coating concrete shall be used in calculating the shear and pressure strength of the coated column. In other words. By means of FP coating. at least two rows of bolted anchoring shall be applied in 250 and 500 mm above the slab floor.10. If required. width and the spacing of the horizontal plates and d represents the useful height of the section. full coating (coating the whole section circle) method should be applied and at least 200 mm splicing should be made after coating. FP application should be held in accordance with the method recommended by the producer firm. when the splicing length of the longitudinal reinforcement is insufficient. To eliminate the weaknesses of lap splicing using steel coating. t bd (7. b. but the strengths derived shall be diminished via multiplying the values with 0.11).4.1.10. the angles should be continuous (the gaps should be eliminated) between the floor and ceiling slabs and the fact that pressure transfer is enabled via the cap plates should be shown in the calculations. For the FP method.2 – Steel Coating: Steel coating is constituted by installing four longitudinal angle bracelets to the edges of rectangular reinforced concrete columns and welding the angle bracelets to the horizontal plates positioned within specific spacing. Improving the Bending Capacity of the Columns Columns sections can be expanded to improve the bending capacity of the columns. respectively. This application as well improves the shear and pressure strengths of the columns.9. 132 . 7. Longitudinal reinforcements will pass through the holes bore on floor slabs and shall be fitted bending into the slot bore in the upper surface of the slab. ductility capacity. For the steel coating to improve the axial load capacity of the column. axial pressure and coupling strengths and ductility of the columns coated with FP a r e g i ve n i n Information Appendix 7E. tj.11).1. shear and pressure strengths of the reinforced concrete columns and reinforcement coupling strength.7.10. Horizontal plates should be continuous in all four surfaces.3. The expanded section of the column shall be coated with transverse reinforcement in accordance with 3. The continuity of the longitudinal reinforcements attached to the column expanded should be ensured. 7. FP shall be applied for the rectangular columns via rolling the edges of the beams at least with 30 mm diameter. the length of the coating should be at least 50 % higher than that of the splicing zone and the steel coating should be tightened with at least 16 mmdiameter bolted anchor that shall be fitted to the reciprocal surfaces of the column in the reinforcement splicing zone. preloading can be applied to the angle bracelets and the axial pressure load on the existing concrete column section resulting from the gravity load can be diminished. The additional shear strength introduced with the steel coating shall be calculated using Equation (7. In case the splicing adjunction is applied in the floor edge of the column.3 – Coating with fiber polymer (FP): Coating is enabled via coating and fixating the FP layer around the column provided that the fibers are parallel to the transverse reinforcements. and s represents the thickness. The calculation methods regarding the improvement in the shear.2. The necessary horizontal reinforcement shall be fitted via boring holes in beams in the columnbeam splicing zones or applying anchoring to the beams. are improved.
Repair Concrete Outer Hoop Steel profile 7. at least 200 mm splicing should be made after coating. positioned under the beam.3.4. Improving the Reinforced Concrete Loadbearing Systems onsite cast Reinforced Concrete Frames The reinforced concrete loadbearing systems with insufficient lateral rigidity can be strengthened using onsite cast reinforced concrete frames. Externally added hoops doesn’t have coating effect. The shear force of the beams improved by the addition of external hoops shall be calculated as per TS500 standard.3. 7.10. 7. In case non . the spacing between the strings shouldn’t exceed the value (wf + d 4).7.10. Bending capacities of the beams can’t be improved using the methods given below. 133 . they don’t improve beam ductility. FP application should be held in accordance with the method recommended by the produced firm.1 – Adding External Hoop: In the beam support sections where the shear strength is insufficient. The sticks attached to a steel profile. 7.1) given in Information Annex 7E.5.10.continuous FP (in form of strings). required number of hoops shall be added externally to the both surfaces of the beam. the holes formed on the concrete shall be filled with concrete. Strengthening the Filled Walls Provided that the method is applied at most for three floors except for the basement. with bolts shall be passed through the holes bore on upper slabs and shall be fitted bending into the slot bore in the upper surface of the slab.10.3. as shown in Figure 7. The beam shear force strengthened with FP can be calculated using Equation (7E.10. Reinforced concrete frames can be fixed within the existing frame plane or as a confinement to the frame plane. For the FP coating. profiles and bolts should be protected from the outside effects. This method can as well be applied implementing different details under the same principles. FP shall be applied via rolling the edges of the beams at least with 30 mm diameter. the rigidity and shear strength of the filled wall in the reinforced concrete frame constantly continuous from the top of the grounding up to the top may be improved using the strengthening methods defined in Information Annex 7F.3. Afterwards.2 – Coating with fiber polymer (FP): Full coating (coating the whole section circle) method should be used for improving the beam ductility and shear force with FP coating. During the application. Coating the Beams The purpose of coating the reinforced concrete beams is improving the shear strengths and in some cases the ductility capacities of the beams.
1. The walls shall be connected to the frame they are adjacent to with anchor sticks to ensure that they work together with the frame. Friction shear principles stated in TS . 7. wall end zone shall be constructed as per 3. Anchor sticks will have the strength enough to meet the slip tensile that will come out between the existing frame components and the added reinforced concrete wall components due to the seismic load. The walls shall be connected to the frame they are on with anchor sticks and they shall be ensured to work together with the frame. The rules stated in 7. minimum anchor depth should be one times of the stick diameter and the widest spacing between sticks should be 40 cm. Grounding shall be laid under the wall in accordance with the rules given in 6. With this purpose. When necessary.10. Minimum anchor stick diameter should be 16 mm. end zone of the wall shall be constructed via expanding the existing column in accordance with 7. axial pressure loads of the existing columns can be utilized via expanding the wall grounding in a way that it will cover neighboring columns. axial pressure loads of the existing columns can be utilized via expanding the wall grounding in a way that it will cover neighboring columns. end zone of the wall shall be constructed via expanding the existing column in accordance with 7. the existing column can be utilized as an end zone. the vertical reinforcements to be added to the end zones of the wall should be ensured to be continuous between the floors.3.500 shall be the basis point in designing the anchor sticks.7.2.6.3. In case there aren’t any existing columns in the end zone of the wall.5. In case there aren’t any existing columns in the end zone of the wall. Wall grounding shall be sized in a way that will enable the inner forces created in wall floor to be securely transferred to the grounding floor. When necessary.6. So as to diminish the eccentricity possible to be formed in the wall grounding.2 – Attaching Reinforced Concrete Wall Adjacent to the Frame Plane: The walls to be added to the reinforced concrete system shall be designed to be adjacent to the frame outside the outer frame axis and shall be continuous beginning from the grounding up to the top elevation of the wall.1 – Installing Reinforced Concrete Walls within the Frame Plane: The frames to be added to the reinforced concrete system shall be designed in the frame axis and shall be continuous from the grounding to the top elevation of the frame. Anchor sticks will have the strength enough to meet the slip tensile that will come out in the interfaces between the existing frame components and the added eccentric wall components due to the seismic load. Precautions required to enable the wall grounding to work together with the existing grounding system should be taken.5. If there isn’t any column in the end zone of the wall.10.2 or constructing a hidden column inside the wall adjacent to the existing column. the existing column can be utilized as an end zone. 134 .10.1. So as to diminish the eccentricity possible to be formed in the wall grounding. The distribution of the slip tensile in the interfaces along the frame components shall be calculated in accordance with the common principles of mechanics. Grounding shall be laid under the wall in accordance with the rules given in 6. Wall grounding shall be sized in a way that will enable the inner forces created in wall floor to be securely transferred to the grounding floor.10. wall end zone shall be constructed as per 3. In both cases. Precautions required to enable the wall grounding to work together with the existing grounding system should be taken. If there isn’t any column in the end zone of the wall.5.1 shall be followed in the design of anchor sticks.5.5.10. the transverse reinforcements on the end zone of the wall and the longitudinal reinforcements in the wall body when required shall be ensured to be continuous.
However. as the gravity loads and seismic forces that affect the building will diminish proportional to the reducing mass the structural safety shall be improved. Adding New Frames to the Reinforced Concrete System The horizontal loads can be distributed via adding new frames to the exterior of the reinforced concrete system. Diminishing the Mass of the Reinforced Concrete System Mass reduction is not a structure strengthening method. the more effectiveness on increasing the seismic security shall be. parapets.7. To sustain that the new frames will work together with the loadbearing system of the existing building.7. 135 . 7.6. the frames shall be attached to the slabs in a way that will enable load transfer. replacing the existing roof with a lighter one. The closer the mass to be reduced or removed to the top elevations of the building. The most effective mass reduction methods are reversing and removing the top floor or floors of the building. The grounding of the frames to be added to the system shall be organized together with the grounding of the existing building.10.10. taking installation weights on the roof such as water tanks to the ground and replacing heavy balconies. partition walls and slabs with lighter components.
1 – Moment .1. Vertical and horizontal projections of second line segment which starts from D point and step out of interaction diagram corresponds to ME – NE couple obtained from seismic design for Ra = 1 and comply with the direction of earthquake(In Figure 7A.3 that defines boundary of damage. 7A. NOTATION MA MD ME MK NA ND NE NK r rs = = = = = = = = = = Residual moment capacity Moment composed from vertical powers Moment consisted under the earthquake power Moment capacity calculated in accordance with existing material strength according to 7. Coordinates of second line segment where intersects point K is MK moment capacity of column or wall section or the NK axial force that corresponds to it.axial force interaction diagram of any column or wall section that linearized according to 7. Axial power correspond to momentary moment capacity Axial power consisted from vertical powers Axial power consisted under the earthquake power Axial power correspond to cross section moment capacity Ratio of exposure / capacity The limit value of ratio of exposure / capacity 7A.axial force are specified in following paragraphs.2) the effect / capacity ratio of the section under bending and axial force can be directly determined as far as MD or ND is known from gravity load design and ME or NE is known from seismic design.1 is obtained geometrically or numerically.3. redundant moment capacity MA and corresponding axial force NA defined as follows: MA = MK – MD NA = NK – N D And effect / capacity ratios of columns and walls may be defined as follows: M E NE = ≤ rs (7A.1a) (7A. Coordinates of point D in Figure corresponds to MD – ND couple formed of gravity loads.2.1 two condition where ME indicators are different is shown separately).1. 7A. then by using Equation (7A.2 – According to 7. r= (7A.4.11(c) is seen in Figure 7A.2.5.0.1) and Equation (7A. Effect / Capacity Ratios in Columns and Walls On the calculation made with linear elasticity methods.2) M A NA In case MK or NK as the coordinates of K intersection point in Figure 7A.1. The axial force NK which correspond to moment capacity of the column section is the axial force to be considered in Table 7.INFORMATION ANNEX 7A DETERMINATION OF EFFECT / CAPACITY RATIOS OF COLUMNS AND WALLS DO RUSAL IN DESIGN WITH LINEAR ELASTICITY METHODS 7A. methods to be implemented for determining the effect / capacity ratios in the sections of columns and walls under the effect of moment .1.1b) 136 .
MA and NA values in the last step are put their places in Equation (7A.2) and also as ND is known NK is found from Equation (7A. The obtained NK is the axial force to be considered in Table 7. Accordingly.1 remains in the interaction diagram.4 – Effect / capacity ratio specified above for the unidirectional bending / axial force is also implied similarly for bidirectional bending / axial force.1a). estimation is made for r in the beginning.1.1 7A. As NE is known from seismic calculation NA is calculated from Equation (7A. Special Conditions 7A.3 – Effect / capacity ratio of column or wall may also be determined with a successive approach method.1) and MK and NK are calculated. MK moment capacity is obtained from section calculation and by subtracting MD from this value MA is calculated from Equation (7A.N (MK.3 that defines the damage boundaries. 137 . NK ) (MD. It is obvious that the calculation of the ratio of effect / capacity is not required in this situation as against to r < 1.2.1 can not be implied in case the end of second line in Figure 7A.1b). Value of r in the last step of successive approach which is obtained nearly sufficient to the previous step is defines as the effect / capacity ratio of the section under bending and axial force.1. By using MA and ME new value of r is determined from Equation (7A.2) and by turning back to beginning pass through the forward step of the successive approach. For that purpose. 7A. ND ) D NE K NA M MA ME N Figure 7A. 7A.
5.7A.1 without considering hardening. 138 . upper boundary of the NK axial force which is calculated in a way as specified above in the pressure or tensile conditions can be defined as the axial force obtained as a result of the transfer of Ve shear forces calculated in accordance with the direction of earthquake implied according to 3.3. Upper boundary of axial forces of column and wall In the relevant column and columns on it.4.
the following tensile . 1804 1826 139 . (a) Concrete compressive stress in coated concrete fc. in order to use in cases where any other model is not chosen.1) Relation between coated concrete strength fcc and uncoated concrete strength fco in this correlation is given below.J.N. (1988).. Park. Coated and Uncoated Concrete Models On the performance evaluation with Linear Inelastic Methods according to 7.1. ρy c cu sy s su = Longitudinal reinforcement area Distance between vertical reinforcement axis in the cross section bordering Size of the cross section between the axis of lateral reinforcement binders which covers the hub concrete Elasticity module of concrete Elasticity module of reinforcement steel Concrete pressure stress in coated concrete.94 e − 2 e − 1.0. J.1)*.Strain Model for Confined Concrete.B.Priestley.INFORMATION ANNEX 7B TENSILE .254 f co f co * Mander. is given with the following corelation as the function of compressive unit deformation c: fc = r − 1 + xr f cc x r (7B. Deformation of pressure concrete unit Deformation of maximum pressure unit in coated concrete Yield unit deformation of reinforcement steel Yield unit deformation of reinforcement steel in the beginning of strain hardening Breaking unit deformation of reinforcement steel 7B. Coated concrete strength Concrete pressure stress in noncoated concrete.. NOTATION As ai bo Ec Es fc fcc fco fe fs fsy fsu fyw ho ke s ρs = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ρx.DEFORMATION CORELATIONS FOR CONCRETE AND STEEL REINFORCEMENT 7B.254 1+7.6.deformation corelations are defined for coated and uncoated concrete (Figure 7B. f f (7B. M. 114 (8). Effective winding pressure Tension in reinforcement steel Yield strength of the reinforcement steel Breaking strength of the reinforcement steel Yield strength of the transversely reinforcement Size of the cross section between the axis of lateral reinforcement binders which covers the hub concrete Enswathed Effectiveness Coefficient Lateral reinforcement binders space Volumetric ratio of total transversely reinforcement (in rectangular cross sections ρs= ρx+ρy Volumetric ratio of transversely reinforcement in direction represents. R. λ c = 2. Journal of Structural Division (ASCE).2) f cc = λ c f co . Theoretical Stress .
x= r= εc εcc . .002 0. (b) Equation (7B. ai2 ke = 1 − 6bo ho s 1− 2bo s 1− 2ho A 1− s bo ho −1 (7B. .6) Ec Ec − Esec Maximum compressive unit deformation in coated concrete εcu = 0. tensile .2). fc = 0 is defined in c = 0. f ey = ke ρ y f yw (7B. εco ≅ 0.004.004 + 1. In 0.1) as given for coated concrete is also available for uncoated concrete in the zone up to c = 0. can be taken as the average of values given below for the two perpendicular directions in rectangular sections: f ex = ke ρ x f yw .4 ρs f yw εsu f cc is given below: (7B. su indicates the unit deformation due to strain under maximum tensile in transverse reinforcement steel. fc Coated fcc fco Uncoated co=0.1) are given below.005.7) Here s indicates the total volumetric area of transverse reinforcement (in rectangular sections s = x + y). s indicates the distance between the axes of hoops in vertical direction.005 cc cu c Figure 7B.4) Here ai indicates the distance between the axes of vertical reinforcements in the periphery of section.6) as the effective coating pressure fe = 0 in uncoated concrete and accordingly c=1 from the Equation (7B.002 Esec = f cc εcc (7B.004 0. bo and ho indicates the section sizes remain among the axes of hoops that coats the core concrete.004 < c 0.005 range. As indicates area of longitudinal reinforcement. fcc = fco ve cc = co is taken in Equation (7B.fe effective coating pressure in here.5) and Equation (7B.1 140 .5) (7B.deformation relation is linear. Correlations concerning x and r variable of normalized concrete unit deformation in Equation (7B. εcc = εco [1 + 5(λ c − 1)] Ec ≅ 5000 f co [MPa ] cu .3) In these correlations fyw yield stress of the transverse reinforcement indicates the volumetric ratios of transverse reinforcements in x and y relevant directions whereas ke indicates coating performance factor as defined below.
16 0.deformation corelations are defined for reinforcement steel. the following tensile .2 141 . (Figure 7B.8) Elasticity modulus of reinforcement steel is Es = 2*105 MPa.0011 420 0.0021 0.2): fs = Es εs fs = fsy fs = fsu − (fsu − fsy ) (εsu − εsh ) 2 (εsu − εs ) 2 (εs ≤ εsy ) (εsy < εs ≤ εsh ) (εsh < εs ≤ εsu ) (7B. Quality S220 S420 fsy (Mpa) sy 220 0.6.2. Information concerning reinforcement steel with quality S220 and S420 can be taken from the following table. Reinforcement Steel Model In order to use in the performance evaluation with Linear Inelastic Methods according to 7.011 0.7B.008 sh 0.10 su fsu (Mpa) 275 550 fs fsu fsy sy sh su s Figure 7B.
Ratio of Spectral Replacement Ratio of spectral replacement CR1.1) is as follows: CR1 = 1 142 (7C.2.2 depending on the value (T1(1) = 2π / 1 ) of starting period T1(1) .1 – In case where the starting period T1(1) is equal to or more than the characteristic period TB in the acceleration spectrum defined in 2.2.1) is determined according to 7C.Linear Spectral Replacements Non . 7C.1) Linear elastic spectral replacement Sde1 is calculated from elastic spectral acceleration (7C.4 7C. Linear and Non .2) 7C. shall be obtained with Equation (7C.INFORMATION ANNEX 7C DETERMINATION OF NON . Accordingly.linear inelastic spectral replacement. Sdi1 . ( T1(1) ≥ TB or ( (1) 2 1 ) ≤ 2 B ). NOTATION a1 ay1 CR1 d1 dy1 d(p)1 Ry1 S(1)ac1 S(1)de1 Sde1 TB T(1)1 (1) 1 B = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Modal acceleration belonging to first (prevalent) mode Equivalent yield acceleration belonging to first mode Spectral displacement ratio belonging to first mode Modal displacement belonging to first (prevalent) mode Equivalent yield displacement belonging to first mode Maximum modal displacement (modal displacement request) belonging to first mode achieved at the end of last p’th impulse step Strength Decrease Coefficient belonging to first mode Elastic spectral acceleration belonging to first mode at the first step of the impulse analyze Linear elastic spectral displacement belonging to first mode at the first step of the impulse analyze Nonlinear elastic spectral displacement belonging to first mode Characteristic period in acceleration spectrums defined in 6.2. in Equation (7C.0. non  linear inelastic spectral replacement Sdi1 is taken as equal to Sde1 linear elastic spectral replacement regarding also the conjugated linear elastic system which’s natural period is also T1(1) in accordance with equal replacement rule. spectral replacement ratio in Equation (7C.1) depending on the linear elastic spectral replacement Sde1 which corresponds to T1(1) beginning period regarding the first (dominant) mode calculated as based on linear elastic behavior: Sdi1 = CR1 Sde1 Sae1 regarding first mode in the first step of drift analysis: Sde1 = Sae1 ( (1) 2 1 ) (7C. in the first step of the drift analysis.1.1 (1) or 7C.4.LINEAR SPECTRAL REPLACEMENT 7C.2.4 Natural vibration period belonging to first vibration mode (prevalent in earthquake direction) in impulse step (i=1)at the beginning Natural angular frequency belonging to first vibration mode (prevalent in earthquake direction) in impulse step (i=1)at the beginning Natural angular frequency correspond to characteristic period in acceleration spectrum defined in 6.3) .
In Figure 7C.1 and following Figure 7C.2, model capacity diagram that the coordinates are (d1, a1) and belong to first (dominant) vibration mode and behavioral spectrum that the coordinates are “spectral replacement (Sd) – spectral acceleration (Sa)” are drawn together.
7C.2.2 – In case where the starting period T1(1) is less than the characteristic period TB in
(1) the acceleration spectrum defined in 2.4, T1(1) < TB or ( 1 ) 2 > 2 ), spectral replacement B ratio CR1 in Equation (7C.1) shall be calculated with successive approach method as follows:
a1, Sa
2 2 B =(2π/TB )
Sae1
(
(1) 2 1 )
Figure 7C.1
(p) (a) Modal capacity diagramdobtained = S result of drift analysis, as shown in Figure 7C.2 as a d1, Sd 1 = Sdi1 de1 (a), is turned approximately into a bilinear diagram. Slope of the starting line of this (1) (1) diagram is taken as equal ( T1(1) = 2π / 1 ) with Eigen value ( 1 ) 2 pertaining to the first mode that is the slope of the line in the first step (i=1) of drift analysis.
(b) As accepted CR1 = 1 in the first step of successive approach, in other words by using Equation (7C.3) coordinates of equivalent yield point is determined with equal areas rule. o CR1 is defined as follows as based ay1 seen in Figure 7C.2 (a):
CR1 = 1 + (Ry1 − 1) TB / T1(1) Ry1 ≥ 1
(7C.4)
In this correlation, Ry1 indicates the strength reduce factor pertaining to first mode:
Ry1 =
Sae1 ay1
(7C.5)
143
(c) By using CR1in Equation (7C.4), coordinates of equivalent yield point is redetermined with equal areas rule by taking Sdi1 calculated according to Equation (7C.1) as basis, as shown in Figure 7C.2 (b) and accordingly ay1, Ry1 and CR1 are calculated again. When the results obtained from successive two steps reasonably close up then the successive approached is concluded.
a1, Sa Sae1
(a)
o ay1
(
(1) 2 1 )
Sde a1, Sa Sae1
Sdi1
d1, Sd
(b)
ay1 o ay1 (
(1) 2 1 )
Sde1 d1(p) = Sdi1
d1, Sd
Figure 7C.2
144
INFORMATION ANNEX 7D IMPULSE ANALYZE WITH INCREMENTAL MODE COMBINATION 7D.0. NOTATION (i) an = Modal acceleration belonging to n’th mode at the end of (i)’th impulse step. ayn = Equivalent outflow acceleration belonging to n’th mode CRn = Spectral displacement ratio belonging to n’th mode (i) dn = Modal displacement belonging to n’th mode at the end of (i)’th impulse step
F (i) (i) M j,x
(i) M j,x
= = =
Cumulative scale factor belonging to (i)’th impulse step Bending moment formed around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section at the end of (i)’th impulse step, Bending moment calculated around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section at the (i)’th impulse step, in the result of linear mode combination analyze with taking ∆F (i) =1 . Bending moment formed around the y axis in (j) plastic cross section at the end of (i)’th impulse step, Bending moment calculated around the y axis in (j) plastic cross section at the (i)’th impulse step, in the result of linear mode combination analyze with taking ∆F (i) =1 . Mass of any (s) degrees of freedom Axial force formed in (j) plastic cross section at the end of (i)’th impulse step Axial force calculated in (j) plastic cross section at the (i)’th impulse step, in the result of linear mode combination analyze with taking ∆F (i) =1 Strength Decrease Coefficient belonging to n’th mode Typical displacement, plastically deformation or internal force which are formed in any (j) point or cross section at the end of (i)’th impulse step Typical displacement, plastically deformation or internal force calculated in (j) point or cross section at the (i)’th impulse step, in the result of linear mode combination analyze with taking ∆F (i) =1 . Elastic spectral acceleration belonging to n’th mode in the first step of the impulses analyzes. Linear Elastic spectral displacement belonging to n’th mode in the first step of the impulses analyze Characteristic period in acceleration spectrum defined in 6.4’de Natural vibration period belonging to n’th vibration mode in the impulse step at the beginning (i=1) Coefficient which is defining (k)’th yield platform or line concerning with the moment around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section Coefficient which is defining (k)’th yield platform or line concerning with the moment around the x axis in (j) plastic cross section Coefficient which is defining (k)’th yield platform or line concerning with the axial force in (j) plastic cross section 145
(i) M j,y (i) M j,y
= =
ms N j(i) N j(i) Ryn rj(i) rj(i)
= = = = = =
(1) Saen
(1) Sden
= = = = = = =
TB Tn(1)
α jk,x α jk,y β jk
1.6. the applicability of the method is limited to the fewfloor buildings and the buildings that are symmetric or nearly symmetric to the seismic direction according to the plans. Introduction 7D.1. Considering the modal translocations monotonically increased via modal scaling.5 is the assumption proposing that the seismic behavior of the loadbearing system is solely composed of the behavior in the primary (dominant in the seismic direction) natural vibration mode. 7D. the majority of these deal only with determining the global strength and deformation capacities of the loadbearing system. There are a limited number of methods that aim at deriving the volition values required to make performance evaluation under the effect of a certain earthquake [1–5] ∗. Due to this reason.4’de Natural angular frequency belonging to (s) degrees of freedom of n’th mode figure this was determined by considering plastic cross section configuration in that step at the (i)’th impulse step Natural angular frequency belonging to n’th vibration mode in the impulse step at the beginning (i=1) At the last impulse step (i=p) 7D. a linear behavior spectrum in each step of which mode combination rules are applied is obtained. and the plastic rotations and inner force volitions can directly be derived without requiring any additional analysis. the contributions of individual modes to the formation of each plastic section can be considered in the repulsion analysis [4. 146 .1 – The most significant disadvantage of conducting repulsion analysis using the Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method explained in 7.(i) ∆an (i) ∆d n ∆F (i) (i) fsn = = = = (i) usn = (i) sn = (i) xn = = = B (i) n (1) n (p) n = = Modal acceleration increase belonging to n’th mode in the (i)’th impulse step Modal displacement increase belonging to n’th mode in the (i)’th impulse step Increasing spectrum scale coefficient in the (i)’th impulse step Increasing of the displacement effecting any (s) degrees of freedom of the system for n’th natural vibration mode in the (i)’th impulse step Increasing of the earthquake load effecting any (s) degrees of freedom of the system for n’th natural vibration mode in the (i)’th impulse step Amplitude belonging to (s) degrees of freedom of n’th mode figure which was determined by considering plastic cross section configuration in that step at the (i)’th impulse step Contribution factor belonging to n’th natural vibration mode for the earthquake in x direction at the (i)’th impulse step Natural angular frequency correspond to TB characteristic period in acceleration spectrum defined in 6. 5]. plastic deformation and inner force increments together with the incremental values corresponding to these increments and thus the maximum values corresponding to the seismic volition are calculated [4.1. 5]. “stepbystep linear elastic” behavior in each repulsion step between the plastic section formation between two subsequent sections is taken as a basis. Utilizing the results of this analysis.2 – In repulsion analyses conducted under Incremental Mode Combination Method. the plastic section formed at the end of the step is determined and translocation. Although various repulsion analysis methods that can be applied to the buildings that doesn’t satisfy these conditions as they consider multiple vibration modes are proposed. By means of the Incremental Mode Combination Method explained in this Information Appendix.
cumulative modal replacement. Modal scaling 7D. Sa n= n= Last step n=2 Mid .3) and Equation (7D.7D.3) Here F (i) indicates the cumulative spectrum scale factor which is considered as constant for all modes in the (i)th drift step.Step First plastic section step n=1 d.2) and Equation (7D.3 – Modal scaling correlations given with Equation (7D.5) (1) Sden Elastic spectral replacement defined for the first (i= 1) drift step at the above correlations can be obtained from elastic spectral replacement defined according to 2. Sd 147 Figure 7D.1 . modal replacement increase in the nth mode is defined as follows: (i) (1) ∆d n = Sden ∆F (i) (7D.4) Here ∆F (i) is also indicates the incremental spectrum scale factor which is considered as constant for all modes in the (i)th drift step.6) Sden = (1) 2 ( n ) 7D.2.1) to the modal replacement at the end of the previous drift step.2 . seismic effects in terms of spectral replacements are increased in definite amount in the each drift step starting from zero. all modal replacement increases are figured with single parameter.2. Thus.2.4 for the same step: (1) Saen (1) (7D.3).1) xn (i) 7D.2) In order to consider relative contributions of the modes.1 – The translocation increment in an (i)th linear repulsion step in the formation of two subsequent plastic sections for any independence level (s) for a typical nth natural vibration mode can be written as the following: (i) (i) (i) usn = sn (i) d n (7D. according to equal replacement rule pertaining to single degree of freedom system. a. As a result of Equation (7D.2. Relation between incremental and cumulative spectrum scale factors are formulated as below: F (i) = F (i−1) + ∆F (i) ≤ 1 (7D. In other words.With adding the ∆d n that represents modal replacement increase in the (n)th at the(i)th drift step and located in Equation (7D. cumulative modal replacement at the end of the (i)th step is obtained as follows: (i) (i (i) d n = d n −1) + ∆d n (7D.4). correspond to monolithically increasing elastic spectral replacement during each drift step where a new plastic section formed. is defined (1) proportionally to elastic spectral replacement Sden in the first step (i= 1) at the same mode: (i) (1) d n = Sden F (i) (7D.
4). 7D. (1) (a) According to Equation (7D. step zero (i–1=0). which is before the first drift step (i=1) corresponds to the typical magnitude obtained from the gravity load analysis that is necessarily made before the drift analysis.6) is shown in Figure 7D.3 as based on the biggest modals in the first drift step (i=1).5 after the calculation of ∆F (i) according to 7D. indicator in the mode where the biggest absolute value is obtained from typical replacement. Whereas rj(i −1) shows 148 . In the analysis. modal contributions to internal force magnitudes. This introduction information is used exactly in all drift steps without any change.1)th drift step. by grounding the axial forces at the end of the previous step.3. plastic deformation or internal force calculated in the (j) point or section. At the end of the last step of (p)th drift. rj(i) represents a typical replacement.3. in accordance with the equal replacement rule. elastic spectral replacement Sden in the first drift step (i=1) is taken into account as an earthquake data for a typical nth mode.8.At the end of the linear elastic first step where first plastic section in the system is formed scaled condition of behavioral spectrum (F (1) ≤ 1) drawn at the coordinates of “spectral replacement (Sd) – spectral acceleration (Sa)” by using Equation (7D.1 – In the practical implementation of the Incremental Mode Combination Method.1 in the (i) th drift step by taking ∆F (i) = 1 . (b) For the calculations of all replacements.3. Scaled condition of spectrum at the end of any following (i)th inter .1. Number of mode to be considered is determined according to 2. In this analysis.8. drift step. plastic deformation or internal force is taken into account. effects of second stage can be taken into consideration.7) Definitions concerning this correlation are given below: (a) At the end of a linear mod combination analysis made according to 7D. In this context. 1 for the first four mode of a considered typical structural system 7D.3.05 in all modes. plastic deformation or internal force formed in any (j) point or section of the structural system is formulated in terms of incremental scale factor ∆F (i) pertaining only to (i)th step as unknown as below: rj(i) = rj(i −1) + rj(i) ∆F (i) (7D.3. critical damping ratio is taken as 0.4 is applied. Drift Analysis Algorithm with Incremental Mod Combination Method By grounding the modal scaling transaction defined above. (b) rj(i) represents the typical magnitude to be obtained according to 7D.1) and Equation (7D. linear Mod Combination Analysis is made by taking ∆F (i) = 1 in the each (i)th drift step.step (F (i) ≤ 1) is also seen similarly. Also modal capacity diagrams to be obtained below and defined with the coordinates of “Modal replacement (d) – modal acceleration (a)” are schematically shown in Figure 7D.4 at the end of (i) th the magnitude obtained at the end of the previous (i .2 – At the end of any (i) th drift step between sequential two plastic section. main steps of the drift analysis to be applied with incremental mode combination method are summarized below: 7D.3. typical magnitude rj(i) represents any replacement. deformations. Complete Quadric Combination Rule (CQC) specified in 2. Because the indicators became disappeared due to the implementation of Complete Quadric Combination (CQC) modal combination rule. In the implementation of this rule. elastic behavioral spectrum is obtained (F (p) = 1).
for the internal forces that form the coordinates of yield surface in the columns and walls. after finding the positive and smallest (∆F (i) ) jk values obtained for all (k) yield surfaces (lines).x M j.4. (a) Cumulative spectrum scale factor F (i) is calculated from the Equation (7D.y 1) + M j.x 1) + M j.5 – After obtaining ∆F (i) in the (i)th drift step.x 1) − α jk.4).x + α jk.x = M j.x M j.3.y ∆F (i) (7D.11) n However not used directly from the formulation of the Incremental Mode Combination (i) Method as stated here. modal seismic load increment fsn that affects the (s) freedom degree in the (n)th mode is given above depending on the modal acceleration (i) increment ∆an : (i) fsn = ms (i) sn (i) xn (i) an (7D. as a description.y + β jk N j(i) (7D.5).2) or Equation (7D.dimensional behavior condition: (i) (i − (i) M j. Cumulative modal replacements at the end of the (i)th drift step are calculated from Equation (7D.12) Cumulative modal acceleration values at the end of the (i)th drift step are calculated with the below formula: (i) (i (i) an = an −1) + ∆an (7D. And the section (j) which is corresponding to this value is determined the place of the newly established plastic section in the system.9) With placing the magnitudes in Equation (7D. (c) Modal replacement increments pertaining to considered all modes are calculated from Equation (7D.y M j.3).dimensional behavior as considered generally.9).7). the smallest one of them calculated in the structural system is obtained as the ∆F (i) incremental scale factor at the end of (i)th step. 7D.x M j. any typical replacement.6. 7D.5 in the section (j) is formulated as follow: α jk.10) In any of (j) potential plastic section.x ∆F (i) (i) (i − (i) M j.8) N j(i) = N j(i −1) + N j(i) ∆F (i) 7D.y = M j. (b) rj(i) .y + β jk N j = 1 (7D.3.3 – General correlation given in Equation (7D.x + α jk.8) to Equation (7D.7D. plastic deformation or internal force magnitude formed in the any (j) point or section of the structural system is obtained according to Equation (7D. For the biaxial bending and axial force in three .3.6 – Modal acceleration increments pertaining to all modes in the (i)th step are calculated with the following correlation: (i) (i) ∆an = ( (i) ) 2 ∆d n (7D.y M j. incremental scale factor pertaining to (i)th step is calculated without the need of successive approach: (∆F ) jk = (i) (i − (i − 1 − α jk.y 1) − β jk N j(i −1) (i) (i) α jk.13) 149 .y M j.4 – In case of a three . analytical formulation of the (k)th plane part that corresponds any of the yield surfaces linearized according to 7.7) in the each drift step is specially written for the bending moment in every potential plastic section in the beams.3.
16) 7D. As a result of the spread of the plastic replacements. Eigen values of some modes due to the effects of second stage.7 Should be considered in the drift stages that follow the plasticity in the sections under the effects of uniaxial or biaxial bending or axial forces. equals to nth Eigen value. In case of non .11) ( (i) ) 2 . the analysis continued as defined above.7): rj(p) = rj(p −1) + rj(p) ∆F (p) th (7D.1.4. 7D. > then CRn can be approximately determined as . in other words typical prompt magnitude are obtained according to Equation (7D.3. CRn Sden is taken as data for (1) earthquake instead of Sden in 7D.calculated. (c) Maximum value of typical replacement.5): ∆F (p) = 1 − F (p −1) (7D. Taking i = p.6. In case of an exceedance. As a description. by considering the plastic section formed at the end of that stage. 7. 150 .4) at the last drift stage as follows: (p) (1) ∆d n = CRn Sden ∆F (p) (7D.4. it is controlled whether the cumulative spectrum scale factor which is calculated with Equation (7D. Whereas its effects on the modal seismic prompts are generally in allowable levels 7D.4. incremental spectrum scale factor concerning the last stage is calculated with Equation (7D. (a) The obtained drift stage is defined as the last stage and represented by (p) superscript.1– Modal replacements in the Incremental Mod Combination Method reaches their maximum values with all other modes. in n other words.exceedance. It should be taken into consideration that the effects of second stage can change the shapes of modes.2. At the end of each drift step.4. plastic deformation and internal force.14) (b) However it is necessary to re . and considering F (p) = 1 .1 and with the Method of Mod Combination rj(p) value pertaining to typical magnitude is re . Determination of Prompt Magnitudes 7D.3.8 – After the completion of a drift stage.7D. slope of a line section between two sequential plastic sections in the typical capacity diagram pertaining to nth mode is equal to the square of the natural angular frequency of the nth mode in that step in accordance with the Equation (7D.7 – Typical modal capacity diagrams in which modal replacements are indicated in horizontal axis and modal accelerations are indicated in vertical axis is shown in Figure 7D.15) (1) In any of the mode in case CRn > 1 according to 7D.define the modal replacement in the nth mode defined with Equation (7D. accordingly the slopes the relevant modal capacity diagrams can take negative values after a definite drift step.5) exceeds the unit value as a maximum value or not.4.2 – CRn spectral replacement ratio regarding any considered n mode is calculated as follows: (a) In case the condition Tn(1) > TB [or ( (b) In case where Tn(1) < TB [or ( follows: λ (p) = n ( ( (p) 2 n ) (1) 2 n ) (1) 2 n ) (1) 2 n ) 2 B] < 2 B] is covered then CRn = 1 is taken.3. necessary changes are made in the rigidity matrix of system and transactions are started for the new drift stage.
the approach given for the first mode (dominant) and Information Annex 7C are useful (See Figure 7C.K. Bled. (2005). (2004). A. A. 28 June – 1 July 2004.5. Extension of Modal Pushover Analysis to compute member forces.17) In this correlation Ryn. International Workshop on Performance . N.5. 31(3): 561582.5. indicates the strength reduce factor obtained from the bilinear modal capacity diagram drawn for n’th mode: Ryn = (1) Saen ayn (7D. R. Chopra. The repulsion analysis for this special condition is reduced in the singlemode repulsion analysis in which the load distribution in every repulsion step is assumed to be variable for the Incremental Equivalent Seismic Load Method according to 7. the magnitudes obtained during all repulsion analysis steps before the final step where i = p are independent of the earthquake selected.6. University of California. [3] Goel. 7D.K. Earthquake Spectra. R.5. 7D.based Seismic Design: Concepts and Implementation. Evaluation of Modal and FEMA Pushover Analyses: SAC Buildings. Berkeley. Chopra. Goel.2).K. [5] Aydıno lu.6.2 – In case the loadbearing system behavior is linear elastic. edited by P.10) n (λ (p) > 0. Slovenia. R. Special Conditions 7D. Incremental Mode Combination Method is reduced to the linear Mode Combination Method. N. An improved pushover procedure for engineering practice: Incremental Response Spectrum Analysis (IRSA). Krawinkler.18) Related to the successive approach concerning bilinear modal capacity diagram. [2] Goel. [4] Aydıno lu. Earthquake Spectra. 21(1): 125–139.K.5.CRn = CRn = 1 + (Ryn − 1) TB / Tn(1) Ryn 1 + (Ryn − 1) TB / 10 λ (p) Ryn n Tn(1) ≥1 ≥1 (λ (p) ≤ 0.K. 20(1): 225–254. An incremental response spectrum analysis based on inelastic spectral displacements for multimode seismic performance evaluation.1 – If it is assumed that solely the primary (dominant in the earthquake direction) mode has impact on the loadbearing system behavior.10) n (7D. the repulsion analysis in such a case will terminate after a single step and the modal capacity diagrams given in Figure 7D.1’will consist only of line segments for each. all of the equations given below regarding the Incremental Mode Combination Method can only be used for the dominant mode. M. (2003). Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center. References [1] Chopra. Since the modal translocation volition will be obtained without any plastic deformation coming out as the yield surfaces are fictitiously expanded. without introducing any modifications.K (2002). PEER Report 2004/05: 345–356 151 . Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. For this solution in which the modal scaling is not considered. Fajfar and H. 7D. (2004). A. M. 1(1): 3–36. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. A modal pushover analysis for estimating seismic demands for buildings.
Cross section body width Effective height of the cross section Thickness of the corrosion allocation.2). Increasing the Shearing strength of the Columns Shearing force strength of column and beams coated with FP is calculated with Equation (7E.2 with the Equation suggested by TS . Compressive strength of the existing concrete defined according to 7. contribution of FP coating Vf to shearing force strength shall be calculated with Equation (7E.0.1). NOTATIONS As b bw d d′ Ef fcc fcm fym h fhs fl Ls n nf p rc sf tf Vc Vf Vmax Vr Vs = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Column reinforcement area (for single bar) Width of the horizontal plates.1) Values of the concrete contribution to shearing force strength Vc . contribution of transverse reinforcement Vs and Vmax defined in order to limit principle pressure tensile shall be calculated only with current material strengths determined according to 7.500. 152 . Elasticity module of the fibrous polymer Compressive strength of the concrete enswathed with fibrous polymer. In case the coating realized with strips.001 unit lengthening in transversely reinforcement lateral pressure provided by fibrous polymer Existing overlap length Number of overlapped reinforcement LP winding plate number in one side Perimeter of core cross section Truncation radius made in the corners Distance of the fibrous polymer band from axis to axis Effective thickness for one plate of fibrous polymer Contribution of the concrete to the shearing force strength Contribution of the fibrous polymer to the shearing force strength Shearing force defined in order to limit main pressure tensions Shearing strength of the column or cross section Contribution of the transversely reinforcement to the shearing power strength Width of the fibrous polymer band Unit shortening correspond to coated concrete pressure strength Effective unit lengthening limit of the fibrous polymer Breaking unit lengthening of the fibrous polymer Cross section figure coefficient of performance Diameter of reinforcement Volume ratio of the fibrous polymer wf cc f fu κa φ f 7E.1.INFORMATION ANNEX 7E INCREMENT CALCULATION OF STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY IN THE COULMNS COATED WITH FIBER POLYMER 7E.2 Dimension of cross section in the direction of Tension defiant 0. Vr = Vc + Vs + Vf ≤ Vmax (7E.2 Outflow strength of the existing steel defined according to 7.
5) a f f Ef 2 In the Equation (7E. wf = sf is taken.2 f cm (7E. spaces of FP strips sf shall not exceed ( wf + d 4) value. f l shall be calculated according to Equation (7E. ratio of the long dimension of column section shall not more than two times the short dimension of the column section. Effective unit extension value is taken according to Equation (7E.4) f cm is the current pressure strength of un .coated concrete and f l is the lateral pressure amount provided by FP coating.3) εfu is the unit breaking strain of FP. nf indicates the number of FP coating layers on one side. 1 fl = (7E. rc Tabla d sf Lifli polimer tam sargı wf a) Kolonlar b) Kiri ler Figure 7E. In this Equation a is the effectiveness factor of section shapes. In case the coating is made continuously.3).004 ≤ 0. While calculating axial load strength of a column coated with FP.3) In the Equation (7E. f cc = f cm (1+2.2. a is given 153 . Increasing the Axial Pressure Strength of Columns In order to increase axial pressure strengths of the columns with FP coating.50 fu (7E.5) εf shall be calculated with Equation (7E.Vf = 2 nf tf wf Ef εf d sf (7E. Ef indicates the elasticity modulus of FP. εf indicates the effective unit extension boundary of FP.1).6). tf indicates effective thickness for one FP layer. fcc value determined with Equation (7E. Ratio of long dimension to short dimension in may be maximum three in ellipse sections.1 7E. f f ≤ 0.2) In Equation (7E.3).5). wf indicates the width of the FB strip. In case transient FB is used (in strips). and ρf is the volumetric ratio of Fp.4) shall be used instead of fcd for the pressure strength of the concrete. for several sections in Equation (7E. d indicates the useful height of element.2).4 (f1 / f cm ) ) ≥ 1. and sf indicates spaces of FP strips from axis to axis (Figure 7E.sections of columns from rectangular to ellipse effectiveness of the FB may be increased.4) In the Equation (7E. By turning the cross .
(a) While using linear elastic calculation methods. These values and the unit lengthening values of the equipment steel can not exceed the upper limits set in 7.7) shall be calculated by Equation (7E.3.4) shall be maintained.7). that for the security limit is 75% of to the value calculated by Equation (7E.6.7) and minimum damage limit shall be taken as 0.002 (1 + 15(f1 / f cm )0. ε cc = 0. otherwise it is accepted as uncoiled. whenever the εcc value of any column.6) = (b − 2rc ) 2 + (h − 2rc ) 2 1− Dikdörtgen kesit 3b h B and h shown in Equation (7E. b rc h h rc h b rc Dolgu beton a)Dairesel Kolon b) Dörtgen Kolon c) Eliptik Kolon ekil 7E.7). (b) For linear inelastic calculation methods.9.002.5). relevant dimensions for the short and long sizes of elliptic cross sections and rc is the radius of rolling in rectangular cross sections (Figure 7E. is greater than 0. the ratio of the length of the long edge of the column to that of the short edge should not be higher than two. 154 .75 ) (7E.4) and Equation (7E.2 7E. In order to increase the ductility via FP coiling the minimum tolerance increase determined by Equation (7E. while obtaining the momentumcurvature relation of the FP coiled cross sections. where plastic deformation has occurred.7).018. the column is accepted as coiled.004 depending on the performance levels. Unit shortening (εcc) that coincides with the concrete pressure tolerance in a column that is coiled via FP can be determined by Equation (7E. The stretching and deformation values of this relation can be taken as fc (capacity) and 0. This ratio can not be higher than three in elliptic cross sections. In the FP coiled armored concrete carrier system elements.7).6) are the lengths of the short and long sides for rectangular cross sections.2). maximum concrete unit shortening value for the cave in the cross section is equal to the value calculated by Equation (7E. Increasing the ductility of columns In order to increase the ductility of columns via FP coiling.1 a Dairesel kesit b h Elips kesit (7E. Values at the last point of the stretchingdeformation relation are calculated by Equation (7E. as calculated by Equation (7E.7) fl in Equation (7E. an idealized stretchingdeformation relation that shall be composed of two lines may be used for the FP coiled concretes.
7E. n is the overlapped reinforcement number. Coating for Insufficient Overlapping Length in the Columns Because coating effect is insufficient for the columns that the section length ratio is more than two or the columns that the longitudinal reinforcements are smooth surface. p is the periphery of core section. strengthening of the overlapping zones can not be made with FP coating. tf = 500 bw ( f k − f h s ) 155 . f h s is the tensile that corresponds 0.6) for different sections.8) bw is the width of the section. fym is the yield strength of current reinforcement.4.9) p + 2(φ + d ′) Ls 2n In the Equation (7E.8) f k value shall be calculated according to Equation (7E.9).8). φ is the diameter of reinforcement. κa factor should be calculated according to Equation (7E. As f ym fk = (7E.8) Ef In the Equation (7E. (7E. Necessary FP thickness for covering insufficiency of overlapping length on the columns of which longitudinal reinforcements are ribbed shall be calculated according to Equation (7E.001 unit extension in the transverse reinforcement.9) As is the area of column reinforcement (for single strip). d ′ is the thickness of rust and L s is the existing overlapping length. In the Equation (7E.
The pressure strength of the plaster made in this mixture composition will be minimum 5.2. Because of this requirement. Otherwise.1.1). Strengthening the Filled Walls The rigidity and the shear strength of the filled walls in the reinforced concrete frame that is continuous beginning from the top of grounding up to the top may be improved using the methods given below provided that the methods are applied as per7. (b) The ratio of the diagonal length of the wall to be strengthened to the thickness before the strengthening is applied should be lower than 30. Strengthening the Filled Walls using Matted Steel Reinforced Special Plaster The rigidity and the shear strength of the filled walls can be improved with specialmixture matted steelreinforced plaster layer to be applied on the wall surface. Specialmixture plaster will be made with 4 volume sand. formation of pressure stick in the existing frame should be ensured and the anchors necessary to maintain the load transfer to the frame should be designed.4 to at most threefloor buildings excluding the basement floor. NOTATIONS Awall awall Ec Edp Ewall fdp fwall fyd hwall Ik kwall kt lmin rwall smax tdp twall Tf tf Vwall ømin wall sh = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = θi wall dp Horizontal cross section area of the filling wall Width of the equivalent pressure bar (mm) Elasticity module of frame concrete Elasticity module of the prefabricate concrete wall panel Elasticity module of filling wall Pressure strength of the prefabricate concrete wall panel Pressure strength of filling wall Design yield strength of the mesh reinforcement steel Height of the filling wall (mm) Inertial moment of the column (mm4) Axial rigidity of the equivalent pressure bar Axial rigidity of the wall drawbar which was strengthened with fibrous polymer Minimum depth of anchorage bar Diagonal length of filling wall Maximum distance of anchorage bar Thickness of the prefabricate concrete wall panel (mm) Thickness of the filling wall Tensile strength of the wall drawbar which was strengthened with fibrous polymer Thickness of the fibrous polymer Shearing force strength of the filling wall Minimum diameter of anchorage bar Coefficient of equivalent pressure bar Ratio of horizontal body reinforcement in the curtain and wall to the brut cross sectional area of curtain body Angle of equivalent pressure bar with horizontal one Sliding strength of the filling wall Sliding strength of the prefabricate concrete wall panel 7F.INFORMATION ANNEX 7F METHODS FOR STRENGTHENING OF THE INFILLED WALLS 7F. this type of wall strengthening cannot be applied. 7F. there should a splicing of at least 30 mm deep between the wall surface the application will be made on and the outer surface of the frame components (Figure 7F. 156 . For this type of applications. 1 volume cement and 1 volume lime mixture. (a) The thickness of the plaster layer should be minimum 30 mm and the rust space of the matted reinforcement should be minimum 20 mm.0.10.
The details on the application are shown in Figure 7F. k wall = a wall t wall E wall rwall (7F. Ik represents the inertia momentum of the column (mm4) and θ represents the angle between the diagonal and the horizontal surface. body anchoring perpendicular to the wall axis should be applied as four anchors per one square meter wall area.plaster layer and the frame components should be 12 mm.1 – Modeling Principles: The rigidity and strength features to be used so as for the filled walls strengthened with matted steel reinforcement to be represented in the structure model are defined below. The walls strengthened with matted steel reinforcement will be included in the structure model in accordance with the principles given below.2). The shear strength of the filled wall.1) a wall = 0 . Filled walls that are designed in reinforced concrete frames and the ratio of the diagonal length to the thickness for which is below 30 will be taken into consideration in the structural modeling. The walls that include splicing the ratio of which to wall surface doesn’t exceed 10 % may be included in the structure modeling provided that the positions of the splicing don’t block the formation of diagonal pressure stick. Filled walls strengthened with matted steel will be represented with equivalent diagonal stick components that receive pressure force in the direction that the earthquake is applied.4). Ewall and Ec represent the elasticity module of the filled wall and the frame concrete. with horizontal section area Awall. The axial rigidity of the diagonal pressure stick will be calculated using Equation (7F. twall and hwall represents the thickness and the height of the strengthened wall (mm). The width awall will be calculated using Equation (7F. 175 ( λ wall h k ) − 0 . All anchor sticks applied perpendicular or parallel to the wall axis will be implemented in the holes to be born with an epoxy . hc is the length of the column (mm) and wall is the diagonal length of the filled wall (mm). 22 A wall f wall (7F.1). 7F.based material and the edges will be put through the matted reinforcement. (a) Rigidity: The thickness of the equivalent pressure stick is equal to the thickness of the strengthened filled wall. minimum anchor depth should be ten times of the stick diameter and the widest stick splicing should be 300 mm. so as to enable the reinforced plaster layer and the existing filled wall to work together.1. required grounding arrangement should be implemented. λwall will be calculated using Equation (7F.2. λ wall = E wall t wall sin 20 4 E c I k h wall 1 4 (7F. awall is the width of the stick (mm). bending the edges 90˚ to become in L shape.(c) The minimum value of the diameter of the frame anchoring stick that will be used between the reinforcement .3) Shear Strength: The horizontal component of the equivalent pressure force strength of the diagonal stick will be considered as the shear force of the filled wall strengthened with matted steel reinforcement. The body anchoring sticks to be applied perpendicular to the wall will be buried in the mortar joints of the filled wall provided that the minimum diameter of the stick of 8 mm and the anchoring dept will be at least ten times of the stick diameter. 4 r wall In this formulation. (d) To enable the forces arising in the strengthened filled walls to be transferred to the ground.3). Vwall.2). pressure strength fwall and shear strength τwall will be calculated with Equation (7F.4) 157 .2) In Equation (7F. (7F. Moreover. V wall = A wall ( τ wall + f yd ρ sh ) ≤ 0 .
2 – Material Qualifications: The recommended values for filled walls built with different types of bricks in accordance with the Ewall.5b) (7F. τwall = 0.20 MPa (7F. 7F. fwall = 2. fwall = 1. fwall and τwall mentioned above are given below.2. fwall = 1. and sh represents the ratio of the horizontal body reinforcements of the wall to the gross cross section area.Here fyd represents the design yield strength of the matted reinforcement.5 MPa.1 158 .15 MPa Blend brick: Ewall = 1000 MPa.0 MPa.0 MPa. The composite sectional structure of the strengthened wall can be considered in pressure and shear forces of the elasticity module. Matted reinforcement should have the same reinforcement area in horizontal and vertical axes.5c) Figure 7F. Manufactured air brick: Ewall = 1000 MPa. τwall = 0. τwall = 0.25 MPa Gas concrete: Ewall = 1000 MPa.5a) (7F.
this type of wall strengthening cannot be applied. Square FP plates the width of which is not lower than the 1.7F. For the anchor prepared following the way explained.3. 7F. Strengthening Filled Walls with Fiber Polymer The rigidity and the shear strength of the filled walls with lengthheight ratio between 0. FP anchors will be formed via feeding the FP straps with epoxy and rolling them around a silicon stick.1 (a) and (b). required grounding arrangement should be implemented. 159 . (a) For these kinds of applications the formation of the pressure stick in the existing frame should be ensured and anchors required sustain load transfer to the frame should be arranged. there should a splicing of at least 30 mm deep between the wall surface the application will be made on and the outer surface of the frame components. The walls strengthened with fiber polymers will be included in the structure models as per the principles given below. FP anchors will be used to enable the load transfer between the diagonal FP strap and the frame. The end edges of the FP anchors will be given shape of a fan and minimum 4 anchors will be fitted by injecting epoxy to the dustfree hole. (a) Pressure Sticks: The rigidity and the shear force of the pressure sticks will be calculated in accordance with 7F.5 and 2 can be improved by means of the fiber polymer (FP) applied to the wall surface. The width of the FP rolled around the stick to prepare the anchor should not be below 100 mm. respectively.1 – Modeling Principles: The filled walls strengthened with fiber polymer will be represented in the structure model by the couple diagonal pressure and pulling sticks. the diameter and the width of the anchor hole will not be below 10 mm and 150 mm. The gap between the FP bolts cannot be over 600 mm and the distance between the belt and the diagonal strap edge cannot be over 150 mm. Otherwise.2. Figure 7F.2 (c) To enable the forces arising in the strengthened filled walls to be transferred to the ground.5 times of the strap width will be used to ensure the load distribution in the edge zones and to be able to install sufficient number of anchors between the reinforced concrete frame and the FP straps. (b) The details regarding the diagonalfiber polymer straps are shown in Figure 7F. born in the concrete in a manner that the diagonal will be in the direction of the FP strap.2.3. Fiber polymer will be applied to both sides of the wall and the FP straps will be fixed to the wall by means of the FP bolts passing through the whole wall thickness. the one smaller in value among 20 kN and 30 % of the shear strength of the FP rolled around the silicon stick will be considered as the shear strength. For this reason.
width and the thickness of the fiber polymer strap. Minimum and maximum panel thicknesses will be 40 mm and 60 mm. (a) Precasting panels will be fitted in a way that the panel certainly remains within the frame. The anchors should be applied to all edges of the panels in connection with the frames and will be fitted to the frame using an epoxybased adhesive.5 and 2. respectively. 160 .3). Strengthening the Filled Walls using Prefabricated Concrete Panels The shear strength and the rigidity of the filled walls can be improved using precasting concrete panel components. (c) Prefabricated concrete panels can be in square or squarelike rectangular shape provided that its weight enables it to be carried easily by two people or can be produced in form of straps that can take place among the floors of the building. wftf E rwall kt = f (7F. The value taken for wf cannot be bigger than the width calculated using Equation (7F. To minimize the shrinkage cracks and the cracks to be possibly formed during the movement.6) Shear strength of the pulling stick will be considered as the horizontal component of the pulling strength. The panel edges in connection with the anchor should be produced in a way that it contains gears leaving space for the anchor stick (Figure 7F. Otherwise. T f = 0 . Matted reinforcement rate in each axis will not be below 0.(b) Pulling Sticks: Pulling strength of the pulling stick Tf will be calculated using Equation (7F. The strength of concrete adhesion for the epoxybased adhesive to be used will be minimum 2. matted reinforcement in single axis will be put in the middle of the panel.001. there should be number of equalwidth splicing that is at least as thick as the wall between the wall surface the application will be made on and the outer surface of the frame components (Figure 7F.7). respectively.1). To enable the forces arising in the strengthened filled walls to be transferred to the ground. For this type of applications.5 MPa.6). formation of pressure stick in the existing frame should be ensured and the anchors necessary to maintain the load transfer to the frame should be designed. required grounding arrangement should be implemented. The walls strengthened with prefabricated concrete panels will be included in the structure model in accordance with the principles given below.7) Here. The minimum anchor stick diameter that will be applied between the precasting panels and the frame components will be 12 mm and the anchor depth will be at least ten times of the stick diameter. The panels will be fitted to the walls using an epoxybased adhesive. 7F. Because of this requirement. Axial rigidity of the pulling stick will be calculates using Equation (7F.3). The adhesive will as well be applied to the areas between the components to bind the panel components. while rwall represents the diagonal length of the filled wall. 003 E f w f t f (7F. Ef. Pressure strength of the precasting panel concrete will be minimum 40 MPa. they won’t be fitted eccentrically. wf and tf represent the elasticity module.4. This type of strengthening should be applied to the walls for which the lengthheight ratio varies between 0. (b) The ratio of the diagonal length of the walls to be strengthened with prefabricated concrete panels to the prestrengthening thickness should be smaller than 30. this type of wall strengthening cannot be applied.
The reinforcement fitted in the panel components will not be taken into consideration in calculating the shear force of the strengthened filled wall.3). for which Adp represents the horizontal section area.1 – Modeling Principles: Filled walls that are designed in reinforced concrete frames and the ratio of the diagonal length to the thickness for which is below 30 will be taken into consideration in the structural modeling. the existing filled wall will as well not be considered in the calculation. elasticity module and the thickness of the prefabricated concrete panel Edp and tdp should be substituted in Equation (7F.8) . 08 A dp f dp (7F.4.8). (b) Shear Strength: The shear strength of the filled wall strengthened with prefabricated concrete panels will be considered as the horizontal component of the equivalent pressure force strength of the diagonal stick. Instead of Ewall and twall. Vwall.7F. Shear strength of the strengthened filled wall. Moreover. will be calculated using Equation (7F.1 (a). fdp represents the pressure strength and τdp represents the slipping strength. v wall = A dp τ dp ≤ 0 . Filled walls strengthened with prefabricated concrete panels will be represented with equivalent diagonal stick components that receive pressure force in the direction that the earthquake is applied. Figure F.3 (a) Rigidity: The rigidity of the equivalent pressure stick will be calculated as per 7F2. The existing filled wall will not be included in the calculation.
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