# 6.

5

**Concept of the Intersection of Two Sets What are you going to learn?
**

To state the concept of intersection of two sets and find the intersection of two sets. To draw a Venn diagram of the intersection of two sets. To solve story problems on the intersection of two sets, using a Venn diagram.

Before the semester tests begin, all elementary school students of Year 6 have to prepare themselves for 5 subjects that will be tested, namely: PPKN, Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, IPA, and IPS.

Key Terms:

• • intersection of two sets two non-disjoint sets

A week before the tests, Ani had learned 3 subjects, namely: PPKN, Bahasa Indonesia, and Matematika. While, Budi had learned 2 subjects, namely IPA and Matematika.

From the above information, we can form the following sets: U = set of subjects will be tested in the semester test. A = set of the subjects that Ani had learned. B = set of the subjects that Budi had learned. Stating them in the roster method, we have: U = {PPKN, Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, IPA, IPS} A = {PPKN, Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika} B = {Matematika, IPA}

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How does the Venn diagram of the three sets look like? Is there any subject that: a. Ani and Budi had studied? b. Ani had studied but Budi had not? c. Budi had studied but Ani had not? d. Neither Ani nor Budi had studied? If we draw the Venn diagram of the sets, then we have:

U

B

A

• PPKn • MAT. • B.INDO.

• IPA

• IPS

Note that A stands for Ani, and B stands for Budi. MAT stands for Matematika, B. INDO stands for Bahasa Indonesia Solution: From the Venn diagram above we see that: a. MAT ∈ A, and MAT ∈ B b. PPKn ∉ B, but PPKn ∈ A c. B INDO ∉ B, but B.INDO ∈ A d. IPS ∉ A and IPS ∉ B Therefore: a. The subject that both Ani and Budi had studied is Matematika. b. The subjects that Ani had studied but Budi had not are PPKn and Bahasa Indonesia. c. The subject that Budi had studied but Ani had not is IPA. d. The subject that neither Ani nor Budi had studied is IPS. Now reconsider the sets: A = {PPKN, Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika} B = {Matematika, IPA}

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If we consider the elements of the two sets, there is an element of A which is also an element of B, that is Matematika. So, Matematika belongs to the intersection of sets A and B. The intersection of sets A and B, written as A ∩ B, is a set which consists of all elements common to A and B. From the above example we get: A ∩ B = {Matematika} Now consider the following sets: A = set of composite numbers less than 12. B = set of squared numbers less than 20. If they are stated in the roster method, we get: A = { 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 } B = { 1, 4, 9, 16 } The following is the Venn diagram of the above sets.

U

6

A∩B

4 1

A

*8

10 9 16

B

It can be seen that: 4 ∈ A, and 4 ∈ B. 9 ∈ A, and 9 ∈ B. The elements of set A which are also elements of B are 4 and 9. Thus, the set of all elements of A which are also elements of B = {4, 9}. In this case, A ∩ B = {4, 9}. From the above examples, it can be concluded that:

Intersection of two sets

The intersection of sets A and B is a set which consists of all elements common to A and B. Formally, it is written as the following notion : A ∩ B = {x| x ∈ A and x ∈ B}

2 4 2 /Student’s Book – Sets

Let A = { 1, 2, 3, 4 } and B = { 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 }. The elements of A, which are also elements of B, are 2 and 3 Thus A ∩ B = {2, 3}. The following is the Venn diagram of the above sets:

U

1

A∩B

2 5 8 4 3 7

A

B

It can be concluded that 2 and 3 are the elements common to A and B.

**Determining the Intersection of Two Sets
**

There are several ways to determine the intersection of two sets: a.If one set is a subset of the other set.

Let P = set of the first six letters in the Latin alphabet, and Q = set of the first three letters in the Latin alphabet If P = {a, b, c, d, e, f}, and Q = {a, b, c} then P ∩ Q = {a, b, c} = Q

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The Venn diagram is as follows.

U

*b

f d

Q

*a

*c

e

P and P ∩ Q = {a, b, c} = Q is shown as the shaded area.

If

K= set of natural numbers not greater than 7, and L= set of odd natural numbers not greater than 7, then K= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and L = {1, 3, 5, 7}, so K ∩ L = {1, 3, 5, 7} = L

The Venn diagram is as follows:

U

2

*3 L *1

6

*5 *7

4 K

What conclusion can you make from the above examples?

Property 1

If A ⊂ B then A ∩ B = A

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b.If the two sets are the same

If M = set of natural numbers less than 7 N = { x ¦ 0 < x < 7, x is whole number }, then M = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } M ∩ N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } The Venn diagram is as follows:

U

1 5 3 6 4 2

M=N

Let X= set of prime numbers between 1 and 10 Y = { 2, 3, 5, 7 }. Determine X ∩ Y. Solution: Because X = { 2, 3, 5, 7 } and Y = { 2, 3, 5, 7 }, then X ∩ Y = { 2, 3, 5, 7 }. The Venn diagram is as follows:

U

2 5

X=Y

3 7

What conclusion can you make from the above examples?

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Generally, we have:

Property 2

If A = B then A ∩ B = A = B

c. If the two sets are disjoint Two sets are said to be disjoint if there is no common element of the sets.

Let M = set of prime numbers between 1 and 10, and N = set of squared numbers between 1 and 10, then Determine M ∩ N Solution: Because M = {2, 3, 5, 7} and N = {1, 4, 9}, there is no common element of M and N. This means that M ∩ N have no element or M ∩ N = ∅ Therefore, M and N are two disjoint sets, as shown in the following figure.

U

N .1 .4 .9 .2 .5

M

.3 .7

d. If the two sets are not disjoint and one set is not a subset of the other set.

If C= set of the first five squared natural numbers, and D= set of the first five natural numbers which are multiple of 4, Then find C ∩ D.

2 4 6 /Student’s Book – Sets

Solution: Because C = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25} and D = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64} C ∩ D = {4, 16}. The relation of the sets can be shown in the following Venn diagram.

U

8 1 25 4 12

C

9

C∩D

16 20

D

Using the Venn Diagram to Solve Problems

From a group of students, the following data are obtained: 25 students like meatballs, 20 students like soto, and 12 students like both (meatballs and soto). Based on the above data: a.draw the Venn diagram of the data. b.how many students are in the group? c.how many students like meatballs only? Solution: If we have: B = set of students who like meatballs T = set of students who like soto B ∩ T = set of students who like both meatballs and soto, then: a. The Venn diagram is as follows. (the numbers show the number of elements)

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U

B

13

B∩T T

12 8

b. The number of students in the group is (13 + 12 +8) students or 33 students. c. The number of students who like meatballs only is 13 students. Now discuss example 2 below with your friends.

Among 100 students at a certain SMP there are: 45 students who like Mathematics, 38 students who like English, 20 students who like Science, 12 students who like Mathematics and English, 10 students who like both Mathematics and Science, 8 students who like both Science and English, 4 students who like the three lessons (Mathematics, Science, English). Based on the given data, a. draw the Venn diagram showing the relationship of the sets. b. determine the number of students who: 1) like Mathematics only. 2) like English only. 3) like Science only. 4) like Mathematics but do not like Science. 5) like Mathematics but do not like English. 6) like Science but do not like Mathematics. 7) like Science but do not like English. 8) like English but do not like Mathematics. 9) like English but do not like Science. 10) do not like the three lessons.

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Solution: Let M = set of students who like Mathematics. B = set of students who like English. S = set of students who like Science, then: a. The Venn diagram showing the above relationship is:

U B

M

8 27 Apa yang bisa 4 6 6 S 4

22

What can you say from this diagram? Use this diagram to answer the questions in part b. 23

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1. Given A = { a, b, c, d, e } B = { b, c, e, g, k } C = { a, c, e, g, h } a. List all elements of the following sets 1) A ∩ B 2) A ∩ C 3) B ∩ C b. Draw the Venn diagram showing all sets. 2. Given P = { x ¦ x ≤ 4, x is natural number } Q = { x ¦0< x ≤ 7, x is natural number } R = { x ¦3 ≤ x ≤ 8, x is natural number } a. Listing all elements, determine: 1) P ∩ Q 2) P ∩ R 3) Q ∩ R b. Draw the Venn diagram showing all sets. 3. Given: K = The set of squared of natural numbers less than 50. L = The set of multiple of 4 less than 50. M = The set of multiple of 5 less than 50. a. Listing all the elements, find : 1) K ∩ L 2) K ∩ M 3) L ∩ M b. Draw the Venn diagram showing all sets. 4. Look at the Venn diagram below. Using the Venn diagram and listing the elements, determine: a. U, the universal set. c. B b. A d. A ∩ B

U

1 3 9 2 4 6 10 5 19

B

11

A

7 8 20 12 14

13 15 17

18

2 5 0 /Student’s Book – Sets

5. At a newspaper and magazine agent, it is recorded that there are 12 people who subscribe to both newspapers and magazines, 20 people who subscribe to magazines only, and 8 people who subscribe to newspapers only. a. Draw the Venn diagram showing the data, letting M = the set of magazine subscribers, and K = the set newspaper subscribers. b. How many subscribers does the agent have? 6. From the questionnaires given to 40 students, there are 20 students who like writing, 22 students who like painting, and 7 students who like both hobbies. a. Draw the Venn diagram showing the data by letting K = set of students who like writing, and L = set of students who like painting. b. How many students neither like painting nor writing? c. How many students like painting only? d. How many students like writing only? 7. Among 75 girls it is known that: 30 girls like sewing, 35 girls like cooking, 35 girls like arranging flowers, 8 girls like both sewing and cooking, 15 girls like both sewing and arranging flowers, 12 girls like both cooking and arranging flowers, 5 girls like the three hobbies. Based on the above data, then: a. draw the Venn diagram showing the relation supposing that: J = set of girls who like sewing. M = set of girls who like cooking. R = set of girls who like arranging flowers

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b. determine the number of girls who: 1) like sewing only. 2) like cooking only. 3) like arranging flowers only. 4) like arranging flowers but not sewing. 5) like arranging flowers but not cooking. 6) like cooking but not sewing 7) like cooking but not arranging flowers. 8) like sewing but not cooking. 9) like sewing but not arranging flowers 10) have no hobby of the three kinds.

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