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3

**What are you going to learn?
**

To describe the properties of a parallelogram To define a parallelogram To discover the formula of the perimeter and area of a parallelogram Form of the windows lattice on the left figure.

Key Term:

• parallelogram

Look at the above figure.

What do you think about the shape of the windows trellis above? The quadrilaterals on the figure above are called parallelograms. Those parallelograms have equal forms and sizes. Now, look at the following parallelogram and discuss with your classmates how a parallelogram can be formed by a rectangle.

(i)

(ii) Figure 8.2

(iii)

Figure 8.2 shows that a parallelogram can be formed by cutting the rectangle (Figure 8.2(ii)) and slide the cut to the right to form a parallelogram (Figure 8.2(iii)). To make sure, do activities (i), (ii), and (iii) in Figure 8.2 above using a piece of paper.

Mathematics for Junior High School Year 7/ 319

Properties of parallelogram:

A O D Figure 8.3 C B

**1. The opposite sides are equal and parallel;
**

AB // CD , AD // BC , AB = DC, and AD = BC.

Why? Explain.

2. The opposite angles are equal, namely ∠A = ∠C and ∠B = ∠D. Why? Explain. 3. Two adjacent angles are supplementary, namely ∠A+∠B = ∠B+ ∠ C = ∠C+∠D = ∠D+ ∠ A = 180 0 . 4. The diagonal bisects the area of the parallelogram, that is the area of ΔACB = the area ΔCAD and the area ΔADB = the area ΔCBD. 5. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, that is AO = CO and BO = DO. After you know the properties of a parallelogram, what can you say about parallelogram?

Parallelogram

A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel.

Now you will find out the formula of the area and perimeter of a parallelogram.

Mini - Lab

WORK IN GROUPS Material: grid paper, a pencil, and a scissors. On a grid paper, draw and cut a parallelogram. Draw a height line of the parallelogram and then cut it into two parts along the dotted line. Combine these two parts to form a rectangle. Discuss with your classmates to answer the following questions. Compare the area of a rectangle and the area of the original parallelogram. What do you get? Are the heights of a rectangle and parallelogram equal? Are the bases of a rectangle and parallelogram equal? In your own words, express the formula of the perimeter and the area of a parallelogram.

height tin

∟

base

320/Student’s Book – Quadrilaterals

**Area and Perimeter of Parallelogram
**

b

The area of parallelogram is the product of the base and the height. • The perimeter of a parallelogram is twice of two adjacent sides of the parallelogram.

•

Height=t

Base = a

If a parallelogram has area A, base a, adjacent side of a is b and height t, then A=a×t P = 2 (a + b)

D

10m 8m B

C

**Calculate the area of parallelogram ABCD on the right figure. Solution: Given Solution : AB = 10 m and height = 8 m
**

A

Question : The area of parallelogram ABCD : Suppose the area of parallelogram is A m2, then A = 10 × 8 A = 80 So, the area of parallelogram ABCD is 80 m2.

F

1. Let EFGH be a parallelogram. Are the following statements true or false? Give your reasons if the statements are true. a. FE // GH G b. Area of ΔFHE = area of ΔHFG

D

E

H

c. ∠FEH = ∠HGF d. FD = DG 1 EG e. DE = 2

Mathematics for Junior High School Year 7/ 321

R

U

2.

**Let RSTU be a parallelogram and ∠RST = 80°, calculate ∠SRU and ∠TUR.
**

S 80° T

3. On quadrilateral ABCD, AB // DC , ∠ABC = 125° and ∠BAD = 55°. Is quadrilateral ABCD a parallelogram? Give your reasons. 4. On quadrilateral ABCD, ∠ABC=60 0 , ∠BCD = 120°, ∠CDA = 65°, and ∠DAB = 115°. Is quadrilateral parallelogram? Give your reasons. ABCD a

5. KLMN is a parallelogram with diagonals KM and NL intersecting at point P. If KP = 4a+5, KM = 13a, and PL = a+8, what is the length of PN? 6. ABCD is a parallelogram as in the right side figure, then calculate the area of ABCD, the length CF and the perimeter A of ABCD. height of AB is 4 cm, then show parallelogram ABCD is 48 cm 2 . 8. Critical

D 6 10 B ∟ F 12 C

7. ABCD is a parallelogram with base AB = 12 cm and the that the area of a with a new

Thinking.

What

happens

parallelogram if: a. Its height is twice the height of the original parallelogram? b. Its base and height are twice the base and height of the original parallelogram?

322/Student’s Book – Quadrilaterals

- Union
- Triangles n Their Types
- Trapezoids
- The Venn Diagrams
- TABLEO~1
- Squares
- Social Arithmatics
- Sets
- Scientific Notations
- Scaled Drawings
- Rhombuses
- Rectangles
- Ratio
- Position of 2 Lines n Types of Triangle
- Operations on Algebraics Fractional Forms
- Operations of Integers
- Operating Fraction
- Operating Decimals
- Mathematical Sentences
- Linier Inequality With 1 Variab
- Linier Equation With 1 Variables
- Kites
- Inverse Proportion
- Intersections

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UsefulNot useful- Union
- Triangles n Their Types
- Trapezoids
- The Venn Diagrams
- TABLEO~1
- Squares
- Social Arithmatics
- Sets
- Scientific Notations
- Scaled Drawings
- Rhombuses
- Rectangles
- Ratio
- Position of 2 Lines n Types of Triangle
- Operations on Algebraics Fractional Forms
- Operations of Integers
- Operating Fraction
- Operating Decimals
- Mathematical Sentences
- Linier Inequality With 1 Variab
- Linier Equation With 1 Variables
- Kites
- Inverse Proportion
- Intersections
- Integers n Their Symbols
- HALMMB~1
- Fraction
- Expressing Sets
- Drawing Triangle n Their Lines