Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007

Machining of metals
Machining of metals
• Introduction/objectives
• Type of machining operations
• Mechanics of machining
• Three dimensional machining
• Temperature in metal cutting
• Cutting fluids
• Tool materials and tool life
• Grinding processes
• Non traditional machining processes
• Economics of machining
Chapter 7
Subjects of interest
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Objectives
Objectives
• This chapter aims to provide basic backgrounds of
different types of machining processes and highlights on an
understanding of important parameters which affects
machining of metals.
• Mechanics of machining is introduced for the calculation of
power used in metal machining operation
• Finally defects occurring in the machining processes will
be discussed with its solutions. Significant factors
influencing economics of machining will also be included to
give the optimum machining efficiency.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Introduction
Introduction
• Machining is operated by selectively
removing the metal from the workpiece
to produce the required shape.
• Removal of metal parts is accomplished
by straining a local region of the
workpiece to fracture by the relative
motion of the tool and the workpiece.
www.dragonworks.info
• Conventional methods require
mainly mechanical energy.
• More advanced metal-removal
processes involve chemical, electrical
or thermal energy.
Turning of metal
EDM machining
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• Produce shapes with high dimensional tolerance, good surface
finish and often with complex geometry such as holes, slots or re-
entrant angles.
• A secondary processing operation (finishing process) employed
after a primary process such as hot rolling, forging or casting.
• Tooling must be stronger than the workpiece.
Machined parts Micro machined parts
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Type of machining operations
Type of machining operations
Classification of machining operations is roughly divided into:
• Single point cutting
• Multiple point cutting
• Grinding
• Electro discharge machining
• Electrochemical machining
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Single point cutting
Single point cutting
Removal of the metal from the workpiece by means of cutting
tools which have one major cutting edge.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Multiple point cutting
Multiple point cutting
Removal of the metal from the workpiece by means of cutting
tools which have more than one major cutting edge.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Grinding
Grinding
Removal of the metal from the workpiece using tool made from
abrasive particles of irregular geometry.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Electrical discharge machining
Electrical discharge machining
Removal of material from the workpiece by spark discharges,
which are produced by connecting both tool (electrode) and
workpiece to a power supply.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Electrochemical machining
Electrochemical machining
Removal of material from the workpiece by electrolysis. Tool
(electrode) and workpiece are immersed in an electrolyte and
connected to a power supply.
Tapany Udomphol
Mechanics of machining
Mechanics of machining
What happens during
machining of a bar on a lathe?
A chip of material is
removed from the surface
of the workpiece.
Principal parameters:
• the cutting speed, v
• the depth of cut, w or d
• the feed, f.
Geometry of single-point lathe turning
Time requires to turn a cylindrical
surface of length L
w
,
w
w
fn
L
t =
Where n
w
is the number
of revolutions of the
workpiece per second.
…Eq. 1
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Chip formation
• The tool removes material near the
surface of the workpiece by
shearing it to form the chip.
• Material with thickness t is sheared
and travels as a chip of thickness t
c
along the rake face of the tool.
• The chip thickness ratio (cutting
ratio) r = t / t
c
.
• Extensive deformation has taken
place, as seen from the fibre texture
of the polished and etched metal
workpiece.
Section through chip and workpiece
rake angle α αα α
φ φφ φ
0.25 mm
t
t
c
Mechanism of chip
formation
workpiece
feed
t
Clearance
angle θ θθ θ
Machined
surface
t
c
chip
tool
Clearance
face
ra
k
e
fa
c
e
rake angle
α αα α
Tapany Udomphol
• The entire chip is deformed as it meets the tool, known as primary
shear. Shear plane angle is φ φφ φ.
Primary shear
Secondary shear
Before
deformation
Secondary shear
φ φφ φ
Shear
angle
• Localised region of intense shear occurring due to the friction at the
rake face, known as secondary shear.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Two basic deformation zone:
W
ell defined shear plane
Tapany Udomphol
Primary shear in single point cutting
The relationship between
rake angle, shear angle,
and chip thickness ratio, r
can be derived as follows
( ) α φ
φ

= =
cos
sin
OD
OD
t
t
r
c
α
α
φ
sin 1
cos
tan
r
r

= and
t
t
c
φ φφ φ
φ φφ φ− −− −α αα α
α αα α
shear angle φ φφ φ
rake angle α αα α
The shear strain is given by
( ) α φ φ
α
γ

= =
cos sin
cos
'
h
FF
The shear angle φ φφ φ is controlled by
the cutting ratio r.
Triangle ODF has been
sheared to form ODF

, which
has the same area.
ω ωω ω
Wedge
angle
…Eq. 2
…Eq. 3
…Eq. 4
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Rake face configuration
• The amount of primary shear is related to the rake angle α αα α.
(a) If α αα α is a large positive value,
the material is deformed less in
the chip.
(b) If α αα α is a negative value, the
material is forced back on itself, thus
requiring higher cutting forces.
(c) The tool has a negative α αα α
but a small area of positive rake
just behind the cutting edge.
chip breaker.
(a) Positive rake angle α αα α (6-30
o
)
leads to low cutting forces but
fragile tools
(b) Negative rake angle α α α α
produces higher cutting forces
and more robust tools.
(c) Negative rake angle tool with
chip breaker – a useful
compromise.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Effect of rake face contact length on
chip thickness and shear plane angle
• The deformed chip is flowing over
a static tool, leading to frictional
force similar to friction hill.
• If µ µµ µ is greater than 0.5, sticky
friction will result and flow will
occur only within the workpiece
but not at the tool-workpiece
interface.
• Sticky friction is the norm in
cutting due to difficulty in applying
lubricant.
force to move the chip chip thickness change shear angle φ φφ φ
Efficient cutting occurs when shear angle φ φφ φ ~ 45
o
.
t
t
c
= t
t
c
> t
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The cutting speed
There are three velocities:
1) Cutting speed v, is the velocity of the tool relative to the workpiece.
2) Chip velocity v
c
, is the velocity of the chip relative to the tool face
3) Shear velocity v
s
, is the velocity of the chip relative to the work.
Velocity relationships in orthogonal
machining
From continuity of mass, vt = v
c
t
c
v
v
t
t
r
c
c
= =
From kinematic relationship, the vector
sum of the cutting velocity and the chip
velocity = the shear velocity vector.
( ) α φ
α υ
υ

=
cos
cos
s
…Eq. 5
…Eq. 6
tool
v
v
c
O
D
φ φφ φ
v
s
workpiece t
t
c
φ φφ φ
v
v
s
v
c
φ φφ φ− −− −α αα α
Kinematic relationship
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Calculation of the cutting ratio from chip length
Since volume is constant during
plastic deformation, and chip
width b is essentially constant,
ρ
c
w
W
tb L =
r
L
L
t
t
b t L tb L
w
c
c
c c w
= =
=
• Therefore we could also obtain r from the ratio of the chip length L
c
, to
the length of the workpiece from which it came, L
w
• If L
c
is unknown, it can be determined by
measuring the weight of chips W
c
and by
knowing the density of the metal ρ ρρ ρ.
…Eq. 8
…Eq. 7
tool
v
v
c
O
D
φ φφ φ
v
s
workpiece
t
t
c
L
c
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Shear strain rate in cutting
max
) (
s
s
y dt
d υ γ
γ = =

Where (y
s
)
max
is the estimate of the maximum value of the
thickness of the shear zone, ~ 25 mm.
Example: Using realistic values of φ φ φ φ = 20, α = 5
o
, ν = 3 m.s
-1
and
(y
s
)
max
~ 25 mm. We calculate γ γγ γ = 1.2 x 105 s
-1
.
This is about several orders of magnitude greater than the strain
rate usually associated with high-speed metal working operation.
…Eq. 9
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forces and stresses in metal cutting
φ φφ φ
α αα α
R
a
k
e
f
a
c
e
chip
P

R
F
s
F
h
F
v
F
ns
P
R
F
n
F
t
β ββ β
Force component in orthogonal
machining.
P
R
- the resultant force between the tool
face and the chip
P

R
- the equal resultant force between
the workpiece and the chip
The resultant force to the rake face of the
tool can be resolved into tangential
component F
t
and normal component F
n
,
• The horizontal (cutting) F
h
and vertical (thrust) F
v
forces in cutting can
be measured independently using a strain-gauge toolpost dynamometer.
• It can be shown that
α α sin cos
v h n
F F F − =
α αα α
P
R
F
n
F
t
β ββ β
Rake face
α α cos sin
v h t
F F F + =
α αα α
F
h
α αα α
F
v
F
v
c
o
s
α αα α
F
v
s
i
n
α αα α
F
h
c
o
s
α αα α
F
h
s
in
α αα α
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• If the components of the cutting force are
known, then the coefficient of friction µ µµ µ in the
tool face is given by
α
α
β µ
tan
tan
tan
v h
h v
n
t
F F
F F
F
F

+
= = =
P

R
F
s
F
h
F
v
F
ns
φ φφ φ
φ φφ φ
F
h
s
in
φ φφ φ
F
v
c
o
s
φ φφ φ
F
h
c
o
s
φ φφ φ
F
v
s
in
φ φφ φ
φ φ sin cos
v h s
F F F − =
φ φ cos sin
v h ns
F F F + =
Finally, the resultant force may be resolved parallel F
s
and normal
F
ns
to the shear plane.
…Eq. 10
…Eq. 11
…Eq. 12
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The average shear stress τ ττ τ is
F
s
divided by the area of the
shear plane A
s
= bt / sinφ φφ φ
bt
F
A
F
s
s
s
φ
τ
sin
= =
And the normal stress σ σσ σ is
bt
F
A
F
ns
s
ns
φ
σ
sin
= =
The shear stress in cutting is the
main parameter affecting the
energy requirement.
tool
O
D
φ φφ φ
workpiece
t
t
c
F
s
F
s
F
ns
φ φφ φ
O
D t
…Eq. 13
…Eq. 14
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• We need to know the shear angle φ φφ φ in
order to calculate the shear stress in cutting
from force measurements.
• The shear angle φ φφ φ can be measured
experimentally by suddenly stopping the
cutting process and using metallographic
techniques to determine the shear zone.
Section through chip and
workpiece
rake angle α αα α
φ φφ φ
0.25 mm
t
t
c
• Merchant predicted φ φφ φ by assuming that the shear plane would
be at the angle which minimises the work done in cutting.
2 2 4
β α π
φ + + =
…Eq. 15
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
However, in practice, the shear plane angle φ φφ φ is varied
depending on the nature of each material (composition & heat
treatment) to be machined.
Based on the upper bound model of the shear zone, a criterion
for predicting φ φφ φ has been developed. The predicted shear plane
angle φ φφ φ
ο οο ο
is given by
( )
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −
2
45 sin
2
45 cos sin cos
1
α α
φ α φ
k
k
o
o o
Where α αα α = rake angle
k
o
= σ σσ σ
o
/√ √√ √ 3 and σ σσ σ
o
is the yield strength of the material
k
1
= σ σσ σ
u
/√ √√ √ 3 and σ σσ σ
u
is the tensile strength of the material.
…Eq. 16
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Example: Determine the shear plane angle in orthogonal
machining with a 6
o
positive rake angle for hot-rolled AISI 1040 steel
and annealed commercially pure copper.
Given Hot-rolled 1040 steel σ σσ σ
o
= 415 MPa, σ σσ σ
u
= 630 MPa
Annealed copper σ σσ σ
o
= 70 MPa, σ σσ σ
u
= 207 MPa
( )
( ) ( )
( ) | | ( )
o o
o
o
o
o
o
o o
o
o o
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
6 1045 . 0 104 . 1 sin 2
552 . 0 6 2 sin 6 sin
2
1
552 . 0 sin 6 cos
2
6
45 sin
2
6
45 cos sin 6 cos
1
1
1
1
1
+
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
= − +
= −
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
− = −

φ
φ
φ φ
φ φ
Note that k
o
/k
1
is a fraction, then
we can use tensile values
directly in the above equations.
For hot-roll 1040 steel:
o
o
o o
o
o
o
3 . 22
5 . 44 6 ) 6227 . 0 ( sin 2
6 1045 . 0
630
415
104 . 1 sin 2
1
1
=
= + =
+
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− × =


φ
φ
φ
Experimental range is 23 to 29
o
o
o
o o
o
o
o
8 . 10
6 . 21 6 ) 2688 . 0 ( sin 2
6 1045 . 0
207
70
104 . 1 sin 2
1
1
=
= + =
+
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
− × =


φ
φ
φ
Experimental range is 11 to 13.5
o
For annealed copper:
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Specific cutting energy
• Power required for cutting is F
h
v
• The volume of metal removed
per unit time (metal removal rate)
is Z
w
= btv
bt
F
btv
v F
Z
v F
U
h h
w
h
= = =
Where b is the width of the chip
t is the undeformed chip thickness
Force values of specific cutting energy for
various materials and machining
operations
…Eq. 17
• Therefore the energy per unit
volume U is given by
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The specific cutting energy U depends on the material being
machined and also on the cutting speed, feed, rake angle, and
other machining parameters.
(at cutting speed > 3 m.s
-1
, U is independent of speed)
1. The total energy required to produce the gross deformation in
the shear zone.
2. The frictional energy resulting from the chip sliding over the
tool face.
3. Energy required to curl the chip.
4. Momentum energy associated with the momentum change as
the metal crosses the shear plane.
5. The energy required to produce the new surface area.
The total energy for cutting can be divided into
a number of components:
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Example: In an orthogonal cutting process v = 2.5 m.s
-1
, α αα α = 6
o
,
and the width of cut is b = 10 mm. The underformed chip thickness
is 200 µm. If 13.36 g of steel chips with a total length of 500 mm
are obtained, what is the slip plane angle? density = 7830 kg.m
-3
.
From Eq.8, thickness of chip
mm t
m m m kg
kg
bL
W
t
c
c
c
341 . 0
) 500 . 0 )( 010 . 0 ( ) . 7830 (
01336 . 0
3
=
×
= =

ρ
From Eq.3
Chip thickness ratio
586 . 0
341 . 0
200 . 0
= = =
c
t
t
r
o
o
o
r
r
32
621 . 0
6 sin 586 . 0 1
6 cos 586 . 0
sin 1
cos
tan
=
=

=

=
φ
α
α
φ
β ββ β =?, from Eq.10
o
o
o
v h
h v
n
t
F F
F F
F
F
8 . 27
527 . 0
6 tan 440 1100
6 tan 1100 440
tan
tan
tan
tan
=
=

+
=

+
= = =
β
β
α
α
β µ
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
If a toolpost dynamometer gives cutting and thrust forces of F
h
= 1100 N
and F
v
= 440 N, determine the percentage of the total energy that goes
into overcoming friction at the tool-chip interface and the percentage that
is required for cutting along the shear plane. (Density ρ ρρ ρ = 7830 kg.m
-3
.)
The frictional specific energy at the tool-
chip interface U
f
and along the shear plane
U
s
is
φ φφ φ
α αα α
R
a
k
e
f
a
c
e
chip
P

R
F
s
F
h
F
v
F
ns
P
R
F
n
F
t
β ββ β
V
c
bt
r F
btv
v F
U
t c t
f
= =
The total specific energy is
s f
U U U + =
btv
v F
U
s s
s
= and,
bt
F
U
h
=
Thus
h
t
h
c t
f
F
r F
v F
v F
U
U
energy Total
energy Friction
= = =
( )
% 5 . 29 100
1100
) 586 . 0 ( 553
%
553 8 . 27 sin 1185
1185 ) 1100 ( ) 440 (
, sin
2 2
2 2 '
= × =
= =
= + =
+ = = =
energy friction
N F
N P
F F P P and P F
o
t
R
h v R R R t
β
From Eq. 17
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
v F
v F
energy Total
engergy Shearing
h
s s
=
From Eq.17,
N F
F
F F F
s
o o
s
v h s
700
32 sin 440 32 cos 1100
sin cos
=
− =
− = φ φ
From Eq.11,
( )
% 5 . 70 100
5 . 2 1100
77 . 2 700
%
. 77 . 2
) 6 32 cos(
6 cos 5 . 2
cos
cos
1
= ×
×
×
=
=

=

=

energy shearing
s m
v
v
o
s
α φ
α
3 2
6
550 .
5 . 2 ) 10 200 ( 010 . 0
5 . 2 1100
− −

=
× × ×
×
= = MJm m N
btv
v F
U
h
This analysis of energy distribution neglects two other energy
requirements in cutting:
• Surface energy required to produce new surfaces.
• Momentum change as the metal crosses the shear plane
(significant in high-speed machining at cutting speeds above 120 m.s
-1
.)
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Type of machining chips
Three general classifications of chips are formed in the machining
process.
(a) Continuous chip
(b) Chip with a built up
edge, BUE
(c) Discontinuous chip
Tapany Udomphol
Continuous chips
Continuous chip is characteristic
of cutting ductile materials under
steady stage conditions.
However, long continuous chips
present handling and removal
problems in practical operation.
required chipbreaker.
Discontinuous chips
Discontinuous chip is formed
in brittle materials which cannot
withstand the high shear strains
imposed in the machining
process without fracture.
Ex: cast iron and cast brass,
may occur in ductile materials
machined at very low speeds
and high feed.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Chip with a built-up edge (BUE)
• Under conditions where the friction
between the chip and the rake face of the
tool is high, the chip may weld to the tool
face.
• The accumulation of the chip material is
known as a built-up edge (BUE).
• The formation of BUE is due to work
hardening in the secondary shear zone at
low speed (since heat is transferred to the
tool).
• The BUE act as a substitute cutting
edge (blunt tool with a low rake angle).
Chip formation with a
built-up edge.
Built-up edge
Poor texture on the surface
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Machining force
• Due to complexity of practical
machining operations, the machining
force F
h
often is related empirically to
the machining parameters by equation
of the type
b a
h
f kd F =
Where d is the depth of cut
f is the feed
k is a function of rake angle,
decreasing about 1%
per degree increase in
rake angle.
Effect of cutting speed on cutting force.
Speed
Force
Due to low temperature at low
speed work hardening
…Eq. 18
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Three
Three
-
-
dimensional machining
dimensional machining
• Orthogonal machining such as surface broaching, lathe cutoff
operations, and plain milling are two dimensional where the
cutting edge is perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector.
• Most practical machining operations are three dimensional.
• Ex: drilling and milling.
(a) Orthogonal cutting (b) Three dimensional cutting
• Rotating the tool around x axis
change the width of the cut.
• Rotating the tool around y axis
change the rake angle α αα α.
• Rotating the tool around z axis
( by an inclination angle i)
change the cutting process to
three dimensional.
x
x
z
y
z
y
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Three dimensional cutting tool
• has two cutting edges, which cut simultaneously.
• primary cutting edge is the side-cutting edge.
• secondary cutting edge is the end-cutting edge.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Multiple-edge cutting tools
Drilling
• Used to created round holes in a
workpiece and/or for further operations.
• Twist drills are usually suitable for holes
which a length less than five times their
diameter.
Drilling machine
Specialised tools for drill presses
Drill-workpiece
interface
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Multiple-edge cutting tools
Milling
• Used to produce flat surfaces, angles, gear teeth and slotting.
• The tool consists of multiple cutting edges arranged around
an axis.
• The primary cutting action is produced by rotation of the tool
and the feed by motion of the workpiece.
Tool-workpiece arrangement typical for
milling.
Work
surface
Tool
Primary
motion
Machined
surface
Work
piece
Transient surface
Continuous
feed
motion, f
Three common milling cutters.
Peripheral mill
End mill
Face mill
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Temperature in metal cutting
Temperature in metal cutting
• A significant temperature rise is due
to large plastic strain and very high
strain rate although the process is
normally carried out at ambient
temperature.
• Strain rate is high in cutting and
almost all the plastic work is converted
into heat.
• Very high temperature is created in
the secondary deformation zone.
• At very high strain rate no time for
heat dissipation temperature rise.
Temperature gradient (K) in the cutting
zone when machining steel.
Temperature in metal cutting is therefore an important factor
affecting the choice of tool materials, tool life, type of lubricant,
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
If all the heat generated goes into the chip, the adiabatic
temperature is given by
c
U
T
ad
ρ
=
Where U = specific cutting energy
ρ ρρ ρ = the density of the workpiece material
c = specific heat of workpiece.
For lower velocities, the temperature will be less than in Eq.19. The
approximate chip-tool interface temperature is given by
…Eq. 19
p
t ad
R
C
T
T
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
1
…Eq. 20
Where C ~ 0.4 and p ~ 1/3 to 1/2.
R
t
is thermal number
Note: The finite element method has been
used for calculating the temperature
distributions in the chip and the tool.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Cutting fluids
Cutting fluids
• The cutting fluids are designed to ameliorate the effects of high
local temperatures and high friction at the chip-tool interface.
Primary functions of cutting fluid :
• To decrease friction and wear.
• To reduce temperature generation
in the cutting area.
• To wash away the chips from the
cutting area.
• To protect the newly machined
surface against corrosion.
Also, cutting fluids help to
• Increase tool life,
• Improve surface finish
• Reduce cutting force
Cutting fluid used in machining
• Reduce power consumption
• Reduce thermal distortion of the
workpiece.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Cutting fluids are normally liquids, but can be gases.
There are two basic types of liquid cutting fluids
1) Petroleum-based nonsoluble fluids (straight cutting oils).
May contain mineral oil, fatting oils, sulphur or chlorine.
2) Water-miscible fluids (soluble oils). May contain some
contamination of fatty oils, fatty acids, wetting agents,
emulsifiers, sulphur, chlorine, rust inhibitors and germicides.
• Sulphur and chloride react with
fresh metal surfaces (active sites for
chemical reaction) to form compounds
with lower shear strength reduce
friction.
• Chlorinated fluids work well at low
speeds and light loads due to slower
reaction of chlorine and metal whereas
sulphur compounds work well at
severe conditions.
• Combination of both more effective.
Vegetable-based cutting fluid
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Tool materials and tool life
Tool materials and tool life
Properties of cutting tool materials:
• Hardness, particularly at high temperature
• Toughness to resist failure or chipping
• Chemical inertness with respect to the workpiece
• Thermal shock resistance
• Wear resistance, to maximise the lifetime of the tool.
Tool materials:
• Carbon and low alloy steels
• High speed steels (HSS)
• Cemented carbide
• Ceramic or oxide tools
• Diamond like structure
www.pdbrownesouth.com
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Three main forms of wear in metal cutting
1) Adhesive wear : the tool and the chip weld together at local
asperities, and wear occurs by the fracture of the welded
junctions.
2) Abrasive wear : occurs as a result of hard particles on the
underside of the chip abrading the tool face by mechanical
action as the chip passes over the rake face.
3) Wear from solid-state diffusion from the tool materials to the
workpiece at high temperature and intimate contact at the
interface between the chip and the rake face.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Crater wear and flank wear
Two main types of wear in cutting tool:
1) Flank wear is the development of a
wear land on the tool due to abrasive
rubbing between the tool flank and the
newly generated surface.
2) Crater wear is the formation of a
circular crater in the rake face of the
tool, as a result of diffusion wear due
to high temperature developed at the
interface between the chip and the
rake face of the tool.
The predominant wear process
depends on cutting speed.
• Flank wear dominates at low speed.
• Crater wear predominates at higher
speeds
L
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

w
e
a
r

l
a
n
d
Cutting time
Typical wear curve for cutting
tool
R
a
p
i
d

w
e
a
r
I
n
i
t
i
a
l

b
r
e
a
k
d
o
w
n

o
f

c
u
t
t
i
n
g

e
d
g
e
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Types of wear observed in single point cutting tools
The higher temperatures that occur at high cutting speeds ,
which results in increased tool wear.
High speed steel
Cemented carbide Ceramic
1) Clearance face wear
2) Crater wear
3) Oxidation wear
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Carbon and low alloy steels
• High carbon tool steel is the oldest cutting tool materials, having
C content ranging from 0.7 – 1.5% carbon.
• Shaped easily in the annealed condition and subsequently
hardened by quenching and tempering.
• Due to insufficient hardenability, martensite only obtained on
the surface whereas a tough interior provides the final tool very
shock resistant.
• H
v
~ 700 after quenching and tempering. However the tool will
be soften and becomes less and less wear resistance due to
coarsening of fine iron carbide particles – that provide strength.
• For low cutting speed due to a drop in hardness above 150
o
C.
Tool materials
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
High speed steels (HSS)
• Retain their hot hardness up to 500
o
C.
• Cutting speed ~ 2 times higher than
carbon tool steels.
• Very stable secondary carbide
dispersions (between 500-650
o
C), giving
rise to a tempering curves.
Tempering curve for M2 high speed steel
• Carbon content in each steel is
balanced against the major alloying
elements to form the appropriate stable
mix of carbides with W, Mo, Cr and V.
• Cobalt is added to slow down the rate of
carbide coarsening material can
withstand higher temperatures.
• M series have higher abrasive resistance
and cheaper.
• Cannot stand very high speed cutting.
Tapany Udomphol
Cemented carbides
• Normally made by powder processing using liquid
phase sintering.
• Has advantage over high speed steel in that the
obtained carbides are much more stable, see Table.
• They are brittle so should run without vibration or
chatter.
Cemented carbides
fastened to the tool post.
Microstructure of a K grade
(WC-Co) cemented carbide.
• Cobalt is used as a binder.
• σ σσ σ
o
~ 1500 - 2500 MPa,
depending on V
f
and size
distribution of carbides.
• Cutting temperature up to
1100
o
C.
• Cutting speed ~ 5x that used
with high speed steel.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• Consist of heat-resistant refractory
carbides (hardness) embedded in a
ductile metal matrix (toughness).
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Tool coatings
• Changing the tool surface properties. surface engineering
• Coating can improve the performance of both high speed steel
and cemented carbide tool materials. increased materials
removal rates, time taken to change the tool.
• Coating a very thin layer of TiC or TiN over the WC-Co tool
reduces the effects of adhesion and diffusion and reduces the
crater wear.
• Chemical and physical vapour
deposition (CVD, PVD) are two
methods of depositing thin carbide
layers onto materials.
• TiN layer (golden colour) is hard and
has low dissolution rate and friction
coefficient in steel.
• TiC binds well with the matrix,
has good abrasion and solution
wear resistance.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Ceramics or oxide tools
There are three categories:
1) Alumina (Al
2
O
3
)
2) A combination of alumina and titanium carbide
3) Silicon nitride (Si
3
N
4
), less thermal expansion than Al
2
O
3

minimise thermal stress
• For machining cast irons at high speeds.
• Better wear resistance and less tendency for the tool to weld to
the chip.
• Cutting speed at 2-3 times > cemented carbides in uninterrupted
cuts where shock and vibration are minimised (due to poor
thermal shock and brittleness of ceramics).
• Required rigid tool mounts and rigid machine tools.
• Inherent unreliability of ceramic tooling limits its use to specialist
cutting operation.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
‘Diamond like’ structure
• Diamond provides the highest hot hardness of any material.
• Synthetic diamonds (1950s) and cubic boron nitride CBN (1970s),
made by high pressure, high temperature pressing. The latter
possesses H
v
= 4000.
• Highest thermal conductivity ideal for cutting tool, but has two
disadvantages; cost and diamond – graphite reversion at 650
o
C.
• Made by depositing a layer of small crystals on a carbide backing and
sintering them with a binder polycrystalline diamond tooling
(PCD).
• Used for cutting low temperature materials, i.e., aluminium or
copper alloys.
• Used at very low cutting speed for very hard materials, i.e.,
ceramics.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Tool performance
• Tool performance has been improved by the development
of tool coatings.
Minimum time required to surface machine a hot rolled mild
steel bar
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Tool life determination
Tool life can determined based on different criteria;
1) The point at which the tool no longer makes economically
satisfactory parts, or
2) Defined in terms of an average or maximum allowable wear
land.
3) The point at which the tool has a complete destruction when
it ceases to cut, or
4) The degradation of the surface finish below some specified
limit, or the increase in the cutting force above some value, or
5) When the vibrational amplitude reaches a limiting value.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• Cutting speed is the most important operating variable
influencing tool temperature, and hence, tool life.
Taylor has established the empirical relationship between
cutting speed v and the time t to reach a wear land of certain
dimension as
vt
n
= constant
…Eq. 21
Where typical values of
the exponent n are:
0.1 for high-speed steel
0.2 for cemented carbide
0.4 for ceramic tool
Note: this is the machining time between regrinding the tool
not the total life before it is discarded.
Taylor equation
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Modified Taylor equation
vt
n
w
x
f
y
= constant
Taylor equation has been extended by including parameters
such as feed f and depth of cut w as follows;
…Eq. 22
Note: Taylor equation is completely empirical and as with
other empirical relationships, it is dangerous to extrapolate
outside of the limits over which the data extend.
L
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

w
e
a
r

l
a
n
d
Cutting time
Typical wear curve for cutting
tool
R
a
p
i
d

w
e
a
r
I
n
i
t
i
a
l

b
r
e
a
k
d
o
w
n

o
f

c
u
t
t
i
n
g

e
d
g
e
However, tool life can be conservatively
estimated by using wear curves and the
replacement of the tool should be made
before they have used up their
economical life.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Machinability
Machinability
Definition: The ability of a material to be machined.
Machinability depends of a number of factors:
1) Hardness – soft materials are easily sheared and require
low cutting forces.
2) Surface texture – how easy it is to produce the required
surface finish. Materials with high work hardening
exponent n tend to form built-up edge (BUE).
3) The maximum rate of metal removal – allow low cycle
times.
4) Tool life – abrasive particles can increase tool wear.
5) Chip formation – uniform discrete chips suggest good
machinability.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
To improve machinability
• Change the microstructure of the
materials. Soft particles are often deliberately
added to improve machinability.
• Reducing the cutting temperature by using
cutting fluid – can effectively act as coolant
and lubricant. Maximum tool surface
temperature remains the same but the volume
of the tool that reached the high temperature is
reduced.
• Control surface texture – reduce the
formation of built-up edge.
• Increase rate of material removal – modern
cutting machines, effective toolings. Effect of coolant on tool
temperatures.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Grinding process
Grinding process
Grinding processes employ an abrasive wheel containing
grains of hard material bonded in a matrix.
Geometry of chip formation in grinding
• Similar to multiple edge
cutting but with irregularly
shaped grain (tool).
• Each grain removes a short
chip of gradually increasing
thickness. after a while
sharp edges become dull.
• Large negative rake angle α αα α. grains could slide over the
workpiece than cut.
• The depth of cut d in grinding is very small (a few µm).
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Grinding wheel
• Employ aluminium oxide Al
2
O
3
or silicon
carbide SiC as abrasive grain, which are often
alloyed with oxides of Ti, Cr, V, Zr, etc, to
impart special properties.
• Since SiC is harder than Al
2
O
3
, it finds
applications for the grinding of harder
materials.
• Diamond wheels are used for fine finishing.
• Soft grade alumina wheel has a large V
f
of
pores and low glass content surprisingly
used for cutting hard materials and fast
material removal, where as hard grade
alumina wheel (denser) is used for soft
materials and for large area grinding.
Diamond grinding wheel
Alumina grinding wheel
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Glass bonded grinding wheel
microstructure.
• Wheel performance is controlled by
the strength of the bond. Binders
used are depending on application,
i.c., glass, rubber or organic resin.
• Interconnected porosity provides
the space to which the chips can go
and provides a path for the coolant to
be delivered to the cutting surface.
• Specific cutting energy is 10 times >
other cutting process since not all of
particles can cut but rub on the surface,
and also the rake angle is not optimised.
• 70% of energy goes to the finished
surface very high temp, residual
stresses.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Grain depth of cut
The grain depth of cut t is
given by
D
d
Crv
v
t
g
w
2 =
Where
C = the number of active grains
on the wheel per unit area
(~1 – 5 mm
-2
)
D = diameter of the wheel, and
r = b

/t
v
w
= velocity of the workpiece
v
g
= velocity of the grinding wheel
bd v
v F
U
w
g h
=
v
w
D/2
θ θθ θ
v
g
d
L
c
A
B
t
t
b

Geometry in surface grinding
Approximate x-section of
grinding chip
…Eq. 23
d = wheel depth of cut and t << d
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The specific cutting energy U
in grinding is
bd v
v F
U
w
g h
=
Where
F
h
is the tangential force on the wheel
v
g
is the velocity of grinding wheel
v
w
is the velocity of the workpiece.
…Eq. 24
Specific cutting energy
And U is strongly dependent
on t
t
U
1

If the grain cross section is assumed triangular, the force on a
single abrasive grain F
g
will be
D
d
Cv
rv
rt F
g
w
g
∝ ∝
, b is the chip width
, d is the wheel depth of cut
…Eq. 25
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Surface temperature
Large portion of energy in grinding process goes to raising
the temperature. The surface temperature T
w
, strongly
dependent on the energy per unit surface area, is given by
Ud
b v
v F
T
w
g g
w
∝ ∝
…Eq. 25
• Ground surface temperature can be > 1600
o
C, which can lead
to melting or metallurgical changes, i.e., untempered
martensite, grinding cracks, surface oxidation (grinding burn).
• Improper grinding can also lead to residual tensile stresses
in the ground surface using proper grinding fluid and softer
wheel at lower wheel speeds.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Grindability
Grindability is measured by using grinding ratio or G ratio,
which is the volume of material removed from the work per unit
volume of wheel wear.
G ratio Easier to grind
• The G ratio depends on the grinding process and grinding
conditions (wheel, fluid, speed and feed) as well as the material.
• The values of G ratio can vary from 2 to over 200.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Example: A horizontal spindle surface grinder is cutting with
t = 5 mm and U = 40 GPa. Estimate the tangential force on the
wheel if the wheel speed is 30 m.s
-1
, the cross-feed per stroke
is 1.2 mm, the work speed is 0.3 m.s
-1
, and the wheel depth of
cut is 0.05 mm.
The rate of metal removal M = speed x feed x depth of cut
1 3 6 3 3
10 018 . 0 ) 10 05 . 0 )( 10 2 . 1 ( 3 . 0
− − − −
× = × × = = s m bd v M
w
From Eq. 24, required power
W s Nm Power
s m Nm M U Power
720 . 720
) 10 018 . 0 )( 10 40 (
1
1 3 6 2 9
= =
× × = × =

− − −
But Power = F
h
v
g
N
s m
s Nm
F
h
24
. 30
. 720
1
1
= =


Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Non
Non
-
-
traditional machining
traditional machining
processes
processes
• The search for better ways of machining complex shapes
in hard materials.
• Use forms of energy other than mechanical energy.
Source of energy Name of process
Thermal energy processes Electrical discharge machine, EDM
Laser-beam machining, LBM
Plasma-arc machining, ECM
Electrical energy processes Electrochemical machining, ECM
Electrochemical grinding, ECG
Chemical process Chemical machining process
Mechanical process Ultrasonic machining, USM
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Electrical discharge machining (EDM)
• Required electrically conductive materials. Workpiece – anode and tool –
cathode. Independent of material hardness.
• Removal of material through melting or vaporisation caused by a high-
frequency spark discharge. EDM machined surface may be deleterious to
fatigue properties due to the recast layer.
• good selection of the proper electrode material for the workpiece
• Produce deep holes, slots, cavities in hard materials without drifting or can
do irregular contour.
Electrical discharge machining Electrical discharge wire cutting
Tapany Udomphol
Electrochemical machining (ECM)
• Metal is removed by anodic dissolution in an electrolytic cell. Workpiece –
anode, tool – cathode.
• rate of metal removal depends upon the amount of current passing
between the tool and the workpiece, independent of material hardness.
• ECM is a cold process which results in no thermal damage to the workpiece,
hence, giving a smooth burr-free surface.
• Not suited for producing sharp corners or cavities with flat bottoms.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Electrochemical grinding (ECG)
• A combination of ECM and abrasive grinding in which most
of the metal is removed by electrolytic action.
• It is used with hard carbides or difficult-to-grind alloys where
wheel wear or surface damage must be minimised.
ECG equipment Schematic diagram of ECG process
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Chemical machining (CHM)
• Metal is removed by controlling
chemical attack with chemical
reagents.
Surface cleaning
Masking areas not
to be dissolved
Attacking chemicals
Cleaning
Process
Chemical machining of microscopic
holes and grooves in glass.
Photo
chemical
machining
product
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Ultrasonic machining (USM)
• The tool is excited around 20,000 Hz
with a magnetostrictive transducer
while a slurry of fine abrasive
particles is introduced between the
tool and the workpiece.
• Each cycle of vibration removes
minute pieces of pieces of the
workpiece by fracture or erosion.
• Used mostly for machining brittle
hard materials such as
semiconductors, ceramics, or glass.
USM apparatus
USM
products
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Economics of machining
Economics of machining
Machining cost Speed , feed
Tool wear
tool cost
Tool changing
• Optimum speed which balances these opposing factors and
results in minimum cost per piece.
Machining cost
t c n m u
C C C C C + + + =
Where C
u
= the total unit (per piece) cost
C
m
= the machining cost
C
n
= the cost associated with non-machining time,
i.e., setup cost, preparation, time for loading &
unloading, idle machine time.
C
c
= the cost of tool changing
C
t
= the tool cost per piece.
Total cost
…Eq. 26
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
1) Machining cost
Machining cost C
m
can be expressed by
) (
m m m m
O L t C + =
Where t
m
= the machining time per piece (including the time
the feed is engaged whether or not the tool is cutting.
L
m
= the labour cost of a production operator per unit time
O
m
= the overhead charge for the machine, including
depreciation, indirect labour, maintenance, etc.
…Eq. 27
2) Cost of non-machining time
The cost of non-machining time C
n
is usually
expressed as a fixed cost in dollars per piece.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Where t
g
= the time required to grind and change a cutting edge
t
ac
= the actual cutting time per piece
t = the tool life for a cutting edge
L
g
= the labour rate for a toolroom operator
O
g
= the overhead rate for the tool room operation.
3) Cost of tool changing
The cost of tool changing C
c
can be expressed by.
( )
g g
ac
g c
O L
t
t
t C +
|
¹
|

\
|
=
…Eq. 28
The Taylor equation for tool life can be written
n
v
K
t
1
|
¹
|

\
|
=
fv
D L
t
a
ac
π
=
…Eq. 29 …Eq. 30
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
4) Tool cost per piece
The tool cost per piece can be expressed by
t
t
C C
ac
e t
=
Where C
e
is the cost of a cutting edge, and t
ac
/t is the
number of tool changes required per piece.
…Eq. 31
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
C
m
C
n
- idle cost
C
o
s
t

p
e
r

p
i
e
c
e
Cutting speed
C
t
Tool cost
Machining cost
Tool changing
C
c
Total unit cost
C
u
Production
rate, pieces
per hour
Variation of machining costs with
cutting speed
C
u
= C
m
+ C
n
+ C
c
+ C
t
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• Dieter, G.E., Mechanical metallurgy, 1988, SI metric edition,
McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100406-8.
• Edwards, L. and Endean, M., Manufacturing with materials,
1990, Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-2754-9.
• Beddroes, J. Bibbly M.J., Principles of metal manufacturing
processes, Arnold, ISBN 0 340 731621.
References
References
Tapany Udomphol

Objectives
• This chapter aims to provide basic backgrounds of different types of machining processes and highlights on an understanding of important parameters which affects machining of metals. • Mechanics of machining is introduced for the calculation of power used in metal machining operation • Finally defects occurring in the machining processes will be discussed with its solutions. Significant factors influencing economics of machining will also be included to give the optimum machining efficiency.

Suranaree University of Technology

Tapany Udomphol

Jan-Mar 2007

Introduction
www.dragonworks.info

• Machining is operated by selectively removing the metal from the workpiece to produce the required shape. • Removal of metal parts is accomplished by straining a local region of the workpiece to fracture by the relative motion of the tool and the workpiece.

Turning of metal

• Conventional methods require mainly mechanical energy. • More advanced metal-removal processes involve chemical, electrical or thermal energy.
Suranaree University of Technology
Tapany Udomphol

EDM machining

Jan-Mar 2007

• A secondary processing operation (finishing process) employed after a primary process such as hot rolling. forging or casting.• Produce shapes with high dimensional tolerance. slots or reentrant angles. • Tooling must be stronger than the workpiece. good surface finish and often with complex geometry such as holes. Machined parts Suranaree University of Technology Micro machined parts Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Type of machining operations Classification of machining operations is roughly divided into: • Single point cutting • Multiple point cutting • Grinding • Electro discharge machining • Electrochemical machining Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Single point cutting Removal of the metal from the workpiece by means of cutting tools which have one major cutting edge.

Multiple point cutting Removal of the metal from the workpiece by means of cutting tools which have more than one major cutting edge. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Grinding Removal of the metal from the workpiece using tool made from abrasive particles of irregular geometry. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Electrical discharge machining Removal of material from the workpiece by spark discharges. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . which are produced by connecting both tool (electrode) and workpiece to a power supply.

Electrochemical machining Removal of material from the workpiece by electrolysis. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . Tool (electrode) and workpiece are immersed in an electrolyte and connected to a power supply.

w or d • the feed. Time requires to turn a cylindrical surface of length Lw. Principal parameters: • the cutting speed. v • the depth of cut. Jan-Mar 2007 …Eq.Mechanics of machining What happens during machining of a bar on a lathe? A chip of material is removed from the surface of the workpiece. f. Lw t= fn w Geometry of single-point lathe turning Suranaree University of Technology Where nw is the number of revolutions of the workpiece per second. 1 Tapany Udomphol .

as seen from the fibre texture of the polished and etched metal workpiece. • The chip thickness ratio (cutting ratio) r = t / tc.25 mm tc rake angle α Section through chip and workpiece Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Material with thickness t is sheared and travels as a chip of thickness tc along the rake face of the tool. φ Mechanism of chip formation t α Clearance angle θ Machined surface tc rake angle rake face chip Clearance face tool t 0. • Extensive deformation has taken place.workpiece feed Chip formation • The tool removes material near the surface of the workpiece by shearing it to form the chip.

known as primary shear. • Localised region of intense shear occurring due to the friction at the rake face.Two basic deformation zone: • The entire chip is deformed as it meets the tool. Shear plane angle is φ. known as secondary shear. Before deformation Shear angle φ Primary shear Secondary shear Secondary shear Well defined shear plane Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

and chip thickness ratio. 4 Jan-Mar 2007 . which has the same area. r can be derived as follows r= t OD sin φ …Eq. 2 = t c OD cos(φ − α ) tan φ = r cos α 1 − r sin α …Eq. 3 t and φ−α φ Wedge angle tc α ω Triangle ODF has been sheared to form ODF’. shear angle φ rake angle α The relationship between rake angle.The shear angle φ is controlled by the cutting ratio r. The shear strain is given by FF ' cos α = γ = h sin φ cos(φ − α ) Primary shear in single point cutting Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol …Eq. shear angle.

thus requiring higher cutting forces. (b) Negative rake angle α produces higher cutting forces and more robust tools.• The amount of primary shear is related to the rake angle α. the material is forced back on itself. chip breaker. Rake face configuration Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . (a) Positive rake angle α (6-30o) leads to low cutting forces but fragile tools (a) If α is a large positive value. (c) The tool has a negative α but a small area of positive rake just behind the cutting edge. (b) If α is a negative value. (c) Negative rake angle tool with chip breaker – a useful compromise. the material is deformed less in the chip.

Effect of rake face contact length on chip thickness and shear plane angle • The deformed chip is flowing over a static tool. sticky friction will result and flow will occur only within the workpiece but not at the tool-workpiece interface. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . leading to frictional force similar to friction hill. • If µ is greater than 0. chip thickness change shear angle φ force to move the chip Efficient cutting occurs when shear angle φ ~ 45o.5. tc > t t tc = t • Sticky friction is the norm in cutting due to difficulty in applying lubricant.

The cutting speed There are three velocities: 1) Cutting speed v. Kinematic relationship workpiece t v v D φ−α vc From continuity of mass. 6 Velocity relationships in orthogonal machining Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . 2) Chip velocity vc. υs = υ cos α cos(φ − α ) …Eq. is the velocity of the chip relative to the tool face 3) Shear velocity vs. is the velocity of the chip relative to the work. vt = vctc φ vs t vc r= = tc v …Eq. is the velocity of the tool relative to the workpiece. the vector sum of the cutting velocity and the chip velocity = the shear velocity vector. 5 φ O vs tool vc tc From kinematic relationship.

7 • Therefore we could also obtain r from the ratio of the chip length Lc. it can be determined by measuring the weight of chips Wc and by knowing the density of the metal ρ. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Wc …Eq. Lw • If Lc is unknown. vc φ O Lw tb = Lc t c b tc workpiece Lc t = =r t c Lw …Eq. 8 Lw tb = ρ Jan-Mar 2007 . to the length of the workpiece from which it came. and chip width b is essentially constant.Calculation of the cutting ratio from chip length t v D Lc vs tool Since volume is constant during plastic deformation.

9 Where (ys)max is the estimate of the maximum value of the thickness of the shear zone. α = 5o. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . ~ 25 mm.s-1 and (ys)max ~ 25 mm. This is about several orders of magnitude greater than the strain rate usually associated with high-speed metal working operation. Example: Using realistic values of φ = 20.Shear strain rate in cutting υs dγ = γ = dt ( y s ) max • …Eq. ν = 3 m. We calculate γ = 1.2 x 105 s-1.

• It can be shown that Rake face α Fh α Suranaree University of Technology Fv sin Fn = Fh cos α − Fv sin α Ft F c v os α Fv α Fh si nα Tapany Udomphol α F h cosα Ft = Fh sin α + Fv cos α Fn β PR Jan-Mar 2007 .Forces and stresses in metal cutting Fv Fh Fns P’R Fs chip PR .the equal resultant force between the workpiece and the chip Rake face φ α Fn β Ft PR Force component in orthogonal machining. The resultant force to the rake face of the tool can be resolved into tangential component Ft and normal component Fn.the resultant force between the tool face and the chip P’R . • The horizontal (cutting) Fh and vertical (thrust) Fv forces in cutting can be measured independently using a strain-gauge toolpost dynamometer.

10 Finally. the resultant force may be resolved parallel Fs and normal Fns to the shear plane. 12 Fs = Fh cos φ − Fv sin φ Fns = Fh sin φ + Fv cos φ φ Fh Fv cosφ P’R φ Fs Fh cosφ Fh sinφ Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .• If the components of the cutting force are known. then the coefficient of friction µ in the tool face is given by Ft Fv + Fh tan α µ = tan β = = Fn Fh − Fv tan α …Eq. 11 …Eq. Fv sinφ Fv Fns …Eq.

Fns t D Fs And the normal stress σ is φ σ= Fns Fns sin φ = As bt …Eq. 14 O Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .The average shear stress τ is Fs divided by the area of the shear plane As = bt / sinφ t D Fs Fs sin φ τ= = As bt φ Fs O tc …Eq. 13 tool workpiece The shear stress in cutting is the main parameter affecting the energy requirement.

25 mm φ tc rake angle α Section through chip and workpiece • Merchant predicted φ by assuming that the shear plane would be at the angle which minimises the work done in cutting. φ= π 4 + α 2 + β 2 …Eq. 15 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .• We need to know the shear angle φ in order to calculate the shear stress in cutting from force measurements. • The shear angle φ can be measured experimentally by suddenly stopping the cutting process and using metallographic techniques to determine the shear zone. t 0.

The predicted shear plane angle φο is given by ko cos(φ o − α )sin φ o = k1 Where α ko k1   α  α  cos 45 − 2  sin  45 + 2       …Eq. the shear plane angle φ is varied depending on the nature of each material (composition & heat treatment) to be machined. in practice. Based on the upper bound model of the shear zone. 16 = rake angle = σo /√ 3 and σo is the yield strength of the material = σu /√ 3 and σu is the tensile strength of the material. a criterion for predicting φ has been developed. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .However.

8 o Experimental range is 11 to 13. ko k1   6  6  cos 45 −  sin  45 +   2  2    σu = 630 MPa σu = 207 MPa cos(φ o − 6 )sin φ o = cos(φ o − 6 )sin φ o = For hot-roll 1040 steel:  415   2φ o = sin −1 1.1045  + 6 o 207    2φ o = sin −1 (0. Given Hot-rolled 1040 steel σo = 415 MPa.552) 2 k1    k 2φ o = sin −1 1.2688) + 6 o = 21. Annealed copper σo = 70 MPa. then we can use tensile values directly in the above equations.104 × − 0.5o Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .104 × − 0. Suranaree University of Technology φo = 10.1045  + 6 o   k1    [ ] φo = 22.552) k1 k 1 sin 6 o + sin (2φ o − 6 ) = o (0.6 o Note that ko/k1 is a fraction.104 o − 0.3 o Experimental range is 23 to 29o For annealed copper:  70   2φ o = sin −1 1.1045  + 6 o 630    2φ o = sin −1 (0.6227) + 6 o = 44.Example: Determine the shear plane angle in orthogonal machining with a 6o positive rake angle for hot-rolled AISI 1040 steel and annealed commercially pure copper.5 o ko (0.

17 Where b is the width of the chip t is the undeformed chip thickness Suranaree University of Technology Force values of specific cutting energy for various materials and machining operations Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol .Specific cutting energy • Power required for cutting is Fhv • The volume of metal removed per unit time (metal removal rate) is Zw = btv • Therefore the energy per unit volume U is given by Fh v Fh v Fh U= = = Zw btv bt …Eq.

rake angle. U is independent of speed) The total energy for cutting can be divided into a number of components: 1. feed. 4. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .s-1 . (at cutting speed > 3 m. Momentum energy associated with the momentum change as the metal crosses the shear plane. 3. and other machining parameters. The energy required to produce the new surface area.The specific cutting energy U depends on the material being machined and also on the cutting speed. Energy required to curl the chip. 2. The frictional energy resulting from the chip sliding over the tool face. 5. The total energy required to produce the gross deformation in the shear zone.

8 o Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 .341 β =?.3 r cos α 0.m-3.500m) tc = 0.586 sin 6 o φ = 32 o r= t 0. what is the slip plane angle? density = 7830 kg.200 = = 0.5 m.527 o 1100 − 440 tan 6 β = 27. and the width of cut is b = 10 mm.Example: In an orthogonal cutting process v = 2.586 cos 6 o tan φ = = = 0. thickness of chip Chip thickness ratio Wc 0.m −3 ) × (0. From Eq. α = 6o. If 13.586 t c 0.01336kg = ρbL (7830kg.10 µ = tan β = Ft Fv + Fh tan α = Fn Fh − Fv tan α 440 + 1100 tan 6 o tan β = = 0.621 1 − r sin α 1 − 0. from Eq.010m)(0.36 g of steel chips with a total length of 500 mm are obtained. The underformed chip thickness is 200 µm.8.341mm tc = From Eq.s-1.

and PR = PR' = Fv2 + Fh2 Rake face φ α Fn β Ft PR PR = (440) 2 + (1100) 2 = 1185 N Ft = 1185 sin 27.If a toolpost dynamometer gives cutting and thrust forces of Fh = 1100 N and Fv = 440 N. U s = s s = btv bt btv Fv Fns P’R Fh Fs Vc Friction energy U f Ft vc Ft r = = = Total energy U Fh v Fh chip Ft = PR sin β .m-3. determine the percentage of the total energy that goes into overcoming friction at the tool-chip interface and the percentage that is required for cutting along the shear plane. (Density ρ = 7830 kg.5% 1100 Jan-Mar 2007 ( ) Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol .) The total specific energy is The frictional specific energy at the toolchip interface Uf and along the shear plane Us is U = U f +Us From Eq.8 o = 553N % friction energy = 553(0. 17 Fh U= bt Thus Uf = Ft vc Ft r Fv and.586) × 100 = 29.

m − 2 = 550 MJm −3 btv 0.77 % shearing energy = × 100 = 70.s-1.010 × (200 × 10 −6 ) × 2.5 This analysis of energy distribution neglects two other energy requirements in cutting: • Surface energy required to produce new surfaces. Shearing engergy Fs v s = Fh v Total energy Fs = Fh cos φ − Fv sin φ Fs = 1100 cos 32 o − 440 sin 32 o Fs = 700 N v cos α 2. From Eq.5 cos 6 o vs = = = 2.5 = N .5% 1100 × 2.11.) Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Momentum change as the metal crosses the shear plane (significant in high-speed machining at cutting speeds above 120 m.s −1 cos(φ − α ) cos(32 − 6) 700 × 2.17.77 m.5 U= Fh v 1100 × 2.From Eq.

(a) Continuous chip (b) Chip with a built up edge.Type of machining chips Three general classifications of chips are formed in the machining process. BUE (c) Discontinuous chip Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Ex: cast iron and cast brass. Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . required chipbreaker.Continuous chips Discontinuous chips Continuous chip is characteristic of cutting ductile materials under steady stage conditions. long continuous chips present handling and removal problems in practical operation. However. Discontinuous chip is formed in brittle materials which cannot withstand the high shear strains imposed in the machining process without fracture. may occur in ductile materials machined at very low speeds and high feed.

the chip may weld to the tool face. Poor texture on the surface Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • The BUE act as a substitute cutting edge (blunt tool with a low rake angle). • The accumulation of the chip material is known as a built-up edge (BUE).Chip with a built-up edge (BUE) • Under conditions where the friction between the chip and the rake face of the tool is high. • The formation of BUE is due to work hardening in the secondary shear zone at low speed (since heat is transferred to the tool). Built-up edge Chip formation with a built-up edge.

Where d is the depth of cut f is the feed k is a function of rake angle. Suranaree University of Technology Speed Force Due to low temperature at low speed work hardening Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . decreasing about 1% per degree increase in rake angle. the machining force Fh often is related empirically to the machining parameters by equation of the type Fh = kd a f b …Eq. 18 Effect of cutting speed on cutting force.Machining force • Due to complexity of practical machining operations.

• Rotating the tool around y axis change the rake angle α. lathe cutoff operations. x x y (a) Orthogonal cutting y (b) Three dimensional cutting • Rotating the tool around z axis ( by an inclination angle i) change the cutting process to three dimensional. • Most practical machining operations are three dimensional. and plain milling are two dimensional where the cutting edge is perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector.Three-dimensional machining • Orthogonal machining such as surface broaching. • Ex: drilling and milling. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . z z • Rotating the tool around x axis change the width of the cut.

• primary cutting edge is the side-cutting edge. which cut simultaneously.Three dimensional cutting tool • has two cutting edges. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • secondary cutting edge is the end-cutting edge.

• Twist drills are usually suitable for holes which a length less than five times their diameter. Drilling machine Drill-workpiece interface Specialised tools for drill presses Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Multiple-edge cutting tools Drilling • Used to created round holes in a workpiece and/or for further operations.

Suranaree University of Technology Three common milling cutters. • The tool consists of multiple cutting edges arranged around an axis. Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . f Work piece Transient surface Peripheral mill End mill Tool-workpiece arrangement typical for milling. • The primary cutting action is produced by rotation of the tool and the feed by motion of the workpiece. gear teeth and slotting. angles.Multiple-edge cutting tools Milling • Used to produce flat surfaces. Tool Work surface Primary motion Machined surface Face mill Continuous feed motion.

Temperature gradient (K) in the cutting zone when machining steel. type of lubricant. • At very high strain rate no time for heat dissipation temperature rise. • Very high temperature is created in the secondary deformation zone. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . Temperature in metal cutting is therefore an important factor affecting the choice of tool materials.Temperature in metal cutting • A significant temperature rise is due to large plastic strain and very high strain rate although the process is normally carried out at ambient temperature. tool life. • Strain rate is high in cutting and almost all the plastic work is converted into heat.

The approximate chip-tool interface temperature is given by  1  T = C  R  Tad  t p Where C ~ 0. 19 c = specific heat of workpiece.4 and p ~ 1/3 to 1/2. For lower velocities. Rt is thermal number Note: The finite element method has been used for calculating the temperature distributions in the chip and the tool. the adiabatic temperature is given by Tad U = ρc Where U = specific cutting energy ρ = the density of the workpiece material …Eq. 20 Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 .19. Tapany Udomphol …Eq.If all the heat generated goes into the chip. the temperature will be less than in Eq.

Primary functions of cutting fluid : • To decrease friction and wear. • To wash away the chips from the cutting area. • To protect the newly machined surface against corrosion. cutting fluids help to • Increase tool life. Also. • To reduce temperature generation in the cutting area. Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Cutting fluids • The cutting fluids are designed to ameliorate the effects of high local temperatures and high friction at the chip-tool interface. • Improve surface finish • Reduce cutting force Suranaree University of Technology Cutting fluid used in machining • Reduce power consumption • Reduce thermal distortion of the workpiece.

Cutting fluids are normally liquids. • Combination of both more effective. May contain some contamination of fatty oils. May contain mineral oil. sulphur. wetting agents. 2) Water-miscible fluids (soluble oils). chlorine. sulphur or chlorine. rust inhibitors and germicides. but can be gases. fatting oils. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Vegetable-based cutting fluid Jan-Mar 2007 . • Sulphur and chloride react with fresh metal surfaces (active sites for chemical reaction) to form compounds with lower shear strength reduce friction. emulsifiers. fatty acids. • Chlorinated fluids work well at low speeds and light loads due to slower reaction of chlorine and metal whereas sulphur compounds work well at severe conditions. There are two basic types of liquid cutting fluids 1) Petroleum-based nonsoluble fluids (straight cutting oils).

com Jan-Mar 2007 . particularly at high temperature • Toughness to resist failure or chipping • Chemical inertness with respect to the workpiece • Thermal shock resistance • Wear resistance.Tool materials and tool life Properties of cutting tool materials: • Hardness.pdbrownesouth. Tool materials: • Carbon and low alloy steels • High speed steels (HSS) • Cemented carbide • Ceramic or oxide tools • Diamond like structure Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol www. to maximise the lifetime of the tool.

and wear occurs by the fracture of the welded junctions. 2) Abrasive wear : occurs as a result of hard particles on the underside of the chip abrading the tool face by mechanical action as the chip passes over the rake face. 3) Wear from solid-state diffusion from the tool materials to the workpiece at high temperature and intimate contact at the interface between the chip and the rake face.Three main forms of wear in metal cutting 1) Adhesive wear : the tool and the chip weld together at local asperities. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

as a result of diffusion wear due to high temperature developed at the interface between the chip and the rake face of the tool.Two main types of wear in cutting tool: 1) Flank wear is the development of a wear land on the tool due to abrasive rubbing between the tool flank and the newly generated surface. The predominant wear process depends on cutting speed. • Crater wear predominates at higher speeds Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Crater wear and flank wear Length of wear land Initial breakdown of cutting edge Cutting time Typical wear curve for cutting tool Jan-Mar 2007 Rapid wear . 2) Crater wear is the formation of a circular crater in the rake face of the tool. • Flank wear dominates at low speed.

which results in increased tool wear.Types of wear observed in single point cutting tools 1) 2) 3) Clearance face wear Crater wear Oxidation wear High speed steel Cemented carbide Ceramic The higher temperatures that occur at high cutting speeds . Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

• Hv ~ 700 after quenching and tempering. having C content ranging from 0.7 – 1. However the tool will be soften and becomes less and less wear resistance due to coarsening of fine iron carbide particles – that provide strength.Tool materials Carbon and low alloy steels • High carbon tool steel is the oldest cutting tool materials. martensite only obtained on the surface whereas a tough interior provides the final tool very shock resistant. • For low cutting speed due to a drop in hardness above 150oC. • Shaped easily in the annealed condition and subsequently hardened by quenching and tempering.5% carbon. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Due to insufficient hardenability.

• Very stable secondary carbide dispersions (between 500-650oC). • Cutting speed ~ 2 times higher than carbon tool steels. • Cannot stand very high speed cutting. • Carbon content in each steel is balanced against the major alloying elements to form the appropriate stable mix of carbides with W. Cr and V. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Tempering curve for M2 high speed steel Jan-Mar 2007 .High speed steels (HSS) • Retain their hot hardness up to 500oC. • Cobalt is added to slow down the rate of carbide coarsening material can withstand higher temperatures. Mo. giving rise to a tempering curves. • M series have higher abrasive resistance and cheaper.

• Has advantage over high speed steel in that the obtained carbides are much more stable. • Cutting speed ~ 5x that used with high speed steel. Microstructure of a K grade (WC-Co) cemented carbide. • Cutting temperature up to 1100oC. • Cobalt is used as a binder.Cemented carbides • Consist of heat-resistant refractory carbides (hardness) embedded in a ductile metal matrix (toughness). depending on Vf and size distribution of carbides. see Table. • They are brittle so should run without vibration or chatter. Cemented carbides fastened to the tool post. • Normally made by powder processing using liquid phase sintering. • σo ~ 1500 .2500 MPa. Jan-Mar 2007 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol .

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • TiC binds well with the matrix. has good abrasion and solution wear resistance. • TiN layer (golden colour) is hard and has low dissolution rate and friction coefficient in steel. surface engineering • Coating can improve the performance of both high speed steel and cemented carbide tool materials. PVD) are two methods of depositing thin carbide layers onto materials. time taken to change the tool. increased materials removal rates.Tool coatings • Changing the tool surface properties. • Coating a very thin layer of TiC or TiN over the WC-Co tool reduces the effects of adhesion and diffusion and reduces the crater wear. • Chemical and physical vapour deposition (CVD.

• Inherent unreliability of ceramic tooling limits its use to specialist cutting operation. • Cutting speed at 2-3 times > cemented carbides in uninterrupted cuts where shock and vibration are minimised (due to poor thermal shock and brittleness of ceramics). less thermal expansion than Al2O3 minimise thermal stress • For machining cast irons at high speeds.Ceramics or oxide tools There are three categories: 1) Alumina (Al2O3) 2) A combination of alumina and titanium carbide 3) Silicon nitride (Si3N4). • Required rigid tool mounts and rigid machine tools. • Better wear resistance and less tendency for the tool to weld to the chip. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

i. • Made by depositing a layer of small crystals on a carbide backing and sintering them with a binder polycrystalline diamond tooling (PCD). aluminium or copper alloys. cost and diamond – graphite reversion at 650oC. • Highest thermal conductivity ideal for cutting tool.e. high temperature pressing. The latter possesses Hv = 4000... made by high pressure. i.e. • Used for cutting low temperature materials. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Used at very low cutting speed for very hard materials. but has two disadvantages. ceramics.‘Diamond like’ structure • Diamond provides the highest hot hardness of any material. • Synthetic diamonds (1950s) and cubic boron nitride CBN (1970s).

Tool performance • Tool performance has been improved by the development of tool coatings. Minimum time required to surface machine a hot rolled mild steel bar Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

or 4) The degradation of the surface finish below some specified limit. or 2) Defined in terms of an average or maximum allowable wear land. or the increase in the cutting force above some value. 3) The point at which the tool has a complete destruction when it ceases to cut. 1) The point at which the tool no longer makes economically satisfactory parts. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Tool life determination Tool life can determined based on different criteria. or 5) When the vibrational amplitude reaches a limiting value.

21 Jan-Mar 2007 . and hence. Taylor has established the empirical relationship between cutting speed v and the time t to reach a wear land of certain dimension as vtn = constant Where typical values of the exponent n are: 0.4 for ceramic tool Note: this is the machining time between regrinding the tool not the total life before it is discarded.1 for high-speed steel 0. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol …Eq.Taylor equation • Cutting speed is the most important operating variable influencing tool temperature. tool life.2 for cemented carbide 0.

tool life can be conservatively estimated by using wear curves and the replacement of the tool should be made before they have used up their economical life. it is dangerous to extrapolate outside of the limits over which the data extend. However. vtnwxfy = constant …Eq. 22 Note: Taylor equation is completely empirical and as with other empirical relationships.Modified Taylor equation Taylor equation has been extended by including parameters such as feed f and depth of cut w as follows. Suranaree University of Technology Length of wear land Initial breakdown of cutting edge Rapid wear Cutting time Tapany Udomphol Typical wear curve for cutting tool Jan-Mar 2007 .

Machinability Definition: The ability of a material to be machined. 4) Tool life – abrasive particles can increase tool wear. Machinability depends of a number of factors: 1) Hardness – soft materials are easily sheared and require low cutting forces. 5) Chip formation – uniform discrete chips suggest good machinability. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . 2) Surface texture – how easy it is to produce the required surface finish. Materials with high work hardening exponent n tend to form built-up edge (BUE). 3) The maximum rate of metal removal – allow low cycle times.

Soft particles are often deliberately added to improve machinability. • Reducing the cutting temperature by using cutting fluid – can effectively act as coolant and lubricant. Maximum tool surface temperature remains the same but the volume of the tool that reached the high temperature is reduced. effective toolings.To improve machinability • Change the microstructure of the materials. • Increase rate of material removal – modern cutting machines. Effect of coolant on tool temperatures. • Control surface texture – reduce the formation of built-up edge. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

after a while sharp edges become dull. • Each grain removes a short chip of gradually increasing thickness. • Similar to multiple edge cutting but with irregularly shaped grain (tool). Geometry of chip formation in grinding • Large negative rake angle α. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . workpiece than cut.Grinding process Grinding processes employ an abrasive wheel containing grains of hard material bonded in a matrix. grains could slide over the • The depth of cut d in grinding is very small (a few µm).

which are often alloyed with oxides of Ti. where as hard grade alumina wheel (denser) is used for soft materials and for large area grinding. Cr. V.Grinding wheel • Employ aluminium oxide Al2O3 or silicon carbide SiC as abrasive grain. • Since SiC is harder than Al2O3. it finds applications for the grinding of harder materials. • Diamond wheels are used for fine finishing. to impart special properties. Alumina grinding wheel Diamond grinding wheel Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . etc. Zr. • Soft grade alumina wheel has a large Vf of pores and low glass content surprisingly used for cutting hard materials and fast material removal.

Glass bonded grinding wheel microstructure. glass.. • 70% of energy goes to the finished surface very high temp. rubber or organic resin.• Wheel performance is controlled by the strength of the bond. • Interconnected porosity provides the space to which the chips can go and provides a path for the coolant to be delivered to the cutting surface.c. Binders used are depending on application. • Specific cutting energy is 10 times > other cutting process since not all of particles can cut but rub on the surface. residual stresses. and also the rake angle is not optimised. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . i.

Grain depth of cut The grain depth of cut t is given by Approximate x-section of grinding chip b’ t vw t=2 Crv g d D …Eq. 23 D/2 Where C = the number of active grains on the wheel per unit area (~1 – 5 mm-2) D = diameter of the wheel. and r = b’/t vw = velocity of the workpiece vg = velocity of the grinding wheel U= t B Lc vw A Fh v g v w bd θ vg d Geometry in surface grinding d = wheel depth of cut and t << d Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

the force on a single abrasive grain Fg will be Fg ∝ rt ∝ Suranaree University of Technology rv w Cv g d D Tapany Udomphol …Eq. b is the chip width .Specific cutting energy The specific cutting energy U in grinding is And U is strongly dependent on t 1 U∝ t . If the grain cross section is assumed triangular. d is the wheel depth of cut U= Fh v g v w bd …Eq. 24 Where Fh is the tangential force on the wheel vg is the velocity of grinding wheel vw is the velocity of the workpiece. 25 Jan-Mar 2007 .

The surface temperature Tw. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . surface oxidation (grinding burn). 25 • Ground surface temperature can be > 1600oC.e.Surface temperature Large portion of energy in grinding process goes to raising the temperature. strongly dependent on the energy per unit surface area. i. is given by Tw ∝ Fg v g vwb ∝ Ud …Eq.. which can lead to melting or metallurgical changes. untempered martensite. grinding cracks. • Improper grinding can also lead to residual tensile stresses in the ground surface using proper grinding fluid and softer wheel at lower wheel speeds.

which is the volume of material removed from the work per unit volume of wheel wear. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . fluid. • The values of G ratio can vary from 2 to over 200. speed and feed) as well as the material. Easier to grind G ratio • The G ratio depends on the grinding process and grinding conditions (wheel.Grindability Grindability is measured by using grinding ratio or G ratio.

3 m.2 mm.05 mm.Example: A horizontal spindle surface grinder is cutting with t = 5 mm and U = 40 GPa. required power Power = U × M = (40 × 10 9 Nm −2 )(0. the work speed is 0.2 × 10 −3 )(0.018 × 10 −6 m 3 s −1 ) Power = 720 Nm. 24.018 × 10 −6 m 3 s −1 From Eq.s −1 = 720W But Power = Fhvg 720 Nm. Estimate the tangential force on the wheel if the wheel speed is 30 m.s-1.s −1 Fh = = 24 N −1 30 m. The rate of metal removal M = speed x feed x depth of cut M = v w bd = 0. the cross-feed per stroke is 1.3(1. and the wheel depth of cut is 0.05 × 10 −3 ) = 0.s Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 .s-1.

USM Electrical energy processes Chemical process Mechanical process Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Non-traditional machining processes • The search for better ways of machining complex shapes in hard materials. LBM Plasma-arc machining. ECM Electrochemical grinding. EDM Laser-beam machining. ECM Electrochemical machining. • Use forms of energy other than mechanical energy. ECG Chemical machining process Ultrasonic machining. Source of energy Thermal energy processes Name of process Electrical discharge machine.

• good selection of the proper electrode material for the workpiece • Produce deep holes. • Removal of material through melting or vaporisation caused by a highfrequency spark discharge. Workpiece – anode and tool – cathode. slots. Independent of material hardness. EDM machined surface may be deleterious to fatigue properties due to the recast layer. cavities in hard materials without drifting or can do irregular contour. Electrical discharge machining Suranaree University of Technology Electrical discharge wire cutting Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Electrical discharge machining (EDM) • Required electrically conductive materials.

Workpiece – anode. giving a smooth burr-free surface.Electrochemical machining (ECM) • Metal is removed by anodic dissolution in an electrolytic cell. tool – cathode. • rate of metal removal depends upon the amount of current passing between the tool and the workpiece. independent of material hardness. hence. • ECM is a cold process which results in no thermal damage to the workpiece. • Not suited for producing sharp corners or cavities with flat bottoms. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Electrochemical grinding (ECG) • A combination of ECM and abrasive grinding in which most of the metal is removed by electrolytic action. ECG equipment Schematic diagram of ECG process Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • It is used with hard carbides or difficult-to-grind alloys where wheel wear or surface damage must be minimised.

Process Surface cleaning Masking areas not to be dissolved Chemical machining of microscopic holes and grooves in glass.Chemical machining (CHM) • Metal is removed by controlling chemical attack with chemical reagents. Attacking chemicals Cleaning Suranaree University of Technology Photo chemical machining product Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Ultrasonic machining (USM) • The tool is excited around 20. • Each cycle of vibration removes minute pieces of pieces of the workpiece by fracture or erosion. ceramics.000 Hz with a magnetostrictive transducer while a slurry of fine abrasive particles is introduced between the tool and the workpiece. • Used mostly for machining brittle hard materials such as semiconductors. or glass. USM products Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol USM apparatus Jan-Mar 2007 .

Economics of machining
Speed , feed
Tool wear

Machining cost tool cost Tool changing Machining cost

• Optimum speed which balances these opposing factors and results in minimum cost per piece.

Total cost
Where Cu Cm Cn Cc Ct

Cu = C m + C n + Cc + Ct

…Eq. 26

= the total unit (per piece) cost = the machining cost = the cost associated with non-machining time, i.e., setup cost, preparation, time for loading & unloading, idle machine time. = the cost of tool changing = the tool cost per piece.
Tapany Udomphol

Suranaree University of Technology

Jan-Mar 2007

1) Machining cost
Machining cost Cm can be expressed by

C m = t m ( Lm + O m )
Where tm Lm Om

…Eq. 27

= the machining time per piece (including the time the feed is engaged whether or not the tool is cutting. = the labour cost of a production operator per unit time = the overhead charge for the machine, including depreciation, indirect labour, maintenance, etc.

2) Cost of non-machining time
The cost of non-machining time Cn is usually expressed as a fixed cost in dollars per piece.

Suranaree University of Technology

Tapany Udomphol

Jan-Mar 2007

3) Cost of tool changing
The cost of tool changing Cc can be expressed by.

t  C c = t g  ac (Lg + O g )  t 
Where tg tac t Lg Og

…Eq. 28

= the time required to grind and change a cutting edge = the actual cutting time per piece = the tool life for a cutting edge = the labour rate for a toolroom operator = the overhead rate for the tool room operation.

The Taylor equation for tool life can be written

K t =  v

1 n

…Eq. 29

t ac =

πLa D
fv

…Eq. 30

Suranaree University of Technology

Tapany Udomphol

Jan-Mar 2007

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . and tac/t is the number of tool changes required per piece. 31 Where Ce is the cost of a cutting edge.4) Tool cost per piece The tool cost per piece can be expressed by Ct = C e t ac t …Eq.

Variation of machining costs with cutting speed Cu = Cm+ Cn + Cc + Ct Total unit cost Cu Cost per piece Production rate.idle cost Machining cost Cm Tool cost Tool changing Ct Cc Cutting speed Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . pieces per hour Cn.

McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-7506-2754-9. and Endean. Bibbly M.. Mechanical metallurgy. Butterworth Heinemann. Principles of metal manufacturing processes. 1990. • Beddroes.E. M. SI metric edition. G. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .References • Dieter. Arnold. ISBN 0 340 731621. ISBN 0-07-100406-8.. • Edwards. 1988.J. Manufacturing with materials. J.. L.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful