GPD Advanced Network Development Centre

FREQUENCY HOPPING DEPLOYMENT PROCESS
Review 0.2 December 1998

Abstract: The present document describes the steps and actions required to deploy Synthesiser Frequency Hopping in a GSM system.

MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY ANDC

........ TOPOLOGY OPTIMISATION..................................16 Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 2 .............................................10 3.......................................................................................................... PREREQUISITES............................7 2...................................................................................................................... INITIAL DEPLOYMENT.............6 2..........................................12 3......................... COVERAGE OPTIMISATION..2..................................... INTRODUCTION.......................... CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................................................................................................................................15 5........................................... OPTIMISATION.................................................................. DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY...................1....2.1....................................7 2................10 2.................... NEW FREQUENCY PLAN DESIGN..................................12 3................................................................................................................................................................5 1.................................................................................... HOPPING EXPANSION......................4 HISTORY OF REVISIONS....................Frequency Hopping Deployment Process TABLE OF CONTENTS SIGN-OFF FORM...................................................................................................................13 4.........3.....

..................................................7 FIGURE 2: COVERAGE PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED BEFORE FREQUENCY HOPPING IMPLEMENTATION................................9 FIGURE 4: NEW FREQUENCY PLAN FOR SYNTHESISER FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORKS............................................................................Frequency Hopping Deployment Process TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: DIAGRAM OF ACTIVITIES FOR FREQUENCY HOPPING DEPLOYMENT......................................................................................13 Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 3 ..................................................12 FIGURE 6: AREA OF INFLUENCE SURROUNDING THE HOPPING AREA...................10 FIGURE 5: REPRESENTATIVE AREA SELECTED FOR INITIAL DEPLOYMENT OF FREQUENCY HOPPING......8 FIGURE 3: MODIFICATION OF ANTENNA DOWN-TILTS IN THE SYSTEM.......................................................................................................................

1998 Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 4 . 1998 Date: 24th Dec.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process SIGN-OFF FORM Author: Revised: Fernando Sancho Roberto García Signature: Signature: Date: 24th Dec.

Frequency Hopping Deployment Process HISTORY OF REVISIONS Revision 0.1 Date 23/12/98 Author Fernando Sancho Revised by Roberto García Javier Escamilla Roberto García Changes Description First version 0.2 24/12/98 Fernando Sancho Changes in the structure and explaining comments Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 5 .

although could be also helpful in standard fixed frequency networks. INTRODUCTION The present document describes the process that must be followed to implement Frequency Hopping in a system. These activities are essential prerequisites for a successful performance of a frequency hopping network and. The initial state of the network is assumed to be a system with fixed frequency plan. they are more critical when frequency hopping is enabled because of the tight reuses associated to it.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process 1. and describes the list of steps with some aspects to be considered. and the list of steps will include actions carried out at different stages of the system: • • • Preliminary actions before Frequency Hopping implementation Frequency Hopping activation Optimisation and monitoring phases after the deployment This document will propose a method of deployment. Additional information and details required to carry out some of the mentioned activities can be found in the following available documents: [1] “Network optimisation based on CTP” by ANDC [2] “Frequency hopping for capacity and quality improvement” by ANDC [3] “Capacity enhancement with SFH 1x1” by ANDC Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 6 .

there are some characteristics and aspects that the system must have in order to be able to reach all the benefits with frequency hopping implementation. the process of implementation. Figure 1 shows a diagram with the standard activities that will be required during the FH deployment process. These two advantages permit to improve the quality in the systems and give the possibility of increasing the capacity. Calls tend to experience and "average" quality rather than extremes of good and bad quality. analysis and optimisation need to be done correctly in order not to impact the performance of the system during the process. taking advantage of the frequency selective nature of the fading. In spite of the successful results achieved in the SFH implementations showing its robustness and utility in all kind of scenarios. FIXED SYSTEM FREQUENCY HOPPING SYSTEM Database Optimisation (HO & PC) Performance Monitoring Cell Coverage Optimisation Design BCCH and Hopping Plans Frequency Hopping Implementation Advanced Features Introduction Frequency Hopping Optimisation Figure 1: Diagram of activities for frequency hopping deployment A set of actions need to be performed before the configuration of frequency hopping in the cells.1.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process 2. Following these preliminary phases. PREREQUISITES Frequency hopping provides important improvements to the performance of a GSM system as a consequence of the two key effects: • • Increased immunity to fading: Consequence of frequency diversity achieved with frequency hopping. the first steps will permit to prepare the network and put it on the best conditions for frequency hopping to make its best in terms of quality and capacity improvements. it is true that the characteristics of the network will determine in a certain degree the importance of the results. Interference averaging: Achieved because the set of calls interfering with the wanted call may be continually changing. in order to ensure good performance and ensure successful performance of the system. COVERAGE OPTIMISATION Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 7 . Keeping in mind this objective. 2. In particular.

Cell Over-shooting: Particularly harmful are the situations where the signal of a cell reaches areas far away from the site with high level. Apart from the software features such as Power Control. The most important situations that should be addressed are shown in figure 2. where there is no dominant server are potential spots of bad quality. a call potentially receives interference from a small number of calls whereas the number of potential interfering cells in a system with frequency hopping is higher. In an environment with tight reuse pattern.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process In high traffic areas. causing downlink interference. the Carrier to Interference ratio (C/I) may vary a lot among calls. that help in this kind of scenario. In the cases where the level is high • • Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 8 . the quality and capacity of the system are limited by the interference caused by frequency reuse. Overshooting Communication Interference Hole Overlap Figure 2: Coverage problems to be solved before frequency hopping implementation • Coverage holes: Places with no coverage or low level coverage. the maximum capacity of a system is calculated based on a given percentage of calls subject to a noticeable quality degradation due to interference. In a system. its level. the topology of the network and the design play an important role. Excessive Overlap: Cells covering an area bigger than the zone where they are dominant and serving. are radiating useless power to areas where other cells are serving. It is very important to control and restrict the coverage of the cells to the useful zone where the cell effectively is the server. The most usual problems that affect the coverage on the network and degrade the quality provided to the subscriber need to be solved before frequency hopping implementation. etc. otherwise they will be more noticeable and the performance will be negatively impacted. Radiation introduced in points where the cell is not required to serve represent interference. and hence higher noise (interference) level. this unnecessary overlap is directly translated into interference. that is more harmful as the frequency reuse becomes tighter. Standard frequency reuses implemented with frequency hopping are one-site reuse (normally referred as 1x3) or one-cell reuse (normally referred as 1x1). This points need to be identified and new sites can be required to provide extra coverage. Discontinuous Transmission. For planning purposes. The principle based on which capacity can be increased with Frequency Hopping is to spread the interference among many calls of a potential interfering cell instead of a single one as in a conventional fixed system and to reuse the frequencies more closely. a clear dominant server cell needs to be identified everywhere. such as big cities. In a conventional fixed plan system. The interference level changes depending on whether the frequency is being used by another call in some nearby cell and also according to the distance with the interference source. etc. When the same frequencies are reused in all the sites (1x3 reuse) or even in all the cells (1x1 pattern). and receiving uplink interference from mobiles far away. This situation of tighter reuse patterns and more potential interfering cells leads to an interference environment where the performance of the system is determined by the possibilities to keep interference under control.

especially harmful in the uplink path because these cells receive the signal from a big amount of mobiles. height. Basically. Avoid undesired over-shooting effects. need to be reviewed to adjust them to the current state of the network (most of the times re-engineering tasks are not carried out in the existing sites when new ones are put in service). Balance the carried traffic between neighbour cells because the area to be covered between them is divided with the same weight per cell. hills. Figure 3 shows an schema of the benefit that will be achieved by recalculating the antenna tilts. The coverage in these scenarios will improve at the same time that the quality. focusing the power radiated in a limited and welldefined area. pointing out all the problems listed below and suggesting a method to correct them. characteristics as antenna beam-width. in the fist stages of the network evolution. Figure 3: Modification of antenna down-tilts in the system The objectives of this coverage adjustment plan are the following ones: • • • • Reduce the global interference level in the system and permit tighter reuse patterns. to make big coverage areas have become umbrella cells as the network density has increased. etc. • Umbrella Cells: Some particular sites placed in high areas. Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 9 . Excluding possible requirements of new sites or cells. Improve the in-building penetration. A methodology to optimise the coverage of the cells. and taking part of the traffic that should be carried by lower and closer sites. etc. but the most important and easiest activity is the down-tilt adjustment on the antennae in order to tailor the coverage to the useful area (changes of antenna type can also be required in some cases). has been developed based on CTP tool.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process enough to make this cell be the server. The level of interference caused by this kind of cells is very high. A detailed description of the process is included in the document reference [1]. all the situations described will be addressed with an appropriate analysis of the antennae systems. down-tilt. mobiles transmit high power introducing very high uplink interference in the surrounding cells. Lowering some high sites will eliminate umbrella cells and reduce interference in some cases. They are creating areas with total overlap between cells.

down-tilting them. so the frequencies used for BCCH will be permanently on the air with maximum power. the first action is to separate the spectrum available for the frequency plan into two different sub-bands that will be dedicated independently for BCCHs and hopping groups. 2. The frequency planning is easier having different groups of frequencies to implement the two reuse patterns. The interference that these carriers can introduce in the • Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 10 . needs to be checked in order to decide the power adjustment required to have the cells well balanced. The neighbour lists of the cells need to be optimised in order to exclude neighbours that are useless after the coverage optimisation.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process 2. changing the antenna type. Figure 4 describes the methodology involved. • Call trace data analysis with CTP tool and neighbour statistics will supply the information required to carry out these activities. The implementation of frequency hopping requires particular aspects to be considered whilst doing the frequency plan. reducing the height of some antennae. being tighter the hopping pattern. Features very useful for hopping like power control and discontinuous transmission are not available on BCCH carriers.3. by adding new sites. particularly the ones modified in the coverage optimisation phase. the power transmitted by the BTS can be increased to the maximum value because the energy is focussed to the useful coverage area. The different behaviour of the fixed frequencies and the frequency hopping justifies this distribution: • The frequency reuse used for hopping and non-hopping carriers is different. it is necessary to check two particular aspects: • When the antennae are down-tilted and the coverage is limited and concentrated in a determined area. etc. NEW FREQUENCY PLAN DESIGN One of the most important tasks required to deploy frequency hopping is to redesign a new frequency plan. n channels m channels TCH BCCH C A B C A B D FE I G H J L K Figure 4: New frequency plan for synthesiser frequency hopping networks For the case of synthesiser frequency hopping. The redefinition of the coverage areas will require modifications in the neighbour topology. TOPOLOGY OPTIMISATION As a consequence of the redesign of the network structure. The path-balance of the cells.2.

according to the hopping reuse pattern. According to the number of frequencies dedicated for the plan and the reuse pattern to be implemented. The last step is to assign a hopping group to every cell in the system trying to configure the selected hopping pattern (this task will be conditioned by the irregularities of the network). Frequency hopping carriers will be planned with the different hopping groups defined. so particularities of the network will be considered to estimate the minimum number of frequencies to be dedicated for this purpose (a good compromise solution needs to be adopted considering the amount of spectrum available). and a hopping sequence for the cell or site. For base band hopping systems other different distributions of the spectrum can be valid because it is quite similar to a fixed frequency plan. • The frequency hopping plan is made on a per cell (hopping carriers only) basis. which is based on the MAIO parameter. meaning that all the hopping carriers use the same group of frequencies. It is advisable to have a quite clean BCCH plan. The frequency band dedicated for hopping will be distributed in 3 groups (1x3 pattern) or used as a unique group (1x1 pattern). Adaptive (non-regular) frequency hopping plans are a possible alternative still under study. An additional step is required to design a MAIO plan for the hopping configuration. Further information about detailed frequency hopping planning can be found in the references [2] and [3]. the frequency plans for BCCH carriers and hopping is designed: • BCCH carriers will typically follow a 4x3 or 5x3 pattern.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process system will seriously affect the hopping performance in case that the same frequencies are reused for hopping and non-hopping. An important point in frequency hopping planning is the differentiation among all the hopping carriers. Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 11 .

Preparation of the new databases with the changes required by the hopping system. this initial zone is expanded.) in order to have the possibility to extrapolate the results to the entire network. Benchmarking of the reference system (configuration before hopping implementation). region. the following aspects need to have been covered: • • • • Definition of the objectives expected with frequency hopping implementation. etc. DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY This chapter refers to the real implementation of frequency hopping in the network: The BCCH and hopping plans previously designed are implemented in the system. The intention is to reproduce the same situation at low scale.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process 3. Figure 5: Representative area selected for initial deployment of frequency hopping The main requirement for this area is to be representative of the whole system (city. Definition of evaluation criteria to assess the quality and performance of the hopping system. INITIAL DEPLOYMENT As mentioned before. This initial deployment will allow to customise hopping parameters to the specific characteristics of the network. the fist contact with frequency hopping is normally the implementation in a test scenario configured by a representative area within the network. Some valuable indications can be: Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 12 . Normally the vast deployment of frequency hopping is initiated in a representative area and after performance evaluation and introduction of possible corrections over standard parameters if required. Figure 5 represents the situation. so the characteristics of the selected area must be the same as the ones of the system.1. Some indications about this initial implementation and further expansion will be given next. At the deployment stage. 3.

15 to 20 sites are a reasonable and representative size. It is quite common to optimise this mechanism in the hopping system.2. The external interference affecting the test area and originated by the surrounding sites must be avoided or at least minimised. The BCCH plan in the isolation area must follow the same plan used for the hopping area. Power control is a feature that must be used with frequency hopping. and that must be set quite aggressive in order to power down both BTS and mobile to the minimum power required. The configuration of the sites in this area must be the standard one used in the network. Normally the negative influence will be noticeable from the external zone (without hopping) towards the hopping area.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process • The size of the area must be big enough to reach meaningful conclusions. Two main action points can be considered: 1. • • It is very important to pay some attention to the area surrounding the selected zone (see Figure 6). to avoid that any hopping frequency be interfered by an external BCCH carrier. In case this is not possible. Figure 6: Area of influence surrounding the hopping area As mentioned in previous chapters. to avoid the interference in the borders between the hopping area and the surrounding non-hopping zones. and the traffic load should be similar to the average carried by the system. This area must be as much isolated as possible. so particular considerations are advisable to be taken into account. 3. HOPPING EXPANSION Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 13 . at least the frequency should not be included in the hopping sequence used in the cell that receives direct interference from outside. considering that the border of the area must be excluded from the conclusions because of the interaction with the rest of the system. in order to minimise the interaction between them. The frequencies used for non-hopping TCH in the external cells pointing at the hopping area should not reuse any frequency of the hopping band. The reference documents [2] and [3] detail more optimisation actions to be done at the time of frequency hopping implementation. 2. so any action taken to reduce the interference level is advisable. the scenario configured by frequency hopping is ruled by the interference.

Frequency Hopping Deployment Process After the first implementation of frequency hopping in a selected area. the gains and benefits will be higher. The normal process is to expand the hopping area with homogeneous configuration to defined geographical areas (cities.). etc. because the border effects will be minimised. because the whole area uses the same pattern. regions. Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 14 . the experience and knowledge acquired will be used to expand the area and deploy the hopping in bigger areas. Apart from the benefits in terms of quality and performance achieved with the expansion of hopping. As the size of the area with hopping becomes bigger. it is important the reduction in planning work. so there is no co-existence of different patterns.

Modifications in the quality thresholds for handovers and power control. OPTIMISATION The process described for introduction of frequency hopping. Specific SDCCH placement These activities are described more in detail in references [1]. Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 15 .Frequency Hopping Deployment Process 4. Changes in the assignment of the hopping groups to the cells. any irregularity in the network will introduce a disturbance in the hopping scheme. At this point. optimisation tasks can be required to improve the quality. provided that it is correctly done. guarantees a good performance of the system with significant improvements in quality and advantages for capacity. [2] and [3]. In spite of that. so impacting in a certain degree the performance. Modifications of the hopping groups by increasing the number of frequencies in the list. The most common modifications introduced at this point are: • • • • Frequency changes on BCCH carriers. Higher improvement of the performance can be achieved by enabling specific features designed for frequency hopping systems: • • • Separate RxQual thresholds for hopping and non-hopping carriers Priority per carrier.

A clean and well-done frequency plan will determine directly the quality of the system. The activities that normally are required in a hopping system have been put sequentially in the right order to achieve a quicker and secure deployment of this technique in a live network. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The process described in this document is the result of a vast experience obtained from different frequency hopping networks. To have the interference under control through down-tilt optimisation and antenna changes is a guarantee for success of the frequency hopping system. Uncontrolled radiation causes an important increase in the interference of the system that degrades the quality and limits the capacity increase possibilities. specially the prerequisites to accomplish before the deployment. The other important aspect is the frequency planning. in order to get the maximum benefit of this powerful technique. Advanced Network Development Centre MOTOROLA CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Page 16 . It is strongly recommended to follow the steps described.Frequency Hopping Deployment Process 5. Coverage optimisation can be considered the most critical and important task.

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