CURS PRACTIC DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

VERBUL

1. CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE 2. LECŢIA 1 - TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 3. LECŢIA 2 - CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR 4. LECŢIA 3 - MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE 5. LECŢIA 4 - VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ 6. LECŢIA 5 - DIATEZA PASIVĂ 7. LECŢIA 6 - VERBELE MODALE 8. LECŢIA 7 - MODUL SUBJONCTIV 9. LECŢIA 8 - MODURILE NEPERSONALE ŞI CONSTRUCŢIILE VERBALE 10. LECŢIA 9 - CHEIA EXERCIŢIILOR 10.1 Timpurile modului 10.2. Exerciţii cu concordanţa timpurilor 10.3. Exerciţii cu fraze condiţionale 10.4. Exerciţii cu vorbirea directă şi indirectă 10.5. Exerciţii cu diateza pasivă 10.6. Exerciţii cu verbe modale 10.7. Exerciţii cu modul subjonctiv 10.8. Exerciţii cu construcţii verbale 11. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE
Verbul constituie coloana vertebrală a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleză – verbul” (cu exerciţii şi cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretică – prezentarea clară şi sistematică a modurilor, timpurilor, concordanţei timpurilor, verbelor modale şi a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple şi traducere), precum şi o parte practică cu exerciţii la fiecare capitol şi la sfârşitul cărţii au fost incluse cheia exerciţiilor şi lista verbelor neregulate întâlnite în cadrul exemplelor şi exerciţiilor. Prezentarea teoretică a problemelor este făcută în limba română.

LECŢIA 1
TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV
Există două aspecte în limba engleză: simplu şi continuu. În general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe acţiunea propriu-zisă, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata acţiunii, pe perioada de timp în care aceasta are loc. În explicarea întrebuinţării timpurilor continue se va întâlni formularea „acţiune în plină desfăşurare”. Aceasta înseamnă că acţiunea a început înainte de momentul la care se face referire şi va continua după acel moment. Există un număr de verbe în limba engleză care nu se folosesc la forma continuă, deoarece ideea de durată e inclusă în conţinutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know.

A. Present Tense Simple
Afirmativ I work. You work. He/she/it works. We work. You work. They work. I You He/she/it We You They Negativ do not (don’t) do not (don’t) does not (doesn’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) work. work. work. work. work. work.

Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work?

Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune regulată, obişnuită, în perioada prezentă. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?)

Afirmativ I am working. . Negativ I am not working. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjugă verbul „to be” la timpul prezent şi se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. They are working. pentru a arăta o acţiune repetată.I am a student. De asemenea. My father is taking me in his car. În acest caz. He/she/it is working. You are not (aren’t) working. Where are you going? I am going to school. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always. You are always losing your things. You are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune în plină desfăşurare în momentul prezent. We are working. They are not (aren’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are working. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. poate arăta o acţiune care se desfăşoară pe timp limitat în perioada prezentă. I go to school by bus this week. există o conotaţie afectivă (nemulţumire) sau acţiunea respectivă este caracteristică pentru acea persoană. You are working.

Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 3. 5. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. You (dream) at night? Yes. My mother is resting. 10. 3. a poseda”. 10. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Continuous) la negativ şi interogativ: 1. 10. I understand you. 11. I (dream) every night. 6. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. We are studying English. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. I always (write) to him on his birthday. You are typing a letter. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. 5. 2. I (be). He remembers my phone number. 2. 6. You play the piano very well. 2. In England it often (rain). to have a party). They are swimming in the river. I have lunch at one o’clock. . formează negativul şi interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do”. I trust my friend. 2. 9. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. 9. 4. You (write) to John now? Yes. 4. 3. 5. It is raining. to have a shower. 9. I am having a walk. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Simple) la interogativ şi negativ: 1. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). 7. ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast.EXERCIŢII cu Present Simple şi Present Continuous: 1. You (like) this book? 8. 12. My friend is wearing a new dress. 7. 8. 8. I always believe you. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. atunci când nu înseamnă „a avea. The child is learning to play the piano. Notă: Verbul „to have”. I love my brother. He is telling the truth. She talks too much. I (not like) that boy. 6. 4. Ann is knitting. 7.

I always (have) a rest after lunch. Ce carte citeşti? 10. Ce faci tu în zilele libere? 12. Eu nu studiez seara. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John.Paste Tense. 14. 17. forma II . as usual. 16. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 8. Ce faci? Citeşti sau priveşti la televizor? 5. Clientul tocmai îşi alege o pereche de pantofi. Ea merge la cumpărături sâmbăta. 15. Secretara tocmai bate la maşină un referat. La ce oră se scoală John dimineaţa? 11. of course. 20. Dacă verbul este neregulat. except Saturdays and Sundays. Iarna ninge. 16. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. 4. 6. Cui îi telefonezi? 13. but he is late. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back.You (know) what time is it? 4. as I (not want) to miss the first act. forma III – participiul trecut to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ . B. 9. Cât de des le scrii părinţilor tăi? 18. 2. 18. Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de bază ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. merge pe jos. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. Ea îşi face bagajul. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. Nu-mi place cafeaua. 7.13. El nu merge la şcoală cu metroul. Când merg la mare îmi place să înot mult. You (go) to work every day? Yes. 3. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate: to work – worked. Adesea citesc cărţi englezeşti. 14. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Acum îmi fac temele la engleză. Duminica el nu se scoală devreme. 19. 19.

work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută, terminată, efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută, terminată. Este timpul de naraţiune. Se traduce, de obicei, cu perfectul compus. Yesterday I went for a walk. (Ieri am mers la plimbare.) Last year I travelled to England. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.) Past Tense Continuous Se formează prin conjugarea verbului „to be” la trecut (Past Tense) şi adăugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I was working. You were working. He/she/it was working. We were working. You were working. They were working. Negativ I was not working. You were not working. He/she/it was not working. We were not working. You were not working. They were not working. Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Interogativ Was I working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were we working? Were you working? Were they working?

Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment din trecut. Se traduce, de obicei, cu imperfectul. This time yesterday, I was watching TV. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor.) Adesea, în aceeaşi frază, este posibil să apară un verb folosit la Past Continuous şi un verb folosit la Past Simple. În acest caz, verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul), reprezintă fundalul de timp pe care se petrece acţiunea exprimată de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). While I was crossing the street, I met John. Este, de asemenea, posibil să apară într-o frază timpul Past Continuous în mod repetat. În această situaţie, ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul, ele arătând acţiuni paralele, în plină desfăşurare, într-un moment trecut. While John was reading, his sister was watching TV. (În timp ce John citea, sora lui privea la televizor.)

EXERCIŢII cu Past Tense Simple şi Continuous:
1. Puneţi verbele din urmatoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple: 1. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 2. He meets John on Sundays. 3. You speak English well. 4. You drink too much. 5. You ask too many questions. 6. I play football. 7. I own two umbrellas. 8. I like to have a coffee in the morning. 9. That sounds interesting. 10.I always make cakes on Sundays. 2. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii la negativ şi interogativ: 1. He thought about you. 2. They drank all the wine. 3. I hated him. 4. He changed his library book every day. 5. I sold my car. 6. We worked very hard. 7. He came home late. 8. I enjoyed travelling. 9. He translated the text. 10. He forbade her to do this. 3. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. When you (come in), I talk on the phone. 2. When I first (meet) him, he (work) in a bank.

3. While he (learn) to drive, he (have) an accident. 4. As I (write), someone (ring up). 5. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. When I (enter) the classroom, the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 8. When I (arrive), she (have) dinner. 9. This time last Sunday, I (watch) a film on TV. 10.He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. 4. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseară. 2. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecută? 3. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de înot. 4. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineaţă. 5. Duminica trecută prietenii mei au jucat şah. 6. Ieri pe vremea asta plouă. 7. Ce făceai marţea trecută la ora 7 dimineaţa? 8. Mă pregăteam să merg la facultate. 9. În timp ce îmi căutam paşaportul am găsit această fotografie veche. 10. Băieţii jucau cărţi când l-au auzit pe tatăl lor intrând în casă. 11. Ei au ascuns imediat cărţile şi şi-au scos manualele de şcoală. 12. Când te-ai întors de la munte? 13. Când ai cumpărat acest televizor? 14. Ieri mi-am pierdut mănuşile. 15. Bătea un vânt puternic când am ieşit din casă. 16. Unde ţi-ai petrecut concediul vara trecută? 17. Ieri m-am sculat devreme, mi-am luat micul dejun şi apoi am plecat la şcoală. 18. Acum două zile am căzut şi mi-am rupt piciorul. 19. Săptămâna trecută am fost bolnav şi nu am mers la şcoală. 20. El a dat primul examen săptămâna trecută. 21. Cine a câştigat meciul alaltăieri? 22. În timp ce ploua, eu conduceam maşina spre Sinaia.

C. Present Perfect Simple
Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent, la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I have worked. You have worked. He/she/it has worked. We have worked. You have worked. They have worked.

dacă se menţionează momentul trecut în care a avut loc acţiunea care interesează în prezent sau care are rezultate în prezent. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp neterminată. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai văzut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella. care are rezultate în prezent sau care. El arată o legătură între trecut şi momentul prezent. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. I must buy a new one. (Nu l-am văzut pe John de două luni. În acest caz. this month. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. Trebuie să-mi cumpăr una nouă.) I didn’t get up early this morning.Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. I haven’t got up early this morning. I lost my umbrella yesterday. timp de). dintr-un motiv sau altul. terminată.) I have known John since 1990. începând din) şi for (de. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. Se foloseşte cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leagă trecutul de prezent.) • arată o acţiune trecută. (Nu l-am văzut pe John din septembrie. arată o acţiune trecută. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. întrucât „when” reprezintă un moment precizat în trecut. I have seen two films this week. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat în trecut. • . Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relaţie. De asemenea. (Am văzut două filme săptămâna aceasta. dacă se pune o întrebare referitoare la trecut care începe cu „when”. this week. (Îl cunosc pe John de doi ani. În acest caz. (Îl cunosc pe John din 1990. folosirea timpului verbal este condiţionată de momentul în care se face afirmaţia.) Trebuie precizat faptul că. I haven’t seen John for two months. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. se foloseşte Past Simple. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepoziţiile since (din. this year.) I haven’t seen John since September. I must buy a new one.) I have known John for two years. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. interesează în prezent. folosirea lui este însoţită de adverbe precum: today. dacă aceasta este în cursul dimineţii (până la ora 12) sau după amiază. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseşte în următoarele situaţii: arată o acţiune începută în trecut care continuă până în prezent.) • Dacă adverbul de timp este „this morning”.) Traducerea celor două propoziţii în limba română este identică.

(El nu s-a întors încă acasă. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce în româneşte fie cu prezentul. cu accent pe durată. If it doesn’t stop soon. I have never been to England. poate arăta probabilitatea ca acţiunea începută în trecut. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba română. să continue şi în viitor. They have been working. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodată în Anglia?) No. Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. He/she/it has been working. (Plouă de 3 ore. ever. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârşitul propoziţiei: lately. We have been working. seldom. I am tired because I have been working all day. care continuă în prezent. (Nu l-am văzut în ultimul timp. (Sunt obosit pentru că am muncit toată ziua.Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aşează între auxiliar şi verb: often.) După cum se poate observa. just. în funcţie de context. între un moment trecut şi prezent. Afirmativ I have been working. He hasn’t returned home yet. we shall have floods. You have been working. already. never.) De asemenea. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. It has been raining for three hours. You have been working. He has not (hasn’t) been working. fie cu perfectul compus. yet (în propoziţii negative). . always. Dacă nu se opreşte în curând.) Ca şi Present Perfect Simple. I have often been to England. vom avea inundaţii. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare. Present Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. Yes.) I haven’t seen him lately.

5. I (water) the flowers. 3. 10. I just (have) one. When you (use) it last? . 5.How long you (live) here? 22. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple în locul infinitivelor: 1.You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. 12.You ever (drive) a car? 17. I (buy) a new house. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. You (water) the flowers? 3. 4. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. I (lose) my pen. 11. We (know) each other for several years. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 16.He always (rely on) his friend.I (live) here for one year.You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19.I (not be) to the seaside this year. she (try) to make trouble.It (not rain) since December.m. 21. No. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days.You ever (eat) caviar? 14. I already (see) this film. 9. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. He (not come) home yet. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. You (not see) it anywhere? No. 2.EXERCIŢII cu Present Perfect Simple şi Continuous: 1.He (sleep) for 10 hours now. I haven’t. Would you like a cake? 7. The radio (play) since 7 a. 2. 10. 2. He just (leave) home. I (lend) him some money today. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. 18. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. When are you going to do it? 12. I’m tired of it.He (not go) to bed yet. 4. You must come and see it.I (not write) to my friend for three months. 15. 6. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. 8. 7. Ever since that woman came to work here. I (cook) all the morning. It’s time we woke him up. 3. 11. thank you.

18. 12. l-am luat la ora 8. 2. Nu am mers la vot. 13. 11. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. I (get) a job last month. am petrecut o lună aici.La ce te-ai uitat? 15. 4. 4. Past Perfect Simple Se formează cu verbul „to have” la Past Tense Simple. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. De cât timp înveţi engleza? 5. 9. You (be) out of work long? 5. Vremea s-a încălzit în ultimul timp. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. 16. Afirmativ I had worked. 8. 8. 6. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. Da. 7. am mers arareori pe jos la slujbă. M-am gândit adesea să-mi iau carnet de conducere. la care se adaugă forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. De când mi-am cumpărat maşina. Ţi-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). Unde ţi-ai petrecut vacanţa anul acesta? 3. Am stat acasă şi nu am regretat nici o clipă.succeed). a plecat acum o oră.A fost un accident. A plecat John? 20. 7. . I (try) last year but I (not 3. 14. You (see) your mother this week? No. 23. 11. D. Da.It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. Ei lucrează la această casă de un an şi nu au terminat-o încă. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. 10. El a scris numai două scrisori de când a plecat în străinătate. I am not out of work now. 21. 6. Cine te-a învăţat să vorbeşti engleza atât de bine? 2. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. Ai văzut ziarul de azi? 19. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. El este ministru de doi ani. 9.Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Un copil a spart geamul. acum doi ani.Da. 10. Am mers pe jos 10 km până acum. 25. Traduc un text de două ore şi nu l-am terminat încă. Ninge de două ore. 4. Trebuie să-l înlocuim. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. Ai mai fost în acest oraş? 24.

în acest caz. ca şi Present Perfect.) He said it had been raining for three days. Past Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se păstrează la toate persoanele. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus.) Ca sens. Este. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente trecute. she had been typing for one hour. ea bătea la maşină de o oră. terminasem de scris temele. Arată o acţiune trecută care a avut loc înaintea unei alte acţiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. este vorba de o relaţie între două momente trecute. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeaşi formă la toate persoanele.) When you rang me up.) . un verb de relaţie. (Când mi-ai telefonat. he got bored. s-a plictisit. (Când el a intrat în cameră. When he entered the room.Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. Afirmativ I had been working. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. (După ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. dar. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua funcţiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous în propoziţia secundară. echivalentul în limba română al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. (El a spus că plouă de 3 zile. când în aceeaşi frază în propoziţia principală se află un verb la Past Tense. De asemenea. I had finished writing my homework.

Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. When we met them. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. we (climb) for 7 hours.When we arrived at Sinaia. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba română. 5. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 9. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. they drank some coffee. 2. she (study) the subject for a week. When she sat for the exam. When I left home. 9. 3. When I arrived home.The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. When we reached the top. Mi-a părut rău că îl jignisem. 4. When she decided to have a rest. 4. 7. 2. we (realize) we (lose) our way. she felt chilly. . 3. 8. 10. 9. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. 10. 7. 6. 5. it (rain) for one hour. She said she already (be) to England. After they (finish) dinner. 10. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. After John (leave). He asked me whether I (meet) John before. I realized she (have) a party. EXERCIŢII cu Past Simple şi Continuous: 1. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. 5.După cum se observă. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. After we (walked) for an hour. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. When I rang her up. El mi-a mulţumit pentru ceea ce făcusem pentru el. she (write) letters for one hour. mother (cook) for two hours. 6.When I (find out) he (get married). 2. When I called on her unexpectedly. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. 2. 4. 4. 8. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 7. 6. 2. At 3 o’clock on Friday. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. I (return) from school. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). Puneţi verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. 3. 8. 3.

You will not go. iar pentru „will not” este won’t. Future Tense Simple Se formează cu shall sau will la persoana I. Nu ţi-am telefonat pentru că am crezut că plecaseşi în străinătate. They will not go. Negativ I (shall) will not go. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. 10. 4. 9. acasă. De îndată ce au plecat musafirii. Acest timp arată o acţiune viitoare obişnuită. (Îl voi întâlni săptămâna viitoare. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumătate de oră. You will go. El nu făcuse nimic înainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. am mers la culcare. Ei au călătorit în multe ţări după ce s-au căsătorit. I (shall) will meet him next week. 6. He/she/it will not go.3. mi-am dat seama că îmi lăsasem poşeta 7. We (shall) will not go. Forma scurtă pentru „shall not” este shan’t. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. They will go. se foloseşte numai „shall”.) Future Continuous . 5. Ei mi-au spus că locuiau în Franţa din 1980. 8. Afirmativ I (shall) will go. E. a înmânat-o profesorului. We (shall) will go. Interogativ Shall I go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul că la interogativ persoana I. Când am ajuns la staţia de autobuz. will la persoana II şi III. You will go. He/she/it will go. You will not go. De îndată ce a terminat de scris lucrarea.

Interogativ Shall I be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. (have + forma III).Se formează cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be”. He/she/it will have gone. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. He/she/it will not be going. . la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Negativ I (shall) will not be going.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. They will not be going. Future Perfect Simple Se formează cu shall sau will. You will be going. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. (Mâine la ora 3 voi călători spre Anglia. We (shall) will be going. You will not be going. You will have gone. At three o’clock. You will have gone. They will have gone. He/she/it will be going. I will be travelling to England. They will be going. We (shall) will not be going. We (shall) will have gone. You will be going. You will not be going.

Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente viitoare. He/she/it will not have gone. Afirmativ I (should) would go. They will not have gone. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. We (should) would not go. (Mâine până la ora 3 voi fi ajuns la Predeal. We (shall) will not have gone. I (shall) will have been going. He/she/it would not go. He/she/it would go. We (should) would go. You would not go. You would go. When you come home. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba română. They would go. You would go. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arată o acţiune anterioară unei alte acţiuni sau unui moment viitor. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formează cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). By three o’clock tomorrow. Este un timp rar folosit. Când vei veni tu acasă.You will not have gone. You would not go. I will have reached Predeal.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be”. . I will have been studying for three hours. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba română. You will not have gone. Negativ I (should) would not go. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de 3 ore. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat.

I (know) the results in three days’ time. 10.) Întrucât nu poate fi întâlnit decât în propoziţii secundare (după un verb la timpul trecut în propoziţia principală).) • Expresia „to be going to” + infinitiv. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. He said he would be late. (El a spus că în ziua următoare. iar cea de la „would not” este wouldn’t. va călători spre Anglia. Într-un astfel de context. I am meeting John this morning. 2. 8. • EXERCIŢII cu timpurile „Future”: 1. Acest timp este folosit în concordanţa timpurilor pentru a arăta o acţiune posterioară unui moment sau unei acţiuni din trecut. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. He (be) pleased if you invite him.) • Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. 3. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. He said that at 3 o’clock. I leave for London tomorrow. 7. You (be) in London tomorrow. Este un timp destul de rar folosit. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât în întrebări disjunctive. I (remember) this day all my life.) It is going to rain. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formează cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be”. . atunci când în principală se află un verb la trecut. I am sure I (succeed). bine stabilit. I am sure you (like) this book. (El a spus că va întârzia. I should (would) be going. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. la ora 3. the next day. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. 6. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. (Voi citi/am de gând să citesc această carte. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Forma scurtă de la „should not” este shouldn’t. Arată de asemenea o intenţie sau o probabilitate. I am going to read this book.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. (Îl întâlnesc/îl voi întâlni pe John în dimineaţa aceasta. Preia funcţiile lui Future Tense Continuous într-o propoziţie secundară.They would not go. arată un program precis. Arată o intenţie. he would be travelling to England. 5. I hope I (pass) the exam.

6. 2. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. E un obiect frumos. If we don’t hurry. Let’s hurry to the beach. This time next month. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. Până anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. . I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. I am sure when I arrive home. voi fi văzut acest film de 5 ori. By the end of the season. Unde îl vei pune? mâine. In a week’s time. we (take) our exam. 10. 7. 3. Ce faci mâine dimineaţă la ora 11? 3. Am cumpărat o maşină de scris şi voi învăţa să bat. it probably (rain). 2. Din cauza grevei şoferilor de autobuze multă lume va merge pe jos la slujbă. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. 8.m. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. When I take the exam. 6. I (swim) in the sea. ei vor avea ultima oră de engleză. 8. I (work) at the office till late at night. Next year. we (climb) the mountain. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1.Don’t expect me home for dinner. 10. 4. This time next day. între orele 12 şi 1. 5. Vineri. 2. She (watch) TV. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 10. the baby (cry). voi fi economisit 5 milioane. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. 7. ea va fi terminat curăţenia în casă. 4. I (pay off) all my debts. I (cook) for two hours. 8. 3. 4. 9. 7. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. Trenul va fi plecat înainte de a ajunge noi la gară. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. 6. 9. 9. 11. Uite ce am cumpărat la o licitaţie! 12. they (be married) for 25 years. 5.By the end of the month. Până la sfârşitul lunii. El va studia în bibliotecă luni de la ora 1 la 5. When you reach Sinaia. By 5 o’clock. 3. I (have) breakfast. He (study) all day tomorrow. 4.2. By the beginning of next week. Voi vizita târgul internaţional. Până la ora 1. By the time you come home. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. I (work) on this paper for a month.

a) Past Tense – acţiune simultană – Past Tense He said he was ill. Ce înseamnă „un timp adecvat” se va vedea în continuare. Propoziţia principală 1. Ea constă în aceea că folosirea unui anumit timp în propoziţia principală obligă la folosirea unui timp adecvat în propoziţia secundară. Futurein-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singură dată. (El a spus că merge la şcoală. (Ea a spus că uitase unde şi-a pus ochelarii. . (El a spus că se întorsese acasă cu o săptămână înainte.) He said he was going to school.LECŢIA 2 CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR Concordanţa timpurilor se aplică.) She promised her mother she would help her. Past Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice alt timp „past”. un timp „present” Present Tense Simple.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining.) Nota 2: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii secundare cu acţiune posterioară celei din principală. ci în fraze. secundara cu acţiunea anterioară celei din principală. (El a spus că este bolnav. Past Tense Continuous. Present Perfect Simple. (Am ajuns acasă după ce încetase ploaia. Present Tense Continuous. (El a spus că va pleca a doua zi. dintre care una este temporală sau condiţională. nu în propoziţii.) b) Past Tense – acţiune anterioară – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. se poate folosi Past Perfect în mod repetat. desigur. Past Perfect Simple. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale că o va ajuta. după care (în temporală sau condiţională) se întrebuinţează Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. Present Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Propoziţia principală Orice timp cerut de sens. un timp „past” Past Tense Simple.) Nota 1: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii.) c) Past Tense – acţiunea posterioară – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. 2.

) 3.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. să ajungă regulă. de exemplu. Future – acţiune anterioară – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasă. (El a spus că va cumpăra o maşină dacă va avea bani. (Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. Când propoziţia secundară este comparativă. sfătuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleză să respecte regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor aşa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. Se poate întâlni. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. (Voi citi această carte când voi avea timp. Future – acţiune simultană – Present I will read this book when I have time. Când propoziţia secundară este atributivă.) Notă: În limba engleză contemporană. Când propoziţia secundară exprimă un adevăr general valabil. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother.) I will have finished studying when you come home.He said he would come to see me when he had time. (Voi merge în Anglia după ce voi obţine viza.) 3.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă după ce va termina lucrul. Pentru moment însă. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinţă de a nu se respecta concordanţa timpurilor atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut.) b.) Excepţii de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. (Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost dată de fratele meu. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me”. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinţă. cu excepţia propoziţiilor temporale sau condiţionale.) 2. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. Situaţiile cel mai des întâlnite sunt următoarele: a. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă când va avea timp. cu timpul. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. (Profesorul le-a spus elevilor că apa fierbe la 100 oC. EXERCIŢII cu concordanţa timpurilor: .

As wages had gone up. When he finally reached London. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 8. 5. 3. 6. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. He promised he (drive) me home. 10. I believed you (be) at the seaside. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. When I heard the main actor was ill. 4. we supposed prices (go up). I congratulated him. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). 7. 2. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. 4. 9. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 5. They didn’t know that I (play) football. She told me his name after he (leave). 10. 7. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 2. too. When it started to rain. 6. având în vedere faptul că propoziţia secundară exprimă o acţiune posterioară celei din principală: 1.1. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. 8. 10. 2. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 7. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. având în vedere simultaneitatea acţiunilor din propoziţia principală şi cea secundară: 1. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. He believed the strike (end) very soon. We all believed he (win) the competition. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 6. After I (hear) the news. 9. 9. 3. ţinând seama de relaţia de anterioritate exprimată de verbul din propoziţia principală sau din cea secundară: 1. 5. 8. I was not sure if you (speak) English. 3. When I arrived. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. It was clear they (talk) business again. He just (leave) home when he came across John. . I understood you (be) a painter. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. 4. Looking out of the window. 2. the concert already (begin). 3.

The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. He told me he never (see) the sea. I shall have typed all the letters. 7. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. 5. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. After you (drink) a coffee. 8. precum şi excepţiile: 1. 4. 19. 3. 10. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. When I (finish) the book. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). you will feel better. 3. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. 18. they will have been married for five years. 15. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). After he (repair) the car. 9. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. 5. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. 20. 5. The train will have left before we (reach) the station.4. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. 14. ţinând seama de excepţiile de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. 13. respectând toate regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. this beach will become very crowded. he will drive to Sinaia. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. When their first baby (be born). she will take a job as a secretary. 3. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 5. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. I will lend it to you. 12. In 1998. After she (learn) to type. . 11. 6. 2. 4. 9. 4. As soon as the holidays (begin). 2. 16. By the time you (finish) translating the text. 6. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. 2. 8. 10. 17. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 7. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. 6. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work.

Nu am stat acasă să te aştept pentru că nu ştiam când vei veni. he decided he (change) his job. they were listening to music. 16. 6. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. 10. He was very upset because I (be) late. 5. 2. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 19. 10. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. Hoţul nu şi-a dat seama că poliţia îl urmărea de o săptămână. Îţi voi spune adevărul după ce îl voi afla eu însămi. 12. 9. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul este ocupat. 15. After having visited Italy. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. not before. . we (drink) coffee and brandy. 8. A week ago. Tata îmi va da un cadou după ce voi lua examenul. 14. 4. When I finally arrived home. I (not decide) yet. 7. 20. Era foarte supărat că îşi pierduse dicţionarul şi nu era sigur că va găsi unul nou în librării. I-am promis că îi voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. When we (go) to see them last night. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. 11. M-a întrebat câte litere sunt în alfabetul chinez şi nu am putut să-i răspund. 7. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. 12. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. I will do it when I (want) to.6. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. LECŢIA 3 MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE Present Conditional (condiţional prezent) Se formează cu should şi would la persoana I şi would la persoanele II şi III. Poliţistul mă va întreba ce am văzut în timpul accidentul. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. la care se adaugă infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. 11. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 3. After we have finished dinner. 13. 9. Ştiam că eşti în Bucureşti. You will never know how much I (suffer). 7. Maşina pe care o voi cumpăra va fi importată din Germania. 18. 17. 8. Nu mi-am amintit că ne cunoscusem cu un an înainte.

He/she/it would not go. You would not have gone. We should/would not go. They would have gone. You would go. He/she/it would go. ai merge. We should/would have gone.Afirmativ I should/would go. You would have gone. He/she/it would not have gone. Afirmativ I should/would have gone. You would not go. Negativ I should/would not go. Interogativ Should I go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Should we go? Would you go? Would they go? Se traduce cu condiţionalul prezent din limba română (aş merge. You would not have gone. Negativ I should/would not have gone.). We should/would not have gone. Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. They would not go. ar merge etc. We should/would go. You would go. . You would have gone. They would not go. You would not go. He/she/it would have gone. Past Conditional (condiţional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). wouldn’t.

suppose. (Aş fi stat acasă dacă ar fi plouat. (Aş merge la mare dacă vremea ar fi bună. Tipul 3: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine.) Tipul 2: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. providing. Frazele condiţionale (If-Clauses) Există trei tipuri de fraze condiţionale: Tipul 1: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. supposing. in case. ar fi mers etc.They would not have gone.) I will stay at home if it rains. unde se întâlneşte forma „were” la toate persoanele. What shall we do.) Nota 1: Trebuie să se ţină seama că subjonctivul folosit în propoziţia secundară are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. (Aş fi mers la mare dacă vremea ar fi fost bună. (Aş sta acasă dacă ar ploua. (Voi sta acasă dacă va ploua. ai fi mers.).) I would stay at home if it rained. Interogativ Should I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu condiţionalul trecut din limba română (aş fi mers.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained.) Nota 2: – if poate fi înlocuit de provided (that). cu excepţia verbului „to be”. (Voi merge la mare dacă vremea va fi bună. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând că el întârzie?) .

I would be nervous. If the police should find out the truth. Unless you study more. atunci când acţiunea din secundară este posibilă. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. 9. would you visit me? 3. If he were more careful. tell her I am out. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. . 8. we would be fined. you will have to look after it. noi am fi amendaţi. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 1: 1. în loc de Present Simple. If I won the lottery. dar improbabilă.. you (be) late. had. If I tell you something. I would ring him up. should poate fi folosit în secundară la tipul 2 de fraza condiţională. If I (move) to the country-side. spune-i că nu sunt acasă. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 10. Unless you come at 6. 2. este posibilă omiterea lui if. If I (know) his phone-number. he (take) a pill. I (buy) a car. dacă s-ar întâmpla ca. 4. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. should se traduce cu: în caz că. If you don’t hurry. 5. she (be) very angry. If she finds out what has happened. were. I (greet) him. (În caz că telefonează. 5. If it (go on) raining. If I like the dress. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 2: 1. 8. If I (give up) smoking. If she should ring up. we shall have floods. should). 7.if not poate fi înlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me.) De asemenea.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. 2. If I see him. 7. you (not pass) the exam. 2. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. (În caz că poliţia ar afla adevărul/Dacă s-ar întâmpla ca poliţia să afle adevărul. Should he have a headache. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. you (not find) me at home. he (not make) so many mistakes. 3. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. În acest caz. If you (take) a dog. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come EXERCIŢII cu fraze condiţionale: 1. Acest tip de secundară este adesea combinat cu imperativul. şi în acest caz se inversează ordinea subiect – auxiliar. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. I (buy) it.

4. Ce vei face dacă îl vei întâlni pe John? 11. 6. Dacă ar fi plouat. I (answer) the phone. If he (realize) it was so late. I (not do) this. It (be) better if you had waited. străzile ar fi ude. Ai prinde trenul dacă ai lua un taxi. Ce-ai fi făcut dacă l-ai fi întâlnit pe John? 6. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 8. 9. 10. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. he would never have known. I would have succeeded. 8. 3. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 3. străzile vor fi ude. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Had I been at home. Te-ai fi supărat dacă ţi-aş fi luat creionul? 10. I (answer) your question if I can. . 2. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. If the child is good. If you had known English. 2. Vei prinde trenul dacă vei lua un taxi. he (get) a bar of chocolate. 6. Had I learned English grammar. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. If I (see) him. 5. If I (be) you. If you (drive) more carefully. If you had taken my advice. I would go home immediately. you wouldn’t have an accident. 10. he would have gone home. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. Dacă va ploua. 3. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 3. 5. If I (work) harder. Te vei supăra dacă îţi voi lua creionul? 8. străzile ar fi fost ude. 7. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. 9. 7. If I (know) you had no driving licence. 10. 4. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. Ce-ai face dacă l-ai întâlni pe John? 12. I (answer) it. ţinând seama că se poate întâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze condiţionale: 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 2. 6. 5. 5. 4. You (be) sick if you eat so much. I would speak to him. If he had written a letter to me. 4. If I (not tell) him. Ai fi prins trenul dacă ai fi luat un taxi. 7. Îl vei vedea dacă îl vei aştepta. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 3: 1.9. you (not get) into trouble. Dacă ar ploua. Te-ai supăra dacă ţi-aş lua creionul? 9. Were I in your place.

în funcţie de sens. 1. 5. Se schimbă pronumele. He said he would do the exercise. voi mânca la un restaurant. He said „I was ill”. He said „I have been working hard. Dacă n-ai fi închis fereastra. Mi-ar plăcea mai mult piesa dacă ar fi mai scurtă. 6.2. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanţă dacă n-ar fi atât de mulţi oameni 10. 3. Dacă cina nu va fi gata la timp. 2. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. i-ai da? Ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă ai fi condus cu viteză mare? Nu vom merge la plimbare dacă nu va sta ploaia. He said „I will do the exercise”. 9. Pentru a trece o propoziţie de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă. 1. He said: „She gave me a book”. 4. Dacă un cerşetor ţi-ar cere bani. He said she had given him a book. ceea ce se întâmplă în majoritatea cazurilor. He said he had been ill. He said he was ill. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week . mi-ar fi fost frig. Atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. acolo. 7. LECŢIA 4 VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ Vorbirea directă: John said: „She is not at home”. în propoziţia secundară se schimbă timpurile după cum urmează: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past He said „I am ill”. Vorbirea indirectă: John said she was not at home. Aş mai croşeta un pulover dacă aş mai avea lână. Voi fi dezamăgit dacă nu voi afla adevărul. Se schimbă o serie de cuvinte în funcţie de sens. 8. He said he had been working hard.

Frazele condiţionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirectă în modul următor: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: „If it rains. Where have you been? I’ve been away. există tentaţia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propoziţiile interogative. He said he would be at home on that day. o tipurile 2 şi 3 nu se schimbă: „If it rained.” He said if itrained he would stay at home. should. He told me not to go out. He asked me if I liked music. Întrucât această propoziţie începe cu un cuvânt interogativ. ought to. He asked me: „What is the time?” Corect: He asked me what the time was. 3. Întrebările speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv.two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there He said: „I’ll be at home today”. Întrebările generale sunt cele care încep cu un verb. I would have stayed at home. Verbele modale would. Întrebările generale se introduc cu if sau whether (dacă). Afirmaţii: cu that (care se poate omite) He said: „I am ill”. Întrebări: există două tipuri de întrebări: generale şi speciale. 3. He said „Don’t go out”. could.He said he might be late. might rămân neschimbate la vorbirea indirectă. trebuie acordată atenţie ordinei cuvintelor din propoziţia secundară. iar răspunsul poate fi da sau nu. . „If it had rained. on holiday. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) He said „Go out”. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Modalităţi de introducere a propoziţiilor secundare în vorbirea indirectă: 1. ceea ce este o greşeală. He told me to go out. He said: „I might be late”.” He said if it rained he would stay at home. 2.” He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. He asked me where I had been. He said (that) he was ill. I will stay at home. I would stay at home. He said he was going to do that translation the next day. În cazul întrebărilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirectă. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow”.

Treceţi următoarele întrebări generale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?” He asked me if I would be at home the next day. Don’t smoke so much! 8. please! 3. 11. Did you buy this book yesterday? 7. 10. I will go shopping right now. I am very busy today. The weather was fine yesterday. 9. Be careful with my books! 7. 1. Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. Do you know what this word means? 5. please! 4. Take this pill! 9.I am going to have a nap this afternoon. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary.EXERCIŢII cu vorbirea directă şi vorbirea indirectă: 1. Were you at the library yesterday? 9. 3. Open the door. Don’t drive so fast! 2. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. Do you live in London for a long time? . John left for Sinaia two days ago. I went to England two years ago. 5. 8. Has the train left? 4. ordered) me to come in. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. 4. Will you help me. 2. Treceţi următoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „Come in!” He told (asked. Read the text. 12. 6. Don’t cross the street on a red light! 6. 7. Treceţi următoarele afirmaţii de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow”. I saw this film a week ago. Write me a letter when you get to England! 5. Was your mother at home? 6. please? 2. 1. 2. 1. Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! 10. Can you come to tea this afternoon? 3. I will buy a car next year. I would have answered the phone. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. If I have enough money. If I had been at home. Did you drink coffee every day? 8.

În limba română. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. Would you like a cake? 12. I had been asked. Treceţi următoarele întrebări speciale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?” He asked me when I had come back. Which of these cakes do you prefer? 10. Unde complementul direct este a book. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. (by me) . How long have you been learning English? 2. I am asked. în unele cazuri. există trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect în transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. I have been asked. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. Why is it so dark in this room? 8.Can you speak English? 11. When did the rain stop? 9. Desigur. la care se adaugă forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat.Could you lend me a book. Who is this man? 7.10. I will be asked. complementul prepoziţional. 1. What are you going to do tomorrow? 3. How long does it take you to reach your office? 4. Where will you spend your weekend? 6. When will you be back? 5. În limba engleză. complementul indirect şi. please? 4. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte în cazul trecerii la pasiv.How did you travel? LECŢIA 5 Pasivul se formează conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. I was asked. iar complementul indirect este him. Activ: I gave him a book. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. trecerea de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă se face prin transformarea complementului direct în subiect. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him.

În propoziţia: In this office they insist on punctuality. Notă: Se poate folosi aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense şi Past Tense. 3. 10. se omite formularea by. People play football all over the world. The teacher asked me a difficult question. 4. de la sfârşitul propoziţiei. 2. Un alt exemplu de complement prepoziţional care poate deveni subiect. EXERCIŢII cu diateza pasivă: 1. A specialist will repair my TV set. 5. I teach them English. 8. when I passed by. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 9. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă în două feluri. pasivul se foloseşte atunci când nu este important cine face acţiunea. In this office punctuality is insisted on. 2. He has found your bag. 10. They are building a new house round the corner. The policeman will show us the way. transformând atât complementul direct cât şi cel indirect în subiecte: 1. 8. 6. my flat was being painted. 7. 3. Treceţi la pasiv următoarele propoziţii care cuprind combinaţii verb + prepoziţie: . poate deveni subiect în cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). 6. They have given me a nice present. They will finish the work today. 7. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. care. punctuality este un complement prepoziţional. my flat is being painted. Activ: She looked after the child. de asemenea. While I was in hospital. 3. În multe cazuri. The noise frightened me. His coworkers must do something for him. 9. În aceste situaţii. Someone has found the missing child. I have lent John two of my books. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. They will give me a reward. While I am in hospital. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). 4. 5. I will invite my friend to a party. 2. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month.

9. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanţa. 5. 2. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie căutate în dicţionar. Burglars broke into the house. 8. He hasn’t slept in his bed. 5. 5. Scrisoarea va fi pusă la poştă cât mai curând posibil. 6. They set fire to the shed. We objected to his proposal. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii de la diateza pasivă la diateza activă. 2. This house has been built out of stone and cement. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. 8. Această informaţie treuie tratată confidenţial. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinţă. 4. 7. 7. 7. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. 3. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 10. These books mustn’t be taken away. The pupils will be told where to sit. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. 4. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. 6. This book will soon be forgotten. They didn’t look after the children properly. În acest hotel se vorbesc limbi străine. English is spoken all over the world. 3. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. We laughed at John. 2. I was recommended a very good doctor. We called for the doctor. Când a ajuns acasă şi-a dat seama că i se furase portofelul.1. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 6. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. Did the tornado frighten you? 5.He hates being made fun of. Will someone tell him the details? 6. 9. A reception was held in his honour. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. 9. . Găsiţi subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. 4. 6. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Ni s-a cerut să arătăm paşapoartele. Have you fed the dog? 7. 8. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toţi studenţii. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 3. 4. 10.

I can swim. înlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. can’t I cannot (can’t) make this translation.) În vorbirea familiară. (Voi şti să conduc maşina după ce voi lua câteva lecţii. Ni se vor da instrucţiuni detaliate în privinţa referatului. could. will. condiţional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I? Could you? etc. He can speak English. prezent. need. would Caracteristici generale • • • • Nu primesc to înaintea lor şi după ele: Can is a model verb.) I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. Nu formează negativul şi interogativul cu „to do”. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. Se folosesc înlocuitori. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense şi condiţionalul prezent. I can do this. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea”. (N-am putut să-ţi telefonez săptămâna aceasta. (Vreau să fac aceasta. 15. ought to. 14. Se traduce cu a şti să. .) 2. Arată o anumită abilitate fizică sau intelectuală.) I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this.) Nu primesc s la persoana III singular.) I can speak English.) Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseşte înlocuitorul to be able to. Can you make this translation? Could Past Tense.11. should. must. Muzeul a fost închis pentru reparaţii. (Ştiu să vorbesc engleza. Nu au toate timpurile.) Could you help me? (Ai putea să mă ajuţi?) Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseşte could + infinitivul trecut He could have been here in time. a fi în stare: I can make this traslation. America a fost descoperită la sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea. (Pot să fac aceasta. shall.) Cu acest sens.Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. may. He cannot (can’t) speak English. Can 1. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi în cartierul nostru. might. 13. Can = infinitiv. (Ar fi putut să fie aici în timp. 12. (Ştiu să înot. (Voi putea veni la tine mâine. prezent Negativ: cannot. LECŢIA 6 VERBELE MODALE can. Are sensul de a putea. (N-am putut să vin la tine ieri.

) Ring up John. to be permitted to. Soarele nu a apus încă. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. (Da. (Telefonează-i lui John.) Cu acest sens. pot/am permisiunea să iau maşina ta?) 3. can I take your car? (Tată. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc înlocuitorii: to be allowed to. You may/might help me when I am in need. . prezent Nu are alte timpuri. May/might pot exprima un reproş. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. se foloseşte infinitivul trecut. He may/might be at home now. poţi.) I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. s-ar putea să plouă. He said I might smoke in that room. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate să. nu e posibil să. (Am putut/mi s-a permis să fumez în cameră aceea. El e în străinătate. se adaugă infinitivul trecut.) Negativ: may not. Se foloseşte înlocuitorul to have to. You might have written me a letter when you were in England.) Must 1.) 3. (Ai fi putut să îmi scrii o scrisoare când erai în Anglia.) 2. (Nu se poate să-l fi văzut pe John pe stradă. (Voi putea/mi se va permite să fumez în camera aceea.) May 1. May/Might – s-ar putea să: Take your umbrella. dar se foloseşte numai după un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirectă). It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. (De ce nu ţi-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut să răceşti.) Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. The sun hasn’t set yet. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. It may/might rain.) Negativ: must not. (Ia-ţi umbrela. a avea permisiunea: May I smoke in this room? (Pot/am permisiunea să fumez în această cameră?) Yes. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. He is abroad.Father. (Nu se poate să fie ora 9. you may. ideea de trecut este redată prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. Are sensul de a putea. Trebuie să plec acasă. S-ar putea să fie acasă acum. prezent Cu acest sens există timpul might care redă ideea de trecut. (Ai putea să mă ajuţi când sunt la nevoie. (S-a făcut târziu. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. I must go home. A trebui: It’s got late.

) • Need: verb modal. (Nu trebuie să conduci atât de repede. Ought to Ambele verbe indică o acţiune corectă. (Probabil că John e acasă acum. cu sensul de a avea nevoie: He doesn’t need this book. You needn’t drive so fast. aici e limita de viteză. o recomandare. (El nu are nevoie de această carte. (Nu. Nu a fost nevoie să facem acest exerciţiu. Profesorul ne-a spus că e prea uşor pentru noi. cu sensul de a fi nevoie: Ca verb modal. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie”. De asemenea. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie să uzi florile.) Should. Hai să mergem acasă. se foloseşte needn’t + infinitivul trecut. se foloseşte didn’t need + infinitivul We didn’t need to do this exercise. ideea de trecut se redă prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. (Probabil că e târziu. you must! (Da. poate avea sensul probabil că: It must be late. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. Notă: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. (Nu e nevoie să conduci atât de repede. Hai să-l vizităm.) Need Există două verbe: • To need: verb obişnuit.) Pentru a răspunde afirmativ la întrebarea de mai sus.) You mustn’t drive so fast. o obligaţie morală.) Trebuie menţionat faptul că înlocuitorul lui must. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. It must have been late. (Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseară.I had to finish the traslation yesterday. (Va trebui să termin traducerea mâine. se foloseşte verbul must. to have to formează interogativul şi negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie”. Let’s call on him. . nu e nevoie. dar a fost făcută. există 2 posibilităţi: • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară. there is a speed limit here. avem destul timp.) I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Let’s go home. you needn’t. need se foloseşte numai la interogativ şi negativ. Probabil că era târziu. (A trebuit să termin traducerea ieri. You needn’t have watered the flowers. we have enough time. noţional. N-ai văzut că urma să plouă? • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară şi nu a fost făcută.) Cu acest sens. ar fi bine să. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. ar fi cazul să.) John must be at home now. Se traduc cu: ar trebui să. Need I be here at one o’clock? (E nevoie să fiu aici la ora 1?) No. 2.

) Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now.în trecut When I was a child. . (Ar trebui să o ajuţi pe mama ta la treburile casei. o obligaţie sau o ameninţare care provin de la cel care vorbeşte. my mother used to read me fairy tales. ideea de acţiune repetată în trecut se poate exprima cu „used to”. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him.în perioada prezentă My mother will sit for hours watching TV. o ofertă sau o sugestie.) This radio won’t work. (Când eram copil. shall indică viitorul. mama obişnuia să-mi citească poveşti. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a îndrăzni) care se conjugă la afirmativ ca un verb obişnuit.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. în timp ce la interogativ şi negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obişnuit cât şi ca modal. (O fi sora ei. interogativ. poate indica. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar dacă nu vei lua examenul. This girl looks very much like Jane. (Această fată seamănă foarte bine cu Jane.) Shall Folosit cu persoana I.You should/ought to help your mother with housework. When I was a child. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. my mother would read me fairy tales. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. Which dress shall I buy? (Ce rochie să cumpăr?) Shall I wait for you? (Să te aştept?) Shall we meet at one o’clock? (Să ne întâlnim la ora 1?) Folosit cu persoanele II şi III. please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. (Nu ar fi trebuit să fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. (Acest copil nu vrea să facă ce-i spun.) She will be her sister. Would • Formula de politeţe.) • Presupunere: se traduce în limba română cu o fi. cerere politicoasă: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. Will. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicletă dacă vei lua examenul.) .) Notă: În afară de „would”. • Acţiune repetată: . (O fi ajuns la Paris până acum. Folosit cu persoana I. shall poate arăta o promisiune. de asemenea. care are numai formă de trecut. solicitarea unui sfat. (Mama mea obişnuieşte să stea ore întregi privind la televizor.

You may not smoke in this room. 5. there is plenty in the fridge. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple şi Future Tense Simple. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. He needn’t buy milk. 12. 7. She can read and write at the age of five. 17. This child may have another cake. 8. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 2. 15. 6. 14. Redaţi ideea de trecut în următoarele propoziţii folosind infinitivul trecut în loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. I must learn English. 8. 5. I must look up the words in the dictionary. It might rain. He ought to tell me the truth. 13. Can you speak Chinese? 18. He must be delayed at the office. 4. Everybody may borrow books from this library. He may be at home. 15. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. You might pay more attention to your work. He should go to school everyday. 3. He may not come in wearing dirty boots. It can’t be too late. 16. You may leave earlier. 14. She can play the piano very well. Can you help me? 9. I must go soon.EXERCIŢII cu verbe modale: 1. 11. 16. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. . Can Jane type very quickly? 17. 6. You might change your mind about that. 10. May I walk on the grass? 11. 13. You needn’t do this. 4. 2. You mustn’t do this . You might write to me more often. 9. 7. He can swim very well. 12. acolo unde este necesar: 1. John must be ill. 19. 10. She can lend you that book. You may not speak to your mother like that. 2. folosind înlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. I cannot translate ten pages a day. 3. Must you be so rude? 20.

I have bought his latest book.18. 7. Man …travel through space now. 5. holidays will be very different. 1. It may/might have snowed in the mountains. 1. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. He is probably older than he looks. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. 4. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. He probably thinks I am wrong. Don’t wait. 3. It is possible for her to be very late. but I doubt it. It may/might snow in the mountains.John could be a winner. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone . He probably came home very early. 5. 5. You must have forgotten to lock the door. 4. 2. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. 3. 9. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 8. 9. Take your umbrella. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. perhaps it is a good one. 6. 7. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. 20. 2. 19. She is probably a very good doctor. 3. 8. It is possible that I come home early. 6. 3. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. perhaps it will rain. 4. 4. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. I think she was angry with you. else. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains. You probably forgot to lock the door. He …even drive on its surface. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. He must speak English well. 2. 10. He was probably late.You have probably forgotten his address. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. 5.

I’ll give you as much as you want.10. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. 9. People … speak during the concert. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. think the weather will change. 4. When I was a teenager. 2. I 6. 6. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. 7. 8. 1. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. 10. You … take sleeping pills too often. believe that he has passed the exam. I … return the books before the 1st of September. 6. believe it was his fault. believe she has married that awful man. 9. I don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t believe it is his fault. 2. 8. I 3. they are addictive. When I was young. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. I don’t believe you were right. I 10. I …wear my hair long. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. You can’t have been right. believe she has got so fat. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. You…water the flowers. I 9. I 2. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 5. it will soon start raining. 3. think you will miss the train if you hurry. 6. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 9. You can’t be right. You …not go to bed so late at night. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t: 1. believe she has learnt English in two months. 5. I 4. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. please? 7. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu should sau would: 1. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 10. I 8. I …read one book a day. You … worry about money. I 5. … you help me solve this problem? 3. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. think he is at the office so late at night. 4. You … take an umbrella. . 7. 8. The sky is clear. I 7. He …read for hours on end. think this is a true story.

he was back soon. It’ll get stale. 7. 2. you…get a nice present. please? 10. John …(do) such a thing. 4. It …(rain) here. 2. She …write an article for this magazine every week. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu must.” 13. I …(get up) so early today. 3. 4. I …(answer) the questions. You …(lend) him so many books. Go to sleep. 10. I locked the door and took the key with me. She is away.2. I …(leave) it on the bus. trecut: 12. 9. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. This …be John’s house. 7. 6. for once? 3. The light was on in his room. 5. you …re-type it. Traduceţi în limba engleză. If you win the contest. He …(be) at home. You …(see) Anna yesterday. I wrote him a letter. We …(wait) too long. This door … not unlock. 10. 6. Va trebui să mă ajuţi mai mult astăzi. You …(buy) so much bread. 6. folosind verbe modale sau înlocuitori ai acestora: 1. the road is dry. Toţi studenţii pot şi trebuie să scrie această lucrare. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. The child … (leave) home. . You …do this whether you like it or not. 7. 8. The student …(write) such a long composition. You…(lend) him your text – book. I promise you not …be disturbed. …you tell me the truth. I haven’t got my bag with me. 5. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. 9. 8. I …(see) him for that. I am sorry you wasted your time. he will never read them all. which was very convenient.” „His family consider he should. … you correct my exercise. I didn’t hear the phone. 4. 3. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. he is a nice boy. 10. he is a very poor swimmer. This letter is full of mistakes. 2. 9. You …(wait) for me. which would have saved me a lot of work. He has one of his own. I …(be) in the garden. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul 1. 11. He …(swim) across the Danube. Încercaţi să gasiţi un sens următorului dialog: „Do you think he will?” „I think he might. I …(answer) the questions. 5. but I forgot it was Sunday.” „Yes. but he himself believes he needn’t. 8.

am băut deja două astăzi. might. dar el nu a vrut să vină la telefon. 27. Am cerut să vorbesc cu directorul. Probabil că eram încă la facultate. Nu a fost nevoie să spun „mulţumesc” când am aflat ora exactă formând 958 întrucât ştiam că informaţia e înregistrată pe bandă. Sunt sigur că voi putea găsi timp să te ajut. 16. 6. Va trebui să plec curând. Vreţi. Nu era nevoie să-mi faci cafea. exprimând o lozincă. Apare în propoziţii exclamative. 24. o încuiasem chiar eu. 18. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. 12. 19. Ar trebui ca toţi copiii să facă treburi în casă. 5. Long live the king! Trăiască regele. Trebuie să-mi schimb pantofii când intru în casă pentru că sunt plini de 14. Fie ce-o fi. 17. would + infinitiv. să aştepţi câteva minute? 30. 13. 10. Ar fi trebuit să insişti. 4. 3. may. Nu se poate să fi găsit uşa deschisă. . o dorinţă sau un blestem. 22. 11. Mâine va trebui să pun scrisoarea la poştă. 26. Nu se poate ca profesorul să fi fost mulţumit de acest răspuns. de Past Tense şi de Past Perfect. 1. 21. Profesorul mi-a spus că pot să lipsesc de la ora următoare. Nu a fost nevoie să-i telefonez lui Jane ca să vorbesc cu ea pentru că urma să vină la mine peste o jumătate de oră. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. 9.noroi. Ai putea să-mi telefonezi mai des când ştii că sunt bolnav. Ar fi trebuit să citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. vă rog. 29.Unde mergem acum? 28. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. există echivalenţi de subjonctiv care constau în verbele should. De asemenea. 23. Nu se poate să fi fost acasă aseară. Come what may. 20. 7. LECŢIA 7 MODUL SUBJONCTIV În engleza contemporană. E nevoie să urcăm la cabană pe jos? 15. Îţi promit că vei avea cartea mâine. Nu e nevoie să-ţi cari singură bagajul în gară. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv: a. Ştiam să cânt la pian când eram copil. 8. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal.De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. Nu aveţi voie să vorbiţi în timpul examenului. o urare. Nu. Nu ştiu să croşetez. Toată lumea să fie prezentă la şedinţă. Ţi-am telefonat şi nu a răspuns nimeni.

Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. Ex. ar fi înlocuit cu prezentul. to insist. 1. Ex. E necesar ca tu să fii prezent. to recommend. It is impossible that he do this. Doctorul a insistat ca eu să stau acasă. După verbe ca: to propose. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. I wish I were in England now.God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul să te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemată fie această ceaţă! b. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c. e. Ex. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. Cineva să-mi aducă un pahar cu apă. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. După construcţii de tipul: it is impossible that. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! . I wish I had been born in England. d. Este de dorit ca noi să terminăm întâi traducerea. în situaţii în care. I wish (mi-as dori. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. în engleza contemporană. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine: Everybody leave the hall. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. to urge. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Este imposibil ca el să facă aceasta. I wish it would stop raining. it is desirable that. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. it is necessary that. apare ca were la toate persoanele. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui să fie acceptată. Poate fi întâlnit în poezia clasică. Somebody bring me a glass of water. It is necessary that you be present. se foloseste would. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. to suggest. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. to demand. it is likely that. bine ar fi sa) • Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. to order. Toată lumea să părăsească sala.

I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. It is impossible that he should have done this. I would sooner stay at home tonight. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. It is time the child went to bed. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. Ex.if/though (ca si cum. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. it is necessary that. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight.) It is high time. to insist. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. It is impossible that he should do this. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. You speak English as if you had lived in England. It is necessary that you should be present. c) As . Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. d)It is time.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. (Era de mult timpul. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). Ex. 1. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that.) Ex. Dupa cum se observa. • De asemenea. In exemplul de mai sus. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). Ex. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. a. Ex. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. It is high time you began to study seriously. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. to urge. to suggest. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. to recommend. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. (E timpul. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. to demand.

I was afraid that he might fail the exam. however. why. to be afraid Ex. Whoever you may/might be. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. a. Ex. • Dupa it is possible. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. where. iar in aceste cazuri. Ex. Wherever I may/might be. whenever. iti voi telefona. No matter who you may/might be. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. . Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. may. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. you have no right to do this.when. whichever. fie in vorbirea direca. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. It is possible that he may be here in time. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. in secundara se foloseste may. Ex. I wish I could speak English. • Dupa whoever. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. I hope that he may pass the exam. Hurry up lest you miss the train. Oriunde as fi. Ex. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. wherever. • Intrebari introduse prin how.Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. no matter when. • Dupa to hope. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. I will ring you up. you have no right to do this. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. in secundara se foloseste might. it was possible Ex. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. fie in vorbirea indirecta. • Dupa so that. etc. in order that Ex. Oricine ai fi. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. It was possible that he might be here in time. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial.

Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. I am sorry my friend is ill. I am sorry you had an accident. I wish the weather were fine. 8. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 4. 1. I am sorry you live so far away. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 7. 4. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. 6. I was sorry you had got a fine. 3. 2. 9. I regret I am not a student. 8. 7. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. 2. I am sorry it rains so often. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. 3. I regret I have no children. 6. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 8. I am sorry I was late for the party. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 9. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I regret I have only one child. I am sorry books are so expensive. 6. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice.I wish I might borrow your car. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 5. 1. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. 10. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. 1. I was sorry you were out when I called. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. 1. 7. 4. 5. I wish he would take my advice. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. 10. 9. 2. I regret I can’t go to the concert. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 3. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. 5. 1. .

I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 16. 17. 20. 14. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. If only I (become) a millionaire. 17. 20. 10. 5. 12. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 15. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. I would rather you (close) that window. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. 4. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. 19. 8. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. . 2. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 12. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. If only my telephone (work)! 11. 6. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 14. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. 13. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. 18. 3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. I am cold. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 13. 3. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5.Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. As prefera sa merg la teatru.10. 16. 10. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. You behave as if you (own) the place. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. 9. la tara. am putea merge la plaja! 6. 7. 11. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. It’s time we (go) home. 2. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 1.

It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. Orice mi-ai spune. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. 2. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. 10. 4. 6. 5. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. 8. Oricare ar fi motivul. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. 6. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 9. Oricât te-ai stradui. 6. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. 7. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 5. 8. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. nu te pot crede. 2. Oricând te vei intoarce. 3. 4. 3. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. 3. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. you should remember your own phone number. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 2. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 8. 5. 9. 7. 3. 4. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. 2. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. 10. 8. 5. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1.6. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. 4. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. 7. 8. 9. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 1. 7. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. .

The road is wet. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). I have such a boring job. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. diateza si timpuri. I wish I (be) there when it happened. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. 19. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. to like. 14. Diateza activa o nedefinit: calling o perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o nedefinit: being called o perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. 15. to dislike. . I wish I (find) another. Ex. I want you to go now. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. in cazul verbelor neregulate. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o to call – called – called o to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.11. to hate. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. 13. All success (attend) you! 18. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. Diateza activa o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call o infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling o infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called o infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called o infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. 12. 16. to wish. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. 17.

) I let him go out and play. verbe declarative: to state. a.) f. to believe.) e. to hear.) d. Ex. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. to feel. to suppose.) They declared him to be the man of the year. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on.) He ordered the door to be locked. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. Ex. He admitted the news to be false. to count upon/on . Ex. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.Ex. to say. to know. to admit. to declare.) I want John to do this. He was made to study English. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.) b. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. He considered the news to be false.) c. He is considered to be a good student. I made him study English. Ex. to understand. (Consider ca el este un bun student. I made him study English. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. to consider. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. He is said to be a good writer. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. to believe. to order. to hear. I consider him to be a good student. to make. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make.) 1. Ex. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. verbe exprimând un ordin. to watch. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. I’d like him to come with me. to know. to consider. to cause. to expect. to allow. I saw him leave the room. Ex.) I expected him to come in time. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to expect. . I consider him to be a good student. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. to suppose. I rely on you to do this. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine.

to turn out. He proved to be a good journalist. 1.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex.) I left / found her crying.) I heard her singing. to prove. b. It is easy for sa me to . (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. Ex. to watch. to leave.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. cu verbele: to happen. He was declared to be the man of the year. It is impossible that I (should) come.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. They declared him to be the man of the year. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.) If I happen to meet him.The news was considered to be false. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. to smell.) This remains for him to decide. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist.) It is necessary for me to go there.) I happened to meet him in the street. precum si cu verbele to find. Ex. a. to hear. She is sure to come in time. de obicei. to seem. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.) It is impossible for him to come. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuEx. I will tell him where you are. (E usor fac asta. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. do this. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". It is necessary that I (should) go there. ii voi spune unde esti. (Am auzit-o cântând.

2. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. 7. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. (Daca vremea va permite. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. 3.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Ex: The classes being over. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. 12.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. 6. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui.) heard singing. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. we went home. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. 2. 5. (Orele fiind terminate. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. Nominativ cu Este pasivul constructiei Ex: He was (El a fost She was (Ea a fost Participiu Acuzativ cu Participiu: seen leaving.) 3. 11. I-am privit jucând fotbal. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat.) Weather permitting. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. 10. auzita cântând. Ex. She had two sons killed in the war. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul.) I will have my hair done.zisa. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. 8. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. am mers acasa. 4. vom merge la plaja. we shall go to the beach. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. . Cred ca el e un sot bun. 9. I had my bedroom window broken. 13. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. vazut plecând.

The time has come. 2. I cam make it. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. 7. This fact is important. You should read it. I thought she was unable to win the contest. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. You should bear it in mind. Expected that he would resign. I can’t believe she said that. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 8. 10. The match was about to begin. 15. It is impossible that he should have said that. 5. They said she was ill. 4. 9. It is sure they have had an argument. It is possible that I might buy a car. They heard him repeat it several times. It is important to know the truth. I have closed the window. I can’t solve it. I didn’t want her to miss the train. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. 4. We should do it now. This is a valuable piece of advice. It was proved that she was a liar. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 3. 8. 5. 1. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. 7. 10. 3. 4. 3. We should have a heart to heart talk. Everybody. She was thought to be a gifted child. This is the main thing. 8. This is a strange thing. 5. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. The people were impatient. 2. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. . El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. I don’t want you to catch a cold. 2. 1. 9. This is a good book. It’s time we met again. 1. 2. It is important that you should come to the office. 4. 6. It is necessary that he be present. This translation is easy for me to make. 6. at once. You should take it. 3. 6. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. This problem is too difficult. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. It is advisable that you should resign. 7. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 10.14. 9. I ordered a taxi.

11. 2. Is my mother resting? 8. My friend isn’t wearing. Do I always believe? 6. 7. The decision being taken in my favour. It isn’t raining. He doesn’t remember. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. The mud having ruined my shoes. Does he have? 9. Do you dream? I dream 9. The plane having taken off. She heard the baby crying. speaks. I had to change them. Is he telling? 4. They aren’t swimming. . 4. I don’t understand. Am I having? 3. 6. Does she talk? 3. She heard the hunters shooting. we sat down to dinner. Do they live? 8. I found the boy breaking the window. 6. Do I trust? 10. 10. do you do? 3. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. I don’t always believe. She doesn’t talk. 9. The child isn’t learning. 6. I saw her lying on the beach. 8. don’t understand. The river having risen in the night. 10. am taking. I saw her fainting. 1 don’t like. Do you usually get. go. I am not having. Does he remember? 7. I found her digging in the garden. 2. I am not going. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. I went home relaxed. Do I understand? 4. 3. 6. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. Do I love? 2. is drinking. You don’t play. we hurried to the beach. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. 5. I saw the peasants working in the field. I went shopping. drinks. I don’t have. 4. am. 5. 7. They don’t live. I don’t trust. He isn’t telling. 10. Everybody being at home. 9. The sun having risen. I went to post it. he is having. Weather permitting. it is raining. My mother isn’t resting. The rain having stopped. CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. You aren’t typing. I heard the child breaking the vase. Are they swimming? 6. Are you typing? 5. Ann isn’t knitting. the audience left the hali. Do you like? 8. 3. I saw the plane landing. 8. The letter being written. l. Are we studying? 9. Are you writing. Do you play? 5. 2. He doesn’t have. 4. The concert being over. The dog was heard barking.5. We aren’t studying. Is Ann knitting? 10. I don’t love. we were seared about having floods. it often rains. 7. 5. Is it raining? 2. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. I could hear her typing. Is my friend wearing? 7. I stopped smoking. 12. 1 am cooking.

are you hurrying? I don’t want. 4. 18. Last night. I have bought. Did he think? 2.write. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 7. someone rang up. 3. 5. We didn’t work. You asked. He hasn’t come. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. That sounded. I was writing. he doesn’t get up early. 1 liked. 14. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. I like to swim a lot. You drank. 11 . The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. he had. Did I enjoy? 9. 4. 10. Have you been? I have been. 4. I have already seen. 17. Did we work? 7. 13. Have you . Yesterday I got up early. He didn’t translate. I have lent. 5. It snows in winter. While I was looking for my passport. 7. were you going. 18. are you thinking? I am thinking. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. She is packing her luggage. Did he come? 8. Did you sleep well last night? 3. Did he translate? 10. 9. 2. I played. 20. Exercitiul 4: 1. I found this old photo. I didn’t sell. He doesn’t go to school by underground. I had breakfast and then I left for school. Do you go? 16. 6. 8. my friends played chess. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. I didn’t hate. 16. I was watching. always borrow/is always borrowing. I owned. I met. I arrived. 10. 10. 19. 14. I don’t like coffee. are you waiting? I am waiting. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. 3. 14. 20. I didn’t enjoy. 9. 19. 16. 8. What were you doing last Tuesday. were you doing? 7. 9. 6. He didn’t forbid. the engine – drivers have gone. She goes shopping on Saturdays. I entered. I always made. I was talking. 8. Did I hate? 4. 6. I haven’t been. 13. 15. 1 first met. You spoke. 2. Exercitiul 2: 1. he walks. I have just had. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. I got up late yesterday morning. 3. 2. the teacher was writing. she was having. When I go to the seaside. 5. he wasn’t wearing. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. 7. he realized. Yesterday I lost my gloves. While it was raining. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. I slept. How often do you write to your parents? 18. Whom are you ringing up? 13. I was driving to Sinaia. They didn’t drink. Yesterday. The secretary is just typing a report. 2. 6. He didn’t come. you came in. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. Now I am doing my homework in English. 9. 8. Do you smoke? 17. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. 8. What do you do on your free days? 12. Did I sell? 6. He didn’t change. When did you return from the mountains? 11. He sat for his first exam last week. 9. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. Why are you opening the window? I5. What book are you reading? 10. 5. Have you watered? 3. I often read English books. Did he change? 5. When did you buy this TV set? 12. 4. 6. remembers. 2. He met. On Sundays. Have you visited? 12. 7. he was working. 10. 19. I always have. This time yesterday it was raining. 17. I do not study in the evening. he was-learning. He didn’t think. 4. He has just left. Last Sunday. Did they drink? 3.

6. had listened. he went. Have you been. 9. he had visited. The . 5. 9. Exercitiul 2: l. I got up. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. I have been watering. It has been snowing for two hours. He has been. Exercitiul 3: I. I rang him up.ever eaten? 13. 13. He has always relied. When I arrived at the bus stop. 18. We must replace it. 12. had not told. He has been fishing. I have been doing. Exercitiul 3: 1. 9. We have walked 10 km so far. he had thought. He has been a Minister for two years. she has been trying. he told. she had been writing. The weather has got warmer lately. 9. Have you seen? she left. I returned. 20. He has been sleeping. had been speaking. she had been studying. 8. I spent a month here. Have you ever driven? 16. 6. I saw. 4. she had not passed. 10. it had been raining. have you been wearing? 6. 2. began. he left an hour ago. he has caught. I have seldom walked to my office. had been having. have you cooked? 7. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. 5. he had been. 7. 14. I haven’t written. We have known. 3. Have you lived? I have lived. I have’ been shopping. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. 4. it had been raining. She has changed. he had learned/he had been learning. Exercitiul 4: 1. We have been walking since 3 o clock. 14. they had finished. I called. 3. had eaten. I was. had been cooking. 1t hasn’t rained. Have you been to this town before? Yes. I realized I had left my bag at home. 8. 3. 5. 6. he handed it to the teacher. I had it at 8 o’clock. 2. 2. 6. 7. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. 5. two years ago. Exercitiul 2: 1. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. 8. What did you look at? It was an accident. congratulated. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 7. 8. I have lost. 11. I didn’t succeed. 3. 4. I entered. she had been cleaning and dusting. had been swimming. 10. I have been cooking. it had been raining. I was sorry I had hurt him. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. we realized. Have you ever tried? I tried. 15. we had lost. they had been. we left. 3. 2. 19. As soon as the guests had left. had left. 7. 2. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. 4. 17. I have been asking. we had been walking. Has John left? Yes. I5. 3. 7. 6. A child has broken the window. 5. 8. 5. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. have you been. 10. 9. 4. 7. 4. I had returned. I found out. 10. I went to bed. he went. 9. I had met. I have been wearing. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. Exercitiul 4: 1. 20. she told. 10. he had caught. 8. Since I bought a car. 4. he had got married. we asked. The radio has been playing. She had just gone out. had been climbing. The child has been playing. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. I got. He thanked me for what I had done for him. It has been raining. 10. they had been waiting. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. she had already been. Have you paid? 19. Have you read? 18. had spread. He hasn’t gone. How long have you been learning English? 5. 6.

Will you be needing? 5. would end. I had done. will be crying. 9. I shall/will be swimming. 10. 8. Exercitiul 4: 1. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 6. she notices you have broken. they have been. it will probably be raining. 2. they were talking. he would finish. 15. 5. 7. 2. they will have been married. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. Exercitiul 3: 1. 5. 5. you have read. 6. Exercitiul 2: 1. he would give. 2. 3. You had to type. 6. I shall/will pass. I shall/will have paid off. 2. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. he has repaired. he had been travelling. we had been digging. will/shall will be climbing. arrive. 10. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. I would remain. 8. he had left. He will be. 5. By this time next year. you finish. I shall/will succeed.secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. On Friday. 18. I shall/will be working. is born. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 9. 2. 4. 2. I had read. 8. 6. she has learnt. 6. was shining. he would pass. I shall/will know. you see. I have. You will be. 2. will have spent. you were. She will be watching. 10. I usually read. he would drive. 10. 5. 9. 2. . Exercitiul 4: 1. 4. You will not/won’t find. 11. he tells. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. Exercitiut 2: 1. 8. I played/I was playing. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. will have risen. 4. he would win. 6. I shall/will have read 8. 9. 14. 8. I shall/will be having. 10. 5. 3. 7. 3. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. 9. he had stolen. she has changed. 12. 9. 4. I finish. 8. I shall/will have been cooking. I had heard. you spoke. we reach. prices would go up. he had just left. 7. He will be studying. 9. 3. 4. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. 3. Wil1 you remember? 9. he has arrived. 4. begin. We shall/will have taken. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. 6. I shall/will have finished. 3. 17. 20. I had not enjoyed. You will have seen. 4. I had lost. I shall/will have been working. Exercitiul 3: 1. they would remain. I have received. 3. they will be having their last English class. 10. did not remember. you have just told. you see. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. had already begun. 7. you were. 19. I shall/will remember. 3. 7. wilt be rising. 8. 7. 10. 10. I shall/will have saved five million lei. 5. between twelve and one o’clock. he wanted. You will like. would be cancelled. 13. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. you would soon have. 7. Will you recognize? 4. 8. 7. 6. she looks. 9. you see. you have drunk. 16.

3. I want. 7. 2. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. 10. 2. you will not pass. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. I wouldn’t do. 4. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. I had not decided. 5. he had never seen. there are. 5. If it rained. 4. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. 6. 6. 4. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. 13. 10. I work/I worked. 7. 3. 8. I will earn/will be earning. I have been reading. we went. he trusted. 9. I would spend. he hoped. Exercitiul 4: l. 9.Exercitiul 5: 1. I had not told. 5. he had not expected. you will not find. 10. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. had failed. he had realized. If it had rained. 6. 10. he would change. I would have answered. they have done. 3. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. I finish. 9. is. 3. 9. 18. I will buy. Would you buy? 4. 17. 8. I will lend. 2. 9. you were. Exercitiul 5: 1. 6. it goes on. 10. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. 2. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. 12. you do. 7. 16. 9. 5. If it rains. we will drink. I would not have made. he would not make. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. I had known. is. 3. What will you do if you meet John? 11. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. they had known. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 6. 8. 4. 15. 14. will you promise? 6. 8. Exercitiul 6: 1. do not eat. The secretary told me the manager was busy. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. 10. 7. I will greet 2. you would have read. is. melts. you had been wearing. you are reading. I knew you were in Bucharest. he would not remember. 6. 4. 4. I had not eaten. 7. I were. What would you do if you meet John? 12. 2. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. 5. I saw. 3. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. he will get. I moved. 11. you will be. he would take. he would have told. I would have answered. 2. 12. 8. 6. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. he would have. would not go. 5. 3. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. Exercitiul 7: l. 20. you had driven. 3. 9. you take. 8. 7. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. you wouldn’t have got. I read. he had tried. 2. the streets will be wet. she will be. he had to write. I was. 7. the streets would be wet. they had been listening. I was. the streets would have been wet. Exercitiul 2: 1. 7. he had eaten. 19. 10. you had invited. 4. It would have been. will soon move. I gave up. I had worked. 8. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: . I have suffered. 5. you will be. it would not be raining when I arrived. I would buy. I knew. he leaves. I will answer. 11. 5.

If a beggar asked you for money. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. Exercitiul 4: 1. 5. 5. 7. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 12. 2. 5. He said he was very busy on that day. 10. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. 11. 12. 9. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. He asked me if I would help him. He asked me how long I had been learning . LECTIA IV Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 3. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. 9. 8. 4. 2. He asked me who that man was. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. He asked me if I would like a cake. He told me not to cross the street on a red light.English. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. The missing child has been found (by someone). Exercitiul 3: 1. 8. He asked me when the rain had stopped. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. 9. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. I will eat at a restaurant. He told me not to smoke so much.l. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. He asked me if the train had left. 8. The work will be finished today (by them). 6. He asked me how I had travelled. He said he had seen that film a week before. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 3. 7. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. 5. 5. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 2. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 8. 7. 3. He told me to take that pill. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 6. Football is played all over the world. 7. 6. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. He told me to open the door. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. He said she would go shopping right then. 8. 4. He told me to be careful with his books. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. He asked me when I would be back. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. 8. 10. 4. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. 6. 3. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 6. If dinner is not ready in time. Your bag has been found (by him). He asked me if my mother had been at home. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 6. 10. 2. 9. 11. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He told me to read that text. 4. 10. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 4. 7. 5. 3. 2. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He said he had gone to England two years before. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. I was frightened by the . Something must be done for him by his coworkers. 7. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. Exercitiul 2: 1. 9. 2. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. You will see him if you wait. would you give him some? 3.

2. 6. Exercitiul 3: 1. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). Many new blocks are being built in our district. John has been lent two of my books (by me). His proposal was objected to (by us). The rescue party finally discovered the climber. 10. Has the dog been fed? 7. 6. 5. 3. I have been given a nice present (by them). The way will be shown to us by the policeman. John was laughed at (by us). Exercitiul 2: 1. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. 4. Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. very interesting things were told to us at the conference.noise. 8. 4. 8. A nice present has been given to me (by them). The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 12. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. Exercitiul 4: 1. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 5. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 2. 7. 9. 2. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 9. 7. The doctor was called for (by us). 7. 4. 10. when I passed by. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. Fire was set to the shed (by them). The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 5. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 13. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). People speak English all over the world. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. He hates people making fun of him. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. 2. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. 8. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 10. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. 8. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. 11. 4. 5. They have built this house out of stone and cement. 6. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. People mustn’t take away these books.: 3. They are taught English (by me). 10. They held a reception in his honour. . 15. We were asked to show our passports. 7. The museum was closed for repairs. The house was broken into (by burglars). 3. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. English is taught to them (by me). His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). 9. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. We were told very interesting things at the conference. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). Were you told about the meeting? 9. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). A reward will be given to me (by them). A new house is being built round the corner (by them). 6. We will be shown the way by the policeman. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). People will soon forget this book. 3. I will be given a reward (by them). 9. 9. 14. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). Exercitiul 6: l.

2. It may/might be a good one. 8. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. You shouldn’t have gone. It can’t be his fault. S. 5. He must think. I had to learn. I had to go. You might have paid. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. I won t be able to translate. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 18. 7. 11. The weather can’t change. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. He must be older. She will be able to read and write. He may/might have been right. mustn’t. 19. He can’t have passed. You can’t have seen. 16. 10. It can’t have been. 3. 5. You can’t miss the train. 2. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. 2. 5. 9. I will have to go. It can’t have been his fault. You must have left your umbrella. 8. 17. mustn’t. 6. can’t. I had to look up. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. He must have been delayed. 7. He can’t be at the office. 3 It might have rained. 16. can. You won’t have to do. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 10. mustn’t. 7. 12. This can’t be a true story. 10. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. Exercitiul 5: 1. 2. He was not allowed/permitted to come. He will be able to swim. He may/might have done. You must have forgotten. He should have gone. She may/might be very late. 2. Exercitiul 6: 1. 5. 5. 6. needn’t. needn’t. You didn’t have to do. 6. It can t have been. 4. 3. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. She could lend. She may/might have been out. She can’t have married. He may have been. can. needn’t. 15. You must have known the lesson. You can’t have been. You needn’t have done. 6. 10. John must have been. I will have to look up. 2. The child was allowed/permitted to have. It must have been. 3. She can’t have learned English. 8. 8. It may/might rain. 3. I may/might come home. 4. He must have been. 13. He needn’t have bought. He must have been late. Exercitiul 3: 1.LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. 4. You should have visited. can’t. 10. He must have come home. She may/might have returned. It must have taken a long time. 3. 7. 4. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. 13. John could have been. 8. 7. Exercitiul 8: . She may/might have been angry. 3. can. 14. 9. He could read and write. She could play. Exercitiul 7: 1. He could swim. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. 4. She will be able to play. mustn’t. 9. She will be able to lend. I couldn’t translate. 7. 15. 4. needn’t. 20. 5. 6. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 9. This must be the best. I will have to learn. You might have changed. 5. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 12. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. can. mustn’t. 14. 2. 19. She can’t have got. 6. Exercitiul 2: 1. 6. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. You might have written. 9. needn’t. Exercitiul 4: l. He ought to have told.

2. 7. must have been. 2. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. didn’t need to see. 5. should. You may not speak during the exam. 10. I have already drunk two. didn’t need to buy. 9. can’t have rained. I can’t knit. needn’t have got up. shall. 10. 22. 6. will. I wish it didn’t rain so often. All the students can and must write this paper. 23. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. 21. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. would. You needn’t have made coffee for me. didn’t need to answer. must have taken. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 3. 6. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. 10. shall. wait for a few minutes? 30. 5. needn’t have lent. would. I wish I could go to the concert. 8. 4. should. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 20. I wish I lived in Bucharest. I promise you. must have left. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. Exercitiul 13: 1. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. should. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 17. 2. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 2. 6. 9. will. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. can’t have done. 29. 9. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. 4. 8. 5. 10. a porter could help you. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. 14. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 7. I must have been still at the faculty. I rang you up and nobody answered. I wish I could pay the piano. 3. shall. needn’t have lent. can’t have left. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. Will you. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 19. needn’t have waited. 3. will. 3. I wish I were a student. 9. needn’t have written. I could play the piano when I was a child. 7. 12. 2. 10. didn’t need to wait. 7. Exercitiul 9: 1. 25. 10. 4. Exercitiul 12: 1. needn’t have bought. 7. Exercitiul 2: l. you shall have the book tomorrow. I will have to leave soon. must have been. 3. 4. Exercitiul 10: 1. I wish I didn’t have only one child. Exercitiul 11: 1. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. 11. 26. please. would. 9. can’t have seen. You can’t have found the door open. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 7. 4. will. 18. 3. 8. should. 8. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. needn’t have answered. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". will. would. would. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. 13. 9. would. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 6. 5. 5. 6. You will have to help me more today.l. will. shall. I had locked it myself 27. 2. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. No. 24. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 5. 16. 3. 2. today. 8. 1 wish I had children. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 4. 6. You ought to/should have insisted. 4. 8. I wished you had been . Where shall we go now? 28. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. can’t have swum. All the children ought to/should do some housework.

16. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. 4. I stayed. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. She looks as if she were a model. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I had entered. 5. 14. 6. 8. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. you didn’t waste. I wish you would come on holiday with me. I wish I had won the Great Prize. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. S. 7. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 11. Exercitiul 5: l. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. we could go to the beach. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. 9. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. he would have. 8. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. 7. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long.able to come to me yesterday. I were. 10. I wish they would sign the contract. 4. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. I hadn’t forgotten. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. 4. 16. hadn’t caught a cold. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. you closed. Exercitiul 6: 1. I got. I would become. I wish you had won the competition. stopped. he told. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 6. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. his daughter didn’t get married. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. my telephone worked. 3. 12. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. we went. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 6. I wish he would accept my proposal. 9. Exercitiul 3: 1. watched. It is important that you (should) know English well. 19. 18. 10. 9. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 4. S. 5. Exercitiul 4: 1. He suggested that we . 3. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. you started. I wish you would take a driving licence. I would rather you went to the theatre. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. 6. he took. 7. 8. 13. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 8. 3. 4. 5. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 19. too. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. I were. 14. 7. 20. 17. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. 17. 13. 15. 9. 10. 3. 11. 2. you owned. 2. 20. 12. you were. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. I wish I had money to buy that painting. You speak as if you were angry with me. his book would become. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 18. 10. 2. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 6. I would rather you got up earlier. 6. 2. 9.

5. 13. he were. she should have left. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 4. 9. it might not get. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. Exercitiul 2: 1. 8. It’s time for us to meet again. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. should have told. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 11. He was heard to repeat it several times. He made me miss the train. 10. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 3. 2. 12. 5. 8. Mother would like me to become a doctor. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. 12. This is a good book for you to read. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 11. I saw him speaking to his friend. you shouldn’t have believed it. I saw some children playing in the park. 17. She made me understand what had happened. 9. 8. 8. 2. I watched them playing football. 4. you may/might understand. 10. Exercitiul 3: 1. I heard her scold/scolding her child. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. it should get. He wanted me to help him. (should) have. 3. 10.(should) buy this house. 7. 20. 5. 4. I rely on you to lend me some money. 15. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. you shouldn’t lie to me. I had been. It is necessary for him to be present. they (should) divorce. It is advisable for you to resign. you should have. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 4. you may/might be. 5. 3. 6. 8. you retired. It is possible that she might be away. . I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 5. John admitted the fault to be his. I had. we (should) leave. 19. Whenever you may/might return. 16. I will be at home waiting for you. Exercitiul 9: 1. This is the main thing for us to do. He was expected to resign. It is recommendable for you to read this book. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 9. 18. I think him to be a good husband. 15. No matter how hard you may/might try. Exercitiul 8: 1. 9. 7. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 13. 14. 10. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. It is impossible for him to have said that. 2. I insist that you (should) accept this job. he were. 7. It is possible for me to buy a car. This is a strange thing for her to have said. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 2. 9. 2. may attend. 3. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. might prosper. 14. 6. 10. The people were impatient for the match to begin. She (was) proved to be a liar. 7. 2. 4. It is important for you to come to the office at once. They are sure to have had an argument. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 3. 7. 6. you can’t win such a competition. 6. She was said to be ill. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. 3. 8. 8. I expected you to come earlier. 7. Whatever you may/might tell me. I can’t believe you. 10. hadn’t broken down. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. She seemed to be satisfied with me. 9. we should take. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 6. I would find. 4. 5. Whatever the reason may/might be. 7.

. The boy was found breaking the window. 6. The peasants were seen working in the field. publicul a parasit sala. 8. She could be heard typing. 7. 2. 10. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. am plecat la cumparaturi. Concertul fiind terminat. The hunters were heard shooting. She was found digging in the garden. 2. Daca vremea va permite. She was seen lying on the beach. The child was heard breaking the vase. 5. The plane was seen landing. Intrucât soarele rasarise. ne-am asezat la cina.Exercitiul 5: 1. She was seen fainting. Exercitiul 6: 1. 9. 10. 9. am mers sa o pun la posta. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. 3. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 8. The baby was heard crying. 6. 4. a trebuit sa-i schimb. 7. 5. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. ne-am grabit spre plaja. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. am plecat acasa linistit. Intrucât ploaia incetase. 4. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. 3. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii.