Kentucky Fellows 2003 Species

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Cool Cards Species Extinction Impacts Each Extinction key Species Extinction Immoral A2 Too Late A2 Niche Turns A2 Earth Doomed A2 I;arth Doomed - Species Loss A2 Earth Doomed - Ocean Pollution A2 Earth Doomed - Air Pollution A2 Earth Doomed - Resources A2 Earth Doomed - Ozone Hole A2 Earth Doomed - Famine Media Flawed A2 But We Quote Experts Species Loss Inevitable - 1nc Species Loss Inevitable - 2nc Ecosystem Destruction Inevitable Species Extinction Good Biotech Bad - 1nc Biotech Bad - Uniqueness Biotech Bad - A2 No Tech Biotech Bad - Links Biotech Bad - Eugenics Biotech Bad - Environment Biotech Bad - AIDS

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Kentucky Fellows 2003 Species

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Biotech Bad - CBW Prolif Biotech Bad - A2 Antidotes Biotech Bad - A2 Geno Therapy Biotech Bad - A2 Famine Biotech Good - Patents Link Biotech Good - Micro Organisms Link Biotech Good - Environment Biotech Good - Herbicides Biotech Good - Famine A2 Discourse A2 Animals = Humans in Util Dolphins Good Phytoplankton Good Crabs Good Deeo Sea Vents FIL Swislow Special Otters DA Whale Malthus
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Sagan AND Schell were wrong - scientists could still jack off post nuke war

The Denver Post - 6/8/!221

. fronti f Unwittingly companies are helping millions of employees to pioneer new ontiers 0 loafing by giving them access to the greatest friend the slackard ever had: the I~ternet, which can weld the desire to avoid work with super-modem technol~gy, enabling users to waste time at unheard-of speed. Originally conceived as a way that. m the ev~nt of nuclear war, scientists could still have access to pornography, the Internet has evolved mto the

business world's greatest diversion.
C. Impact - destruction of museums causes the sixth wave of extinction in the galactasphere Glen~, biology edito! for rotunda,!!!Q! (William M, Rotunda, September) If .~e re to stem the sixth wave of extinction, the role of museums will be crIttcai. As Sues sees it, the job is two-fold: document our threatened biodive~sity and educ~te people about it. Museum curators are already clamberIng through ram forests, rappelling into caves, and trekking across the tundra in order to collect, document, and record the natural world. And, as Sues points out, nobody els~o~~g this kind of work. Status quo solves - men are going extinct AAP Newsfeed - 5/13/1999 Male extinction is inevitable,

say medical experts

SYDNEY, May 13 AAP - Men are an endangered species, according to scientists who are predicting half the male population will soon be infertile. Monogamy, genetic engineering, increasing pollution and later childbearing are perpetuating a decline in male sperm production that is leading to their inevitable extinction. "If you compare different males, humans have the worst sperm production and quality of almost any animal on the planet with the exception of the gorilla and the goose," Sherman Silber from the Infertility Centre of St Louis, Missouri, said today. Dr Silber spoke about "The Disappearing Male" at the 11th World Congress on IVF Fertilisation and Human Reproductive Genetics in Sydney today. He said monogamy caused a lack of sperm competition, while promiscuous mating patterns in the animal kingdom led to superior "spermatogenisis". As the male Y chromosome is by nature "an embarrassing little shrivelled-up thing", all males are genetically programmed towards a decrease in sperm production, he said. While there were now effective genetic engineering treatments for human males with low sperm counts desiring children, the male children of these unions would inherit the father's problem, creating generations of male sterility, he said. "This technology is perpetuating the problem and is going to make things a lot worse over the next 20 years," he said. "At least half the human male population is going to be infertile.

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Loss of biodiversity leads to planetary devastation. MAJOR DAVID N. DINER, Judge Advocate General's Corps, United States Army, Military Law Review Winter 1994 143 Mil. L. Rev. 161
Biologically diverse ecosystems are characterized by a large number of specialist species, filling narrow ecological niches. These ecosystems inherently are more stable than less diverse systems. "The more complex the ecosystem, the more successfully it can resist a stress .... [l]ike a net, in which each knot is connected to others by several strands, such a fabric can resist collapse better than a simple, unbranched circle of threads -- which if cut anywhere breaks down as a whole." n79 By causing widespread extinctions, humans have artificially simplified many ecosystems. As biologic simplicity increases, so does the risk of ecosystem failure. The spreading Sahara Desert in Africa, and the dustbowl conditions of the 1930s in the United States are . mild les of what

the ultimate victim may be not natural beauty or birds and fish but [hulmanrkindl Iitlhimself. and environmental instabilities follow that conceivably could result in a critical diminution of nature's "ability to provide a moderate climate. recycle wastes..lS <. 399 The essential role that wildlife plays in the maintenance of a healthy environment is undoubtedly its most important economic contribution. a plane on which we are all passengers. is a familiar example of these potentially disastrous consequences. n48 They characterized species as the rivets holding together the earth. They put the reader in the position of a horrified airline passenger watching a worker pry rivets out of the plane's wings. J.D." n46 In her fable. protect crops from pests. n55 . 11 L George Perkins Marsh suggested in his 1864 book that unbridled human exploitation of nature could threaten human survival. the New York Times editorialized that "[ilf rhulmanrkindl refuses to follow wise conservation practices in controlling his economic affairs.~ Each extinction risks collapse. encouraged apocalyptic visions of the potential for human destruction of the biotic world." n53 ---------~ -- ----- . or perhaps just a single critical one. brought home by photographs of the earth from space. Rev. and streams became lifeless. KEITH SAXE. livestock died. and so on .L\G-5 ------- ---------- Each species extinction risks human extinction.. n49 Environmentalists repeated the ecological horror story in various forms through the 19605and I970s. Recognizing that biologists cannot predict the level of species diversity necessary to secure against future changes in climate or environment. Carson began her book with a chapter called "A Fable for Tomorrow. wildlife. " n52 The cataclysmic "Dust Bowl" of the 1930s which resulted from the displacement of natural ecosystems in the Midwest to provide land for cereal gram production. one commentator has likened the loss of species to the loss of structural rivets on an airplane -. but the loss of the thirteenth might spell disaster. Holly Doremus. n45 After lying dormant for nearly a century. n47 Nearly twenty years later. and fish.. a book credited with inspiring the modern environmental movement. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. When species are lost. As humans replace diverse natural ecosystems with such "monocultures" as agricultural lands. Ph. Paul and Anne Ehrlich conveyed their version of this story through another brief tale. The disappearance of the songbirds gave spring a [*20] strange stillness. contains the prototypical example of this story. songbirds. replenish soils.~"" ~~\.. flowers withered.. crops.-. n54 Species diversity ensures the continuation of a robust gene pool. the environment becomes more vulnerable to changes. could disable the plane. ecosystems are disrupted. n50 Growing recognition of both the power of human technology. n51 This story contributed to the passage of early federal endangered species legislation..D. precipitating an ecological catastrophe. In 1966. -. cleanse air and water. 2000 57 Wash & Lee L. Professor of Law. n53 The specter of ecological catastrophe reveals the ultimate reason for concern about species extinction. Hastings Law Journal JANUARY. and the fragility of the earth. University of California at Berkeley (Boalt Hall). University of Cali fomi a at Davis. By the end of the brief fable. tragedy struck a bucolic village that was once alive with flowers. that suggestion surfaced at the dawn of the modern era in a powerful new form I call the ecological horror story. ---------------------- 1988 39 Hastings LJ. overuse of chemical pesticides had transformed the village into a biotic wasteland. People sickened. Stable ecosystems depend upon the interdependencies of many species performing different biological functions. Washington & Lee Law Review Winter. when the Endangered Species Preservation Act n52 was under consideration.. ~E::.a dozen or so might never be missed. For an ecosystem to adapt biologically to environmental changes such as a warming of climate or the appearance of new parasites. it must have in its "gene pool" some genetic material [*408] with which to exploit the new conditions. Removing too many species. brought home by nuclear weapons programs.

nl27 Each extinction. price we must pay for "progress?" A look at the roots of the biodiversity crisis might shed some light on this question. n130 Yet in the end it is not what we know but what we do not know that may provide the most cogent argument for exercising the "precautionary principle. . the biodiversity crisis is real. represents another strand removed from the fabric of life. no matter how inconsequential it may appear in isolation." and it is increasing. L. n 129 The emerging field of ecological economics is beginning to get a handle on these values. Parenteau. & Pol'y Rev. let alone the cumulative value of the services that healthy ecosystems provide." not just for ourselves but for the next seven generations to come.-------~ Patrick Invisible threshold means reject species extinctions at all costs. another rivet popped from the wing of the airplane. you may be thinking. Extinction estimates may vary by a wide margin. 1998 22 Wm. are huge. n 131 All well and good. but isn't habitat loss and even extinction simply the inevitable. and the numbers being generated. 227 To summarize Part I. albeit unfortunate. & Mary Envtl. though soft. n128 Neo-classical economics tells us almost nothing about the dollar value of individual species. Environmental Law Center. and the stakes are high. but they all agree on the central point that the curent rate is far beyond any definition of "normal." for trying to save "every cog and wheel. Vermont Law School. Director. William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review Spring.

1981: 1). 1994 (Paul K. National Research Council.S. No. "On the Global Dimension of Environmental Challenges. because one cannot predict which species are expendable to the system as a whole. "The ramifications of an ecological change of this magnitude (vast extinction of species) are so far reaching that no one on earth will escape them" (National Research Council. And. p. 'F--}~----------- Wapner._L~S (o~ ~ ~ f::_ L\) c. One can never be sure which species holds up fundamental biological relationships in the planetary ecosystem.2 Politics and Life Sciences." Vol. .. quoted in Wolf. because removing species is an irreversible act. "Plants and animals cannot tell us what they mean to each other" (Hoose. Assistant Professor ofIntemational Politics at American University. 1988:102).l77) Massive extinction of species is dangerous. As Philip Hoose remarks.o~> . According to the U.es'V F.\'-'\ ~~-U. Trifling with the lives of species is like playing Russian roulette with our collective future as the stakes. then. it may be too late to save the system after the extinction of key plants or animals. 1980. 13.

~~pest Williams." nI23 ----------~--------~--------- Loss of species is ethically repugnant. n 118 W. n40 it is undisputed that the rate of extinctions occurring in modern times has increased tremendously. A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity. n45 Aido Leopold. and nonconsumptive uses such as bird watching and wildlife photography. Ethical arguments on behalf of biodiversity are often groun~ed on the ~oncept of mtergeneratI. n 115 and John MUIr. which the United Nations Commission on Econon. Environmental Law Center.eauty of~he bIotIC commumty. L. constitutes only one of the concerns over the rate of extinction of species.\ " There's an ethical imperative to save species. in his seminal statement on ecological awareness. KEITH SAXE." n46 Undoubtedly. this land ethIC. Director. Aldo Leopold. stabIlIty an~ b.onal ~ the duty that each generation is said to owe succeedmg generations. 1998 22 Wm. n 114 Henry David Thoreau. many of the millions of nature lovers in the United States would echo his sentiments. our psychological health may well depend upon continuing exposure to thriving ecosystems. 198839 Hastings L.1. however. wrote: "There are some who can live without wild things and some who cannot. n120 and Wendell Berry. Hastings Law Journal JANUARY. n44 Others suggest that.Is found m the concept of sustainability. Many Americans find the loss of species esthetically and ethically repugnant. & Mary Envtl. n119 Terry . It is wrong when it tends otherwise. are multi-billion dollar industries in the United States. 22 . n42 Direct economic loss. Vermont Law School. because we have our evolutionary roots in prehistoric hunter-gatherer culture. n43 Some argue that wildlife has as much of a "right" to exist as humans do. and criticize as morally wrong the homocentric view that subordinates other species to our own. n 116 and. n 113 This same ethic can be [*245] found m the nmeteen!h century writings of George Perkins Marsh.and ethIc . n12l In Leopold's . in this century. Wil~iam and ~ary Environmental Law and Policy Review Spring. which served as the model for American democrac~." nl22 Today. n4 I The decline and extinction of species have significant economic consequences. These essays [*407J are the delights and dilemmas of one who cannot. An incredible number of species are now at risk. express~d thIS ethic m the principle that every decision made by a community ought to consIder ~ow It ~ould affect the seventh generation hence.aJlac~ Ste~ner. & Po~ y Rev. n47 . 399 While the number of existing species of wildlife is unknown.ll~ Develop~ent defines as "meeting the needs of the present [generation] without compromismg the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Patrick Parenteau..!. nl ~2 Th~ I~OgUOIS Confederacy.c~assIc artIculatIOn oft~e I. Consumptive recreational uses like hunting and fishing. n 117 Rachel Carson.

The die-off of the dinosaurs gave us mammals our big break. 2001 (William M. the previous waves of extinction provided great new opportunities for the next generation. great shifts in global warming or freezing. Rotunda. After all. September) Paleontologists tend to be sanguine about these things. "The difference this time is that it's man-made. Baker laughs.---- There's still hope Glenn." . biology editor for rotunda. But all the previous mass extinctions were caused by cataclysmic events: massive volcanic explosions." says Baker. meteors slamming into the planet.~" ~ G-Ll evS L~- ~~~6-4 l \) _-----------~ ----- ---------~---. "and it's avoidable.

of countless others.pbs.~O"" ~ o~ \~ - "2F-LO-. A systematic study 0[500 million years' worth of fossils indicates the replenishment oflost biodiversity after extinction also may be independent of the magnitude of the extinction event.\ 6.-- University Wire _ 1125/2002 Extinction might not be forever but it may as well be. a research associate at Duke University.. Analyzing the record of biodiversity at two different levels ~-the ~~ber of f~~hes and the number of genera-. the entire house must be rebuilt because the sta10ility of each card.. The discrepency can be explained by looking at the interconnection that characterizes living ecosystems. The study was published in the Jan.__.JJ~ ---_ ~--.«'/ \0 M\ LUO . even ifit is slowed. or niche. In the context of geologic time. 3 issue of Nature." said Kirchner's collaborator.q.(lon is really the death of a species may destroy the lifestyle.. as the evidence i~dicat~s. rests upon those around it. Iflife is undergoing mass extinction right now. ~:l~ecent study analyzed the fossil record for marine animals Since. Your mass extinction good arguments are so long term they should be shot The WGBH Educational Foundation 2001 (http://www.. What they found was that no matte~ w at the size of the extinction peak. Dr.the beginning of the Cambrian. Kirchner likened this view of extinction to the collapse of a house of cards via the removal of a sir 191e Spade. the contrast between the thousands of years spanning an extinction event and the millions required to recover is tremendous. J --\ (2__PrRS \~ ~. "Extinction does two things. there could be millions ofy". of an Eorth with dramatically reduced dwerslty. at least. These broadly applicable conclusions imply that while human influences may cause many extinctions very rapidly. 8 . Before the card removed can be replaced. who has concluded the biodiversity lost via mass extinctions may take more than 10 million years to replenish. there was a time lag of about 10 million years before the correspondmg peak in origination. Anne Wei}. " While it may seem as though the removal of one species merely creates space for another.scientists looked at the relationship between the peaks m extmctIon of eXIS~ng families and genera and the peaks in origination of new groups.. ab?~t 570 million years ago. the implic.org/wgbh/evolutionilibrary/03/2/1_032_03. -------------------------- That. is the view of University of California-Berkeley earth and planetary sciences professor James Kirchner. "It wipes out evolutionary potential and also destroys niches for other organisms.. or species. humanity as a species may not survive to see the lost biodiversity reclaimed..

cent A:CldraIndoes-iWt-kilf thefo.sts.rta'ill1ytakiniP!a~~b.O~ c:. __----_.dus'. I!or will we lose 25-50 percent of all species in our lifetill1e~::rnrac'rweare-olosinlrprobablyo.\t~ $ ----~----.?le. According to the UN we have reduced poverty more in the last 50 years than we did in the preceding 500.. --§"'16f' 7 for example by pointing out that a lot of pe.ig)Tiil·t~&.opleare still starving: "Howcan you say that thmgs are continuing to improve When 18 perc~nt of all people in the developing world are still starving?" The point is that ever fewer people in the w?"rld. The first statement refers to what the world looks like whereas the second refers to what it ought to look like.re-be~~(..tiC. ".l"l))L -----_ t ~ .'today we live for 67. i In_1996the figure was 18 percent andth. __ __ ( We are not running out of energy or natural r~sourcesyiThe:re wjllbe'm()r~aI1~ f~od per head. and moreover its total impact will not pose a devastating problem for our future. ~ore than 2000 million morepeople are gettmg enough to eat.k'" <7? GL\ {: <S __ t= i.~i~.~~l?~~=~~lIJit!_i~r'Y~Ifs§:mng.a_:_t..UN ex?ects. j)ercent"oriii '> . Professor of Statistics at University of Arhus.o~~ThG" -~-_~~~_--~_ ~--__ .0--. Globalwarming.Fe~er and fewerpeoprea~. sta~ng. .as actually improved in terms of practically every measurable indicator. mean that everything is good enough. 2001 (Bjorn..t-the tYPical cure of early and radical fossil fuel cutbacks is way worse than the original affliction. and it has been reduced in practically every country. But note carefully what I am saying here: that by far the majority of indicators show that mankind's'l~t-ha~rtiy -.. though its sizealld future proj ectiOiiS areiatherunrealistkaliYp~.I1_:Ie. however..35 peo.'tpe.l \. The Skeptical Environmentalist.Sta~fVing~Ini9ooWe~iIved --for alliverage~o(30 years...Tsa1mostc.ss:' 2~7l111~@l"eI]'. In 1970.--_--~~--.s.~~i-.."T-------------- h.y. -~d ---~~----wa~r~.:.-- _----- Lomberg. ------=:J does not..miI11treSs ollUted.~e.<:pE:sfarVi. ~ ~ -4 \ \<~ME..fI1at the-fi~ure-wfrrhaye'failen'to12 p:rcen.t~X:20~:lfi]!_~~!Sremark~ble!..of the world 'spoptitaHon._) p.. Many people believe they can prove me wrong.." While on lecture tours I have discovered how vital it is to emphasize this distinction.roir-.

w ~ .$food. and-ju·st as now-the doomsa _ e allV?YS"c'la~d t.~-== __ ' ~-·:::'..!.stilL!0 c~~:t. oil..!J l2. '. diamonds-humankind now can also 12!0du!::~ y b desl~ ami ~ster than nature.h~~MI1s anddQ. or ~~.~~.:ring..~t~t. p.and working-class£erson in~eveloped countries..erl1}<'l. professor of business information at the University of Maryland... "~ ". .\"\ Q_ \>.whereas~ s~erstlav~eef0V~~~c~§~2thet..-_. A~~~ctjl.~. Whate~r natur~s sp?nt~neou~lyp~~d that w~EP. Yet that benign outcome may be predicted with high likelihood.-sY oiJ1ealtQ~~!ld a"'standard of living hiKher than that which~rinc~.ction to this one.tr<:llheLthcm. ) ( With reasonable surety one can e..wns.j1e.l ~ _ to Simon.-~.ongit~e:t:~.lhe~ref casfSffiaCIeby the 'dooffisaye~s? . Hoodwinking the nation. ~"-"~ _.?~""\ Do'.:c-·-. b.-.. _'_ "'= pri~cess enjoy!d 200 year~g£ n£.~~.cas!s~~n BEt wr.2) to sf\bR ~'=- \< ~r. \0 .bat~t was no"gl1ideto the fu1Ul:ellecauseJhe}Lsloodat~ng p..~~l)'i('S' '\. "'~-== improvement rather than deterioration in fundamental aspects of material life-such as the availability of natural resources=-would usually have been right.-~:·-"""-"".£i!l!_i!lhl§!Q!Y. he 1:Jrl'thr~ t 'Or .re.w. _""".. forecasts of resource scarci ~.nent no reversaITn every period those who would have bet on 1/ the thecloom . That may take half a century or a century.eerI. Why should you believe this _foreca§. This is a happy vision.(}Clrd.=--0 .xpe that the _illi:!terial ~~r~~~~~'~n!~1~s~~~~in~rihet~~~~i~~~~~le~ ce~lury~?rhv0~alrnationsiiIld most of humani!Y~_':Yil!lJ~ at or~~~~:West~rIl~~~~~J2~2rJhis forecast is the set of trends discussed in my other books and summarized' in the intro'd.eyery t middle-clas§. and of mosrpeOple in povertYas' wen:-What is.. 7001 (Julian. indeed. the tumingpoim1o.1hese materiaLga!I!slpal!J?~f hum~nity.=. • This side" l1asbeen right across the board in the forecasts we have-madein pcistfe~ decClcres.'"'r.-~~-.--. "..• Throughoutthe 1 s of history..

Thi~ _~e~I1_}~ 40. ..:.. A perfectly circular argument.O(). Q!'. the final one-quarter of this century witnesses the elimination of 1 million species .000 species per year.. ) "The~ri!5i~alt'stiT~~e()L~g:OO.t!l_e~r~~Q. If you assume 40.<. It\¥as.]_s-~~dbirds.. The Skeptical Environmentalist.gOO times<tlie-la~fIIed rate and400tim\!sthe maijmu.000 a year.tiI1s:tevfC'~s 3IlCiaft~ jllat2. during the course of 25 years. the extinction rate had nowreacl1~(fT60 'species a-y~~r~034ThlsfigiiredOe~t j.~tover c mam. that makes 40. as above ..9Jh?t reilcned miiTIoiis. therefore.."--~-. This would work out.--". One naturally refuses to believe that this can be the only argument. or rather over 100 species per day..._'.:!tIDe eX.Eonference_i~-f971:.~.000 timeszrea_ter t:han_hiso~jata. p.c..a far from unlikely prospect. .< everyy~arc~lIle froT..(L~...-S Lomberg. at an average extinction rate of 40.-"'4 .000..<lL~Il~il_ ~ey~!_1220~~~des.. 2002 (Bjorn._(_ tG. '-~-. tI.'.~ '"'\ ~C-.o..-LO~~ <7 '? t. Note the massive deviation between the observed rate of one quarter.. one and perhaps 100 per year and Myers' estimate of 40. whether known to science or not...lO. He s~~~s..-. _.. but is an "overall extinction rate among all species.-."2035and is not surprisingly.~however. then you get 40.~'-" ~._-i~e~s as seen in Figure 131..000.000. _~--.. ~yersi:\1_. much larger.st.fp~()_p_le worl<!2X~!.~033 His arguments ~stonIShing reading.-_ '-"-='-~"'--"==.thOUgh~tho_u_!_re~E~I2:EF:'.'o36 This is Myers' argument in its entirety.I1. The crucial part of the argument is this: make Yet even this figure seems low . professor of statistics at the University of Aarhus. every year.-[/ \\ .v. Ifwe assume that 1 million species will become extinct in 25 years.'· the &'_~....~lpedes. but Myers' book provides no other references or argumentation.r~~er~-g~ss>tF<lt. Let us suppose that. as a consequence of this man-handling of natural environments [the dearing of tropical forest]..lll22:.sies !9.. Then Myers quotes a.

e \L.c_c.. The p..~q ~"" w~t~£n_~~~Ti{~i~e~'provld~-th'e=poli tical p.t~ 2~~~~_~~ferceiit~r... .5 ---~--kornberg. ---- Professor of Statistics at University of Arhus.t'~::C:~. h~~efis..{') -.]ttlle specres~-on:Eaith . 11 i 1 N._ 'I ~-~_~ ::~~~~5~e~?i~Jo~irt~~~~~{~~t4~~~: d~~re-e. ) Sk~t2tic:alEnvironmentalist.-------...._\(.:_iI11IJ~~n'ot equa!?Ejih the available evidence 2011--'-~-_'-~ "~l. 1 IlL \".-'-"~----LoSS W\L-L t) co (\'\t. tIle" agenda'.tllOUgll these assertions ofmassi~e ~~tinc: _tion ofsl'ecies~a~ebe~Brepeatedev~~here ~ou 1??~~~_tl1~.\.::~}...2. -_ .:r~::. 2001 (Bjorn.---~-----~-. PU?Ch wl~i~htl.llnch~':lRtlC~°!l~a~I()E oren(f~ngereaspectes high on.. . I.~~n~ii~~o:~ l.

a minor consequence to communities of organisms living in open-ocean waters. and finally demanding separate water ballast ranks...'?" ) .. litter are common along sea lanes.. It is estimated that in 1985 about 60 percent of the marine sources of oil pollution came from the routine tanker transport operation.Lomberg.~l .. but are.. professor of statistics at the University of Aarhus. ) (Bjorn.. Several international '!_greements~ have regulated and to a large degree ~d the extent of routine oill2oilution.~emandin~ bYlaWileWteChniques for the handling of'ballast water. at present. This means that oil remnants get mixed into the ballast water.doil l\. improving waste facilities in port.... removing the last remnants of oil in the tanks (bycleaning the tanks with oil instead of water).... +-~~.... ~ The Skeptical Environmentalist.. . while 20 percent came from regular oil spills of the kind we see on TV.. e."1408 It actually turns out that the very lumps of oil that Heyerdahl was so worried about are now much fewer in number. exploiting the fact that water separate (ensuring that only the bottom layer of water is poured out on arrival).and about 15 percent come from natural oil seepage at the bottom of the sea and from sediment crosion. which on arrival gets flushed out into the harbor..l+" Routine oil pollution is due to the fact that tankers use sea water in their tanks as ballast when they sail without oil.. ~!_:~_~ ~11 .g.1 .....T. p.

\< 'I ~~LltAA ~"&-L\b-5 5 ~'l_ \~ _-_------ ------ §im.increased since the data began in 1961. has w =-. vid . Scarcity or Abundance. .. ). p. 1994 (Julian. ) '" About pollution now: Th.~f mo~!tor~sites if! the Ul1ited States w~h w~. -eel _e_~_i!ilng es ecially the main eo1T1:itaflt: p:a-rticy_lite~::Wiili_l~~~<:ti:~a ter 1 ths:J?!QQor~~~.Q!!. - ------ . with respect _to airj_I!9icates that pollutants hav . professor of business information at the University of Maryland.2QSLdIillka15ITIty_-.

~ engage are radically diff~rent from the ecological proc!:. They multiply.. Coal. 2002 (Ronald. and entertainment. in the past 50 years.---~--. but by creating new recipes to use the limited resources available in ever more effective ways. fixed-s.!k~_£y usi~_ fertile minds. and creativity are replacing mass and money-which is why. Human beings not only"7onsume given re: sources but also m. "And every generation has underestimated the pot~l for findin~~ip~and ideas: We consistently fail to grasp how many ideasre: main to be discovered. winner of the noble peace prize and member of:he society of environmental journalists.~. we make ourselves better off 110tby increasing the amoy.-----_--_--.nt of stuff on planet Earth-which is. and so forth may • all be limited.---- value of our economy has tripled.------~ . tin. no cancer epidemicsl and no resource dt<p~ . shelter. "Every generation has perceived the limits to growth that finite resources and undesirable side effects would pose if no new recipes or ideas were discovered. Economic growth and increases in human well-being are not fueled by simply using up resources the way a herd of zebra would do. of course.~~.ail~ singls major prediction of ideological environmentalism has com<:!fue~~~"globalfamines. Enviro~talist ideologues havebe~n proven wrong because ili0ail to understand that th economi rocesses . -- . Global Wannmg and Other Ecomyths p ) But this intellectual stra~ oLliiro~J!."! In other words.l15· (I~ populati~)~1i~=~~:b}J~es has f. "Throughout our economy.i~is.~- -------_-_--- . when he declared. but the ideas for extending and improving their u"~es are not.. skills.") \S . clothing. freshwater. The difficulty is the same one we have with compounding." explains Stanford University economist Paul Romer.ses that govern other creatures.£_ili ~~--~~---~~ ~. forests. intelligence. the l t.. ---=b_2tby rearranging the stuff we have available so that it provides us with more of what we want: food. while the physical weight of our economy as a whole has barely increased at all.Bailey. = -------. the more goods and services we can get from relatively less stuff Even former Vice President Gore acknowledged this fact at the 1999 annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Possibilities do not add up. As we become more clever about rearranging material.

like the other environmental dooms -a:n:afyzedhere.ncrclialigilij·p~ec1Tgtig.tyj)rClY. and join in·the·apocclIyptl(...rs. skin cancer epidemics.. and popu"-lations whose immune systems have been seriously compromised.~~.on:_iiqw:· But huma=r!fiY-~~~I~~99_§Q Q!llyJn.Q. Yetthf:lWpactoi.QIl1plexqll~§tion. deliberate.. thinking..S.tentati ve conclusions 1..an-ll1ade_ghlQJ:()fJ.?uIl}fi..~l .~'\ \=£L~S c:.). . 1J}.~a:rrf()£·dm~Hc~~~~n. The culprits in this drama are a group of industrial chemicals purveyed by greedy corporations to pamperedand.~:mQrali.o ig~ nore these comQ[ications.pletion.~ilr~ii~~~e~llty"J~ri! . winner of the noble peace prize and member of the society of enviromnentaljournalists.~abandon critical. Jl1~~~j§_ !1Q.!lQIof. \'E-(__\~ S WCkS ------Bailey.ll Qra1i1Y!JiI<lY::~ Q .0zog!2.. is less a crisis than a nuisance.f!rbons (CFCsLo~theo?one .I~. Ecoscam: The False Prophecy of Ecological Apocalyps~ p ) By now everyone (94 percent of Americans according to one pull"] has heard that the earth's protective ozone shield is wearing thin and even has a hole in it over the South Pole.c9nfijcDI"lgn teri pretatloI1~.d.s. one that can and should be dealt with in a calm.poiledcou.unfortunately. C... The looming ozone catastrophe will purportedly bring humanity withered crops.pl<!G~jor ambiguity.. ~rns ! out that . rf·ii. and scientific way. 1993 (Ronald.7 Ozone deplet!Ql!jstlw p erfectec ologi c. collapsing terrestrial and marine ecosystems.thatturns on mur ky~vi dence.layer iSf!..leJ:nptingJ.e.

) II .. if equitably disfood tributed. the prospects are good that the world'sfarmers - will be able to provide a better diet at lower prices to more people in the (Uturf!:. staying a~ead of world population growth:.. through yield improvements.!!. world food supplies h_a_veT_o~~a@in tl!!J!!:!fjO years. it is likely that an additional 1billion tons of grain will be needed annually by 2025. Organic agriculture is incapable of feeding the world's current population. winner of the noble peace prize and member of the society of envlronmentaljoumalists.c. ~ y£c_. Most of this increase must be supplied from lands already in production. if their development is not hindered by antiscience activism. While challenging. could provide an adequate diet jiJr 700 nil/ioll there are living in the world today._ S ---------------~-------~- --- ------- Bai~ey. much less providing for future population growth... Global Warming and Other Ecomyths p ) Contrary to the predictions of many environmentalist ideologues. humanity would have needed nearly 1.8 billion hectares of land of the same quality--instead of the 600 million that were used-to equal the current global harvest.u . 2002 (Ronald.Si:l.!!31 supplies.¥:. Had the global cereal yields of 1950 still prevailed in 1999." ~-U. ore eople than --.D vl<. To feed the world's growing population a better diet..

What is interesting. SeCO"nd.d along by the . and the emphasis is on drama and conflict.~!~jp this connection because the world has become s~exthat we can no longe~rely _primiily on our own experiences. But their particular way of providing us with news p~foundfy:E:fl!.:ovid~muc-hot'Our understanding of reality.:.~limf~r1a.p \8 . Professor of Statistics at University of Arhus."'~Iebate and temake valid d'ecisions..!itt1e knowled~t~Yl'~~~ms._.cie~ti-.. the media simply reflect the world as it is.!~iiCesour vl~~f tnewoi'Ia. ) Finally.!lt.. Instead. First. 1~~I11~?~~~Sentr~!.iz~ti~ns.ls incoherent and sporadic..Third.-. the mass m~dia p.~_i!"na Ie us to ta~e part in a democratic decmQ. "275 This media-based reality has numerous consequences.. ~P. Looking at news reporting in this way shows how the edia systematically present us with lopside versi2!l of icture of realify wll!ch.. though at the same time reassuringly predictable and familiar: A picture where problems fill every column. p.ibly -h~rp.There is' of course rarely much doubt that facts reported in an article or a news report are generally true. As an editor-in-chiefhas put it: "Producing a paper is a question of distorting proportions.'''f_co.y: ~ ·_~". is the long and winding path between an event taking place in the world and its possible appearance and placement in the media. The Skeptical Environmentalist. rei!.ii:inaI<fngprocess. the incohere~t information w. 2001 (Bjorn.g.-W~=~i-suff.. it is the media that pass on the results of research.co "'" 0: we believe we actually do have sufficienr ~e'i:opartaKe'11ttll. In that sense.Lomberg..are given provides tl~~_~<J.ble that _ "'__-::::'_~"·=="·"''. however. we wITI often getJ far too negative and distorted impression of the problems.·_e.

however.d .(One consequence of l~: demand _for rapid news <l"l_ivery that our view of the world is esting and sensational news means that oUl'" picture of the wOrl~eFomes di§. this can provi~ serious b~as towards ~negaQve aI?2:~iS'a) r: 0 tlie state of the world.?ness. The fact that we primarily believe their n~ative news is not their fault.. and has an influence even on persons endued with the profoundest judgment and most extensive iearning. is strongly rooted in human nature..l~ n~. p. this ~ay be ve~ dIffICult because we inherently tend to thmk that things were better in the old days uid that everything is going in the wron g (r ti tree IOn. bu!.rs.).atI~~ive i~@y lopside~ compensate for it.- Lomberg. The Scottish philosopher David Hurne wrote in 1754 that "the humour of blaming the present.:.I(i1sa~.plotjtable. Unfortunately..-m~to ~~~~Sh the fact that the streamofinfor. Professor of Statistics at University of Arhus.!iN incentive structJJre that makes it.I:e with news ofpotenti. but it means t~~t~~~<.:i~~~~-fu. Note." ~ get primarily n!I@qve news n~ because the journali.-eJ£~e.ts have evil intentioIl$ ~ause the~media are placed in.. Coupled with the finely tuned PI II units of the environmental organizations and problem-oriented research..i1~tcli:Ulg'e)his egn It.. that it is not anybody' "fault.. all others.to.. Inst~ad. Research is main}'! concerned with potential problems.. focus o~!!y. and admiring the past. This' 1 socially beneficial. and they argue in favor of their own cause.our"" because we are only s'ke~tlcal of the America~ F~reau arguments and not of those froJl'(\ the environmental lobby.l.nceA)The envircn mental organizations are interest groups lik(. ) .~ ~~~-.. The Skeptical Environmentalist. because it gives us the be' 'l ___ opportunity to handle problems in the future. J!le..curre."300) ~~2~i~iim~Qt~lEiJ[~r~T§. ' !hegzlili:fs}11~we"(7t_:r.. 2001 (Bjorn.

.~~. TIle report thus becomes the peg on ~ to base the story. photograph or describe news in relatively simple terms.~at @.. ) TIle basic job of the news media is to report individual. ~ ~.!_ler news.U~-events are also technical: it has to be possible to film.~. Hunger in Africa is nowhere near as goOd news as a plane crash.._~w_siQJthy.. unrelated events from many differ.~ within the ~o~e.exl?_lain~ o. p.~i. Professor of Statistics at University of Arhus. evel1~ ~o~wred ~ v or..J J tR o~ l'l\b~~l>rL \S Lomberg..t-\ ~. Rather characteristically.. The Skeptical Environmentalist.A:J-. th.. ent parts of the world.<) . items which take a long time to develop will ~iablil.-' peoQl~ -or in~tit~. ~duc~~ r~E£ll of th.278 -The re'iSoi1Sfur~edo~.Q.ess~~eand-now events.ts primarily of inctdent:C-ather than p. {el?~o_tt e\'t:>~.i?" By definition. This limits what we can I"'£()1l) . often seven ~-"~ ~24 hours~ven less:.:!~-2~chpr~~cts or . fall ~ws t. 2001 (Bjorn.. the Bthiopian hunger tragedy of 1984 only actually became news because a team of BBCjournalists stayed overnight in Addis Ababa on their way to another job and sent horne shocking pictures of children literally dying in front of their camerasp7 At the same time there is a strong tendency to focus on individual stories.ll1JiL"UP-uctl.e..~ ~ ::::~-.279) ® Ji!ii2ecti~pthl~ 20 .. actu~!!y.Li!..e~di~ti~ explanations or-backgroulldmaterial.l~d~~~ibe possible future events or to put events into re. The role of the media in liberal Western democracies has in ~toEi~al termsa primarily been" 1.ll. ~s ~~ also has to be new..rti~.t. For this reason we only get background information~e..£l .

.~_ L\ .ing affliction upon the pu~lic ..5 "t)\)~ \) o(. along with an increase in the volume of printed material available. when in fact there is only a temporary reversal.etting worse." j~ists oftfm devot~mt. .l<:h IIIUention to}ecent changes th~_tl!l'!yJ)eonly blips runniI}K ~~~~Iong:rul1c~~nges. Hoodwinking the nation. p. the _ average age of articles cited in sci~ntific research 1!Q_vya~<'!Y_s It) less than it was in earlier times.as l1. and television iCl. ~haps ~for this reason.. For example..:ians.~ials of corruEt 12oliti<. ev:ry few years th.1anges:r·· __.smglenot summer is_vie""ed as portending major eli~=_ -_~= l Th~~~ilim~!o_!ls~scigfltificillxsollll<ip~th~s.of nuclear plants and nuclear waste. re~t work of the p~t g:!s _fo$. a sEate of news . professor of business information at the University of Maryland.~ \ . For example.."--'l ~~~s ~ "E:.Sr\~~~~~ ~~ \ \'") . The p~~ is systematically misled about such issues as the extent of welfare abuse bY-Immigrants..anincr~~s.. simply because there are ('(lore articles being written by more s<:ieDtists.~cent work..L. Was it HegeCwho said that the only lesson of history is that we forget all history? One of the few negative general trends in a world where most things are getting better is our greater propensity to disregard history with each successive decade and improvement in communications..G. and trends in the availability of natural resources and the cleanliness of our environment~ beca!1se]oum"1fIistsap._ers.~ i G:. 2001 (Julian. ) becoiii~einQre~rnnuer1tiat~an(r as~weIncreasJr1iIY"aTtellif to e~~nts that we ca~ot check ourselxes. and perhaps also because of the occupational focus on "news. .\ '"t- LL c:.voi- n:ailcCl.This means tl1at (.__ --~~-' -=wareh0l!se fu:gs. (Jr-a.ewspapers. .uestions..J2ly to these issues the sam~ that w.overing ~-.orl<w~ll in <.otten s02Der in ot~~ (l. 5 Simon.~-----'"~ ~'\ t_ \ rriS ~u "t. the dang.stories about how tIle 100d ~itua1!2121s ~.1L€£ \5 t--'\ t:-o t~ -~.' .. But these n_9l1s<:ienJjfic tech!1i'l~es ~ystematically~~ answers to the m2!e global 9.

er anom'l. "This shows that El Nino is very dangerous for Florida" said Scott Spratt..::. a meteorologist for the National Weather Service?SS from aller- Skeptical Environmentalist.Jfi..~""'.S. we all In fact..of Arhus._t. continued in years._u. it is not easy to explain why.) > . ofS~~~is~i~s ~ni~e~si..I!.x~ every daY'1!:deed.:'ilt~~~~_good story is usually .:!~~~."2B7 We got informed of the "weird weather" and endless lists ofproblems: ..: reade.ski:sl~s._o w <..} • the eastern that brought to bask in the warmest news th~~~~st in the first week of January.... <:2e~gt~~~1~1~~~~:~cie~~~r ~.wasliE~~_<lI1y ~~er .s..en~a" tion because theydeP~ on . more than 300 homes were destroyed and more than three dozen people were killed by a series of powerful tornadoes.j"""·="'-"'~Ci_'.WleJy imyortalli. Even Worldwatch Institute pointecrout:snghtly exasperatedly..event.~. _Ob\Ti?~~8 EI ~~~~ ever:_~. that "as early 1998 progressed. and has caused at least 10 deaths.291 and yet . c'!. Damage from storms and mud slides is expected to cost California more than $300 million. JOl\ trate to a large extent on satisfying the inter" ests of a mass public...~ are alIp~ctIYJg!!1i. one to Washington ignored.~'''_-_.293And even when El Nino did have a positive effect...289 causing more seem to be curious about and faScinated by bad news. That might sound like the opposite w~_tl1.YeIY And then the journalist went on to tell us about the problems of warmer weather.L\~C. as in Time magazine: and north-central winter cherry blossoms I.n~"t.usmg 22 de~Ls.. Perhaps most surprising statement was the Disney's accusation that El Nino had caused its shares to fall... The at p._ ~AA\S r- 7' L\~~"\'r-'L ---_-------_ -Lo~~.spaper ~ in the middle of the nineteenth century the mass media have had to concent.thjJa<l Perhaps ~gies melting the . is even This !!leans that _it is eXlr.lli!J. 2001 (Bjorn.cked __ With~_rl()_.d ~s.:. h 292 d~Ping snow in Ohio.. --. but has it(iiark Si~4· aboll! _tlle enviEollment.. it became difficult to find a weather"related story that did not mention El Nino's infiuence.. With the ease of channel surfing this focus on customers stronger with the Tv medium. The tab-loid papers are forced to focus more on-.:_::!i! __ · " ~i. San Francisco has had its wettest winter since 1867.g.g . \)~(Z_~ S\\S>f. ~~E:.Pr~ie~s~."286 We were told how cities were "bracing for the climate event of the century.'_···'""-"=~'-~~~"""""". al~h2w t~~se <.ther.o_~~"c-~'_-=-?'_"" __"':"""''''_'''''. EI Nino got blamed for anything wrecking to'urism. this was powerfully "Large parts of U.!.sfiili!ill$ them exciti.. for news to be i~ And interesting usualiy ~ea~si. If(i t=:t.!.'.. In Florida.ord "fear" has increased American media.rr§L~wJr ferns and-:~~cld. and this sells newspapers.ly of a disaster..." Although writes a textbook for journalists.!EL. ) _ Experts are saying that this El Nino is one of the most intense on record.~all~iil'gi~d" li~-~~~~_~_~ ~~~ (_'.

!5ki11.t~ ~es e _ ~~~f}1 ? a~l:lconsic!erableeffor"ttodjgilltQ~anewJt~l .exFert"~xEres~~ vi~s Qpt step with. and r~~mant t_gJ!l~s~le!?ri!Y'entir~.. ~~t..Jllis"'_weIrfmmir-. And since there is no check on the journalist's picking experts in such fashion.L_ Simon. b~~~T~wI11j1e eWer . professor of business information at the University of Maryland. ilasr' todo.tWoSidescanmake a newspaper story seem inconclusive._d often th~cclclJri.~ in a legal djspute. p.-~- .-- n:~~s ~> ot .!x. 63). 2001 (Julian..~ Tl~~journali~ ha~s)i~ to . An expert who maintains that on balance there is more good news for the planet than bad news is hardly welcome at the funeral feast.R~ts t~a~e ~~cotlrt_~qs_~ \\Tho_se~J<_toi!~d=Jhg st _lli2 effective advocates for their sidesTndee'd. Newsweek headlines "More Bad News for the Planet" (March 28.--. p.-.P§teX. . s The egregious case of Lester Brown versus the consensus of agricultural economists is a case in point. 1988.\"'vJ'( ~J(.UD~S "7<V~~ ~"'7 -.21od~~ethod is simply ClnaSSBInulatiQn 52(~~: yxSa cctebrity being a person well known for being well Known-ar. the overall impression given by an article is the one the journalist favors.ErofessiQ!!.-.!cuskp'c~.£iclJh. which no journalist wants.g b. Hoodwinking the nation.~ ~f.gX!2eJ. &'Thejour~~1is_t .2 p EVCe with the ...•e j~l1rnali~~ p R. ) t\ . ') -. the most effective advoc~tes forthe.

That's when we're playing environmental roulette. Loss i. 70 to 95 percent of the world's then-existing species disappeared forever over a relatively short time period on the geological scale (see "Tides of Change. 2001 (William M. Inexorably. While tragic for those involved.\<. environmentally speaking. September) Extinction is inevitable. It appears that humankind is intent on knocking the balance completely out of whack. ~~\. Despite difficulties in determining exact comparative rates of extinction. the ROM's vice-president of Research and Collections.. no question about it. a changing environment strips away a species' evolutionary advantages. however. "the history of life is punctuated by the great waves of extinction.-<." These mark the major transitions in the Earth's living history." s." explains paleontologist Dr. Since the debut of the first single-celled life forms on Earth some one billion years ago.~ \ ~s f. "Much as war and upheaval are the primary dating points of human history. often clearing the stage for the next contestants in the evolutionary pageant.+ ~~~'\ Glenn. ornithologist and head of the ROM's Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology. Every new species is fated to slither or scamper or skitter for only a finite time upon the Earth. 30 to 70 percent of all the species in the world will disappear. Rotunda. stronger. Hans-Dieter Sues.." page 33). things don't change.l~ IT . extinction is not always a bad thing. When the rate of extinction is in balance with the rate of speciation--the evolutionary engine that generates new kinds of plants and animals--biodiversity is maintained. When the two rates shift out of alignment. if not in our lifetime. the during the lives of our children. or more wily competitor. today's scientists are gathering mounting anecdotal and statistical evidence to suggest that the balance oflife on Earth is being fundamentally and irreversibly altered yet again.. it's time to start worrying. One of these transitions may now be underway. Are we on the brink of the sixth great wave of extinction? [Graph Not Transcribed] "Absolutely. biology editor for rotunda. Or its unique ecological niche is wrested from it by a faster. On each of these five separate occasions. periodic waves of extinction have swept away the old eco-regimes. he says. Allan Baker. The fossil record displays evidence of five massive die-backs--staggering shifts in the fabric oflife--interspersed by minor spasms of growth and extinction." says Dr.

. if we continue cutting at the current rate. Almost all of the victims are nameless. estimates 30. Wilson. We're talking about birds that have been relatively common since time immemorial. That's about 50 times the expected extinction rate. "These are not just rare island species. Yet. 80 species of mammals.000 times the background levels. L .!! further 24 percent of mammal species.046 are on the World Conservation Union's waiting list. Another 727 are on the vulnerable "near threatened" list. and uncounted invertebrates and plants. birds that have been trembling on the edge of disaster for years." . Their passing goes unremarked and largely unmoumed. In just the last two centuries an unexpectedly large number of species have already disappeared--more than 100 kinds of birds. and humankind may very well be one of the species that doesn't manage to survive. and 30 percent of the (mostly freshwater) fish species so far assessed are threatened with extinction.. endorsement to the theory. "Mankind has already precipitated a minor extinction event. will be three or four orders of magnitude higher than those normally thought to prevail between the great waves of extinction." continues . Thousands more fall into the WCU's lower-risk" near threatened" category. he says.. one of the pioneers in recognizing the extent of current extinctions. they've never been collected or catalogued. According to the World Conservation Union's most recent "Red List. But the reality is that we are all connected by the same web of life. it seems reasonable to expect to lose one bird species every 100 years during "background" extinction levels that prevail between cataclysmic die-backs. Many more are threatened. one in eight of the approximately 9000 known species currently face a high risk of extinction. another 11. the ROM's director of Research and curator of Mammalogy. though more cautious.. Whether it continues is entirely up to us. the numbers of European sky-larks and swallows have been halved since 1970. North American warbler populations are in a nosedive." Dr. Extinction rates. Within 50 years. Mark Engstrom. several studies show. Among the birds alone. some scientists are predicting that extinction rates for all families of plants and animals will explode to between 1000 and 10. only five percent of tropical forests will remain--all in protected areas. human activity has pushed 816 species of plants and animals to extinction in the wild. It does appear that we are picking up the destructive pace.. As the century unfolds. based on mathematical modelling.~~ ~"E=-~'£"S \ Losing large numbers of relatively unknown species may seem like an abstraction. "The evidence pointing towards a mass extinction is very clear and it's growing more compelling day by day. Ifwe are not yet immersed in the sixth wave of extinction. lends his strong. 25 percent of reptiles. In the last 500 years. 20 percent of amphibians. Estimating from fossil evidence.. some 106 species ofbirds--from the great auk to the passenger pigeon to the Labrador duck-shave disappeared.000 extinctions a year--that's 600 a week--or approximately one every 17 minutes. since 1800.~"'\ 'f. we are poised on the cusp. Baker rattles off example after example: the number of kiwis in New Zealand has dwindled at an alarming rate over the last 20 years." says Baker.

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The rate of extinction for many animal species is accelerating even faster than predicted. A study recently released by the World Conservation Union points out that more than 11,000 plants and animals could be extinct within the fIrst few decades of the 21 st century. It says one of every four mammals and one of every eight birds could face extinction. Those alarming figures are all the more reason people must practice conservation techniques, believes Texas A&M University researcher Dr. Duane Kraemer, who founded Project Noah's Ark, an effort to collect and preserve DNA and other genetic material from endangered animals. If an animal becomes extinct, it could possibly be re-introduced in the future by Project Noah's Ark scientists. "The new figures [on extinction rates] underscore the importance of all countries developing a comprehensive plan to save animals from extinction," says Kraemer, a veterinarian and a pioneer in embryo transfer and cloning procedures. "The rate of extinction is proceeding faster than most had believed. The loss of so many plants is important to our efforts because that contributes to the eventual extinction of some animal species. " The report says that humans are the biggest factor in the extinction game. On a worldwide scale, expansion of industries, cities becoming larger, deforestation and poor land management have combined to threaten thousands of species, the report claims. The report notes that in the last 500 years, more than 800 species have disappeared, many of those forever. A few survive only in captivity. Project Noah's Ark, Kraemer says, is geared toward training people in the conservation field to collect genetic material from animals. Research and preserving genetic material from near-extinct animals is another mission of the organization. Project Noah's Ark is aimed at coIlecting sperm, eggs, somatic cells and embryos of endangered animals and storing the material in liquid nitrogen. The material can be used to maintain genetic diversity in existing populations. If the species becomes extinct, there would be enough of the building blocks to reintroduce the animal at a future date. "For too many animal species, extinction is inevitable. It's not a question of if, but of when," Kraemer believes.

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Genesis of Eden 2001 ("The Sacrifice of Eve" http://www.dhushara.com/book/diversitlsaceve. htm#anchor 1791316) The next few decades will witness a wildlife holocaust, a great extinction numbered among the five most serious threats to life in earth during its entire history. By the tum of the millennium, over a million kinds of animals, plants and fungi are expected to be driven to extinction; by the year 2050, half of all the species alive today could be lost forever. The disaster threatens to surpass the mass extinction of 65 million years ago when the dinosaurs disappeared. The causes are diverse, but they all come down to human impact without foresight. Overhunting and overfishing, pollution and the trade in wildlife all playa part. But by far the greatest cause of the extinctions is the destruction of wild habitats for farming, fuel, industry and a host of other uses. The world's tropical rainforests, which contain at least half the world's species, are failing fast: little more than half of their original expanse still remains, and an area as big as Romania is cleared each year. The temperate forests are likewise under siege in Siberia. Half the world's wetlands - other abundant habitats - have been drained or developed and species-rich coral reefs are being destroyed throughout the earth's warmer seas. Species are now becoming extinct at 25,000 times the natural rate (Lean 127). Currently there is a species being lost about every 12 minutes and the rate is steadily increasing as remaining areas of high diversity become fractured. The loss of one plant can cause the loss of as many as 30 kinds of animals and insects which depend upon it, so the whole process has catastrophic potentiality.

You Can't Solve - species extinctions are inevitable Fullik, Professor of Science at FulIik, 2002 (Amy, The New Scientist, 1217) In October, the orld Conservation Union (also known as the IUCN) published its updated Red List of Thre~tene~ SpecIes, a roll call of 11,167 creatures facing extinction -- 121 more than when the list was last pubh~hed In 2000. But the ~ew figures almost certainly underestimate the crisis. Some].2 million species of anImal and 270,000 specIes of plant have been classified, but the well-being of only a fraction has been assessed. The resources are simply not available. The IUCN reports that 5714 plants are threatened for example, but adm~ts that only 4 per cent o~known plants have been assessed. And, of course, there' are thousands of species that we have yet to discover . Many of these could also be facing extinction.

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The Dallas Morning News - 9/28/2001 To try to clarify things, Alroy of the University of California, Santa Barbara created a computer model that simulates the interactions between the first human hunters and the North American megafauna to see whether man possibly could have been the bad guy. Some scientists have argued that prehistoric humans weren't capable of perpetrating such a colossal event. "The model, I think, blows that argument away," says Alroy. He used conservative estimates of human population growth, nutrition needs and hunting ability along with data about the size, location and numbers of each of the large North American mammals. What he found was that once humans arrived, the extinctions weren't only possible, they were unavoidable. It isn't necessary for humans to kill every last member of a species, Alroy says. "They just need to push the balance of births and deaths out of whack for a long time." He estimates that only 10 percent to 20 percent ofthe animals actually needed to be killed. The model even correctly predicts that some species, such as bison and elk, would survive. "If you grant that the structure of this model is at all reasonable," he says, "then it shows that a mass extinction was inevitable."

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Fullik, Professor of Science at Fullik, 2002 (Amy, The New Scientist, 1217) At sea, overfishing on a massive scale threatens the complete loss of certain species in particular areas. Recent research on New Zealand snappers has shown that overfishing delivers a double whammy to biodiversity. As fish populations get smaller, only a few fish seem to breed successfully in each generation. Most ofthe surviving offspring are genetically related to a small number of parents, so not only is the overall number reduced, genetic diversity is too. The long-term prognosis isn't good. Many scientists now believe that the world's climate is changing as a result of the burning of fossil fuels, forest destruction and intensive livestock farming (pigs, sheep and cattle produce vast quantities of the greenhouse gas methane). The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that global surface temperature will rise on average by between 1.4 and 5.8 }C by the end of the century. Rising temperatures have a major effect on many ecosystems and inevitably lead to loss of diversity, particularly as the changes seem to be happening so fast that evolution is unlikely to keep up. Some species are more sensitive to temperature change than others. A rise of just I }C could lead to the extinction of New Zealand's tuatara, a reptile that has been described as a "living fossil" because it first appeared at the same time as the dinosaurs. Recent research at Victoria University in Wellington showed that at 21 }C, 96 per cent of all tuatara eggs are female, whereas at 22 }C they are all male. So it seems likely that the tuatara, an animal that survived the cataclysm that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs, and doubtless many other species, will fall victim to global warming. The risks to biodiversity are not evenly spread around the world. Certain areas are much more vulnerable - particularly small, isolated populations such as islands, rainforest fragments, coral reefs, bogs and wetlands. Many of these areas also have particularly rich diversity of flora and fauna, so if the ecosystem is damaged many species will be lost. Aside from rising sea levels as a result of global warming, islands are vulnerable to industrial exploitation for resources such as oil and minerals. Tourism also takes its toll. Coral reefs -- some of the most species-rich environments on Earth -- are very sensitive to pollution and changes in water temperature and depth. Bogs and wetlands are often drained for building projects or farming, to tap into oil and gas reserves or extract peat. They are also susceptible to changes in climate.

and in time life has recovered. the planet has had five mass extinctions. The process of recovery has been studied far less than the extinction events themselves. Instead. biodiversity is greatly decreased. as recovery progresses. others are pre-existing. "Recoveries require the fabric of the ecosystem to be rebuilt. and it takes a long time. Some floras and faunas often survive in small or isolated geographic areas called refugia. but this is changing..org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/2/1_032_03.in a biocentric framework mass extinction good -_- ---- ~-~- The WGBH Educational Foundation 2001 (http://www. .f=-c." says paleontologist Douglas Erwin.Y'i ~/LLO~. Recent research is revealing some of the patterns that can be seen in past recoveries.pbs. \G--5 -~~---~~-----~ ------Turn. and it stays low during a "survival interval" before beginning to climb again. And. html) Over hundreds of millions of years. the resulting biological communities may be very different from those that were wiped out. While some of the species that reappear after an extinction are new. In this way a positive feedback process occurs. and new niches are created as new species appear and new ecological relationships are established.5 "7 \. Following a mass extinction. it seems the niches themselves are destroyed. with species creating roles for still more species. This is not simply because the organisms that become extinct leave behind empty ecological niches that are filled by creatures from different ancestry than the former inhabitants..

Evolution cannot proceed without the extinction of organisms that are less well-adapted to changing conditions. It is a natural method of weeding the garden. As much as we might crave the opportunity to see these creatures alive today. Extinction is an essential part of the brutal. or anachronistic species so as to maximize the evolutionary fitness of the gene pool at any point in time. The notion that some extinctions are desirable might seem callous or cynical. the fact remains that their extinction evidently was necessary for life on earth to evolve in such a way that other species such as humans could thrive. Despite the unquestionable benefits to mankind and other species from the disappearance of the previously dominant dinosaurs. we would have been required to stand in the path of evolutionary progress. thus rewarding the life forms that have been most successful in the game ofliving. L. successful. if humans and the ESA had somehow existed at the time. or inflexible. Judge Advocate specializing in environmental law. the ESA would have forced us to try to preserve them. but it is also true. of filtering out the weaker. It clears limited habitat and resources for use by the species that are best adapted for current conditions. Yet. USAF) 24 Envtl. and fascinating "charismatic megafauna" of aU time -. ~\ . unforgiving struggle that is evolution.Species Extinction good Kunich 94(John Charles. 501 Included among the myriad species that died out before the human era are some ofthe most spectacular.the multitudinous varieties of dinosaurs and giant mammals. and it certainly is subject to overuse and exploitation.

They also allow succession to occur at a faster rate._5 Ecological catastrophe causes increased diversity Canadian Biodiversity Web Site 2002 (http://www.. diversity increases. the catastrophe mostly effects the current stage of succession and effectively sets the disturbed section into an earlier successional stage.htm) Disturbances and catastrophes change which species are found in an ecosystem and their relative abundance..u. This reduces the uniformity of succession and allows plants and animals who would not be present in the final stage of succession to persist in the system.¥.ca/english/index.oU5 ~V~L\{. as the species that are needed for a given stage are relatively nearby in other recently disturbed areas.canadianbiodiversity. When species from earlier stages are present.. . By disturbing the system.'j 1==G.mcgill.

from landraces (traditional crop~mal breeds.professor oftechnoJogy at Helenski University.Billill!.A... biotechnol0ID'rem~ins an extractive)ndustry.. transformed. and energY. "~-- '.(:.\e.~d for pharmaceu"'t:kalE:d medical purp~ses._(_\-\ T'T~__ ~?~ e.tj1eb. Notwithstanding its awesome potential to transform nature into commerciall marketable commodities. but cannot create it ~ . On ~he one hand....J.'K ~ \~r-_ --r-\....~~~~~je. ' -.~ ~._ • .-S \-r4 L - o: \2_" t» n..''''''~''----~--' "'~." ~ ~\ ~ t.. In this sense.)$ ~ rr-c.t. At present it is impossible to create a "useful" n~w gene in the laboratory..~~£~~~~l:~y~I:r~t.lS'T'('2'i QU'\2~~G-s t~~"'" ) \ <So '<E..~ E::(~ t "" \ ~ O. The Biotech Century."OL'I .end~::r~n access to a rich reseLr2~()s!:~E"s=!!sv\Tcharac!e~tics ana properties in crops::nd animals grown for f~. fiber. 1998 (Jeremy. 2u~~~ £..~ . and from human beings. Genes containing novel and ~fu! traits that can be manipulated.~SE. the biotech industry still remains ttsrl de en en u on nature's seed stockgermplasm-for its raw resources. arid inserted int£.i ~ '<. t._ <.~i f~·t. t~l.G.... \) '=-{::. p. It can "mine" genetic material..nisms dest~d for the co~erc~l market come from either the wild.. - • 1 1 ~• . ..-~ D"f=- \) .~~_~~f.2rgg.

.'. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever).. --~ .="..\\....kyeLgped commercial genetic engineering in the for fields of agriculture.".l1 ~ ~0Q:.~~~~~~ ..ra~QLQQyelJl<ltbQg~nubat(_an~attack pG~t~~~ill?l:-._.~~2-~l~ions.'~""-Gtrrfent research in biotechnology parallels earlier researc 1 in the nu.. ~~B~logTcaC~~far. eastern equine encephalitis.~~l~~~re" =:» --'-:.".oo_.--=-.~~nt~~or qeliberate "release ofdallger_9. B!.It_a_b.-~" /" ~'.!ic:_g)ly'<~I}gins:~r:e.··-.~d ~~Bgi~u-~~r::...'L~./ ~\o~ V~-~ L...-.a.'L ~\lf-_ <The environmentalthreat pos. rickettsial..~. and .s_>lo_gical agents can mutate.j (p.£QIl£:~tIll.nvertible..~Elccacci.!J.-=·. _ _'L. and medicine ill'£!.g. =~. man biolo ical atho ens are capable of developing lab niches d aintamm emselves the e vir~ment indefinite y._"~l"i_~kelL~~~:~~()~l?Bunde~-::-perhaps dramatically-c-byrhe use of die new genetic technigues il! thf_de5igrLQfg~rD1._.___~d spread over a larg~0~9ic terrain by:wi1!d. Once released..".-~. nt~: Break==2.tElg. "(pandemic~ that~~stroy_plant.ls~_l:>el!l!L<..~d by the re!ee~e:: ge!1~<::~al.. .-<.~.g X!r!l~e~~~peri~. reproduce. Biological weapons can be viral._nsect. the development ofa'. multiply. The database developed for nuclear tech... ~-""-""-~~~~~human life 0 ~1~ l .~ Rifkin.-.ndh~n.. and protozoan. The Century. tularemia.~.-'.o:< .-"" animal. rift valley fever.~•• througl~i~g~1_1~El.Llsg~l1st. Similarly. th~i. p. onventional biological agents include Yersinia pestis (plague).". .tc. .gillhered.: s"" """_"__ ""_~~__ ~__ --" __ -"""-~ -. ) ' .~B.s_~l~in~!:i_ng t~ec~~1}~!()g)'J:av~B~~i'1l!jlig~~2~~E in biological weapons and g~I1S£.9£811~£2. _--.to. animal husbandry... .:.f)Iof ganism""~s"_"i_.~ ---~""--~ . and i human transmission.4._ _~_.Jl'ater. --"".:~=o:_. fungal.IJ'. professor of technology at Helenski University._~""" tary purposes.~nology was applicable for both military and industrial purposes...¥icle.lliSi£-R~U lltiol}ar~~~~~~~ .h.- -~h .. animal. ._(.=a.. and smallpox. clear field in the I940S and I950S.!r~a... 1998 (Jeremy.~it.~~-~. Biological weapons have never been widely used because of the danger and expense involved in processing and stockpiling large volumes of toxic --~ .=_~·~~'-l -_-_. anthrax.... bacterial.-(13W)-i~vo~lv~~ ili~~~e ofliving organisms for mili~.

. c however.. Feit .gLneerin techno.43 The report goes on to say: Potent toxins which untiLll. stability.=".far vi bl ouh"t_first time.. and producibility.~ on Appropriations of the U..!£ [Advances in biotechnology] permit the elaboration of a wide variThe novel agents represent the newly ety of "novel" warfare materials . noted the ability to geneti- of defending agents:) against this newfound cally engineer biowarfare ... Douglas near impossibility . ~=_. The technology p.~ Re~sentatives. and only ~on c~e isolation from immense amounts of biological materials. _. also be used.c.=". or produce large amounts of natural materials or organisms previously considered to be militarily insignificant due to problems such as availability. The recombinant organisms may then be cultured and grown at any desired scale.:ghogens never before seen.S.. . The DOD _"-='. an effective military op~n.~ material. Large quantities of compounds.!~gie~ over the_e__ast !~ade.~-==~"" nologies are fin:Yy !!!.S . the U.-. can... thus become available at relatively low costs.tiEK1:ech==.~~~ ~-. then eputy Secretary of Defense... According . el1. ~~vel unattainable to the report. b~~l In a May 1986 report to t~_~~~~ittee Hplls~O[ -==. =~_. . Advances In ge~etlc. quantities of "tradi-c. found ability to modify. encoding for the desired molecule. ..~_.' ._"."" of Defense (DOD) Dej>_artment _ p~inted out tha~ r_eS~ll1£.:. in i~~striaTquan~ties after a relatively: short jepreered velopmental period...inant DNA and other gen~i~ eQg_il]ee.. of what might be termsd ~ "45 ...v' With recombinant QnI~iEety report concludes fare purposes DNA technoloIDJ it is now possible to develoe "a ne~rly 'design~r ag~.. ation of natu ces for war- J.. infectivity.~. previously available only in minute amounts. and transferring the sequence to a receptive microorganism which then becomes capable of producing the substance..:::e made ~ar. ..~~==. ~ . .--~~=~.. improve.. that the new developments ImagIne in genetic engineering ' eso te tech- nology make possible "the ra id ex in ways August 1986..__ ._~.Qw were available only in min}lte quantities.nd (_ th~· difficu~ty Int:argeung tEe disseminatio~-~{ biological agents..aking___bjological~arfare Genetic engineers are cloning previously tional" pathogens. h:.-.. This process consists of identifying genes.

BJ:J~he ye~~<: and our children may be living in a world utterJy_diffe[$ent from anything human b~ings have ever experienced in the pas!.i~s one !housa. p.I W\LL- \N.. ) (.'.2. Never before in history has humanity been so unprepared for the new technological and economic opportunities._andpatenthood could be partially ~bandoned. including our own human nature.us. our definition of life and the meaning of existence is likely to be radically altered. I~ little ffiore than a generation.organi3:e l!fr at ths. At the epicenter is a technology revolution unmatched in all of history in its power to remake ourselves. and corporations around the world. are likely to be rethought.U:e pening up opportunities for refasho ioning life on Earth while foreclosing options that have existed over the millennia of evolutionary history. our institutions. challenges. If the claims already being made for the new science are only partially realized.' Our very sense of self and society will likely change.:progress.~i 00("'\ 'Z-o rzs. Many age-old practices regarding sexuality. and risks that lie on the horizon. Our way oflife is likely to be more fundamentally transformed in the next s~eral decides than inthe pre.t--lO\.. reproduction.~ W o~~'-') ------- Rirkin. government agencies.!.Here are just a few examples of what could happen within the next twenty-five years. The Biotech Century.ge. as it did when the early Renaissance spirit swept over medieval Europe more than seven hundred years ago. The new tools of biology --._C_'A-._esf£r sockD: and future generations are li~ely to be ~10rm. and our world. ') . There are many convergent forces coming together to create this powerful new social current..d years. S<je~:s ~re beginning to .l:)(.. the consequen. professo~hnology at Helenski University.::.. Long-held assumptions about nature. as well as our_vision of what is meant by terms such as "free will" ~n4. Before our eyes lies an uncharted new landscape whose contours are being shaped in thousands of biotechnology laboratories in universities. \ V-F-_ '\Z. Ideas about ~ality and deI1locr~cy are also likely to be redefined. 1998 (Jeremy. birth.:_eJic l~c. \t{"\(.

£l?yr9~echnical ar!Lf()r~~h. ~()w h. for~d by our aE_cestorsthousands of years.ld. 1998 (Jeremy._~\ \~ c.ocesses the and products are the biotechnical equiv:lent of th4~t pots~'"'.efl!~~~tiTo<:' From the moment our neolithic kin first fired up the earth's material.r. transforming it into new forms.~~ t-l e v\ C> ~.thehul1l~11_ ind is b~e w t2.~et its~~1:J QQthe tiring wo!.. pyr~echnologists.\-.u~l}_ity h2.sietywo!!~ve bee1lS9 the firu.immensiTI50f the tr~nsition at hand. These first fewj?E. humanity locked itself into a long journey that finally culminated in the Industrial Age. ) - <..~'\ ~-LLO~ 7\7~-'-\~S \f£. The very th~ht~ofl"e~~o~l!!il2.~.im~~_~!!llL~i!l:! th. deJerml~ed to ~shape it intonew combinations'~ILd the far-distant c.~'!!Lpfinit~Ul!l!l1!:>er of new combinations is so extraordinary that . )' -===-~~ r .lo \ ~ . p. professor oftecllflVh:igyat Helenski University._€:asp.g living m~erial igtQ.~equences of this new jour~2r:si~n?athoma~to to=dar'~chnologi~s as the specter of industrial so.l~ ~C__~ {'Ov~6-~ R~fkin.. The BIOtech Century.alio when thfXJ1£~gi1JL~~t:t:."'~_ ~<.

.. .. what treasures lie beneath the canopy. antibiotics and vaccines. it has to depend on resources that are unique to the country. Seeing as the Government has made this an area of high priority. it would be dumb to keep removing forest cover before we know what is really there.L\.11119/2002 Biotechnology. v ~<-\6. For Malaysia to compete in the world market. needs biodiversity for the development of products such as pharmaceuticals._ s R.l ~ Biodiversity is critical to the Biotech industry New Strait Times .K'l e:.o\. a multi-billion ringgit industry..

. . .Genetic engineerlngl.S~(i!hSEI~~~~I. but rather as a social and economic boon._ -~~~.~i~4t.h~th~p~8~~~~Sy!of more than five decades ago.\"~ich <t~~~~~b~~~~_t:~~t_spould be altered or deleted..~ ~."" ~~ -~' .~~ ~". and delete from the hereditary code of various species. T~~ay..c.·£~I~.p.ltec.t-~r~design the ~luepTjJl~sof life on Earth is bringing us!gc~ht~hr~~h2I91>J" ne / i2s\cent~ry~)~'~~' -----.>~..£l£~c£y~19E!£gcI~e . the scientis~~£9EP.~~ . th~"..-~~g. techciques ar.gy de~Ign~~rt~ the genetic inheritance of livenhance ing things by manipulating their genetic code. The ne\V geneticengineering.Q.~.---_.... ~ tmost)powerN~' 001) for manipulating the biological world eV~££Qn~~1~~'Tfie~~f~~~4i. insert.ustgms. Every time a genetic ~---C'='~'-"'---_~~='. The new eugenics is being spurred by market forces and consumer desire. ask today's molecular biologists._.~'~'~~=~=. by definition..~~~~ -.~ ~.~k~~lar 51~l. T~~ypre§r to egll.. Some might take offense at the suggestion that thenewgeneticengi~eerin~:::h~!~~_is .~ ~tf·) change of this landis made. were ocmg announced in the biotel:h field. .te" tuSlc>il:' aI1imaI.)l.". a torrent of breathtaki~ew ~..~f<l~~~ic~~b~. .~gai~.£?Yi~~~Ji~. . to want healthier babies? The new eugenics is coming to us not as a sinister plot.:hci~g~·./2. !2~![U~ ment~Whenev~~ic~e-c-~.gen!.(conventions..all(L'.b?ut~~~<::~_ :~. ~ll~S~~~~ .a_~e~gel1jfl>_~en'~)This is the troubling reality that so few policy makers: ana even Fewer'biologists.ov~" gen~tic~blu~p~i~..=.1~g~~~_Wat _~ sh~~~~j~5rtedaQ(L£!5Se~ed . t~ols are.at~h.~Le. iCnot-e. try as we will. The new eugenics movement bears little resemblance to the reign of terror that culminated in the Holocaust. These are eugenics decisions.~~~.E~<:>f.=~.ll." '_"'__. and improvement in the quality of life.~J~~_?.. ~. ra~~i~g__~P~<::~(.ntlnim-I5l'rA~'~di and other related. The old eugenics was steeped in political idealogy and motivated by fear and hate.ni~~=consiCIericion i itsel[I~-laboratories ac.ZPl~itly: m~king ~~~~-i~E:~_.".-" ~~LLCYlS SV~<"SS discoveries and application.-.~knt.~.. ~s~d~I.~i. Still.ID~t. .cs V\'lt. '. In place of the shrill eugenic cries for racial purity. '-"". B! the earl~I?90S.iQl}LQL§t~1~i§il!}£ljcitly.~ .is~isall ~QQJJS.. are willing to acknowledge.:()~~j~~iss~iIl~ ou£Jives. better performance standards.gists are making at /' choices about what genes to alter.:·~?~c.i~~L~~~~YI9~et around t~e fact that the fledglingcommercial eftor. Most people found themselves unprepared to assess the full social implications of ci1e many new genetic breakthroughs that seemed to be challenging so many well~~ta~lislr{:{h.9J!H. This is exactl)'~hat~l!~tl. the new commercial eugenics talks in pragmatic terms of increased economic efficiency...~-the globZ". Is it wrong.

~~~i~d biSir F'~~~cis Galton. neither he nor his contemporaries could have imagined that by the end of the twentieth century the scientific insights and technological know-how would be in place to make real his vision of a eugenic civilization.g~2rh~-t~r~". ) on Earth.~g~ic~.~~.o~S -?~-'1~~ ~\O~_u\ \S Rifkin.~htfuldiscussion of the new techl1olo~ revolution can occur without r~i~f~g:~~g~BI~~)~. Positive eugenics is concerned with the use of selective breeding to "improve" the characteristics of an organism or species. and the new techniques for human genetic manipulation comprise the fourth strand of the operating matrix of the Biotech Century and establish the technological foundation for a commercial eugenics civilization. Negative eugenics involves the systematic elimination of so-called undesirable biological traits. in the nineteenth century and is generally divided along two lines.~~iili~t~~1101~gy}i~ig~Ea.!2!lli Biotech Century.~.~. ) (Jeremy.-thb. we might be able to reengineer the genetic blueprints of our own species and begin to redirect the future course of our biological evolution ~€f~F~~~~~ O[. The When Aldous Huxley wrote his dystopian novel Brave New World in 1932. -~~. The EEos_pe~~~9fc:E~~tjg~cl1e~ eU~~tlic man an~\Vom~n is no .. -~ Geneticengilleerin~ technologies are.a~!iI~k~~2~c~imc. for the first time in history. the new reproductive technologies. p.ciC~~~e~~.. Charles Darwin's cousin. professor of technology at Helenski University.··~.y. The mapping of the human genome.~t market. Human gene screening and therapy raise the very real possibility that.::._bytheir very nature. eugenics tools:~.\ ~~u. the increasing ability to screen for genetic diseases and disorders.

!!ls!My~rbave b~~Rborn. Even more ominously._:.~~~~~S:. 4 'fE.:::_.:--.. 1998 (Jeremy.r~~ti\.-~-~.I1~~h~...~~. In the Biotech Century._-c·..:. I[!b~~hQQ~yW go with the traditional approach and ~~~g~11t:tisf~~te5!~cS~E£line ~h~!r£hilffs bi?ToglCaT~ni=tE~lCiUliE114 s~-~~eh:~s~<:>~p~J?J~jL~£QlS~!:~E~goes dreadf@[y."'...~f~h~~ ~p~s~ng on the... ) Parents in th.'"-C.~~!1~tic~~~.--~.lderth~ follo~ing scenario..o~he fertilized egg by simple gene surgery.l?!nh to crack co~air7e:-idcilct~d~ab~s-~~db.. ._._""o':"-'-'~"o..rJ.y~.sperm~()'Y}l1gtheirc~ildre~~~y ._dITe~£. While the current spate oflawsuits ~( .._~""-~.lJu~:nyirQ.-h~~~ to their unborn children are culpable under existing child abuse statutes.....:.._.:.The genetic trait responsible for the dise~. Two parents decid'scnot to gen<:!ically _:.. _< .'-- ~ 'EE?~r:::'-_t~e!_r£e!~·. -"": --'__ '-"'_" . fet~~=..o_=.~~~al dury~f~~.r embryo stage.__~ NO?E~ ~h .=...'---".:'_'=""'CC·--:-. Mothers ha"e alreadybeen~el~ liableIorhavi!:KgLv£Q_..:>:. ~.hi~h parents could be held morally.Zoula have°l)een delet~df.."'''-.:.JX.tcelI~.e. tQ4ec:i<i~ whethert6 'i:~ke-h~irchanceS\Y~th t~e traditional genetic lottery and use t .l~~R..Jiliy~iC!a..-..G..~""_.4.~.l2.ie_.Sh~!.c .. L'R\M€:..:..tal_ cl:lilDi!lK£h~7<..'----. In "wrongful life" lawsuits..nJn~JLt~~~ huma~ypo~sible-fot-th~ir unborn child.:c=~.§J1Lrs ~avs~egu~toap_ge~Ejn t!1s11Dirm=>States. \t:: 5 '5\O~<. claiming that he or she should never have been born.p-...:J c.~.:"C_-..i~h}~~.-·:c_·.-.~Bi~t~ch:Sel1tllrx will be in.-fr~~ a donor through in vitro fertilization and surrogacy arrangements....:b._.c--"".L -_~~__ - C::J=. if not th~ legally...e-Ke. The Biotech Century. :.""""'~..:_~-c:.:Y'"-.""".. "w.dciicti~ns ~..."-"·~_.e painful .e_Il~tis..__ "._. :. .their sper~:-=~g~~=~.---.. ore than three hundred such M cases have made their way through the courts.:._ __ ~:..c'''.'-'---~-.~-.... ------'-'.u~~-~gg-~.~·ch~ngss -.~~!~~eadlY~.:_-c:..I~~~~~g2J~~~b'?"~~..~~~ga~~..~ie C?~~~~c<:J~s:l~~~..-..~e_<-l_~e~oR~11~~f~~~=~0_£l~_!hiI~lL~~~~2=lll~ iIl t ."''-'-'""''''''~·~'''''''~'.ts_i!1litero ~i~~~. Not to do so might be considered ... liable..>_-'.a:ilecrthemselves of corrective g<::ne_tic intervention at the s~..:111l~ shQ. The lawsuits charge negligence on the part of the health provider for not advising parents of a potential health problem with their unborn._ ..:.<.._ their own unaltered e~gs al1d.c_ -..-..l~c()tLol syndrome....-..s~ecutorsh...geasinm~[Q£~<.-c-"::..bie~. __.-= .rong . eareE1tsof ~seri()\lsly_ilI9Lcfu~bl~bild J1l~_their..o.c. P.~~~d _dies prematurely ~nd needlessly.' .. In the case of "wrongful birth" lawsuits.... p.~.have avoideonad They . c. ._".~~~-h~!. professor of technology at Helenski University._... ~-~~ Rifkin.-~\LPrLL'I ~ 6. the claim is brought on behalf of the child or by the child._. '.inherit sOl1le="uii(feSiribr~"t-..=~~ ~"'_~-=. ~.. and ought to be held liable for the effect of their lifestyle on their babies.=cs.rg~-..g-i_£o..D_gfyl Jite~~_a~cL:~rO_llKful bj!Jll:Jit.~"4 ~LLO."·~-~-~-~"'=o.bt~~~h o{p~...=-"""".E_i..o._. and of not making available information on screening procedures which could have been performed and whose results could have been used to make an informed decision on whether or not to abort the fetus.. ~~C~.ubsti.. . .~~':ry parent has a responsibility!()~_!2_\'_ig~~as_~~!J. _arents' failure to c2=rrec::t:J. ..~1i:~oTuncl~.---......:.~. .....

<y~. is-likely to become a reali!J::withi the next ten eaJ:~... r!>98(ie~~~~. ..P e~E:~ncreasi~g degre~.ft~un~or~. are revolu~'. the a~tifi~i~1_I1}ani12ulati9n o.\<" ~.~--=---=. eggs.The genetic changes into ~~hikC~Tale. p.New' ~ _?reak..:. veloplllent.!~~tioI1_and ~~l1~e_p~~~n a~~akiQg . . a~ surrogacy arrangements. the sex celrs:)ust after concepti~l1jg~S~ £__mb£y<!!}ic or duri fs:.embryo transplantation. ) Herenskl OmvefSltY.os. E:-S Rifkin~ professo.~ '> .taLde-""1 cells.~Tteclill:01Ogyat Biotech Century.roughs in~p!.~ ti~~aIl. in vitro fertilizatio1]_techciq.'es.. in~~0g the freeziQgc_an<L long-term storage of sperm.i<?~~jQo.'befo:re coiic~ionin .-=-~~~ ~~ ~-==~ L Customizing ~="- ~~-~~.oductive techno.C==~='---===="" --'.-LU»\S <=..logies. and embry.0.

tfJeti~ll~hipsover s~eci. ~ •~• '" .1g~lleEically . rob ..b:~!1::'l!:o.~bill.s_could bd. ~ _.n e=.?!~al1i~~..~s .?_12h~. p..'...~.:nm~t.i~Qm~I~~~Y~iL. '! .S.e.p.. • ~"""-~<_"i . .pr~ve _t~ "~e~ang::~u.~Y'Eachne~ ~SYllrh~I~S i!lttQfh..e~E~4c . 1998 (Jeremy.oJ it tri~e~i~g=~~~..Jf.gmt~g.C.. .~.I1!. _ _ .~~£ .!.: afl(h~~~~~. E a s. While many of these genetically engineered organisms will be be- ni._o ~\ (__t..~~J?ok because..i~ ..• ~.--itEa~be~gc~~tlJI£L~Jy lm&2.E~X~Ie' GrObarI1fe-s~ier~ces companies are expected to introduce thousands of new genetically engineered organisms into the environment in the coming century..l.c w~ll. just as industrial companies introduced thousands of petrochemical products into the environment over the course of the past two centuries.><..t.~\O""£-l~ ~lkS<\~~ ~~)C.lall\=.~igllitlS~~~!t.s.~~ \'£b:~!l~~~E . a l...!!~~:iv:2)\L5.l~riQP..:X:El£sj£ll' _lLLts12fl> !hL£QJl~~!lUence.lhat longperiods of ev?luti~ hjst2..ta.m~l!i9jl. .ler£~~._.:lE2~~E~Le.~l1gin..::t~..ge ..--.~tJo ~[~ri_n~~~~~Jhat is..~..~~. ~ rug~.g.asrn.rele~~~<:L!b:~~is alw~rs. .s1~sSd jlHQ. like non-indigen~us hi~~eY~I9i~4..l§~...i. The Biotech Century. ) (. .. whil~~~::~.. professor of technology at Helenski University.h..~ -w~~2ihighly lllrf.s.. ~(o. e &.~~~L~l.rst!tist...all chance that it too-wilh)'t.a. L Billilll.li .llen.

-ami d~~iI1o~~_iI1~L~. p._'_=~'-'=. ~.-~." • f ". ) (torporate leaders in the new life sciences industry promise an embarrassment of riches and much more-they offer a door to a new era of history where evolution itself becomes subject to human authorship..(:L129J~B. - ~~~l~j~-' -. in wholly new \Vay~irtu~li~~rat1... Molecular biologists and industry spokespersons argue that the Biotech Century will unfold without serious environmental consequences to the planet... : :~..r~~~.-=~~ .~I~SJ?Qwerto.-~-..~.... There is not a single instance in history in which the introduction of a ":~-".~of~qlluti~_g'~~E!~ELi~3~d 4~cg~bjli~iu_g~01l1~~?cEE~~1l._'o~~"'"'_c-~=. --'·c··=c.OWS- -S"~\F-S" Rifkin..~~rel11~i~it1~_E~.~te£~-g~i~~buL~'Yay§_g~ th~~~JCP£g~.I:em the Coming -'... genetic pollution is .. ~2I..-"" __ ""--"O"'. ~ catastro phic health.~~.-----=~ ..~J~QJi~XlQ-=q~at£_~~riQ1ii ~1f.hahlJill~~fktgbiJ1~~cQ~!il~ms..transforll1' reIl1a}{e.Q)' .~..:o..-.2cosph ~ . e.•. ~~~~~~Di_:l~~_~r:~~~g. This newest f~rm 2fp_<?Jlutioll_~. Their assurances.rShi>r.._.~i~sa!1.I~~cc~ .l.k'l ~\..__ __ _-"_~_ •• ~~_ • >..~~_'~~""'.-. .~!_!h~2:~~~~_l2!}an- ../ ..~~~~~lh£Q¥_gb- g~ageoE~~I~~<?!i~~-'-~~·-·-..rd~mage ~ntheEarth's environment.".~j?~c~E~ct12Logicili!l~0~~i2Q1~~~~.2l~~d.=_c. 1gl1lficanta threat to the bi c~ S -:--century as petrochemicals have in th . are being met with increasing skepticism....=...ti~ly . Indeed.~sLoJlly~~enig!L£Qm~l!~11~~§fQ! the natur~"..~'''''-=C_''--=-=.~_c....-OC . New technologies.l.."~ = •• .4hg[Ilan ~.12._~. in the _£~~s:~~sl_c!.~. .flliig~I~~c_!.<l£P~~~!QK_~l} c!_~Jikfly tQ_§~l.. __. allo~hcuman..and exploitnature.£()~~!Ei$~.~... The Biotech Century. east3s .th~. ris~j"~_!l!~nL2Lth~~~tth:§_'!. b~i_ngs _s~~~l<:lj£}pj expropriate c nat~re7(.~~~!~rs«~~~i~lo~~~~~irr).own f9-rffi ..~~~h..._.£l~llet._ _ _... .sp_!'. =.t·ili-~·bi:. oi)h~~~iQc§Rh~!£ciEEhe PLo~eg.~."'''_''-'''''-"''ii-~~ n. .~~-. however.___ _.~=.j likely to nose at 1 '._. prof Tech @ Polanski U.~i2:~EgDnfIlc·0si.- ~..~.~?~.. . 1998 (Jeremy..~ G~netic p()11~9~E!jL~~.t~ di!!~~~~~~i~~~~co~~~l~f~~~~~I. . e current century.~rld... Critics worry that the reseeding of the Earthwithas~~ond ~Ge~e_sjs cOl...the in co..llim<!l.IsLkadtQ_ a out the bi010 gicalworld and..

r:g.\(~ ~\_tOwS <7 ~t.l.~:.~. ecologists note a long history of accidental escapes into open waters as a res~lt of unanticipated flooding'-. 1 -""'-=.~ Lf2S n-j Bi!!ill!.-..\Vith th~e~e.d~r_ganj_~. p.ln_~cl11~ht h!:'.!1lIili2Jl§h ~!Lstlc::~!lLe_n_gin~e!e_d increase the ef~_<:.J~~~~i~~. professor of technology at Helenski University. seriously deplete the indigenous fish population.~b~_t::x_c:~£o~.:j.-- ".nisms cannot b~. c~_t:l!_ul~tive imJ:act of thollsands of introductions of gel1etic~lIY~odifi.\Even th~-.~~-rif~~ale fish...g~r§.~~ould·well~~~~~d-th~.-----=-""" ."-- ~. the destructive e!!~c:s~_c::()ptin~e .s"~sulted-f~~~ -th~-~el~aseofpetro~he~ic~-pr.-~-.:::. ()-. crowding out the native males.. . and because they are sterile. 1998 (Jeremy. the:~~rth'~-~c~st~~~.:> 6U"\ CoM(:lF--~ ~~()fK\' %\OL01 \L~L Biotech Century.a.__ For_~:S.~_~~~~ak~u~lv~!l~Tr._~he wild.~~uld pose unan~i~ipa~eO=di)foblems.~~Ip1..z\g_~ ---'". The ) The Ecological Society of America raised the question of risks associated with the release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment in a special report authored by some of the country's distinguished ecologists.Qj!11Q_QP.of ...4!li~ 5 £.~~~-...~w~i~ll.Although most genetically engineered fish are being designed to live in commercial tanks and fish farms.~~t"h~cec=r~e=.-bi~logi~~lli b~sed products.da~a_g~~h.~~ -~ aquatic <:co~stems)~hs_t~a?sl?~nic fish couldp(Jten~ially out~compete nati~ef:i~E_§p~fi~J}1~~_s~te~a~o1.~~id~~~-.l}I<:.Once [~~i~ i1'l-local .frJs wilWke!r ~ed_uceJitne~.P The long-::."i~~~l to of r f~~~~£g~~~"}Qkr~te..u --.~_ a~t~~~~m~~~i iftl!fY=~~~4pJ.c~ol4_al1_£c~~Ei!L" a~d disease r~~i~~..:~.. __ . The Society acknowledged that while many new genes introduce~int2 anim. they might secure easier access to female eggs..I':.-----=:~-~~=~ ~ --~ .._rep~(). .el~~=.. ~. ~h~damage is~ot easily -~ont~Inable.:.h.~~i~!L~~~~~~" .m=lY...If the males were larger and stronger as a result of the addition of a gene to produce increased growth hormone..

~~~~~~~[~e~~c~h:~~~~Ilq~&iI2.QSyirus carried by thel11ice.-st~dy they "-C. conducted on the suitability and advisability of usingthe J\u.-?jJ!1(}us"<:~s ~_.._--C= .~~'L~clu(E!}g the"~1>ilitycc~<:J~re£££9:11S~l11ore rapidly than itnormallydoes and toinfect new kinds of cells.---.could combine with other ~?~~~ii!~~~3~J~§~~.._~~=. The Biotech Century. c-'. ) ~~~~ ~ Rifkin. Anxious to find an animal model suitable for the study of AIDS." Still.o~5 ~ V~.." Even more fnghienlng--...'"--. Dr.~'\ ~_u.. ~"'~~Crit:ks a..According to the report:'~t~l1"~ sU£._expr...n~~~un()_st~f~S!~!LSYYi!:}liLig_~~~ITfe:ll~<:lIili-~iIJ~2_die~.yi!~le~~ form ~f t~~NR~4 Ykukk~~per.~..sing .''' ~:.o.cl1ldLJJg tr~qsmissionthrough_air.. __ . professor of technology at Helenski University.-_-_..._~--'-~~."8 ') "'""'-'_'_-"'.-.th.. The scientists conducting the research dismissed the warnings as "alarmist... the National Institutes of Health (NIH) was sufficiently worried that it housed the AIDS mice in a stainless-steel glove box surrounded by a moat of bleach that.1s genome into mouse eml)lX2~"bJ':lPicrQ_:i!1J<.ti~~~i.. was enclosed in a biosafety level-four facility-the highest bio-security facility that exists..c .""".~iHI~ .-\c:. r~'!£~~~ill~!:9d~~~U~he h~m3lL~'1!?2~Yir}. 1998 (Jeremy.-.~~'d~f the slim but very real chance of the mice accidentally w escaping the laboratory into the open environment where they might mate with feral mice.y~~C~~~~~~::g~l~"~~~"?i~ colleagues reporte~ thanheAJ.o_""._. Equally important._-.th~Ji~. creating a new and deadly reservoir for AIDS in the animal world._<..~.._.._.". Then in February of 1990...."~12~) ~..~. __ ..~.gio~ 1~~ill!s:~~we~...i~~~§f~~9!iQ[~~ce... " - ..=-''''.._".o._.g£~ig_~sguired new~Ei()!(Zg~a~ha!:.. the co-discoverer of the AIDS _xirll~ and a team of ~sl~tists _ nublish~~r.~ ~ __._'~~-.o.I.... Robert Gallo.L~I12§!iLll~.Q()ln1.'-_--.-yi...-._ -- ...~~~.-"_= .-.i$lii~J2n:~4~i":iQy~fmll~~i:3~._ ~--'.E.~l1~tions carried the HIV virus....:j!l~l!lls~~nU..--"'------- .---. ) potential dangers first came to light in a dramatic set of genetic engineering experiments conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and..~£!~emic(. p.__==_..~"" "prompt and critical evaluation of the experimental data obtained from some animal models for HIV-1 and of their suitability for use in the study of new antiviral therapeutic or prophylactic approaches.--_.SIeristic~l.-. ~~{. For th~--~ ti~~~-~ci~tists had successfully introduced the genetic instructions for a virus that inflicts humans into the genetic code of another animal..-:':_""""""~:'"-~. in turn. Infectious Disease in the late 1980s. a_r:~ill~t.~nsl~m(){e.. The authors of the report concluded by urging a . •.:.:'=-'-'-.

1998 (Jeremy.l?.ntific -~~..~ed organisms can be ea 3evelo -and produced. requi~e f.\("\ ~€. less sd.. ranging from terrorism and counterinsurgency operations to large-scale warfare a~~t enUre populations: U~l~echnologies. -_. . Recombinant DNA "designer" weapons can be created in many ways..~~s S\7GL..=~ ..rov_ide versatile for~~ a weaponry that can be used for a wide variety of military purposes.-and can be effectively employed in many diver. if the intent is to cripple the economy of a country.-".o~i~ ~i~!oorganisms. resultin in biolo ical a ents that th~bodl_ES.cogniz_~s _~_" fri.\G-S - -------------- Rifkin.:.'gi.. """"""'" . -.possible· to ~ert leth~genes int. The new technologies can be used to program genes into infectious microorganisms to increase the~tibiotic resistance.. behavior.. and ~Qvir~~n=~ntaGta~~. The Biotech Century. virulence. and body temperature.. professor of technology at Helenski University..... ) '". Genetic engineering can also be used to destroy specific strains or species of agricultural plants or domestic animals.~~l an does 0 sisto It· even possible to insert genes into organisms that affect regulatory functions that control mood.. Scientists say they may be able to clone selective toxins to eliminate specific racial or ethnic groups whose genotypical makeup predisposes them to certain disease patterns. . The new genetic engineering technologie§... genetically.-set~=~ tings. p. It i...

~ --n--m=m--. - -. any ears and millions of dollars . _"~ .. -_~=-cc--"'~ d~ce n~w as~nts but a problem to develo "'-... antidotes may tak 'T' that have been i~~sted ~'-~'"'''''' . The Jiiotech Century.n.£ . It is now possible to synthesize BW agents tailoredronUITtafY sp~cificarions.\b-S ------~----Rifkin.0~~~bJ...:ct--~~~-~' eans co.'010 ical a ent 0 .d '11" eve·iF~ ll1 of vk~s. It is [becoming] a simple matter to pro~-"=.-.. .........-l-LO \:)$ ~V&c. professor of technology at Helenski University.. ours..as yet ithout ccess d ...o. ~h.. 1998 (Jeremy..::. .-' produced inh~~.=a>-' .~~ ~. ) \. .es.-=..-. p.... The technology that makes possible so-called "designer drugs" also makes possible designer BW....~=7~=== ===endo!.£!e- m.-------New agents can be '" _c= <>f t. Such an invest~ f: r:» 11tSl e t e BW leld-the WS feni.~~£ a sin Ie ..id'.. ..he ~..~4~e ar rpasses t r~sources a:::!lable for BW.:r'. _• _ ..i'~w gaug' ..~.

zeroes in on the primitive state of the art when he says.-e1~ ~l1t~Ile~tl}~i~py·p~.ljl JYi_lL2£.==c=... -.~" th~I!ih:t~~Il~. ""'~"__''''_'_'=c"''' ~""-"... intervention."..ations ~~i~edby the medical establishment and the biotech industry.c_..2.C...=='=.~~~r~~lity ~L~p~!.:__ '-'_.ialsof ~~p~..='-'"'~. -. professor of technology at Helenski University 1998 (Jeremy The Biotech Century. that the NIH itself wasre~.~h~~~~~Il~~a~~~~ 111igh~ tio ns.. thus far.- Thecurrenr techn()logyforgene. ~:go05Le'Yh~c.~"~~'e.nd~cted over the past five years in~~l~ing more than 597 patients.:.~lh~.2I2£..~lls~EE~~~ its~li. remarked in a moment of candor that he and the committee had not seen "any solid results yet" after years of experiments. _._.ha~.kn2JVlr..S§!!!. a philosophy professor "at G~oigetown"University and the chairperson of the NIH oversight committee that reviewed and approved all of the clinical trials. ..-Despite years of fav()rable media reports on various gene therapy experi~~~ts a~:r~i~~-higE-~~pe. ResS~E~~~~~c~~not Ee~~ct""llt:r~(?9-a shrop()so~~ the.mi_g_tHjl!~L42.. -1" ..!h~-firs~ h-u~~i~~."51 Even Dr..-.0=-=''''"' ... Leroy B. . Ill()4ified gene P !..I!I~splt~~-~~dcrtal·~. a panel of experts convened by t~~IH reported that "clinical efficacy has not been definitively demonstrated at thiS-ti-. ..the ~ost -i~p~rtant bein~the rand.-~ .. i~~h.~c""c~ <+"'_o.~'.L@t gu~ran~~::si~.•-----.ltI~C ~~~llet. Phillip Kircher.:JI"~h~--~~-eri1ll~Hts~o_~~RE2~ng p:_op:tis~"stlia. -."..1Tih4egi~e ~fn.s~~jL~ 1Il()5Ef-l~sl.ak:~st !(uhe..~~tQac.t~en~~j.rg~~~~th~...m.!}..~21i!LtQ~fliI1ic:Y b q:.K... proessor of philosophy at the University of California at San Diego.t~s in ~~h~r ani~al~: rnserrion of modified genes into a patient's chromosomes is random.·~.--. .:.l~b<tcks...K" ~LL().c..iliq.ext~11_~}=':'..1he ...i~ent.Ja<.~ -.""--"----eo-e. been so disapEoi~ting -._"'"~· .) $ ~V~~~> Rifkin. many of the staunchest supporters of the new gene therapies remain convinced that the techniques will bear fruit as methodologies and procedures are honed and new knowledge of the workings of the genes becomes available to researchers and clinicians. '-..../"__'_'_ --..4~siE~4}()=~~i()11~. how~~er.': ..V Still..:~_!:h':i~E..re ~f t~epr~~~~~re·Ahh-ough-th~~iubli~... 'iedt~~~ii~:e~th..t~a!LdisWe a sober-\Varm~gO'i:~~§!I~-t_s~S. "Shootingsom~ DNi\into ~~~~~~b9~YLl£ctheIJ..~~4i\~1 p~£~~~~...-~.pl'~sZ.c:l_E4y-ctit..-.. ::..gJ~~Le~g__u~~t~!l~qLhiginglh£~ p bo~cfY. -_.. p.?nc~.i:o~C.: .y . Walters.__...suffers froIll a n~mb~~r_<2fsir.~-g~~. ) ._ofsuc-cessful therapy. ._sh':E5/9 Dr.Ut?.<lI1~<li~ingthe possibility of inadvertell1=ly cii~tupti~g --~-":. -'..~d will constaI1dy _Ch~!gL2ut rote!!1js tlLS}nQl~c.. E\T.~.-hope th~t~. been.g~ne... the results have.. i th<:re..t-cannot ekept: In all.t~~rapI"~p~!i~£~s~Yen~~~~~~iS1~~~t~itIi-.

The ) Biotech Century._ O':::Y".=="~~~ nation of diminished Bt production levels and increased levels of bollworm infestation occasioned by the hot.. The new gener.. conferring resistance to viral infection from the virus from which the gene was lifted. • ". On the other hand. f\_<... }at resistant strains of "super bugs" wil eventuall rium h.-·· ~_.at have never before existed in nature.4i~~and c super bugs" in the years ahead...}Q. Scientists are still not sure how or why these coat protein genes protect plants from infection by their own viruses.~.." The worm infestation damaged nearly half of the two million acres planted with Nu Corn.'=-----=C.._~&_ ~~f. biotecn compames are also working to create plants that can ward off common plant viruses. Even in field tests. dry weather spelled near disaster for Monsanto's "wonder crop.-. Nonetheless. the process appears to work... professor of technology at Helenski University.at t erotein genss could recombine with &nes in related viruses that find their way naturally into transgenic£lants.. 1998 (Jeremy.ns:w viruses lD. Monsanto instructed farmers to spray the affected fields with conventional chemical pesticides. Researchers have already reported on a number of such recombinations.. ..jc crops pose the equally da~erous .:" The fact that Monsanto's Bt toxin gene did not perform as expected has many scientists worried. Viral coat protein genes are inserted into the genome of plants. The prospect of creating new viruses is trou~~==..1 . sending investors scurrying.\\ ~ lli!1ill!..-.-..~tiC!nof virus-resistant transger. - believe :~::t h~de-resistant~e~t-resistallj: tr~nsgenic pla~ will)n~r~_asethelike!ih2od of cr~atinKE~ resistant str<yns~~~_s.~reating a recombinant virus with novel features.o. concerns are surfacing ~ng__scientists and in the swcientific literat]~re over the Qosslbdl1¥-hat the c.~. In one instance.o.~~w~'-'I .~.. angering farmers who had paid a premium price for the new transgenic seeds believing they would not have to spend the money or take the time to spray their crop as they had in the pasr. -~==--~."-"\ ~-LLO~ S ~?~L~~ tS_'o_~_'<_~~~ __ ~ ~\~~c.c=~~'""-'C='==._. ) ~". a cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) recombined with CaMV genes on a plant chromosome of a transgenic turnip."32Gould and other ecologists +=. p. the genetically engineered gene had kille only 80 percent of the bollworms. Virus-resistant transgenic crops could be a potential boon for farmers around the world as well as a windfall for biotech companies. Professor of entomology Fred Gould of North Carolina State University makes the point that "eighty percent mortality is exactly what researchers use when they want to breed resistant insects.t?ercen ival ra e vi~-=tually sures.-"~.l2ossibili!I of creating. I .

or- ganisms.. All of the Brazil nut gene and none -1\1a~y of the genes being transferred into the gene~ ~.and animals!~at hav ev ~~ been part of the human diet. With 2 aller i reaction having of adults and 8 percent eaten foods..-yjf1lses.. -~~====-=-~ create a~ allergic reactio~~-. including retailers. Worried by the findings of t e ~ebraska s~udy.. Scientists nuts against both an extract from genetically the serum reacted to the soybeans containing braska tested blood serum from nine subjects who are allergic to Brazil altered soybeans containing gene from the Brazil nut and an extract from conventional soybeans.I'" genetically engineered their readers t~at "~he allerge~lc potenmicrobial protelllS IS uncertalll. touching off protests among food professionals. human beings-raising exist no kno~tments. prof Tech @ Polanski U. ical and biotech _S"ompanies plan on of genes into conventional fungi.~orr· ventional percent commonly food~ the nation's leading chefs and many wholesalers and that the introduction ri of children advocates of novel _enes int~nin eo le. Critics)!. .~(_\c.. p. consumer ere heightened allergic responses to argue that all gene-spliced foods need to be properly labeled so that consumers can avoid health risks. unprelabe~ any labeling. ) neered foods would not be required...uld . ve t ousan food crops from-bact~ria. 1998 (Jeremy."70 c. Concerned disregard for human health.:. . at the University people who were allergic to the nuts... and uncestable. the JOtt_r~~{u'_s_{:Qnd(jf'cI over consumer protec- that FDA policy "would appear to favor industry tion. The Biotech Century.d~.~d c:o s. S ---"" ---------------- Rifkin.67 in 1996 when Their concerns containing -~ The New England [gurnql engineered if Medicine published a stu y s owing that genetically soybeans of Nea a gene from a Brazil nUF c.o")5 C:.-_~ .. come trom plants:_!lllcrqor&nisms...~~ ~~A-\. the agency fell well short of requiring against novel genes from organisms human ~ncy's~_eeming leaving the Journal editors to ask what protection diet and that might be potential that have never before been part of the allergens.. the Journal editors warned tial of these newly introduced dictable..(rTo~~ for wh~~e hundreds. and non-food RI~d i£- troducing ~. would have over the the FDA said it would genes from common consumers across-the-board Although foods containing allergemc. agLmals-including the very real possibility of trigand Some of the allergies could gering new kinds of allergenic responses about which little is known 01 P!2v~~~~p'r .

~~e~:~. they claim some form of compensation for their contribution to the biotech revolution.-) .pJ:iced lll.. dczyelQpment :wru:k.~" '7.lr~~~tpI~~i·-)..~c_.p~~~t~rin~ing new andus~ful :P~()dllS~~~~~2:.ch and development effort takes place years before by villagers and peasant farmers who isolate. ) (Jeremy. Genentech gushed. n. and preserve valuable herbs and plant crops..~(_ Billill!.. :(~sser:ci. 1998 (Jeremy.he years ahead.{T osummarize.?EP~E:~3~~EL~all:_tl~ic.oEiifi.~~~f.1~~!ket.~S ~L~S ~D ~~ 'V Pt-:.E_s. Ethicist Leon Kass ~ed.(_ljrrt:h~tq!Lh~.l"rs:har:dA~:" ~l(.9rl is.. p.~_o~~_i?r_~~~in _.~!:. however.!~0i.the i R~fKin.-~ .rantT~~2i2~!~~!J2r~~ti<:)!:l.-' research aIlq.sf2rItl·itil1~~~c9q. p pat~l1t"EE2!~Eti. Despite their differences. ~ Biotech Century.t~h~~r~~f~esea.=Ill~nt the possibility of h~~nes~:~!.. professor of technology at Helenski University.. ~--'their m~d~ul that _ th~_l:. Some observers.{tra~~..Il1. The BIOtech Century. That being the case. C. ) = 1._~g_<:~_tic~~:.h~.J2licatio~he cQ1!U decision.-..t:~~s~~E~of!Jl!l_1g~rn~J:gi1l assllmption-a willingnessto commerciallyendose theglO~al_g(mepool fgr ~.11fthezare t~'ris~~n~l1ciagr~sources~ndye~rs of resf:.lih~~tic. "The court has assur~d the country's techo ~~zy future. enhance. professor of technology at Helenski University. were not so enthused.r--~~ .b~~~~edl!P.-----_..'=. Southern countri~~. .-- the firsti:lme-. b~h"p~..!P. p.I~ib~iness'2fld biotech start~ up companies ever}:'W..?" Chemjcal'. trar-lsl1~siOTl~c?rn:}!liH~~~gll~t. The .hat.. ~~--= ~".ili.

..'K"i ~t. More generally.. It is not yet cost ...organisms that live under extreme conditions of pressure or temperature.. One exciting prospect is the possibility that bioethanol. offering clear environmental and economic advantages over conventional methods. such biocatalysts will still operate at temperatures below their conventional equivalents..llC)c. the production of cephalosporin. Treating wood pulp with funghi (biopulping) rather than thermomechanically. and the wastes generated tend to be recyclable and biodegradable.sea vents or geysers . with industrial biotechnology the focus has shifted from remediation to prevention of environmental degradation..have the potential to make industry cleaner and more efficient. but that should change.lS 7 ~r. The chemistry of living organisms is rather more efficient than that of chemical processes.based manufacturing can in fact be significantly 'cleaner' than the alternatives. And costs have been cut as well. including recycling.. textiles and leather. a liquid transportation fuel produced from agricultural waste. a biologist for the Organization for economic cooperation and development.l"'\ ~\OT~4 ~ U'v\tG\ g ~~{::_ \' 'D ~c. Waste and resource consumption are being reduced using various biotechnological methods. or biocatalysts. replacing an alkaline process by a biotechnological process reduces the amount of hydroxide sludge created as waste by half and requires only one ._ ~ \L~CR6Irt-.scale fermentation based on living organisms. 1999 (Salomon. Integrating biotechnology in industry Biotechnological processes have improved and can now compete with other technologies. for example.competitive. Unlike conventional fuels. is 'cleaner' or more environmentally friendly. While scientists are now searching for more reliable biocatalysts that will work at higher temperatures in the petrochemical industry.. They are being widely used in the chemicals industry (especially for fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals). for example. pulp and paper production. In the galvanising industry. it ~ also proving its value to the industrial production process. At the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. an antibiotic. <) ( -H. Biotechnological processes have helped them to improve their rather poor environmental image and. There are ways of evaluating technologies and their alternatives in terms of their relative cleanliness throughout the production process and the life of the product. 3/1. At the other end. it is hoped to produce ethanol from biomass by 2000 at a cost that will be competitive with petrol. . through a biotechnological rather than a chemical process results in a considerable reduction in the cost of measures to protect the environment.. its power as a tool for industry is increasing rapidly Novel enzymes. for example to detect viruses. In the fine chemicals industry. metals and minerals. lexis) To many. and energy sectors. biotechnology is all about genetically modified foods and cloning. such as ethanol. results in an overall energy savings of up to 30%. OCED Observer. increase their efficiency. A cleaner alternative Biotechnology . and using enzymes (biocatalysts) to break down wood cellulose can result in faster processing with considerable savings of water and energy. food processing (including animal feed). bioethanol is not a net contributor to greenhouse gases. minute parts of biological molecules are used as sensors in analytical devices. Moreover. recombinant organisms and extremophiles . in many cases. 'clean' is a relative term. Any change that reduces consumption of raw materials and energy or reduces waste. for example._'" L-::'''''O 'To N Wald. may one day meet a large share of global demand for petrol. these sectors account for between 30% and 50% of all manufacturing.tenth of the water. Biotechnology has numerous applications. p.. At one end of the spectrum. In developed countries. it helps improve large ..h<.. in deep . In an industrial context. Yet.

Company tists hope to use the genes that code for the "uranium-gobbling W~th more than 200 pathway" to fashion new biological means of cleaning up radioactive dump sites..d.o.ruganisw_s_js hazardous waste. ) " Biotechnology is .)S 1 ~~(_\G.~Researchers are using genetically engineered fungi.. bacteria. 23) . The Biotech Century.J.. p. cobalt.L~Jg~~k~d~tQ."~nd of £~a~i. and th~ c. _ bcingd~~ped to conve~¥aterial~nto~eni~ sllbstaus.F million tons of hazardous materials being ~rated toxic waste. 1998 (Jeremy.ues an.~D~nvironment~ ~~an~.Ki W::." One biotech scien- company. and algae as "biosorption" systems to capture polluting metals and radio nuclides inand cluding mercury. A new 'eneratio. alone.s of cleaning.". uranium.q!..diation ~ as one of the growth industries in the Biotech C>llW. professor of technology at Helenski University.up now estimated to be in excess~of ~=-~~~-" $I. has successfully sequenced a microbe that can absorb large amounts of radioactivity..u. cadmium. b. .7 trillion..biure- ..Ellally in the U. Bi~remediation is the use 9fliving organisms-:-::-Rrimaillx: microorganisms-to remove or render harmless dan~ ero . industry .. copper.<1lso.neert:. The Institute for Genomic Research.-$ -~----"-_ "_ Rifkin..S..E.walygSJiee.

a~at:Wfth tolerance to selected h~rbicides. Transgenic varieties and hybrids of cotton. ··._•. soybeans. Global Warming and Other Ecomyths p ) " ~ioteo~b_~g!9$Y. sugar beet..__ _. maize.)' ---------""·c . we have BST. . In animal biotechnology.·" .. ha~~. The use of such varieties wi1l~~th<:. are now being successfully introduced commercially in the United States. oilseed rape.. --:::-------:-- - . there are a number of fascinating devel·_·······c"_.gt:. --. and potatoes.-"-'·"·. date. maize. This can lead to a re-~-~-'-'-<--' ---~ duction in overall herbicide use through applying much more specific dosa-gesarurinterve~tions._=--<=·.~test impact in IiiediGiDe to .. Considerable progress also h~~ been made ~~~meEt of transgenic plants of cotton.11~..• _-..9~ ! and public health. - -. winner of the noble peace prize and member of the society of environmental journalists....--- _-_-_---- =. which effectively control a number of serious insect pests.. opments now entering commercial applications in agriculture.faysa!!d du~s. containing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis. now widely used to increase milk production.. ~_.¥-'\ ~G-Uo~) <7~Fr(_\C-~ \~ -----~---~------ Bailey._~~. However. 2002 (Ronald. needJ9r insecticjde s£. .

. Q~E. . 7\lt.l.__ "\C Bailey. people in developing countries are likely to consume 100 million metric tons meat and 223 million metric tons moremrrr~hey didT~ 122} (Table 2.. Population growth.5). 2002 (Ronald.c2_.." At least in the foreseeable future.\s~pplie~Tands alread.nsumption and as livestock feed t~ satisfy the rapidly growing demand for meat in the newly industrializing countries.-.! By 2020. both for direct h~. ~ .--.__..~gh If~ik. Global Warming and Other Ecomvths p ) v "l THE UNITED NATION'S medium projection is for world population to-reach abo~t'7:<rbTilion-b:i·'202S. ) _ by~O~i~~~ more" . I have come up with projections on future cereal demand and the requisite yields needed by the year 2025 (Table 2. By 2020."~b~f2ii~2~lizing_ at --". \S ~f:_ "\\-\-~ "t)"~ ~C'R~0 L~l 0~ 1(v\ ~('\A <.AL00'... The d~and fo~~ase th~lJlost. urbanization. a~i~!J to lQJill!Lon toward the end of the 21st century. --_ .p. winner of the noble peace prize and member of the society of environmentaljournalists.!ov~~sing these estimates.4). _ "_ _.~ s ~CL ~\....---:-... and rising incomes are fueling a massive increase in the demand for animal products. and India has already become the world's largest milk producer.::=o=c'c~ .ntinue to supply much of our increased food demand. plants-and especially the cereals-will.~'\ f=~. _.. It is likely that ~11additional 1billion metric tons of grain will be needed ann~~ify of ~is increase ~e.{_. \'+0 ~c:... China will become the world's largest meat producer. cs ~ . .7"in P~~~\lction.

and rye-are attacked by t0~. Enormous scientific effort over the past 80 years has been devoted to breeding wheat varieties for resistance to stem..C''''<". rice is unique in its immunity to the rusts (Puccinia species). Among all the cereals. but poorly understood type of resistance to stem rust was identified in 1952 that remains effective worldwide to the present. sorghum.~u.. 2002 (Ronald.-..~s epid~ics and 9Jaill!res.·_~~._ F -----.-. .. =_<..=. the world could be free of the scour_gegLthe rll~:s. winner of the noble peace prize and member of the society of environmentaljoumalists.. ''O -==.. "'='''''''.. co _~ - -_.which~ve led to so~). and yellow rust species. Imagin~ tqe benefits to humankind if ------.W !~~~sts. and especially to the poor producer and consumer. .:~2!:~~~t~llat gene!i&.~~.:c __ '"c. leaf. and multilocation international testing. maize. Global Warming and Other Ecomyths p ) ~ T~:~:~!2::. ~es~!ing in ~Q.• -...\<) Bailey.. no such success has been obtained with resistance to leaf or yellow rust.e~ginee[~~ could bring to the cereals that could result in enormous benefits. After many years of intense crossing and selecting. _'_ •. However. barley"oats. oats. barley.~:~~:~!~~. All the other cereals-wheat.'-·-···-··. where genetic resistance in any particular variety has been short-lived (three to seven years)._. a good.''' __ '>_''"'''~~~_~' .~~~ .. stable. One deals with disease resistance and two others with grain quality. maiz{:L~illet~and sorghum..rust the genes for -immunity in rice could be transferre~eat. Finally.~·._--_ • . ~ ~ 1 1_ r 1• ..

£t_i()n!!_esul!._.wpheql can ca:y. 2001 (Julian.. as ha~pened to the Davidians in 1959 when founder Victor Houteff s widow proclaimed that on Easter the Kingdom of God would arrive. AEC!ther I'ossible evil)s !he tQtalitarian mes~ianisl!1: at Talmon wrote about. who knows how many people disrupted their lives?" £L~!}C£s_~..!he.000 copies of his book. ~ ._iw~reyery c~tIy for~E' the afrpia~e~makers.~s.J.l.. false cr!s~s_()foITanci other ~Jl"~sou_.- NC. Exampres include the Shabtai Zevi episode at devasatea European Jewry in the Middle Ages. lacency. The owner of 38 radio stations said that after earthquakes and other troubles. i. and the more recent Heaven's Gate and Branch Davidians (David Koresh) events.i!-__ ti~g__tb~ir_W JhejrJl()_l!§illol1£._ \) €-~t-r-\ <.l~~ .:s V \ S LO. d~~~2~£!~95. Many believe that incorrect prophecy can have a positive eff~~ ~allin ." In former times.J\~ (__f\<.-€. an instant best-seller published in 1662.. p. But ~.ossessions.to. f:_ ~':A\l- t: ~\) '""' -."-'" ~F.-- wt_ \. False prophecy ~an also exac resourc losses . between his radio stations and the 40.. in famHies gU.\\b ~ .\. one copy was quickly sold for every 20 peop le in New England.<~~ long. The parallel between Day of Doom and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (1962) has been mentioned by several scholars. ~~~ '-. farmers stopped tending their fields. ~ .:)7Z<._':l!1:any Qth. Doomsaying lh u:s. Hoodwinking the nation. a!lj. The Salem witchcraft trials are likely to have been the result of Michael Wigglesworth's The Day of Doom (Starkey 1949). that was followed by four more American editions and eight in London (Murdock 1966). professor of business information at the University of Maryland... For individuals.\+f:_\R (~E_ '\OJ Simon. ) ------- may seem harmless in the short run. aster. ~ ~'-L\~S \\== M\.--_ _ 8_!__ e ~Vl _Qf_tal~ pnml. e_6. Jesus Christ would return in glory between September 15 and September 27. 1994.A-~c:.HIllg » )8 .· e ..ec is $Qcial isrtlJ2ti~n.

_...s.~o~sn~T mean that plants and-animals do not also hav11~ rIghts buttIlattlie focus Will always be on debet:WeeilWhat is good for humans anu rna . in ..I?~Il~()CU .iEer]I~ f~.:::"~.linsillld p from asphyxiation.~=theLWll be and their welfare appreciated. can naturally disagree with me .. ··.\t<'\ ~LLCv(.. 6 umber all. But in addition to being the most realistic description of the present form of decision-making it seems to me to be the only defensible one.. ..'efe!..-trees are consrder~d ~p~~~I."ble r~t~in sOITle it depends .-"'''·'d'---··-w''oOd9 Whether we want an .-Uierefure. t h"-'Wl~"c..--------------· on 'not" ject. havet~rlgh11o~vOte? TCnot.a." .."~. to -s.~ I:~~_r:~~~~"c~\~f'~~~~~~:~' n:~Il!f ~e.h'~~ldth~. - ~This describes both my ethical conception The conclusion is that we have no option of the world .~~..i-bed'dwefreis . 4 V't. And whlles6meOfihes~p.~'"ut it is also obvious that a choice frequently has to be .. 2001 (Bjorn.·co·.riJ.ms. ..~l! .~.s" . Because what alternative do we have? Should pellguins.vhyth.c. It is not that such a cut is in itself manilalf of all) individuals being prepared to~t dated. whe'i-eas-p'eng~Tns andpim..0"" ~~~.":": .y.~' untoU-~hedforest or a cultivated field depends on man's preferences with regard to food and undisturbed nature.t!Qm of very highly..'....~~ _. realistic conception of the world: p....2£le\ dilemma? \iVII1en Americans argue for cutting debate.""'.~~! Mm so 11)r~S'erv~ « interestsjwith .d so" obvioiis" ways~d~pend€nton -(. p.. al1)' great ext~Ilt]JIm~!LP3i1lctI..~~tiII1e ..t.who shotild~be . If we what is good for amma s an ~._ .n th~-a~essment by people... Professor of Statistics at University of Arhus.. o 'f!1:!_~. eni1.~~..if? (And hOwsiioula~ihesit representatives-be selected?) It is also important to point out that ~ human-centered view does not automatically res~ltTnthe IteglecCor elfminatlonCifmany non-huma~Tifeforin:~.t--\ £_ S \~"-~~ik£ ~'" ~==- ~~--~ Lomberg.c~"~'~'~'-d tage to m. .tea probecaus~theY-ha.~9:~unto~che~ . these plants and animals caI1not the seac~hTI~at~th. and. -='~'O~2~_'--""'--·.htc:.rrlt'oT.E.. for examplfin"thei. When ~e are-to ev~lu.-~esdo Mexico to save the bottom-dwelling animals n~t6'-Sotjje extentto~:Which .. desire for Ci..an an.·eiI~ali.\. - ..ei~ ~beha.. !p.~t~s~e some animals at thE'!JQ. rights~8--'. is '11 be a great a van ltivate butil-lost opportun:1J_~()l'..iflowed'-tospeal< on tjJ._gr~.~~Pi.and on that account the reader but to use humans as a p.-~evaluation."..:t~..~. ) Counting lives lost from different problem also emphasizes a central assumption in m~ argument..but also a Howcan we otherwise avoid an et.. this is a statement of a prn.~c_~~ '. __.that the needs and desires (f..~f~i·!!ii.1Y==s~ir~~~~J animals and plants...I d plants.decision-mak!ng 'n1troi~fi:elllissions to the northern Gulf of I processes.~.imals . fi~al -th~ human desire or preference for living sea-floor instance some~(in-democraci~s more than fauna.i~~the=s.~.--"nothavethe~~me right to survive the fauna This is naturally an approach that is basiat the bottom of the Gulf? cally selfish on the part of human beings. . is-in iiIany.~c..' :~~~~~~-~i:£~y~:..rar cattle-TO.~attl.~.rj. _. l'..~. state ~f r_h":_~()E~d.c. choose to allow af~!:::'t:~~.'"--~"~.~Q:: "'__'~~'=.c"..'~iii~~es~~~!~~a}. The Skeptical Environmentalist.e~laugllter to . hu.~~~~~~'llQp.: -beef.~~bc~t. participate.p~-wiit deIinitelY choose to value animals and plants J.n".:n. on their behalf.

1119/2002 "Dolphins are a keystone species in the environment and a good indicator of the health of the environment. If the fish die in an area the leave." Dudzinski said. Connecticut-based non-profit research foundation organized to promote marine mammal conservation. And the more we understand the social behavior of other species. They appear to have a smile at all times. the more it will help conservation efforts. the better we understand our social behavior. is director and founder of the Dolphin Communication Project. "The more we understand them. what ha enStO dolphins will eventuall affect us After all we use the same water. 35. social animal." More Evidence Lancaster New Era ." Dudzinski.Dolphins are keystone species The Atlanta Journal and Constitution 6/17 11996 Dolphin research will benefit humans. . too. She's also an author of "Meeting Dolphins: My Adventure in the Sea. because d<!!uhins are what scientists call a 'keystone species. Dudzinski shared her video footage with about 300 Lancaster elementary and middle school children who had gathered to hear her speak." which was published as a companion piece to the 2000 IMAX film "Dolphins" that she helped develop.: The reflect what's ha en' in their environment. a private. "Dolphins are a large." Dudzinski said. I think most people associate dolphins with being friendly and being intelligent. Much of her data research is done in Japan or the Bahamas where she observes and videotapes dolphins in the wild.

single-celled algae that passively flow with ocean currents.Phytoplankton are keystone species . Cell for cell. (O( . This energy is then passed through food webs from one organism to the next. and constitute the largest physical bulk of the living world." Press Room) Life on earth and in the oceans depends on organisms that capture small percentages of the sun's energy that reaches earth's surface. On land.microscopic.they begin the food chain The Pew Commission 2003 ("The Diversity of Marine Life. The photosynthetic organisms that capture the sun's energy in the oceans are phytoplankton . plants capture the sun's energy. planktonic algae fix more solar energy and manufacture more protoplasm than plants on land. are the base of food webs.

._ \ 6.S ------~ Horseshoe crabs are key to the pharmaceutical industry The Pew Commission 2003 ("The Diversity of Marine Life. During spawning. and returned unhanned to the water. female horseshoe crabs are collected. Under federal law. . all intravenous drugs must be tested for impurities with horseshoe crab blood. their blood provides a valuable test for the toxins that cause septic shock. bled.~" ~LLO~ <7?6-c." Press Room) Horseshoe crabs are also vital to protecting the nation's phannaceutical drug supply.

Lexis) Specially adapted microorganisms that rely on chemosynthesis constitute the primary producers in seabed hydrothermal vent ecosystems. 2001 (Craig. crabs. Still higher in the food web. pressure. which are fed upon by benthic worms. and even octopus have been observed preying or scavenging on lower life forms in the vent community. grow to lengths of up to three meters. ~LLO~S --~~~~~~~--~~----~~~~~~~~~. mollusks. --------Deep sea vents are key to the rest of the biosphere because they rely on chemosynthesis Allen. similar in many respects to the relationship between coral polyps and their resident zooxanthellae.~"" oj pf"::. and a veritable "soup" of toxins. shrimp. but there is mounti" evidence that an enormous microbe community exists within the Earth's crust. heavy metals. fish. Other microbes collect in mats. 'lli The host tubeworms provide the microbes with shelter and assist in nutrient acquisition and synthesis. while consuming energy and organic compounds produced by the microbes. in a lightless environment characterized by [*573] extreme temperature.. professor of law at University of Washington. 563. mouths. or gut. The worms have no eyes. even thrive. 13 Geo.c:. including the large clams calyptogena. and no means of locomotion. 12 ~'L . chemosynthesis is fueled by chemical energy provided by sulfur from the vent hydrogen sulfide emissions (or methane. in the case of cold seeps n45). . Endosymbiotic tubeworms of the vestimentifera phylum are one such group. and pH--an environment often laced with high levels of radioactive elements. 1:1 In contrast to photosynthesis. which includes the riftia and ridgeia. and other grazing fauna.G. lobster.. Inti Envtl. The origin of the critical chemoautotrophic microbes is uncertain.. Scientists now know that the worms (and some species of vent mollusks. 12 Worms in the phylum. Some rely on a symbiotic relationship with the microbes for their existence. Zooplankton in the surrounding waters also feed on the chemosynthetic microbes and provide the food base for filter-feeding clams and mussels. These organisms survive. Rev. which relies on energy from sunlight to form organic compounds. some of which also rely in part on endosymbiosis. :!2 Other fauna within the vent community exploit the microbes' primary production of organic carbon through a variety of means. found at cold seeps) depend on an endosymbiotic relationship with the chemosynthetic microbes. L.

c_...~~~a~~g.-e~~-for~~)ods..~overn~_~~!s.h~..!?!:1ease ..and for -just a... Global Warming and Other Ecomyths p ) 1'1In many instances.::~()i<la!'~e. assuiing-'a'-balan....~.. claim the activists. for the current anxiety over water supplies... ) "~.. In tfilS way..bling water t~b~ --.d and value it most.. 2002 (Ronald.. the fact is that water_war:~~!~. can governments create and manage adequate water supplies and ensure equitable distribution.i~l contr()lli~~a~d provid~~pplies is not good..!ll!.oblems~Wa~e..:. any other scarce resource through the use of markets..-LtD~ 5 ~~tL\&:-<.~I1c()lIr~~~... However..in massive P~~..B21"wsured~ distribution of~!Q_ those persOIJ.._~- . ..-... defective institu.~~n." ~~en' the well-documented failures of government control over water resources. Generally..:~.k__of ~mtitu.. the ~ --. If government reglllati()ns and subsidies distorting water use were elimitgted..~Qilom. . -. Bailey.2E_~_water .£!ojects from the Aswan High Dam in Egypt to the Klamath basin in California-but they ha~e neither solved the potential shortage problems. these concerns about water stem not from an absence of supplies but from the absence of a proper market that would ensure a balance between supply and demand...~-.. -~-.EE()~ig:l~~.__~ter_park~t.ges.idsand ser_yi.["7'1 and _(':nforceproperty rights and avenues of recourse is the ~mary) ci~~~~~t~3uaiity'p..ed.. Although ominous scenarios about future water quantity and quality are widespread..iy ~a1u~d. To forestall water supply conflicts.. an alternative path beckons.---.~~k~~~d-.. but r~r_aJac..a market would replac~ in.. th~m to those who desire more. - r~~~f. ~--.!iQQg! fr~a~I?:~~.~_'--_..~ments..e. for othe~Q_(. Freely op~g ma:_kets-a!eth~~ .. ~"'~~"'--~' . __-_..y. _ . or water. it's not th~ lack of p_hysicalquantiti§__.~--b-ehv-een--i:h~-Suppfy--and ~. _ _.orkst~c~!.---.. whether they be bread..~ ..¥-''f ~f-.S. winner ofthe noble peace prize and member of the society of environmentaljoumalists. Sadly. shoes. apartments. G2-vernmen~s across th~~()rld have engag..at~[ --. And the failure to assign .p~~p~..<...~~ter u~~~~rimary ~~llsoe . .d' lik..(.uf"wat~L~hat c~~!ort!!.'-"''''''------~~----- -- .~ allow those with excess supplies of water to sell.liQQ. . ideological environmentalists believe that only governments can ensure sufficient water for all those who want or need it. Only by means of regulation and centralized control. .. fl~xibiebureaucratic c~.

_ .\ 5 "7V(!.---. On Adak Island.- --- .000 during the 1970s. reveals an unexpected new threat to one of the most remarkable ecological comebacks of the 20th century. Lately._--- -~~." said lead author James Estes. " A single whale would need to consume 1.. About 40. for example. which unlike the otters are insulated with layers of blubber. Although no one is certain exactly how many orcas are eating how many otters. biologists report in the journal Science.---.000 otters now remain within a 500-mile-long stretch of the Aleutian Islands where there were as many as 53..000. the fish-eating pinniped species beloved by the orcas has thinned out dramatically in the northern Pacific. yesterday's report shows otter populations have plunged by 70 to 90 percent in some areas during a recent six-year period.- 'f. and we're virtually certain it's the killer whales that have done it..----- ~------.10/16/1998 Killer whales have taken to hunting sea otters off the Alaskan coast with such alarming efficiency that a vast ecosystem now appears to be at risk of collapse.------~- -_ . _-_. there are only about 500 otters left from a peak count of 4.S. All the evidence points to roaming pods of Orcinus orca. "We're 100 percent certain the sea otter population is going down. Killer whales were never known to attack the furry otters until recent years.__ ..1:1 The San Francisco Chronicle . prime habitat of the northern sea otter.._---_..-i g:. . marine biologist with the U. -_ ... probably as a result of overfishing or changes in ocean currents and temperatures..825 otters a year if nothing else were on the menu.-. Similar declines have been documented throughout the region. A disturbing new report issued yesterday in the journal Science. )~~\~5 . ~--~---.---. Only about 6. 5 l -~---.a. Geological Survey and the University of California at Santa Cruz.C_\<L.-._ \f<£--t ~ "".000 to 45. _. That has sent pods of hungry killer whales slicing through the near-shore food chain where otters serve as a "keystone species.LL c)..------~----- Killer Whales will wipe out the entire sea otter population W~ ~<U. much pre felTing a high-calorie diet of seals and sea lions.000 otters have been wiped out since 1990 across a broad swath of the central Aleutian archipelago. bolstered by eyewitness accounts of whales attacking sea otters.

- . In this case.-." Press Room) Sea otters are also a keystone species in coastal kelp forest ecosystems. They detach an urchin from the seabed then float to the surface and lie on their backs with the urchin shell on their tummy. As large predators they are vulnerable -. sea otters playa major role in the survival of giant kelp forests along the coasts of California and Alaska.---- --~--- Sea otters are keystone species Fullik.and it can grow many centimetres in a day. This tends to keep the kelp very short and stops forests developing.they're critical to protect kelp forests The Pew Commission 2003 ("The Diversity of Marine Life. Sea otters are keystone species . The sea otters thrive hunting for sea urchins in the kelp..and other species that depend on those forests . As the forests form. These "marine rainforests" provide a home for a wide range of other species. The New Scientist.their numbers are relatively small so disease or human hunters can wipe them out. Urchins that are not eaten tend to spend their time in rock crevices to avoid the predators. particularlysea otters. 12/7) Similarly. smashing it open with a stone before eating the contents. Professor of Science at Fullik. The problems start when the sea otter population declines. 2002 (Amy. The result is that the sea urchin population grows unchecked and they roam the sea floor eating young kelp fronds. A keystone species is one whose presence (or absence) has a profound effect on the rest of an ecological community. The kelp itself is the main food of purple and red sea urchins and in tum the urchins are eaten by predators. which has a huge impact on biodiversity. .----~~~.thrive by eating sea urchins that would otherwise decimate the kelp.-. sea otters help kelp forests . This allows the kelp to grow -. and many other fish and invertebrates live among the fronds. ~. bits of kelp break off and fall to the bottare om to provide food for the urchins in their crevices.

~7 ..---~- ----- ---- --- -- - Humans don't harm sea otters . recovering otter populations transformed nearshore reefs from two.to threetrophic-level systems by limiting the distribution and abundance of herbivorous sea urchins.post regulations on Sea Otters. Science.. Plant-herbivore interactions vary predictably with trophic complexity in such systems.~ sit. sometimes reaching the base of the food web (1). After being protected from overhunting. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and kelp forests provide a well-known example of this pattern (3).) (3) -----. thereby promoting kelp forest development (4).------ . being weak or strong when the number of trophic levels is odd or even. ~--- . 1998 (James. biological resource division at University of Santa Cuz. 10/16."1 ~b-LLCtJl S ~ "£(_\~5 ... ----.-. their population sky rocketed which proves the laws are effective Estes. ---~--- - -. lex is) Apex predators often initiate forces that cascade across successively lower trophic levels. respectively (2).--.

animals or plants far lower down the food chain are often the ones vital for preserving habitats -. "If the population dynamics of whale stocks are accurately understood. Whales are not keystone species . and if an enforceable and effective (management system) is completed." Mr Komori said. C. The Australian . 12/7) It is important to develop a picture of the diversity of life on Earth now." the World Wildlife Fund's Japan branch says in its new whaling policy. we can no longer deny a logic that regulated commercial whaling can be resumed. it is usually large. In the media. so whales in the exclusive economic zones of nations like the United States would survive and produce offspring 2. WWF Japan's spokesman Shigeki Komori said whaling could be sustainable so long as it was done within the limits of the organisation's basic policy. "In the past there was an over-exploitation of whales. However. But it isn't necessary to observe every single type of organism in an area to get a snapshot of the health of the ecosystem. Professor of Science at Fullik. it would be classified as an endangered species. The policy Was approved by the green group's international secretariat in Switzerland. if sustainable quotas are carefully calculated . charismatic animals such as pandas.KY FELLOWS Species Whales-lnc 1. There's no impact to whale extinctionA. .evidence to contrary is purely symbolic Fullik..in the process saving the skins of those more glamorous species.. tigers and whales that get all the attention when loss of biodiversity is discussed. There's zero risk of whale extinctionA. 2002 (Amy. which includes a call for humans to live in harmony with nature by conserving biological diversity.4/2/2002 ONE of the world's leading environmental grOUPS has given a boost to Japan's controversial push for a resumption of commercial whaling by cautiously backing the idea. In many habitats there are species that are particularly susceptible to shifting conditions. elephants. These are known as keystone species. Multiple countries have banned whaling. The New Scientist. so that comparisons can be made in the future and trends identified. and these can be used as indicator species. stopping whaling until the species recovered Even activists concede regulated whaling under the IWC solves B. When a certain population of whales became nearly extinct. but the management systems have gradually been improved to the extent that we have to admit the situation has been changed.

for example. Swarms estimated at containing 2 million tons of krill spreading over more than 450 square kilometers have been observed. Furthermore. This means that many large animals such as seals. in area a third that of Greater London. especially nitrate and phosphate that fertilize the microscopic but hugely abundant phytoplankton in the same way that a farmer puts fertiliser on the fields. the differences between humans and animals cannot be ignored. penguins. and those differences have made possible all of civilized life. Schmahmann and Polacheck. and unbridgeably different from animals. so they are either not in a particular area at all or are present in unimaginably huge quantities. however.coolantarctica.some animals may indeed have higher cognitive skills than some humans. 4 times the population of Greater London or approximately the entire population of Canada.C. B. legal rights lawyers. Consider the consequences of a theory which does not distinguish . Krill rise and fall in the water column depending on the time of day. 2003 (Paul. There genocide arguments are asinineA. http://www. Marine Biologist and Professor at Cromwell College. Thinking in hierarchies of life is inevitable . while there are as many formulations of what makes human "human" as there are philosophers who have considered the subject. Krill are unusual in that they are so super-abundant and large when compared to other phytoplankton feeders in other oceans. however. and actions is to deny such institutions the capacity to draw any distinctions at all. averaging 70kg each. whales and myriad birds are able to tap the food chain close to the production of the phytoplankton before energy is lost. Envtl. needs. Competition inherent in capitalism means people will inevitable be classified based on productivity and other traits. L. The krill population of the world has been estimated at outweighing the human population of the world 3. that human institutions are morally flawed because they rest on assumptions regarding the aggregate of human abilities. even though it is also beyond question that in individual instances -. they drift around in swarms that are so large it difficult to imagine. Aff. 747) Yet. 22 B. These upwellings bring with them great amounts of dissolved nutrients.to dismiss as high sounding rhetoric any attempt to catalog those features that do indeed distinguish humans from animals. June 7.5 million human beings. so the Antarctic supports a large population of large animals. the resulting frustration does NOT lead to us valuing all life equally. it is the aggregate of these characteristics that does render humans fundamentally. 1995 (The Case Against Rights for Animals. While the mindset of killing whales and committing genocide may overlap. Rather. In the end. Rev. giving the right to life to whales will not stop people from categorizing groups within the human race.and its major danger -. This is the equivalent of28. it allows us to devalue all life to the point where genocide and mass murder are possible. importantly. 18 it is a central feature of animal rights theory -. To argue on that basis alone.KY FELLOWS Species Whales-lne B.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/wildlifeikrill. Other animals will fill the niche Ward. in the case of vegetative individuals -.plant) that are extremely abundant in Antarctic waters due to the great upwellings of deep waters at the antarctic convergence. Add to this the 24 hour intense sunlight of the summer months and the scene is set for a super-abundance oflife.if we don't prioritize humans over the rest of life.htm) Krill feed on microscopic phytoplankton ("phyto" .

but that there is no good reason why we should not treat human beings like brutes. the conclusion likely to be drawn is that there is so much wrong that we cannot help doing to the brute creation that it is best not to trouble ourselves about it any more at all. foxes. because the final conclusion is likely to be. Long before Singer wrote Animal Liberation.KY FELLOWS Species Whales-Inc between animal life and human life for purposes of identifying and enforcing legal rights. or horses. Every individual member of every species would have recognized claims against human beings and the state. and hares. not that we ought to treat the E [*753] E brutes like human beings. the concept would lose much of its force. and human rights would suffer as a consequence. . Dachau and Auschwitz. As the concept of rights expanded to include the "claims" of all living creatures. The ultimate sufferers are likely to be our fellow men. one philosopher wrote: If it is once observed that there is no difference in principle between the case of dogs. and perhaps other animals as well. and that of tsetse-flies or tapeworms or the bacteria in our own blood-stream. where the German and the Jew or Pole only took the place of the human being and the Colorado beetle. Extension of this principle leads straight to Belsen and Buchenwald. cats. or stags.

and the numbers are higher now. have led to a sharp rebound in some whale stocks. The U. Milton Freeman. a whaling expert at the University of Alberta. While some people may regard this as proof that stringent environmental safeguards can be spectacularly successful in reviving species on the edge of extinction. they say.7/22/1999 But now." They've been saved. there were 24 carcasses instead of three. The whales might have been saved. pet food and whalebone corsets reduced the population to a low of2. the food supply shrank and Malthus had his way. 22 dead whales washed up so far this year compared to five last year. The International Whaling Commission calculated years ago that there were more than 900. in California 37 rather than 30. Scientists say that unusual ocean temperatures.9/2112002 But it is equally true that restrictions on whaling. The best guess is that the numbers of grays grew. in Mexico 65 compared to 40. it's also worth pointing out that whales now eat at least 300 million tons of marine life. But the dominant reason is that the 26. more radical activists see a dark cloud on this horizon. 52 years after the first legislation to make whales a protected species was enacted in 1947. including a moratorium on all commercial whaling since 1986.000 at the tum of the century. three times as much as humans. and to the pristine beaches of Mexico's Baja breeding grounds the situation is grim. but rampant overfishing and serious pollution are causing the disintegration of the complex and massive ecosystem these huge creatures need to survive. . As huge rotting carcasses pile up in unprecedented numbers on the beaches along the grey whales age-old migration route many experts are concluding that there are now too many of the massive beasts. Indeed.S. through the rugged Pacific shores of Washington. soap. there is growing evidence that the campaign to save the whales has been too successful for its own good. There is speculation that rising numbers of minke whales may be holding down the population of blue whales that compete for similar food. in Washington and Oregon.some whales are already starving due to whale overpopulation Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. the number of gray whales (which came off the endangered species list in 1994) surged so much in the late 1990s that hundreds of dead ones began washing up on West Coast beaches. At a time when there's talk about overfishing. Oregon and California. In Alaska.000 minke whales and 780. This leads to the extinction of whales Deutsch Presse-Angetur . The bottom line is that while most large whales remain at risk. National Marine Fisheries Service estimated in 2000 that there were more than 2 million sperm whales worldwide. and five years after the grey whale was removed from the endangered species list. B. The population bomb is ticking . From the Alaskan coast and the Bering Sea where the grey whales feed. a late breeding migration and food supply problems may be factoring into the demise.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . for some species we can no longer argue that we need to "save the whales.000 pilot whales worldwide. estimates that the number ofminke whales has trebled over 30 years and that humpbacks are exploding at a rate of 12% to 17% annually.Inc A.000 whales now plying the Pacific coast are close to the maximum population that existed before whale hunting for fuel.

" Even before the whales started dying off." The 155 dead whales which have washed ashore so far this year represent only a tiny proportion of the whales which have died during the arduous journey. indeed. in uncontrolled overexploitation? The large factory ships of earlier times fed a worldwide trade in oil.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus -Inc "What we're seeing now is not inconsistent with the idea that grey whales may be nearing what the environment can handle.000. They reached the limit of the food supply. and neither the Japanese nor anyone else could revive it. The largescale industry and the global market demand for oil that fueled past excesses are both dead. scientists had estimated that a population of between 25. As for the limited whale meat market. C. They suck small crustaceans off the ocean floor. They store energy in their blubber and mostly fast during their yearly 10. any "flood" of supplies into these few markets would so depress prices as to render operations nonprofitable in a very short time. scientists say. Today. trade in whale products is banned in most countries. "It's generally thought that carrying capacity is somewhere in the neighbourhood of25. The only demand for whale products today is as food for people in a very few whaling countries. as some claim. a professor of ecology at university of Alberta.000 grey whales was the natural equilibrium. 4/21) Would a resumption of commercial whaling result. Any more than that and nature sets off a kind of self-regulatory mechanism." said Wayne Perryman of the National Marine Fisheries Service.000-kilometre voyage to Baja.000 to 30. there is simply not enough food in the Bering Sea to feed them all. 1997 (Milton. Washington. for cheaper substitutes are now available in greater abundance. . "We may be seeing the first large whale population to reach carrying capacity after whaling. They can't generate offense . "What naturally limits populations generally is either space or food and that's what we're starting to see now. with other whale parts mere bypro ducts (used for animal food and a host of other less important purposes). senior research biologist at Cascadia Research in Olympia. filtering out the sediment through their teeth.whale hunting is sustainable Freeman. If the whale population is too big. Grey whales eat most of their food in the Bering Sea where they roam for two or three months a year. but they offer compelling evidence that overpopulation and subsequent starvation is the cause of the demise.000 grey whales and 30. there is no world demand for whale oil as an industrial raw material." said John Calambokidis. Japan Times.

B. In the status quo.2nc o/v Due to climatic changes a world that could once support millions of whales is now fast approaching a whale population crunch. However.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . The idea that a right to life precedes one's right to food is inherently anthropocentric and is what upsets the environment's balance and dooms the Earth to overpopulation. Global hunting is necessary to sustain a maintainable level of whales. giving the right to life for all whales is a dispassionate death sentence to the world's cetecean population. Turns their whale advantage . . food-resources among the whale population are spread like Emma Murray. Turns their anthro advantage.just as the biosphere relies on lions to hunt antelope.the only risk of whale extinction is due to overpopulation. the global ecosystem relies on humans to hunt whales. but extinction due to hunting is nearly impossible because of the massive number of whales. Luckily. This is a reason to vote negative A. the Makah will soon start a new round of global whaling bringing whale populations down to a sustainable level.

is now 10 times what it was 100 years ago. He says the argument that whales are on the verge of extinction is not true and Pacific Ocean off Tokyo Bay is full of the species known in Japan as the makko kujira (sperm whale) Whales eat large amounts of mackerel. an official of the Fisheries Agency. The whale population. In the last five years.Whaling. according to experts. 4/13/2002 The Aprilll issue ofShukan Bunshun reports that Naze Kujira wa Zashosuru noka? Han-Hogei no Higeki" (Why are whales beaching?. He believes that is why they are coming closer to shore and beaching. . research shows that an increasing number of whales are being beached in recent years. who charges overprotection of the species caused by the IWC anti-whaling policy is leading to an imbalance in the marine ecosystem that could cause a crisis. Morishita says the phenomenon is being observed around the world.Uniqueness Bomb Whales have already overshot their carrying capacity The Daily Yomiuri .KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . Ifwhales are allowed to increase in this way.The Tragedy of Anti. except for blue whales. cod and sardines. he predicts that in 20 to 30 years the mackerel population in the Sanriku region of the Pacific Ocean will be on the verge of depletion. cuttlefish. Morishita claims whale numbers have grown over tenfold and now they are having more trouble finding food. published by Kawade Shobo Shinsha) argues that overpopUlation is causing an increasing number of beached whales to tum up on Japanese shores The book is the work of Joji Morishita.4/18/2000 In addition. chiefly because the seas and oceans are overpopulated with them. Current whale overpopulation threatens the entire whale species because food supply is running out Asahi Shimban.

000 pound animal on a 7. For example. producing a negative impact on food supplies for many marine mammals.html) The Theory . 3. studies have shown that the benthic amphipods that gray's feed on in the Bering and Chukchi seas off Alaska have been declining significantly since the mid-1980's. Even if our authors have no credentials they cite qualified studies.bluevoice.Scientists have officially designated the whale strandings an "unusual mortality event".KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . partially as a result of that. .000km journey.org/whale/dying. The causal relationship may be that the most recent El Nino in 1997 caused sea temperatures to rise. Initially the stranded bodies were mostly young individuals in an emaciated condition. less food available and more mouths to feed means that some individual Gray whales simply cannot get the nutritional sustenance they need to survive. and suggest they are the result of starvation. Blue Voice 2001 (November.A2 Authors Are Hacks 1. hugging hippies whose greatest dream in life is to star in the next Free Willy movie. (the distance it migrates to the southern breeding lagoons). and qualified biologists at the University of Oregon. our Inc Milwaukee journal evidence cites studies from the IWC. This is especially true if you consider that the summer feeding in the Arctic must sustain an 80. indicating the predicted lack of stored energy. The equation appears simple. http://www.they are tree. Even tree huggers conclude our way 2. Their authors are worse . the US Fishery Report.

1993. But letting him remain stuck while the whole group drowns is still more monstrous. If there realty is no other way of un sticking our fat man and if plainly. than choosing the lesser evil when doing or allowing some evil cannot be avoided? That is. and. Professor of Philosophy. not theory.his interests and rights are not ignored. We straight tum this argument . that is.the affirmatives narrow-minded approach of how to operate global environmental policy dooms us to extinction. he has when He tries to keep his 'moral purity' and calleddouble-mindedness. more morally appropriate. for the rest of their lives and is as likely as not to make them more rather than less morally sensitive. all alternative actions which would save his life are duly considered. University of Calgary. We are not treating the fat man merely as a means. The consequentialist is on strong moral ground here. It is not even correct to say that such a desperate act shows a lack of respect for persons. given what is done to him.if the reason why our stance is immoral is because the death of whales is inherently wrong THEN if we win we prevent the extinction of whales we have the most moral stance . should realize that ifhe were so stuck rather than the fat man. he should in such situations be blasted out. plausibility. that human beings should never merely be treated as means but should be treated as ends in themselves (as persons worthy of respect).consequentialist decision making is critical in policy making Critics. It indeed sounds ironical to talk this way..:ii~l~I~. it is not unreasonable to override even a moral conviction if it does not' . Consequentialism of the kind I have been arguing for provides so persuasive "a theoretical basis for common morality that when it contradicts some moral intuition. In so treating the fat man-not just to further the public good but to prevent the certain death of a whole group of people (that is to prevent an even greater evil than his being killed in this way)-the claims of justice are not overriden either. the blasting out is done only as a last and desperate resort with the minimum of harshness and indifference to his suffering and the like.we don't advocate the brutal murder of innocent whales but rather think humans should abide by the food web inherent in nature by keeping their prey. if he is reasonably correct. Killing him is something which is undertaken with the greatest reluctance. for each individual involved.' It is understandable that people and what Kierkegaard . maintains that "to use any innocent man ill for the sake of some public good is directly to degrade him to being a mere means" and to do this is of course to violate a principle essential to morality. The affirmative creates a false dichotomy . It is only when it is quite certain that there is no other way to save the lives of the others that such a violent course of action is justifiably undertaken.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . Joram GrafHaber. but is there anything more reasonable. nil Given the comprehensiveness. and in the above situation it is not the case. such reasoning himself to do what in normal circumstances and such forbearing to prevent seems to me to constitute a moral evasion. Thus. arguing rather as Anscombe argues. that in killing such an innocent man we are treating him merely as a means. p. 170-2 deed overrides the Forget the levity of the example and consider the case of the innocent fat man. 2.A2 Morality 1. The fat man's person. the helltJ:. where there is no avoiding both and where our actions can determine whether a greater or lesser evil obtains. it is natural to that intuition. Alan Donegan. it need not be the case. at sustainable levels. Voting affirmative is moral evasion . there is no question of being unfair. so much the worse for such commonsense moral convictions. 3. that the innocent acquiesce in the doing about human life and human suffering as a result. as we do what we must do and would have done to ourselves were the roles reversed. . And in acting in the more humane ways toward the fat man. we show a respect for his person. without blasting him out. should we not plainly always opt for the lesser evil? And is it not obviously a greater evil that all those other innocent people should suffer and die than that the fat man should suffer and die? Blowing up the fat man is indeed monstrous. Surely we must choose between evils here. whales." But. But if such a terrible situation were to arise. there would always be more or less humane ways of going about one's grim task. and overall rationality of consequentialism. as my above remarks show. is corrupt. Kai Nielsen. made no sense or of or In such a context. Absolutism and Its Consequentialist ed. if his reflective moral convictions do not square either with certain unrehearsed or with certain reflective particular moral convictions of human beings. The action is universalizable. One could even usefully and relevantly adapt herethough for a quite different purpose-an argument of Do nag an's. I say it is evasive because rather than steeling would be a horrible and vile act but in this circumstance is a harsh moral necessity.

is a fact of life. we have no choice but to be the enemy of a large number of other life forms. innocent-looking young ladies can dine in comfortable restaurants on blood-oozing rare beef that has been so skillfully processed and tastefully served they cannot imagine the predator-prey relationship that went into its making. and today. and these relations will remain unchanged in the future. A few people have decided to become vegetarians. we are totally dependent on the food chain of living organisms. Thus. and we should therefore refrain from making egocentric arguments about the killing of animals. killing elephants only for their ivory should be avoided. Man does not give life. and it is more comfortable for them not to know it. cats kill mice. Indiscriminate killing is inherent in nature -lions sharks attack humans kill lions over territory. and . they are obliged to eat other animals or plants. 1993 (Fuzuko. the human diet consists almost entirely of animal and vegetable matter. We have survived and thrived by benefiting from our causal relations with nature. However. This. but also includes the millions of fish landed at ports every day. pigs and poultry. the division of labour and professionalism which have developed as our society has advanced now make it unnecessary for the majority of us to search for our own food in the seas and mountains. As a result. Next. ICR) Man is omnivorous by nature and also has a highly varied diet. there are a large number of people who find the hunting of wild animals unacceptable. in nature. Here "slaughter" refers not only to cattle. Predation. Their indiscriminate killing arguments are dumb A. The task of collecting food is carried out by professionals. when whale oil no longer has any value. ICR) Japanese whalers take pride in their thorough utilisation of whales. there has been a custom of eating whale meat for centuries. Nagasaki. director general of the institute for cetacean research. Needless to say. they used whales only for the oil yielded by their blubber and dumped the meat in the sea. Life is not made but is born. If man needs ivory so much.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . It is surely unreasonable to deny a farm animal the right to live while granting that right to another animal just because it lives in the wild. When Western nations were whaling. Whaling serves a purpose Dr. therefore. in contrast with the rest of the animal kingdom. director general of the institute for cetacean research. B. Nagasaki. and the sheer size of the human population. but for most of us vegetable alone do not satisfy our dietary needs. It's the circle oflife Dr. both qualitatively and quantitatively. In short. All animals and plants have the right to live. therefore. we are to blame if we don't use them thoroughly. In the case of Japan. To kill animals only to use them partially is a deviation from the appropriate relationship between prey and predator. If we are to survive. 5. There is no need for ordinary consumers to know in detail the mass slaughter which takes place daily in every society. But in order for animals to enjoy that right. the blubber is eaten too. however. 1993 (Fuzuko.A2 Morality 4. make man the greatest predator. "As these woods lived for several hundred years." says the Kiso woodcutter. but find acceptable the slaughtering of livestock such as cattle and poultry. the only exceptions being water and minerals such as salt. some means should be found of removing the ivory without killing the elephant. This means we do not dominate nature but are incorporated into it.

their food resources cannot be ignored. It may be necessary to cull numbers of one or more species in order for the blue whale to survive as a species. If excess numbers of certain species are to be culled.A2 Some Species Going Extinct This just proves our arguments . A by-product of overpopulation is managing food resources. We seem to have taken a "head in the sand approach" by assuming that if we do not touch any whale species the endangered species will rectify themselves. have in the past had a poor record with regard to sustainable yield. including Australia and United States. It may also be necessary to avoid the direct harvesting of krill in the region occupied by the blue whale. A recent estimate for the blue whale population is between 200 and 1.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus .1989).100 individuals worldwide (*Nagasaki. marine biologist. 14) Two of the major problems we will face worldwide in the future are pollution of our environment and overpopulation. When the numbers of a species. However we cannot afford to mismanage them either. If the number remaining is at the lower end of this range then passive optimism will probably not be enough to save the species. Since the oceans cover approximately 70% of the earth's surface. 1996 (Dennis. other species increase in numbers to occupy the vacant niche. What I would like to see happen is a concerted research effort to establish which species have increased disproportionately in numbers due to increased food availability . ISANA. . are significantly reduced. It is not only possible but highly probable that the blue whale is suffering from relative food shortage due to an increase in the populations of competitor species. The great blue whale is now at the brink of extinction and there is little doubt that the unrestrained whaling efforts of a number of countries contributed to its demise. as this in itself may create a food chain imbalance. Past events show beyond doubt that there have been major blunders in both fishing and whaling industries. then they should be used provided that culling guidelines are strictly adhered to. No. The world's whaling countries. All culling procedures can be monitored by an independent scientific team. they should not be left to scavengers.we need to kill some whales to save others Tafe. Unfortunately past experience has demonstrated that this is not the case.food resources common to themselves and the blue whale. If culled individuals can be utilised for human consumption. especially a slowly propagating species.

the carrying capacity for whales is going down Toronto Star . The breakup of the ice shelves in itself is a natural process of renewal but the size and rate of production of icebergs . rich water has fallen by 20 per cent from pre-industrial times. which then circulates the globe. they just get higher. The plan intervenes with the circle of life creating a scenario that was never present in the past. who blame global warming. it is the most serious thaw since the end of the last ice age 12.) The production of huge numbers of icebergs is a threat to the world's climate and the way the oceans function. they say. human hunters have kept whales at a sustainable level. "These patterns are beyond natural variability. They are finding that the world's deep ocean circulation system will slow as the Antarctic produces smaller amounts of dense.is alarming scientists. here's more evidence . strong freezing winds cascade down the Antarctic continent to race across the ocean surface. Times Have Changed . Continues . kilometres thick in parts. just as whales provide a population check on krill. forming new sea in open water near the coastline. "We can't bring them down." One question occupying Tom Trull. with no production near Dumont d'Urville in some years. promoting ocean circulation and life. cannot be reversed. In the depths of winter. "We can't reverse it because the greenhouse-gas levels are already up. penguins and whales. And computer modelling results indicate production of this dense. It came during one of the warmest summers on record in Antarctica. the keystone of the Antarctic ecosystem and bread and butter for seals. " The Antarctic is normally the source of a large part of the "bottom water" that feeds oxygen to global ocean depths. pushing ice floes away. is whether disappearance of one-half the Antarctic's sea ice by the end of the century would also halve the Southern Ocean's krill. Historically.is the second big break since a giant iceberg broke away in 1995 and is well beyond normal activity.our Inc evidence indicates the fish populations have declined creating food shortages and thus lowering the carrying capacity for whales 2. the break-off this week of a massive iceberg from the Ross Ice Shelf is considered normal calving. Krill. leader of the Biogeochemical Cycles Program at the CRC. 15 lcr . the tiny planktonic crustaceans that are the planet's most abundant animal organism.some the size of major cities .. The fear is that a snowball effect will lead to disintegration of the vast West Antarctic Ice Shelf. need ice for sanctuary and for food from algae. Continues . And.. highly saline sea water which remains sinks to the ocean floor to form between 20 per cent and 25 per cent of Antarctica's total bottom water production.. once started.5118/2002 THE ANTARCTIC Peninsula ice shelves are cracking up and. And the process.000 years ago. on the face of things. Bottom water is also sensitive to climate change." Budd says..A2 Empirically Denied 1. The oxygen-rich. The break-off in March ofa 500-billion-tonne chunk of the Larsen Ice Shelf . scientists say. threatening marine life. oxygen-rich sea water. possibly within 30 years.650 metres thick and with a surface area of 3.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . (However. The global ecosystem relies on the food chain to balance out populations. Bindoff says.240 square kilometres .

the marine mammal center confirmed that the whales all died of malnutrition Chicago Tribune . Perryman said it could have been a result of a defective metabolism or the stench of starvation. They strain mud and sand out through baleen. "The two years we saw of die-offs and strandings was the adjustment. The whales dive for the critters. There has been one common denominator in the living and dead: Many ofthe animals were so skinny that their ribs stuck out. veterinarian Frances Gulland of Sausalito's Marine Mammal Center in California conducted full necropsies on three animals and found many distinct causes of death: viral encephalitis. because they were breaking down deep energy reserves and protein. he said. "Our leading hypothesis is. makes up 95 percent of the whale's Arctic diet. But that idea remains debatable. why were they so malnourished? Why did they get whatever caused them to die?" .to 50-ton beasts spend their summer in the Bering Strait." he said. The breath of gray whales might be rancid. Starvation hypothesis emerges Mate's "starvation hypothesis" presumes a dark side to the whale's spectacular recovery--that the popUlation can rise only so high before being cruelly adjusted back into equilibrium with nature. Ampilesca macroephala. the biotoxin domoic acid.A2 Studies Flawed Only our theory is backed by scientific evidence . "The real question is. Mate suspects the whales' steady population growth has led to numbers higher than in the days before commercial whaling. and parasitic abscesses. gorging on millions of amphipods-crustaceans that live in tubes in the mud and sand on the shallow ocean floor. "AU of those could have initially started as malnutrition.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . sucking in mouthfuls of ocean bottom. instead of burning calories from recently ingested food or their own blubber. Because whales eat little while migrating or basking in Baja." Gulland said. they actually overshot their food supply. Although they can eat other things. Bruce Mate. an expert at Oregon State University on endangered whales. and swallow the amphipods. As for the medicine-like stink that prompted complaints from Eskimo hunters." he said. If the whales were starving. 20 . studies of whale stomach contents show that one species of amphipod. what happened to their food? Summer feast of crustaceans The 35. The scrawniness was visible from aerial photographs. the blubbery animals must do a year's worth of fattening up on this one species in the few months they spend near the Bering Strait. thinks there isn't enough food because there are too many whales.7/2/2002 In the spring of2000. A team of Alaskan biologists is conducting the first in-depth chemical analysis of fresh samples of gray whale blubber in the hunt for clues.

whales would still eventually overshoot the carrying capacity. lowering the carrying capacity of whales. 21 . Predator-prey relations are the center of sustainable populations. by preventing international fishing regulations.even if they raise the carrying capacity for whales by breaking down anthropocentrism. because there would be no natural death check on whales. absent the enforcement of resource constraints on whales it's only a matter of time until whale populations exceed populations of animals with lower trophic levels.KY FELLOWS Species Malthus . 2.if we win that the plan destroys American environmental leadership on solvency then the plan would actually decrease the fish supply. This argument is counter-intuitive .A2 We Solve Food Shortage 1. This is a new link .

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