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Spreading Factors

Spreading Factors

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UMTS Capacity and Throughput Maximization

for Different Spreading Factors
Robert Akl and Son Nguyen
Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, University of North Texas
Denton, Texas, 76207
Email: {rakl, stn}@cse.unt.edu
Abstract—An analytical model for calculating capacity
in multi-cell UMTS networks is presented. Capacity is
maximized for different spreading factors and for perfect
and imperfect power control. We also design and implement
a local call admission control (CAC) algorithm which allows
for the simulation of network throughput for different
spreading factors and various mobility scenarios. The design
of the CAC algorithm uses global information; it incorpo-
rates the call arrival rates and the user mobilities across
the network and guarantees the users’ quality of service
as well as pre-specified blocking probabilities. On the other
hand, its implementation in each cell uses local information;
it only requires the number of calls currently active in that
cell. The capacity and network throughput were determined
for signal-to-interference threshold from 5 dB to 10 dB and
spreading factor values of 256, 64, 16, and 4.
Index Terms—WCDMA, Call Admission Control, Mobil-
ity, Network Throughput, Optimization.
I. INTRODUCTION
3G cellular systems are identified as International
Mobile Telecommunications-2000 under International
Telecommunication Union and as Universal Mobile
Telecommunications Systems (UMTS) by European
Telecommunications Standards Institute. Besides voice
capability in 2G, the new 3G systems are required to
have additional support on a variety of data-rate services
using multiple access techniques. Code Division Multiple
Access (CDMA) is the fastest-growing digital wireless
technology since its first commercialization in 1994. The
major markets for CDMA are North America, Latin
America, and Asia (particularly Japan and Korea). In total,
CDMA has been adopted by more than 100 operators
across 76 countries around the globe [1].
Since the first comparisons of multiple access schemes
for UMTS [2], which found that Wideband CDMA
(WCDMA) was well suited for supporting variable bit
rate services, several research on WCDMA capacity has
been considered. In [3], the authors present a method
to calculate the WCDMA reverse link Erlang capacity
based on the Lost Call Held (LCH) model as described in
[4]. This algorithm calculates the occupancy distribution
and capacity of UMTS/WCDMA systems based on a
Based on Capacity Allocation in Multi-cell UMTS Networks for
Different Spreading Factors with Perfect and Imperfect Power Control,
by R. Akl and S. Nguyen, which appeared in the Proceedings of IEEE
CCNC 2006: Consumer Communications and Networking Conference,
vol. 2, pp. 928-932, January 2006.
system outage condition. The authors derive a closed form
expression of Erlang capacity for a single type of traffic
loading and compare analytical results with simulations
results.
The same LCH model was also used in [5] to calculate
the forward link capacity of UMTS/WCDMA systems
based on the system outage condition. In the forward
link, because many users share the base station (BS)
transmission power, the capacity is calculated at the BS.
The transmission power from the BS is provided to each
user based on each user’s relative need. The access in
the calculation of forward link capacity is one-to-many
rather than many-to-one as in the reverse link. The au-
thors provide capacity calculation results and performance
evaluation through simulation.
An alternate approach, where mobile stations (MSs)
are synchronized on the uplink, i.e., signals transmitted
from different MSs are time aligned at the BS, has
been considered. Synchronous WCDMA looks at time
synchronization for signal transmission between the BS
and MS to improve network capacity. The performance
of an uplink-synchronous WCDMA is analyzed in [6].
Scrambling codes are unique for each cell. MSs in the
same cell share the same scrambling code, while different
orthogonal channelization codes are derived from the set
of Walsh codes. In [6], the potential capacity gain is
about 35.8% in a multi-cell scenario with infinite number
of channelization codes per cell and no soft handoff
capability between MSs and BSs. However, the capacity
gain in a more realistic scenario is reduced to 9.6%
where soft handoff is enabled. The goal of this uplink-
synchronous method in WCDMA is to reduce intra-cell
interference. But the implementation is fairly complex
while the potential capacity gain is not very high.
Our contributions are two-fold. First, we calculate
the maximum reverse link capacity in UMTS/WCDMA
systems for both perfect and imperfect power control
with a given set of quality of service requirements and
for different spreading factors. Second, we also design,
analyze, and simulate a local CAC algorithm for UMTS
networks by formulating an optimization problem that
maximizes the network throughput for different spreading
factors using signal-to-interference constraints as lower
bounds. The solution to this problem is the maximum
number of calls that can be admitted in each cell. The
design is optimized for the entire network, and the im-
40 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
plementation is simple and considers only a single cell
for admitting a call. Numerical results are presented for
signal-to-interference thresholds from 5 dB to 10 dB and
spreading factor values of 256, 64, 16, and 4.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
The user and interference models are presented in Section
II. In Section III, we analyze capacity for perfect and
imperfect power control. In Section IV, we describe our
call admission control algorithm. Network throughput is
determined in Section V. Spreading factors are discussed
in Section VI. Numerical results are presented in Section
VII, and finally Section VIII concludes the paper.
II. USER AND INTERFERENCE MODEL
This study assumes that each user is always com-
municating and is power controlled by the BS that has
the highest received power at the user. Let r
i
(x, y) and
r
j
(x, y) be the distance from a user to BS i and BS j,
respectively. This user is power controlled by BS j in the
cell or region C
j
with area A
j
, which BS j services. This
study assumes that both large scale path loss and shadow
fading are compensated by the perfect power control
mechanism. Let I
ji,g
be the average inter-cell interference
that all users n
j,g
using services g with activity factor v
g
and received signal S
g
at BS j impose on BS i. Modifying
the average inter-cell interference given by [7], it becomes
I
(g)
ji
= S
g
v
g
n
j,g
e
(βσ
s
)
2
A
j
_ _
C
j
r
m
j
(x, y)
r
m
i
(x, y)
w(x, y) dA(x, y),
(1)
where β = ln(10)/10, σ
s
is the standard deviation of
the attenuation for the shadow fading, m is the path loss
exponent, and w(x, y) is the user distribution density at
(x, y). Let κ
ji,g
be the per-user (with service g) relative
inter-cell interference factor from cell j to BS i,
κ
ji,g
=
e
(βσ
s
)
2
A
j
_ _
C
j
r
m
j
(x, y)
r
m
i
(x, y)
w(x, y) dA(x, y). (2)
The inter-cell interference density I
inter
ji
from cell j to
BS i from all services G becomes
I
inter
ji
=
1
W
G

g=1
I
(g)
ji
, (3)
where W is the bandwidth of the system. Eq. (3) can be
rewritten as
I
inter
ji
=
1
W
G

g=1
S
g
v
g
n
j,g
κ
ji,g
. (4)
Thus, the total inter-cell interference density I
inter
i
from
all other cells to BS i is
I
inter
i
=
1
W
M

j=1,j=i
G

g=1
S
g
v
g
n
j,g
κ
ji,g
, (5)
where M is the total number of cells in the network.
If the user distribution density can be approximated,
then, κ
ji,g
needs to be calculated only once. The user
distribution is modeled with a 2-dimensional Gaussian
function as follows [8]
w(x, y) =
η
2πσ
1
σ
2
e

1
2
(
x−µ
1
σ
1
)
2
e

1
2
(
y−µ
2
σ
2
)
2
, (6)
where η is a user density normalizing parameter.
By specifying the means µ
1
and µ
2
and the standard
deviations σ
1
and σ
2
of the distribution for every cell,
an approximation can be found for a wide range of user
distributions ranging from uniform to hot-spot clusters.
These results are compared with simulations to determine
the value of η experimentally.
III. UMTS CAPACITY
A. Capacity with Perfect Power Control
In WCDMA, with perfect power control (PPC) between
BSs and MSs, the energy per bit to total interference
density at BS i for a service g is given by [9]
_
E
b
I
0
_
i,g
=
S
g
R
g
N
0
+ I
inter
i
+ I
own
i
− S
g
v
g
, (7)
where N
0
is the thermal noise density, and R
g
is the
bit rate for service g. I
inter
i
was calculated in section II.
I
own
i
is the total intra-cell interference density caused by
all users in cell i. Thus I
own
i
is given by
I
own
i
=
1
W
G

g=1
S
g
v
g
n
i,g
. (8)
Let τ
g
be the minimum signal-to-noise ratio, which
must received at a BS to decode the signal of a user with
service g, and S

g
be the maximum signal power, which
the user can transmit. Substituting (5) and (8) into (7), we
have for every cell i in the UMTS network, the number
of users n
i,g
in BS i for a given service g needs to meet
the following inequality constraints
τ
g

S

g
R
g
N
0
+
S

g
W
_
G

g=1
n
i,g
v
g
+
M

j=1,j=i
G

g=1
n
j,g
v
g
κ
ji,g
−v
g
_
,
for i=1,...,M. (9)
After rearranging terms, (9) can be rewritten as
G

g=1
n
i,g
v
g
+
M

j=1,j=i
G

g=1
n
j,g
v
g
κ
ji,g
−v
g
≤ c
(g)
eff
,
for i=1,...,M, (10)
where
c
(g)
eff
=
W
R
g
_
1
τ
g

R
g
S

g
/N
0
_
. (11)
The maximized capacity in a UMTS network is de-
fined as the maximum number of simultaneous users
(n
1,g
, n
2,g
, ..., n
M,g
) for all services g = 1, ..., G that
satisfy (10).
JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006 41
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
B. Capacity with Imperfect Power Control
The calculation of UMTS network capacity, which
was formulated in section III-A, assumes perfect power
control between the BSs and MSs. However, transmitted
signals between BSs and MSs are subject to multi-path
propagation conditions, which make the received
_
E
b
I
o
_
i,g
signals vary according to a log-normal distribution with
a standard deviation on the order of 1.5 to 2.5 dB [4].
Thus, in the imperfect power control (IPC) case, the
constant value of (E
b
)
i,g
in each cell i for every user
with service g needs to be replaced by the variable
(E
b
)
i,g

=
i,g
(E
b
)
o,g
, which is log-normally distributed.
We define
x
i,g
= 10log
10
_

i,g
(E
b
)
o,g
I
0
_
, (12)
to be a normally distributed random variable with mean
m
c
and standard deviation σ
c
.
According to [4], by evaluating the nth moment of
i,g
using the fact that x
i,g
is Gaussian with mean m
c
and
standard deviation σ
c
, then taking the expected value, we
have
E
_
(E
b
)
o,g
I
0

i,g
_
=
(E
b
)
i,g
I
0
e
(βσ
c
)
2
2
. (13)
As a result of (13), c
(g)
eff IPC
becomes c
(g)
eff
/ e
(βσ
c
)
2
2
.
IV. UMTS CALL ADMISSION CONTROL
A. Feasible States
Recall from section III-A that the number of calls in
every cell must satisfy (10). A set of calls n satisfying
(10) is said to be in feasible call configuration or a feasible
state, which meet the
E
b
I
0
constraint.
Denote by Ω the set of feasible states. Define the set
of blocking states for service g in cell i as
B
i,g
=
_
_
_
n ∈ Ω :
_
_
n
1,1
... n
1,G
... ... ...
n
M,1
... n
M,G
_
_
∈ Ω
_
_
_
. (14)
If a new connection or a handoff connection with the
service g arrives to cell i, it is blocked when the current
state of the network, n, is in B
i,g
.
B. Mobility Model
There are several mobility models that have been
discussed in the literature [10]–[12]. These models have
ranged from general dwell times for calls to ones that have
hyper-exponential and sub-exponential distributions. For
the CAC problem that we are investigating here, however,
such assumptions makes the problem mathematically in-
tractable. The mobility model that we use is presented in
[13] where a call stops occupying a cell either because
user mobility has forced the call to be handed off to
another cell, or because the call is completed.
The call arrival process with service g to cell i is
assumed to be a Poisson process with rate λ
i,g
inde-
pendent of other call arrival processes. The call dwell
time is a random variable with exponential distribution
having mean 1/µ, and it is independent of earlier arrival
times, call durations and elapsed times of other users.
At the end of a dwell time a call may stay in the same
cell, attempt a handoff to an adjacent cell, or leave the
network. Define q
ii,g
as the probability that a call with
service g in progress in cell i remains in cell i after
completing its dwell time. In this case, a new dwell time
that is independent of the previous dwell time begins
immediately. Let q
ij,g
be the probability that a call with
service g in progress in cell i after completing its dwell
time goes to cell j. If cells i and j are not adjacent,
then q
ij,g
= 0. We denote by q
i,g
the probability that a
call with service g in progress in cell i departs from the
network.
This mobility model is attractive because we can easily
define different mobility scenarios by varying the values
of these probability parameters [13]. For example, if q
i,g
is constant for all i and g, then the average dwell time of
a call of the same service in the network will be constant
regardless of where the call originates and what the values
of q
ii,g
and q
ij,g
are. Thus, by varying q
ii,g
’s and q
ij,g
’s
for a service g, we can obtain low and high mobility
scenarios and compare the effect of mobility on network
attributes (e.g., throughput).
We assume that the occupancy of the cells evolves
according to a birth-death process, where the total arrival
rate or offered traffic for service g to cell i is ρ
i,g
, and
the departure rate from cell i when the network is in
state n is n
i,g
µ
i,g
= n
i,g
µ(1 −q
ii,g
). Let ρ be the matrix
of offered traffic of service g to the cells, µ the matrix
of departure rates, and let p(ρ, µ, n) be the stationary
probability that the network is in state n. The new call
blocking probability for service g in cell i, B
i,g
, is given
by
B
i,g
=

n∈B
i,g
p(ρ, µ, n). (15)
This is also the blocking probability of handoff calls due
to the fact that handoff calls and new calls are treated in
the same way by the network.
Let A
i
be the set of cells adjacent to cell i. Let ν
ji,g
be
the handoff rate out of cell j offered to cell i for service g.
ν
ji,g
is the sum of the proportion of new calls of service
g accepted in cell j that go to cell i and the proportion of
handoff calls with service g accepted from cells adjacent
to cell j that go to cell i. Thus
ν
ji,g
= λ
j,g
(1 −B
j,g
)q
ji,g
+ (1 −B
j,g
)q
ji,g

x∈A
j
ν
xj,g
.
(16)
Equation (16) can be rewritten as
ν
ji,g
= ν(B
j,g
, ρ
j,g
, q
ji,g
) = (1 −B
j,g
)q
ji,g
ρ
j,g
, (17)
where ρ
j,g
, the total offered traffic to cell j for service g,
is given by
ρ
j,g
= ρ(v, λ
j,g
, A
j
) = λ
j,g
+

x∈A
j
ν
xj,g
, (18)
42 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
and where v denotes the matrix whose components are
the handoff rates ν
ij
for i, j = 1, ...M.
The total offered traffic can be obtained from a fixed
point model [14], which describes the offered traffic as a
function of the handoff rates and new call arrival rates, the
handoff rates as a function of the blocking probabilities
and the offered traffic, and the blocking probabilities as
a function of the offered traffic. For a given set of arrival
rates, we use an iterative method to solve the fixed point
equations. We define an initial value for the handoff rates.
We calculate the offered traffic by adding the given values
of the arrival rates to the handoff rates. The blocking
probabilities are now calculated using the offered traffic.
We then calculate the new values of the handoff rates
and repeat. This approach has been extensively utilized in
the literature to obtain solutions of fixed point problems
[15]–[20]. The questions of existence and uniqueness of
the solution and whether the iterative approach in fact
converges to the solution (if a unique solution exists)
are generally difficult to answer due to the complexity
of the equations involved. Kelly has shown that for fixed
alternate routing the solution to the fixed point problem
is in fact not unique [21]; in all the numerical examples
we solved, the iterative approach converged to a unique
solution.
C. Admissible States
A CAC algorithm can be constructed as follows. A
call arriving to cell i with service g is accepted if and
only if the new state is a feasible state. Clearly this CAC
algorithm requires global state, i.e., the number of calls
in progress in all the cells of the network. Furthermore, to
compute the blocking probabilities, the probability of each
state in the feasible region needs to be calculated. Since
the cardinality of Ω is O(c
eff
MG
), the calculation of
the blocking probabilities has a computational complexity
that is exponential in the number of cells combined with
number of available services.
In order to simplify the CAC algorithm, we consider
only those CAC algorithms which utilize local state, i.e.,
the number of calls in progress in the current cell. To this
end we define a state n to be admissible if
n
i,g
≤ N
i,g
for i = 1, ..., M and g = 1, ..., G, (19)
where N
i,g
is a parameter which denotes the maximum
number of calls with service g allowed to be admitted
in cell i. Clearly the set of admissible states denoted Ω

is a subset of the set of feasible states Ω. The blocking
probability for cell i with service g is then given by
B
i,g
= B(A
i,g
, N
i,g
) =
A
N
i,g
i,g
/N
i,g
!
N
i,g

k=0
A
k
i,g
/k!
, (20)
where A
i
= ρ
i,g

i,g
= ρ
i,g
/µ(1 − q
ii,g
) is the Erlang
traffic in cell i with service g. We note that the complexity
to calculate the blocking probabilities in (20) is O(MG),
and the bit error rate requirement is guaranteed since Ω


Ω.
Once the maximum number of calls with different
service that are allowed to be admitted in each cell, N,
is calculated (this is done offline and described in the
next section), the CAC algorithm for cell i for service
g will simply compare the number of calls with service
g currently active in cell i to N
i,g
in order to accept
or reject a new arriving call. Thus our CAC algorithm
is implemented with a computational complexity that is
O(1).
V. NETWORK THROUGHPUT
The throughput of cell i consists of two components:
the new calls that are accepted in cell i minus the forced
termination due to handoff failure of the handoff calls into
cell i for all services g. Hence the total throughput, T, of
the network is
T(B, ρ, λ) =
M

i=1
G

g=1

i,g
−B
i,g
ρ
i,g
} , (21)
where B is the vector of blocking probabilities and λ is
the matrix of call arrival rates.
A. Calculation of N
We formulate a constrained optimization problem in
order to maximize the throughput subject to upper bounds
on the blocking probabilities and a lower bound on the
signal-to-interference constraints in (10). The goal is to
optimize the utilization of network resources and provide
consistent GoS while at the same time maintaining the
QoS, β
g
, for all the users for different services g. In this
optimization problem the arrival rates are given and the
maximum number of calls that can be admitted in all the
cells are the independent variables. This is given in the
following
max
N
T(B, ρ, λ),
subject to B(A
i,g
, N
i,g
) ≤ β
g
,
G

g=1
N
i,g
v
g
+
M

j=1,j=i
G

g=1
N
j,g
v
g
κ
ji,g
−v
g
≤ c
(g)
eff
,
for i = 1, ..., M. (22)
The optimization problem in (22) is solved offline to
obtain the values of N.
B. Maximization of Throughput
A second optimization problem can be formulated in
which the arrival rates and the maximum number of calls
that can be admitted in all the cells are the independent
JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006 43
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
Fig. 1. Generation of OVSF codes for different Spreading Factors.
variables and the objective function is the throughput.
This is given in the following
max
λ, N
T(B, ρ, λ),
subject to B(A
i,g
, N
i,g
) ≤ β
g
,
G

g=1
N
i,g
v
g
+
M

j=1,j=i
G

g=1
N
j,g
v
g
κ
ji,g
−v
g
≤ c
(g)
eff
,
for i = 1, ..., M. (23)
The optimized objective function of (23) provides an
upper bound on the total throughput that the network can
carry. This is the network capacity for the given GoS and
QoS.
VI. SPREADING FACTOR
Communication from a single source is separated by
channelization codes, i.e., the dedicated physical channel
in the uplink and the downlink connections within one
sector from one MS. The Orthogonal Variable Spreading
Factor (OVSF) codes, which were originally introduced
in [22], were used to be channelization codes for UMTS.
The use of OVSF codes allows the orthogonality and
spreading factor (SF) to be changed between different
spreading codes of different lengths. Fig. 1 depicts the
generation of different OVSF codes for different SF
values.
The data signal after spreading is then scrambled with
a scrambling codes to separate MSs and BSs from each
other. Scrambling is used on top of spreading, thus it only
makes the signals from different sources distinguishable
from each other. Fig. 2 depicts the relationship between
the spreading and scrambling process. Table I describes
the different functionality of the channelization and the
scrambling codes.
The typical required data rate or Dedicated Traffic
Channel (DTCH) for a voice user is 12.2 Kbps. However,
the Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH), which
is the actual transmitted data rate, is dramatically in-
creased due to the incorporated Dedicated Control Chan-
nel (DCCH) information, and the processes of Channel
Fig. 2. Relationship between spreading and scrambling.
TABLE I
FUNCTIONALITY OF THE CHANNELIZATION AND SCRAMBLING
CODES.
Channelization code Scrambling code
Usage Uplink: Separation of
physical data (DPDCH)
and control channels
(DPCCH) from same MS
Downlink: Separation of
downlink connections to
different MSs within one
cell.
Uplink: Separation of
MSs
Downlink: Separation of
sectors (cells)
Length Uplink: 4-256 chips same
as SF
Downlink 4-512 chips
same as SF
Uplink: 10 ms = 38400
chips
Downlink: 10 ms =
38400 chips
Number of codes Number of codes under
one scrambling code =
spreading factor
Uplink: Several millions
Downlink: 512
Code family Orthogonal Variable
Spreading Factor
Long 10 ms code: Gold
Code
Short code: Extended
S(2) code family
Spreading Yes, increases transmis-
sion bandwidth
No, does not affect trans-
mission bandwidth
Coding, Rate Matching, and Radio Frame Alignment. Fig.
3 depicts the process of creating the actual transmitted
signal for a voice user. Fig. 4 shows the DPDCH data
rate requirement for 64 Kbps data user. Table II shows
the approximation of the maximum user data rate with
1
2
rate coding for different values of DPDCH.
VII. NUMERICAL RESULTS
The results shown are for a twenty-seven cell network
topology used in [23], [24]. The COST-231 propagation
model with a carrier frequency of 1800 MHz, average
base station height of 30 meters and average mobile height
Fig. 3. 12.2 Kbps Uplink Reference channel.
44 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
Fig. 4. 64 Kbps Uplink Reference channel.
TABLE II
UPLINK DPDCH DATA RATES.
DPDCH Spreading Factor DPDCH bit rate User data rate
1
2
rate coding
256 15 Kbps 7.5 Kbps
128 30 Kbps 15 Kbps
64 60 Kbps 30 Kbps
32 120 Kbps 60 Kbps
16 240 Kbps 120 Kbps
8 480 Kbps 240 Kbps
4 960 Kbps 480 Kbps
4, with 6 parallel codes 5740 Kbps 2.8 Mbps
of 1.5 meters, is used to determine the coverage region.
The path loss coefficient m is 4. The shadow fading
standard deviation σ
s
is 6 dB. The processing gain
W
R
g
is
6.02 dB, 12.04 dB, 18.06 dB, and 24.08 dB for Spreading
Factor equal to 4, 16, 64, and 256, respectively. The
activity factor, v, is 0.375. Fig. 5 shows the 2-D Gaussian
approximation of users uniformly distributed in the cells
with σ
1
= σ
2
= 12000.
The UMTS network with 27 omnidirectional antenna
cells (1 sector per cell) was analyzed for evaluation of
capacity using user modeling with the 2-D Gaussian
function and traditional methods of modeling uniform
user distribution. The network with different values for
E
b
I
0
was analyzed for different SF values of 4, 16, 64, and
256.
Fig. 5. 2-D Gaussian approximation of users uniformly distributed in
the cells. σ
1
= σ
2
= 12000, µ
1
= µ
2
= 0.
Fig. 6. Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect
power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 256.
Fig. 7. Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect
power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 64.
A. Capacity Allocation with SF of 256
First, we set SF to 256, which is used to carry data for
the control channel. Fig. 6 shows the maximized average
number of slots per sector for the 27 cells UMTS network
as the
E
b
I
0
is increased from 5 dB to 10 dB and the standard
deviation of imperfect power control is increased from
0 to 2.5 dB. Because of IPC, to get the same average
number of slots per sector as PPC, we have to decrease the
SIR threshold by 0.5 dB to 1.5 dB. Fig. 6 also shows that
the traditional uniform user distribution modeling matches
well with the 2-D Gaussian model.
B. Capacity Allocation with SF of 64
As a result of lowering the SF to 64, the number of slots
per sector decreases by almost a factor of 4 compared to
SF equal 256 (from 60.58 to 15.56 slots when
E
b
I
o
= 7.5
dB in PPC) as shown in Fig. 7.
JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006 45
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
Fig. 8. Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect
power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 16.
Fig. 9. Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect
power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 4.
C. Capacity Allocation with SF of 16
As a result of lowering the SF to 16, the number of slots
per sector decreases by almost a factor of 4 compared to
SF equal 64 (from 15.56 to 4.30 slots when
E
b
I
o
= 7.5 dB
in PPC) as shown in Fig. 8.
D. Capacity Allocation with SF of 4
Next, we set SF to 4, which is used for 256 kbps
data communication between BSs and MSs. As a result
of lowering the SF to 4, the number of slots per sector
decreases significantly to 1.49 while keeping
E
b
I
o
= 7.5 dB
in PPC as shown in Fig. 9.
The following set of results are for the calculation
of throughput. Three mobility scenarios: no mobility,
low mobility, and high mobility of users are considered.
We assume that the mobility characteristics for a given
service g stays the same throughout different cells in the
network. The following parameters are used for the no
mobility case: q
ij,g
= 0, q
ii,g
= 0.3 and q
i,g
= 0.7 for
all cells i and j. Tables III and IV show respectively the
TABLE III
THE LOW MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS.
A
i
q
ij,g
q
ii,g
q
i,g
3 0.020 0.240 0.700
4 0.015 0.240 0.700
5 0.012 0.240 0.700
6 0.010 0.240 0.700
TABLE IV
THE HIGH MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS.
A
i
q
ij,g
q
ii,g
q
i,g
3 0.1 0 0.700
4 0.075 0 0.700
5 0.060 0 0.700
6 0.050 0 0.700
• A
i
is the number of cells, which are adjacent to cell i.
• q
ii,g
is the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i
remains in cell i after completing its dwell time.
• q
ij,g
is the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i after
completing its dwell time goes to cell j.
• q
i,g
is the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i departs
from the network.
mobility characteristics and parameters for the low and
high mobility cases. In all three mobility scenarios, the
probability that a call leaves the network after completing
its dwell time is 0.7. Thus, regardless of where the call
originates and mobility scenario used, the average dwell
time of a call in the network is constant. In the numerical
results below, for each SF value, we analyze the average
throughput per cell by dividing the results from (23) by
the total number of cells in the network and multiplying
by the maximum data rate in Table II.
E. Throughput Optimization with SF of 256
First, we set SF equal to 256, which is used to carry
data for the control channel. Table V shows the optimized
values of N for each cell for all three mobility models with
perfect power control and 2% blocking probability. Fig.
10 shows the optimized throughput per cell for a blocking
probability from 1% to 10%. The results for the average
throughput for no mobility and high mobility cases are
almost identical while the throughput for low mobility
is higher for each blocking probability. The low mobility
case has an equalizing effect on traffic resulting in slightly
higher throughput.
F. Throughput Optimization with SF of 64
Next, we set SF equal to 64, which is used for voice
communication as shown in Fig. 3. As a result of low-
ering the SF to 64, the number of possible concurrent
connections within one cell is also decreased. Because
the throughput is calculated based on the number of
simultaneous connections between MSs and BSs, the
lower trunking efficiency leads to lower throughput as
shown in Fig. 11. Table VI shows the optimized values
of N for each cell for all three mobility cases and SF
equal to 64.
46 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
Fig. 10. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 256.
TABLE V
CALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF =
256 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0.02.
No Mobility Low Mobility High Mobility
Cell ID N
i
N
i
N
i
Cell
1
52.86 52.86 52.86
Cell
2
53.95 53.95 53.95
Cell
3
51.84 51.84 51.84
Cell
4
51.84 51.84 51.84
Cell
5
53.95 53.95 53.95
Cell
6
51.85 51.85 51.85
Cell
7
51.85 51.85 51.85
Cell
8
53.00 53.00 53.00
Cell
9
50.73 50.73 50.73
Cell
10
62.74 62.74 62.74
Cell
11
63.29 63.29 63.29
Cell
12
62.73 62.73 62.73
Cell
13
50.73 50.73 50.73
Cell
14
53.01 53.01 53.01
Cell
15
50.73 50.73 50.73
Cell
16
62.71 62.71 62.71
Cell
17
63.27 63.27 63.27
Cell
18
62.71 62.71 62.71
Cell
19
50.74 50.74 50.74
Cell
20
73.40 73.40 73.40
Cell
21
71.84 71.84 71.84
Cell
22
71.86 71.86 71.86
Cell
23
73.43 73.43 73.43
Cell
24
73.43 73.43 73.43
Cell
25
71.83 71.83 71.83
Cell
26
71.82 71.82 71.82
Cell
27
73.40 73.40 73.40
G. Throughput Optimization with SF of 16
Next, we set SF equal to 16, which is used for 64 Kbps
data communication as shown in Fig. 4. As a result of
lowering the SF to 16, the average number of slots within
one cell decreases to 4.30. The resulting throughput, as
shown in Fig. 12, is much lower compared to the case
with SF equal to 64 or 256. Table VII shows the optimized
values of N for each cell for all three mobility cases with
SF equal to 16.
H. Throughput Optimization with SF of 4
Next, we set SF equal to 4, which is normally used for
256 Kbps data communication between BSs and MSs.
As a result of lowering the SF to 4, the average slots per
Fig. 11. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 64.
TABLE VI
CALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF =
64 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0.02.
No Mobility Low Mobility High Mobility
Cell ID N
i
N
i
N
i
Cell
1
13.58 13.58 13.58
Cell
2
13.86 13.86 13.86
Cell
3
13.32 13.32 13.32
Cell
4
13.32 13.32 13.32
Cell
5
13.86 13.86 13.86
Cell
6
13.32 13.32 13.32
Cell
7
13.32 13.32 13.32
Cell
8
13.61 13.61 13.61
Cell
9
13.03 13.03 13.03
Cell
10
16.11 16.11 16.11
Cell
11
16.26 16.26 16.26
Cell
12
16.11 16.11 16.11
Cell
13
13.03 13.03 13.03
Cell
14
13.62 13.62 13.62
Cell
15
13.03 13.03 13.03
Cell
16
16.11 16.11 16.11
Cell
17
16.25 16.25 16.25
Cell
18
16.11 16.11 16.11
Cell
19
13.03 13.03 13.03
Cell
20
18.85 18.85 18.85
Cell
21
18.45 18.45 18.45
Cell
22
18.46 18.46 18.46
Cell
23
18.86 18.86 18.86
Cell
24
18.86 18.86 18.86
Cell
25
18.45 18.45 18.45
Cell
26
18.45 18.45 18.45
Cell
27
18.85 18.85 18.85
sector decreases significantly to 1.49 with perfect power
control and
E
b
I
0
= 7.5 dB as shown in Fig. 9. Table VII
shows the optimized values of N for each cell for all
three mobility models with SF equal to 4. The average
throughput for all three mobility cases are almost identical
as shown in Fig. 13.
VIII. CONCLUSIONS
An analytical model has been presented for calculating
capacity in multi-cell UMTS networks. Numerical results
show that the SIR threshold for the received signals is
decreased by 0.5 to 1.5 dB due to the imperfect power
control. As expected, we can have many low rate voice
users or fewer data users as the data rate increases. The
JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006 47
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER
Fig. 12. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 16.
TABLE VII
CALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF =
16 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0.02.
No Mobility Low Mobility High Mobility
Cell ID N
i
N
i
N
i
Cell
1
3.75 3.75 3.75
Cell
2
3.83 3.83 3.83
Cell
3
3.68 3.68 3.68
Cell
4
3.68 3.68 3.68
Cell
5
3.83 3.83 3.83
Cell
6
3.68 3.68 3.68
Cell
7
3.68 3.68 3.68
Cell
8
3.76 3.76 3.76
Cell
9
3.60 3.60 3.60
Cell
10
4.46 4.46 4.46
Cell
11
4.50 4.50 4.50
Cell
12
4.46 4.46 4.46
Cell
13
3.60 3.60 3.60
Cell
14
3.77 3.77 3.77
Cell
15
3.60 3.60 3.60
Cell
16
4.45 4.45 4.45
Cell
17
4.49 4.49 4.49
Cell
18
4.45 4.45 4.45
Cell
19
3.60 3.60 3.60
Cell
20
5.21 5.21 5.21
Cell
21
5.10 5.10 5.10
Cell
22
5.10 5.10 5.10
Cell
23
5.22 5.22 5.22
Cell
24
5.22 5.22 5.22
Cell
25
5.10 5.10 5.10
Cell
26
5.10 5.10 5.10
Cell
27
5.21 5.21 5.21
results also show that the determined parameters of the
2-dimensional Gaussian model matches well with tradi-
tional methods for modeling uniform user distribution.
An analytical model was also presented for CAC algo-
rithm for optimizing the throughput in multi-cell UMTS
networks. Numerical results show that as the spreading
factor increases, the optimized throughput is better, due
to the trunking efficiency for all three mobility models
(no, low, and high mobility). Our methods for maximizing
capacity and implementing the CAC algorithm are fast,
accurate, and can be implemented for large multi-cell
UMTS networks.
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Fig. 13. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 4.
TABLE VIII
CALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF =
4 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0.02.
No Mobility Low Mobility High Mobility
Cell ID N
i
N
i
N
i
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Robert Akl received the B.S. degree in computer science from
Washington University in St. Louis, in 1994, and the B.S., M.S.
and D.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering in 1994, 1996, and
2000, respectively. He also received the Dual Degree Engineer-
ing Outstanding Senior Award from Washington University in
1993. He is a senior member of IEEE.
Dr. Akl is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of
North Texas, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
In 2002, he was an Assistant Professor at the University of New
Orleans, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
From October 2000 to December 2001, he was a senior systems
engineer at Comspace Corporation, Coppell, TX. His research
interests include wireless communication and network design
and optimization.
Son Nguyen received the B.S. degree in computer science
and the M.S. degree in computer science from The University
of North Texas in 2001 and 2005, respectively. His research
interests include 3G wireless network design and optimization.
JOURNAL OF NETWORKS, VOL. 1, NO. 3, JULY 2006 49
© 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER

j=i g=1 (3) for i=1. 64. NO. Network throughput is determined in Section V.g vg κji.g vg + g=1 j=1. Thus Ii is given by own Ii = (1) where β = ln(10)/10. and Sg be the maximum signal power. where cef f = Sg vg nj. ri where N0 is the thermal noise density. This study assumes that both large scale path loss and shadow fading are compensated by the perfect power control mechanism.g − vg ≤ cef f . g=1 (8) Cj m rj (x. UMTS C APACITY A. (10) (g) for i=1. it becomes (g) Iji distribution is modeled with a 2-dimensional Gaussian function as follows [8] w(x. II. the energy per bit to total interference density at BS i for a service g is given by [9] Eb I0 = i.j=i g=1 nj.g κji. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. κji. y). y) m (x. G that satisfy (10).. g=1 (g) g N0 + W S∗ G G . nj.g . .g ) for all services g = 1.g e(βσs ) Aj 2 Cj m rj (x. Numerical results are presented for signal-to-interference thresholds from 5 dB to 10 dB and spreading factor values of 256. with perfect power control (PPC) between BSs and MSs. we describe our call admission control algorithm. which BS j services. Let κji.g . κji. (9) can be rewritten as G M G (9) where W is the bandwidth of the system.g −vg ni.. we have for every cell i in the UMTS network.j=i g=1 where M is the total number of cells in the network. In Section III. U SER AND I NTERFERENCE M ODEL This study assumes that each user is always communicating and is power controlled by the BS that has the highest received power at the user.. If the user distribution density can be approximated.g needs to be calculated only once. . Substituting (5) and (8) into (7).g using services g with activity factor vg and received signal Sg at BS j impose on BS i.g in BS i for a given service g needs to meet the following inequality constraints τg ≤ ∗ Sg Rg M inter The inter-cell interference density Iji from cell j to BS i from all services G becomes inter Iji = 1 W G Iji . Let Iji. σs is the standard deviation of the attenuation for the shadow fading. own Ii is the total intra-cell interference density caused by own all users in cell i. This user is power controlled by BS j in the cell or region Cj with area Aj . 16..g Sg Rg inter + I own − S v N0 + Ii g g i ..M .JOURNAL OF NETWORKS. y) and rj (x. y) Let τg be the minimum signal-to-noise ratio. and Rg is the inter bit rate for service g. and 4. Spreading factors are discussed in Section VI. y).. y) dA(x. 3. which must received at a BS to decode the signal of a user with ∗ service g. (3) can be rewritten as inter Iji 1 = W G Sg vg nj. − ∗ τg Sg /N0 (11) j=1. 2πσ1 σ2 (6) where η is a user density normalizing parameter. the number of users ni. . y) be the distance from a user to BS i and BS j. y) dA(x. Modifying the average inter-cell interference given by [7].M .. an approximation can be found for a wide range of user distributions ranging from uniform to hot-spot clusters.g vg κji.g . The user and interference models are presented in Section II.. nM.. These results are compared with simulations to determine the value of η experimentally. Let ri (x. the total inter-cell interference density all other cells to BS i is inter Ii 1 = W M G W Rg 1 Rg . 1.g κji. Capacity with Perfect Power Control In WCDMA. By specifying the means µ1 and µ2 and the standard deviations σ1 and σ2 of the distribution for every cell. we analyze capacity for perfect and imperfect power control. y) w(x. (7) = Sg vg nj.. (5) (g) Thus. III. n2.g . JULY 2006 41 plementation is simple and considers only a single cell for admitting a call. VOL. y) is the user distribution density at (x. respectively. y) w(x.g = e(βσs ) Aj 2 1 W G Sg vg ni. which the user can transmit.g be the per-user (with service g) relative inter-cell interference factor from cell j to BS i. and finally Section VIII concludes the paper... m is the path loss exponent. y) = 1 x−µ1 2 1 y−µ2 2 η e− 2 ( σ1 ) e− 2 ( σ2 ) .g be the average inter-cell interference that all users nj.. then. After rearranging terms. In Section IV. and w(x. g=1 inter Ii (4) from ni.g . Eq. y). Numerical results are presented in Section VII. The user © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER The maximized capacity in a UMTS network is defined as the maximum number of simultaneous users (n1. Ii was calculated in section II.g vg + g=1 j=1. (2) m ri (x..

g = i.g is constant for all i and g.  ∈ Ω .g (Eb )o. in the imperfect power control (IPC) case.g ρj.g the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i departs from the network. by evaluating the nth moment of i. a new dwell time that is independent of the previous dwell time begins immediately. µ.g (βσc )2 E = e 2 . nM..g = n ∈ Ω :  .g . λj.g = n∈Bi.G   .g )qji. NO.g using the fact that xi.g ’s for a service g. These models have ranged from general dwell times for calls to ones that have hyper-exponential and sub-exponential distributions. At the end of a dwell time a call may stay in the same cell. Thus.g x∈Aj νxj. IV. 3.g ’s and qij. We define i.g = 10log10 I0 to be a normally distributed random variable with mean mc and standard deviation σc .g . However. Let ρ be the matrix of offered traffic of service g to the cells.g = ν(Bj. Let νji.g be the handoff rate out of cell j offered to cell i for service g. transmitted signals between BSs and MSs are subject to multi-path b propagation conditions. n1. which was formulated in section III-A.1 ..g (Eb )i. VOL.g . throughput). n).g .g . and the departure rate from cell i when the network is in state n is ni. For example.. and let p(ρ. qji. The mobility model that we use is presented in [13] where a call stops occupying a cell either because user mobility has forced the call to be handed off to another cell. According to [4]. The call dwell © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER time is a random variable with exponential distribution having mean 1/µ.g and qij.g + x∈Aj νxj. Bi.g µ(1 − qii. JULY 2006 B. . The call arrival process with service g to cell i is assumed to be a Poisson process with rate λi. (14) Bi. where the total arrival rate or offered traffic for service g to cell i is ρi. (17) where ρj. is given by ρj. the constant value of (Eb )i. µ the matrix of departure rates.. then taking the expected value. I Denote by Ω the set of feasible states. 1. then the average dwell time of a call of the same service in the network will be constant regardless of where the call originates and what the values of qii. the total offered traffic to cell j for service g. Capacity with Imperfect Power Control The calculation of UMTS network capacity. (12) xi. we can obtain low and high mobility scenarios and compare the effect of mobility on network attributes (e.g.g I0 I0 As a result of (13).g (1 − Bj.g = ni. Define qii. Thus.g µi.g ...g )qji. (13) i.g in each cell i for every user with service g needs to be replaced by the variable (Eb )i.5 to 2. and it is independent of earlier arrival times. is given by p(ρ. such assumptions makes the problem mathematically intractable. then qij.g independent of other call arrival processes. which meet the E0 constraint.g )qji.g . however.g This is also the blocking probability of handoff calls due to the fact that handoff calls and new calls are treated in the same way by the network. If cells i and j are not adjacent. We assume that the occupancy of the cells evolves according to a birth-death process.g .   nM. it is blocked when the current state of the network. We denote by qi.g = λj. call durations and elapsed times of other users. assumes perfect power control between the BSs and MSs.g . B.g ..g (Eb )o. or because the call is completed. A set of calls n satisfying (10) is said to be in feasible call configuration or a feasible b state.. In this case. νji. UMTS C ALL A DMISSION C ONTROL A. Mobility Model There are several mobility models that have been discussed in the literature [10]–[12]. n) be the stationary probability that the network is in state n.42 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS.g . cef f (g) IP C becomes cef f / e (g) (βσc )2 2 . Thus νji.g .g + (1 − Bj. or leave the network. ρj. This mobility model is attractive because we can easily define different mobility scenarios by varying the values of these probability parameters [13]. we have (Eb )o.1 . The new call blocking probability for service g in cell i. Feasible States Recall from section III-A that the number of calls in every cell must satisfy (10). Define the set of blocking states for service g in cell i as     n1.g ) = (1 − Bj.g is the sum of the proportion of new calls of service g accepted in cell j that go to cell i and the proportion of handoff calls with service g accepted from cells adjacent to cell j that go to cell i.5 dB [4]. For the CAC problem that we are investigating here.G If a new connection or a handoff connection with the service g arrives to cell i.g = 0. (18) . (16) Equation (16) can be rewritten as νji.. n.g is Gaussian with mean mc and standard deviation σc . is in Bi. by varying qii..g ).g signals vary according to a log-normal distribution with a standard deviation on the order of 1.g = ρ(v. Aj ) = λj. (15) Bi.g are. which make the received Eo I i. if qi..g as the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i remains in cell i after completing its dwell time. µ. Let qij. which is log-normally distributed. attempt a handoff to an adjacent cell. Let Ai be the set of cells adjacent to cell i.g be the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i after completing its dwell time goes to cell j.

M. in all the numerical examples we solved. βg . the probability of each state in the feasible region needs to be calculated. λ).g } . (19) and the bit error rate requirement is guaranteed since Ω ⊂ Ω. B(Ai. JULY 2006 43 and where v denotes the matrix whose components are the handoff rates νij for i. The total offered traffic can be obtained from a fixed point model [14].. Calculation of N We formulate a constrained optimization problem in order to maximize the throughput subject to upper bounds on the blocking probabilities and a lower bound on the signal-to-interference constraints in (10).g Ak /k! i. The blocking probabilities are now calculated using the offered traffic. This is given in the following max N T (B..g − Bi.j=i g=1 (g) Nj.g /µ(1 − qii. VOL. j = 1. i. We define an initial value for the handoff rates. A call arriving to cell i with service g is accepted if and only if the new state is a feasible state. The goal is to optimize the utilization of network resources and provide consistent GoS while at the same time maintaining the QoS. Kelly has shown that for fixed alternate routing the solution to the fixed point problem is in fact not unique [21]. In this optimization problem the arrival rates are given and the maximum number of calls that can be admitted in all the cells are the independent variables.M . .e.g = B(Ai..g ! Ni. .. G M G subject to where Ni. which describes the offered traffic as a function of the handoff rates and new call arrival rates. We calculate the offered traffic by adding the given values of the arrival rates to the handoff rates. This approach has been extensively utilized in the literature to obtain solutions of fixed point problems [15]–[20]. We note that the complexity to calculate the blocking probabilities in (20) is O(M G). (22) N The optimization problem in (22) is solved offline to obtain the values of N. ρ. the iterative approach converged to a unique solution. Furthermore.g . The questions of existence and uniqueness of the solution and whether the iterative approach in fact converges to the solution (if a unique solution exists) are generally difficult to answer due to the complexity of the equations involved. . Ni.g vg κji. the CAC algorithm for cell i for service g will simply compare the number of calls with service g currently active in cell i to Ni. i. A. for all the users for different services g.. . G. we consider only those CAC algorithms which utilize local state.. C. Ni. © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER . V..g /Ni.g /µi. Thus our CAC algorithm is implemented with a computational complexity that is O(1).g in order to accept or reject a new arriving call. (20) B. Once the maximum number of calls with different service that are allowed to be admitted in each cell. 3. λ) = i=1 g=1 {λi.. to compute the blocking probabilities.g ) = i.. Hence the total throughput.. ρ.g vg + g=1 j=1.g ) ≤ βg .g k=0 where Ai = ρi. NO. In order to simplify the CAC algorithm. Clearly the set of admissible states denoted Ω is a subset of the set of feasible states Ω. Admissible States A CAC algorithm can be constructed as follows. is calculated (this is done offline and described in the next section). 1. and the blocking probabilities as a function of the offered traffic.g ρi..g = ρi. we use an iterative method to solve the fixed point equations..g ) is the Erlang traffic in cell i with service g. the number of calls in progress in all the cells of the network. The blocking probability for cell i with service g is then given by Bi.g is a parameter which denotes the maximum number of calls with service g allowed to be admitted in cell i. the number of calls in progress in the current cell. Clearly this CAC algorithm requires global state. T . the calculation of the blocking probabilities has a computational complexity that is exponential in the number of cells combined with number of available services.g for i = 1. the handoff rates as a function of the blocking probabilities and the offered traffic. Since the cardinality of Ω is O(cef f M G ). (21) where B is the vector of blocking probabilities and λ is the matrix of call arrival rates. We then calculate the new values of the handoff rates and repeat.JOURNAL OF NETWORKS. Maximization of Throughput A second optimization problem can be formulated in which the arrival rates and the maximum number of calls that can be admitted in all the cells are the independent Ni.g −vg ≤ cef f .. for i = 1. .g ≤ Ni.e. N ETWORK T HROUGHPUT The throughput of cell i consists of two components: the new calls that are accepted in cell i minus the forced termination due to handoff failure of the handoff calls into cell i for all services g. of the network is M G T (B. To this end we define a state n to be admissible if ni. N.g Ai. For a given set of arrival rates.g . M and g = 1.

which is the actual transmitted data rate. λ)... However. The use of OVSF codes allows the orthogonality and spreading factor (SF) to be changed between different spreading codes of different lengths. and Radio Frame Alignment. The data signal after spreading is then scrambled with a scrambling codes to separate MSs and BSs from each other. Usage variables and the objective function is the throughput. Uplink: 4-256 chips same as SF Downlink 4-512 chips same as SF Number of codes under one scrambling code = spreading factor Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Scrambling code Uplink: Separation of MSs Downlink: Separation of sectors (cells) Uplink: 10 ms = 38400 chips Downlink: 10 ms = 38400 chips Uplink: Several millions Downlink: 512 Long 10 ms code: Gold Code Short code: Extended S(2) code family No. The Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes. The COST-231 propagation model with a carrier frequency of 1800 MHz. Scrambling is used on top of spreading.g . average base station height of 30 meters and average mobile height Fig.g vg κji. 3.j=i g=1 (g) Nj. B(Ai. This is the network capacity for the given GoS and QoS.g ) ≤ βg . N T (B. (23) Spreading Yes. is dramatically increased due to the incorporated Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) information. VI. TABLE I F UNCTIONALITY OF THE CHANNELIZATION AND SCRAMBLING CODES . Fig. JULY 2006 Fig. This is given in the following max λ. 1. increases transmission bandwidth The optimized objective function of (23) provides an upper bound on the total throughput that the network can carry. the Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH).2 Kbps Uplink Reference channel. ρ.g Code family Channelization code Uplink: Separation of physical data (DPDCH) and control channels (DPCCH) from same MS Downlink: Separation of downlink connections to different MSs within one cell. . Rate Matching. Ni. were used to be channelization codes for UMTS. 4 shows the DPDCH data rate requirement for 64 Kbps data user. M.g vg + g=1 j=1.. VOL. thus it only makes the signals from different sources distinguishable from each other. S PREADING FACTOR Communication from a single source is separated by channelization codes.2 Kbps. Fig. 1 depicts the generation of different OVSF codes for different SF values. Fig. 3. Table II shows the approximation of the maximum user data rate with 1 2 rate coding for different values of DPDCH. 3 depicts the process of creating the actual transmitted signal for a voice user. 12. N UMERICAL R ESULTS The results shown are for a twenty-seven cell network topology used in [23]. NO. does not affect transmission bandwidth −vg ≤ cef f . VII. i. for i = 1. . Generation of OVSF codes for different Spreading Factors. G M G Length subject to Number of codes Ni. The typical required data rate or Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) for a voice user is 12.e. Relationship between spreading and scrambling. and the processes of Channel © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER Coding. Table I describes the different functionality of the channelization and the scrambling codes. 2 depicts the relationship between the spreading and scrambling process. Fig. 1. 2. which were originally introduced in [22]. Fig.44 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS.. [24]. the dedicated physical channel in the uplink and the downlink connections within one sector from one MS.

2-D Gaussian approximation of users uniformly distributed in the cells. Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 256. Because of IPC. 5 shows the 2-D Gaussian approximation of users uniformly distributed in the cells with σ1 = σ2 = 12000. B. we have to decrease the SIR threshold by 0. The shadow fading W standard deviation σs is 6 dB. 64. 16. and 24. 3. Fig. Fig. is used to determine the coverage region.56 slots when Eo = 7.5 I dB in PPC) as shown in Fig. Fig. VOL. A.02 dB. we set SF to 256. 6 shows the maximized average number of slots per sector for the 27 cells UMTS network b as the E0 is increased from 5 dB to 10 dB and the standard I deviation of imperfect power control is increased from 0 to 2. The network with different values for Eb I0 was analyzed for different SF values of 4. which is used to carry data for the control channel.08 dB for Spreading Factor equal to 4. to get the same average number of slots per sector as PPC. µ1 = µ2 = 0. Fig. TABLE II U PLINK DPDCH DATA RATES .5 meters. σ1 = σ2 = 12000. Fig.375. and 256. 12. © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER . Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 64. the number of slots per sector decreases by almost a factor of 4 compared to b SF equal 256 (from 60. Capacity Allocation with SF of 64 As a result of lowering the SF to 64. 64 Kbps Uplink Reference channel. and 256. 7. JULY 2006 45 Fig.58 to 15. 6. with 6 parallel codes DPDCH bit rate 15 Kbps 30 Kbps 60 Kbps 120 Kbps 240 Kbps 480 Kbps 960 Kbps 5740 Kbps 1 User data rate 2 rate coding 7.5 dB to 1.5 dB. Capacity Allocation with SF of 256 First.04 dB.JOURNAL OF NETWORKS. NO. The path loss coefficient m is 4. is 0.8 Mbps Fig. The UMTS network with 27 omnidirectional antenna cells (1 sector per cell) was analyzed for evaluation of capacity using user modeling with the 2-D Gaussian function and traditional methods of modeling uniform user distribution.5 Kbps 15 Kbps 30 Kbps 60 Kbps 120 Kbps 240 Kbps 480 Kbps 2. respectively. 18. 64. The activity factor. v. 16. The processing gain Rg is 6. of 1.06 dB. DPDCH Spreading Factor 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 4. 7.5 dB. 6 also shows that the traditional uniform user distribution modeling matches well with the 2-D Gaussian model. 5. 4. 1.

240 0.30 slots when Eo = 7. which is used for 256 kbps data communication between BSs and MSs.5 dB I in PPC) as shown in Fig.700 0. the number of slots per sector b decreases significantly to 1. The following set of results are for the calculation of throughput.700 Fig. regardless of where the call originates and mobility scenario used.3 and qi. Thus. . for each SF value. The low mobility case has an equalizing effect on traffic resulting in slightly higher throughput.5 dB I in PPC as shown in Fig.020 0. the probability that a call leaves the network after completing its dwell time is 0. Three mobility scenarios: no mobility. VOL.46 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS.7 for all cells i and j. qii.240 qi. Ai 3 4 5 6 qij. 3.240 0. 10 shows the optimized throughput per cell for a blocking probability from 1% to 10%. As a result of lowering the SF to 64. the average dwell time of a call in the network is constant.050 qii. Throughput Optimization with SF of 256 Fig.700 TABLE IV T HE HIGH MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS .015 0. qii. Table VI shows the optimized values of N for each cell for all three mobility cases and SF equal to 64.g = 0. qij.g 0. Table V shows the optimized values of N for each cell for all three mobility models with perfect power control and 2% blocking probability. we analyze the average throughput per cell by dividing the results from (23) by the total number of cells in the network and multiplying by the maximum data rate in Table II. The following parameters are used for the no mobility case: qij.060 0. Capacity Allocation with SF of 4 Next. which are adjacent to cell i. • • Ai is the number of cells. We assume that the mobility characteristics for a given service g stays the same throughout different cells in the network.g = 0.075 0.g is the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i after completing its dwell time goes to cell j.49 while keeping Eo = 7. D. which is used for voice communication as shown in Fig.7.010 qii. qi. mobility characteristics and parameters for the low and high mobility cases.g 0. Fig. 9.240 0. NO. 9. the number of possible concurrent connections within one cell is also decreased. The results for the average throughput for no mobility and high mobility cases are almost identical while the throughput for low mobility is higher for each blocking probability.012 0.g is the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i remains in cell i after completing its dwell time. 11. E.g 0.700 0. 8. we set SF to 4.1 0. and high mobility of users are considered.g 0 0 0 0 qi. In the numerical results below. C.700 0. the lower trunking efficiency leads to lower throughput as shown in Fig.g is the probability that a call with service g in progress in cell i departs from the network. As a result of lowering the SF to 4. Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 4. the number of slots per sector decreases by almost a factor of 4 compared to b SF equal 64 (from 15. In all three mobility scenarios. we set SF equal to 64. low mobility. F. Because the throughput is calculated based on the number of simultaneous connections between MSs and BSs. 8.g = 0.g 0.700 0. Throughput Optimization with SF of 64 Next. 1. which is used to carry data for the control channel. 3. we set SF equal to 256.g 0. Capacity Allocation with SF of 16 As a result of lowering the SF to 16. Tables III and IV show respectively the © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER First. Average number of slot per sector for perfect and imperfect power control analysis with a Spreading Factor of 16.56 to 4.700 0. JULY 2006 TABLE III T HE LOW MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS .700 0. Ai 3 4 5 6 • • qij.

40 71.85 53.84 51.32 13. C ONCLUSIONS An analytical model has been presented for calculating capacity in multi-cell UMTS networks.JOURNAL OF NETWORKS.85 High Mobility Ni 13.84 71.86 18.83 71. 10.40 Low Mobility Ni 52. the average slots per © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER sector decreases significantly to 1.85 18.85 18.00 50.5 dB due to the imperfect power control.03 16.43 71.73 62.84 53.11 16.00 50.86 53.11 13. JULY 2006 47 Fig.30.11 13.43 71.26 16.85 51.86 13.45 18.32 13.27 62.86 18.83 71.03 13.32 13.95 51.25 16.29 62.86 13.73 62.58 13.82 73.95 51.74 73.73 62.62 13.86 13.02.32 13.95 51.73 53.43 73.71 63.73 50.25 16.86 13.73 50. Table VII shows the optimized values of N for each cell for all three mobility cases with SF equal to 16.43 73. VIII.84 51.26 16. which is normally used for 256 Kbps data communication between BSs and MSs.46 18.61 13.32 13.45 18. is much lower compared to the case with SF equal to 64 or 256. No Mobility Ni 52.74 73.73 50. we set SF equal to 4. 13.11 16.27 62. 1.74 63.45 18.32 13.86 73.45 18. H.71 63. which is used for 64 Kbps data communication as shown in Fig.11 16.02.40 High Mobility Ni 52.73 53.03 16.95 51.58 13.45 18.86 53.95 51. as shown in Fig. VOL. the average number of slots within one cell decreases to 4. NO.86 73.62 13.25 16.01 50.40 TABLE VI C ALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF = 64 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0.58 13.27 62.5 dB as shown in Fig.74 63.29 62. The resulting throughput.45 18. TABLE V Fig.71 50. 4.40 71. Numerical results show that the SIR threshold for the received signals is decreased by 0.85 53.49 with perfect power b control and E0 = 7. 3.11 16.26 16.11 13.46 18.45 18.61 13.74 73.82 73.45 18. 9.85 53.00 50. The .85 18.84 53.95 51.83 71.03 16.73 62.03 18.03 18.46 18.84 53.01 50.86 13.32 13.86 18. Throughput Optimization with SF of 4 Next.32 13. 12.86 18.03 16.03 16.5 to 1.86 13. we set SF equal to 16.32 13.61 13. No Mobility Ni 13.32 13.84 51.85 51.11 13.84 71. 11.86 18.03 13.73 62. As a result of lowering the SF to 4.73 53. C ALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF = 256 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0.40 71.11 16.84 71.11 13.03 16. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 64.73 62.86 53.43 71.85 Cell ID Cell1 Cell2 Cell3 Cell4 Cell5 Cell6 Cell7 Cell8 Cell9 Cell10 Cell11 Cell12 Cell13 Cell14 Cell15 Cell16 Cell17 Cell18 Cell19 Cell20 Cell21 Cell22 Cell23 Cell24 Cell25 Cell26 Cell27 Cell ID Cell1 Cell2 Cell3 Cell4 Cell5 Cell6 Cell7 Cell8 Cell9 Cell10 Cell11 Cell12 Cell13 Cell14 Cell15 Cell16 Cell17 Cell18 Cell19 Cell20 Cell21 Cell22 Cell23 Cell24 Cell25 Cell26 Cell27 G. The average throughput for all three mobility cases are almost identical as shown in Fig.32 13.43 73.86 18.01 50.86 73. As a result of lowering the SF to 16.85 51.03 18.62 13.11 16.85 Low Mobility Ni 13.03 13. we can have many low rate voice users or fewer data users as the data rate increases.74 63. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 256.29 62.11 13. As expected. Table VII I shows the optimized values of N for each cell for all three mobility models with SF equal to 4.71 50.82 73.71 63.32 13.45 18.71 50. Throughput Optimization with SF of 16 Next.

75 3.55 1.58 0.92 1.92 1. July 2004.77 3.60 5.53 1. Yue. JULY 2006 Fig.45 3.32 1.23 1.21 Low Mobility Ni 3. 1995.10 5.50 4.83 1.55 1.60 3.22 5.46 4. Numerical results show that as the spreading factor increases. low.80 1.27 1.93 1. 2730 – 2734.83 High Mobility Ni 1.60 4.79 1.49 4.21 5.10 5.16 1.37 0.10 5.10 5.49 4.60 4.. May 2001. Veh.83 1.76 3. Zhang and O. Our methods for maximizing capacity and implementing the CAC algorithm are fast.46 3. 13.79 1.27 1.54 1. 1.68 3.50 4. No Mobility Ni 3. vol.54 1.59 1.10 5.22 5.68 3. 490–494.59 0. 12. pp.68 3.” IEEE Veh.46 4.46 4.28 1.82 1.79 1. pp.46 3.30 0. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 16.82 1.94 1. [6] J.94 0.48 1.27 1.50 4.60 3. [5] Q.68 3. vol. the optimized throughput is better.32 1.. vol.28 1.10 5. TABLE VII Fig.45 4. CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication. “UMTS air interface voice/data capacitypart 1: reverse link analysis.28 1.92 Low Mobility Ni 1. © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER . Pedersen.82 Cell ID Cell1 Cell2 Cell3 Cell4 Cell5 Cell6 Cell7 Cell8 Cell9 Cell10 Cell11 Cell12 Cell13 Cell14 Cell15 Cell16 Cell17 Cell18 Cell19 Cell20 Cell21 Cell22 Cell23 Cell24 Cell25 Cell26 Cell27 Cell ID Cell1 Cell2 Cell3 Cell4 Cell5 Cell6 Cell7 Cell8 Cell9 Cell10 Cell11 Cell12 Cell13 Cell14 Cell15 Cell16 Cell17 Cell18 Cell19 Cell20 Cell21 Cell22 Cell23 Cell24 Cell25 Cell26 Cell27 results also show that the determined parameters of the 2-dimensional Gaussian model matches well with traditional methods for modeling uniform user distribution.60 4.cdg.93 1.. Conf. and P.83 3. An analytical model was also presented for CAC algorithm for optimizing the throughput in multi-cell UMTS networks.10 5. 4. Mogensen. and can be implemented for large multi-cell UMTS networks.80 1.58 1.75 3.54 1.21 High Mobility Ni 3. J.49 4.82 1. [2] T. Zhang.32 1. Technol. 2725 – 2729. Technol. Technol.94 0.75 3.53 1.32 1. Conf. “Comparison of multiple access schemes for UMTS. May 1997. Viterbi. “Capacity gain of an uplink-synchronous WCDMA system under channelization code constraints.” IEEE Veh. vol. [7] R. [4] A.45 3. Ojanpera.48 JOURNAL OF NETWORKS. Hegde.23 1. Technol.59 0. May 2001.48 1. Addison-Wesley.80 1. Conf.68 3.22 5.21 5.53 1.68 3.76 1.10 5.58 0.60 4. 50.” IEEE Veh. “CDG : Worldwide : CDMA World- wide. M.22 5.24 1.68 3.93 0. Castro.30 1.76 1.45 3.83 3.45 4.30 1. VOL. Technol.60 4. pp.83 3.02.asp?h area=0.83 3.” IEEE Trans. No Mobility Ni 1.76 1. pp. Akl.53 1.10 5.76 3. pp. 982 – 991. May 2001. Skold. no.59 1. 2.10 5.org/worldwide/index.02.60 4.32 1.21 C ALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF = 4 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0. and high mobility).42 1.77 3.30 1.10 5.68 3. and A. “Multi-cell CDMA network design. 3. Average throughput in each cell for SF = 4.93 1. K. Carnero.68 3.42 1. [3] Q. Naraghi-Pour. Girard.58 1.77 3. 53. R EFERENCES [1] CDMA Development Group.23 1.68 3.93 1.83 3.83 1. 711–722. TABLE VIII C ALCULATION OF N FOR UNIFORM USER DISTRIBUTION WITH SF = 16 AND BLOCKING PROBABILITY = 0.27 1. J. accurate.83 3.54 1.79 1.94 1. Klein. Conf. M.46 3.76 1. due to the trunking efficiency for all three mobility models (no.60 3.22 5. “UMTS air interface voice/data capacity-part 2: forward link analysis.22 5..60 5..60 5.76 3. NO.68 3. 3.45 4.80 1. and P.37 0.92 1. vol. L.68 3. 4.21 5.10 5.” http://www.28 1.24 1.93 1. Min.” IEEE Veh.

Kelly. S. and the B. and M.. Naraghi-Pour. Vargas-Rosales. 473–505. June 1998. pp. pp. July 2004. [22] A. K. Vargas. Istratescu. B. I. 3. and P. respectively. Ersoy. Nguyen and R.” Advances in Applied Probability. Lin. Rappaport. Reidel. J.” J. [23] R. Orlik and S. “Routing in circuit-switched network: Optimization. “Application of a realistic mobility model to call admissions in DS-CDMA cellular systems. NO. pp. His research interests include wireless communication and network design and optimization. Akl is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of North Texas. respectively. 323–337. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He also received the Dual Degree Engineering Outstanding Senior Award from Washington University in 1993... 5. Conf. M. 1996.” IEEE Veh. Technol. Heck. in 1994. 147–157. Naraghi-Pour..Wireless Networks. pp.S. 20. F. Hegde. He is a senior member of IEEE. vol. 2001. “Blocking effects of mobility and reservations in wireless networks.” Ph. Son Nguyen received the B. “Modeling PCS networks under general call holding time and cell residence time distributions. M. 33.-B. Staehle. [13] C.S. 404–408. 1996. Akl. Department of Computer Science and Engineering. [14] V. on Comput. [9] D. 2. 1047–1051. © 2006 ACADEMY PUBLISHER . 1. Commun. vol. degree in computer science from The University of North Texas in 2001 and 2005. 893–906. Mitra. Louis.” IEEE Veh. Ramakrishnan. 1612–1616. Leibnitz. and M. Tran-Gia.JOURNAL OF NETWORKS. Lett. 27–28. Technol. 639–651. Akl. 904–908. K.. vol.” IEEE Trans. 4. May 1998. Schroder. vol.” IEEE Veh. 18. M. [10] T. he was an Assistant Professor at the University of New Orleans. and M.” IEEE/ACM Trans. “Implied costs for multi-rate wireless networks. 1640–1644. June 1999. “ATM network design and optimization: a multirate loss network framework. 1763–1767. Hegde. July 2005. Kelly. 3. Conf. pp. Conf. [17] D. 531–543. vol.S.” Advances in Applied Probability. “Approximating the othercell interference distribution in inhomogenous UMTS networks. pp. In 2002. M. January 1997. Tugcu and C. 1988. Akl and A. Morrison. May 2004. 3. Naraghi-Pour.. Hegde.. Coppell.” Proceedings of International Conf. vol. vol. degrees in electrical engineering in 1994. on Commun. M. on Networking. Veh. vol. “Effects of call arrival rate and mobility on network throughput in multi-cell CDMA. degree in computer science and the M. pp. “Approximating user distributions in WCDMA networks using 2-D Gaussian.. March 2005.. and Control Technol. pp. Technol. Akl. vol. Technologies and Applications. Fixed Point Theory : An Introduction. From October 2000 to December 2001. vol..Sc. vol. [19] ——. M. TX. vol. “Implied costs in wireless networks. pp. 7. 2. [20] C. pp.” IEEE International Conf.” Electr. August 1996. Parvez. 4. 4. Louisiana State University.S.D. K. vol. and P. and O. [21] F. pp. Chlamtac. Technol. and Y. pp. 1981. 3.. 1986. vol. [18] C. shadow prices and decentralization. “Tree-structured generation of orthogonal spreading codes with different lengths for forward link of DSCDMA mobile radio. 54.” Proceedings of SCI 04: Communication and Network Systems. 1997. “Impact of interference model on capacity in CDMA cellular networks. 10. VOL. Vargas. May 2002. and K. JULY 2006 49 [8] S. pp. he was a senior systems engineer at Comspace Corporation. and 2000. Weller. Fang. His research interests include 3G wireless network design and optimization. and D. “Mobility-based CAC algorithm for arbitrary traffic distribution in CDMA cellular systems. no.” IEEE International Conf. dissertation.S.” Wireless Networks.. Dr. D. [12] Y. “Communication network design and evaluation using shadow prices. “Blocking probabilities in large circuit switched networks. “On the handoff arrival process in cellular communications. Robert Akl received the B. [15] R. Spring 2001. [24] R. [11] P.. degree in computer science from Washington University in St. pp. A. Hegde. on Commun. on Networking. 112–144..” IEEE/ACM Trans. Min. [16] F.

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