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Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Ans:The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems.
The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new nowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries research, between which them develops may solutions to be a fuzzy): problem Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: 1) Primary research 2) Secondary research In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers. Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee "more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share.
Q 2. a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. Ans:The central purpose is to formulate hypotheses regarding potential problems and opportunities present in the decision situation. The hypotheses can be tested at a later phase with a conclusive research design (Leinhardt and Leinhardt, 1980). Exploratory research design applies when the research objectives include the following: a. identifying problems (threats or opportunities) b. developing a more precise formulation of a vaguely identified problem(threat or opportunity) c. gaining perspective regarding the breath of variables operating in a situation
3 d. establishing priorities regarding the potential significance of various problems (threats or opportunities) e. gaining management and researcher perspective concerning the character of the problem situation f. identifying and formulating alternative courses of action; and g. gathering information on the problems associated with doing conclusive research. h. identification of problems (threats or opportunities) can be assisted through the following: i) Searching secondary sources ii) Interviewing knowledgeable persons iii) Compiling case histories.
Q 2 b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Ans:Independent Variable: A variable that you believe might influence your outcome measure. This might be a variable that you control, like a treatment, or a variable not under your control, like an exposure. It also might represent a demographic factor like age or gender. Contrast this with the definition of the dependent variable. An independent variable is a hypothesized cause or influence on a dependent variable. One way to distinguish these variables is to ask yourself what you are want to learn from this research. The dependent variable is a variable you are trying to predict. Any variable that you are using to make those predictions is an independent variable. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular
4 disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the independent variables were:
• • •
percentage of total fat in the diet, percentage of saturated fat, and the percentage of monounsaturated fat.
Dependent variable: In a research study, the variable that you believe might be influenced or modified by some treatment or exposure. It may also represent the variable you are trying to predict. Contrast this with the definition of an independent variable. Sometimes the dependent variable is called the outcome variable. This definition depends on the context of the study. In a study of prenatal care, the birthweight is an outcome or dependent variable, but in neonatology, it is more likely to be an independent variable. A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption and the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (1966-1969) and who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the dependent variable was:
incidence of ischemic stroke.
Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For eg, if a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school
Ans: Difference between Census and Sampling Practically every country in the world conducts censuses and sampling surveys on a regular basis in order to get valuable data from and about their populations. variable variable completely and any influences other the change in the or extraneous variable Q 3. Therefore. and educational issues. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former is the dependent variable. as well as scope. These two . since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. In this context. housing. This data is used by the federal and state governments in making numerous decisions with regard to various health care. However. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’.5 performance and their self-concepts. they have a number of differences with regard to approach and methodology. intelligence may also influence the school performance. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an ‘experimental error’. While both these two data-gathering methods essentially serve the same purpose. a. among others. it would be known as extraneous variable. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent independent variables.
In addition. Cost And Timetable A census can be quite expensive to conduct. . there is a possibility of sampling variance. A sample survey on the other hand commonly involves gathering data from only a certain section of a particular group.6 methods may also differ in terms of the variance in the data gathered. For instance. anyone who does not complete a census form will be visited by a government representative who’s only job to is to gather census data. particularly for large populations. In addition. In most cases. The huge scope of a census also makes it harder to maintain control of the quality of the data. as you will see later. Sampling Variance The main advantage of a census is a virtually zero sampling variance. Adding considerably to the timetable is the necessity of gathering data from every single member of the population. sex and language among others. This makes sampling a much less accurate form of data collection than a census. since the data used is drawn from only a small section of the population. more precise detail can generally be gathered about smaller groups of the population. they are also a lot more timeconsuming than sample surveys. Scope A census involves the gathering of information from every person in a certain group. This may include information on age. mainly because the data used is drawn from the whole population. As for sampling. the sample may be too small to provide an accurate picture of the population.
sample surveys generally take a much shorter time to conduct. there is no sampling variance Provides detailed information about smaller groups Can be quite costly. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. since data is gathered from a much smaller group of people. b.7 A sample survey for its part costs quite a bit less than a census. In addition. since the data is derived from only a small section of a population May not provide enough information about smaller groups or smaller geographical sections of a place Costs much less than a census. This also means reduced requirements for respondents. particularly for large populations. due to census tally workers as well as hiring temporary census home visitors Includes an uncomfortable visit from a government worker if the census is not filled out on time • • • Sampling • • Gathers information from only a section of the population May have a significant degree of sample variance. Ans:- . Summary Census • • Gathers information from every individual in a certain group Since data from the entire population is used. which in turn leads to better data monitoring and quality control. again given the smaller scope. since data is gathered from only a small section of a group • • Q 3.
and blocks are chosen from within each selected collection district (second stage). In some cases.8 Multistage sampling Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling. Although cluster sampling and stratified sampling bear some superficial similarities. a random sample is drawn from all the strata. either in single stage or multi stage. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters. In stratified sampling. Sequential sampling . household surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics begin by dividing metropolitan regions into 'collection districts'. and selecting some of these collection districts (first stage). Next. several levels of cluster selection may be applied before the final sample elements are reached. The selected collection districts are then divided into blocks. Under these circumstances. In remote areas. and some of these dwellings are selected (third stage). Constructing the clusters is the first stage. where in cluster sampling only the selected clusters are studied. the researcher randomly selects elements from each cluster. only for selected blocks. This method means that it is not necessary to create a list of every dwelling in the region. they are substantially different. Using all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensive or not necessary. Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist and is inappropriate. For example. in order to reduce travel requirements. dwellings are listed within each selected block. an additional stage of clustering is used. multistage cluster sampling becomes useful.
List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Ans:Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the . This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. example. Number of touchdown passes. The table. conducts his study. The symbol m is used for the mean of a population. analyzes the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on.9 Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. Q 4. The formula for m is shown below: where ΣX is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the As an sample and N is the number of numbers in the sample. the mean of the numbers regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the population. The symbol M is used for the mean of a sample. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers.
Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometic mean). For the data in the table. Median The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. there are 31 scores.10 National Football League in the 2000 season. or some other mean. if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. . The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. it is by far the most commonly used. The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile. Number of touchdown passes. the geometic mean. Therefore.4516 as shown below. The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same numbers of scores are above the median as below it.
Thus. When there is an even number of numbers. and 7 is 4. the median is simply the middle number. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. the median is 4. For this dataset. the median is 2. 4. the same as your score. For example. For Dataset 1. the median is three. the median of 2.11 Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown in Table 2. the median of the numbers Mode . your score is below the median. For Dataset 2. This means you are in the lower half of the class. your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers. Therefore. Finally for Dataset 3.
Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. Number of touchdown passes.5. the mode is the middle of that interval (650). The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700.For the data in the table. Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution.12 The mode is the most frequently occuring value. the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. Q. Ans: Primary Sources of Data . With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same.
Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. census reports. sales reports. brand preference.. compared to gathering information from available sources 2 Data collection is a time consuming process 3 It requires trained interviewers and investigators 2 Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data. Bank trade of India. e. . minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are – 1 It is expensive to collect.g. experiments and observation. reports of government departments). Secondary sources may be internal sources. financial statements. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose. from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. such as annual reports. World Bank and International Monetary and financial journals. published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Fund.13 Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. trade organizations such as the UN.g. publications of international etc. They may also be external sources. such as government agencies (e. in the form of a marketing information system. The advantages of primary data are – 1 It is unique to a particular research study 2 It is recent information. and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior. for the purposes of the project immediately at hand. inventory records.).
for several types of social science research.14 associations (e. attitudinal surveys. inadequate or obsolete. audits and panels. A survey involves the following steps - . farm management studies. viewing surveys. 1 Survey Research A survey is a fact-finding study. It is a field study.V. opinion polls. leadership studies. 2 It seeks responses directly from the respondents. There are various methods of primary data collection. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. observation and experiments. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. A survey has certain characteristics: 1 It is always conducted in a natural setting. Methods of Data Collection: The researcher directly collects primary data from its original sources. required data is not available from secondary sources and it has to be directly gathered from the primary sources. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. radio listening and T. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample at a particular time. business management studies etc. Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information). 4 It may include an extensive study or an intensive study 5 It covers a definite geographical area.g. marketing research. including surveys. the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs and he can collect them when he wants and in the form that he needs it. Yet. In this case. 3 It can cover a very large population. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. It includes: socio economic surveys. Primary data has to be gathered in cases where the available data is inappropriate.
which include: 1 Personal interview 2 Telephone interview 3 Mail survey and 4 Fax survey Personal Interview Personal interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. facial expressions and pauses. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. and his environment. attitudes. It may be defined as a two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. values. from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. Where the area covered . Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required. but also learning from the respondent’s gestures. beliefs. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. experiences and future intentions. It involves not only conversation. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data.15 1 Selection of a problem and its formulation 2 Preparation of the research design 3 Operation concepts and construction of measuring indexes and scales 4 Sampling 5 Construction of tools for data collection 6 Field work and collection of data 7 Processing of data and tabulation 8 Analysis of data 9 Reporting There are four basic survey methods.
It permits the investigator to seek clarifications and brings to the forefront those questions. viz. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. even confidential information may be obtained. personal interview is feasible. investigator has to get himself/herself introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner. People are usually more willing to talk than to write.. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. It has a fixed beginning and termination points. which for some reason or the other the respondents do not want to answer. They are: 1. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. . The interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally. 3. The participants – – are the interviewer and the the respondent strangers. because the interview can also be conducted over the telephone. Once rapport is established. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. hence. but a conversation with a specific purpose. The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. The interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-toface basis. 2. momentary experience for them. obtaining information relevant to a study. 5. The interview proper is a fleeting.16 for the survey is compact. 4.
business houses. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. The respondent reacts to the interviewer’s appearance. it is rather a flexible. It will be useful in the following situations: 11. psychological process. facial expression and intonation. gestures. 7. 9. between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each . It may be used as a major method or as a supplementary method. such as family members. This poses a problem 10. of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation.g. Interviewing is not a standardized process like that of a chemical technician. or a group of children. The investigator records information furnished by the respondent in the interview. It can also be conducted with a group of persons. 8. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. doctors and other professionals. business persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. depending on the requirements of the study. 3 Telephone Interviewing Telephone interviewing is a nonpersonal method of data collection. The interview is an interactive process. it need not be limited to a single respondent. As far as possible. or a group of customers. executives.17 6. Although the interview is usually a conversation between two persons. behavior. The interaction other. When the universe is composed of those e.
with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern. provided the units of study are listed in the telephone directory. When the study requires responses to five or six simple questions. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. At the same time. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study.18 12. When the survey must be conducted in a very short period of time. 15. the flow of information is multi dimensional. In a personal interview. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes. Samples for group interviews can be obtained through schools. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. intentions and opinions among individuals in the group. When the respondents are widely scattered and when there are many call backs to make.g. 4 Group Interviews A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. e. The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. a radio or television program survey.g. 13. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. beliefs. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. In particular. clubs and other organized groups. by the concerned professional . a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. a survey relating to a profession conducted association. e. 14.
The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only. conversation between investigator and Communication is carried out only in writing and this requires more cooperation from the respondents than verbal communication. The following procedures should be followed – a covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire.19 5 Mail Survey The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. Anonymity must be assured. 1 After a few days from the date of mailing the questionnaires to the respondents. as in the case of personal interview method. A self-addressed stamped envelope should be enclosed in the covering letter. so that it could be completed within a few minutes. when such information may bias the result. the researcher can expect the return of completed ones from them. However. In this case. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them and not by the investigator. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project. the It does not involve the face-to-face respondent. It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice questions. it is not desirable to reveal it. a disguised organization name may be used. The sponsor’s identity may be revealed. follow-up efforts can be made. . The progress in return may be watched and at the appropriate stage. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents. by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post.
Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. Incentives: Money. For example. a sample of 1500 may be drawn. so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. They are: 11. if the required sample size is 1000. a. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow-up efforts. Covering letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style. 33. or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return the mail questionnaire. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. 22. 66. It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. 44. Advance information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call. 7 Q 6. or by a letter. they may be approached through someone in that organization known as the researcher.20 The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low in developing countries like India. 55. Quality printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed on quality light colored paper. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? Ans:- . It is desirable to address the respondent by name. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. so as to attract the attention of the respondent.
broken line. an edge (x. such as the successive changes in a variable quantity quantities. A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of ordered pairs. variations and trends in data can be showed clearly and they show how the values of particular variables change over time. They are useful in presentations also because they can summarize large amounts of data and can convey the basic idea of the research. . called edges or arcs. Graphs also help in determining the relationship between variables. representing or various kinds of quantitative information and relationships. Graphs really help the audience in absorbing the data as they are simple to interpret and are appealing. Graphs play a very important role during presentations because they make the data easier to understand and interpretations and comparisons can be made quickly.y) is said to point or go from x to y. By using graphs.21 Roles of Graphs Graph is a diagram. of certain entities called nodes or vertices. Pie Charts. or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references. or series of bars. Line graphs and Scatter diagrams. A graph is an abstract data structure that is meant to implement the graph and hypergraph concepts from mathematics. The graphs which are most commonly used in visual aids are Bar graphs. As in mathematics. as a curve. The nodes may be part of the graph structure.
6. Q. length. capacity. The guide progresses by introducing each of the main constructs of the Role Activity Diagram. The guide will show you that Role Activity Diagrams are a reasonably simple diagramming technique. such as a symbolic label or a numeric attribute (cost. In addition to these syntactic skills. etc. and as they might be in the future.). This guide tells you how to draw Role Activity Diagrams.22 A graph data structure may also associate to each edge some edge value. Role Activity Diagrams (RADs) are a useful way of describing processes. This experience will teach how Role Activity Diagrams can best be used. the creation of Role Activity Diagrams relies upon an ability to scope a study. This is syntactic guidance. and what they are most useful for. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? . This is where the real skill of using Role Activity Diagrams comes in but such issues are addressed only partially in this report. The main part of the SPRINT BPR Methodology describes the ways in which Role Activity Diagrams can be used within a broader change project. It describes these in turn. They are valuable in documenting processes as they are now. It is not difficult to learn how to draw them and it is not difficult for most people to interpret them. Roles of Diagrams Diagram is a graphic representation of an algebraic or geometric relationship. In reality the reader will rely upon experience gained through using Role Activity Diagrams in projects. b. giving advice about the drawing conventions. to decide on the level of interest and to determine the boundaries of each role in a diagram.
. They are necessary: If the information is presented in tabular form or in a descriptive record. It presents characteristics in a simplified way. etc. occupational structure. distribution and the density. The graphic method of the representation of data enhances our understanding. are used to represent large volume of data. it becomes difficult to draw results. For example.” The need of representing data graphically: Graphics. General Rules for Drawing Graphs. sex ratio. Graphical form makes it possible to easily draw visual impressions of data. such methods create an imprint on mind for a longer time. It makes the comparisons easy.23 Ans:REPRESENTATION OF DATA Besides the tabular form. “The transformation of data through visual methods like graphs. Selection of a Suitable Graphical Method Each characteristic of the data can only be suitably represented by an appropriate graphical method. It is a time consuming task to draw inferences about whatever is being presented in non–graphical form. Besides. maps and charts is called representation of data. age–sex composition. These makes it easy to understand the patterns of population growth. the data may also be presented in some graphic or diagrammatic form. such as maps. graphs and diagrams. Diagrams and Maps 1. diagrams.
shades. The population density can be shown by choropleth maps. A legend is shown either at the lower left or lower right side of the map sheet. both human and livestock. These are written with different font sizes and thickness. Direction the maps should show the direction North and properly placed on the top. The scale should neither be too large nor too small. 2. Design The diagram or map should have following design: Title: The title of the diagram/map must be clear and include o The name of the area. Types of Diagrams . S 3. subtitle and the corresponding year is shown in the centre at the top of the map/diagram. The title. The scale must cover the entire data that is to be represented. The population distribution. symbols and signs used in the map and diagram. Thus. Similarly.24 To show the data related to the temperature or growth of population between different periods in time line graph are used. o Reference year of the data used and o The caption of the diagram. it is necessary and important to select suitable graphical method to represent data. Selection of Suitable Scale Each diagram or map is drawn to a scale which is used to measure the data. bar diagrams are used for showing rainfall or the production of commodities. Legend or Index: The index must clearly explain the colours. or the distribution of the crop producing areas are shown by dot maps.
pyramid. histogram. Construction of a Line Graph 1st step: Round the data to be shown upto the 1 digit of even numbers. (iii) Three-dimensional diagrams such as cube and spherical diagrams. age. 4th step: Plot the data to depict year/month-wise values according to the selected scale on Y-axis. poly graph. mark the location of the plotted values by a dot and join these dots by a free hand drawn line. sex. birth rates and the death rates. population growth.25 The diagrams and the maps is of following types: (i) One-dimensional diagrams such as line graph. bar diagram. 3rd step: Choose an appropriate scale to show data and label it on Y-axis. (ii) Two-dimensional diagram such as pie diagram and rectangular diagram. . etc. Mark the time series variables (years/months) on the X axis and the data quantity/value to be plotted on Y axis. 2nd step: Draw X and Y-axis. rainfall. The most commonly drawn diagrams and maps are: • Line graphs • Bar diagrams • Pie diagram • Wind rose and star diagram • Flow Charts 1. If the data involves a negative figure then the selected scale should also show it. Line Graph The line graphs are usually drawn to represent the time series data related to the temperature..
☞ Example variables.26 ☞ Example 1: Construct a line graph to represent the data 2. All steps of construction of polygraph are similar to that of line graph. Sex ratio in different states or countries in one diagram. Polygraph Polygraph is a line graph in which two or more than two variables are shown on a same diagram by different lines. Examples which can be shown as polygraph are: The growth rate of different crops like rice.Construction of a Polygraph. The birth rates. 2: Construct a polygraph to compare the . death rates and life expectancy in one diagram. But different lines are drawn to indicate different variables. pulses in one diagram. wheat. It helps in comparing the data.
It is advisable to arrange the given data set in an ascending or descending order and plot the data variables . Following rules were observed while constructing a bar diagram: (a) The width of all the bars or columns is similar. (b) All the bars should are placed on equal intervals/distance. (c) Bars are shaded with colours or patterns to make them distinct and attractive. The bar diagrams are drawn through columns of equal width. Bar Diagram It is also called a columnar diagram. Three types of bar diagrams are used to represent different data sets: The simple bar diagram Compound bar diagram Polybar diagram. Simple Bar Diagram A simple bar diagram is constructed for an immediate comparison.27 3.
The actual values will be plotted according to the selected scale. Take an interval and mark it on Y-axis to plot data. Divide X-axis into equal parts to draw bars. Line and Bar Graph The line and bar graphs as drawn separately may also be combined to depict the data related to some of the closely associated characteristics such as the climatic data of mean monthly temperatures and rainfall. 4. time series data are represented according to the sequencing of the time period. However.28 accordingly. . Construction Steps: Draw X and Y-axes on a graph paper. ☞ Example 3: Construct a simple bar diagram. ☞ Example 4: Construct a Line and bar Graph.
5. a multiple bar diagram may be constructed to show proportion of males and females in the total. (c) Similarly. rural and urban population or the share of canal. . (d) Plot data using line graph and columnar diagram. select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Yaxis and label at its left side. Multiple Bar Diagram Multiple bar diagrams are constructed to represent two or more than two variables for the purpose of comparison. (b) Select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label it at its right side. tube well and well irrigation in the total irrigated area in different states.29 Construction: (a) Draw X and Y-axes of a suitable length and divide X-axis into parts to show months in a year. For example.
Compound Bar Diagram When different components are grouped in one set of variable or different variables of one component are put together. .30 (a) Mark time series data on X-axis and variable data on Y-axis as per the selected scale. (b) Plot the data in closed columns. different variables are shown in a single bar with different rectangles. 6. their representation is made by a compound bar diagram. In this method. ☞ Example 5: Construct a Multiple bar Diagram.
☞ Example 6: Construct a Compound Bar Diagram. (b) A single bar will depict the set of variables by dividing the total length of the bar as per percentage. . it is also called as Divided Circle Diagram. The angle of each variable is calculated using the following formulae. Hence. It is drawn to depict the total value of the given attribute using a circle. 7. Pie Diagram Pie diagram is another graphical method of the representation of data.31 Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. Dividing the circle into corresponding degrees of angle then represent the sub– sets of the data.
i.6 as derived by dividing the total number of degrees in a circle by 100. . A radius of 3. (b) Calculate the degrees of angles for showing the given values (b) It could be done by multiplying percentage with a constant of 3. Calculation of Angles (a) Arrange the data on percentages in an ascending order. (c) Plot the data by dividing the circle into the required number of divisions to show the share different regions/countries Construction (a) Select a suitable radius for the circle to be drawn.32 If data is given in percentage form. 360/100. the angles are calculated using the given formulae. 4 or 5 cm may be chosen for the given data set. e.
Requirements for the Preparation of a Flow Map: (a) A route map depicting the desired transport routes along with the connecting stations. which shows number of passengers. The number and frequency of the vehicles as per the direction of their movement 2. (b) Starting with bigger angle will lead to accumulation of error leading to the plot of the smaller angle difficult. It is drawn to show the flow of commodities or people between the places of origin and destination. sub – title. Transport map. is the best example of a flow chart. (c) Measure the angles from the arc of the circle for each category of vehicles in an ascending order clock-wise.. etc. These charts are drawn using lines of proportional width. vehicles. starting with smaller angle. (d) Complete the diagram by adding the title. Many government agencies prepare flow maps to show density of the means of transportation on different routes. Precautions (a) The circle should neither be too big to fit in the space nor too small to be illegible. 8. and the legend. The flow maps/ charts are generally drawn to represent two the types of data as given below: 1. ☞ Example 7: Construct a Pie Diagram. The number of the passengers and/or the quantity of goods transported. Flow Maps/Chart Flow chart is a combination of graph and map. .33 (b) Draw a line from the centre of the circle to the arc as a radius. The legend mark be chosen for each variable/category and highlighted by distinct shades/colours. It is also called as Dynamic Map.
(b) Select a scale to represent the number of trains. If we select a scale of 1cm = 50 trains. Delhi and adjoining areas services. the maximum number is 50 and the minimum is 6. (c) Plot the thickness of each strip of route between the given rail route. (c) The selection of a scale through which the data related to the quantity of passengers and goods or the number of vehicles is to be represented.2 mm thick lines respectively on the map. along with the point of origin and destination of the movements. number of vehicles..34 (b) The data pertaining No. Here. etc. of trains of selected routes of to the flow of goods. the maximum and minimum numbers will be represented by a strip of 10 mm and 1. (d) Draw a terraced scale as legend and choose distinct sign or symbol to show the nodal points (stations) within the strip. . Construction (a) Take an outline map of Delhi and adjoining areas in which railway line and the nodal stations are depicted.
The final map should properly reflect the following components: a. (b) Outline map of the study area along with administrative boundaries. 100 to 200 cm. maps depicting areas receiving more than 200 cm. Name of the area b. shades. e. . etc. These maps are also called as statistical maps. physiographic map for population distribution and relief and drainage map for constructing transportation map. Classification of Thematic Maps based on Method of Construction The thematic maps are generally. For example. Indication of symbols. signs. Rules for Making Thematic Maps (i) The drawing of the thematic maps must be carefully planned. classified into quantitative and non-quantitative maps. (c) Physical map of the region. Title of the subject-matter c. The quantitative maps are drawn to show the variations within the data. For example. 50 to 100 cm and less than 50 cm of rainfall are referred as quantitative maps. colours. Requirements for Making a Thematic Map (a) State/District level data about the selected theme. Source of the data and year d. Scale (ii) The selection of a suitable method to be used for thematic mapping. Thematic Maps Varieties of maps are drawn to understand the patterns of the regional distributions or the characteristics of variations over space these maps are known as the distribution maps or thematic maps.35 ☞ Example 8: Construct a Flow Map of Train movements in and around Delhi.
etc. . (d) Physiographic map of the region especially relief and drainage maps.. total population. Precaution (a) The lines demarcating the boundaries of various administrative units should not be very thick and bold. Dot Maps The dot maps are drawn to show the distribution of phenomena such as population.e. (b) Statistical data on selected theme for the chosen administrative units.36 The non-quantitative maps. depict the non– measurable characteristics in the distribution of given information such as a map showing high and low rainfall-receiving areas. (b) All dots should be of same size. (c) Selection of a scale to determine the value of a dot. types of crops. The construction of quantitative maps: There are three types of quantitative maps (a) Dot maps (b) Choropleth maps (c) Isopleth maps 9. on the other hand. Requirement (a) An administrative map of the given area showing state/district/block boundaries. i. cattle. cattle etc. These maps are also called as qualitative maps. The dots of same size as per the chosen scale are marked over the given administrative units to highlight the patterns of distributions.
as the .000 = 967. For example. (b) Determine the number of dots in each state using the given scale.247/100.67.52. number of dots in Maharashtra will be 9. It may be rounded to 968.52.37 Construction (a) Select the size and value of a dot.
literacy/growth rates. Requirement for drawing Choropleth Map (a) A map of the area depicting different administrative units. (c) The interval between the categories may be identified on the following formulae i. low and very low concentrations. desert. These represent the density population. (d) Patterns. 10. Steps to be followed (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. etc. medium. high. (b) Group the data into 5 categories to represent very high.5. ☞ Example 9: Construct a Dot Map. Choropleth Map The maps choropleth are maps used are to also drawn to depict the data of characteristics as they are related to the administrative units.38 fraction is more than 0. Range/5 and Range = maximum value – minimum value. (c) Place the dots in each state as per the determined number in all states. sex-ratio. (b) Appropriate statistical data according to administrative units. . shades or colour to be used to depict the chosen categories should be marked in an increasing or decreasing order.e. and/or snow covered areas and mark lesser number of dots in such areas. (d) Consult the physiographic/relief map of India to identify mountainous.
0 – 47. (b) Identify the range within the data. In the present case.39 Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending order as shown above.0 = 44. the range would be 91.9%) respectively. the states recording the lowest and highest literacy rates are Bihar (47%) and the Kerala (90. Hence.0 .
We can convert this value to a round number 9. ☞ Example 10: Construct a Choropleth Map. sunshine). Maharashtra. Sikkim.40 (c) Divide the range by 5 to get categories from very low to very high. Tamil Nadu) 74 – 83 High (Himachal Pradesh. (g) Complete the map with respect to the attributes of map design. Meghalaya.Isobaths Isohaline (equal salinity). Isobar (equal pressure).0 as so on. 11.0 to the lowest value of 47. All such maps are termed as Isopleth Map. contours heights). Rajasthan. Chhattisgarh) 65 – 74 Medium (Nagaland. Requirement (a) Base line map depicting point location of different places. (44. an imaginary line. Tripura. Orissa. Isohels (equal (equal depths). . The more frequently drawn isopleths include Isotherm (equal temperature).Punjab.0. West Bengal. Manipur.0/ 5 = 8. Jharkhand. Haryana. Add 9. Karnataka. Jammu and Kashmir) 56 – 65 Low (Uttar Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh. Isohyets (equal rainfall). etc. Isonephs (equal (equal cloudiness). Assam. which joins the places of equal values.80).Madhya Pradesh. Thus. The word Isopleth is derived from Iso meaning equal and pleth means lines. is referred as Isopleth. temperature. Delhi. (d) Determine the number of the categories along with range of each category. Goa) 83 – 92 Very High (Mizoram. Isopleth Map Variations in the degrees of slope. Gujarat. (f) Prepare the map as shown in Fig. may be represented by drawing the lines of equal values on a map. Andhra Pradesh. Kerala) (e) Assign shades/pattern to each category ranging from lower to higher hues. occurrence of rainfall. Uttaranchal. We will finally get following categories: 47 – 56 Very low (Bihar.
e. etc. The interval is the difference between the actual value on the map and interpolated value. Suppose the distance . Interpolation Interpolation is used to find the intermediate values between the observed values of at two stations/locations. etc. Range = maximum value – minimum value. (b) Interval of 5. Rules to be observed (a) An equal interval of values be selected. 10. determine the minimum and maximum values given on the map. determine the interval in a whole number like 5. drawing of isopleths joining the places of same value is also termed as interpolation. follow the following steps: (a) Firstly. (b) Calculate the range of value i. Generally. Method of Interpolation: For interpolation. pressure. The exact point of drawing an Isopleth is determined by using the following formulae. (c) Based on range. 15. over a definite period of time. (c) The value of Isopleth should be written along the line on either side or in the middle by breaking the line. For example. or 20 is supposed to be ideal. (c) Drawing instrument specially French Curve. rainfall. 10. in an Isotherm map of two places show 28º C and 33º C and you want to draw 30ºC isotherm.41 (b) Appropriate data of temperature. etc. measure the distance between the two points.
42 is 1cm or 10 mm and the difference between 28 and 33 is 5. ☞ Example 11: Construct an Isopleth Map. thus. . exact point of 30 will be plotted 4mm away from 28ºC or 6mm ahead of 33ºC.
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