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Published by: Rivin Lucious on Aug 27, 2011
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Prepared by, Akshay L Kasar Rivin Lucious Akshaykumar M Bhoi Krutik Shah




Introduction Need for Retrofitting Principle behind Retrofitting Scope of Retrofitting





It is the art of making changes to an existing structure in order to improve strength, rather than spending resources on making new ones.




` `

A large number of reinforced concrete buildings have been constructed As a structural engineer is usually engaged in design and construction of these buildings. The market forces neglect the seismic safety of buildings Most modern buildings being constructed by private builders today, are seriously lacking in earthquake safety and pose a serious seismic risk to the occupants.


The generally used Principles of Retrofitting are: 1. Reduction in earthquake demand by, (i) Reducing mass (ii) Base-isolation or by supplemental energy dissipation. 2. Enhance the capacity of the structure to withstand the earthquake forces 3. Completion of load path and removal of configurational irregularities.


Fig: Adding a new column below a floating column 6 .

Fig: Adding a new shear wall at ground Floor Fig: Connection of shear wall panel with existing building components using epoxy grouted shear keys 7 .

Fig: Connection of shear wall panel with existing building components by welding of Reinforcement 8 .

Concentration of mass on a floor.` The types of common irregularities are: A weak or soft storey. and Discontinuity in the lateral force resisting system. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 9 . Irregular geometry giving rise to torsion in building.

Remedies: 1) Jacketing of ground storey columns and beams 2) Providing Shear Walls at ground storey 3) Providing Steel Braces at Ground Storey 10 .

Normal column 11 .Fig. Jacketed column Fig.

Fig. Adding shear walls at ground storey 12 .

Adding steel braces at ground storey 13 .Fig.

HOW ? ` ` Asymmetric plans Asymmetric location of masses. shear walls and staircases EFFECTS ` Additional seismic demand ` The building is not expected to perform satisfactorily during earth quake Advisable to balance the building configuration 14 .

Reducing torsional effects by separation (Plan) Fig. Reducing torsion by providing shear walls at ends (Plan) 15 .Fig.

In hilly areas ` ` Variation of stiffness of column. Provided shear-walls on downhill side Fig. Reducing torsion at hill slopes 16 . Center of mass and center of stiffness wont coincide.

there is a common practice to house large water storage tanks at the top of the building.` ` ` If a storey has mass more than 150% of the mass of the adjacent storeys. In India. 17 ` . Weight of the water tank should not be more than 50% of weight of a typical storey Only remedy is to reduce the mass.

Out-of-plane shear wall irregularity 18 .Cause very high seismic demand in the columns below the shear wall resulting from overturning of the shear wall Fig.

Results in very high seismic demand on columns and floor slab of first storey Fig. In-plane shear wall irregularity 19 .

` ` 20 . Results in high shear force in existing floor diaphragms.` A tall shear wall results in considerable overturning moment at the foundation. Result in significant impact on architectural characteristics.

Add less mass to building and hence result in lesser increase in the seismic demand. Lesser disruption in normal usage of building.` Braced frames provide lesser strength and stiffness as compared to shear walls. ` ` 21 .

Strengthening a RC building by external steel bracing 22 .Fig.

Strengthening by two methods ` ` overlaying  underlaying  23 .` Strong enough to transfer load between different lateral load resisting vertical elements. Irregularity in the form of opening.

Strengthening a slab by overlaying 24 .` cast in place concrete on the upper side Fig.

Fig.` Additional reinforcement is placed below the slab and thickness is increased using shotcrete. Strengthening a slab by underlaying 25 .

` Proper bond between old and new concrete. ` 26 . Can be enhanced by. ` A layer of epoxy and coarse sand ` Providing mechanical anchors Providing shear keys.


Fig. Shear keys in a hollow slab 28 .

` Glueing steel or FRP plates on the bottom of the slab. ` Fig. FRP strengthening of slab 29 . Enhances the flexural strength of slab.

Types of strengthening. ` RC jacketing -Three sides -Four sides Gluing steel/FRP plates ` 30 .

Beam jacketing on four sides Fig.Fig. Beam jacketing on three sides Fig. Jacketing on four sides of beams and columns 31 . Stirrups anchored through strand Fig.

Fig. Anchoring of longitudinal reinforcement using collar 32 .

Fig. Strengthening of beams by underlaying Fig. Strengthening of beams by plate bonding at bottom 33 .

Strengthening of beams by plate bonding on three sides 34 .Fig.

35 ` ` ` ` . Using steel plates or FRP sheets.` Strengthening is possible by RC jacketing or by encasement. Jackets should protrude through the slab to be effective in flexure. RC jackets are most effective if applied on all the four sides. Jackets are very effective in increasing axial and shear strength.

 Confining 36 . Bond between the old and new material and transfer of forces to new reinforcement of concrete through proper placing and anchoring of transverse reinforcement.

Fi . ti i f l 37 .

Jacketing on one side of column (Alternative-2) 38 .Fig.

Jacketing on four sides of column 39 .Fig.

 by wrapping the columns using FRP straps  by complete encasement by FRP sheets  by partial wrapping by FRP straps/sheets Wrapping by FRP straps provides the possibility of prestressing the strap and hence is more effective. 40 .FRP encasement can be applied by.

FRP Strengthening of columns 41 .Fig.

Steel/FRP jackets are more effective if provided in elliptical shape as compared to rectangular shape. Shape modification of columns for effective jacketing 42 . Fig.

` 43 . Out of planes trengthening of partitions can be clubbed together with lateral strengthening of building by providing RC jackets to the partitions.` strengthened by providing RC jackets on one or both sides of the walls.

Fig. strengthening of masonry infills 44 .

Connection of wall jacket with floors and columns 45 .Fig.

` The strength of new concrete must be at least 5 MPa greater than that of existing concrete. ` ` 46 .25% of the jacket section. The minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement should be 0. The minimum thickness of jacket should be 50 mm on each side.

` The minimum reinforcement with which the ends of the wall are strengthened should be 0. ` ` 47 .25% of jacket section. The jacket must be anchored to the old concrete with dowels spaced at no more than 600mm in both directions. The diameter of the ties at the wall ends should not be less than 8 mm with a maximum spacing of 150 mm.

Glued steel plates or FRP sheets can also be used to strengthen a joint There is a problem with steel plates that it undergo Poisson's effect.` Strengthening of beam-column joints in RC building is perhaps the most difficult task in retrofitting of existing buildings. 48 ` ` ` . Crimpled steel jackets are suggested.

Fig. Strengthening of joint by plate/FRP bonding 49 .

Strengthening of joint by collar prestressing 50 .Fig.

` Strengthening of foundations has two aspects: Increasing the bearing area with or without strengthening of column Anchoring of column jacket reinforcement into foundation with or without strengthening of footing. ` ` 51 .

Anchoring of column reinforcement without foundation strengthening 52 .Fig.

Fig. Anchoring of column reinforcement with foundation strengthening 53 .

Fig. Increasing foundation area with column jacketing 54 .

Fig. Increasing foundation area without column jacketing 55 .

Federal Emergency Management Agency. New Delhi. Hollaway.. California. Building Seismic Safety Council.B.using Externally Bonded FRP Composites in Structural and Civil Engineering. and Craig A. 1997.C. Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings. Kluwer Academic Publishers. CRC Press. Cole. 1997.. Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings. NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. Hamberger.. Bureau of Indian Standards. Ronald O. D. "Seismic Upgrading of Existing Structures. 56 . FEMA 273. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures . George G.C. 1999. Farzad Naeim. Washington. E & FN Spon.." The Seismic Design Handbook. and Leeming.. Andreas J. Applied Technology Council. 2001. and Kappos. Earthquake Resistant Concrete Structures.` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ATC 40. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. 1996. M.. L.. IS 1893-2002. ed. Penelis. ed.

57 . Bureau of Indian Standards. Federal Emergency Management Agency.. John Wley & Sons. 1999. Bungey. FEMA 308. D. Bureau of Indian Standards. FRP Strengthened RC Structures. Key. NEHRP Handbook of Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings. Washington. H.C. Earthquake Design Practice for Buildings. 2002. J. Washington. 1992. IS 456-2000. D. IS 13920-1993. Smith. Surrey University Press. and Lam. Chen. L.Code of Practice. New Delhi..F. Repair of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings.C. New Delhi.. J.` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Teng.G. Building Seismic Safety Council.T. Building Seismic Safety Council.. David. J. FEMA 172. Thomas Telford. London. Ltd. Plain and Reinforce Concrete . S. Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces Code of Practice. Federal Emergency Management Agency. The Testing of Concrete in Structures. 1989. 1988.

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