# (PETE 663 — Formation Evaluation and the Analysis of Reservoir Performance (Fall 2003

))

Module for:

Resistivity Theory
(adapted/modified from lectures in PETE 321 (Jensen/Ayers))

J. L. Jensen W.B. Ayers T.A. Blasingame Department of Petroleum Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-3116

Openhole Well Log Evaluation
Most abundant data for formation evaluation and determination of fluid saturations Well Log
SP Resistivity

From NExT, 1999

Idealized Well Log Set

R=4 R = 0.4 φ = 0.30

R=8

φ = 0.07

Shale

Sand

R = 0.3

φ = 0.35

Four Components of Sandstone (Schematic Diagram)
Geologist’s Classification

1.Framework 2.Matrix 3.Cement 4.Pores

Engineering "matrix"

Note different use of "matrix" by geologists and engineers

PORE CEMENT
FRAMEWORK (QUARTZ)

MATRIX

FRAMEWORK (FELDSPAR)

0.25 mm

Ayers, 2001

Fluid Saturations
Grain and matrix Water Gas Oil

Initially, water fills pores and wets the rock surface Hydrocarbons migrate into the reservoir rock, displacing some water Hydrocarbon distribution determined by gravity and capillary forces, and by wettability
Modified from NExT, 1999

Resistivity of Rocks Containing Fluid

Resistivity – Definition of the Ohm-Meter

From Halliburton (EL 1007)

Resistivity
Resistivity The voltage required to cause one amp to pass through a cube having a face area of one square meter Units are ohm-m2/m; usually ohm-m (Ω.m)

1 Resistivit y = Conductivi ty

Resistivity Measurement
Resistivity

V 2) (ohms) A(m R(ohm − meters) = I L ( m)

Resistivity of Earth Materials
1 Resistivity = Conductivity
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Rock Gas Oil Fresh Water Salt Water
Increasing Conductivity

Increasing Resistivity

Factors Affecting Resistivity
Resistivity of water Porosity of the formation, Pore geometry - tortuosity Lithology of the formation Degree of cementation, and Type and amount of clay in the rock

From J. Jensen, PETE 321 Lecture Notes

Electricity And Earth Materials

Electrical conduction is by ions in water Na+ and Cl- are very common Other monovalent ions: K+ and OHCommon bivalent ions: Ca++, Mg++

Resistivity Multipliers for Various Materials
Water resistivity controlled by:
Ion concentrations. Type of ions. Temperature.

Chart GEN-4 to convert to NaCl equivalent. Chart GEN-5 for temperature/resist for NaCl.

From Schlumberger

Resistivity of NaCl Solutions ____ Chart GEN-5H or GEN-9S

From Schlumberger

Chart GEN-8
TDS = 20,850 ppm

0.81 0.45
Ca = 460 ppm S04 = 1,400 Na + Cl = 19,000 TDS = 20,860

(460)(0.81)+(1,400)(0.45)+(1)(19,000) = 20,000 ppm

T = 75 deg. F
From Schlumberger

75 deg. F

Chart
GEN-9

From Schlumberger

Arp's Formula
For constant solution
– R1(T1 + 7) = R2(T2 + 7) (T in deg F) – R1(T1 + 21.5) = R2(T2 + 21.5) (T in deg C)

Example
– – – – – Rm = 0.32 ohm-m @ surface (25 deg C/77 deg F) What is Rm at 145 deg C (293 deg F)? R2 = R1(T1 + 21.5)/(T2 + 21.5) R2 = 0.32(25+21.5)/(145+21.5) = 0.089 ohm-m Check this on the chart!

Archie's First Equation (for Porosity)
Relates rock resistivity to Rw Ro = F R w Ro = Resistivity of a rock that is 100% saturated with formation water, Ω-m Rw = Resistivity of formation water, Ω-m F = Formation factor As the salt water content increases, the formation resistivity will decrease. A rock containing oil or gas will have a higher resistivity than the same rock completely saturated with salt water. As the shale content increases, the rock matrix will become more conductive.

Rock containing pores saturated with water and hydrocarbons Non-shaly rock, 100% saturated with water having resistivity, Rw

Rt
φ= 20% Sw = 20% SHC =80%

Cube of water having resistivity, Rw

Ro
R es istiv ity
φ= 20% Sw = 100%

Rw
φ= 100% Sw = 100% Increasing Conductivity

(1) Rock
Increasing Resistivity

(2) Gas (3) Oil (4) Fresh Water (5) Salt Water

F = Ro

Rw

=

a

φm

Formation Factor
The formation factor (F) depends on: Porosity of the formation. Pore geometry. Lithology of the formation. Degree of cementation. Type and amount of clay in the rock.

Formation Factor Correlation with Porosity
For a clean formation (no shale), the formation factor can usually be empirically correlated with porosity.

F=

a

φ

m

a = constant ≅ 1.0 (most formations). m = cementation factor ≅ 2 (most formations).

Common values
– F = 0.8/φ2 (Tixier) or 0.62/φ2.15 (Humble) for sandstones. – F = 0.8/φ2 for carbonates.

Archie Relation for Formation Factor

Formation Factor
Ideal Considerations

Formation Factor
Experiments with Unconsolidated and Artificially Consolidated Materials

Formation Factor
Generalized Correlation (Schlumberger)

Formation Factor
Type Curve Solution (Blasingame/Unpublished)

Formation Factor
Effect of Clay/Shale The formation factor (F) is constant for a clean sand; F decreases for shaly sand as value of Rw increases.

How Archie's Formation Factor Equation Works
Archie's equation is based on the following relationships
1000 Rock type 1 100 FR 10

Rock type 2

1 When water saturation is 100 percent

.01

φ

.1

1.0
From NExT, 1999

Saturation
Amount of water per unit volume = φ Sw Amount of hydrocarbon per unit volume = φ (1 - Sw)

φ 1−φ

φ (1-Sw) φ Sw

Hydrocarbon

Water Matrix

Archie's Second Equation (For Saturation)
Relates Sw to Rt . If Rt = Ro, then the formation is 100 percent saturated with formation water. However, if Rt > Ro, then the formation contains oil or gas. General formula:

Rw a Rw n Ro Sw = =F = Rt Rt φ m Rt
For clean sands, n = 2 is common. Like a and m, n is measured in the lab.

Archie Relation for Sw

Visualization of Rt/Ro versus Sw

Hydrocarbon Resistivity Index (I=Rt/Ro)
Effects of Clay and Pyrite

Hydrocarbon Resistivity Index (I=Rt/Ro)
Effects of Wettability

Type Curve Solution - No Shale Case (Blasingame/Unpublished)

Hydrocarbon Resistivity Index (I=Rt/Ro)

Hydrocarbon Resistivity Index (I=Rt/Ro)
Type Curve Solution - Shale, n=1.2 (Blasingame/Unpublished)

Hydrocarbon Resistivity Index (I=Rt/Ro)
Type Curve Solution - Shale, n=2.0 (Blasingame/Unpublished)

Drilling Disturbs Formation
Drilling and rock crushing Damage Zone Mud systems and invasion Oil-based Mud
— Small conductivity mud — Shallow invasion — Thin cake
Damaged zone

Mudcake

Water-based Mud
— Moderate to very conductive mud — Shallow to deep invasion — Thin to thick cake

Effects of Drilling Mud and Mud Filtrate Invasion

Mud Filtrate Invasion

Invaded Zone (Rxo) Wellbore Mud (Rm)

n ti o si an e Tr on Z

Mud Cake (Rmc)

Modified from J. Jensen, PETE 321 Lecture Notes

Resistivity of zone Resistivity of the water in the zone Water saturation in the zone Mud Rm Adjacent bed Rs Uninvaded zone R1 Rw Sw

hmc Rmc (Bed thickness) h dh Mudcake

Flushed zone Zone of transition or annulus Rxd Rm1 Sxo

di dj (Invasion diameters) ∆rj dh Hole diameter

From NExT, 1999, after Schlumberger

Common Terminology
Borehole Rm: Borehole mud resistivity Rmc: Mud cake resistivity Invaded zone Rmf: Mud filtrate resistivity Rxo: Invaded zone resistivity Sxo: Invaded zone water saturation Uninvaded zone Rw: Interstitial water resistivity Rt: Uninvaded zone resistivity Sw: Uninvaded zone water saturation

Summary — Resistivity
Resistivity is a very important property Resistivity inversely proportional to ion volumes present in water Water resistivity depends on:
Concentration Temperature Ion species

Archie's First Law relates rock resistivity to Rw Archie's Second Law relates Sw to Rt

(PETE 663 — Formation Evaluation and the Analysis of Reservoir Performance (Fall 2003))

Module for:

Resistivity Theory
(adapted/modified from lectures in PETE 321 (Jensen/Ayers))

End of Presentation
J. L. Jensen W.B. Ayers T.A. Blasingame Department of Petroleum Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-3116