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Translated by P. R. Ramachander, Published by celextel.org Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Om. In Brahma Vartha (Land of Brahma), under a banyan tree called Maha Bandira, many sages including Sounaka had assembled to perform a Sathra fire sacrifice. They approached sage Markandeya wearing samiths (dried twigs of banyan tree) as gloves and asked him, “How do you manage to be a Chiram Jeevi (One who does not have death) and how are you always in the happy state?” 1 He replied, “This is because of the knowledge of the most secret philosophy of Shiva. This very secret Shiva philosophy by which Shiva who is the Dakshinamurthy, becomes some thing which is not visible to others. He is that God who at the time of final deluge, who keeps every thing else within himself and shines because of the pleasure of his own spirit. The secret mantras about him are as follows: Brahma is the sage, the meter is Gayathri and the god is Dakshinamurhy for this mantra. First Mantra of 24 letters: After telling “om”, tell “Namo” and then “Bhagavathe Dakshinamurthaye”, then the fourth form of “asmad” viz “Mahyam”, then “medham Pragnam”, then the root of wind “ya”, added with “chcha”, followed by the name of wife of fire God “swaha”. This is the mantra with 24 letters. That is “Om Namo Bhagwathe Dakshinamurthaye Mahyam, Medham Pragnam Prayacha Swaha!” 2 Then Dhyanam (thinking abut the form in the mind, when mantra is chanted). I salute him who is white like a crystal, who holds in his hands, a chain of pearl beads, the pot of nectar which is the form of knowledge, and the mudhra (symbol) of wisdom, who ties himself with a snake, who wears the moon on his head and who wears different type of ornaments. 3
5 [Slokas 6 is not available.] Third Mantra: Add Broom Nama. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). would get rid of all his sins. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Dakshinamurti Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda . deer and axe in three hands and fourth hand kept on his knee. Veena and books. then the first vowel with the visarga and in the end ell Panchakshari with visarga in the end. The ones who know this truly will attain salvation. May we work conjointly with great energy. who shines white like milk. who holds in his hands. That is “Om Aam Aa Sivaya Nama Om!” 4 Then Dhyanam. 9 In the beginning of creation. who wears all ornaments. devotion as wick and which shines in the full vessel of wake up state. 8 We have to see that lamp of wisdom. the sign of protection. and obtained the capacity of creating beings and became very happy. who wears the crescent moon on his head. He became blessed after getting what he desired. Vagbhava Bheeja. beaded chain. That Brahma therefore has become a devotee as well as somebody who deserves our devotion.2 Second Mantra of nine letters: First Say “Om”. Jnana mudra (symbol of wisdom). Lord Brahma prayed this Dakshinamurthy. Let the three eyed god who does only good. gives us pure thoughts. 11 Om ! May He protect us both together. who has tied a snake on his body. and this gives the Navakshari mantra (nine letters mantra). who sits below a banyan tree and who is surrounded by sages like Shuka. Namo Hreem Im Dakshinamurthaye Jnanam Dehi Swaha!” 7 Then Dhyanam: Let the God Dakshinamurthy. who resembles the meditating Rama. who has in his three hands. which burns with renunciation as oil. who sits on the throne of explanation and who is being served by great sages protect us always. May our study be vigorous and effective. Maya Bheeja. The mantra would be “Om Broom. who wears the elephant hide. 10 The one who reads this philosophy of Shiva with understanding. Dakshinamurthaye and Jnanam dehi Swaha to Om. who has a white body due to application of holy ash. may He nourish us both together.
though he does not mention the year. He is the son of Atri. In the Natha tradition. He is the son of Atri. hence the name “Atreya”. He attained realization at a place not far from the town now known as Ganagapur. Although .Dattatreya as an Historical Figure Though the Dattatreya of the Natha tradition coexisted and intermingled with the Puranic. Shri Gurudev Mahendranath had no doubt that Dattatreya was an historical figure. The word Datta means “Given”.. He seems to have spent most of his life wandering in the area between and including North Mysore. hence the name “Atreya”. Dattatreya is recognized as an Avatar or incarnation of the Lord Shiva and as the Adi-Guru (First Teacher) of the Adi-Nath sampradaya of the Nathas. Vishnu and Siva. and into Gujarat as far as the Narmada River. The original footprints of Datta are believed to be located on the lonely peak at Mount Girnar. while still worshipped by millions of Hindus. he was adapted and assimilated into the more devotional cults. the fourteenth day of the full moon in the month of Margasirsa. Dattatreya left home at an early age to wander naked in search of the Absolute. Dattatreya is recognized as an Avatar or incarnation of the Lord Shiva and as the Adi-Guru (First Teacher) of the Adi-Nath sampradaya of the Nathas.. Brahmanical tradition of the Datta sampradaya. He stated that Datta was born on Wednesday.DATTATREYA Hindu God who is an incarnation of the Divine Trinity Brahma. Dattatreya is a Hindu God who is an incarnation of the Divine Trinity Brahma. The Tripura-rahasya refers to the disciple Parasurama finding Datta meditating on Gandhamadana mountain. Datta is called so because the divine trinity have “given” themselves in the form of a son to the sage couple Atri and Anasuya. through the Maharashtra. . Vishnu and Siva. The word Datta means “Given”. he is approached more as a benevolent God than as a teacher of the highest essence of Indian thought. Although Dattatreya was at first a “Lord of Yoga” exhibiting distinctly Tantric traits. here we shall focus almost exclusively on the earlier Tantric manifestation of Datta. 3 Dattatreya . Datta is called so because the divine trinity have “given” themselves in the form of a son to the sage couple Atri and Anasuya. In the Natha tradition.
a child. moth. drank liquor. osprey. deer. to free himself of all attachments. and wasp. scribed the text. Swami and Kartika. the last part. water. Thus. to that of a frightening. Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) held it in high esteem. the Munis did not abandon him. dove into a lake where he stayed for many years. mantra and yantra of the Goddess Tripura. The Jnana Khanda or section on knowledge elaborates on the themes of consciousness. bear. the Mahatmya Khanda or section on the goddess is concerned with the origin. accompanied by his shakti. bull elephant. serpent. and Dattatraya. bee. moon. Unfortunately. this text is sometimes referred to as the Haritayana Samhita. fire. he also hoped to evade an assembly of Munis who remained on the banks of the lake awaiting his return.4 The Tripura-rahasya (The Secret of [the Goddess] Tripura) is believed to be an abbreviated version of the original Datta Samhita or Dakshinamurti Samhita traditionally ascribed to Dattatreya. sea. and enjoyed singing and music. In spite of this. Another work. Some of the ideas in this Gita are however common to both Shaivite and Buddhist Tantras. The image of the Natha ranged from that of a siddha living in the woods with animals. a blacksmith. Datta emerged from the water naked in the company of a beautiful woman. By doing so. This more lengthy work was summarized by Dattatreya’s disciple Paramasura. also known as Lalita or Lalita Tripurasundari. manifestation. a courtesan. has been lost and some believe destroyed. Charya Khanda or section on conduct. continued to engage in these practices and was meditated on by those longing for moksha. a maiden. spider. In the Bhagavata Purana Dattatreya enumerates a list of his twenty-four gurus: earth. sun. the Avadhuta Gita (Song of the Free) is a wonderful. a spurious and misogynistic eighth chapter may be a later attempt to append sexual morality to the Natha tradition by a conservative ascetic. air. and liberation. Sumedha Haritayana. python. The text relates that he made love with her (maithuna). Originally a work of seven chapters. compete compilation of the highest thought given to and recorded by two of Dattatreya’s disciples. even demonic. The Tripura-rahasya is divided into three parts. fish. being. sky / ether. pigeons. The first part. . The Markandeya Purana reports that Dattatreya. whose disciple.
one an Asura and the other two both belonging to the warrior caste. They eventually encountered an awe-inspiring figure seated under a banyan tree.” Indeed. Dattatreya . so he created the four Kumaras to take his place. and the three states of consciousness: waking. identifying Datta with Shiva. Shri Gurudev Mahendranath writes: “Shri Dattatreya was a dropout of an earlier age than the period when Veda and Tantra merged to become one simple cult. Here they remained and received the instruction they were seeking. present. The story of Dakshinamurti is as follows (according to Chadwick: A Sadhu’s Reminiscences): “Brahma was tired of creating and wanted to retire. past. and dreamless sleep. His image is found in every South Indian Siva temple. below.5 In The Pathless Path to Immortality. the Dattatreya Upanisad. which opens proclaiming Dattatreya’s identity with Vishnu.Dattatreya as a Devotional Deity Dattatreya is usually depicted with three heads. symbolising Brahma. Dattatreya himself was regarded as an avatar of Maheshwara (Shiva) but later was claimed by Vaishnavites as the avatar of Vishnu. behind. everywhere the center. Mahesvara (Shiva) alone is said to pervade reality and shine in every heart of man. Vishnu. Three of his close disciples were kings. above. In front of him is a fire pit. depicting the latter as an Avatara of Shiva. to the right. This their father refused. He alone is in front. In the last portion of the third chapter. He is portrayed sitting in meditation with his shakti beneath the audumbara (wish-fulfilling) tree. So they left him and went in search of this somewhere else. Hindus regard Shiva and Vishnu as the same or as manifestations of the Absolute taking form. Mahesvara is identified with Dattatreya. and Shiva. In silence. Finally. It was men like Dattatreya who helped to make this possible. These are sometimes said to symbolise the four Vedas. which was given in silence. (Ramana Maharshi in: Collected Works) Dakshinamurti (the god facing the south) is the Guru of all Gurus who teached only through silence. and future. to the left. Not such a sectarian claim as it appears. Silence is the most perfect teaching of all. and around him are four dogs. But these did not in the least wish to take over but demanded instead initiation from him into the secret to how to gain liberation.” . ends with the mantra Om Namah Shivaya. because no word can express that which is beyond all words and no mind can grasp that which is beyond mind. dreaming.
The devotees waited for Bhagavan to commence His explanations.6 Sri Ramana teaching is often compared to that of Dakshinamurti and he himself quite often refered to the Guru of all Gurus.’ Sri Dakshinamurthy Stotram by Adi Shankaracharya Shruti-smrti-puraanaanaam Aalayam Karunaalayam | Namaami Bhagavatpada-Shankaram Lokashankaram || — The Stotram — Vishwam Darpana-drshyamaana-nagarii-tulyam nijaantargatam Pashyan aatmani maayayaa bahiriva udbhuutam yathaa nidrayaa | Ya: saakshaat kurute prabodha-samaye svaatmaanameva advayam Tasmai Srigurumurtaye nama idam Sridakshinamurtaye || 1 || Biijasyaantariva-ankuro jagadidam praang-nirvikalpam punarMaya-kalpita-desa-kaala-kalanaa-vaichitrya-chitrii-krtam | Mayaviiva vijrmbhayatyapi maha-yogiva yas svecchayaa Tasmai Sriguru-murtaye nama idam Sridakshinaamurtaye || 2 || Yasyaiva sphuranam sadaatmakam asatkalpaarthagam bhaasate Saakshaat Tat-tvam-asi-iti vedavachasaa yo bodhayatyaashritaan | Yat-saakshaat-karanaad bhaven-na punaraavrttir-bhavaambho-nidhau Tasmai Srigurumurtaye nama idam Sridakshinamurtaye || 3 || Naanaa-cchidra-ghatodarasthita-mahaa-dipa-prabha-bhasvaram Jnanam yasya tu chakshuraadi-karana-dvaara bahiH spandate | Jaanaami-iti tameva bhaantam anu-bhaatyetat samastam jagat . “On one Maha Sivarathri night devotees requested Bhagavan to explain the meaning of Dakshinamurti Ashtakam. The entire atmosphere was surcharged with the Power and Peace of Bhagavan’s presence. ‘True Silence means abiding in the Self. There was no movement whatever. No one noticed the passage of time. The next day when He was asked Bhagavan replied. Bhagavan remained silent.Then only every one was aware that the night had elapsed and Bhagavan was going out for His morning walk on the Hill! They understood not only that silence alone was the true meaning of those verses but also that Bhagavan was all the night giving a silent commentary on them. Suddenly Bhagavan got up.
7 Tasmai Srigurumurtaye nama idam Sridakshinamurtaye || 4 || Deham praanamapi indriyaanyapi chalaam buddhim cha shunyam viduH Stri-baala-andha-jadopamaastvahamiti bhraantaa bhrsham vaadinaH | Maayaa-shakti-vilaasa-kalpita-mahaa-vyaamoha-samhaarine Tasmai Srigurumurtaye nama idam Sridakshinamurtaye || 5 || Rahu-grasta-divakarendu-sadrsho maya-samaacchaadanaat SanmaatraH karanopasamharanato yo’bhut-sushuptaH pumaan | Praagasvaasamiti prabodha-samaye yaH pratyabhijnaayate Tasmai Srigurumurtaye nama idam Sridakshinamurtaye || 6 || bAlyaadhiShvapi jAgradaadiShu tathA sarvAsvavasthAsvapi vyAvR^ittaasvanuvartamaanamahamityantaH-sphurantam sadaa | svAtmaanam prakaTIkaroti bhajatAm yo mudrayaa bhadrayaa tasmai shrIgurumurtaye nama idam shrIdakShiNAmUrtaye || 7 || Vishvam pashyati kArya-kAraNatayA sva-svAmi-sambandhataH ShiShyAchAryatayA tathaiva pitRR^I-putrAdyAtmanA bhedataH | Svapne jAgrati vA ya eSha puruSho mAyAparibhrAmitaH Tasmai ShrIgurumUrtaye nama idam shrIdakshiNaamUrtaye || 8 || bhUrambhAmsyanalo-‘nilo-‘mbaramahar-naatho himAmshuH pumAnityAbhAti charAcharAtmakamidam yasyaiva mUrtyaShTakam | nAnyat-kinchana vidyate vimRRishatAm yasmAt-parasmAd-vibhOstasmai shrIguru-mUrtaye nama idam shrIdakShiNaa-mUrtaye || 9 || Phala Sruti — sarvAtmatvamiti sphuTIkRRitamidam yasmAdamuShmin-stave tEnAsya shravaNAt tadartha-mananAt dhyAnAccha sankIrtanAt | sarvAtmatva-mahA-vibhUti-sahitam syAdIshvaratvam svataH siddhyEt tat punaraShTadhA pariNatam chaishvaryam-avyAhatam || 10 || Gurave sarva-lokaanaam bhishaje bhava-roginaam | Nidhaye sarva-vidyaanaam Dakshinaamurtaye namaH || .
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