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Naming Common Cations Anions

Naming Common Cations Anions

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07/16/2013

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Naming Common Cations/Anions: Forming Ionic  Compound

I. Atomic ions Rule 1: The non­metals tend to gain electrons to form negative  ions or anions   Rule 2: The metals tend to lose electrons to form positive ions  or cations   Rule 3: We can use the atom’s position relative to the noble  gases (group 8A) to predict             its most common charge state if the atom is in row 1,  2, or 3 or is a main group              element (groups 1A,2A, 3A, …8A).   Rule 4: The transition metals form cations whose charges are  less easy to predict. Some              transition metals form common ions of different  charge states.
A. Cations of the main group which follow rules 2 and 3 include

1. The alkaline family (Li, Na, K, …) of group 1A which form singly charged positive ions since by losing a single electron they achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas (in the preceding row) K(s) --> K + e- (K has the same electronic configuration as Ar) 2. The alkaline earth family (Be, Mg, Ca, …) of group 2A which form doubly charged positive ions since by losing two electrons they achieve the electron configuration of the noble gas of the preceding row. Mg(s) --> Mg2+ + 2e- (compare Mg2+ to Ne) 3. Al   B. Most of the common transition metal cations (rule 4) are formed in the 2+ state.  The list of BLB Table 2.4 on page 58 is reproduced here: Co , Cu  , Fe , Mn , Hg , Hg2 , Ni , Pb , Sn Special cases:
• • • •

+

+

3+

is the only really common ion of its family (group 3A)

2+

2+

2+

2+

2+

2+

2+

2+

2+

copper forms Cu  as well as Cu iron forms Fe
3+ 

1+

2+

as well Fe
3+

2+ 2+

chromium forms Cr  not Cr note that mercury forms two kinds of 2+ ions but that one of the ions  consists of 2 Hg atoms bonded together 
+

NAMING: The atomic cations are named just like the neutral element followed by  the word ion: For example: K  is the potassium ion MULTIVALENT IONS: To distinguish the atomic ions Fe from Fe we name    them iron(III) ion and iron(II) ion, respectively. Similarly for copper(II) ion and  copper(I) ion. In an older method (see page 57 of BLB), the ending ­ic is used for 
3+  2+ 

the higher of two possible charge states and ­ous for the lower [this method is  widely used by practicing (read older) chemists but is not encouraged because it  can’t handle an atom with more than 2 common charge states]

C. Anions ­ These are the simplest negative ions, consisting of a single atom of a  given element in its most common negative charge state. We only consider the non­ metals in this naming scheme. Use the root of the element’s name and add ­ide to  get the name of the most common anion. Examples are: (1st row): H  is the hydride ion
­

(2nd row): N  is the nitride ion ; O  is the oxide ion ; F  is the fluoride ion
3­ 2­ ­

(3rd row): P  is the phosphide ion; S  is the sulfide ion; Cl  is the chloride ion
3­ 2­ ­

 Molecular ions
These are generally made up of a collection of nonmetal atoms bonded together but  that are stable with a net charge.   A.Cations ­­ The only significant positive molecular ion is NH4 , the ammonium   ion.   B. Anions 1. A few polyatomic anions have names that end in ­ide like the atomic anions: OH  is hydroxide, CN  is cyanide, O2  is peroxide
­ ­ 2­  +

2. Oxyanions ­­ These are anions consisting of a non-metal atom such as carbon acting as a center to which one or more oxygen atoms are bonded. A very common example is the carbonate ion, CO32- which looks like this:

The table below shows a number of elements acting as a central atom with in some cases up to four different common oxyanions (the chlorine series). One of these ions (which we shall consider to be the most common) is named with the central atom’s root and the ending -ate. The oxyanion in the series with one less oxygen has the ending -ite. If the series continues down with one less oxygen than this we use the prefix hypo- (short for less than). If the series has an oxyanion with one more oxygen than the -ate ion we add the prefix per- (short for hyper or more than).

MEMORIZE THE IONS IN THIS TABLE WHICH HAVE THE -ate ENDING

 

 

  N

  P

  S

  Cl  

  Mn  

Central C atom   per­  ­ate     

ClO4­ MnO4­          

­ate CO32­ NO3­ PO43­ SO42­ ClO3­ MnO3­   ­ite    hypo­  ­ite             ClO­ NO2­ PO33­ SO32­ ClO2­

Notice that in each column, the charge remains the same even as the number of  oxygens bonded to the central atom changes. Also note that the six ions I've asked you to memorize can also help with other  members of the same family: the bromate ion is analogous to the chlorate ion for  example.

IV. Ionic compounds Simply start with the name of the metal and add the name of the anion of the non­ metal The most common example is  NaCl (s) or sodium chloride. How about BaSO4? barium sulfate Or FeO? iron(II) oxide

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