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Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:genick at potto.com

Copyright © 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.0.4 February 23, 2011)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv li li 1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 21 22 23 30 34 45 45 53 53 55 55 56 56 56 57 59 63 64 65 66 67 71 71 71 73 73 77 81

1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .

CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . 4.4.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 85 89 91 92 92 94 96 99 99 108 115 124 136 137

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4.5

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4.7

I

Integral Analysis

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145 145 146 147 149 149 156 158 164 167 173 173 173 174 175 175 176 180 183 184 191 192 195

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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vi 7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . 7.4.4 Simpliﬁed Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate . 7.4.5 Energy Losses in Incompressible Flow . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Examples of Integral Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 199 212 213 213 214 215 215 216 217 218 219 220

II

Diﬀerential Analysis

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229 229 230 234 235 240 240 241 243 247 258 258 261 271 275 275 275 276 277 278 279 283 284 287 288 290 291

8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Several Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . . . 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . . . . . 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . > ρL . . . . With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii 292 294 295 297 298 305 307 307 308 310 312 318 318 319 321 324 326 329 331 333 333 334 335

A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 First-order equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Index 337 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

viii CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 21 25 31 32 33 34 35 36 39 40 54 55 56 57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1.18 1. . . . . . . . . .16 1. . . .19 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress .11 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3.LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Diagram to explain ﬂuid mechanics branches . ix . .3 3. . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . .17 1. . . . .5 1.8 1. . . . . . . . . . .21 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. The raising height as a function of the radii . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . .12 1. . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . . . . . . .9 1. The schematic that explains the summation of moment . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Capilary rise between two plates . . . . . .1 1. . Forces in Contact angle . . . . . . . . . . .22 3. . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . Description of liquid surface . . . . . . . . . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . of inertia. . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Rotating disc in a steady state . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . .13 1. . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius . .15 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two liquid layers under pressure . . . .20 1. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4.6 3. . . . . . The forces on curved area . .18 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure . . . . . . . . .22 4. . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area . . . . . . . . . .29 4. Pressure lines in a static constant density ﬂuid . .7 3. . .16 4. . . .1 4. Inverted manometer . . . . . . Inclined manometer . . . . . . . .24 4. . . . . . . . . . . .33 4. . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle .13 4. . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area . . . . . .21 4. . . . . . .10 3. . . .14 4. . . . . . . . . .23 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular area under pressure . . .12 3. . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . . . . . . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . . . .27 4. . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . The general forces acting on submerged area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 4. . . . . . . . . . Tank and the eﬀects diﬀerent liquids . . . 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 63 64 71 74 74 75 76 78 79 80 81 84 87 89 92 93 94 94 95 96 99 100 101 103 104 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 . . . . . . .34 LIST OF FIGURES The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . .4 4.28 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4. . . . . .15 4. . . .32 4. . .31 4. . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device .2 4. . . .12 4. . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle . .6 4. . . . . . . . . Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.8 3. . .moment of inertia and center of area Triangle for example 3. .x 3. . . . . . . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . .17 4. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure under a compressible liquid phase . .7 . . . . . . . .5 3. . .20 4. . . . Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 4. . . . . . . . Description of parabola . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular shape Dam . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . .10 4. . Earth layers not to scale . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane .11 4. . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . . .30 4. . .8 4. . . . . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces . . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body . . . . . . .38 4. . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio .3 6. .44 4. . . . .41 4. . . . . . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Discharge from a Large Container . . . .42 4. . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies . . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . 202 . . . . . .12 7. . . . . . . . .46 4. . . . . . .50 5. Piston control volume . . . . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body . . . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . . . . . . . . . .48 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . .45 4. . . . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . . . . .14 . .43 4. .37 4. . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . .47 4. . . . . . . . . . . .35 4. . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . . . . . . . . . The work on the control volume . . . . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis . . . . . . Height of the liquid for example 5.10 5. . . . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . . .11 6. . . xi 117 125 125 126 129 129 130 131 132 134 135 137 138 139 140 141 145 146 147 148 151 154 159 164 165 166 167 168 174 177 179 181 182 183 186 187 191 193 196 197 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 4. . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . . The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5. . . . . . .40 4.6 6. . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . .12 6. . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . . .5 5. .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. .4 6. . . . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . .3 5. . . . . . . . . .10 6. . . . . . . . . .39 4. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body . . . . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . .9 6. . . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . .36 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow.04 . . .7 8. . . . . Mass ﬂow in coating process . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . .18 8.3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 8. . . . . .11 The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . (b) Sharp edge pipe connection K=0. . . . . . . Liquid ﬂow due to gravity . Tank control volume for Example 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . . . . . . The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” . . . . .20 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 8. . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . The shear stress creating torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii 7. . . .6 7. . . Flow in a long pipe when exposed to pressure diﬀerence Liquid exiting a large tank trough a long tube . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . Typical resistance for selected outlet conﬁguration . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can.3 7. . .4 9. . . . . . . . (a) Projecting pipe K= 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . . Flow in an oscillating manometer . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow between two plates when the top moving . . .10 8. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . .19 8. . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . .4 8. .4 Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity .21 9. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. . . . .9 9. . . . . . . . 204 212 212 212 212 212 220 223 223 230 232 234 236 244 245 246 247 249 250 252 252 252 253 258 261 261 262 263 264 266 269 271 277 279 280 280 281 282 283 293 294 295 296 7. . . . (c) Rounded inlet pipe K=0. .2 . . . . . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . .10 9.15 8.13 8. . . . . . . . .14 8. . . . . . . .17 8. . .11 8. . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. Linear strain of the element . . . . . .3 9. . .7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Flow driven by surface tension . .8 8. . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. Diﬀerent rectangles deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . .

. . . . . . .7 Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . .5 A. . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . . . . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . . The right hand rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii 296 297 298 298 304 307 308 314 315 316 317 335 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . . .4 A. . . . . . . . . . .14 9. . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . .2 A. . . . . .3 A. . .1 A. . . . . . . .13 9. . . .LIST OF FIGURES 9. . . . . . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . .16 A. . .15 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . .6 A. . . . . . . . . . .

xiv LIST OF FIGURES .

. . . .7 2. . . .5 1. . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids .4 1. .2 1. . . .1 3. . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . 13 13 14 15 23 35 36 41 42 43 50 68 69 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . .3 1. Continue . . . . . . 318 xv . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi LIST OF TABLES .

see equation (2. page 49 Internal energy.38). see equation (6.v. see equation (2. Ti0 . see equation (6.1).17).26). see equation (8. page 191 viscosity at input temperature T.0). see equation (6.3).0). see equation (1. see equation (2. page 46 xvii .22). see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (2. page 108 The acceleration of object or system.17).7). page 71 Body force.9). see equation (5. see equation (4. page 47 subscribe for control volume. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature. page 256 Angular Momentum. page 173 Martinelli parameter. see equation (9.. see equation (1. page 45 λ M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c. see equation (6. page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means. see equation (4.101). page 291 The area of surface. page 49 The shear stress Tenser. page 175 The velocity taken with the direction.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant.136). page 146 Speciﬁc pressure heat.1).23). Cp Cv EU bulk viscosity. page 174 Units length. page 49 Speciﬁc volume heat.11).43).

page 46 Work per unit mass. see equation (2.14). see equation (1. page 200 Angular momentum. page 48 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.27).6). see equation (2. see equation (3.xviii Eu Ei G gG H h k kT L Internal Energy per unit mass.6). see equation (7. page 73 Subscribe says.4). see equation (5. page 46 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. page 12 Torque. page 101 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. see equation (2. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin.2).6).18).2).24). page 71 Enthalpy.104).2).17).67). see equation (2. page 46 System energy at state i. see equation (3. page 46 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2.17). see equation (2.42).18). page 46 The gravitation constant. page 66 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (2. page 146 . page 48 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. see equation (2.13). see equation (4. see equation (2. page 12 velocity .40). page 46 the coordinate in z direction. page 46 Speciﬁc gas constant. see equation (4. page 48 Speciﬁc enthalpy. see equation (2. page 50 Entropy of the system.17).3). see equation (1. see equation (4. see equation (4.1. page 49 Fluid thermal conductivity. see equation (2. see equation (1. see equation (2. page 90 general Body force. page 66 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure.0). see equation (2.0).

Brought the mass conservation chapter to code.2 Nov 19.3. 2011 (3.3.0.5 M 392 pages) Insert discussion about Pushka equation and bulk modulus.3 M 362 pages) Further improved the script for the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process.3 Dec 5.3 M 378 pages) Add additional discussion about bulk modulus of geological system.The Book Change Log Version 0.0.3. xix .4 Feb 23. 2010 (3. This addition was to go the compressible book and will migrate to there when the book will brought up to code. Version 0. additional examples in mass conservation chapter. Version 0. Addition of several examples with respect speed of sound with variation density under bulk modulus. Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture.0. English and addition of other minor exampls in various chapters. 2010 (3. Addition of several examples integral Energy chapter.

artofproblemsolving. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations.3.1 Nov 12.3 M 354 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter.1 Oct 11. LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Improvement of properties chapter. 2010 (3.com. Improve English in several chapters. Add discussion about inclined manometer Improve many ﬁgures and equations in Static chapter. Improve English in static and mostly in diﬀerential analysis chapter.0 Oct 24.0. Version 0. 2010 (3.3. . Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to diﬀerential equations. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow.2. Add example.0. Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress. Version 0. 2010 (3. Build the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process Steven from www.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter.9. Improve English in several chapters. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan).xx Addition of several examples. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure.3 M 358 pages) Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation. Add several examples on surface tension.

Some additions to momentum conservation chapter. Add example about the the third component of the velocity. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir .com.2. 2010 (2.2. English corrections. 2010 (2. Version 0.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. English corrections.6 March 10.4 March 01.2. Corrections to Static Chapter.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.2. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www.3 Jan 01. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www.3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation.artofproblemsolving.artofproblemsolving. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. 2010 (3.com.9 Sep 20. 2010 (2.artofproblemsolving. Version 0.com.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0.

Add an example to mechanics chapter. 2008 (2. 2009 (2.9 Dec 01. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter.8.6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues.1 Sep 17. English corrections. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation. Version 0.8.1.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter.xxii LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Version 0. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title. Two open questions were released. 2009 (2.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation. 2009 (2.1.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released.1.8a July 5.1. 2009 (2. Version 0.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow .1. Add the open question concept. Add some examples to static chapter.8 Aug 6.5 Nov 01. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.

LIST OF TABLES

Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene). Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.

xxiii

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The Thermodynamics chapter was released. The mechanics chapter was released. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).

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” line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES. merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. . we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Permission is granted to copy.Texts. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code. to permit their use in free software.xxxii LIST OF TABLES version” applies to it.. replace the ”with. Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts. you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. or some other combination of the three. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that speciﬁed version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. with the FrontCover Texts being LIST. such as the GNU General Public License. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License. no Front-Cover Texts. and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”. with no Invariant Sections. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts. include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright ©YEAR YOUR NAME. Version 1. and no BackCover Texts. If you have Invariant Sections.. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written.

) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. date.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. Dec. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). etc. Contact at: barmeir at gmail.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. time. contact info.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. Minor contributions (typo corrections.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. 2009 xxxiii . Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. etc. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully.

John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. describing how you contributed to the book. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example. Contact at: my email@provider. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. Dan H. Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms.net . Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009.

help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues).38) by Michal Zadrozny.CREDITS xxxv Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. (Nov 2010) . (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan. Tousher Yang April 2008. Gupta. Corretion to equation (2. January 2008. review of statics and thermo chapters.

xxxvi LIST OF TABLES .

As the change in the view occurred. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. books and software. R. In his early part of his professional life. Spain. the author’s models were used in numerical works.G. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump).About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. All the models have practical applicability. in GM. Eckert. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). For example.D.E. xxxvii . this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. Now. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. In the area of compressible ﬂow. and Canada. Moreover. Dr. Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. Currently. British industry.

In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. . The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. A past project of his was building a four stories house. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. practically from scratch. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. The author lives with his wife and three children. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. the author just know to learn quickly. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas.

wikipedia. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. like an open source. xxxix .org/wiki/Main Page). 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. However. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber.law. Kook. one should increase wisdom. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. Hence.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. On one hand. As individuals we have to obey the law. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. one of this author’s sages. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. the creation of the POTTO Project.harvard.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). As R. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. is a new idea3 . The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. There is always someone who can add to the book. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system.

The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections.. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). but also students who happened to be doing their homework. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. In these cases.ex. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. The social function can have at least two components.uk/bugclub/raiders. 1989 (see for information http://www. For others. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. Nigel R.xl LIST OF TABLES related problems. Thus. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes.” American Scientist. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. one also begins to better understand the material. 77:139. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. For example. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. Thus. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. For some contributors/authors. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. For some authors. It is not just for experts to contribute. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. Whatever the reasons.html) . To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. While one can be as creative as possible.ac. In a way. The answer varies from individual to individual.

These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. while in other cases only the gate keeper. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books.000 copies a month. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world). Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. Farassat. Even if not complete. It is hoped that the books will be error-free. Thus. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. For example. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. NASA Langley Research Center. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. Nevertheless. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). Additionally. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. . These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books.CREDITS xli process. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. But more than that. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. some errors are possible and expected. Unlike a regular book. These data (tables. graphs and etc. In addition. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. Thus.” In this process. etc. Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC).

) are already presented.0. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. but it has roots in the way science progresses.0 0. and special cases.0. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form. etc.2 0.0 0.xlii Table -1. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.0 0.4. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active.1.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s).3 0. ﬁgures. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written. advanced topics.01 TelAviv’notes 0.0.1 0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion.0. and all of the examples and data (tables.0.0. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section.0.0 0. However. a process in which books .1 0.0.8. Books under development in Potto project.0.

i. Abiword. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. Again. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. only LTEX. are not appropriate for these projects. writing examples. A new version is created every several years. who passed way some years ago. Further. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. 6 Originally authored by Dr. such as OpenOﬃce.. But more A than that. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Schlichting. The text processes. because of the open nature of this project. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. which include the actual writing of the text. However. pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books.e. Word processors. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. and Microsoft Word software. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. and perhaps troﬀ. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. especially LTEX. . are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality.CREDITS xliii have a new version every a few years. many of whom volunteered to help.

xliv LIST OF TABLES .

Even in this early development stage.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality.Prologue For This Book Version 0. In fact. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. chemical engineering. and civil engineering. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering. it is very satisfying for the author. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book. 2008 pages 151 size 1. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xlv . Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations.8 August 6. so much energy). and electrical engineering. Version 0. in this version. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. Now. aerospace engineering. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. This author was bothered by this explanation.1 April 22. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea. 2008 pages 189 size 2.1.

For example. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. this is the only reply. and their colleagues. Today. The next topic is statics. Eckert. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. will be presented next (again under construction). One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. With all the above. Clearly. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. he just doesn’t know from where and what. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. however. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow. aside from his research activity. Eckert. dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).R. At this stage. some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. In this book it is hoped to insert. . not a traditional topic. When the Static Chapter was written. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. Up to Egret’s book. anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing. what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. as a traditional textbook. on compressible ﬂow. show me what is wrong”.G. met its opposition. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. the previous book. The book is organized into several chapters which. there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic.xlvi LIST OF TABLES previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Indeed. ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. However. must be taught in engineering classes. multiphase is an advance topic. Ernst Schmidt.

multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir.” Later. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. xlvii . The graphics were done by TGIF. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell. The chapters are not written in order. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. So. and more hands–on approach. The structure of Hansen. The approach adapted in this book is practical. The spell checking was done by ispell. Otherwise. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. this book avoids this kind of issues. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. and is copyleft by him. The ﬁgures were done by gle. Streeter and Wylie. In writing this book.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. Of course.

xlviii LIST OF TABLES .

naturally. Like all volunteer work." 8 . I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. of the bits moved upon said. without form. However. And the Author there be words. For example. etc. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. you can read just chapter (4). These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are.Preface "In the beginning. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. the POTTO project was and void. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. This book is only to explain his power. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. Basics of Fluid Mechanics. Let This book. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. the power and glory of the mighty God. Nevertheless. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. the present.9 Reading everything will. statics’ equations. and there were words. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. if you need information about. and emptiness was upon the face and files. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. the book is not well organized. Moreover. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. physics. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. 9 At 8 To xlix . which can be very useful for many. This book contains many worked examples. marked with a Mata mark. say.

If you have Internet e-mail access. LTEX knowledge. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. E. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. graphic ability. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. please drop me a line. I am interested in it all. Incorrect language. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail.com”. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. . I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices.l LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. isn’t it?). I would like to especially thank to my adviser. literature review is always good. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. Eckert. Several people have helped me with this book. Dr. ideas. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). errors. rewritten sections. or proofreading. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . Naturally. more fundamental material. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. 10 Dr. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). ignore them please. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. However. whose work was the inspiration for this book. and assistance. If you want to be involved in the editing. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. This material never went through a close content review. G. more mathematics (or less mathematics). I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). directly or indirectly. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. ideas for new areas to cover.com”. In practice. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. graphic design. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. editing. There are also notes in the margin. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. R.

Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. Material can be further illuminate. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. illustration or photo of experiment. At this stage. question.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. Nevertheless. li . Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. mistakes. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. many chapters are missing. These omissions.

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ﬂuid statics. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. For example. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. ﬂow stability. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. and statical conditions in continuous material. ﬂow in enclose bodies. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. etc. glass appears as a solid material. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) 1 . After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. Furthermore.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. motions. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces.CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension. In fact.).

Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . Or. Moreover.1. air with dust particle). After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. -1.2 CHAPTER 1. http://ekkinc. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. For example. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation.

aqueducts were constructed. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. and continue with Empirical Analysis. Newton. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. For example. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be- . there isn’t a clear winner. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. conﬂicts with the reality.) on the principles of buoyancy. For example. Naturally. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. Later. Euler. 1. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. When cities increased to a larger size. Before dealing with the boundaries. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. Bernoulli family.C. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. Yet. At some point. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. Thus.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. As in thermodynamics. turbulence. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. etc. Torricelli.1. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. and D’Alembert. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. to be followed by stability. After his initial work.2.

This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. were Brahms. after World War Two. Prandtl and his students Blasius. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. Fanning. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. Bhuckingham. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). On the “experimental” side. Bossut. d’Aubisson. Dupuit. Taylor. At the end of the twenty century. Weisbach. Therefore. But. Chezy. as in thermodynamics. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. von Karman. resistance by Darcy. and many others. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. Kirchhoﬀ. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. there are many . the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. The experimentalists. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. for example. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Thus. mainly in pipes and open channels area. Rayleigh. However. Rankine. Stanton. and Kelvin. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. considerable contribution were made by Euler. In the middle of the nineteen century. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858).4 CHAPTER 1. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). La Grange. and Poisseuille. Hydraulics. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. people cannot relinquish control. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. Rose. Ganguillet. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. The Navier-Stokes equations. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. the way how it was calculated changed. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. Hagen. Fabre. Meyer. and Manning. Gas Dynamics. This problem led to two consequences. Dubuat. On the theoretical side. Helmhoitz. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. and Aeronautics. Thus. Coulomb.

3. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. But below the critical point. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. for most practical purposes considered. Hence. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends).1. For the discussion here. In this book. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. no shear stress is applied. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. The second quantity discussed here is the area. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. Later. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. then the change of volume is at best 5%. e. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. and it is referred to the direction of the area. 1. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. Thus. the emphasis is on the physics. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. This diﬀerence can be. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version). For example.1). In gaseous phase. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. these programs are as good as the input provided. The area is measured in [m2 ]. under certain limits. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. the pressure has three components. It must be remember that force is a vector. Inc). The traditional quantity. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. In the best scenario. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. So. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). The pressure component in the area . The unit used to measure is [N]. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. For example. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. EKK. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. Thus. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. which is force per area has a new meaning.g it has a direction. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume).

The other two components are referred as the shear stresses.3). Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. Diﬀerent from solid. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. Thus. the density is deﬁned as Fig. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. the velocity of the plate increases also. In solid mechanics.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. the F denotes the force. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. (1. h) (1. 1. U0x F However.2) Where A is the area.3. .2. From solid mechanics study. the density remains constant.6 CHAPTER 1. then. that is. Figure 1. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. F. here it will be treated as a separate issue. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ].2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. After certain sample size. When this assumption is broken. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. -1. -1. In this discussion.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). (1. isn’t it?). the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. it was shown that when the force per area increases. h is the distance between the plates.

4) and (1.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity).9) with equation (1. d = U δt = h δβ (1. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.4) (1. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.7) From Figure 1.11) .1.9) Combining equation (1.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. Hence.5) From equations (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. -1. In steady state.3) (1.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.8) From equation (1.4. the regular approximation provides Fig.4.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1. δt is d = U δt (1.

10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. Assume steady state conditions. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. The property of viscosity.6)) F = 1 × 1. water etc. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules. the following can be written (see equation (1. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. Example 1. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize.1 [m]. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1.069 × 0. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air.45[N ] h 0.5 m/sec. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. In fact.8 CHAPTER 1. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. Equation (1.5 A µU ∼ = 53. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. Solution . Thus.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerin. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow.1[m] diameters with height of 0. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1.2[m] and 0.01 End Solution Example 1.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant.

Thus.4 ¡ M= ∼ . The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature.986 0. In gases. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. In liquids. The same way as in example (1. the Fig.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second.5. Thus. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature.5. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. as pl do ne Ne r-P wt ic eu ct ei pe re ho ps R on ia n hi lip tic po ff di la ta n t .1 × 12/60 = 0. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. -1. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids families.5.1). thus. in gases. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature.5 Viscosity 1.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature.13 h 0. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases.1. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1. while in the dU liquids. and it resists the ﬂow. However.

It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.13) The new coeﬃcients (n. both materials are only a function of the temperature. From the physical point of view. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate.13) are constant. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity. On the liquid side below the critical point. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. Well above the critical point. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. 1.10 CHAPTER 1. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. -1. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. The viscosity coeﬃcient is .2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. K) in equation (1. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress.6.7. Not all the materials obey this relationship. -1.5.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. Figure 1.5).

VISCOSITY 11 always positive. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.8.000025 0. the liquid is dilettante. However.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1.003 0.7. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. When n is below one. for most practical purposes.0028 0. The liquids which satisfy equation (1. eds. In the simple case. When n.000015 0.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. cosity is deﬁned as 0. Ferraris.0004 0. S. 1. Mindess and J. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . de Larrard and N.0022 0. Materials Science of Concrete VI. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids.0016 0. Skalny. For example. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.1. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation.0006 0. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress.0012 0. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form.0014 0. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second. This fact explains Fig..00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity.0024 0. However. Martys. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids.5). These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition.5.5. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.0002 5.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. -1. F.e-05 0. The kinematic vis.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature. 1 C. [m2 /sec].0008 0. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity.0018 0. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms).of the temperature.0026 0. is above one.002 0.

07 + 120 µ = 0.00001827 × × 0. . 2008 0.555 × 800 + 120 800 524. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.002 0. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases. have expressions that provide an estimate.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . T T0 3 2 (1.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature.9. For isothermal ﬂow. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.07 3 2 ∼ 2.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. Water viscosity as a func1.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.1. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.1 Example 1. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature.8 and Fig.001 0. Use the data provide in Table 1. -1. Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0.12 CHAPTER 1.9.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.710−5 .5. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.555 × 524. For many gases. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.

VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.00000982 0.07 527.0000076 0.0002018 0.67 524.67 518.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.1.2.0000876 0.0000109 0.67 528.5.93 540. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0. .0000203 0.00001720 0.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.00001827 0.0001781 0.0000146 0. Viscosity of selected gases.05 528.00001480 0.1.0001254 Table -1.99 526.

069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1. Viscosity of selected liquids.15-0.01915 0.001194 0.084 0.098 0.000245 0.986 5-20 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.001547 0.000946 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1. .05 0.000647 0.14 CHAPTER 1.200 0.6 0.54 1.3.072 0.

if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point.016 4.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications.01 32. Government Printing Oﬃce.4 or similar information.9696 2. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2. -1. if one point is well documented.5. Washington D.7 647. Furthermore. Even when there is a solidiﬁ.4 190. for practical purpose.07 16.8 132 304. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties). Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.944 131.0 21. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.C. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.7685 36.3 19.9 15 Table -1.003 20.97 44. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).40685 22.289945 27.2 154.4 305. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.865925 50.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. Tr .S.5 2.183 39.3 5. Pr = P/Pc are drawn. 258. 19.54 15.8823 73.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. In this graph.256425 48.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook. then the critical . Furthermore. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. cation (mushy zone).3 28.0 0.0 15. The second way.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. Vol.04 Tc [K] 33. other points can be estimated.83865 46. The lines of constant relative pressure.358525 48. The lower pressure is.0 18.47 2.5 151 289. ∼ 1[bar]. In Figure 1.636 58. this graph also shows the trends.1.10.00 30. May 1995 p. Liquid Metal viscosity 2. Figure 1.26 44.5 1.4 49.4.Fig.6 26.

In this book.4 50.2 = 21. For most 3 Kyama.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1.18) The third way. Example 1. Even for homogeneous mixture. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 . Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. when none is available. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1.35[Bar] Tc = 154. 2 1956.15 ∼ 2.11 (1. . End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.35 373. Rev. Makita. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1. 26 No. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1.41 154.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.

The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components.22) Here.5. cases.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0. -1. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. 2008 Fig. The subscript i should be used for the j index. xi is the mole fraction of component i.11. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. and µi is the viscosity of component i.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1.1. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. .2 Pr=0.

µ 0. Mole Fraction. 2008 Fig. -1. Example 1.4 Tr=1.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.0000203 0. M 32.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen. 28. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight.8 Viscosity. O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.00001754 .1 Tr=1.2 0.12.2 Tr=1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2. x 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Tr=0.18 6 CHAPTER 1.

0 19 µmix ∼ 0.0000203 0. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.0000181 0.143 0. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.00105 N sec .0000182 .23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.0024 0.8 × 1. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted. End Solution In very low pressure.2 × 0. in theory.0 1. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.8 × 0. An example for values for this formula.001 kN .0 Φij 1. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.0 1.0215 N sec . This equation (1.5.875 1. m2 Figure 1.0000073 kN . µ0 = 0.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0.0024 0.157 .24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.2 × 1.25) .0 + 0.0 µi /µj 1.996 1.1.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.2 × 0. m2 m2 and τs = 0. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.8 × 1.996 + 0.86 1.0 1.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture.

c) Example 1.7: A square block weighing 1.0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0.6: An inside cylinder with a radius of 0. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31. The surface is covered with oil ﬁlm. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders.a) .VI. The oil force a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m] thick. hence.1 × 1[rad/second] = 0.4 revolution per second. Estimate the liquid viscosity used between the cylinders.1 The used moment is dU M =µ = 100 ×2 × 0. dU ∼ 0.2 [m]. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity proﬁle in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0.VI.1 [m] rotates concentrically within a ﬁxed cylinder of 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress.101 [m] radius and the cylinders length is 0.VII.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C.101 − 0. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear.26) Example 1.a) The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero.2 = dr End Solution dU dr (1.20 and CHAPTER 1.VI.1 × π × 0. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec].1 − 0 (1.1[m/s] (1.

In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius.6.VII.6 Fluid Properties The ﬂuids have many properties which are similar to solid. FLUID PROPERTIES The total ﬁction force is then f = τ A = 0.a) T = 0 2 r τ dA = 2 0 2µr ωr 2 π r dr δ (1. Rotating disc in a steady state.1.13. The rest of the properties lumped into this section.8: Develop an expression for estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap.c) End Solution Example 1.b) The results of the integration is F = π µ ω R4 δ (1. In addition the diﬀerential area also increases and is a function of r.VIII.VII. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This shear stress can be integrated for the entire area as R R (1.c) End Solution 1. .b) (1. Solution δ Fig. r and expression has to be developed for it. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. U = 3 U The gravity force that act against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = m g sin 20◦ = 3 U =⇒ U = m g sin 20◦ = 3 21 (1. The edge eﬀects can be neglected.1 × 30.VIII.VIII. -1. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω.

IX. The change of density is reversed of the change of volume. it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible. Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C.IX.IX. Examples to described usage of property are provided. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.IX. For this example. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric.b) where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2. The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is thermal expansion V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T ) 3 (1.6.IX.1 Fluid Density The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P or using equation (1.22 CHAPTER 1. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank. E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2.15 109 = End Solution 3 (1. State your assumptions.IX.a) The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables. Example 1. As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 .a) (1 + α∆ T ) = 3 (1.d) or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α.9: A steel tank ﬁlled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C.e) .c) E − ∆P E (1.

80 1.10 1.20 1.06 1. The .5 0. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.03-4.15-2.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1. FLUID PROPERTIES 23 1.064 [MPa] In the literature. Table -1.32 1.49 0.5. Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to ﬁt energy–volume data.74 [MPa] 4. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.174 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.2 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).09 1.28 2. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.34 1. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned.97 2.3 [Mpa] nf 7.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.6.49 [MPa] 6.5 [Bar] 172. Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries).2-28.096 K Pc 57.5 2.62 1.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.79 K na 647.5.109 [MPa] na 22.60 1.6.00 [MPa] Est 78.3 4.1.52 26.

32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).33) From equation (1. .34) T Equation (1.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.24 CHAPTER 1.33) follows that ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v dv dT =− P =const v (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T.35) The last equation (1. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1. In contrast.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1. and therefore equation (1. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. These deﬁnitions are related to each other. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away.32) On constant pressure lines. dP = 0.

Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1.1.11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 . FLUID PROPERTIES 25 Example 1.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0. State your assumptions. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2. The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases.12: Two layers of two diﬀerent liquids are contained in a very solid tank.a) air (or gas) Oil (liquid 1) h1 Water (liquid 2) h2 Fig.XII. The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 .14. .15 109 . -1. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.XII.14.b) ∆P ∆V /V (1.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.00035 End Solution Example 1.01 = 2.6. Two liquid layers under pressure. The new pressure is P1 .15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution Example 1.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar].

Suddenly. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored. calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods.55 ∗ 10− 7 Another user suggest that: We are supposed to use the bulk modulus from our textbook.14: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1.2 ∗ 101 0. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure. For this example.26 CHAPTER 1.655L right? In this post several assumptions were made. P1 = −BT ∆V /V with the suggested solution of I am assuming that I have to look for ∆V as that would be the water that comes out causing the change in volume.31(1000)/(0. How many liters of water come out? Relevant equations and data suggested by the user were: BT = 0. In some places the ocean deepth is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers).31 m3 is to be tested. So with this bulk modulus. Anything else would give a wrong answer in the system.12. Solution For the the ﬁrst method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1. What is the correct way to solve this problem. The vessel is entirely ﬁlled with water. P1 = P0 + ρ g h. A cylindrical steel pressure vessel with volume 1.2x101 0N/m2 . and that one is 0. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1.a) . a safety plug on the top bursts.c) End Solution Example 1.13: In internet the following problem (whith latex modiﬁcation) was posted which related to Pushka equation. ∆V = −V (∆P )/BT = −1.XIV. then a piston at one end of the cylinder is pushed in until the pressure inside the vessel has increased by 1000 kPa. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom.XII. Example 1. is 0.2x101 0)∆V = 6.

XIV.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 .f) can be converted to diﬀerential equation when the two sides under diﬀerentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1.1. It is convenient to change further equation (1.h) The solution is (1.XIV.g) (1.c) Combining equation (1.e) 0 Equation (1.6.i) or rearranged as ρ= 4 Under (1.XIV.XIV.j) construction .XIV.XIV. FLUID PROPERTIES 27 The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1.XIV.XIV.d) =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ(x)dx 1− ρ0 g BT x ρ(x)dx 0 (1.c) yields ρ(x) = g V −V Equation can be rearranged to be ρ(x) = V 1− m g BT x 0 m x ρ(x)dx BT (1.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is x ∆P = g 0 ρ(x)dx (1.XIV.XIV. .XIV.b) with equation (1.f) The integral equation (1.XIV.XIV.XIV.e) to 1− g BT x ρ(x)dx = 0 ρ0 ρ(x) (1.

XV.XIV. is c= BT = ρ0 B T BT − g ρ0 x BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1.a) Calculate the time it take for a sound wave to propogate from the surface to a depth D penpendicular the surface.XIV. the desnitsy is diﬀerent for evry point since the density varies and the desnity is a function of the depth.b) The time the sound travel a small intervel distance.XV. the salinity can be complity ignored. it was shown in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” by this author that the speed of sound is c= BT ρ (1.c) .e) is ρ0 B T ρ0 =⇒ ρ= g (1. For constant bulk modulus. For the purpose of this excerss.k) In the “constant” density approach. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = Hence the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ0 x + BT (1. the density at the bottom using equation (1.XV. Solution The equation for the sound speed is taken here as correct for very local point. x. The speed of sound at any depth point. However.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT End Solution Advance material can be skipped Example 1. Assume that no variation of the temperatuere.l) ρ0 B T BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1. dx is dτ = dx BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1.28 CHAPTER 1. That is the density is function of the depth.XIV.15: Water in deep sea undergoes compresion due to hydrostic pressure.XIV.

d) BT − g ρ0 x 0 ρ0 The solution of equation (1.27) or (1.38) (1. another approach with taking into account the energy-volume is needed.f) (1. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the ﬁrst will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change. FLUID PROPERTIES 29 The time takes for the sound the travel the whole distance is the integration of inﬁnitesimal time D dx t= (1. Thus.1.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1.36) The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present.XV. The deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added in special way.1 Bulk Modulus of Mixtures In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure.36) into equation (1.d) is t= √ ρ0 2 BT − 2 BT − D (1.e) The time to travel according to the standard procedure is √ D ρ0 D t= = √ BT BT ρ0 The ratio between the corrected estimated to the standard caclulation is √ √ √ ρ0 2 B T − 2 B T − D √ correction ratio = D ρ0 √ BT End Solution (1.XV. in special mixture.XV.XV.6. the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1. In case the total change isn’t.XV.6.37) .37) results in ∂V = V1 ∂P V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.g) 1.2. In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented.

It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization).40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1. using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1.41) Equation (1. surface tension. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension.42) In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1.39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1. The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence. In many (physics.41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.39) Where x1 .40) Rearranging equation (1. . Hence.7 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found.30 CHAPTER 1. x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V .43) End Advance material 1. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and bubbles. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or materials.

The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side R1 is Po . the horizontal forces x cancel each other because symmetry. inner and outer.46) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1. A soap bubble is made of two layers. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size.45) is reduced to 2σ ∆P = (1. the equation (1.44) For a very small area. The second with two equal radii. .45) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β).45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C.47) R Where R is the radius of the sphere. Condℓ2 sider a small element of surface.15.45) Equation (1. SURFACE TENSION 31 The relationship between 2dβ1 the surface tension and the presy sure on the two sides of the sur2dβ2 face is based on geometry.16: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury. The forces in scribing principals radii.7. Thus. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance Fig. Furthermore.1. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . -1. In the vertical direction.48) Example 1.44) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1. Surface tension control volume analysis dethe surface tension. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1. Thus. When the surface tension R2 dℓ1 is constant. the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1.

025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube.32 CHAPTER 1.021[m]. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1.c) b & W g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & Or after simpliﬁcation h= 2σ gρr (1.XVI. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that several forces act on it.e) End Solution Example 1. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P .b) The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magniﬁed glass are A b & P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W or ∼0 ∼0 (1. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume. which contains n bubbles with equal radii.16.49) . r. Estimate the depression size. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The inner diameter is 0.17: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid.d) (1.XVI. Glass tube inserted into mercury. -1. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.XVI.02[m] σ 1. However. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0.16). As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0.5 Fig. It can be assume that the h 0.02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0.XVI.a) This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled.XVI. if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable diﬀerent the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1.

Solution In Figure 1.17.001[m].17 exhibits the liquid under the current study. The question when the curveture should be ansered in the Dimentional analysis and for simpliﬁcation this eﬀect is neglected.51) . SURFACE TENSION 33 The minimum work will be for a reversible process. Assume that the contact angle is 0circ (the maximum possible force). The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1. The net forces in the vertical direction (positive upwords) per unit length are 2σ cos 0◦ = g h ρ =⇒ h = Inserting the values into equation (1.05 = 0. that is the work is done on the system. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 .8 × ×1000 (1.47) for reversible process.7. It can be noticed that the work is negative. End Solution Example 1.51) resutls in h= 2 × 0. The vertical forces acting on the body are the gravity. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. The distance between the two plates is and the and surface tension is σ. It is worth noting that for very slow process.18: Calcualte the rise of liquid between two dimentional parallel plates shown in Figure 1.17. the contol volume is taken just above the liquid and the air part is neglected. Thus. Cumpute the value for sufrace tension of 0. Capilary rise between two plates. the pressure above and below and surface tension. The reversible process requires very slow compression. the density 1000[kg/m3 ] and distance between the plates of 0.05[N/m].1. It can be noted that the pressure and above are the same with the exception of the curveture on the upper part.50) Where. ℓ h Fig.001 × 9. Notice that previously a rise for circular tube was developed which diﬀerent from simple one dimensional case.52) 2σ ρg (1. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. -1.

For example. liquid.19: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders. conG sider the point where three phases became in contact.b) can be simpliﬁed 2σ h= (1. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.34 CHAPTER 1.XIX.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1. Thus. This contact point occurs due to free surface S L reaching a solid boundary.XIX.b) (1. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid. In Figure 1.a) The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1.XIX. and gas can be ignored. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simpliﬁed as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1.18. -1. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and Fig. the solid phase. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β (1.XIX.18. equation (1. Solution The diﬀerence lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise. Forces in Contact angle.7.54) (1.53) . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS End Solution Example 1.

55) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞.76 to π/3. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon.53). chemical component Steel Steel. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids. The contact angle for air. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. On the other hand. the solid reaction force must be zero. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries.19.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Contact Angle π/3. a contact angle is created to balance it.7 π/6 to π/4. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1.53) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β 35 (1. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas fluid Wetting solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. -1.19).74 π/4.74 to π/3.5 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] . Table -1.1. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting). The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. gas medium and the solid surface.6. So. This statement is correct in most cases. The surface tension forces must be balanced. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight. thus. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid.54) into equation (1. The surface tension is a molec. SURFACE TENSION substituting equation (1. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well.Fig. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1.7 π/4. Thus.83 π/3.83 π/4.7. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. For example. however.

(continue) chemical component Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle mN m π/3. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. A. -1. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer.372. 1975 2 Bergles A.” J. Heat Transfer 115. 124. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water. W. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . No 12. the pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface.. G. N.. R. and Ostrovsky. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.. E. I.. H. 4 Arefeva E. No 1. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. Aladev O. J. 56. C. Symp. and Rohsenow W. Vol. pp. V. G. In Figure 1. and Dhir. 8 Wang.6. Ser. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency. vol 1 pp 365 .” Chem. and Dhir. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1. R. ASME. Heat Transfer. pages 1465-1470.. 7 Gaetner.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. 5 Labuntsov D. Prog.I. The contact angle for air.I. Pages 509 .517.. and Westwater. Siegel.20 describes the raising h P0 P0 P0 Fig.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. Eng.N. Vol.. M. 3 Tolubinsky. Description of liquid surface. J. V.T.20. F... K. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii.36 CHAPTER 1. Energetika I transport. V. K. 9.20. papes 717 -728. (1993). 6 Basu.. Y. Warrier. E.. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1.4 π/3. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. .

59) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.58) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as 1-D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ 1+ dh dx 2 3/2 2 3/2 (1. The pressure. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1.7.57) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1.56) The radius of any continuous function.57) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x.57) into equation (1. is the atmospheric pressure.60) . h = h(x).20).46) is applicable to it.58) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 (1.1.46) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields g h(x).56) yields g h(x) ρ = σ ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1. x+dx. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points). SURFACE TENSION 37 of the liquid as results of the surface tension. Appalling equation (1. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in the Figure 1. on the gas side. Substituting equation (1.58) − d2 h =0 dx2 (1. ρ = σ R(x) (1. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. Equation (1.

61) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.64) Equation (1.38 CHAPTER 1.63) At inﬁnity.64) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1. The diﬀerential dh is h. Using dummy variable and the ˙ ¨ ˙ identities h = ξ and hence. . the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence. Equation (1.67) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.66) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx 5 This 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.60) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 dh (1. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1. constant = −1 .62) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.65) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.64) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 . this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations. Shamefully.61) into 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.62) After the integration equation (1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.

This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension. However. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1. otherwise it will not be there. SURFACE TENSION or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 39 = dx −1 (1. in reality there is no readily information for actual contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful 0 R to show the treads. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. The raising height as a function of the radii.7.68) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp - (1. -1.68) Equation (1.70) becomes working range hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r { (1. Furthermore.1. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 .1. Fig.21.70) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. there are information about the contact angle.6. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited. In that case equation (1. h But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Theory contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given.70) Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the gas density and r is the radius of tube.69) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0. . this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?. 1. However.1 Capillarity The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). that information conﬂict each other and no real information is available see Table 1.7. This book is introductory.71) 6 Actually.

71) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure.59) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) Fig.9 1. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible.22.22. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. The actual height is shown in the red line.21: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.2 1.47).02 cm. -1. Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0.20: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ].71) with a minus sign.71) is shown in Figure 1.71).6 0. tremely small radii equation (1.7 Radii [cm] May 29. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. . h is similar to equation (1.3 0.2 0.0728 = ∼ 2.40 CHAPTER 1. For a small tube radius.4 2.6 0.4 0. On the other hand. equation (1. In conclusion. For large radii equation (1.” The depression height.71) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.7.21. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1.22 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube.59) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity eﬀect).912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution Example 1.21 as blue line.5 1. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed.8 Height [cm] 0. The raising height as a strong gravity eﬀect. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.function of the radius.1 2. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1. Furthermore. Equation (1. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle. for ex. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm].0 0. The height based on equation (1.8 2. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Capilary Height 1. 2008 Example 1.0 0.2 1. However.0 Figure 1.

Therefore.88 39.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.001 [m].0728 ∼ . End Solution Example 1. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0. However.50 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C - correction mN mK n/a -0.22: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0. the pressure diﬀerence between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa].0[N/m2 ] r 0.7. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Surface Tension 27.7.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C.00 45. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.1066 -0.0920 -0. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.6 25.0002 End Solution 41 Example 1. Neglect the weight of the ring.1085 -0.1.04 × 0.95 36.1120 -0.1160 .4 28. SURFACE TENSION Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.1291 -0. Estimate the surface tension? Solution To be continue End Solution Table -1.20 43.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.23: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0.

42 CHAPTER 1.85 11.0777 -0.1484 -0.30 23.1172 -0.00 36.91 14.1011 n/a -0.20 47.0842 n/a -0.60 n/a 54-69 28.20 ∼ 21 64. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Surface Tension 36.0966 -0.0 22.7.0972 -0.0902 -0.30 43.12 33.1094 -0.70 26.4 mN m T 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C 25◦ C - correction mN mK -0.50 23.15 43.95 34.70 38.50 28.50 41.0 12.70 38.1118 n/a n/a -0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1.10 32.1191 -0.00 41.1308 -0.90 43.6 5.50 24.067 -0.1063 -0.8 32.60 22.10 22.1117 n/a -0.0773 -0.70 58.1295 -0.0-48.10 29.40 32.1211 -0.1177 -0.1189 .12 425-465.1159 -0.20 24.60 27.1372 -0.1037 -0.0832 -0.0890 -0.1160 -0.3 22.1100 n/a n/a -0.0935 -0.0 0.0598 n/a -0.1484 -0.2049 -0.

80 30.1101 -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) 43 chemical component Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene Surface Tension mN m T - correction mN mK 27 72. SURFACE TENSION Table -1.7.90 n/a -0.7.1514 -0.10 28.1.1104 .

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS .44 CHAPTER 1.

CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. Work In mechanics. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. The dimensions of this material can be changed.1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. Two. 45 . So. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. 2. In this deﬁnition.1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law).

4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2. chemical potential. A common body force is the gravity. and electrical energy. The statement describing the law is the following. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results.2) The system energy is a state property. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. The kinetic energy is K. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2. The “new” internal energy. work. etc. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration). There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy.3) Interesting results of equation (2. For such body force.E. = mU 2 2 (2.5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2. potential energy (gravity). the conservation is applied to all systems. Eu . m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. . The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property.6) 2 (2. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. is the internal energy per unit mass.46 CHAPTER 2. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2.

Hence. choosing any point in time will make it correct.1.9) (2. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2. If there is no lost.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative.12) The last integral can go though several states.7) In the same manner.13) . Bf .11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. These states are independent of the path the system goes through.8) For the case were the body force. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2. δQ =0 T (2. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass. BASIC DEFINITIONS 47 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points.10) The time derivative operator. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2.2. the integral is independent of the path.

It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. it still remail valid for all situations. The equation (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . the enthalpy of the system.19) (2.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process. isn’t correct.21) ρ .18) the (2. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as.17) (2.16) into (2.16) (2. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. Thus.18) For isentropic process.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy.15) (2.48 CHAPTER 2. Thus. equation (2. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.20) (2. For reversible process equation (2. h. Furthermore. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2.

22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero. k. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2.26) .24) For solid. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant.3145 kj kmol K (2.1. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2. pressure.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. Normally the relationship of temperature. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations.25) Application of Avogadro’s law. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. 49 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions.2. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C.

0413 1.6385 0.7448 1.29637 2.28700 0.25983 0.124 44.970 39.400 1. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.2518 3.3122 1.393 1.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.2537 1.4897 1.8723 0.999 44.6618 1.50 CHAPTER 2.1156 10.0416 1.044 1.5482 5.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.7113 0.04 20.4108 1.016 16.07703 4.5734 0.07279 0.186 1.237 1. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.1.126 1.7164 0.27650 0.0035 0. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.6794 1.409 1.0299 1.1926 14.29) (2.7662 1.29680 0.948 58.7354 0.667 1.400 1.4909 1.28) .299 1. Table -2.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.20813 0.51835 0.12418 0.6529 0.9216 1.667 1.7165 0.5203 1.013 114.18855 0.14304 0.327 From equation (2.0849 1.1.289 1.091 1.8418 1.667 1.2091 2.29683 0.097 18.01 30.41195 0.18892 0.48152 1.003 2.183 28.07 28.054 4.01 28.6179 0.7445 1.400 1.230 31.

1).31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2.32) (2.30) Utilizing equation (2. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.28) and subsisting into equation (2.38) .36) (2.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2.1. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 51 (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F. ∆s = 0. k value ranges from unity to about 1.667.2.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2. of Classical thermodynamics.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.

39) . REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas. This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.52 CHAPTER 2.

t in a location. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory.2) Example 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics).CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components. R . 3.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 53 . The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results.

t and three equations.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.a) and substituting into equations (3. U . θ.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3. Isolating t from (3. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.I.I. . (3.I.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.I.I. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window.I.I.I.c) b= and equation (3.I.I. Calculate what is the veFig.a). The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.b) and (3.54 CHAPTER 3.c) can be solved explicitly.I. dow. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3. To simplify the calculations. There there are three unknowns.1.e) into (3.c) These nonlinear equations (3.11 . and time. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3.f) (3. For given velocity. -3.I.I. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.I.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.b) and (3.I.

The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. ﬁrst.2. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. -3. the body will not rotate. the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. 3. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). CENTER OF MASS 55 3.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. moment of inertia.3) z Here. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). The density. Thus. center of the mass and two. etc. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. In same is calculated. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force).2.4) where xi is the direction of either. the x mass. Here. m is the total mass of the object.Fig. Also. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. In other words. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction.2. Note. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions. y or z.3. . The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. x.2. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. rho) as a function of the location. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. In x coordinate.

Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3.8) . t.3 which has density. the body was a three dimensional shape. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. Thin body center of mass/area The density.7) If the density is constant then equation (3.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. Thus equation (3. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case. are constant and can be canceled. 3. 3. Furthermore. Thus. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. equation (3. ρ.56 CHAPTER 3. schematic.3.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3. ρ and the thickness.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3.5) Fig. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.2. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. -3.

1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. The schematic that explains the sum- (3. . MOMENT OF INERTIA 57 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.12) x= y2 + z2 (3.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3.10) 3.15) mation of moment of inertia. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3.4.13) y’ C z Thus.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.3.3.2. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia. -3.3.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.3.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.2 3. equation (3.

18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3.58 CHAPTER 3.22) .21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig.5. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3. -3. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.17) equation (3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.16) 3.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.19) Hence.5 and therefore.2. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.3.

.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. -3.3.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3. Fig. For example. End Solution Fig.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. r0 . Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.3.7. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 59 Equation (3. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. -3.7 around x coordinate.6.6.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. as shown in Figure 3.3. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. dr r 3. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3.

-3. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3. b has no eﬀect on the error. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness.Fig.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations.60 CHAPTER 3. Ad.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3.8. The results are present in Figure 3. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3. February 28. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. 2 This . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3. -3. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3.24) to write as t/2 Fig.9. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.9.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 .

11.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page). There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area).10.V. Hint. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig.b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3.11. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular.3. y = αx2 .c) Example 3.V. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3. -3. -3. Solution dx dy y r x 61 2b 2a Fig. Hint. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3. depicted in Figure 3. Use this area to calculate moment of inertia. b/α.V. calculate the area ﬁrst. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. Rectangular Moment of inertia.10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3.20).3.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .a) The second integration ( no need to use (3.

-3.12. Assume that base is a and the height is h. . What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.6). α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3.62 CHAPTER 3. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left. Triangle for example 3. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig. Utilizing equation (3.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. The center of every 2 element is at. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3.7.

The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.3.31) A . End Solution a3 h 2 3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia.3. the product of inertia is commonly used. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3.30) expanding equation (3.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 63 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.28) For example.3.

35) referred as principle system. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero. Example 3. .32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3.35) System which creates equation (3.13.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle. Product of inertia for triangle.64 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. End Solution 3.3. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig. -3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3.

36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. Two. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. dm. stresses). ω×(r × ω).37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A.38) The velocity. ˙ 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. F= ρ rdV V (3. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . thus. Yet. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. Coriolis.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. The same as in the dynamic class. it can be treated as the regular derivative. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3.41) . U is a derivative of the location with respect to time.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 65 3. 2 (Ur × ω). Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume.3. r × ω. the system acceleration called the internal forces. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal.4. Angular. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added.

The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. The force can be written. (3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3.43) m It can be noticed (well. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force.5. .1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. 3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane. in the same fashion. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.42) where Tτ is the torque.66 CHAPTER 3.44) To understand these equations a bit better.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque.42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 67 Table -3. yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .5. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α .1.

2. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3.68 CHAPTER 3.

gG (x. z).1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or quasi rest. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. Later. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e.g. dy. that pressure can increase and later decrease.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. where n is the steepest 69 . with acceleration. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). In these derivations. 4. Furthermore.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. y. However. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function.1) erated system under body forces. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. a = 0. Fig. -4.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. a as shown in Figure 4. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. several assumptions must be made.1.1.

4) In general. the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.6) Hence. the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). As before. For example. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. Even though. P . the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geﬀ (4. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation. If the pressure. it has a direction).8) (4. the pressure is treated. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. now.2) In the same fashion.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4.7) .70 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4.

However.9) Utilizing equation (4.4. y) = constant (4. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. P .14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. First.12) (4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.3. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.10) and constant in equation (4. 4. Traditionally.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. . These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 Some refer to equation (4. ρ. y. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant.10) can be integrated to yield P (x.9) and substituting it into equation (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.11) (4. it will be used. pressure.3. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. For example.8) as the Fluid Static Equation.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations.11) and therefore P (x. 4. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 . There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. and temperature.

-4.1: Two chambers tank depicted in Figure 4.2.4 are in equilibration. If the air mass at chamber A is 1 Kg while the mass at chamber B is unknown.72 CHAPTER 4.3. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid. the right hand side of the equation (4. It is evident from equation (4. -4. Pressure lines in a static ﬂuid with a constant density. Example 4.15) In the literature.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4. A schematic to explain the measure to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid of the atmospheric pressure. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. Figure 4. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. The diﬀerence in the .2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force.

PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 73 liquid heights between the two chambers is 2[m].d) combining equations (4. The total Fig. The liquid in the two chambers is water.I.a) (4.a).c) The pressure diﬀerence between the liquid interface is estimated negligible the air density as PA − PB = ∆P = h2 ρ g (4.3.e) RT P B VB (4. The area of each chamber is h3 h2 1[m2 ]. Denoting X = mB /mA results in h 2 ρ g m A VA 1 =1− =⇒ X = X RT End Solution 1 h2 ρ g mA VA 1− RT (4.I.b) results in (4.I.I. You can assume ideal gas for the air h1 and the water is incompressible substance with density of 1000[kg/m2 ]. Assume that for accelerated cart. Solution The equation of state for the chamber A is RT PA VA The equation of state for the second chamber is mA = mB = The water volume is Vtotal = h1 A + (h1 + h2 )A = (2 h1 + h2 ) A (4.I. -4.4. Calculate the air mass in chamber B. the chamber are at the same temperature of 27◦ C.I. The eﬀective gravity is height of the tank is 4[m]. Example 4.I.2: .f) The following question is a very nice qualitative question of understanding this concept.I. (4.4.b) h2 ρ g mA VA RT RT 1 = − = h2 ρ g =⇒ 1 − mB VB mA VA m B VB RT mA VA In equation the only unknown is the ratio of mB /mA since everything else is known.

b) h2 h2 hr 21 ρ2 It can be noticed that hH = h1 + h − 2 hence. the lower tube will raise only to (notice that g is canceled) hL = ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ρ2 (4.II. For the case. The way the interpretation of an automobile fuel gage is proportional to the pressure at the bottom of the fuel tank. Part of the tank height is ﬁlled with the water at the bottom (due to the larger density). The common instinct is to ﬁnd that the lower tube will contain the higher liquids.a) Since ρ1 > ρ1 the mathematics dictate that the height of the second is lower. Tank and the eﬀects different liquids. FLUIDS STATICS h1 hL h2 hH Fig.II. The pressure at the bottom is P = Patmos + g (ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ) (4. the lighter liquid is on the top the heavier liquid the the top tube is the same as the surface.74 A tank with opening at the top to the atmosphere contains two immiscible liquids one heavy and one light as depicted in Figure 4. However. hH − hL h1 + h2 = − h2 h2 or hH − hL = h1 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4. -4.d) ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 h 2 ρ2 = h1 h2 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4.c) The only way the hL to be higher of hH is if the heavy liquid is on the top if the stability allow it.II. The diﬀerence is hH − hL hH ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 = − (4. Calculate the error for a give ratio between the fuel density to the water.16) End Solution Example 4. The water also can change measurement of fuel gage.5 (the light liquid is on the top of the heavy liquid).5.3: The eﬀect of the water in the car tank is more than the possibility that water freeze in fuel lines. Which piezometric tube will be higher? why? and how much higher? What is the pressure at the bottom of the tank? Solution CHAPTER 4.II. .

Hence.2 4. Example 4. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.4: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C.III.3. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).85[kg/m3 ]. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane.3.000179264[kPa].c) (4.2.III. The high of the Mercury is 0. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. The description of the height is given in Figure 4.17) . Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity.a) But when water is present the pressure will be the same at Pf ull = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g htotal and if the two are equal at $ $ htotal ¡ ρf $$ g = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g $$ ¡ htotal (4.III. φ= ρf − x ρ w ρf End Solution (4.III.3.4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4.d) 4.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor (4. Equation (4.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Solution 75 The ratio of the fuel density to water density is ς = ρf /ρw and the ratio of the total height to the water height is x = hw /htotal Thus the pressure at the bottom when the tank is full with only fuel Pf ull = ρf htotal g (4.82[m/sec]. The mercury density is 13545. Hence. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.b) where φ in this case the ratio of the full height (on the fake) to the total height. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure.3.

The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. Thus. P valve 2 1 Example 4.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. -4. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . Gas The pressure. Pa = 13545. h . Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other.76 CHAPTER 4. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .6. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube.82 × 0.39[P a] ∼ 1. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.76 ∼ 101095. Locate the liquids surfaces. For smaller width. The ratio of the Fig. FLUIDS STATICS The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore.85 × 9. U tube is L.5: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0. L. End Solution The main reason the mercury is used because of its large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.

2. -4.3. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure.7 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to ρ1 be measured (see Figure 4. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement that can be ρ1 ρ1 extended to measure the pressure of the gas chambers.2. In steady state. In the previous technique. Figure 4. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). thus the height become large.19) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides.7. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 77 4. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected.3. The densities of the two sides are very close to each other.6).3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. 4. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. Schematic of sensitive measurement device. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading.18) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence.Fig.4. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min. This way. This technique utilizes the opposite range. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that .3.

19) the gas density was neglected. This method is an attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. in writing equation (4. 3 This author’s personal experience while working in a ship that use this manometer which is signiﬁcantly inaccurate (ﬁrst thing to be replaced on the ship). it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. (4. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density. Inclined manometer. if the volumes in two containers are equal then h2 A2 (4.21) A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. Additional parameter. caused air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height. But this ratio can be inserted easily into the derivations.20) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4.24) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4.22) For the small value of the area ratio. Additionally. With the equation for height (4. For example. The equation (4. the volume ratio. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4. Due to surface tension. A2 /A1 << 1. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause a signiﬁcant complications. ρ2 .19) becomes −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4.24) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 .78 CHAPTER 4. . FLUIDS STATICS two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid.21).23) becomes h2 = (4. then equation (4.25) If there is a insigniﬁcant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is signiﬁcant). -4.21) equation (4. Here.18) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ P1 − Poutside = ρ g d Fig. In this method.8. Thus.23) A2 A1 (4. a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 .8). Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer.

9. Thus equation (4. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure.26) 1 a b 2 (4. For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.27) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4. liquids and other. density and location. This idea is similar to “magniﬁed” manometer but in reversed.27) Fig.26) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4.30) .4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Inverted U-tube manometer The diﬀerence in the pressure of two diﬀerent liquids is measured by this manometer. -4.3. 4. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus.28) As in the previous “magniﬁed” manometer if the density diﬀerence is very small the height become very sensitive to the change of pressure.29) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in g dz dP =− P RT (4. The pressure line are the same for both legs on line ZZ. it can be written as the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4. 4. As ﬁrst approximation.9).3. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. In the gas phase.3.3. right leg left leg 79 Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4. Thus. Schematic of inverted manometer.

30) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.35) (4. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc .32) and (4. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4. Z. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ).33) (4. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h.32) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor h2 P ρ0 g h − + ··· =1+ 6 P0 P0 2 (4.32) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. the value of the compressibility factor. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. . FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.31) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4. However. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties.34) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 .39). The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. These deviations have a limited practical purpose. Equation (4. In general. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue.31) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.80 CHAPTER 4. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. In these cases.34) Equation (4.36) Without going through the mathematics.33). a numerical integration must be carried out.

with units of length.4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average). If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = BT g ρ0 (4. For these cases.37) The variables for equation (4.40) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.41) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4. So.37) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4.28). Fortunately.3.40) in equation (4.38) The integration of equation (4. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure 81 The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1.41) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. here. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation.3.43) .39) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.38) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.3. The integration constant.40) Equation (4. Utilizing equation (4.42) has units of length. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.39) Equation (4.42) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved.

FLUIDS STATICS e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. The diﬀerence between the two equations is the fact that Example 1. -4.14 is more general which provided a simple solution5 . Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction).” The method described in the Example 1.47) BT P − P0 BT P − P0 + + ··· 2 BT 6 BT It can be noticed that equation (4.14 use the integral equation without using any “equation of state.6: 5 This author is not aware of the “equation of state” solution or the integral solution.45) Fig. The solution is presented in equation (4.45) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. please pass this information to this author.10. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 CHAPTER 4.44) and is plotted in Figure 4. the integral equation uses the fact that the pressure is function of location.l) while here the ratio is expressed by diﬀerent equations. Additionally. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. In Example 1.10.47) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.46) An approximation of equation (4.82 This constant.44) March 11. The comparison between the two methods will be presented. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric corrections 2 3 = z g ρ0 (4. Sometimes. P/BT is small (<< 1). The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density. . However. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. If you know of any of these solutions or similar. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). is a typical length of the problem. pressure (P − P0 ) + Example 4.14 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 z g ρ0 = BT (4. BT /g ρ0 .XIV.

51) (4. Hence.4 4. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure. . just ignore it.49) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. For the atmosphere.50) Separating the variables in equation (4.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.3. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4.). For example. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4.52) Deﬁning a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. Here.3.4. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform.50) with (4. For h = 0. the temperature in the atmostphere is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions.51) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.48) where h here referred to height or distance. If you feel that it is too simple. please.3.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 83 4. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.4.53) 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.

84 CHAPTER 4.55) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one. However.R. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − . h. It has to be noted that these equations (4..57) Equation (4. For engineering purposes. It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer.50). and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient. Cx .e. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. (4.52) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4. Equation (4. inﬂuences at only large values of height. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added.57) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient).56) and (4. I am grateful to my adviser E.55) It can be noticed that equation (4. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4.55) and (4. The simplest assumption to combine these 7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science. The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − .. .56) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i.57) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance.. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.G.. FLUIDS STATICS After the integration of equation (4. Equation (4.54) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 .56) Equation (4. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights.55) represents only the pressure ratio.55) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas. negative direction).

higher heights). the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces.11. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable. Clearly. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. Thus. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. Under equilibrium. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab.4.4. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem). A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition.25). However. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). equation (2. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero.55) is stable and if so under what conditions. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx 85 ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. In reality. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process.11) What could happen? There are Fig.58) Advance material can be skipped 4. Suppose that h for some reason.3. the pressure process is about thousands times faster than the thermal process. . to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. That is. h. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. That is.3. -4. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h).2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. two main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further.

From a mathematical point of view. FLUIDS STATICS The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4.62) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4.86 CHAPTER 4.63) provides the conditions to determine the stability.64) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations.65) .63) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4.60) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh.61) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time).56) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.59) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh..55) but can be approximated by equation (4. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as g ρ Cx gρ > − Pk P T (4.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.58) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.59) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4.62) Expanding equation (4. The process.64) and (4. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.62) in Taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − . Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.

4. Thus. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 87 After rearrangement of the inequality (4.3. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. ρ and the body force. g. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact.4. 4. issues. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup.11) has two r P b ρb terms on the right hand side. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . Thus. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. Fig.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid.will not be introduced here. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero.5. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 . the unstable situation is continuously unstable. -4. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. equation (4.12. . The body force was assumed rb g ∝ r2 until now to be constant.66) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties.65) and using the ideal gas identity. However. The varying gravity eﬀects Thus. Again. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. the density. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid.3. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. Equation (4. At ﬁrst glance.3. it is said that situation is neutral.11) can be used 8 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. the discussion is separated into two diﬀerent on density and pressure.

is employed. FLUIDS STATICS (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4.5.3.71) = = 1− − + . 4. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .67) where G denotes the general gravity constant.70) can be expanded in Taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) (4. Thus..2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility. one can obtain P ρ = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.68) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4. numerical integration is a possible solution.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.69) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4. This equation conﬁrms . It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.68) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4.72) With the same process as before for ideal gas case. As before.68) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. equation (4. The integration of equation (4.73) Equation (4.70) Equation (4. equation (4.88 CHAPTER 4. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. Z.

75) e P0 −P BT = Constant − BT g ρ0 r (4.3. 4..74) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one. If the liquid “equation of state” (4.000 [m].76) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes.3 Liquid Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 89 that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.70) is standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = + . there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.3.40) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4.4. As before Taylor series for equation (4. 1− − ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4.. if applicable. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.78) . it is left for the reader to apply according to problem.75) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4.77) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. This issue is related to Pushka equation that will be discussed later.5. 4. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ (4.

Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.1 a 5 m sec g geﬀ Fig.4. Example 4.7: A tank ﬁlled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. As before. Thus. -4. the previous derivations can be easily extended.13. for the eﬀective gravity (4. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.79) where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4.80) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution 27. Equation (4. The change of the acceleration from the right to left is . The eﬀective angle is obtained by adding vectors. in a two dimensional system. body forces were considered as one-dimensional. However. 4. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order.90 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS 4. In general.81) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations. This question is one of the traditional question of the ﬂuid static and is straight forward.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example. The solution is obtained by ﬁnding the eﬀective angle body force.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity.

83) (4. A cart slide on inclined plane. Calculate the shape of the surface.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. lar to the slope. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces.Fig. what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found. If there is a resistance.8: A cart partially ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4.14. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 91 like subtracting vector (addition negative vector).812 = 11. -4.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4.4. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. α < β. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface.82) ) F (a β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicu.84) (c) .01◦ g 9.14. Thus.4. If there is no resistance. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4. This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ Fnet m (4.

For simpliﬁcation reasons.16. Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4.87) Fig.9: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω.86) (4. The center of rotation is a distance.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig.17.15.9 is provided. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω 2 r2 (4. -4.92 In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero. FLUIDS STATICS ce fa th wi t ic fr n io r su α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4. So.86) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4.85) z r unit mass ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Equation (4. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure. Example 4. Solution . Schematic to explain the angular angle.88) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point. CHAPTER 4. the ﬁrst case deals with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity.4. L from the “left” hand side. That eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. -4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. example 4.

The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?.17 shows the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. equation (4. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity. It is ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption).4. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4.9 is rotating with upper part height of . The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?.87) represent the pressure line.11: In the U tube in example 4.17. Thus. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. End Solution Example 4. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. End Solution Example 4. -4.9.4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same.10: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . At what rotating nt . The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 93 pr es S ω L co xL Fig. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.

94 CHAPTER 4. there might be an additional eﬀects which aﬀecting the situation but these eﬀects are not the concern of this discussion. For the purpose of this book. In one extreme is the equator which the rotation play the most signiﬁcant role. what happen the rotation approach very large value? Advance material can be skipped 4. 9 The image was drawn by Shoshana Bar-Meir. the interest is the calculate the pressure at bottom of the liquid phase.9 modulus and the eﬀect of rotation.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System This author would like to express his gratitude to Ralph Menikoff for suggesting this topic. Two diﬀerent extremes can recognized in ﬂuids between the outer core to the crust. In geological systems such as the Earth provide cases to be used for ﬂuid static for estimating pressure.4. This explaination is provided to understand how to use the bulk Fig. Earth layers not to scale. If this assumption is accepted. and two layers in the liquid phase with a thin crust. outer core. these layers assumption will be used to do some estimates. It is common in geology to assume that the Earth is made of several layers. FLUIDS STATICS velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. In reality.18. -4. inspired from image made by user Surachit . The assumption states that the Earth is made from the following layers: solid inner core.

In this case it also can be noticed that g is a function of r. Thus. In that case.4. r. for simplicity the bulk modulus is assumed to be constant.89) Using equation to express the pressure diﬀerence (see Example 1. The approximate deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is BT = ρ ∆P ρ ∆P =⇒ ∆ρ = ∆ρ BT (4.96) 1 1 − 2 ρ0 2 ρ =G 1 1 − R0 r (4. If the bulk modulus is assumed constant (for simplicity) governing equation can be constructed starting with equation (1.92) is a relatively simple (Fredholm) integral equation.90) In equation (4. Again.XIV.93) ρ0 dρ = − ρ3 r R0 G dr r2 (4.94) is ρ0 2 or ρ= 1 1 2G − 2 ρ0 ρ0 1 1 − R0 r (4.14 for details explanation) as ρ(r) = 1− R0 r ρ0 g(r)ρ(r) dr BT (r) (4.91) ρ(r) = r 1 1− g(r)ρ(r)dr B T R0 The governing equation can be written using the famous relation for the gravity as ρ0 1 =1− ρ(r) BT r R0 G ρ(r)dr r2 (4. The solution of this equation obtained by diﬀerentiation as ρ0 d ρ G + 2ρ = 0 ρ2 dr r Under variables separation the equation changes to ρ ρ0 (4.95) .94) The solution of equation (4.45) or in approximation of equation (1. ρ0 (4.28). the pressure at the bottom of the liquid layer can be estimated using the equation (4. Hence.92) Equation (4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 95 In the other extreme north–south does not play any eﬀect since the radius is relatively very small.4.j).90) it is assumed that BT is a function of pressure and the pressure is a function of the location. the bulk modulus can be written as a function of the radius.

95) and (4.97) 1 2G 1 1 BT r2 − − ρ0 2 ρ0 R 0 r . The integral in equation (4. Nevertheless.98) The other issue that related to this topic is.101) Integrating equation (4. The pressure can be calculated since the density is found as r 1 G dr ∆P = (4. the ﬂow is much more complicated because it is not stationary but have cells in which the liquid ﬂows around.92) has to include the rotation eﬀects.101) ρ0 1 = 2 ρ2 BT −G ω r3 − r 3 (4. this analysis gives some indication on the pressure and density in the core. Thus. In the range between the two extreme. End Advance material . The pressure diﬀerence is r ∆P = R0 ρ G − ω r2 r2 dr (4.R0 The integral can evaluated numerically or analytically as ρ0 log ∆P = − (2 ρ0 G + r) R0 − 2 r ρ0 G r ρ0 2 R0 2G ρ0 log (ρ0 ) G − (4. the eﬀect of rotation is reduced because the radius is reduced.99) Thus the approximated density ratio can be written as ρ0 1 =1− ρ BT r ρ R0 G − ω r2 r2 dr (4.96 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS These equations (4.96) referred to as expanded Pushka equation. The pressure diﬀerence is due to the large radius. In real liquid. The conclusion is that the pressure at the “equator” is substantially lower than the pressure in the north or the south “poles” of the solid core. The rotation aﬀects the density since the pressure changes. It can be noticed that the rotation acts in the opposite direction to the gravity. mathematical complications caused by the coupling creates additionally diﬃculty. What is the pressure at the equator when the rotation is taken into account.100) Taking derivative of the two sides results in − ρ0 1 = 3 ρ BT G − ω r2 r2 dr = 0 (4.102) Where the pressure is obtained by integration as previously was done.

103) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 . M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4.5. a simple case will be examined. 4.4. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is b Fig. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h A-A ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ A-A a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F2 F1 b[m] The pressure.5. These calculations are divided into two categories.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. Initially. straight surfaces and curved surfaces.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. Calculate the minimum forces. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 97 4. Later.12: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. This section deals with these calculations. Example 4. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O.19. -4. Rectangular area under pressure.19.

and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. FLUIDS STATICS This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. Additional equation is needed.104) .103) and also a center of area. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.98 CHAPTER 4. the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4. Looking at the above calculations. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. Several rep.20. -4.20. Schematic of submerged area to resented areas for which moment of inertia explain the center forces and moments.Fig. It is the total force. First.

110) can be combined the moment and . Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4.104) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 99 In this case. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area.21 which has two forces that balance the body.104) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β 0 xc A 1 (4. The integral in equation (4. Equations (4.106) and (4.108) Fig.107) ξ1 ξ1 ξ sin β F2 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4. Equation (4.110) Example 4.21. The general forces acting on submerged area.109) The moment of inertia.12 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. Ix x .106) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA (4. Ix ξ1 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4. is about the axis through point “O” into the page.5.105) A+ 0 ξdA In a ﬁnal form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 (4. -4.4.109) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4.

the forces can be negative or positive.115) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative.115) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4. However. in non–symmetrical area there are two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4.114) In the solution. Additionally. Thus. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero.118) y .115) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.106).111) (4.22).113) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4.117) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix (4.112) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4.100 CHAPTER 4.110) and the total force is given by (4. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. Ix x ρ sin β (4.116) The integral in equation (4. additional equation is required. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. FLUIDS STATICS force acting on the general area.

-4.120) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4.110) and (4. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4.118). metrical straight area. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36.22. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus. (4.23) for triangle 1 and 2). (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided. The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is 3 − and its width b and thus.106). ξ (4.5.23.121) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 101 The product of inertia was presented y These equations in Chapter 3.110) and (4.118) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniy dA form density. the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 .13: Calculate the forces which required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4. Example to illustrate the Fig. There are many combix nations of problems (e. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 (4.106).119) (4.g. Example 4.4. The general forces acting on non symuse of these equations is provided.

1 Pressure Center In the literature. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.110) and equation (4. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .1. The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area. 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2 + 0 +a Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 . These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.102 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration.122) In the same way.123) . pressure centers are commonly deﬁned. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. 72 „„ « „ « « 15 12 12 2 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β „„ 24 a 72 « 48 1 +24 + a 72 End Solution 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β = + « 0 Patmos 4.” Thus. -4. FLUIDS STATICS ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x Fig.118). The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4.5.23. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 − 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x CHAPTER 4.

129) Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA 10 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function.4.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections. the density was assumed to be constant. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. but constant in segments. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 103 To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. In cases where density is non–continuous.125) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4.124) according to equation (3. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4. If density can be represented by average density. Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density10 . these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. the reasonable average can be used. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. 4. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. However.126) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. the following can be written x c A1 xc A2 1 2 xc n An (4. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. the integral has be carried out.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4.1. the force that is acting on the body is GeogologicalFtotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function. . In fact.128) As before for single density. 11 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here.5. Thus.5.127) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably11 .

24. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. The moment around axis y.and h4 = 4[m].132) If the atmospheric pressure enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4.75[m]. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. The forces distances are a1 = 1. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4. and b1 = 4.133) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4.104 CHAPTER 4. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. FLUIDS STATICS Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. Moreover.134) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.130) where the density. The heights are: h1 = 1[m].5[m]. h2 = 2[m]. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. Example 4. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. . The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . h3 = 3[m]. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ].5[m].14: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4.131) After similar separation of the total integral. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. a2 = 1.

FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES Solution ρ1 y "O" 105 β h1 a2 Since there are only two unh4 knowns. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difρ4 ference to be zero).forces. the following equations are obtained Thus.130).133) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos .Fig.133) can be used by modifying it.4. as it can be noticed that in. -4. The geometries of each areas are „ xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values. spheric pressure the new “atmospheric” pressure can be used as ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. Equation (4.5. stead of using the regular atmo. which are (4.133) and (4. only two equations are needed. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4.24.

9497 A1 = 2. The forces on curved area. -4.696 A2 = 3.92[N ] End Solution 4. for example.106 2 g sin β P3 i=1 CHAPTER 4. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area.25. P n dA ˆ (4. At this stage. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.535 A3 = 3. So.2892 xc2 = 3.5. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption).136) The result of the integral is a vector.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809.215 Ix x 2 = 44. [m2 ]. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as . the pressure is treated as a scalar function. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A y dAz x Fig.137)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4. dA.79[N ] and F2 = 958923.292 Ix x 3 = 86.135) z dAy dAx dA Here. It is simpler to compute the terms separately.5355 xc3 = 4.535 Ix x 1 = 14. FLUIDS STATICS ρi+1 Ix x i F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution provided isn’t in the complete long form since it will makes things messy. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. if the y component of the force is needed. outward as positive.137) From this analysis (equation (4.

For example. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value.15: . Example 4.4.139) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. Figure 4. Thus. Fig. However.26 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. Inside the slot.5.140) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx Fz Fy (4. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density).138) The same can be said for the x direction. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.142) body. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 107 Fy = A P dAy (4. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. “y z” is tan θzy = (4. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines.139) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it. -4. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. Equation (4. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries.26. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous.141) and the angle in the other plane.

108 Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4.27)). The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. The gravity is 9.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dam is b = 4[m]. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations, direct and indirect. Solution The force in the x direction is

**CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS
**

δθ θ θ0 θ

Y

4[m] x direction

A θ Ax Ay

Fig. -4.27. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam.

dAx

Fx =

A

P r cos θ dθ

(4.143)

Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). The diﬀerential area that will be used is, b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same.). The net force will be

θ0 P dAx

Fx =

0

ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in

The Fx =

integration

ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area, Ax (see Figure 4.28) as

Ax xc

**A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc =
**

r

θ r2 2

Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0

r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ 2 2

Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different, why?

Fig. -4.28. Area above the dam arc subtract triangle.

4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES

109

The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.0[N ] 2

Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1), clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL12 ). The force in the y direction is the area times width.

V A

θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 − Fy = − b g ρ ∼ 22375.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4.28) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A

The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. The arc center (see Figure 4.29) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ

θ 2

All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.1 and 3.2. and substituting the proper values results in

Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle

4 r sin

θ 2

cos

θ 2

3θ

4 r sin

yc r =

**2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos
**

Aarc Atriangle

θ 2

θ 2

θ

4 r sin 3θ

θ 2

This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is

Fig. -4.29. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.

**yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.65174 ∼ 0.348[m]
**

12 Well,

it is just a demonstration!

110 The moment is

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

**Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.348 × 22375.2 ∼ 7792.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is
**

Ixx

**b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) r cosθ0 Ixx 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2
**

xc

3

The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.21[N × m] 9

The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment it is done as following

θ0

O

dF = P dA =

0

ρ g sin θ b r dθ

θ

θ/2 θ/2

π−θ 2

ℓ = 2 r sin

and element moment is θ 2 θ 2

θ 2

π 2

**dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is
**

θ0

cos

dF

θ/2

M=

0

dM

θ0

Fig. -4.30. Moment on arc element around Point “O.”

or M=

0

ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin

θ 2

cos

θ 2

dθ

**The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4
**

θ0

**The vertical force can be obtained by Fv =
**

0

P dAv

**4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES or
**

θ0 P dAv

111

Fv =

0

ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ

g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here, the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst, and the direct approach second. It is much simpler now to use the second method. In fact, there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. Fv =

End Solution

To demonstrate this point further, consider a more general case of a polynomial function. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series, and thus, this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. Example 4.16: For the liquid shown in Figure 4.31 ,calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. Solution

o

y=

b

n i=1

ai x i

dA dy

y x

dx

Fig. -4.31. Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations.

The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. The element force (see Figure 4.31) in this case is

P h dA

dF = (b − y) g ρ

dx2 + dy 2

The size of the diﬀerential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4.31). It can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. From mathematics, it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx

2

112

**CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS O
**

y

The right side can be evaluated for any given function. For example, in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx

2 n 2

dy dx ℓ dF

b

θ y

=

1+

i=1

i a (i) x (i)

i−1

x

x

The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of

n

0=

i=1

ai x − b

i

Fig. -4.32. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle.

To evaluate the moment, expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4.32). The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2

The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x

**The element moment in this case is
**

dF 2

dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ

1+

dy dx

cos θ(x) dx

To make this example less abstract, consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . In this case, only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that

6 6

b 2

b 2

is measured in meters. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx

units of [1/m5 ]. The derivative at x is

**and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). The distance is = (b −
**

2 2 x6 )

+

6

b −x 2

2

**4.6. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is
**

√ 6 b

113 b − 2 x6 −1

6

b 2

−x

M=

0

(x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx

This integral doesn’t have a analytical solution. However, for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2

**The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as
**

√ 6 b

Fv =

0

b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g

5 b6 7

7

In going over these calculations, the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. This omission saves considerable time. In fact, trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries.

End Solution

**4.6 Buoyancy and Stability
**

h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals, he was able to cap- Fig. -4.33. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. ture the essence. Here, because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era, more advance mathematics will be used. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past, the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding13 . The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. To understand this issue, consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed

0 0

13 This topic was the author’s high school name. It was taught by people like these, 150 years ago and more, ship builders who knew how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school, perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School.

114

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

in liquid and center in a depth of, h0 as shown in Figure 4.33. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. However, on the vertical direction, the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.144)

represents a depth (into the page). Rearranging equation (4.144) to

F = ρg (4.145) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. All the horizontal forces are canceled. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides, those will cancel each other. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. For any two rectangle bodies, the horizontal forces are canceling each other. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other, the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. On the other hand, any shape is made of many small rectangles. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. Thus, the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. In illustration of this concept, consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4.33. The force per area (see Figure 4.34) is

P dAvertical

h0

**dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ
**

2π

(4.146)

r θ

**The total force will be the integral of the equation (4.146) F =
**

0

ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ

(4.147)

**Rearranging equation (4.146) transforms it to
**

2π

F = rgρ

0

(h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ

(4.148) Fig. -4.34.

**The solution of equation (4.148) is F = −π r2 ρ g
**

2π

The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.

(4.149)

**The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. While the horizontal force is Fv =
**

0

(h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0

(4.150)

Assume that ρl > ρw . Thus. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 115 Example 4. Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. The container diameter is w. the height. ρl .18: A cylindrical body. You can provide that the angle or the depth. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. ﬂoating body. ρl .35 . t. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. calculate the pressure inside the container. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). Express the maximum wall thickness. h1 t w hin h Example 4. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). as a Fig. ρs liquid density. -4. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. Since there are no better examples.17: To what depth will a long log with radius. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . h1 has to be zero. ρw in liquid with denisty. a length.4. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. shown in Figure 4.6. r. these examples are a must.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. Note that for the maximum thickness. and density. T1 for the body to ﬂoat.35.

19: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End Advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. it can be inserted into the above equation.116 CHAPTER 4. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. Thus. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + − + ··· ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g . the air. FLUIDS STATICS Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. hin = Example 4.

but the liquid displacement is still unknown. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g .4. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation.6. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w2 hi Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. The thickness is known. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs 117 The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. Thus. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously.

h0 and left at rest. FLUIDS STATICS Example 4. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus.118 CHAPTER 4. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that has the same force. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. The body’s density is α ρl . the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 2 hα g(1 − α) √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation.20: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling.21: In some situations. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. End Solution Example 4. Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the . where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1).

Solution In the discussion to this section. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. In the same vein. The element force is dAx h 2 dA 119 dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY sphere. Body with density between the two liquids. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . What will be the location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically.6. it was shown that net force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. Develop the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical.22: In the introduction to this section. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Example 4. There are situations where density is a function of the depth. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A.4. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. the body can be separated into two: one in ﬁrst liquid and one in the second liquid. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂoating between the two liquids.

XXIII. End Solution Example 4. However. Thus. develop an equation for the depth of the sphere. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). x1 . For the thickness below this critical value. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the following results can be obtained. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. if the body is smaller compare to the zone of variation. What is the = thickness if the sphere is neutrally buoyant? Assume that the radius of the sphere is R.a) . The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved.120 CHAPTER 4. they have to accounted for. the calculations can be carried out under the assumption of sharp change. Solution The weight of displaced water has to be equal to the weight of the sphere ρs g ¡ 4 π R3 = ρw g ¡ 3 4 π R3 4 π (R − t) − 3 3 3 (4.8) with a t wall thickness. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. FLUIDS STATICS Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid.23: A hollow sphere is made of steel (ρs /ρw ∼ 7. A is canceled on both sides.

g) is −f R (4 R3 2 + −f R (4 R3 2 − f R) fR − 2 R 2 3 h= − 1 3 R2 − f R) − fR − 2 R 2 3 1 3 (4. For a given ratio of t/R.XXIII.c) R ρs −1+1 ρw The ﬁrst two solutions are imaginary thus not valid for the physical world. The volume in the water is Vwater = 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 4 π R3 π h2 (3R − h) − = 3 3 3 (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY after simpliﬁcation equation (4. The volume of a sphere cap (segment) is given by Vcap = π h2 (3R − h) 3 (4.b) is third order polynomial equation which it’s solution (see the appendix) is t1 t2 t3 = = = √ 3 − 2i √ 3i 2 3 − 1 2 1 2 ρs 3 R − R3 ρw ρs 3 R − R3 ρw 1 3 +R 1 3 − +R (4.XXIII. The last solution is the solution that was needed.6. The depth that sphere will be located depends on the ratio of t/R which similar analysis to the above.XXIII. the weight displaced by the sphere has to be same as the sphere weight.XXIII.XXIII.f) = 3 3 or ρw R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 = 3 t R 2 − 3 t2 R + t3 (4.a) becomes ρs R 3 = 3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ρw 121 (4.XXIII. Thus the Archimedes law is ρw 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h 3 ρs 4 π 3 t R 2 − 3 t 2 R + t 3 (4.e) When Vwater denotes the volume of the sphere in the water.XXIII.h) .XXIII.b) Equation (4.d) Where h is the sphere height above the water.4.XXIII.g) ρs The solution of (4.XXIII.

a wood wedge of wood with a ﬁx weight/load. other geometrical parameters) The Archimedes balance on the body is ρ Va = ρ w Vw (4. Find the reverse function.6. End Solution Example 4. Solution First the function has to built for d (depth). As it was shown in the previous example. πd Vw = Thus.XXIV. the relationship between the depth and the displaced liquid volume of the sphere. These solutions are rejected.c) End Solution Example 4.XXIV.XXV.24 a general solution was provided.a) d = f −1 ρ Va ρw (4. For example.b) End Solution 4.a) 9 π ρw ρ Va (4. Here it is assumed that this relationship can be written as Vw = f (d.24: One of the common questions in buoyancy is the weight with variable cross section and ﬁx load. Solution It is assumed that the volume can be written as a function of the depth.XXV.XXIV. wedge) will be located.1 Stability . the depth is d= 3 d √ 3 3 2 = π d3 9 (4.e. f −1 for cone with 30◦ when the tip is in the bottom. FLUIDS STATICS ρw (3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ) There are two more solutions which ρs contains the imaginary component. The general question is at what the depth of the object (i.122 Where −f R = R3 − CHAPTER 4.b) (4.25: In example 4. For simplicity. assume that the body is of a solid material.

the cubic results in returning to the original position.37.6. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. Small amount of tilting of Fig. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4.36c. in any of these six positions. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. β. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. These points are raised from the buoyant force analysis. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. -4. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. . The stability of the body is divided into three categories. the immersed part of the body center changes to a new location. B’ as shown in Figure 4. it is referred to as the neutral stable.36c .4. for example) is inserted into water. the body is “stable” in some points more than others in their vicinity. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . In fact. the body is in situation like in 4. Tilting the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom.36. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. That is. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position.37).36b). A wooden cubic (made of pine. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and will Fig.36c. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Empty buoyancy center 123 Figure 4. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces).the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. be ﬂoating.36 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. gravity center This arrangement has mass centroid Full close to the middle of the sphere. c a b The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. When the body is tilted at a small angle. -4. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. So. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. However. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa.38.

move to a new buoyant center.152) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4.124 CHAPTER 4. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. when given a tilted position. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. and. B’.153) 14 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. -4.38. However. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. So the perpendicular distance. β. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid.38 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change14 so the total immersed section is constant.38 as ∆F . BB W = M (4.). should to be calculated. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4.38. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces creats. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component. shown in Figure 4. BB . The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. W referred to the weight of the body. The body.151) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. B. BB is the distance between points B and point B’. FLUIDS STATICS β M ∆F GM δF δF ∆F G dA B B’ Fig. . This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. when the body is not symmetrical. For small angle.

155) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4.1. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4.b) . The distance BG 3 BG = D/4 − d/4 (4. 1 > ρc /ρl > 0 there could be a range where the cone is stable.4. BB can be written from equation (4.155) And combining equations (4. Solution The ﬂoating cone volume is depent on d as π d r2 and the center of gravity is D/4.154) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.38. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 125 The integral in the right side of equation (4.a) Where D is the total height and d is the height of the submerged cone. The moment of inertia of the cone is circle shown in Table 3. For middle range. the cone is unstable.6. For a very light cone ρc /ρl ∼ 0.156) lim (4. the cone has zero depth. Looking at Figure 4.26: A solid cone ﬂoats in a heavier liquid (that is ρl /ρc > 1). The distance.158) Example 4. The angle of the cone is θ. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4. At this condition.153) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3.154) with (4. The ratio of the cone density to liquid density is α.XXVI.153) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4. The relationship between the radius the depth is r = d tan θ (4. Analyze this situation.157) It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.XXVI. M.

The distance BG is obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl V 15 Only the dimension is compared. why? .d) The relationship between D and d is determined by the density ratio ( as displaced volume is equal to cone weight)15 ρl d3 = ρc D3 =⇒ D = d 3 ρl ρc (4. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.d) yield the solution when GM = 0 ρl d3 ρc ρl d tan2 θ d ρl ρl tan2 θ (4.XXVI.XXVI. Show that the block’s length.e) into (4.158) requires that several quantities should be expressed. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.e) Substituting equation (4.XXVI. Example 4. L. Where L is the length into the 12 page.XXVI.1 and is Ixx = La .c) Equation (4.f) 0= − − =⇒ = 3 −1 4 ρs 192 4 ρs 48 ρc Since ρl > ρc this never happened.XXVI. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.XXVI. FLUIDS STATICS Ixx π (d tan θ) 64 GM = 2 − π d (d tan θ) ρs 3 ρl Vbody 4 BG D d − 4 4 (4.27: A solid block of wood of uniform density.126 CHAPTER 4. End Solution To understand these principles consider the following examples.c) can be simpliﬁed as GM = ρl d tan2 θ − ρs 192 D d − 4 4 (4. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3. Solution Equation (4.XXVI.

4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 127 h h1 L a Fig.160) 2 where α is the density ratio. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.6. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig.0 α = 0. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.4 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.8 1. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable anymore as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.2 1.5 α = 0. -4.0 0.7 0.161) End Solution .3 1.0 -0. Stability of Square Block 3.9 0.5 -0.4 1.159) 2.4 α = 0.4 α = 0.2 α = 0. -4.8 Ixx 0.1 BG = GM h h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− ρs ρl (4.3 1. L.2 1.0 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 3 ρs 1− ρl -0.6 0.2 0.6 1.9 1.2 Thus. − 1 (1 − α) (4.1 1.0 0.40.1 1.8 2.2 -0.0 a h April 16.0 1.1 0.7 0.8 0.39. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.0 1.37) h1 2.6 α = 0.5 α = 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.

2008 α shape (cubic) (see above (4. but rather practical. In commercial ships. FLUIDS STATICS Stability of Solid Blocks One of the interesting point for the square 3. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle).0 0.0 0.0 circle above analysis is that there is a point 2. For example. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. Thus. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular body shape.159)). With the exception of the circular shape. In cylin1. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal.0 can be expressed. For cylinder (circle) the 0.41. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia.8 0.5 0.3 0. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. The 0. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis.5 moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.0 distance BG is the same as for the square April 16.128 CHAPTER 4. the equation is Fig.5 drical shape equivalent to equation (4. For stability analysis.161) 1.9 1. The maximum height reverse as a g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 function of density ratio.4 0. the fuel is .7 0.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises.1 0. Thus.0 body width is not stable anymore.41.2 0. This is not a hypothetical question. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 a h ∼ 0. For each of these axises. -4.5 above where the ratio of the height to the 2. And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α This kind of analysis can be carried for diﬀerent shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.6 0.

What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). tougher.42. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0.42. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triangle (see explanation in example (3. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody .4.28: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. -4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 129 stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) is attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. Example 4. So.158) have to be found.6. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .

in this analysis. For practical purposes. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined.Fig. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the . There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. FLUIDS STATICS = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 . The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body.6. -4. The movement of the load (grains.43). is enough to be ig. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship.130 Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 CHAPTER 4. However.43. the slow reaction of the load.1. for stability analysis. For example. Sometimes. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. furniture.43. here. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. account these shifting mass speeds. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships). it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. After the above manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. Moreover.

163) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. This quantity. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ ¡ For more than one tank.162) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface.168) .167) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid.165) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 131 outside. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body.4. At the same time.6. G1 G1 .164) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixxb i Vb i (4. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line from G . The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4. G Gc = GG sin β (4.166) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4.163) Equation (4.

-4.6.172) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. .169) Where. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight.171) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4. Moving the weight. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia.44.171) If the change in the GM can be neglected. 4.172) with equation (4.170) (4. equation (4. GM .2 Metacentric Height. design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. Wtotal . The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. GM . GM . The angle. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4.1. T a distance. θ. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. of the ship. This control of the stability.132 CHAPTER 4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4.171) provides the solution. The engineer could Fig. The moment of inertial of the combine two G tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. FLUIDS STATICS One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liqd T uid is done by substituting a single h tank with several tanks. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body.173) (4.

there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. it must be taken into account. Generally. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer. After the tilting.6.6. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case.45).45. There are two situations that can occur. -4. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies 133 The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lays between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. However. is when b = 3 a.1. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. .45. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. 4. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. Fig. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. When the ﬂoating object is immersed into two layers. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. The center of the moment is needed to be found. the mass centroid must be below than buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition.4. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. This analysis is out of the scope of this book (for now). the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density).1. However. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers.6. Thus.

Thus.1. Example 4. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. coating. However. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. the liquid is not in motion. the body should be accelerate.6. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. in this case.176) In general. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. End Solution . the common explanation is wrong. In this section.6.174) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. FLUIDS STATICS This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). Thus. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. etc.134 4.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies CHAPTER 4. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. If the ﬂoating body is used to transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smoother.175) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4.177) V ρs GM Ibody (4. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. 4.29: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension.

However. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4.3. some of heavy liquid moves down. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 135 Fig. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted.7. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. ρG . the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. If the surface will be disturbed. For example in die casting.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. Example 4. Taylor. For example. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations.4. or water over air(gas–liquid).3. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order.30: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. I. For perfectly straight interface. This analysis asks the question of what happen when a small amount of liquid from the above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability.46. This condition is determined by competing . heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. This instability deals with a dense. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). the needle cannot be held by the liquid. After certain diameter. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. -4. Thus. ρL . This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. In poor designs or other situations.

Any continues function can be expanded in series of cosines.136 CHAPTER 4.47).179) According to equation (1.180) (4. the surface density. Thus. x. FLUIDS STATICS forces.182) . The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough.57). In that case. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. and the buoyancy forces. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. example of a cosine function will be examined. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. Thus. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions.181) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable.178) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4. On the other hand. the situation is Fig. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression.47. -4. equation (1.57) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4. Thus. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity.178) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression. Thus. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable.46) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4.

7. At the bottom. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. Additionally when the depression occurs. the error is not signiﬁcant. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY Comparing equations (4.186) .185) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. At the top. they are not part of the control volume.48. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place.183) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4.48.21) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere.4. In reality. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. Thus. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. To analyze it.48. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4. This acts Fig. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. For the depression. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down.184) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.181) and (4. Consider the situation described in Figure 4.182) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 137 (4. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. -4. At the cylinder bottom. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. the force is ρ g h × A. the force is the integral around the depression.48. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion.

187) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. The cross section of the interface. the speciﬁc radius is limited. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. At that case.49).” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. As shown in Figure 4.191) .138 CHAPTER 4.48. For the cylindrical geometry.190) Fig. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. -4.188) (4. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. FLUIDS STATICS The force that hold this column is the surface tension. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone.49. θ = π/2. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. Thus. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.189) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4.

In equation (4. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.190) can be used. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.50.49. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. In Figure 4. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. σ r∼ 8 π 0. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). .4 2400 × 9.191.the depression is larger for square area. End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig.7. Example 4.4.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate.31: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K]. For example.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient. this angle is never can be obtained. However. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m].81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0.191) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. -4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 139 The actual radius will be much larger. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter.

Is there any diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. Is there any diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book.S. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Example 4.32: A canister shown in Figure 4. You can assume that the process is isothermal. ω. for known geometries of the ﬂuids. FLUIDS STATICS Open Question by April 15. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave.50 has three layers of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities.140 CHAPTER 4. Use the ideal gas model. what is the diﬀerence? .

Part I Integral Analysis 141 .

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Even though this system looks reasonable. This name is in honored J. These differential equations will be used in Fig. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume.motion. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. L. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. 143 . The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. This method applied and used in very few cases. -5. Ad.1. This methods is referred as Eulerian method.

-5. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. The red dotted lines are the control volume. trol volume. mass.piston with in and out ﬂow. energy.2. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries.144 CHAPTER 5. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. entropy etc. the control volume is a system. At the same time. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version).1. momentum. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. 5. After a certain time. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location.1. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”.1 represent the system. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). Fig. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. non–deformable and deformable. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question.2. The green lines in Figure 5. .

The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5. In this chapter.1.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.7) . The change with time (time derivative of equation (5. -5.1) The system mass after some time. The velocity component that velocities at the interface.3.3.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.v. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. + ma − mc (5.5.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5. CONTINUITY EQUATION 145 5. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume.3). The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume.v. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.3). the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. The interface of the control volume can move. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5.v. Thus. the mass conservation will be discussed. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. is made of msys = mc. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. according Figure 5. (5.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time.v. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.

In the same manner.10) Equation (5.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. Example 5. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.v. (5. Substituting equation (5. due to temperature variation and other reasons. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. X dx L Fig.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5.9) into equation (5.8) and (5.1. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d ma d mb − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. -5.4.3) results in Continuity d dt ρs dV = − c.v.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s.1: The density changes in a pipe. ρ0 L t0 . The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume.7) are similar and can be combined.146 CHAPTER 5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. t) = 1− cos .

and is the change of the mass in the control volume.3. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius. Vc. 5. ρ0 c.v. the derivative in equation (5. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.c.5. Continuity with Fixed b. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. r and angle. and time. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out. t. CONTINUITY EQUATION 147 The conduit shown in Figure 5.3. L.10) become conservation of the volume. (5.v.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence. End Solution 5.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.10).10). L t0 which results in A Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length.v.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. Using equation (5.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5.11) Equation (5. .v. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.11) is simpler than equation (5.4 length is L and its area is A. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c.3. dt c.v.v. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d d x 2 t ρdV = π R2 ρ0 1 − cos dx dt c.

Steady State Continuity Deformable Ubn dA = Sc.v.5. Urn dA (5.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. Ubn dA (5. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal.148 5.v. Hence. Example 5.v. (5. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero.v. Find the height as a function of the other parameters.v.15) The meaning of the equation (5.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap .2 illustrates this point.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the . Sc.12) Steady State Continuity Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out. 5.1 CHAPTER 5.2. c.v. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc.3. Example 5.v. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0. Sc.7 Ap .3.2. Physically.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5.

Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary.3. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c.5. Second. c.v. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. the air eﬀects are negligible.5. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. several assumptions must be made. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. -5. First. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. ﬂow in = c.v. (Uj + Ub ) dA . Third. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. CONTINUITY EQUATION 149 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. In reality. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem.v. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. In this analysis. Fourth. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. liquid boundary in bucket.v. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). However.2.

mi . e.II. thus the relative velocity.v.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. When examining solution there are two limits. c.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. Uj . the side. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density.g.a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity.150 CHAPTER 5. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface). Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else .b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0. (5.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket. Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5.II.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly.II. End Solution Example 5.a) and (5.II. Substituting the ﬁrst equation.7 Ap Ub (5.b) The above two equations (5. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.c) The solution of equation (5.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.v.II.II.II.II.a) into (5.

Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena.v.v.16) . thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. The right side of equation (5.3. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity. End Solution 5. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.v.2.3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. Sc.3. CONTINUITY EQUATION 151 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc.v. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student).5. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate . This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc.

18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5.16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a. min h Fig.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height. -5.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5. MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density). continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. determine the height. h as function of the time. Height of the liquid for example 5.4. For the ﬁrst case.6.152 CHAPTER 5.16). What happen if the h0 = 0? . Example 5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5.

the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. However.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter).16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . Essentially. the governing equation (5.5. the height will increase. If the reverse case appeared. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate. b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution.3. For second case. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 153 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank.

4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. Osborne. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. End Solution 5. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . y) ∂y dy dy (5.23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness.v. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained.23) is f (x. This is engineering book and thus. if there will be a demand for such. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. y) − − (x1 . For its derivative of equation (5. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader.25) papers can be read on-line at http://www. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 .24) diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. speciﬁc enthalpy. y) − f (x1 .v f ρ Urn dA (5. it will be provided. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. y) dα (5.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . y) − G(x1 . The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. To make the previous derivation clearer. . y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5.archive.22) Initially. the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. Nevertheless. c. y) = f (α. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof.21) This theorem named after Reynolds.154 CHAPTER 5.

the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 . y) dx ∂y (5. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5.27) The same can be said for the third term (3).4. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule.28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5. F . is then F2 dx2 dt (5. f is investigated or the accumulative property. The same can be said for the other side. F . F .32) .29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in.30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5. Urn = U1 − Ub . between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 . (5. with time.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. F .5.31) The change with time of the accumulative property. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. The intensive property. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. F . REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 155 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential).v.

v sys D DT f ρ Urn dA Sc. Reynolds Transport d f ρdV = f ρ dV + dt c. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule.c) End Solution .v.a) is Umax π R2 = Uave π R2 6 Umax 6 (5. t.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations.b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = (5. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration). Since the time variable. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero.V.a) The integration of the equation (5. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5.33) 5. After magical mixing. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. the velocity became uniform. Additionally.V. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter.V. Thus.156 CHAPTER 5. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. Example 5. (5.13). The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius.V.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic.

Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5.7. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary).5. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. Boundary Layer control mass. The above integrals on the .” The integral simply multiply by negative one. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. In this case. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 157 U0 o ge Ed fB r nd ou yL ay er L Fig. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer.5. Example 5. -5. the left. right. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. and upper. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus.7. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross.

Example 5.13) is used. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0. 7 hours. However sometime.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5.02kg/m3 AU 0. Thus.1 ) 5. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. and 8 hours.1 kg/sec = = 1. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0.158 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. The tank is 3/4 fulls.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? .1 kg/sec.

EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 159 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc. assume that the process is isothermal.5. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow.5. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour. Thus. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity.v boundary velocity + Sc. For simplicity. End Solution Example 5.v. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.v. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume.

When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5. .v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc.160 CHAPTER 5. mi . Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V .10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius.v Vc. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.v.

.v.v.v. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5. ρUrn dA Vc. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary. Sc.10.v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc.5.5. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 161 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc.

The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . However. The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5. MASS CONSERVATION End Solution Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15. However. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem? 5. local averaged velocity in three coordinates.34) V 5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. There is no general way to provide these quantities.8. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system.8. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem.11: Solve example 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 .S.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. Example 5. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA + A A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. -5. .162 CHAPTER 5.

Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.35) In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5.5. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero. It can be notice that the velocity.36) It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x.37) Fig.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0 Ayz (5. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right.9. Substituting into (5. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0 A 163 (5.38) Ax − Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label.9 under the blow line. 6 The point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A Ayz (5. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction.9. Control volume and system before and after the motion. .39) Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary.6. -5. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is − A Ue Ae Ubn ρ dA + A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume.9.

c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity. MASS CONSERVATION Example 5.XII. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r π 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h End Solution (5.a) Ue Ae This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5. sin(2α) r2 2 (5. -5.XII.XII. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle.13: . α provides the averaged velocity.e) (5.XII. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.XII.f) 1 α − .d) Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as Ux = U dS S (5.g) Where here S represent some length.10.h) (5. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r 2 Ax− Y(x) (r − x) x α y r (5.XII.i) Example 5. Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted.XII. Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).164 CHAPTER 5. Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.b) Fig. The value dS is r cos α.XII. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations. Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.12: Calculate the velocity.XII.

That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images.12. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity.11. Example 5. equation (5. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity.5. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example. y velocity for a circular shape The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following.XIII.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h End Solution Ayz (5.a) (5. every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.XIII. -5. Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).b) 5. What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used.14: . Solution X(y) x 165 y r (r − x) Ay − Ue Ae Fig.40) 1 2r π/2 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (5. Thus. Thus.7.

The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.15[m] ˙ ˙ (5.10 0.05 [kg/s]. However. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0.166 CHAPTER 5.1 [kg/s]. what Fig.05 m2 . In same time liquid B enter the mixing device with a diﬀerent speciﬁc density at 0.15: Liquid A enters a mixing device depicted in at 0. Solution In the ﬁrst scenario. the total volume ﬂow in is equal to volume ﬂow out as mA ˙ mA ˙ 0.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0. Schematic of the boat for example 5. since the ﬂow is incompressible ﬂow. Find the average leaving velocity and density of the mixture leaving through the 2O [cm] diameter pipe. the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat.002 [m3 /s]. the ﬂow is steady state and equation (5.1 + 0.05 Urout = 35 = 8.75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus.2 End Solution Example 5.a) Thus in this case. Assume incompressible process. -5.11) is applicable mA + mB = Qmix ρmix =⇒= 0.XV.75m/sec Ain 0. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s.12. If the mixing device volume is decreasing (as a piston pushing into the chamber) at rate of .05 = 0. what is the exit velocity? State your assumptions. The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec. The density of liquid A is 1000[kg/m3 ] and liquid B is 800[kg/m3 ].05 ˙ ˙ ˙ QA + QB = Qmix =⇒= + = + ρA ρA 1000 800 . The results of the mixing is a homogeneous mixture. Urin = Aout 0.14 are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat and the pumping rate? Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec] Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant.05 = 1.

Solution The situation is unsteady state (in the instinctive c.d) (5.002[m/ sec] 923. If the piston is withdrawn at O. This part of the solution is art. −Qb ρmix in out Ubn A ρb = mA + mB − mmix ˙ ˙ ˙ That is the mixture device is with an uniform density −0. if the assumption of well mixed is still holding the exit density should not aﬀected.625 ρ ρB = A = [m/s] π 0.16: A syringe apparatus is being use to withdrawn blood7 .05 − mexit mexit = 1.15).XV. However.c) Umix = In the case that a piston is pushing the exit density could be changed and ﬂuctuated depending on the location of the piston. What is the average velocity of blood into syringe (at the tip)? The syringe radios is 0. I hope that no one will have teachers like him. The ﬁrst choice seem reasonable 7 The author still remember his elementary teacher that was so appalled by the discussion on blood piping which students in an engineering school were doing. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Thus the mixture density is ρmix = mA + mB ˙ ˙ = 923.XV. So governing equation is (5. There are several possible control volumes that can be used to solve the problem.012 π (5. it can be observed that bioengineering is “cool” today while in 40 years ago is a disgusting ﬁeld.7. .XV. He gave a speech about how inhuman these engineering students are.b) The averaged velocity is then Qmix Aout mA ˙ mB ˙ + 1.9974[kg/s] End Solution (5. The term that should be added to the governing equation the change of the volume. At that stage air leaks in around the piston at the rate 0.000001 [m3 /s].0003 [m]. The two “instinctive control volumes” are the blood with the air and the the whole volume between the tip and syringe plunger (piston).07[kg/m3 ] mA ˙ mB ˙ + ρA ρB 167 (5. The chose of the control volume and coordinate system determine the amount of work. and coordinates) since the mass in the control volume (the syringe volume is not constant).XV. Yet.01 [m/s].7[kg/m3 ] = 0.1 + 0.e) Example 5.v.005[m] and the tip radius is 0.5.

MASS CONSERVATION since it provides relationship of the total to speciﬁc material. U1 A1 + U2 A2 = U3 A3 (5. Using equations (5.168 CHAPTER 5. control volume is the volume syringe tip to the edge of the blood. In that case.XVI. the water (or another liquid) is pumped throw the inner pipe at high velocity. In this question the what is the mixed stream averaged velocity with U1 = 4. the choice is coordinates moving with the plunger. Later the two stream are mixed.5[m/s].XVI.a) and (5.XVI. The second part of the control volume is the air. velocity in/out ˙ (Uplunger − Ub ) As ρb = ρa Qin (5. In this device.17: The apparatus depicted in Figure ?? is referred in the literature sometime as the water– jet pump.d) Utip ρa Qin As ρb Atip End Solution Example 5. The air governing equation is blood b. For this case. stationary.b) In the case. The cross section inside and outside radii ratio is r1 /r2 = 0.c) results in Ub = Uplunger − Ub As = = Atip Uplunger − ρa Qin As ρ b As (5. the relative plunger velocity is zero while the blood edge boundary velocity is Uplunger − Ub .0[m/s] and U2 = 0. the equation (5. attached to the blood edge. attached to plunger. There several coordinate systems that can used. At this stage.2.XVI. Solution The situation is steady state and which density of the liquid is irrelevant (because it is the same at the inside and outside). The outside pipe is lower pressure which suck the water (other liquid) into device. In stationary coordinates two boundaries are moving and thus moving b.XVI.a) .15) is applicable and can be written as Utip Atip & = Ub As & ρb ρb (5.c) In the case of coordinates are attached to the blood edge similar equation is obtained. there are two unknowns. and two equations. Notice that change of the volume do not enter into the calculations because the density of the air is assumed to be constant.XVI.c.a) & & In the air side the same equation can used. in/out ˙ Uplunger As ρa − Ub As ρb = ρa Qin (5. Calculate the mixing averaged velocity.XVII. Ub and Utip .

MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The velocity is A3 = A1 + A2 and thus U3 = U1 A1 + U2 A2 A1 A1 == U1 + U2 1 − A3 A3 A3 End Solution 169 (5.7.XVII.b) .5.

MASS CONSERVATION .170 CHAPTER 5.

For several bodies (n).1) It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction.1. the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation.1 Momentum Governing Equation 6. Newton’s law becomes n n Fi = i=1 i=1 U d(mU )i dt (6.1 Introduction to Continuous In the previous chapter.CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume 6. This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude). The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume.2) The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6.2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in n Fi = i=1 D Dt element mass U ρ dV sys (6. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6.3) 171 .

is made out of two components. it can be written as Fs = c. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface. Thus. or the forces.2 External Forces First. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. The forces. Here for simplicity. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. Again. Where the surface “force”. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6. have to be discussed. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6. the main body force is the gravity. Sn . is in the surface direction. In this chapter. Thus.1. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6.).4) In this book (at least in this discussion).v. hence. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. are the body forces.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. the terms on the left hand side. and τ are the shear stresses.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. . -6. Sn . The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. τ dA (6.1. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. The surface “force”.7) Fig. 6. excluding the external forces. Sn dA + c.172 CHAPTER 6.v.1. The gravity acts on all the system elements.

v. t dt c.1. supporting solid structures.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system. c. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference.v. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6.1.11) ρ U dV + c. 6.v. U .v. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 173 6.v. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. for example in the x coordinate.13) .v.v.v. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. t = dt c.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. friction (non-ﬂuid). c. P cos θx dA + c. etc.v.v.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c.v.v. c.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe. the components are Fx + c.v. g · ˆ ρ dV i c.v. c.9) The liquid velocity. c. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6. Thus. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side.v.6. With external forces equation (6.v. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i). ρ U U rn dA (6.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. In Cartesian coordinate. Equation (6.v. (6. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. c.1. Fext . ducts. (6.

τ dA = c.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations. In this situation.5. Additionally.6.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6. Thus.v.v. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface. a acc ρ dV (6. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero.1. ρ U Urn dA (6. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change. the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal. g ρ dV − c.v.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4.v. equation (6.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape.18) Equation (6.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6.174 CHAPTER 6. . Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.3. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions.v.15) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6. P dA + c. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc.15) 6.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6.1. in these situations.

1. -6. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6.I. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium.a) into equation (6.2.I.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6. Fig.2). Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus. Neglect the friction. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6.6. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 175 Example 6. Example 6.2.a) Substituting equation (6. Uo θ Ui F Fig b.I.I. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a.

Equation (6. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates.II.176 Solution CHAPTER 6.II. because it is a steady state. Fx occurs when cos θ = π.3 with a mass . It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.11) can be reduced. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force. End Solution Example 6. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0.

First.v. τ z dA = (6.v.0001[cm2 ].12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c. =0 c.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0.6.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.v. c. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec].v.v.b) c. -6.01 [gk/sec].3. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown.3. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 177 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig. The entrance area is 0.0001 Equation (6. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0.v.1.III. The exit pressure is 1[Bar]. τ z dA = c. This situation is a steady state for constant density.v. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0.0015 [m3 ].v. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c. the velocity has to be found. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c.v. Hence. ρ U z · U rn dA . Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6. c. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0.III.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0.3. =0 liquid surface Fz + c. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces.v.

Here.v. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c.III. P cos θz dA = c. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6. Combining all transform equation (6.v. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes. This surface is called slip surface.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c. In the Figure 6.178 CHAPTER 6.III.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9. this analysis is used for academic purposes. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right.d) 6. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld. Improvements can be made to this analysis.III. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. fan etc.v.v. .4. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours.v.8 × 1000× End Solution (6.III.v. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction.v.

The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. this direct conversion can be.5 is pushed by liquid jet. Notice that Example 6.4. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6. a major obstacle in the past.19) 179 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. and is.6. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. Hence.4: A sled toy shown in Figure 6. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. In Jet propulsion.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. Here. the pressure around control volume is the same. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied. in many case more eﬃcient. Furthermore. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation. Calculate the friction force on the . a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered. -6. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. Thus. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound. Essentially.2. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. pressure drops from the calculation.

2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. ρ U U rn dV (6.v. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c.180 CHAPTER 6.v. U0 . g ρ dV − c. τ dA = c. U 0 . Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c.v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. .4. namics friction is µd .5. The velocity of the jet is uniform.IV. the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms.v.a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity.v. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force. -6.v.v. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c. P dA + c.

-6.10).1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.v. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body.6.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity.6.2. End Solution 6.b) into equation (6.IV. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.IV. A rocket with a moving control volume.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6. . This method is cumbersome in many cases.IV. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc. 181 (6.IV.b) The substituting (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig.2. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here.

The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected.v.26) . This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels.2.v. the derivative with respect to time. g ρ dV + c. ρUy Urn dA (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. the ﬁrst term FR . d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket.182 CHAPTER 6. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero.v. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. Yet.v. vanishes. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR .v.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion.v. However. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6.v. This change is minimal and for this analysis. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. c. (6. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c. it can be neglected. c. dU /dt = 0 is not zero.24) Clearly. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. d dt ρUy dV = Vc. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. However.

material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude.” . This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. gas ﬂow out is constant as well.6. As ﬁrst approx˙ imation.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6. However. the speed (the Reynolds number). Thus. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. Thus it is assume that FR = 0. Integrating equation (6. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant).28).26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6.28) Before integrating equation (6. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR . MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 183 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . For which he noticed this “constant velocity.5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature. is a function of the several parameters such the duration.27) Separating the variables equation (6. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6.2. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem.

V. Solution Uo FR Fig.7. Equation (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6.V. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. mt .b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6.V.V.7.v. -6.v.a) can be transferred to dmc.V.d) into equation (6. Furthermore.V.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6. Sc.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation. ρdA = 0 (6. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used.a) Equation (6. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.V.7.V. The control volume is shown in Figure 6. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6. U0 = B h (6. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6.e) . The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy. Substituting equation (6. linear function of the height.V.V.v.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6.184 CHAPTER 6.12) for two dimensions is used. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc. The frame of reference is moving with the tank.

F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 185 Equation (6. h.8. Perhaps surprising. . h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6.V. In fact.8.2. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A. The tank depth. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6.6. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6. The mass con. Using this function.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.2.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6.V. Using a similar control volume2 .e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 . it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used.g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank.V. Substituting (6. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?).f) into (6.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6.5.V.V.V.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height.V. is not relevant.Fig. -6. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .V.j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.V.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.

= mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ).v. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average. Here this eﬀect is neglected. mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement).32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.v.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc. The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels).v.v. and the resistance due to air is negligible.V. a Vc.V. The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. It . The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change.v. mc.v. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc. (6.186 CHAPTER 6. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc.

From equation (6. d Ux Ux + mc. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 187 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.2.V.V.v.v.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6. if it is the opposite the toy start to move. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.V.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move. However.v. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc. d d Ux Ux + mc.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6.v. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction.v.V.V.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6.6.V. dt dt dt (6.v.r) .d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x). Ux = mc.V. Ux Vf Thus.V.

34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c.V.V.35) . The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.v U dV (6.V. Substituting equations (6.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis.V.V.s) into equation (6. For example. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases. ρ Ux dV (6. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6. There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated. For these cases a correction factor can be used. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc. Here. End Solution Averaged Velocity! Estimates In example 6.v U = ρ V c.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented. For example.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction.v. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.188 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0.r) and (6.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching.V. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.

37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6.9. applying equation (6. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles. the following discussion is provided. ditionally increase of velocity occur.39) The angular momentum equation.v. if the density is not constant.3. ρ Ux dV (6.6. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment.40) . the coeﬃcient is not equal to one. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. However. To demonstrate this idea. Sc. C ρV c.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum.v 189 U dV = c. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit. -6. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.v.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1). 6.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6.9 commonly used in industry. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6.Fig.

Example 6. 6.41) results in Um2 (6. one the tangential velocity. The exit liquid velocity. r.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . The angular velocity is 1200 r. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 .7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure .40[m].41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 . and h.m. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6. Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant). Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. Notice that tangential liquid velocity. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . Un2 .6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour].190 CHAPTER 6. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. The height of the impeller is h.42) (6. Ut2 and radial component.p.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. The thickness of the impeller. U2 has two components.

Additionally.6. The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket.10.2. forces for example 6. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration. No resistance to the rocket (can be added).a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. -6. the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. The gas obeys the ideal gas law. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem. Develop exFig. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. The cross section of the liquid is constant. The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process). . In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic.3) without a solution. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution.10. No gas leaves the rocket. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed.VII. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank.4. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls). MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 191 6.

Furthermore. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.g) (6.VII.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase).j) .h) (6.VII. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.VII. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.VII.192 CHAPTER 6.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.VII. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6.d) mg R T V0g (6.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6.VII.VII.VII. Using the above deﬁnition.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid.VII.VII. equation (6.VII. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6.

6.VII.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6. End Solution (6.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 193 (6.4.VII.VII. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity.11: .k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to . What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units. Example 6. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy.4. Example 6.VII. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components. 6.9: In Example 6.m) Example 6.

A. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front. consider the unsteady eﬀects.11. Calculated the minimum height of the liquid in the tank in order to start to have the block moving? Solution The solution of this kind problem ﬁrst requires to know at what accuracy this solution is needed. the eﬀect minor loss or the loss in the tank opening have taken into account. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value. First.5. Fig. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. The friction factor between the block and surface is 0. First assuming that a minimum accuracy therefore the infomration was given on the tank that it large. -6. In front and against the opening there a block with mass of 50[kg]. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints.12: A large tank has opening with area. .194 Situations CHAPTER 6.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. For great accuracy. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6. the velocity to move the block can be obtained from the analysis of the block free body diagram (the impeging jet diagram).11 Example 6. Assume that resistence between the air and the water jet is negligible.

all liquid ﬂows downwords. So.XII. End Solution .d) Where Vliquid is the liquid volume in the control volume (attached to the block).4. Hence. However. The miminum force the push the plock is ρ A Uexit 2 = m g µ =⇒ Uexit = And the velocity as a function of the height is U = h= mµ ρ2 A √ mgµ ρA ρ g h and thus (6. no matter what the height will be the block will not move (neglecting other minor eﬀects).6. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The control volume is attached to the block. The jet stream has only one componet in the horizontal component.c) It is interesting to point out that the gravity is relavent. F = ρ A Uexit 2 ρ Uexit2 τw mg 195 ρ Uout2 (6. the forces that acts on the block in the vertical direction is can be obtained from the analysis of the control volume shown in Figure 6. The jet impenged on the surface results in out ﬂow stream going to all the directions in the block surface.XII. Yet.12. In cases were ρ Vliquid g > 2 ρ Uout the required height is larger. the gravity acts on all these “streams” and eventually the liquid ﬂows downwards. It is assumed that the two streams in the vertical cancle each other.12. In the oposite cases the height is smaller. That is the gravity has no eﬀect on the velocity (height) required to move the block. -6. The balance on the stream downwords (for steady state) is 2 ρ Uout ∼ ρ Vliquid g + m g = (6. the gravity has eﬀect and the eﬀect is the direction. In fact because the gravity the jet impeging in downwards slend direction.b) (6. For very tall blocks. At the exreme case.XII. The pressure is canceled because the ﬂow is exposed to air. that is the same height will be required on the moon as the earth. if the gravity was in the opposite direction.XII.a) Fig. Jet impinging jet surface perpendicular and with the surface.

MOMENTUM CONSERVATION .196 CHAPTER 6.

197 . However. For example. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. Moreover.10) for a system is D m U2 D EU D (m g z) ˙ ˙ Q−W = + + Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . the above view is wrong when the heat convection. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). here it will be derived.1) Equation (7. as all phases and materials. 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects. is included on the right hand side.2) (7. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school. this law allows to solve problems. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously. For example.2) is similar to equation (6. which were assumed in the previous chapters. The ﬂuid. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. which is external force.

198

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume. There are three modes of heat transfer, conduction, convection4 and radiation. In most problems, the radiation is minimal. Hence, the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7.3)

Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q=

Acv

k

dT dA dn

t

τ Sn

(7.4)

System at The work done on the system is more complicated to express than the heat transfer. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force. As in the previous chapter, the surface forces are divided into two categories: one per- Fig. -7.1. The work on the control volume is pendicular to the surface and one with the done by two diﬀerent mechanisms, Sn and τ . surface direction. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7.1) is

dℓ

F dF

dV

**S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is
**

U

(7.5)

**dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =−
**

Ac.v.

3 There 4 When

(7.6)

S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t

(7.7)

are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. dealing with convection, actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system.

**7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7.2) for system is kT
**

Asys

199

dT dA+ dn

S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt

Asys

ρ

Vsys

EU + m

U2 + g z dV 2

(7.8)

Equation (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7.8) and thus yields Energy Equation kT

Acv

dT dA+ dn

˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt +

Acv Acv

(7.9)

ρ

Vcv

Eu + m Eu + m

U2 +gz 2

U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA

From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations deals with the control volume. In the last term in equation (7.9) the velocity appears twice. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.8) for more details). The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is

ﬂow work

˙ = W ∼

S

P n · U dA − ˆ

S

τ · U n dA ˆ

(7.10)

The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is

Urn

P n · U dA = ˆ

S S

P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ

S

P Ubn dA

(7.11)

**Equation (7.11) can be further manipulated to become
**

work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement

P n · U dA = ˆ

S S

P ρ Urn dA + ρ

P Ubn dA

S

(7.12)

200

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

**The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = −
**

S

τ · U dA

(7.13)

Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ + g z dV + Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + dt V 2 U2 P + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA Eu + + ρ 2 S S

(7.14)

The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy, Eu is referred to as the enthalpy, h, which was discussed on page 48. With these deﬁnitions equation (7.14) transformed Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Wshaf t = Eu + + g z ρ dV + dt V 2 2 U h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + P Ubn dA 2 S S

(7.15)

Equation (7.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. Also note that the shear work inside the the control volume considered as shaft work. The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7.15). Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book, the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height. The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density, the gas density is very small compared to Fig. -7.2. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density, and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. small, so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 , surface tension eﬀects are negligible and

5 Later

a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed.

7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

201

the liquid surface is straight6 . Additionally, the temperature is assumed to constant. The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. The conservation of the mass is d dt

V

ρ dV + ¡

dρ dt

A

ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡

(7.16)

which also can be written (because

= 0) as Urn dA = 0

A

Ubn dA +

A

(7.17)

Equation (7.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7.18)

Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7.19)

The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7.20)

In this analysis, for simplicity, this quantity will be used. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 . However, the change of the kinetic energy due to the change in the velocity ﬁeld isn’t zero. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part as shown in Figure 7.3. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7.21)

6 This assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero. Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish. However, in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability. 7 For the mass conservation analysis, the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. However, for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero.

202 The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7.15) which is applicable to this case. The temperature is constant8 . In this light, the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ Q= = hin − hout = 0 dt (7.22)

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

Uy 1

2

Uy 1

2

Uy = 0

Ue The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. Furthermore, the shear stresses at Fig. -7.3. How to compensate and estimate the the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. hence the shear work is vanished. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. Additionally, the internal shear work is assumed negligible.

˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7.23)

Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects. Note that the (exit) velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. Combining all these information results in

energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work

d dt

V

U + g z ρ dV + 2

2

A

Pe Ue + ρ 2

2

Ue ρ dA −

A

Pa Ub dA = 0

(7.24)

Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity, Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . The pressure terms in equation (7.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe

A A

Ue dA − Pa

A

Ub dA

(7.25)

A

**It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence
**

=0

Pa

A

Ue dA −

A

Ub dA

=0

(7.26)

8 This approach is a common approximation. Yet, why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. Clearly, the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. In this case, this change is a function of Eckert number, Ec which is very small. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser, E.R.G. Eckert. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter. Some examples how to calculate these losses will be resent later on. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure.

7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The governing equation (7.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0

203

(7.27)

V

A

The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt

V

U2 d + g z ρdV = 2 dt

V

U2 d dV + 2 dt

g z ρ dV

V

(7.28)

**The second integral (in the r.h.s) of equation (7.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt
**

h A 0 dV

z dz dA

(7.29)

V

Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit. The inside integral can be evaluated as

h

zdz =

0

h2 2

(7.30)

Substituting the results of equation (7.30) into equation (7.29) yields V 2 d h d h dh gρ dA = g ρ h A = g ρ A h dt A 2 dt 2 dt

(7.31)

The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle. Furthermore, Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV

V

(7.32)

**The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V
**

2 2

U dV

V

V =ρ

V

U dV

(7.33)

204

CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION

**The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as
**

2

ρ U dV CF =

V

ρ U 2 dV

V

ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡

V

2

(7.34)

Here, CF is the correction coeﬃcient. Note, the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is

2 2

ρ U dV CF =

V

= ρ U 2 dV

ρ ¡ ρ ¡

U dV

V

= U 2 dV

Uave 2 V U 2 dV

V

(7.35)

V

V

This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 . For a pipe geometry, the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7.36)

It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity, Uave is obtained by using equation (7.32) which yields 1/2. Substituting equation (7.36) into equation (7.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV

V V

=

Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯

2

= dV

3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3

(7.37)

The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. For circular shape, a good guess number is about 1.1. In this case, for simplicity reason, it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case, diﬀerent directions cancel each other out.

11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter.

13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5.44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height. However. the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. However. But in the same vain. some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape. 14 The solution.1. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. .7.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed negligible and the function to be constant.38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2 205 V hA (7.39) Therefore. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank.43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. is about one page. not the derivation.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7.

s.40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1 A − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 . ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 1 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.45) Combining all the terms into equation (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.47) Equation (7.206 The last term is CHAPTER 7. .27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l. Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.h.48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.

Te .7. Dividing equation (7. .52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.52) Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 207 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time.53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process.52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter. as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7.57) h (T e − 2) f (G) - The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 16 A (7. Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 f (h) = − (7.55) or - dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 = t + k2 h (T e − 2) f (G) (7.1. equation (7.54) The solution can either of these equations16 − - dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 = t + k2 h (T e − 2) f (G) (7.58) discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.

The initial velocity ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). It is 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account.63) While equation (7. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec.61) (7. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface.59) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition.64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. ENERGY CONSERVATION dh =0 dt (7. if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct. Thus for a very short time.63) is still non linear equation.208 The initial boundary velocity is CHAPTER 7. the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7. Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. However. .60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which g Ae 2 d2 h << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7.

this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution.68) 1− If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then U∼ = 2gh (7.71) 2gh (7.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7. Equation (7.67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae 2gh A Ae 1− A = 2 Ae 2gh Ae 2 A (7. 1608 October 25. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 209 correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r.1.4.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. Yet. The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt The loss coeﬃcient can be expressed as C = Kf U2 2 (7. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei. Today the exact reference to his work is lost and only “sketches” of his lecture elude work.7. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime. 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15.70) A few loss coeﬃcients for diﬀerent conﬁguration is given following Figure 7.69) Equation (7. . 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician.66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh √ (7. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation).

5. (c) Rounded inlet pipe K=0. two such corrections were presented. In cases that dissipation play major air air role. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms.5. ENERGY CONSERVATION (a) Projecting pipe K=1. H For example. 7. Typical resistance for selected outlet conﬁguration. Flow in an oscillating manometer.4. (b) Sharp edge pipe connection K=0. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . In fact. the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. Additionally. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand.210 CHAPTER 7. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions.2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. Furthermore. -7. Fig. -7. the integral methods is Fig. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. In the calculations of the exit velocity of a tank. the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. . The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example.04. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. In the case of the tank. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored.

These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7. the problems can be solved. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. 7. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 h+ + g z Urn ρAin 2 (7.7. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. the pressure is different. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation.73) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work.72) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.73) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity.3.72) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7.74) . The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason. 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried.3. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 211 too crude to handle issues of free interface. The following sections provides further explanation. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. equation (7.

81) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.212 CHAPTER 7. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.82) .80) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.3.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.80) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.77) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.76) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation.77) (7.78) P ρ − v dP (7.75) in 7.79) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7. Equation (2.

86) For no shaft work equation (7. However. linear and rotational. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force.4.84) in Subtracting equation (7.E. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM As before equation (7.84) from equation (7. 7. In many cases. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration.7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far.81) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out 213 dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.85) Equation (7. The only acceptation to the above statement.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P. = − ref F ·d (7. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest.88) .75) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.4.85) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.86) reduced to 0= P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration.83) in (7. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates.87) 7. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations.

91) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x. The same can be done for the other two coordinates. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction. and z = 0.93) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0.90) The reference was set to inﬁnity. The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy. Thus.4. ENERGY CONSERVATION In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7. For example.89) Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force. for the gravity force is F =− GM m r2 (7.92) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7.95) . 7. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7. y = 0. r and m are the distance and mass respectively.94) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm.214 CHAPTER 7. The potential of unit material is P Eatotal = sys (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV (7. The gravity potential is then r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7.

θ and z respectively.7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys 215 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.96) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.97) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7.98) The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. one is the centrifugal and one the Coriolis force.99) ˆ where r. The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ (7.100) (7. There are two kinds of acceleration due to this rotation. θ.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axises creates a similar conservative potential as a linear system. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7. and k are units vector in the coordinates r.4. consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system.4. The cross product is zero of U ×ω ×U = U ×ω ×ω = 0 . To understand it better.101) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 307 for vector explanation).

1 Simpliﬁed Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7. However. In that case the time derivative term vanishes and equation (7.4.4. The net change of the potential energy due to the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7.4.216 CHAPTER 7.4 7.104) is to assume uniform ﬂow. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential.104) P Ubn dA 7. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity.103) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv U2 ω2 r2 h+ + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. Hence. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7. From a physical point of view.104) can be written as Energy Equation in steady state ˙ ˙ Q−W = cv h+ U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z 2 2 + cv Urn ρ dA P Ubn dA (7.102) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U .105) . ENERGY CONSERVATION because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication.

This term represents . has to be constant for frictionless ﬂow without any addition and loss of energy.106) Note that the acceleration also have to be averaged.7.4.105) by assuming uniform ﬂow for which ˙ ˙ Q−W = U ω 2 r2 h+ + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z 2 2 + cv 2 217 U rn ρ dA P U bn dA (7. it was assumed that there are no energy loss.109) suggests that term h + U + g z has a special meaning (because it 2 remained constant under certain conditions).15) when the energy and the internal energy as a separate identity as d ˙ Wshaf t = dt A V U2 +gz 2 ρ dV + P Ubn dA+ A P U2 + + g z Urn ρ dA + ρ 2 energy loss (7. And these losses have practical importance and have to be considered in engineering system. as will be shown. 7. these losses are very important for many real world application.107) d dt Eu ρ dV + V A ˙ ˙ Eu Urn ρ dA − Q − Wshear Equation (7.109) Equation (7.4.5 Energy Losses in Incompressible Flow In the previous sections discussion. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Further simpliﬁcation of equation (7.108) P Ubn dA + energy loss A V A P U2 + + g z Urn ρ dA + ρ 2 Equation can be further simpliﬁed under assumption of uniform ﬂow and steady state as wshaf t = ˙ P U2 + +gz ρ 2 − out P U2 + +gz ρ 2 2 + energy loss in (7. However. The correction factors have to introduced into the equation to account for the energy averaged verse to averaged velocity (mass averaged).107) sometimes written as d ˙ Wshaf t = dt U2 +gz 2 ρ dV + (7. Hence writing equation (7. These factor make this equation with larger error and thus less eﬀective tool in the engineering calculation. This term.

State your assumptions. There are several categories of the loss which referred as minor loss (which are not minor). Develop equation to describe the exit velocity as a function of time. The loss is normally is a strong function of the velocity square. Euler. the ﬂow in and out are equal because the density is identical.218 CHAPTER 7. Initially the ﬂow is in a rest. Assume that ﬂow is incompressible.1: Consider a ﬂow in a long straight pipe. 0= V ∂ρ dV + ∂t ρ Ubn dA + A A ρ Urn dA =⇒ ρ Uin = ρ Uexit ¡A ¡A (7. U 2 /2. t0 the a constant pressure diﬀerence is applied on the pipe.a) There is no change in the liquid mass inside pipe and therefore the time derivative is zero (the same mass resides in the pipe at all time). Furthermore.” The loss is the combination of the internal energy/enthalpy with heat transfer. If the energy loss is negligible and the shaft work vanished or does not exist equation (7. Thus. and the resistance or energy loss is f . At time. There also unsteady state and other form of this equation that will be discussed in diﬀerential equations Chapter. the velocity is identical because the cross area is same. The boundaries do not move and the second term is zero. and duct losses. Solution The mass balance on the liquid in the pipe results in =0 =0 L Fig. It can be noticed that for the energy balance on the pipe. These losses will be tabulated later on. the time derivative can . For example. ﬂuid ﬂow in a pipe has resistance and energy dissipation.109) reduces to simple Bernoulli’s equation. -7.110) in Equation (7.5 Examples of Integral Energy Conservation Example 7.6. The dissipation is lost energy that is transferred to the surroundings.110) is only a simple form of Bernoulli’s equation which was developed by Bernoulli’s adviser. ENERGY CONSERVATION the “potential energy. 7. Furthermore assume that this loss is a function of the velocity square. Flow in a long pipe when exposed to pressure diﬀerence.I. Simple Bernoulli 0= P U2 + +gz ρ 2 − out P U2 + +gz ρ 2 (7.

a). where velocity is zero.7.I. U averaged velocity.d) can be further simpliﬁed (since the area and averaged velocity are constant. Also. In this analysis. The ﬁrst term on the right hand side (with a constant density) is ρ Vpipe d dt U2 Eu + + 2 constant gz dU dV = ρ U Vpipe +ρ dt L π r2 Vpipe d (Eu ) dV dt (7. Hence. In the locations where the velocity does not vanished. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION enter the integral because the control volume has ﬁxed boundaries. is zero.e) The third term vanishes because the boundaries velocities are zero and therefore P Ubn dA = 0 A (7.I.d) Equation (7.I.f) Combining all the terms results in dU d ˙ Q = ρU Vpipe +ρ dt dt 2 L π r2 Eu dV + ∆P U dA + Vpipe A ρ Eu U dA (7. vanish again because the value of z is constant. related to the pipe. as can be noticed from equation (7.I.b) The boundaries shear work vanishes because the same arguments present before (the work.I.g) can be rearranged as −K U 2 ˙ Q−ρ Vpipe d (Eu ) dV − dt ρ Eu U dA = ρ L π r2 U A (7. Hence the second term becomes ¨ constant B U ¨¨ h + ¨+ g z ρ Urn dA = ¨ 2 A 2 h Eu + A P ρ ρ Urn dA (7. it is assumed that the pipe is perpendicular to the gravity line and thus the gravity is constant.5. r is the pipe radius. such as in and out.I.I.I.g) equation (7. The gravity in the ﬁrst term and all other terms. the velocity is identical (in and out).I.I.c) where L is the pipe length. additionally notice that U = Urn ) as Eu + A P ρ ρ Urn dA = ∆P U A + A ρ Eu Urn dA (7. There is no shaft work and this term vanishes as well.h) dU + (Pin − Pout ) U dt . the work is zero because shear stress are perpendicular to the velocity). =0 =0 219 ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + ˙ Wshaf t = 2 V S d dt Eu + U2 +gz 2 S ρ dV + P Ubn dA U h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 (7.

equation (7. The solution of the linear equation and the steady state solution of the diﬀerential equation are the same. ENERGY CONSERVATION The terms on the LHS (left hand side) can be combined. U (t = 0) = 0 results in 0 U= 2 (Pin − Pout ) 1 − K e −@ 1 tK A 2 π r2 ρ L (7. K. Thus. in reality the resistance. End Solution The following example combined the above discussion in the text with the above example (7.I. 19 The shear work inside the liquid refers to molecular work (one molecule work on the other molecule).220 CHAPTER 7.I. This function will be discussed in a greater extent later on. velocity range.I.j) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation. Additionally.j) Equation (7.I.m) Another note. This shear work can be viewed also as one control volume work on the adjoined control volume.I. .j) reduced to a simple linear equation. In steady state the ﬂow equation (7.i) by K U/2 transforms equation (7. is not constant but rather a strong function of velocity (and other parameters such as temperature20 .h) can be written as −K U2 dU = ρ L π r2 U + (Pin − Pout ) U 2 dt (7.I. 20 Via the viscosity eﬀects.i) to U+ 2 ρ L π r2 d U 2 (Pin − Pout ) = K dt K (7.).I. velocity regime and etc.I. It common to assume (to view) that these terms are representing the energy loss and are a strong function of velocity square19 .I.1).l) The solution is an exponentially approaching the steady state solution. it should be noted that if momentum balance was used a similar solution (but not the same) was obtained (why? hint the diﬀerence of the losses accounted for).I.i) Dividing equation (7.k) 1 Applying the initial condition. The solution this equation is described in the appendix and which is U= e 1 tK A −@ 2 π r2 ρ L 2 (P − P ) in out K 0 0 e tK @ A 2 π r2 ρ L 1 + c 0 e @ 2 π r2 ρ t L A K (7. U= 2 (Pin − Pout ) K (7.

II. The mass conservation reads =0 V ∂ρ dV + ∂t ρ Ubn dA + A A ρ Urn dA = 0 (7. one of the liquid in the tank and one of the liquid in pipe.2: A large cylindrical tank with a diameter. -7.7.7. Equation (7. Liquid exiting a large tank Assume that the resistance or the friction trough a long tube. Figure 7.b) 2 ρ U1 Apipe = ρ U3 π R2 = ρ ¡ dt π R ¡ ¡ It can be noticed that U3 = dh/dt and D = 2 R and d = 2 r when the lower case refers to the pipe and the upper case referred to the tank. Analysis of control volume in the tank was provided previously 1 h and thus needed to be sewed to Example d U1 7. consider that the tank has a constant presD sure above liquid (actually a better assumpVair tion of air with a constant mass.II. h.7. To analysis this situation. Fig. Solution D This problem can split into two control vol3 umes. d Assume that the liquid is incompressible.1. the energy loss is considered (as opposed to the discussion in the text).a) The ﬁrst term vanishes and the second and third terms remain and thus equation (7.2. The eﬀect is negligible in most cases because air mass is small with exception the “spring” eﬀect (expansion/compression eﬀects). EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION 221 Example 7.II. -7. D.a) reduces to dh (7.5. The pipe is exposed to the surroundings and 3 thus the pressure is Patmos at the pipe exit. A long pipe is connected to a tank from which the liquid is emptied. Note. Tank control volume for Example 7.8. State all the assumptions that were made during the derivations. Tank Control Volume The eﬀect of the energy change in air side was neglected. The control volume in tank is depicted in Fig. in the pipe is a strong function to the velocity square in the tank.b) simply can Atank Atank .). Patmos Derive approximated equations that related L the height in the large tank and the exit 1 2 velocity at the pipe to pressure diﬀerence. contains liquid to height.II.

Since the focus in this book is primarily on the physics.II. That is. Therefore. U = dh/dt × f (G). f (G) ≡ 1 will be assumed.38). The second term can be recognized as similar to those by equation (7.111) P Ubn dA = A3 d dt Eu ρ dV + Vt A1 ˙ Eu ρ Urn dA − Q Similar arguments to those that were used in the previous discussion are applicable to this case.d) Where Ut denotes the (the upper surface) liquid velocity of the tank.II. the ﬁrst term changes to d dt ρ V U +gz 2 2 dV ∼ ρ d Ut + g h = dt 2 2 2 V (7.g) .II. the second term is U2 + gz 2 z=0 A 1 Urn ρ dA ∼ = 2 dh A3 dt A1 2 U1 ρ A1 = 1 2 dh R dt r 2 U1 ρ A1 (7.f) ¡ A ρ ¡ It is assumed that the exit velocity can be averaged (neglecting the velocity distribution eﬀects).e) hA Where the velocity is given by equation (7.44). Hence. ENERGY CONSERVATION be written when the area ratio is used (to be changed later if needed) as U1 Apipe = dh Atank =⇒ U1 = dt R r 2 dh dt (7.45).II.222 CHAPTER 7. Moving all internal energy terms and the energy transfer to the right hand side of equation (7.II. the velocity is a derivative of the height with a correction factor.II.c) The boundaries shear work and the shaft work are assumed to be vanished in the tank. the energy conservation in the tank reduces to =0 ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + d Ut 2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z ρ dV + dt Vt 2 Ut 2 h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + P Ubn dA 2 A1 A3 =0 (7. Using equation (7.d) to become d dt Ut 2 +gz 2 U3 ρ dV + A1 Vt P Ut 2 + +gz ρ 2 K Ut 2 2 U1 Urn ρ dA+ (7. The pressure component of the second term is P Urn ρ dA = ρ P1 U1 A1 (7.

l) dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + dt K dt2 = (7.II. Thus.II. Using equation (7.m) and (7.i) Pipe Control Volume The analysis of the liquid in the pipe is similar to Example 7. It can be noticed that two initial conditions are required to solve the problem.II.c) eliminates the Up as dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + = dt K dt2 Equation (7.a) is used U1 = U2 Up + (7.m) and (7.i) as d dt Ut gh + 2 2 2 V 1 2 2 hA − Kp + 2ρ r R dh dt 2 A3 A1 2 U1 A1 + Kt 2ρ dh dt 2 (7. The governing equation obtained by from adding equation (7. there is only one equation with one unknown.i) have two unknowns (dh/dt and P1 ) which are suﬃcient to solve the problem.m).II.I.j) 4 ρ L π r 2 d Up 2 (P1 − P2 ) (7.II.1.7.II.1 and thus equation (7.II.II. The equations (7.II.II.5. The relationship between the height was obtained by substituting equation (7. The conservation of the liquid in the pipe is the same as in Example 7.h) The combination of all the terms for the tank results in V 2 2 2 d Ut gh 1 dh Kt A3 + hA − U1 A1 + dt 2 2 2 dt A1 2ρ dh dt 2 = (P3 − P1 ) ρ (7.i) provide the frame in which the liquid velocity in tank and pipe have to be solved.II. In fact.k) = Kp dt Kp where Kp is the resistance in the pipe and Up is the (averaged) velocity in the pipe.II.m) and (7. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION The last term on the left hand side is P Ubn dA = P3 A A 223 dh dt (7.c) in equation (7.II.II.l) can be rearranged as Kp 2ρ r R 2 R r 2 2 (P1 − P2 ) Kp (P1 − P2 ) ρ (7.m) Solution The equations (7. it can be noticed that the liquid velocity in the tank is related to the height and the liquid velocity in the pipe.II.II.II.n) dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + dt K dt2 (P3 − P2 ) = ρ .

That is the liquid has a constant bulk modulus. What is the direction of the heat from the pipe or in to the pipe. What kind of internal work the liquid performed. A diﬀerent liquid ﬂows in the same pipe. BT . The dimensional analysis method can be used to obtain solution various situations which will be presented later on. the height of liquid is at prescript point as h(0) = h0 dh (0) = 0 dt (7. To keep the tank at uniform temperature what is the direction of the heat (from the tank or to the tank)? . Explain why the direction based on physical reasoning.II. End Solution Qualitative Questions A liquid ﬂows in and out from a long pipe with uniform cross section as single phase. Would happen when the liquid velocity is very large? What it will be still correct. A certain point the tank is punctured and the liquid ﬂows out.224 CHAPTER 7.o) The solution of equation can be obtained using several diﬀerent numerical techniques. Assume that the liquid is slightly compressible. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial conditions are that zero initial velocity in the tank and pipe. If the liquid is compressible what is the direction of the heat to keep the ﬂow isothermal? A tank is full of incompressible liquid. Additionally.

Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 225 .

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Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book).g. The concepts of Add 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability.CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. as he done to many other equations or conditions. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. In diﬀerential analysis. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 . As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. the solution is not unique. The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. 227 .

-8. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = V d dt ρdV + V A Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. Historically. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow).2) For a constant control volume. the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity.3) . the complexity of the equations. The choked ﬂow is associated with a single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Mass and Add Force. Sometimes.228 CHAPTER 8.1. The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored. Even for simple situations.1. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter.1) Fig. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). 8. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 V x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D (8.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8.1. leads to approximations and consequently to the ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier– Stokes equations. on one hand. However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability.2) on the right hand side and hence dρ dt dV V dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 A (8. The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed as well.

9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx . for example. the operation.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed.2. It also can be noticed that. in the x coordinate. . in the control volume is ∂ρ dm = ˙ dr dz r dθ ∂t 2 Note dv (8.5) The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. neglecting higher order derivatives. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions.2. as ∼0 V dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d2 ρ dt2 + ··· (8. MASS CONSERVATION 229 The ﬁrst term in equation (8.8.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates. as depicted in Figure 8.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = A dAxz dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz (8.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.8) Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates. The net mass change. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − A ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.

-8. the r is “trapped” in the derivative.11)–(8.2. dr r dθ dz. In a similar fashion.12) Combining equations (8.230 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) dθ dr dz + ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure.14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. the change of r with r. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · .g. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume. e.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. r .13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r. the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications. results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. Hence.

4 notice the irony the second i is the dirction and ﬁrst i is for any one of direction x(i). The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding.14) with the change in the control volume (8.2 page 310). . End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A.9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume. For academic purposes.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates. y(j). several examples are constructed here.8. (8. Hence. Compare to equation (8. MASS CONSERVATION 231 Combining equation (8. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation. However. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped (8.2. this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way.16) The continuity equations (8.8). and k 4 .18) Where i is is of the i. j.15) and (8.8).1. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8. and z(k). the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ ∂ρ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8.17) The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates.16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates.

I.I.3.a) T1 ρ1 H0(t) T0 ρ0 y T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. Assume that the actual temperature is exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8. The density is a function of the temperature according to T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 (see Figure 8.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.3).I.I.I.232 CHAPTER 8. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 . t0 .e) =0 e −β t + ∂y .1 function of the y coordinate. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8.I. At time.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS 8. Substituting the density.I. it is treated as a constant. ρ.I.3. as a function of time into the governing equation (8. For this question. -8. Calculates the velocity of the liquid. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.2. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom.

it can be treated for the solution of equation (8.I.4.I.I. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8. .2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as (in vector form) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.f) as a constant5 .I.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.i) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y. Hence. Equation (8. (8.f) holds for any time and thus.20) 5 Since the time can be treated as a constant for y integration. Example 8.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8.f) Uy is a function of the time but not y.I.2.h) or the velocity is Uy = β 2 H0 − y 2 (H0 − y) e−β t (1 − y) (1 − e−β t ) (8.2. End Solution 8.I.8.2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8. MASS CONSERVATION 233 Equation (8.I.

4. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction7 . Hence equation (8.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. See the resembles to equation (8.b).b) can be written as Ux ∂ρ ∂ (ρ Uy ) =− ∂x ∂y (8.16 .d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues).II. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending in a suicide.234 CHAPTER 8.1 for the general function T = F (x).d) into the governing equation results in ∂Uy ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x (8. . however it can be considered as steady state. Higbie’s idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment.e) 6 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems. -8.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst.2. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as ρ − ρ∞ T − T∞ =α (8. Solution This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.II.II. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. 7 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range. α ∂F (x) ∂ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8. On personal note. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8.II. However. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer.c) Where Ux is the belt velocity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8.I.II. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature. from the extraction point.II.II. For this example. Assume that the ﬁlm temFig.

Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case.III.II.g) Example 8.a) Equation (8.III.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.II. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate. The velocity.III. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component. For the second part equation (8.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8.2. Thus.f) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS.b) (8.III.8.II. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8. MASS CONSERVATION The density is expressed by equation (8.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x 235 (8. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8.e) .c) (8. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant.III.III. Notice the symmetry of the situation.

III. Thus.4: Can the following velocities co-exist.g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix). this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state it contains time componnet.c) .f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.III.III.b) Or gradient or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8.III.236 CHAPTER 8. The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8.IV.IV. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8.h) ∂y The solution for (8.IV. The derivative of each componnet are ∂Ux = t2 z ∂x ∂Uy =t ∂y ∂Uz =t ∂z (8.III.III. This continuity equation is checked if the ﬂow incompressible (constant density).III.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.g) ∂y a Equation (8.i) End Solution Example 8. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix).III.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution Whether the solution is in a steady state or not can be observed from whether the velocity contains time component.j) (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8.

Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance.V.V. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.V.c) can be separated to yield f (t) f (y) (8. End Solution Example 8. Ux .V. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8. if it exist.a) Mathematically speaking. Using. this kind of presentation is possible. these physical components are ignored for academic reasons. must be compressible ﬂow. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions.b) Substituting equation (8. ρ. MASS CONSERVATION 237 The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow.e) .V. This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded (inﬁnite source).b) into equation (8. In this problem. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 .d) A possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant. Equation (8.V.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α (8.V.a) and noticing that the density. is a function of x results of ∂ρ 5 α y ∂ρ = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8.V.V.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to an ordinary diﬀerential equations when the velocity component.2.8. Hence.V. is substituted.f) (8.c) 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8.V.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)).

End Solution 8. The solution of (8.g. is an arbitrary function of the y coordinate. z.3.V. y.k) Where the constant.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8. and independent of y thus equation (8.h) ρx + = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e Equation (8.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e. are presented.f) transfered to ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α (8. t).i) ρ = e− 2 2 √ c− 2 which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.22) . c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8.V. vector or tensor.V. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8.j) by (8. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.g) The term e5 α y is always positive.V.238 CHAPTER 8.h) is given by impossible solution √ 2 x i π i c3 erf √x (8. c3 .g) becomes ∂ρ c1 (8. scalar.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system which has a volume V and a surface area of A which is a function of time. c2 .V.V.V.V. A change with time is D DΦ = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.h) is a constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix.V. real value. must be zero and thus the constant.V.j) The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.

21) LHS can be changed to simply the derivative of Φ.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent of the time.2 8. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix8 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integrals on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.3. In that case which is equal to zero as φ d 1 ρ dV φ dx dy dz = 0 ρ 1 U + · dt - = Dρ Dt (8.26) The deﬁnition of equation (8.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys 239 d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8. .2.1 Examples of Several Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative DΦ Dt Using φ = 1 is the same as dealing with the mass conservation.3.8.28) 8 These integrals are related to RTT.3. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8.27) 8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY Using RTT to change the system to a control volume (see equation (5. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume.24) Substituting equation (8.24) into equation (8.

Therefore. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid. t) i + Uy (x. z.36) .30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8. y. (x.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. y. t) k The acceleration will be U d Uy d Uz dU d Ux i+ j+ = k dt dt dt dt (8.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates which can be combined (in a vector form) as ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t )U (8. and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz d Ux ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8. z. and t). t) = Ux (x. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative. t) j + Uz (x. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The integral is over an arbitrary volume which means that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8.34) (8. y. z.31) Equation (8. y. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.33) (8. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the ﬂuid particles acceleration.240 CHAPTER 8.29) Equation (8. z. x.32) The velocity components are a function of four variables. y. it can be written that U (x.

A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction.38) It was shown that in a static case (or in better words. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book). The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow. However. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can . The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which vanishes when the ﬂow is in a steady state.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction. similarly for τxz . and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. A ) (8. The stress is a relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector). 8. So it can be written that F τ = f (F . The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it.4. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is only convecive acceleration of the ﬂow. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION or in a more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration 241 ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.8. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8.39) It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established.

The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes.5. A ﬁnite angular 9 For inﬁnitesimal change the lines can be approximated as straight. Here only one will be discussed the same conclustions can be drown on the other direction.5.43) Where here ℵ. rection and δAz is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the z direction.42) τxy τyy τzy (8. and z directions. The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x direction are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τnℵℵ · i (8. If the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τnℵℵ · i (8.41) Z Y τn ℵ τnn τnℓ τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y X τyz where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. The areas are related to each other through angles. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron face area of the tetrahedron in the x dishape. . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τxz τyz τzz τxx τ = τyx τzx Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8. This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface the same can be written in the x. δAx is the surFig. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations.45) The same can be done for y and z directions.242 be written in a matrix form CHAPTER 8. -8. The transformation matrix is then n·i ·i ℵ·i Fx Fy = n · j (8. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8.44) ·j ℵ · j δAn Fx n·k ·k ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and keeping the ﬁrst derivative. The cubical rotation can involve two parts: one distortion and one rotation9 .

The moment that creats by this acτyx τ tion can be neglected (the changes are inyy signiﬁcant). it is assumed that the external body force exerts a torque GT per unit volume at the Fig. can credx x ate torque. y Advance material can be skipped The shear stress in the surface direction potentially can result in the torque due to the change in the shear stress11 . for the derivations in Example 3.4.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure. Hence. Diagram to analysis the shear stress speciﬁc location.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 10 is the moment of inertia around that center. The clarity of this analysis can τyx be improved if additional terms are taken. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8. However. The momentum can be assested by the shear stresses which act on it. 11 This 10 See . The shear stress at point x is τxy . point bother this author in the completeness of the proof. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body rotation. yet it turn out that the results will be τxy τxx the same. It can be ignored.6. such as the magnetic ﬁelds.8. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. However. The body force can exert tensor.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. does not.5 for moment of inertia. For example. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 243 distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear which required fore the inﬁnite moment. For simplicity and generality. torque is due to the fact that the body force is not uniform and hence not act through the mass center.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and “mostly used” between y < η < y + dy. for cases that body force. -8. even though variyied. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length. The normal body force (gravdy τ τxx xy ity) acts through the cubic center of gravity.

End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8. However. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress 12 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book.48) into (8. The reason that this term is neglected because on the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction (see Figure 8.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components which contribute to the moment are ∼ =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8.” . For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor becomes symmetrical. -8. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added.54) where i is one of x.244 The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy CHAPTER 8.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8. y. z 12 .50) x The integral of (8.6).49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y τyy (8. metrical function around the center of integration).7.50) isn’t zero (non symFig. The shear stress creating torque. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τyy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8.49) y η dy dx dη η− dy 2 Substituting (8. y. z and the j is any of the other x.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8.

DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 245 tensor. and internal forces. -8. However.11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. can be neglected13 . One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure 8. for almost all practical purposes.8. The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic in x direction is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. Equation (6. Previously it was shown that equation (6.5.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + τxz + τxy + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig.57) the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations.8). For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids. gravitation forces (body forces). . If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system orientation τij = τji (i = j) (8.8.56) The dot product yields a force in the directing of x.55) 8. this change. The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces. Later it will be used and generalized. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz 13 In (8.

63) Advance material can be skipped Generally the component momentum equation is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8.64) Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates. Hence. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8.65) .58) transformed into internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.61) equivalant equation (8. the total net surface force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τyx ∂τzx ∂τxx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8. or z.246 CHAPTER 8.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8.57) and (8. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates.59) where i in this case is x.58) The same can be written for the z direction.62) The same can be obtained for the z component ρ DUz = Dt ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG z (8. Equation (8. y.64) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation.

terial to its original state as in solids. At time t+dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes.Fig. Additionally. b. In contrast. The rotation is the second movement that referred to a change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ . Notice the of the shear stress does not return the ma. reduction der continuous angle deformation. y. Thus this “solid” model is a linear relationship with three main assumptions: y’ a. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure 8. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. or z. The re lationship between the stress tensor and ∂Uy U + dt y y ∂y deformation depends on the classes of maD terials the stresses acts on. In solid material. B @ t + dt the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld.9). the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation.8. and c. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION where here τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. Control volume at t and t + dt unuous deformation.62) or (8.61) or (8. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid). a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. Furthermore. As engineers ∂Uy Uy dt U + do in general.three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi 247 (8. -8.63) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned in = + + term of the velocity/deformaiton.66) End Advance material Equations (8. there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero).5. the result is a contin. At time t. The control volume moves to a new location. the control volume is at a square shape and at a location as depicted in Figure 8. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. the simplest model is asdt y ∂x @t C A sumed which referred as the solid continA Uxdt uum model. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids.9. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed x 45◦ to be linearly related.9 (by the blue color).

the relationship between the two of stress tensor was established.248 CHAPTER 8.72) not marked as important equation this equation is the source of the derivation. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8.71) Fig. -8. The deformation of the control volume has several components (see the top of Figure 8. The only missing thing.68) In these derivatives.70) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x and for the directions of y z as τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz y’ (8. It can be noticed at this stage.9).69) can be written as τij = µ 14 While 15 The Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ 45◦ (8.10. ﬁrst assumption was mentioned above. is the diagonal component which dealt below.69) where. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner. Advance material can be skipped In general equation (8. For the assumption of a linear ﬂuid14 . µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality and shear stress and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid.67) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8. . τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume (deformation). However. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. at this stage. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS volume. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz Dγxz =µ =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient15 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations.

DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION where i = j and i = x or y or z. It can be noticed √ that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which is rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter.76) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the normal shear stresses in x’. Figure 8. In addition. on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface.10. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ on the ellement are combination of several terms. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change.74) Equation (8. y coordinates).73) dividing by dx and after some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’y’ 2 Subtracting (8.8. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8. This relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’.11(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and . The angular strain rate in the (x.76) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’y’ ) 2 ’’ (8.9) in the control volume move to the new locations.75) (8. Normal Stress 249 The normal stress. τii (where i is either .77) (8. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. y.74) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8.75) from (8.x.5. y’) frame. For example. the shear stresses are acting in this direction. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8. The dx is constructed so it equals to dy.76) (8. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal. To ﬁnd the main (or the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ .

Thus. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles.79) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ.11. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small. Fig. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle. t+dt. Hence.78) dx The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8. b. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8. -8. The rate of strain in the x direction is c d x= (8. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction.11(b)).11(b).250 b CHAPTER 8. c.80) Here. Diﬀerent triangles deformation for the calculations of the normal stress. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx. The small deformations a .81) . the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction.

84) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8.5.90) .81) can be interpreted as (using equations (8.85) From (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.83) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8. in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8.84) Equation (8.12.82) with equation (8.12 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.84) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.89) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 251 Equation (8.88) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.83) Combining equation (8. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.86) can be continued and replaced as D y’ 1 D x’ − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.82) In the same fashion the strain. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change.78). Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8. -8. (8. (8. D y’ ∂Uy’ = Dt ∂y’ (8.76) τxy be substituted and equation (8. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8.79).89) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.8.86) From equation (8. (8.87) y’ Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate.69) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ.80)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8.88) (8. and (8.88) and (8.

93) Dividing the restuls by 3 so that one can obtained the following “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’y’ + τz’ z’ 2 ∂Ux’ − µ +2 µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Uy’ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. Batchelor.95) Again where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Mechanical Pressure τxx + τyy + τzz Pm = − 3 (8.94) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8. p. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost16 invariant to the coordinate transformation.72). In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress. Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence 16 It 17 G.90) and (8.252 CHAPTER 8. is deﬁned as the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’–y’–z’. Cambridge University Press.141. It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits17 . K.94) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8.94) The “mechanical” pressure. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plans. .96) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8. 1967. Pm . The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’– y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8. For example in y’–z’ plan one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ’ ∂x ∂z’ (8.92) rearranging equation (8. identical only in the limits to the mechanical measurements.91) results in 2 4 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uz’ ∂Uy’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.91) Adding equations (8.92) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.

**8.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION expressions into one as τxy or τxx 2 = − Pm + µ 3
**

=1

253

2 = − Pm + µ 3

=0

·U

δxy +µ

∂Ux ∂Uy + ∂y ∂x

(8.97)

·U

δxy +µ

∂Ux ∂Uy + ∂x ∂y

(8.98)

Advance material can be skipped

or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.99)

End Advance material

where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. While this expression has the advantage of compact writing, it does not add any additional information. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is Thermodynamic Pressure 2 P = Pm + µ · U (8.100) 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation18 . To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. First, connection between τxy and the deformation was built. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. Using the coordinates transformation, this association was established. The linkage between the stress in the rotated coordinates to the deformation was established. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. However, if the derivations before were to include additional terms, an additional correction will be needed. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8.101)

18 Since the publishing the version 0.2.9.0 several people ask this author to summarize conceptually the issues. With God help, it will be provide before version 0.3.1

254

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

The value of λ is obtained experimentally. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. The dimension of the bulk viscosity, λ, is similar to the viscosity µ. λ bulk viscosity According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence. Equation (8.101) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P , as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 · U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.102)

The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes. In material such as water, λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient, λ, can be over 100 times larger than µ. Clearly for incompressible ﬂow, this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished19 . In most cases, the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small. Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured. Thus, neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.103)

To explain equation (8.103), it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates. For example, for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress, τxy , is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y

· U = 0.

∂Ux ∂x

(8.104)

∂Uy ∂y

(8.105)

(8.106)

19 The

reason that the eﬀect vanish is because

8.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION

255

**For the total eﬀect, substitute equation (8.102) into equation (8.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+
**

2 3µ

−λ ∂x

·U

+µ

∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

f +f B x (8.107)

**or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ
**

2

U +fB

(8.108)

Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8.109) For incompressible ﬂow the term · U vanishes, thus equation (8.108) is reduced to

**Momentum for Incompressible Flow ρ U DU =− P +µ Dt
**

2

U +fB

(8.110)

or in the index notation it is written ρ D Ui ∂P ∂ 2U =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8.111)

The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + 2 2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 Ux (8.112) + ρgx

Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i · g ). In the y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t Ux ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z

(8.113)

in z coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t Ux ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + 2 2 ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z 2

(8.114) + ρgz

256

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

**8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces
**

8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories

The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity, pressure, or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). For this discussion, the shear tensor will be separated into two categories, pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity. In the literature, this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true. The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small. The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerence in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the ﬂuid media. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale. In another view, the diﬀerence in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. Another condition which aﬀects whether the slip condition ext n ist is how rapidly of the velocity change. The slip condition canflow not be ignored in some regions, when the ﬂow is with a strong direction velocity ﬂuctuations. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is x written as

f (x)

y

U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 b Fig. -8.13. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and t (8.115) b. where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area see Figure 8.13). While this condition (8.115) is given in a vector form, it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point such as U( ) = U (8.116)

Note, the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8.115) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q, scale, etc) (8.117)

8.6. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES

257

As oppose to a given velocity at particular point, a requirement on the acceleration (velocity) can be given in unknown position. The condition (8.115) can be mathematically represented in another way for free surface conditions. To make sure that all the material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross the free surface), the relative perpendicular velocity at the interface must be zero. The location of the r (free) moving boundary can be given as f (r , t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore Df =0 Dt r on the surface f (r , t) = 0 (8.118)

This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. For example, the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t, x, y). The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8.119)

The solution of this condition, sometime, is extremely hard to handle because the location isn’t given but the derivative given on unknown location. In this book, this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory). There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. In other cases, the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). Furthermore, there are situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. In these cases the assumptions are that the transition occurs in a sharp line, and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some cases continuously approach zero value). While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution), the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer. Oﬀ course, this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. This condition is expressed mathematically by equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due to the surface tension. The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower

surface surface

(8.120)

where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as

258 without explanation as n · τ (n) = σ

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS

1 1 + R1 R2 σ

(8.121) (8.122)

t · τ (t) = −t ·

where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8.13) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general, the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). In same instances, this constant is determined from the volume conservation. In index notation equation (8.121) is written20 as τij nj + σ ni

(1)

1 1 + R1 R2

= τij nj

(2)

(8.123)

**where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. For example in one dimensional21 n= t= (−f (x), 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1, f (x)) 1 + (f (x))
**

2

(8.124)

2

the unit vector is given as two vectors in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1.57). The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is the static pressure at a speciﬁc location. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow direction. The last condition is similar to the pressure condition of prescribed shear stress or a relationship to it. In this category include the boundary conditions with issues of surface tension which were discussed earlier. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind where the condition is given on boundary but no at a speciﬁc location. Gravity as Driving Force

20 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing, it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. 21 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example. Jean, M. Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 74 (1980), no. 3, 197–217.

(8.125)

8.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES)

259

The body forces, in general and gravity in a particular, are the condition that given on the ﬂow beside the velocity, shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most cases (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons).

Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material, pulling the side will pull all the material. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and yet sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. Consider, for example, the case shown in Figure 8.14. The shear stress carry the material as if part of the material was a solid material. For example, in the kerosene lamp the burning occurs at the surface of the lamp top and the liquid Fig. -8.14. Kerosene lamp. is at the bottom. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension. The physical conditions in Figure 8.14 are used to idealize the ﬂow around an inner rode to understand how to apply the surface tension to the boundary conditions. The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. In that case, the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ stress. The outer diameter is depends on the surT ∂r ∂h face tension (the larger surface tension the smaller the liquid diameter). The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefore the gradient in Fig. -8.15. Schematic of kerosene surface tension is result of temperature gradient. lamp. In this book, this eﬀect is not discussed. However, somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insigniﬁcant. Even in that case, the surface tension gradient remains. It can be noticed that, under the assumption presented here, there are two principal radii of the ﬂow. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other radius is inﬁnite (approximatly). In that case, the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the ﬂow (see Figure 8.15). The only (almost) propelling source of the ∂σ ﬂow is the surface gradient ( ∂n ).

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**8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes)
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Examples of an one-dimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated.

6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. -8.16).126) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density). Example 8. Solution In this example. The momentum conservation leads − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8. The distance between the plates is . top plate is moving at speed of U to the right (as positive). U (The rightside is deﬁned as positive).260 CHAPTER 8. examples with two phase are presented. The control volume shown in darker colors.128) The reaction of the shear stress on the lower surface of control volume based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ 22 The dU dy (8. example dealing with one phase are present. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 22 . It can concluded that the velocity in and out are the same (for constant density). Flow between two plates. The upper surface is moving in velocity. Further because no change of the momentum thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS First. Later. the mass conservation yields =0 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8. the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal. .16.127) Thus.129) diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate.

9 1. -8.112)) results (without gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U 23 A (8.7 0.4 0. The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.7.4 0.0 y ℓ October 4.132) A discussion why ∂P ∼ 0 will be presented later.75 Ψ = −1.8 Ux Uℓ 0.25 Ψ = 0. dition23 .2 Ψ = −1.25 1. One dimensional ﬂow with a shear “no slip” condition on the boundaries con. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution. The momentum equation in the x ∂y direction (or from equation (8.2 0.75 green line to 3 the blue line. The boundaries conditions are 1.1 0. In that case.131) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.25 Ψ = 1.134) discussion about the boundary will be presented later.130) dU d3 U 2 d2 U τ xy = µ dy + dy 2 dy + dy 3 dy + · · · The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ d2 U dU dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8.75 Ψ = 0.8.6 0.133) was constructed under several assumptions which include the diVelocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow rection of the ﬂow. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼0 = 261 (8.75 Ψ = −0.133) Equation (8.8 0.75 Ψ = 2.between two plates when Ψ change value between -1.5 0. Equation (8.17. the left hand side is equal to constant. Newtonian ﬂuid. .0 0.0 0. It is common to assume that the Fig.0 0.6 0.133) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or both.75 Ψ = 1.2 0.25 Ψ = −0.25 Ψ = 2.3 0.

17). However.262 CHAPTER 8.133) after the integration becomes Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.137) ∼ 0? End Solution r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n Fig. -8. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = What happen when ∂P ∂y dP y 1− U0 2µ dx 2 + y (8.134)/ results in =Ψ y 2 dP y y Ux (y) = 1− + U0 2µ dx (8. This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated blood ﬂow in veins. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.138) .18. Rederivation are carried out for a short cut.18a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. The momentum equation for the control volume depicted in the Figure 8. Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates. Poiseuille studied the ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.136) For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1 (see Figure 8.135) Applying the boundary conditions. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function of (only) radius. equation (8. Thus.

144) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8.144) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8.146) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element24 was eliminated due to the smart short cut. Integrating equation (8.142) Equation (8.144) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.18a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8.145) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder.8. Hence.140) into equation (8. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − 24 Asymmetrical 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8.141) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz = Uz because mass conservation conservation for any element.140) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 263 The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 Substituting equation (8.139) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8.147) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .138) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8.143) (8.7. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8.139) and (8.

Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used.148) While the above analysis provides a solution.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = 0 0 (8. For this mode. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode. it has several deﬁciencies which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as ﬂow between concentering cyliders. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r 1 ∂P 2 R 1− µ ∂z R 2 (8.b) . or z coordinate. Example 8. -8. However.a) The PDE above (8.VII.149) The steady state governing equation then becames ρ 0 =0=− ¡ ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8. That is. Liquid ﬂow between concentric cylinders for example 8.19. the ﬂow is assumed to be one dimensional. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed.VII.264 The solution is Uz = CHAPTER 8. It can be noticed that this case is steady state and also the acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 r θ θ r Fig. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional solution. ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.19.7. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional.VII. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬁrst mode that appear in reality.7: A liquid with a constant density is ﬂowing between concentering cylinders as shown in Figure 8. Solution After the previous example. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient. the velocity isn’t a function of the angle.

a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z 265 (8.g) = The solution is when substituting the constats into equation (8.k) dA 1 ln + 4µ ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz .VII.7.VII.VII.e) results in Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 ln + 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.VII.VII.c) Dividing equation (8.VII.j) Or substituting equation (8.VII.VII.VII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Integrating equation (8.VII.j) transfomed into Q= A 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.VII.8.d) Applying the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.f) applying the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri (8.VII.c) and integrating results for the second times results ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r Integration of equation (8.VII.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz (8.e) (8.VII.VII.i) into equation (8.

VII. 1882 September 1. (−a × r ln r) can be done by parts to be as r2 r2 log (r) a − 4 2 Applying all these “techniques” to equation (8.VII.m) ri 2 ln (ri ) ri 2 ro 2 ln (ro ) ro 2 − − + 2 4 2 4 The averaged velocity is obtained by dividing ﬂow rate by the area Q/A. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS A ﬁnite intergation of the last term in the integrand results in zero because it is constant.l) The ﬁrst integration of the ﬁrst part of the second squere bracket. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding26 . This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes. (r3 ). 1957 in Munchen 26 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis.n) ro 2 ln (ro ) ro 2 ri 2 ln (ri ) ri 2 − − + 2 4 2 4 End Solution The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional ﬂow. The second part.266 CHAPTER 8.l) results in Q= ln ro ri ro − ri 2 2 π ∂P 2 µ ∂z ro 4 ri 4 − 4 4 + (8.VII. is 1/4 ro 4 − ri 4 . of the second squere bracket. Uave = Q π (ro 2 − ri 2 ) (8.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid ﬂows downstream 25 German mechanical engineer. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis. Example 8.VII. This problem study by Nusselt25 which developed the basics equations. . The integraion of the rest is Q= 1 ∂P 4 µ ∂z ro ri r2 + ln ro ri ro 2 − ri 2 ln r 2 π r dr (8. Furthermore.150) in which the identy of (a4 − b4 )/(a2 − b2 ) is b2 + a2 and hence Uave = ln ro ri 1 ∂P 2 µ ∂z ro 2 ri 2 + 4 4 + (8. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25.

The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0). Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom). pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the ﬂow direction and y perpendicular to ﬂow direction (depicted in Figure 8. As it will be shown later. For simplicg sin θ ity. assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain). Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence for example 8.1 dimensional in the x direction. For this example.20. Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant. The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction. . -8. For this system. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ.VIII.20). assume that the ﬂow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. Assume that the ﬂow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished). Calculate the velocity proﬁle. The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate.20. Write the governing equations for this situation. the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible. The dominate force is the gravity. Fully developed ﬂow means that the ﬁrst term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0).a) − g sin θ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux + ρ gx +µ + + ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 The ﬁrst term of the acceleration is zero because the ﬂow is in a steady state. The governing in the x direction is =f (t) ∂U x ρ + ∂t =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0 =0 =0 (8.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 267 on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. Assume that the ﬂow is one Fig.8. The ﬁrst term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example ﬂow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”).

VIII.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 (8.c) The boundary at the interface is simpliﬁed to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8.VIII. equation (8.VIII. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8.VIII.VIII.VIII.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected.b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8.b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8.k) . the velocity proﬁle is Ux = The ﬂow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8.VIII.268 CHAPTER 8.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Thus.VIII. Integration of equation (8.VIII.VIII.VIII. the governing equation can not be suﬃcient from the mathematical point of view.VIII.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the ﬂow.d) If there is additional requirement.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8.VIII. such a speciﬁc velocity at the surface.

The ﬂow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension. Example 8. This explanation bothered this author. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The average velocity is then Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ 269 (8. Flow of liquid in partially ﬁlled duct. Thus. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the ﬂow through curved interface is examined. the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisﬁed.1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8. . Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the ﬂow is at steady state. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface. The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. No matter how low ﬂow rate was small and big occurred. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisﬁed. The Fig. The ﬂow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface. solution to the diﬀerential governing equations provides only two constants. However. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs. there is total of three boundary conditions27 to be satisﬁed.VIII.8. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase.9: A simpliﬁed ﬂow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the ﬂow was in a very stable system. the maximum height).l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the ﬂow rate and the averaged velocity. 8. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the ﬂow. 27 The author was hired to do experiments on thin ﬁlm (gravity ﬂow).7. -8. For the liquid.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary).21.7. Two boundary conditions must be satisﬁed at the interface.

157) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 28 This (8.156) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.152) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).159) (8.154) (8. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.155) yields ρg ρ (8.156) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.153) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.VIII.270 CHAPTER 8.151) Note.160) equation results from double integrating of equation (8. .157) (8.158) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The governing equation solution28 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg (8.154) with (8.153) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8. the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8.155) (8.

(8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Advance material can be skipped 271 The solution of equation (8.162) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8.159) and (8.159) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.157).160) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.7. Equation (8.157) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8.162) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8. So equation (8.163) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8.161) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.160) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8.164) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8.165) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.166) .8.164) Or rearranging equation (8.

163) CHAPTER 8.167) (8. The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8.171) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8.172) The two diﬀerent ﬂuids30 have ﬂow have a solution as long as the distance is ﬁnite reasonable similar. ﬂow at inﬁnite is zero.165) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν (8. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface.168) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization29 . What happen when the lighter ﬂuid. The boundary conditions of ﬂow with inﬁnite depth is that ﬂow at the interface is zero. Combining inﬁnite size domain of one ﬂuid with ﬁnite size on the other one side results in unstable interface. is inﬁnite long.272 Further rearranging equation (8. mostly the gas. The requirement of the shear stress in the inﬁnite is zero as well.170) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8.169) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction.168) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem. The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8. 30 This 29 Later . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8. it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively.

It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate. there was a Ph. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). In fact. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. For many engineers. is required for many engineering problems.1 Introduction Traditionally.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. 9. Thus. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. only the trends and simple calculations are described. Here. In the past. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics. For simple models. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics.D. As result. Additionally.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. 273 .

ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. Hence. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. However. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. . This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. will know and understand the trends. and importance to real world. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). However. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. and more importantly. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. 9. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity.274 CHAPTER 9. For example. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). the concept of ﬂow regimes. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases.

nonetheless it exists. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error.000 in about two and half years.1. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. For example. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. Hence. . However. In our calculation.9. In fact. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. it is assumed that air is made of only gases.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. or a large acceleration. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. 9. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow.4. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 275 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. Practically for many cases.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. -9. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account.

plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow.276 CHAPTER 9. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. Jr. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. mud ﬂow etc. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. When the . rain. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. March 29. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. There are many more categories. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. In the past. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. 1887). The multiphase can be found in nature. Since there are three phases. although important. For example. paint spray. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. spray casting. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. Yet. Thus. For example. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. they can be solid–liquid. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. The liquid–solid. 9. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids.. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. However. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. solid–gas. in nature can be blood ﬂow. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). and avalanches. Generally. In almost all situations. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. and river ﬂow. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. ﬂuidized bed. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. solid propellant rocket. for an example. For the gas. In a four (4) miles long train. and industries. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. for example. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. Open Channel ﬂow is.

-9. it is referred as counter–current. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. and what ever between them. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. In general. horizontal.1. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. Yet. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow.9. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 277 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. . The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. the co-current is the more common. Generally. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. For example. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter.2. up or down. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. Thus. Additionally. plug ﬂow.2. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid).5. and annular ﬂow.5. 9. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow.5. For example. 9. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime.

Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. . At some point. -9.3). The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. Thus. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well.4. At this stage. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. liquid ﬂow rate. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. Thus. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity).278 CHAPTER 9. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. -9. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. all the ﬂow is wavy. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. liquid level is higher.4). All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. Fig. In fact. choking occurs relatively Fig. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure.3. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. the friction between the phases increase. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe.

the return path is not move the exact same way. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. In engineering application. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 279 this category is accepted). with the gravity or against it. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. etc. Qualitatively. as in compressible ﬂow. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow.5. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity).” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis.5.1.9.5. As many things in multiphase. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. -9. liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. in normal gravitation. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. e. Hence.g. 9. The buoyancy . Besides the length.5. For example. However. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. After a certain distance. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9. other parameters can aﬀect the “near. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions.

Notice. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations.6). see Figure 9. is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. -9. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow.280 CHAPTER 9. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. Thus.6. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way. it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. For the ﬂow against gravity. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. . When many bubbles collide. After additional increase of “super slug” . The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. Again. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. Thus.6. the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow.

the vertical conﬁguration.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. and Weber numbers. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. In the literature. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow.Reynolds. Here. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow.1. the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further. However. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. -9.6.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 281 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. While this author is not aware of an actual model. However. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. In cases where the surface tension is very important. The liquid–liquid (also . The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. As the gas ﬂow increases. Pulsing For example. After the ﬂow has settled. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations.7. Liquid Flow Rate 9.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. Figure 9. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses.7). The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. respectively. both will be united in this discussion.9. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters.5. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity.

3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. Perhaps. 9. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9.6) GG = UsG ρG (9. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant.6. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. and with time. over its cross section. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9.4) mL ˙ A (9. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9.282 CHAPTER 9.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality.7) .1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.

It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant.6.9.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 283 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube. Thus.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9.8) In a similar fashion. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. Thus. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9. .14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. Also.

thus equation (9.284 CHAPTER 9.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (9. The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.7) into equation (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9. the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (9.18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (9.16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. Substituting equations (9.1) and (9.21) .19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.17) Equation (9.

Initially.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. Thus. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.7. Furthermore. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 285 9. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments).13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9. The average velocity (see also equation (9.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9.24) or modifying equation (9.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. In fact. the simplest is to used it for approximation.23) Example 9. Now.9. this assumption has to be broken. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer).1: Under what conditions equation (9. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9.26) .

1. For example. 9.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. for small distances (dx) and some situations. In that case. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. In fact.7. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0. . However. Yet.7. from equation (9. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used.079 and n = 0. For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1.25. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9. since there isn’t anything better. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9.286 CHAPTER 9. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. acceleration.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section.25). this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. acceleration must occur. and body force(gravitation). this dependency can be neglected.

Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9.1. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 287 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity.7.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero. dρL / dx = 0.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula. For the last point.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9.37) a There are several special cases. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9. the friction loss can be estimated. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only. dX/ dx = 0. Equation (9.9.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9. dA/ dx = 0. 9. For example. .7.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9.7. Thus.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density).42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points.7.1. private communication with Y.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase.7. Taitle . (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9.40) 9. φG = dP dx dP dx (9.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9. 8 This method was considered a military secret.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 .288 9.. The density in equation (9. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase. 9.1. there are two parameters as shown below.

For example. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces. and geometry. etc). The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. distribution.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round.9.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. in this discussion. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water.” Therefor. To insert the Diagram. Thus. 9. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. 2. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9. cubic. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 289 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. . the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. In solid–liquid. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid.8. 3. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles.45) For the gas phase.

The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. possibility. 9. The drag coeﬃcient. All these possibilities are diﬀerent.52) .8. When the liquid velocity is very small. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).51) 24 Re (9. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces.48) into equation (9. However.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9. it can be approximated for several regimes.290 CHAPTER 9. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9. However. there are two sets of similar characteristics.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties.49) Equation (9. the Newton’s Law region. Re. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number.48) Inserting equating (9.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.44 (9. CD ∞ . MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9.

US|avarge . particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles.8. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 291 In most cases of solid-liquid system. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. the case of liquid. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. -9. In that case. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. the particle will drift with the liquid. So far the discussion was about single particle.9. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. Thus.9). This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. Yet. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . For the case of gas.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig.8. When the velocity is lower. the function f (α) is not a linear function. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. Consequently. For the ﬁrst region. If the velocity is larger. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. Thus. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. For small gas/liquid velocity. the particle will sink into the liquid. Thus. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. in many cases the middle region is applicable. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. For particles.

The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. Nevertheless. Thus. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle . The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound.292 CHAPTER 9. -9. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). In the gas phase. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. the length of conduit is very limited.8. However. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist.9. 9. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. Hence. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. Furthermore. Hence.

In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist.9. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. 9. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. -9. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. Otherwise.9. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. In most cases. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. be ﬁnite. In short tube. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. Annular Extented Flow In that case. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount.54. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. opening a can of milk or juice. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. Liquid Body Foreces . Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. Hence. UL /US → 0. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 293 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. The counter-current ﬂow occurs. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map.10.54) 6 8 From equation 9. Thus. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). For example. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. However. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. But in most cases. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. For example. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. However. for example.

For example. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. -9.). in some cases.294 CHAPTER 9.12). It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. . The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. due to the gravity.11. In this ﬂow regime. If there are two holes. water solution. Figure 9. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. the pressure in the can increase. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured.12. Initially. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9. Then. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). -9. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. Fig. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. The container is made of two compartments. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller.

no counter–current ﬂow is possible. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside).9. In many situations. ﬂow with gravity or against it. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. However. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. -9. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4.9. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities.7) page 137) it can be considered stable for small diameters. In horizontal tubes. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). When the driving (body) force is very small.9. . there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow.7). The ratio of the diameter to the Fig.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. Flood in vertical pipe. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. The analysis is provided. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 295 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. Probably.13. no counter–current ﬂow possible. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). 9. At this point.

The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L.14.296 CHAPTER 9. the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. mass transfer. The model can be improved by considering turbulence. Thus. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state.9. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9. Fig. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. Thus.Fig. that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. In some situations. closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small. -9. the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero.15.15. 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. When there is no water (in liquid phase). this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. QL . the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. etc11 . The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. is unknown. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. The liquid ﬂow rate. However. . A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. coexist. both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L .14. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. Additionally. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. wavy interface.13. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9. -9. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction.

Hence. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi .63) . [U (x = 0) = 0].9. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9.9. τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9. On the liquid side. Thus. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 297 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow.55) The integration constant. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform.62) Uy = (9. is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9. C1 . The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.61) (9.58) (9.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9.59) (9.).56) (9.57) The liquid velocity at the wall. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions.

There are three solutions for equation (9. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness. h.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9.15).68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9.69). But. This point can be obtained when equation (9. Integration equation (9.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9. The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero.298 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9.65) The solution for equation (9.69) is equated to zero. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm.70) . Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9.69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero. also.

The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9. Thus. the linear equation is used.72) Simplifying equation (9.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility.9. For this shear stress. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow.76) noticing that equation (9. the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 299 This critical shear stress.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. equation (9.73) Again.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. for simplicity reasons. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9. the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL |@wall = (9.9. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid. .74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship. For simplicity. Here.67)). for a given ﬁlm thickness.

77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.64) when (x = h).84) The velocity in Equation (9. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9.78) into equation (9.83) (9.C.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9. in that case.81) At the other boundary condition. However. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. cause this assumption to be not physical. .79)(a).300 CHAPTER 9. (9. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption. equation (9. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal).82) With the integration constants evaluated.80) (a) (b) or (9. of the equal velocities.79) (9.

Then if the interface becomes wavy. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence .79)(b).89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. if no special eﬀects occurs.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9.86) (9.87) (9.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9. the two conditions can co–exist. The shear stress at the interface must be equal.9.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 301 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. condition (9. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9.

as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied.95) .96) (9. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases.94) Simplifying equation (9. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. Figure 9.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9. However. However. the total balance is needed.302 CHAPTER 9. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. Fig. -9.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9.16.

There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 303 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected. 9. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. In that case. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter.10. . this analysis equation (9. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong.9. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW .304 CHAPTER 9.

1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. A.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented.dinates system. Furthermore.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A. nates depicted in Figure A.1. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics. Hence without additional reading. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs. Thus. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance.). the 305 Fig. -A. Vector in Cartesian coor- . and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. Uy is the vector component in the y direction. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order. this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material.

V )) n (A. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. multiplication of U × V results in W .4). V . U .1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars. The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . A. Then the following can be said U U V 1. V )) (A. (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2.5) . a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations. The right hand rule. and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U . U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U .2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section.306 unit vector is APPENDIX A.1. a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4. There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A. -A. h2 .4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. The following are vectors. U + V = V + U 3.2.

that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A.A.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. etc. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. However. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). For example. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector.6) (A. VECTORS 307 where θ is the angle between U and V . is that these combinations have physical meaning. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system).10) (A. or vector with the angle. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning. . In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used.1. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant.7) (A. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. The reason that these current combinations.

It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning. the gradient. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function. In multivariate calculus.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x.308 APPENDIX A.y. A. respectively. The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. and z directions.z).” This operator is a diﬀerential vector. y. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. For example. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. j.13) . divergence. Many of the operations of vector world. i.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. For example. such as.1. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element. More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function. the curl.

y.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 .14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. VECTORS 309 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.1. z)ˆ + Nz (x. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. y. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors.18) . y.A. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla. z) = Nx (x. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A.16) Note that the result is a vector. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A. z)ˆ + Ny (x. y. N . in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827).15) (A. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator.

This results reduces equation.1. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855). 1801 – January 1. normally for steady state. The basic of these relationships is explored. y.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 .21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N . x3 . to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. Special case of equation (A. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral. x2 . If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem.edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. x3 . x2 . 1862). For example. x2 . · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . This subset can further produces several interesting identities.310 APPENDIX A. · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 .19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math.22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. A. The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar.fullerton. x3 .20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. Thus. the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative.html .

The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. the chain role is applicable. Similarly. and acceleration. Yet. Ellipsoidal coordinates.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero. Spherical coordinates.24) (A. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. velocity.1.A. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R). it can done for the cross product. Parabolic coordinates. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. A. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 311 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Elliptic . Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation.25) (A.3. Oblate spheroidal coordinates.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. Cylindrical coordinates.1.

3. Historically. and z. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry.mcs.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r. The coordinate θ is angle. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate. θ. the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them. . ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”.29) 3 Coolidge. -A. in most cases.html. r.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. The new concept here is the length factor. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions.st-and. http://www-history. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates. θ. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. in this case. Cylindrical Coordinate System.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. → and z. Toroidal coordinates.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. Julian (1952). x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point.312 APPENDIX A. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. In Fig. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work.3. Bispherical coordinates. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates.ac. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations.

Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. Spherical Coordinate System. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure A.30) (A. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates. A location is represented by a radius and two angles. sound wave propagax tion etc.31) (A.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A.1.4.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location. boom explosion. -A. The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A.37) .4.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.A. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 313 (A.

314 APPENDIX A. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need. θ. For example in cylindrical coordinates. there is dispute what with unit vectors. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. the unit vectors are: r. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance.39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A.2. and z . The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length. As in almost all cases. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted.42) . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. The general Orthogonal is r. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. -A.5.3. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. However. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h.

43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A. 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 315 (A.A.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A. -A.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system.1. 2 φ= + + Fig.6. . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) .

2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 . Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A.47) 4 Note that mathematically.g. The most general form is f u. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 . The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions.t dt =0 (A. A. du . ﬁrst derivative. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect.2. Note that the derivatives are integers e. . It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference. second derivative etc4 .1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. However. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe.316 APPENDIX A. ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations.

48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A. u) = X(t) U (u). Example A.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A.I.I. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time. (1.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .c) Equation (1.b) (1.e) .47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1.I. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.I.I.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).2. u) dt 317 (A.A.I.I.2.48) A.d) (1.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.48) can be written as F (t.

1 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations. .53).53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A. Thus equation (A.2.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.58) (A.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next.318 A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A. This family is part of a linear equations.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.2.52) (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A.55) (A.

60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.2.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A.A. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A.62) Example A. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.III. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 319 Example A.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.2.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 . .

c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1.III.b) equation (1. For this case.IV.III.a) . v) dt (A. t) = f (a u.320 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.III. v) − v (A. The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.65) Example A.III.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.c) (1.b) Using the deﬁnition (1. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.3.III.63) into t dv + v = f (1. a t) dt (A.63) for any real positive a.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.d) (1.III.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.2.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1.III.

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.2.IV.2.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.IV.V.d) (1.b) (1.e) A.V.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.67) g(u) Example A. End Solution 321 (1.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations. For this sort equations.IV.c) (1.3.b) .IV. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.IV.A. In fact.IV.

transformation (like Laplace transform). A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.V.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A.322 APPENDIX A. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients. There are additional methods such numerical analysis.71) (A. variable substitutions.3. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A.2.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators.c) Rearranging equation (1.V.V. and perturbation methods. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A.V. Practically.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE.72) .68) In a way.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.d) End Solution A. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix.

2. where L is Linear operator.b) are −2.VI.VI. . ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 323 (A.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.c) A.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1. and −5. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero.VI.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A.A. This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation. Thus. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.4. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A.b) (1.2.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x). Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0.74) Example A.VI.

MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.VII. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.d) A. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.VII. u.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1.78) then the equation (A.5.324 APPENDIX A.79) .VII.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations).1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.a) (1.2.2.c) (1. A.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation. Hence.VII.

VIII. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 325 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.VIII.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.VIII.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue.a) becomes u du = sin d (1.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A. 6 This .VIII.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII.b) After the integration equation (1.d) Equation (1. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.VIII. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .A.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1.2.VIII. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration. Example A. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once.

2.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.2. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A.5. End Solution A.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A. d dt u du dt =0 (A.86) A.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.326 APPENDIX A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs.85) + c2 (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A.5.88) .82) where a is constant.

2.A.IX. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The .c) A. Example A. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A. Thus.IX.2.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 327 (A. the linear third-order diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg.90) +u=0 (1.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A.IX. 1999.b) (1. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation.

For the case D = 0.99) (A. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A.94) (A.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A. all the roots are real and unequal.328 APPENDIX A.95) R+ √ D. if D > 0. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist. all the roots are real and at least two are identical. From a mathematical point of view.92) (A.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A.93) (A. (A. In the last case where D < 0. Thus.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.101) . one root is real and two roots are complex.98) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution. θ.

Generally. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A.107) (A. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A. A.108) .106) are the solutions of (A.A. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. The solution of equation (A.109) (A.2.105).104).107) was discussed earlier.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots. For example. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler.103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root. Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order. for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations. For the case of only one real root.2.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 329 (A.106) and equation (A.

2 s3. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A.g.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number.g.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1.d) . are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi .g.X.g.X.X. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.X. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.g.X.a) (1.b) With the roots of the equation (1.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1.330 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.

the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. .8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A. ux . The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. the same can be done for a second-order PDE. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve.2.112) The coeﬃcients axx .111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it. Generally. axy . For example. ux = ∂u . The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables.112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A. Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 331 A. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. Example of such equation is F (ut . . . Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. One example of such equation is heat equation. The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A. However. Generally.) = 0 (A.110) To be continue A. this characterization is done for for second order.3. Normally.A. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. When the discriminant . Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). Equation (A. when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy .

332 APPENDIX A.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant. .118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition.118) Equations (A.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct. However.119) (A.114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated.116) Rearranging equation (A.. A.119) and (A.117) A possible way the equation (A. the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE..1 First-order equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + . If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations.3. Hence. the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book. ∂x ∂x (A. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.

tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. β. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6. The tringle angles sides. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig. .7. -A. b.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. and opposite angles α. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). respectively 5. tan(α + β) = 6. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4. and γ. TRIGONOMETRY 333 A. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. sin2 α = 4. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3.4. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2.A. consider the triangle with sides of length a. and c.

334 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .

200 C Co–current ﬂow. 205 Integral Analysis. angular. 73 Boundary Layer. 72. 96 Forces Curved surfaces. 296 Counter–current ﬂow. 293 Flow ﬁrst mode. 8. 279 Compressibility factor. 295 . 230 Add momentum. 94 Add Force. 200 Convective acceleration. 297 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 268 Correction factor. 174 B Bernoulli’s equation. 12 Accelerated system. 92 Acceleration. 146 Density ratio. 125 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 202 Flow rate concentric cylinders. 117 buoyant force. 280 Fluid Statics Geological system. 115. 200 Conservative force.SUBJECTS INDEX 335 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 230 Add mass. 199 Energy Equation Linear accelerate System. 276 Flow regimes in one pipe. 7. 129 Diﬀerential analysis. 11. 177 Averaged velocity concentric cylinders. 268 Flow regime map. 311 Deformable control volume. 229 dilettante. 214 Simpliﬁed equations. 89 eﬀective. 188. 205 Averaged momentum velocity. 243 Correction factor. 218 Steady State. 34 Conduction. 29 buoyancy. 217 Accelerated System. 71. 215 Convection. 111 Archimedes. 23. 199 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 266 Flow out tank. 87. 188 Arc shape. 215 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 215 Rotating Coordinate System. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 11 Divergence Theorem. 188 Integral analysis. 205 Averaged momentum energy. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 159 bulk modulus. 86. 297 Cut–out shapes. 91 Concentrating surfaces raise. 81. 281 E Energy conservation. 211. 24 Bulk modulus of mixtures. 190 Annular ﬂow. 312 Double choking phenomenon. 213 Euler equations. 11 Body force. 87. 108 Fourier law. 74. 229 External forces. 109 Cylindrical Coordinates. 3. 86 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 279. 77 Averaged kinetic energy. 231 D D’Alembert paradox. 220 Bingham’s model.

constant of integration. 112 I Ideal gas. 293 Poiseuille ﬂow. 229 Neutral moment Zero moment. 284 . 89 Real gas. 243 Momentum equation Accelerated system. 212 L Lapse rate. 293 Momentum Conservation. 136 Piezometric pressure. 71. 175 index notation. 230 Inverted manometer. 250 N Navier-Stokes equations. 125. 8 No–slip condition. 290 P Pendulum action. 81 Inclined manometer. 318 Liquid phase. 125 Neutral stable. 313 Oscillating manometer. 259 Moving surface Free surface. 258 Non–deformable control volume. 282 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 319 Integral analysis big picture. 90 H Harmonic function. 279 Orthogonal Coordinates. 312 Gravity varying Ideal gas. 321 Normal stress. 104. 293 APPENDIX A. 156 Limitation of the integral approach. 92 Linear operations. 243 Lockhart martinelli model. 11 O Open channel ﬂow. 27 Interfacial instability. 173 Momentum conservation. 89.336 Free expansion. 80 Initial condition. 279 Hydrostatic pressure. 146 Non–Linear Equations. 81 Isotropic viscosity. 80 Mass velocity. 259 Moving surface. 105 pseudoplastic. 113 Pressure center. 256 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 74 Pneumatic conveying. 260 Multi–phase ﬂow. 89 Leibniz integral rule. 164 Integral equation. 87–89 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 251 K Kinematic boundary condition. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Metacentric point. 138. 292 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 127 Micro ﬂuids. 164 small picture. 312 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 296 purely viscous ﬂuids. 139 Newtonian ﬂuids. 297 Horizontal ﬂow. 275 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 278 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem. 83 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 259 kinematic viscosity. 248 Moving boundary. 11 Pushka equaiton M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 266 Polynomial function. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 278 Local acceleration. 212 Linear acceleration. 264 Concentric cylinders. 1.

312 Rocket mechanics. 111. 291 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 242 Superﬁcial velocity. 281 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 279 Real gas. 256 Thermodynamical pressure. 291 Solid–solid ﬂow. 19 Wave Operator. 255 Segregated equations. 244 substantial derivative. 91. 255 . 12 U Unstable condition. 278 T Tank emptying parameters. 214 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 108 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 323 Vectors. 125 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 211 Total moment. 6 Slip condition range. 247 transformation. 96 Pushka equation. 298 Slip velocity. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 258 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 294 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 292 Thermal pressure. 173 Triangle shape. 285 Liquid holdup. 296 Vertical ﬂow. 87 stability analysis. 326 shear stress. 280 Sutherland’s equation. 156 Divergence Theorem. 285 Wetness fraction. 99 Transformation matrix. 135 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 77 Variables Separation 1st equation. 137. 308 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 88. 183 V Vapor pressure.SUBJECTS INDEX expantion. 244 Cartesian coordinates. 72. 244 Transition to continuous. 279 W Watson’s method. 81 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 285 Void Fraction. 285 Quality of dryness. 91 Spherical volume. 307 Vectors Algebra. 311 Westinghouse patent. 191 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 26. 297 Stable condition. 278 Spherical coordinates. 209 Terminal velocity. 200 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 244. 285 Reversal ﬂow. 244 symmetry. 123 Stability analysis. 118 Turbomachinary. 115 cubic. 279 Stress tensor. 285 337 R Radiation. 87 Unsteady State Momentum. 98 thixotropic. 87. 184 S Scalar function.

4 de Saint Venant. Evangelista. 4. 4 Gauss. 229 G Ganguillet. 278 L Leibniz. 4 Nusselt. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 229 Prandtl. 268 O Olivier Vallee. 276 Taylor. 4 D Darcy. Claude–Louis. 329 C Cichilli. 4 Stokes. 276 M Manning. 4 . Hermann von. 229 Nikuradse. Simon-Denis. G. 312 T Taitle. 4 Westinghouse. 289 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. 4 Blasius. 276 Meye. 4 Blasiu. 156 Rose. 4 K Kutta-Joukowski. Carl Friedrich. 4 S Stanton. 211 F Fanning. Osborne. Jean Louis.I. 229 e Duckler. 4 V von Karman.. 276. 4 Martinelli. 264 Poisson. George Gabriel. 289 R Rayleigh. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. 137 Reynolds. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 211 H Helmholtz. 4 Froude. 312 Poiseuille. 4 W Weisbach.338 APPENDIX A. Barr´. 156 Lockhart. 312 N Navier. 137 Torricelli.

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