Sanskrit Introductory
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A Practical

This course of fteen lessons is intended to lift the English-speaking student who knows nothing of Sanskrit, to the level where he can intelligently apply MonierWilliams' dictionary1 and the Dhatu-Patha2 to the study of the scriptures. .

The rst ve lessons cover the pronunciation of the basic Sanskrit alphabet, together with its written form in both Devanagar and transliterated Roman: ash cards are included as an aid. The notes on pronunciation are largely descriptive, based on mouth position and e ort, with similar English (Received Pronunciation) sounds o ered where possible. The next four lessons describe vowel embellishments to the consonants, the principles of conjunct consonants, and additions to and variations in the Devanagar alphabet. Lessons ten and eleven present sandhi in grid form and explain their principles in sound. The next three lessons penetrate Monier-Williams' dictionary through its four levels of alphabetical order, and suggest strategies for nding di cult words. The last lesson shows the extraction of the artha from the Dhatu-Patha, and the . application of this and the dictionary to the study of the scriptures. In addition to the primary course, the rst eleven lessons include a `B' section which introduces the student to the principles of sentence structure in this fully in ected language. Six declension paradigms and class-1 conjugation in the present tense are used with a minimal vocabulary of nineteen words. In the `B' part of lessons ten and eleven the principles of compound words are introduced.

The course aims at a practical understanding of the basic principles, at getting a `feel' for the language, and not a learning of rules by rote. To this end, each lesson concludes with exercises for the student to put that understanding into practice: answers to the exercises are presented in an appendix.

1 Monier-Williams

Sanskrit-English Dictionary is currently published by both Motilal Banarsidass in India and Oxford University Press in England: although the two are printed from the same plates, the latter is far superior in the quality of printing, paper, and binding| and this is re ected in its much higher price. 2 The edition of the Dhatupatha referred to in these notes is that edited . by J.L.Shastri and published by Motilal Banarsidass: it is a small book and quite inexpensive.

ac.iv A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The pronunciation o ered in these lessons is optimised for the English-speaking student to understand the underlying principles of sandhi (sound changes).nac.g. . and o er suggestions for its improvement. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Readers are invited to point out errors in the course. A or A ). and many schools have ceased to teach it. but neither is wrong. these lessons standardize on the form that is most commonly used in currently available printed editions of the Bhagavad G ta and Upanisads. Charles Wikner. Consider the English spoken in Britain and America for example: they are certainly di erent. 1996. wikner@nacdh4. There are several variations in the pronunciation of some of the Sanskrit sounds. variations are illustrated in the ninth lesson. Where there is a variation in the form of a character (e. an appendix of basic English grammatical terms is included. that have been handed down over generations.za June. although this may confuse the mind trained to think in terms of opposites. In view of this situation. The common . None of these traditions are wrong. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: In the English-speaking world there is currently little appreciation of the value of studying formal grammar: as a result it has become unpopular. of right and wrong.

A. A. Introduction to nouns . . A. B. More on Noun Cases B. A. A.2.4. B. A.2. Summary of Verbs B. More on Verbs The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa B. Exercises Summary of the Consonants The Alphabetical Order Devanagar Alphabet B. A.2.3. A. A. Exercises B.3.6. Exercises Pronunciation of the Stops Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 13 Lesson 3 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va B. The Concept of Dhatu Introduction to Verbs Exercises Flash Cards Lesson 2 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: The Five Mouth Positions B.1. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 31 Lesson 5 A. Practicing the Alphabet B. A. A. A.7.4. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 37 .3. A.2.4.1.Contents Preface :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iii v ix 1 Contents ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Invocation A.1. Exercises 21 Lesson 4 A. A. A.1. The Compound Vowels: e ai o au Summary of All Vowels The Sixteen Sakti: am ah .1.2.. A. A.2. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowel Measures Sanskrit Pronunciation The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The Other Simple Vowels: r l .3. More on Verbs The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma B.1. More on Noun Cases B. B. The Final Consonant: ha B.

2. Consonant Sandhi Grid A. Types of Words Variations in Devanagar Alphabet B. A. More Noun Declensions Adjectives Adverbs Vocabulary Summary Exercises 63 A. B.3.5.3. B.4. A. A.2. A. B.5. B.4. A. B. A. Dvandva Samasa Tatpurusa Samasa .4. B.5. B. A. Exercises .2. A.1. Joining Words in Writing B. Vowel Sandhi Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi B.4. Lesson 9 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowels Accents B. A. Avyay bhava Samasa Bahuvr hi Samasa Exercises 85 . Nasal Substitution for Anusvara Devanagar Numerals B.1.3.1. B. Introduction to Compound Words B.3. Lesson 7 Conjunct Consonants Special Conjuncts ksa and j~a n . :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B.1. Exercises 77 A.2. History of Vowel Embellishment A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 6 B.1. A.2. Exercises 53 Lesson 8 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Savarna .4.vi A. B. Internal Sandhi Lesson 11 Samprasarana . . A. Revision :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 71 Lesson 10 Introduction to Sandhi Guna and Vrddhi . Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit Noun Gender Summary of Case Information Exercises 45 A.5. Use of iti Variations in Samyoga B.3.3. Verbal Pre xes B.2. Visarga Sandhi A. A.1.1.3. A. Pronunciation of j~a n List of Conjunct Consonants Special Symbols Halanta Consonants ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B.6. A.2. Pronunciation of ksa .1.2. Vowels after Consonants A. A.1.3. B.2.4.2. B.1.1. A.3. A.

Contents vii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 12 1. 4. 6. 2. Study of the Scriptures Study Practice ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109 Appendix 1: Suggestions for Further Study Appendix 2: Answers to Exercises Sanskrit Glossary and Index Appendix 3: English Grammatical Terms ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 121 123 135 141 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: . 5. 8. The Contents Page The Text Body The Index Dhatu Spelling Changes Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use . 5. 2. 3. Monier-Williams Dictionary Alphabet and Transliteration Fundamental Structure Page Heading Words Dictionary Practice Words beginning with SaStructure of Devanagar level Structure within non-Dhatu entries References and Abbreviations Special Symbols Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Supplement to the Dictionary Dictionary Practice Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Dhatu Entry Information Numbered Entries Misleading Words Di cult Words Dictionary Practice :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91 Lesson 13 1. 3. 5. 3. 4. 4. 6. 97 Lesson 14 1. 8. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103 Lesson 15 1. 6. 7. 2. 4. 5. 7. 3. 2.

viii A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

d sea.+ A:~tu+{ .| sma=*Ne+| .pa.d sea. Dh. read well-read.v+| bhu | mw 760c f.Dyayane+| . p A:~tu+| rst of as `let it be'. sharpening. i. adhyayana | mw 22c n. calling to mind. Swam Gambh rananda) .Da. the act of arising or becoming.d:ga.P. light.| A. Dh.pa.| Bua. giving the meaning `of us both (student and teacher)'.f. go on with. attained.tam.tama~tu+! .pa. :pa. over and above.E+| genitive dual of personal pronoun `I'. tejasvin | mw 454c mfn.ane+| nisana | mw 561a n. Panini: ba. get about to go to or towards. to turn the mind towards.pa. Dh. obtain . energetic.d A ana.a. Let what we are studying be invigorating.a.a. | I z A d a. moving. . | a.E+| . gait. Let our study be brilliant. .j+ Bva.M.an+{ tea. May our study be vigorous and e ective. splendid. tea.f. Dh.a~v+| . adhi | mw 20b pre x expressing above.a. exist. come .| ga. glow.d:ga.) adh ta |mw 22c mfn. | I k A d a." y y The light of understanding/knowledge/truth.d A ana. | I z A d a.i. . going. . in the sense of matup (`belonging to this'. re ptij | mw 446a to be or become sharp. na.d:ga.ja. reading. studied.f. pi | to go. studying.e. whetting observing.1. . . smarana | mw 1272b n.hu lM C*nd as+{ 5| 2| 122{ In the Veda the a x -vin is variously introduced . Treating adh tam as a neuter noun and tejasvi its complement.j!a.ta. reach. to undertake anything to be employed in. continue in any condition or relation . . understand.E+ A. | A:s+ A d a. A.| ana. spread.ix INVOCATION Translations: E ective may our study prove! May our study be thorough and fruitful.P. Swam Gambh rananda) (First Lessons in Sanskrit.N+ :pa= smEa.ja.tmanea.tam. May our study be full of light.a. . .N+ :pa= smEa. (Invocation to Katha Upanisad . te!a. especially the Veda s. this may be understood as the heat that burns o the dross of ignorance and allows the light of understanding to shine through. . (to be).Da. perceiving. live. Swam Sarvananda) .+| neuter nominative singular of adh tam. (The past passive participle used in the sense of an abstract noun.P. .Za. learned.N+ :pa= smEa. or simply `be!' 117a be. to arrive at.a~v+ na. bright.P. Comment: Tejas is a name given to the subtle element of re. reminding.ta.f. Using poetic licence to convey the sense of the whole. A. besides. `existing in this'). brilliant.a. pas | mwpersontosingular imperativepresent. be take place.a.d A ana. Judith Tyberg) neuter nominative singular of adjective tejasvin.vaDa. Swam Sarvananda) (Invocation to Taittir ya 2.a. Dh. (Invocation to Taittir ya 2.d:ga.tmanea. having qualities of heat and light. splendour. brilliance.Sastry) .1.P. gati | mw 347c f. happen.f.] tejas | sharp (edge of a knife) point or top of ame or ray. (Invocation to Katha UUpanisad . :::::::: :: :::::::::::::::::: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: (Invocation to Daksinamurti Upanisad. motion in general.d:ga.d a. to succeed. rather than the literal word-by-word translation. or simply `our'. walk to ow to blow to advance. we have: \May the Light Shine upon our Studies.pa. observe. p adhi.`a. glare. deportment. the act of causing to remember.a.N+ A a.N+ A a. With reference to our study of Sanskrit.!a.a~v+ na. this gives a rather plodding translation of `Let our study be bright'. `may it be'.

x A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

sound. the development of the alphabet and the euphonic combinations that occur in continuous speech. the letter `a' for example. 1.Lesson 1. but not so in Sanskrit. fare. manifesting (as a stop in the n sound). the long vowels for two measures. fate. In English. where many means more than two) manifests throughout the grammar. The short vowels are held for one measure (matra). two.A. tone. In Sanskrit. By contrast. Without this. The prolonged measure occurs in Vedic Sanskrit but is rare in Classical Sanskrit the prolonged measure (as a full breath) is useful in practising the vowels. The word devanagar means the `city (nagar ) of immortals (deva)'. far). and the prolonged for three or more measures.2 Sanskrit Pronunciation The pronunciation of Sanskrit is very simple: you open the mouth wide and move the tongue and lips as necessary: the tongue and lips are almost pure muscle and have little inertia or resistance to movement. The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. accent and n vya~jana an adornment or decoration (to the sound). This system of enumeration (one. many. The word svara literally means sound. each letter represents one. for it re ects the natural evolution of creation. There are two fundamental divisions to the alphabet: the vowel (svara) and the consonant (vya~jana). will not be understood. It is essential to use the correct mouth position and not to merely imitate an approximation of the sound.) 1. and only one.1 Vowel Measures Vowels can be short (hrasva) or long (d rgha) or prolonged (pluta). may indicate many sounds (e.g. for we barely open the mouth (which means that all sounds are indistinct or blurred).A Sanskrit is written in devanagar script. Having . the pronunciation of English requires much e ort. The prolonged measure in both transliterated Roman script and devanagar is indicated by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3.A. There are no capital letters. fat. (You may also see it as the long vowel followed by 3. and then instead of simply moving the tongue we move the whole jaw | and what a great weight that is to move about. and indeed throughout the systems of thought expressed in Sanskrit.

breathe out and simply desire that the vocal cords vibrate. so pout rather than purse the lips.A. open the throat and mouth wide. . The biggest single factor in practising the re ned sounds of Sanskrit. In spite of this di erence between a and a. sound a prolonged a3 and slowly open the mouth wide and listen to the change in the quality. The mouth needs to open a lot more than you think | so don't think! | use a measure. In producing this sound it will be noticed that there is a slight constriction or tensioning in the throat as compared with the relaxed throat when sounding a3. they are treated as though the same in the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) of the grammar. The short i sounds similar to the vowel in `pink' and not `pin'. and the long like `peep' or `seat' the short u is similar to the vowel in `put' or `soot'. is to open the mouth! For English. To sound u3. To sound i3. and with tongue relaxed. lling the opening) there should be no tension in the lips or face muscles. In producing the short a there is a slight tensioning in the throat that tension should not be there for the long a or the prolonged a3. 1. As a very rough guide. and the long u like `boot' or `suit'. open the mouth as for a3 and raise the back of the tongue (the tip should be relaxed behind the bottom front teeth). like two ngers. the short a sounds similar to the vowel in `but' and de nitely not `bat' likewise the long a is similar to the vowel in `harm' and not `ham'. it does require some attention to break that habit and speak with a moving tongue. There will be a similar tension in the throat as for i3. the mouth opens to a mere slit of about 6-mm (a pencil thickness) for Sanskrit this needs to increase fourfold | literally! Try this out for yourself: with the mouth opened to a slit. allow the lips to form a small circular opening of the mouth (so that the moistened back of a pencil just slips in and out.3 The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The sounding of a3 is simplicity itself: with body and mind relaxed but alert.2 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory become well practised in speaking with a moving jaw. What could be more natural than that? This sound is central to all the vowel sounds indeed. to the richness and fulness that emerges. the whole alphabet is simply an embellishment of this sound.

and . We began with a and from this developed u and i to give the three primary vowels. Similarly for l3. 0 0 The long l is not used in the standard grammar. The pandit of today tends to pronounce r as if it were .5 The Compound Vowels: e ai o au a u r . . . start sounding with a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of .A 3 1. approaching but not touching the roof of the mouth. . ve basic vowels. Do not try to hold the back of the tongue in the i3 position. and lr . r These vowels appear to have vanished from popular speech..A. and l occurs only in one verb (klp.. In fact the vocalic r is still present in Eastern European languages and you may come across . for example rk tends to produce . . nor try to move it out of that position: simply have no concern with what is happening at the back of the tongue. or indeed in the American `prdy' for . Continue the exercise as for . a vestigial i will emerge due to the bunching of the muscle at the back of the tongue when moving the tip downwards. .. 1. . . then practise directly sounding r3 for a full breath. `pretty'. each having its own unique mouth position. In practice. slowly raise the tip of the tongue so that it pointing to the top of the head. Let's examine what we have so far. Repeat the exercise a few times until comfortable with the sound of r3.A. . begin by sounding a prolonged i3 and . de ne the ve mouth positions used for the whole alphabet. to manage. . To get to the correct pronunciation of r3. . This accounts for the transliteration scheme found in the dictionary. to be well ordered or regulated).4 The Other Simple Vowels: r l . ri. but a word like Krsna r . 3.. just attend to the tip of the tongue and listen. . ik. i l . when either of these vowels is followed by a consonant whose mouth position requires that the tip of the tongue be at a lower position. and then the i gave rise to r and l . should produce no i sound at all. the tongue to behind the upper front teeth without touching them.r even more improbably as r similarly l and l tend to be pronounced as lri . surnames like Przybylski it is also present in English in some pronunciations of the word `interesting' as `int r sting' or `intrsting'. These . and the memory of how to pronounce them has faded.Lesson 1.

o a u In a manner similar to the arising of e. we need to drop the back of the tongue to a position half way between that used for i and e and the relaxed position used for a. while i has the back of the tongue raised and the throat tense: so relaxing the throat while retaining the back of the tongue raised will produce e. so to move from e towards the a sound. with the lips in the position for u but the throat relaxed for sounding a. e a i The e sound arises when a is sounded through the i mouth position.e. au a o And nally.4 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Further vowels are derived by combining the a sound with i and u to form the four compound vowels (sandhyaksara). and the throat is relaxed. Remember that a has a relaxed throat and tongue. The au sounds similar to the vowel in `down' or `hound' but without the glide from a to u. The vowel o should sound between `awe' and `owe' (or between the vowel sounds in `corn' and `cone') the ideal is that point where the sound could be taken as either of the two English sounds. when a is sounded through the u mouth position. i. ai a e The ai sound arises when e is further combined with a as it were. the au sound arises when a is combined with o. . . Now the only di erence between e and a is the raised back of the tongue. The vowel e sounds similar to that in `fair' or `eight'. The ai sounds similar to the vowel in `aisle' or `pie' there should be no glide or slide in the sound from a to i. so that the position of the lips is roughly half way between that used for u and a. the sound o naturally arises.

tip vertical half-raised back.A. not bat harm. especially considering the wide variety of accents around the world. ai e Combining the previous ve sketches illustrates the central role played by the a sound. Vowel Throat tense relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense tense Tongue relaxed relaxed raised back raised back half-raised back relaxed relaxed relaxed half-raised back. Also note that the four sounds e ai o au.A 5 1. Note that all these vowel sounds may be sounded continuously for a full breath: there is no glide from one sound to another. are naturally long (d rgha) and may also be prolonged (pluta).Lesson 1. Approx. . Rather follow the instructions given earlier. being an addition of two sounds as it were. y but. not ham pink / peep fair or eight aisle or `pie' put / boot between owe awe down or hound (acre) (table) The English approximations are only a very rough guide. l . but have no short measure. a i l .6 Summary of All Vowels au o u r . or oral guidance given in person. y a a i/ e ai u/u o au r . tip upper teeth Lips wide open wide open wide open wide open wide open small circle small circle large circle wide open wide open Eng.

In fact. Later on we shall consider how it may be substituted by a nasal consonant depending on the following letter. . breathed through the mouth position of that vowel. a a i u u . Another method of practising the alphabet is to use ash cards with the devanagar letter on one side and the transliterated Roman letter on the other (in case you forget you can turn over).7 The Sixteen sakti: am ah . you forget how to continue the letter. . . . half way through. and should be independent of mouth position. If. write the whole letter without referring back to the original. but to associate a sound with a whole form. and then write it. Strictly speaking. When the shape has become familiar then time can be spent re ning the proportions of the letter.: In the transliteration scheme shown above. Diacritics are combined with Roman letters to represent new sounds. In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. .r r l l e ai o au am ah .A. When you write the letter. namely between both the written forms and the sound. Since these both arise after a vowel we shall precede them with a when sounding the sixteen sakti. sound it. an `after sound'. . so that any one of these associates with the other two. It is sounded through the nose only. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form. then start again: and do not continue with that half-completed letter. see if you can visualize the devanagar form.A. These cards can also be used in the other direction: from the transliterated Roman letter. which form the start of the alphabetical order. The anusvara (m) is . are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. for example the macron (horizontal bar above the letter) is used to indicate the long (d rgha) version of the vowel. .6 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1. i. The visarga (h). To these fourteen vowels are added the anusvara and visarga to form what are called the sixteen matrka or sakti (powers or energies). there needs to be a three way association. a nasal sound following a vowel.8 Practising the Alphabet One way of memorizing the script is by writing it: look at the form of the letter. etc. the lines and dots. Some traditions append an echo of the vowel after the breath. and is . is an unvoiced breath following a vowel. called `diacritical marks'. so do not practise half letters. so that ah may be sounded as aha. . . the anusvara and visarga are not part of the alphabet inasmuch as they arise only through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination). 1. or visarjan ya.e.

) and le the end of the nib to 22 as shown. the second i . You will nd that a broad nib ( 2.A 7 The ideal way of becoming familiar with these sounds and letters is to spend 15{20 minutes each day on the written exercise.5mm Pens with nibs pre-ground to the correct angle are not generally available. and one minute at a time 15{20 times throughout the day with the ash cards. 22 2. etc. and a much narrower nib ( 0. File across the nib (in the sketch. and the third u u. As a very rough guide the nib width should be 1 8 of the overall height of the A character. They are the short (hrasva) and long (d rgha) measures of the three primary vowels. 6 Here are the rst six devanagar characters to practise. Platignum. and the thickness of the nib about 1 of the width. A A+ I o IR .5mm) is best for practising the forms of the letters.6mm) for normal writing. The transliteration of the rst row is a a.Lesson 1. so start with an inexpensive calligraphy fountain pen (Schae er. into the paper) and nally remove the sharp edges by `writing' on 1000-grit water paper on a rm at surface.

each of which is an aspect of that common universal idea. stow. linger. such as `misunderstand'. stagnant. instant. Pre xes may be added to this to form further verbs. To appreciate how `stand' changes to `state' for example. meaning `to stand. which is . or su xes may be added to form nouns and adjectives.Lesson 1. stay quiet. such as constant. `recitation of roots'). | all these express some sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. last. static. remain. stand still. such as `standard' indeed. The situation is a lot simpler in Sanskrit. keep on. stammer. But a dhatu or root is even more fundamental than a verb. extant. endure. wait. etc.B Note: Until you are familiar with the pronunciation of the consonants (given in the next lesson). which is the sense of the meaning of the dhatu stha given in the Dhatu-Patha (lit. From this pie root sta are derived other simple English verbs.1 The Concept of Dhatu A dhatu is a rudimentary verbal element from which words are derived: it is the nucleus to which other word fragments are added to form a whole word. hesitate. . remain stationary. which has the sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. desist. con de in. continue. it would be necessary to study its etymological derivation from the Latin. persevere. together with a concise sense of their universal meaning. make a practice of. stay. do not attempt to pronounce the Sanskrit words included in the text: this will save the unnecessary labour of unlearning the incorrect pronunciation. Consider the English verb `to stand'.B. The pie root sta is allied to the Sanskrit dhatu stha. and ultimately from its Proto-IndoEuropean (pie) root sta. adhere to. for these fundamental roots are included in the language itself. Monier-Williams' dictionary gives several dozen English words that may be used in translating the verb: to stand. stand fast'. a host of words may be derived from `stand'. halt. estate. constitution. be left alone. and may be likened to the universal idea of a verbal activity. such as stay. ecstatic. The dhatu itself is not found in general speech or writing. etc. stack. stop. stem. and thus the simple verb derived from the dhatu stha may be translated as `to stand'. and its grammar fully describes the development of words from the dhatu to its fully in ected form as found in sentences. tarry. rely on. a list of roots (about 2000 of them) giving grammatical information about their in ection. be intent upon. 1. which diverges into many speci c meanings.

In Sanskrit the personal ending of the verb changes according to purusa. With this limited vocabulary..Lesson 1. ..(up) and -tama (superlative su x) to mean best. the dhatu does not necessarily undergo as great a _ p stha. tisthati vadami ca He stands and I speak. singular (eka-vacana) forms: Note that the order is the reverse of that used in English. . . middle person (madhyama-purusa).2 Introduction to Verbs A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol ` ' before it) develops to form a stem (anga). or You stand and speak.. simple sentences may be constructed: prathama-purusa . . An example of this is ca (`and') which is placed after the last word of the series it links (or after each word in the series). as we have here. and to the stem is added a personal ending (tin-vibhakti) to form a _ _ complete verb (kriya). uppermost. In forming the stem (anga). purusa). or highest. The word uttama derives from ud.. Some words. last person (uttama-purusa). For example: p dhatu (root) p stha sense of `cessation or absence of movement' anga (stem) tistha to stand _ . kriya (verb) tisthati he/she/it stands . in a series of place or time or order. he/she/it stands you stand I stand vadami I speak or I am speaking. however. so that uttama-purusa can also mean Supreme Spirit . for example p vad remains clearly recognizable in the form change as with vadati `he/she/it speaks'.. to give the . tisthati . such as adverbs and conjunctions..B.. it means `last'. tisthasi vadasi ca You stand and you speak. uttama-purusa . tisthasi . there are three persons (purusa): the rst person (prathama. . do not have endings these are called indeclinables (avyaya). madhyama-purusa . . tisthami .B 9 1. As in English.

I speak and you stand 5. it is preferable not to learn them. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 3. You speak and I stand 5.B..4 Flash Cards The next sheet has the ash cards for the rst six vowels.. It would be useful to keep the ash cards in a box (for example a cigarette box): there will be a total of forty-nine cards for the alphabet. but it is not at all necessary to learn all this or the Sanskrit technical terms: indeed. at the end of each lesson a few simple exercises are presented.. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. tisthami vadami ca . . . 2. and lead to understanding. The practical way to become familiar with the basics of Sanskrit is through practice: all the theory that is provided is simply so that the practice may be intelligent. and writing them r in Roman script. vadasi tisthami ca . You speak and he stands 2. Flash cards for the rest of the alphabet will be provided at appropriate places in the course..10 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1.B. and a further ten for the numerals. He stands and I speak 4. (b) Practise writing and recognizing the rst six vowels in devanagar .. You stand and he speaks 3. tisthati vadasi ca . ka in their correct order. . tisthami vadati ca . I stand and he speaks 6. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen mat. vadami tisthasi ca 6. (c) Look up the verb `stand' in a good English dictionary and observe its wide range of meanings.3 Exercises A wealth of information is presented in these notes. With this aim in mind. 1.. Cut these out and start using them. tisthasi vadami ca 4.

making use of the registration marks bottom and top of each page. 11 * A A+ I + IR o . please glue this sheet to the next before cutting.B + in case you do not have access to a double-sided printer.Lesson 1.

12 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory u u + i a a .

two mouth positions: e and ai use both guttural and palatal (kanthatalavya). and nally the two lips (osthya) used by u. guttural palatal cerebral dental labial a i .e. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat.A.A The mouth positions (sthana) used by the vowels (svara) are also used by the consonants (vya~jana).r l . In fact. . the word `consonant' itself is derived from the the Latin cum (together with) and sonare (to sound).2 The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma The rst twenty. Moving towards the front of the .A. the mouth. there are more consonants in Sanskrit than in English. and the labials (pa-varga) are stops at the lips. Like the vowels. 2. ... next is the palatal position (talavya) used by the vowel i this is followed by the cerebral position (murdhanya) used by . for example the consonants `b-c-d' are pronounced `bee-cee-dee'. The a is added for the sake of pronunciation only: being stops.1 The Five Mouth Positions The ve mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. they need a sound (i. . is called the guttural position (kanthya): this is associated with the vowel a. These are arranged in ve sets (varga) according to mouth position and named after the rst letter in the group.. mouth. Within these ve mouth positions the consonants are n further classi ed according to inner (abhyantara-) and outer (bahya-) methods of articulation or e ort (prayatna). . and the teeth (dantya) used by r l. and . . a vowel) to stop (or start). The same principle is used in English. sta) in the mouth fully stops the breath (and hence the sound) through r. o and au use guttural and labial (kanthosthya). for example the ve in the guttural column (ka-varga) are stops at the back of the mouth. ....Lesson 2. . and thus diacritical marks are used with the Roman consonants to represent further sounds. The compound vowels make use of . u 2.ve consonants are calls stops (sparsa) because the complete contact (sp. kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . .

ta..: . dha . third and fth rows are pronounced with little breath (alpaprana). . the others not. ca. _ . pa pha ba bha ma . . . . In terms of alphabetical order.e. whereas the voiced .A. . these follow after the sixteen matrka in order from . da . 2.3 Pronunciation of the Stops While the previous section (2.A. . slowly: this can be observed by listening to the di erence between ka and ga when `sounded' without the following a. i.e.2) describes the sounds authoritatively. ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma The rst. . tha . . na . and pa. The nasal (anunasika) consonants continue to sound through the nose when the breath through the mouth has been stopped by the tongue or lips. . am ah ka kha ga gha na ca cha . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta . (ghosa) stops have a gentler quality to them as though releasing the stop more . consonant. whereas the rst two rows are unvoiced (aghosa). The consonants in the fth row are nasalized (anunasika). In . the following notes may assist with rst-time pronunciation. The last three rows are voiced (ghosa). . i. The aspiration (prana) gives the native English speaker the most problems. English there is a tendency to pronounce some consonants slightly aspirated before . and . . comprises ka. ka-varga through pa-varga. the second and fourth rows with much breath (mahaprana). ta. the vocal cords vibrate in producing the . for example. The unvoiced (aghosa) stops have an explosive quality to them..14 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . The table is also arranged horizontally by rows: the rst.

but the common error is to use so much breath that a . Some English consonants are similar to those in Sanskrit. This di erence needs to be greatly increased to distinguish between the alpaprana . ja a softer ga. It may help to consider the palatal stops as a modi cation or softening of the gutturals so that ca is a softer ka. bug gh | loghouse (`log-ghouse') n | sing. p | pick. mumble When in doubt. kiln. and mahaprana consonants.Lesson 2..A 15 a long vowel. pronounced purely with the lips (osthya). jolly. pat. . so that ca is pronounced as `tsha'. cart . tap. church ch | coach-horse (`coa-chhorse') j | just. tap ph | uphill (`up-phill') b | be. and so on. imbibe bh | clubhouse (`club-bhouse') m | amble. There is a tradition that pronounces pha as `fa'.e. . chair. and ja as `dza'. th/th | anthill (`an-thill') . English does not distinguish between dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya). long. vestigial vowel is inserted. and may be used to give a very rough guide to the Sanskrit pronunciation. cab. god . dog. One e ect is that `d' and `t' are pronounced somewhere between the dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya) positions another e ect is that many speakers do not use the palatal (talavya) position for the stops. k | kiss. aha'. n/n | gentle. problems occur with the centre three mouth positions. makes use of both the teeth and lips (dantosthya): the rules of sound and grammar will be easier to understand if . however. give.. canyon. gain . as mentioned earlier. tongue _ c | cello. joy jh | hedgehog (`hej-jhog') n | enjoy. and this may be used to illustrate the di erence between for example. back kh | bunkhouse (`bung-khouse') g | good. d/d | day. pa and pha: attend to the `p' breath when pronouncing the two English words `pick' and `peek' | hold the nger tips close to the mouth to feel the di erence. pinch ~ t/t | tub. can be incorrectly pronounced as `b Because English pronunciation is acquired by imitating indistinct sounds which are not precisely described. i. particularly for the ghosa consonants for example. hand. the previous section has the authoritative description. dh/dh | redhead (`red-dhead') . bha .

The Roman transliteration of the four rows is: .l l e ai .A. A A + I IR o O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH . a a i u u r r .4 Devanagar Alphabet The previous lesson gave the rst six devanagar characters. . o au am ah . . . here are all sixteen letters of the matrka to practise.16 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2.

whereas in Sanskrit these are all included in the form of the verb itself. they (pl. should. purusa you (sing. ought.. they (two) stand bahu-vacana tisthanti .tisthati . purusa I stand . The conjugations given here are all in the present indicative (simple present tense) called lat.) stand you (two) stand . purusa he/she/it stands . imperative. while in Sanskrit there is singular (eka-vacana). (vacana): in English there is singular and plural. The personal endings are used to indicate both person and number.) to express these... a verb may express time (past. future tense) and mood (indicative. the verbs are divided into number . . A dhatu belongs to one of ten classes (gana) this classi cation is according to . you (pl.. . variations in the formation of the stem (anga) from the dhatu. benedictive. .. had.. As in English. .B.Lesson 2.. The verbs used to _ form simple sentences in this section are all from the rst class (bhvadi-gana). etc. the dual form of the verb must be used.tisthami .): English makes extensive use of auxiliaries (might. etc..B 2. . conditional. for example: eka-vacana prathama.) stand madhyama. uttama. dvi-vacana tisthatah . and plural (bahu-vacana). .) stand tisthamah . dual (dvi-vacana). tisthavah ..tisthasi tisthathah . present. There are ten tense/mood classi cations in Sanskrit: these are called lakara or l-a xes because their technical names all begin with the letter l.1 More on Verbs As well as the division into purusa (person). we (two) stand tisthatha .) stand Note that when the subject is dual. . we (pl. .

4. .) stand 3. You (two) stand and speak 4. tisthasi vadavah ca .) speak 2. 2. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1.. . He stands and you (pl. You (pl. ka in Roman script and r devanagar . We (pl. vadatah tisthamah ca . .18 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. tisthanti vadatah ca . (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order. 5. . . tisthathah vadavah ca . 8.) speak and you (sing.2 Exercises (b) Practise reading and writing the sixteen mat.. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. tisthasi vadathah ca .) stand and you (two) speak 8. 7. They (pl. .) stand and I speak 5.. . We (two) stand and you (pl. You (two) speak and they (pl.B. 3. . tisthati vadanti ca .) speak 6. .. vadamah tisthatah ca .. . . ... tisthatha vadathah ca . They (two) speak and he stands 7.) stand 6..

B O + + Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH 19 .Lesson 2.

r . + e l . r .20 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ah am au o ai . . l . .

naturally voiced (ghosa). . n 3. these follow after the twenty. except for ra which is traditionally called repha (`snarl' or `burr') or simply ra. As a moving to a will not produce . guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial ya ra la va The rst three of these.ve stops. pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va . The anusvara and visarga (or visarjan ya).Lesson 3.A. We shall now consider the nal eight consonants (vya~jana). `rum'. but do pay attention to the mouth position. . akara). l to a produces la. . making use of both teeth and lips is called dantostya. although transliterated as va. . and `luck'. i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya. but not rakara.. and are . These are considered to be between vowels and consonants.. This applies to all the sounds/letters. : . They are formed by slight contact ( satsp.e. ya ra and la. there are only four semivowels. . .A The sound or letter ka is called kakara (`ka-action') the sound or letter ga is called gakara. and u to a produces va. i. The derivation of the last semivowel (antahstha).. . and so on. In the alphabetical order. Other traditions pronounce this as the English `va'. akin to the English `wa': this latter pronunciation accords with the grammatical tradition and makes the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) easier to grasp.. produces a sound .g. are always referred to by their own name and have no -kara name. which only arise through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) and are thus not strictly part of the alphabet. and thus . . allow a restricted ow of air through the mouth. are similar to the English sounds in `yum'. similarly. a new sound.1 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va A semivowel (antahstha) arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound: . and so are called antahstha (`stand between'). r. sta).. kanthya talava murdhanya dantya osthya . including the vowels (e. r moving to a produces ra. in which case its mouth position.

with similar qualities. sa The sa sounds like the sibilant in the English words `seek' and `kiss'. called the jihvamul ya and upadhman ya. The sibilants are aspirated (mahaprana) and unvoiced (aghosa).. however. ya ra la va sa sa sa . These sound analogies are given as a very rough guide: the description given above.. In the alphabetical order this follows the sibilants and is the last letter of the alphabet: . In the alphabetical order these follow the semivowels. . `sh' in `ship' or `wish'.3 The Final Consonant: ha This aspirate (sometimes considered a sibilant) is also called usman (`heated'). sa sa sa ha. restricted (hissing) ow of breath through the mouth. . These are so very rare that for all practical purposes they can be ignored. .2 The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa . and the mouth position in particular.e. i. . . be sadvivrta (slightly open) or ardhasprsta (half-contact). there are two more sibilants. . . kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . . In theory. . according to the grammatical tradition it is voiced (ghosa).. . .22 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. are to be taken as authoritative. A sibilant (hissing sound) is called usman (`heated'). It is generally pronounced as unvoiced (aghosa). . : . . . and sa like the sibilant in the German `ich'. sa like the .A. 3. . . which are described as a `half-visarga' before ka/kha and pa/pha respectively. . .A. They are considered to . guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial | sa sa . which allows a .

. ha . ra sa . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial Qualities ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa ha ta ..4 Summary of the Consonants The de nitive qualities of the consonants are given in tabular form: kanthyatalavyamurdhanyadantyaosthya . dha . da . . . . it would be useful to start becoming familiar with the alphabetical order. na .A. . tha ..A. The order is best memorized in groups as shown below: a a i u u r r l l e ai o au am ah . .Lesson 3. . . ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta tha da dha na .5 The Alphabetical Order Having now considered the whole alphabet in sound and Roman transliteration. ta pa unvoicedunaspirated full contact tha pha unvoiced aspirated full contact da ba voiced unaspirated full contact dha bha voiced aspirated full contact na ma voiced unaspirated full contact nasal la va voiced unaspiratedslight contact sa unvoiced aspirated slightly open voiced aspirated slightly open 3.A 23 3. . ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa . .

g complete the loop. Each symbol includes the sound a for example. continue the stroke. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ k K+ g+ .A.24 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. the rst symbol is ka and not just k.G+ z c+ C j+ J V+ The loop on the kha and ga is written as follows: e write the down-stroke with the curl at the end. Note the similarity between the forms of i and jha. h this portion of the symbol is written without lifting the pen! . and for kha. f then change direction to start the loop.6 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the rst ten consonants in devanagar script.

The division is not at all de nite. please use the pada given: in the case of dhatu n for example.1 More on Verbs The personal endings of verbs given thus far are called parasmai-pada (`an expression for another') because the fruit. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe .dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama. where the dhatu is followed by the eka-vacana prathama-purusa form. or result of the action. parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka. These are the only two forms of personal endings to verbs that will be used in this course. and some partly in one and partly in another.B. some in both. English translation of that form.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve .nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . they will be presented in the form: p n nayate he leads. is transmitted to another. These are the normal endings for an active transitive verb.B 3. purusa . . When verbs are presented for use in the exercises. and has come to be a matter of conventional usage nevertheless many verbs do retain the formal distinction between parasmai-pada (active voice) and atmane-pada (middle voice). the sentence \I married her" would be expressed in atmane-pada or parasmai-pada when spoken by the husband or priest respectively. The atmanepada (`an expression for oneself') personal endings used in the active form of the verb (called the middle voice) imply an action whose fruit reverts to oneself: this does not mean re exive. use the atmane-pada endings. By way of illustration. madhyama. . but within the limits of the simple sentences in the exercises. purusa . Many of the verbs in this course may be conjugated in either pada.Lesson 3. and the . purusa . Some verbs are conjugated in one pada only.

B. linga). narah asvam v. . To the pratipadika form are added case-endings (sup-vibhakti) which _ indicate the relationship of the noun to the verb. There are seven such grammatical relationships and. The rst (prathama) of these is the nominative or naming case.) stand'.e. and vrksa `tree'. and plural (bahu-vacana) form.) stand'. each of these has a singular (eka-vacana). the pronoun `they' is implied . . There are some verbs (such as n ) which have both a direct object and a destination. Normally however. _ .26 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. the man leads the horse to the tree. i.. the direct object of the sentence. in which case both are expressed in dvit ya. the word order is not important (as contrasted with English where it is). .2 Introduction to Nouns A noun. Where `tisthanti' is translated as `they (pl. has its ultimate origin in a dhatu (root) a xes to the dhatu form the noun-stem (pratipadika) which will have a particular grammatical gender (linga): masculine (pum-linga). as in the above example. . to juggle the word order to t the rules of scansion. When the subject of the sentence is explicitly stated. The word nara (the pratipadika form. then the implied pronoun falls away.rksam nayate . like the verb. and the subject precedes the object and destination. dual (dvi-vacana). walk. and this is translated as `narah tisthanti'. for example `the men (pl. like the verb. feminine (str -linga). run). and with its sup-vibhakti endings appears as: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . dvit ya naram narau naran Other nouns that take this form of declension are asva `horse'. and usually names the subject of a simple sentence or the agent (initiator or instigator of the action) of the verb the second (dvit ya) case ending generally indicates the immediate destination of the action expressed by the verb. and allows the poet for example. the destination is expressed in dvit ya.. . in the verb and it is not necessary to add an explicit Sanskrit pronoun. . . and neuter (napumsaka_ _ . Since the noun endings de ne the relationship to the verb. as listed in Monier-Williams' dictionary) means `man'. For verbs having a sense of motion (such as go. the verb is found at the end of the sentence.

B 27 3. 3. asvah tisthati ca narah vadati ca . 2.B. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. narah asvau ca tisthanti .5. 5. 4.). . narau vrksan nayamahe .3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. .) lead the horses (pl.A. The men (pl.) are speaking and leading. asvau naram vrksan nayete .. 3. 6. 2. The horse leads the man to the tree. narah asvah ca nayete .Lesson 3. 5. The (two) horses lead the man. .. . The man leads the horse. . The men (pl. . 4. The tree and the horse are standing. asvah naram nayate . 6. (b) Practise pronouncing the rst ten consonants (vya~jana). (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. as well as reading n and writing them in Roman script and devanagar . .

28 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This page is intentionally blank: there aren't many of them. so enjoy the rest while you can! .

Lesson 3.B k K+ g+ .G+ z + + c+ C j+ J V+ 29 .

30 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na jha ja cha ca ~ + na gha ga kha ka _ .

Each symbol includes the sound a for example. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ta tha da dha na . in devanagar the top horizontal bar is extended to join the letters in a word. ta tha da dha na f F q Q :N+ t+ T+ d . the rst symbol is ta and not just t . As we shall see later. .A 4. .D+ n+ 1 Note the form of the letters in relation to the 3 and 2 ruled lines. . . Note the di erences between da na and i gha and dha and dha and da.A. .1 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the next ten consonants in devanagar script. for example with `P' and `h'. 3 .Lesson 4. There may be 3 a tendency to limit letters such as :N+ and t+ to the halfway point: this is a carry over from the Roman alphabet where it is appropriate. . . and this gives a bias of `blackness' at the top of the letters: this is 1 visually compensated for by using the 3 and 2 lines to `open' the form of the letter. _ .

purusa . It would be useful to practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n . .1 Summary of Verbs The tin-vibhakti (personal endings of verbs) are grouped into three's.B 4.B. he carries. madhyama. he takes. nayethe-nayadhve (pause) naye-nayavahe-nayamahe. . Thus the pattern is: nayati-nayatah-nayanti (pause) nayasi-nayathah-nayatha (pause) nayami.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . As with practising the alphabet. Thus three vibhakti cover one entire pada. with a pause between each vibhakti and a longer pause between each pada. ten times a day. parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka. . he speaks. than ten times once a day. purusa .dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama.. For your convenience a reference sheet with the full conjugation of dhatu n is given below: this also has a list of all the verbs that will be used in the simple sentence exercises. nayavah-nayamah (longer pause) nayate-nayete-nayante (pause) nayase. purusa .Lesson 4. . which means _ that one vibhakti consists of the three vacana forms. he stands. p gam pn p labh p vad p vah p stha gacchati nayate labhate vadati vahati tisthati . he goes. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe . it is far more e ective to sound this once.nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . he leads.

B. For example. it is that `by means of which' the action is accomplished. `he goes home by car'.3). the recipient or bene ciary or purpose of the action. . eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . `he makes a kennel for the dog'. n For example. `he walks from the river'.2 More on Nouns Cases The third (trt ya) case ending indicates the `instrument' in relation to the verb: . pa~cam n narat narabhyam narebhyah . . `he falls from the tree'. The fth (pa~cam ) case ending indicates the place from which the action begins. but this changes to -ena due to internal sandhi. thus asvena but v. `he gives the food to the dog'. The fourth (caturth ) case ending indicates the indirect object. . . .Lesson 4. but this does not convey the sense of instrumentality. dvit ya naram narau naran trt ya narena? narabhyam naraih . `he cuts the wood with an axe': note that here `with' has the sense of `by means of'. It may also express cause or motive: `out of anger he strikes the boy'. r . This . but in English it may also be used in the sense of accompaniment. For example. . for example. will be given more fully in a later lesson (11.B 33 4. `he works for money'. `he goes home with an axe'.A. ksena. ? the generic ending is -ena. but for the time being accept that this change occurs after `r' or `s' in the same word. caturth naraya narabhyam narebhyah .

He goes by horse. . 4. The horses (pl. We (two) take the tree from the man by horse.) with horses. They (pl.) carry the trees (pl.B. . asvah vrksam naraya vahati . 6. (c) Practise reading and writing the next ten consonants (vya~jana). 4.). . in Roman n script and devanagar . (b) Practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n as given in 4. 2. . . . We (pl.B.) go from the tree to the horses. asvam vrksat naraya nayate . 3. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. vrksan asvat labhadhve .3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.) carry the man from the trees (pl. . 2.1. asvah naram vrksam vahati . narah asvah ca vrksat gacchatah .A. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. . 3. . 5.34 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. .5. 6. . . 5. . narah vrksam asvena gacchati . You (two) are leading the horse for the man.

Lesson 4.D+ n+ 35 .B f F q Q :N+ + + t+ T+ d .

. . a dha da tha ta . . + na dha da tha ta 36 + .A Practical Sanskrit Introductory n .

and sa and kha with ra and va.S+ s+ .1 Devanagar Alphabet Here is the rest of the alphabet in devanagar script.h . :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ y+ = l v+ . Note the di erences between ba and va ya and tha pa and sa la and l bha ma .Lesson 5. .A 5.Z+ .A. The transliteration of the three rows of devanagar characters is: pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa ha . Each symbol includes the sound a for example. the rst symbol is pa and not just p.

hear my prayers'. `he drives John's car'. narebhyah .. which is used for addressing or calling. setting the scene as it were. for example. `he talks to the son of John'. naranam . A word with saptam case ending is often the rst in the sentence. `at'. for example. to another noun in the sentence. `Oh Lord.. or to the book that he wrote. even deceased. The strictly correct way of tabling the declension of nara is: eka-vacana prathama narah . `he stands on the table'. The word in sasth is usually placed immediately before the word to which it is related. sambodhana prathama he nara dvit ya naram trt ya narena . the sixth (sasth ) indicates a relationship to a word . The seventh (saptam ) case ending indicates the place or time where or when the action takes place. sambodhana. . .B. other than the verb. . `among'. and may be rendered in English by the prepositions `in'. i. saptam nare dvi-vacana narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . naran naraih . narayoh . `John. narebhyah . for example. caturth naraya pa~cam n narat sasth narasya . where are you?'. for example. In fact this is simply a special use of the prathama ( rst) case ending. `it is hot in summer'. Strictly speaking. `on'. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition `of' or with an apostrophe. . etc. Sanskrit has just seven case endings. . `John's book' may refer to the book that John purchased..e. . This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession. however many publications give an eighth.1 More on Nouns Cases Unlike the other case endings. he narah .B 5. bahu-vacana narah .Lesson 5. In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb: indeed John may be absent. naresu ..

ksat asvaih labhate r . . ksesu narasya asvah tisthanti r . naranam asvah tisthanti . . in n Roman script and devanagar . .. The vibhakti of the nouns are. 3. narau . . nara asve tisthasi . so that the prathama vibhakti refers to the forms of all three vacana. 5. also occurs in . . . bahu-vacana sasth . . . . ..1. 7. grouped into three's. . .. . . . . asve tisthati ca vadati ca .5. 5. asvah naram vrksat gacchati . (c) Practise reading and writing the last thirteen consonants (vya~jana). .he narau . . In practising sounding the full declension of the noun. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. thus asvanam but vrksanam. Publications that list sambodhana as an eighth case ending. . The sandhi change of n to n that occurs in eka-vacana trt ya. .B.A.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. v.he narah (pause) naram . like the verbs.narah (pause) he nara .naran (pause) etc. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of nara as given in 5. . use the `correct' table given above.e. labelling it simply `sambodhana' and omit the vocative particle he. place that row at the bottom of the table.Lesson 5. .B 39 The vocative particle `he' is traditionally sounded in the paradigm it is optional in a sentence and may be translated as `Oh'. Continued overleaf . narah vrksam asvat labhate .: narah .narau . 8. 6. asvau vrksan naraya vahatah .. i.. 4.B. naram v. 2. .

8.).40 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. The (two) horses carry the man to the tree.) from the tree. You (two) are carrying the man from the tree to the horse. Oh horse. 2. . He is standing on (two) horses. The trees (pl. 5.) of the (two) men are standing. 3. The man and horse stand among the trees (pl. The man's horse carries the man from the trees(pl.). you are carrying the tree for the man. He takes the man's horses (pl. 4. 7. 6.

Z+ 41 .Lesson 5.B :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ + + y+ = l v+ .

42 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ma bha ba pha pa + sa va la ra ya .

Lesson 5.B + 43 + :S+ s+ .h .

44 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ha sa sa . + .

maintaining the principle that a consonant can only be sounded together with a vowel. 6. for example b+ (ba) is the symbol for the the consonant b together with a following short (hrasva) a.l. rather like the English `un-'.b+ bu+ bx+ bw+ be+ ba. Note that the characters are written left to right. (The `a-' pre x to a noun usually means negation. hr . be bo ba. . occur only at the beginning of a word.A The symbols for the consonants inherently include a following a vowel. bl .A.1 Vowels after Consonants The short vowel a ( A ) is never written unless it begins a word for example abala (weakness) is written A ba.+ ba. bai bau These vowel signs are used with all consonants (ka through ha).E+ ba b bu br .) All the vowel forms given earlier.Lesson 6. like the Roman. Where the vowel following the consonant is other than a. and that the horizontal line links the letters together. bl .l.e+ ba bi bu br . but note these exceptions: ru ru . this is indicated by an embellishment on the consonant itself. The written form thus resembles the oral form. Thus the word bala (strength) is written ba. The forms indicating the various following vowels are: b+ a.+ bU+ bX+ bW+ bE+ ba.


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

Where the embellishment is above the letter itself (with or without the addition of a following vertical bar), namely for i e o ai au, these should link to the character where it joins the top horizontal bar, and where the character meets the bar more than once, to the rightmost junction. For example:



These syllables are connected together to form words: they are literally connected by the horizontal bar. For example:

ne .

devanagar matrka . vadami veda g ta guru

.de vana.aga=*+ ma.a.txak*:+ va.d a.am+ vea.d ga.a.ta.+ gua

6.A.2 History of Vowel Embellishment
It bothers some students that, in a script read from left to right, there should be the seeming anomaly that ki ( ak ) for example, is written back to front as it were, with the i-sign before the consonant. Originally the embellishment for i after a consonant had no down stroke at all, so that ki ke kai were written as:

ki i

ke j

kai k

However, as personality tends to intrude into handwriting, it could prove di cult to distinguish between ki and ke, especially if the ` ag' was written somewhere between the two positions. To solve this problem, the downstroke was added for ki. Whether this is true or not, is debatable, but it does make a nice story !

Lesson 6.B
6.B.1 Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit
In English speech or writing, the order of words shows their connection or relationship to the whole sentence. For example, in the simple sentence,
desire limits the mind,

the information as to which is the limiter and which the limited, is given by the position of the words in relation to the verb. This is an important point: in a sentence, a word's physical position (in time or space), re ects its subtle position (the relationship or part that it plays). Now, a word may be placed before or after the verb | but these are the only two possibilities, before or after, and thus can indicate only two relationships, namely subject and object. The subject comes before an active verb, and the object after it. (The order is reversed for a passive verb, e.g. the mind is limited by desire.) In order to show the relationship in a more complete sentence, such as,
desire limits the mind by attachment,

we make use of a phrase containing a preposition (in our example `by') to indicate the relationship of the word `attachment' to the activity of limiting. But notice the operation of the preposition | `pre-position' | it is an element which is placed before (`pre-') to give `position' to the word, that is, to indicate its relationship to the activity. Using prepositional phrases we can thus enlarge our sentence, as for example,
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment.

Now we can split up this sentence into its core subject-verb-object, and a number of related phrases:
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment .


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

We may now shu e these components around in any order and still retain the meaning: in doing so, we may well lose some clarity, or we may even sound poetic, for example: from the universal to the particular desire limits the mind in the waking state by attachment . The problem with these prepositional phrases is that it is not at all clear whether they are related to the the activity of the whole sentence (i.e. to the verb), or are merely qualifying one of the nouns. For example, the intention was to indicate that the mind su ers limitation/restriction/reduction from its natural open state of universality to the con ned state when identi ed with the particular, however, other interpretations are possible: the phrases from the universal to the particular in the rst of the two split up sentences may be construed as qualifying the word `mind' and thus be understood as a range of separate minds `from gods to dogs' in the second of these split up sentences these phrases could be viewed as qualifying the word `desire' and mean a range of desires `from the general to the personal'. The phrases can thus be re-arranged to produce all sorts of misunderstandings, so let us be clear that the intended meaning of the other two phrases is that `attachment' is the instrument/means/method by which the mind is limited, and that the `waking state' is the circumstance where/when the limitation takes place. In an in ected language (one that uses case endings) the relationship to the verb is shown by a su x appended to the word our sentence would thus become something like: waking state IN desire SUBJECT limits VERB mind OBJECT universal FROM particular TO attachment BY . There are two points to note here: rstly, the subject and object also have endings to show their relationship and secondly, the word endings indicate the relationship to the verb by de nition. All the words in the sentence are quite independent of their position (order or arrangement) which is one limitation in a non-in ected language like English but more importantly, the relationship to the verb is precisely de ned, and thus minimizes the possibility of misunderstanding. In Sanskrit there are seven case endings: the sixth indicates a relation to another noun in the sentence, and the other case endings indicate the relationship to the verb.

. Like the vibhakti adorning a word. but with a passive verb kartr is expressed by trt ya similarly the . having the r power to bring about the action: with an active verb the kartr is expressed in . limits the mind. In English. However. the virama ( ) | and purnavirama ( ) to indicate respectively the halfway point and end of a stanza { . The a x to the verb indicates tense. mood. ) is the initiator. For example: Scripture says desire limits the mind. and full stop. which indicate pauses of increasing length. colon. Thus kartr and karman name the relationship. and numbers the actual phonic su x endings (physical). Scripture. when a verb changes from active to passive: desire 1 limits ACTIVE mind 2 (desire limits the mind) mind 1 limits PASSIVE desire 3 (the mind is limited by desire). . and then associates the two according to circumstance for example. our sentence becomes: waking state 7 desire 1 limits VERB mind 2 universal 5 particular 4 attachment 3 . English is also sensitive to pauses between phrases. semicolon. Using the Sanskrit numerical system.B 49 It matters not whether we give these case endings names or numbers. the words marked with `1' in these two sentences are both called the subject of the sentence this accords with the Sanskrit prathama-vibhakti ( rst case ending). provided that the relationship is clearly de ned. so the clothing of a stage actor indicates his role: the crown is not the king. karman (that most directly aimed at by the kart. and these too can change the relationship and the whole meaning of the sentence. prathama. person. In prose they are used to indicate the end of a sentence and the end of a paragraph respectively.r) is expressed in dvit ya and prathama respectively. has no need of these embellishments Sanskrit uses only two punctuation marks. but is worn by the actor playing the role of king. being inherently clearer. whereas . A fully in ected language like Sanskrit. The basic punctuation marks in English are the comma. and number. merely indicate that relationship. In fact Sanskrit uses both names and numbers for these relationships: it names the relationships (subtle) when de ning them. says desire. prathama (and English `subject') etc.Lesson 6. in Sanskrit the agent (kart. as well as voice. of verse.

due to internal sandhi. and the feminine (str _ . the napumsaka-linga bahu-vacana forms of _ . caturth phalabhyam phalebhyah . prathama and dvit ya will also change from -ani to -ani if preceded by `r' or `s'. _ are for the neuter (napumsaka-linga) noun phala `fruit'.50 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. saptam phalayoh phalesu . caturth balayai balabhyam balabhyah .3). saptam balayam balayoh balasu . Note that. There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word. as -su. that applies here: the saptam bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -su following any vowel except a . eka-vacana phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale . or a | thus -su is the most common form. . .A.rt ya balaya balabhyam balabhih . eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama bala bale balah . . sambodhana prathama he bale he bale he balah . . sasth balayah balayoh balanam .. linga) noun bala `girl'. . _ dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama phale phalani sambodhana prathama he phale he phalani dvit ya phale phalani trt ya phalabhyam phalaih .2 Noun Gender The nouns considered thus far are all masculine (pum-linga) the paradigms below . . .. pa~cam n phalabhyam phalebhyah . (11. dvit ya balam bale balah . This sandhi rule will be described more fully in a later lesson. pa~cam n balayah balabhyam balabhyah . sasth phalayoh phalanam . . .B. . but in the declension of bala it remains . t.

dvit ya accusative 3.3 Summary of Case Information 5. bene ciary.B Sanskrit case Relation to Verb names the agent/subject of the verb.B. . calling/addressing. genitive 7. trt ya . sasth . relation is not to verb. purpose of action. 6. saptam locative 51 . When? Where? place/time where/when action takes place. prathama nominative sambodhana vocative 2. the means by which action accomplished.Lesson 6. subject Who? What? Latinate name English grammar Answers question 1. pa~cam n ablative 6. From whom/what? place from which action begins also cause/motive. genitive Of whom? Whose? relation of source/possession/etc. direct object By whom/what? Whom? What? indicates immediate destination of action. instrumental 4. caturth dative indirect object To/for whom/what? recipient..

. 5. bale phalani narasya v. 10. bala narah ca vrksam asvam vahatah . The horse carries the fruit (pl.) by horse for fruit (pl. .). The man leads the horse by means of fruit. . asvah naram ca balam ca vrksam vahati .) to the girls for the man. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. ksau gacchami ca phalani labhe r . narau vrksanam phalani asvam labhete . narasya asvah phalam balayah labhate . . 7. We (two) take the man and the girl from the tree to the horse.52 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. 2.) from the tree.B. The horse carries the tree to the girl for the man. . You (two) lead the horse and I take the fruit. . . 3. .4 Exercises (a) Practise reading and writing all the letters of the alphabet.). . The man and the girl go among the trees by horse. bala asvam v. balah naran phalani asvena nayante . 8. 9. 5. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of bala and phala. 2. The girl takes the fruit (two) from the tree for the horses (pl. . . . The man goes to the trees (pl. 9. narah phale vrksat balayai vahati .. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. 8. The man stands and the girl speaks. 6. 4. . v. 10. ksat labhete r . . 4. The girls (two) stand on the horse and take the fruit (s. 6. . ksam phalaya nayate r . . 3. bale vrksesu tisthatah vadatah ca . 7.

. halanta ta f . Thus the letter pa for example.Lesson 7. in practice.+ + m+ :N. At a rst glance through these samyoga.A We have examined how to write a consonant that is followed by any vowel. Where a word uses a non. Simply read through the general principles and use the illustrative examples to understand the principle. below and to the right of the consonant.A. 7.+ + y+ ntya . or conjunct consonant. This is the form used when a word ends in a consonant. nty+ n. now we consider how to write a consonant that is followed by no vowel at all. but fortunately you don't have to learn them. it forms a consonant cluster. familiarity with them may seem like a .1 Halanta Consonants The adjective halanta is derived from hal (a technical term referring to any consonant). daunting task. For example: halanta pa :p. literally `yoked together') comprises two or more . and anta (`end'). you can discard the notes.+ halanta ka k . 7.+ + t. In the devanagar script this is written as a short stroke ( .2 Conjunct Consonants A conjunct consonant (samyoga. and you will nd that. for example the s in svara.nal halanta letter. Thereafter it is just a matter of applying the principles. and a di erent method is used. The symbols may be written continuously in the usual order from left to right with the rightmost vertical stroke dropped from all but the last letter: t. It is the general principles that are important: once you understand the principles. however the virama should (ideally) not be used within a word. is called `halanta pa'. it is a lot simpler than it looks. ) called virama (`stop').A.+ + y+ tm+ :Ny+ tma nya . namely p. without its following a sound. so halanta means `ending in a consonant'. consonants with nothing separating them in particular there is no vowel between them.

+ + F + y+ . dga tta .+ + t+ .+ + y+ :S. .+ + n+ b. When symbols are modi ed. .54 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Or they may be written one above the other. : + mna bva sta . it is often only in combination with other particular symbols.d + . . .d . .+ + f .d + D+ k + m+ . + m+ + tya . .+ + v+ :S.d + y+ f + y+ . s.. but some are modi ed: dda ddha kma tta hna dya .h. in which case they are read from top to bottom: m. . nka _ + Left to right and vertical arrangements may appear in the same compound: snya sthya . This arrangement can be useful where the rst letter has no vertical stroke on the right: . : + . nkya _ Most symbols retain their familiar shape in compounds.+ + n. z + k + y+ . .. z+k . + n+ . for example: t.. hma .d + g+ f+f .h.

R+ i.A 55 The symbol k (ka) may be compressed to K . for example: + or + + S or or T or Zv+ Zc+ sva sca The same group of symbols can be found in di erent forms: or Vc+ nca ~ or #tv+ ktva or pl pla or cc+ cca or l lla While there may be di erent conventions and styles for making compounds. For example: =.+ + v+ . + :p+ :pR+ rpa Dva. r . =. there are no obvious absolute rules. Ideas that familiar forms are right and others wrong should be avoided: both proportions and angles of the symbols may be varied.+ + c+ k + t.+ + c+ l+l .+ + v+ .e. + D. and l. k + t+ . rl . or even further to M . The symbol ra changes form in compounds.+ + va.+ + l c. .Z. When ra comes at the beginning of a compound it takes the form of a hook above the line (the same as above the d rgha ): it is attached above the rightmost vertical of a compound.Lesson 7.+ =. :p.: rdhva This form is also used when ra is the only consonant before the vowels . + rr .Z. : + kka kta The symbol . .Z+ is often written as B or C in combination.+ + c+ V. for example: k+k . It always appears in a vertical arrangement and is read in the sequence top to bottom. + R R =.

e. + y+ }y+ mrya 7.+ + =.A. . re ect their sounds which are somewhat di erent from their components.+ + V+ :]+ j~a n Although these two samyoga may be separated into their component parts when. the prolonged halanta sa begins with halanta ka the important point is that . Before sounding the halanta ka the breath is fully cut o by the back of the tongue in the kanthya . prolonged: try it. t. + Normally the symbols for a samyoga are constructed from their component symbols . . for example.+ + = + y+ gy+ grya m. The idea may be novel. Now. and their construction re ects their pronunciation. sound halanta ka through the sound of halanta sa | . :pr+ d f pra dra tra . However. the symbols being so di erent from their components.4 Pronunciation of ksa .d + = f+= .j. but it is quite straightforward to pronounce halanta sa .+ + = .56 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory When ra is nal in a compound. A practical method of approaching the pronunciation of these two sounds is o ered next. of the tongue is raised to the murdhanya position before sounding the halanta . the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. it is represented by a small diagonal stroke: :p. and are quite obvious to see. there are two which are quite di erent from their component parts: ksa . position as for the normal pronunciation of ka the di erence for ksa is that the tip .3 Special Conjunct Consonants ksa and j~a n .. 7.A. k + :S+ . i.+ + = + tra (note the truncation of the t+ ) This form is retained when ra appears in the middle of a cluster of consonants: g. the tip of the tongue is in the murdhanya position throughout. .

practise sounding aj~a. k + sa ksa). Firstly. ~ . (This sound is reminiscent of ten-year-olds playing cops and robbers!) Although the ksa is originally formed by halanta ka joining with a following sa .e. order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. sound a prolonged halanta sa. for example. (i. n There are two common errors in sounding j~a. 7. begin by sounding the English `hiss' and holding the sibilant | this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. is in practice ( k ) + s + a. j + na j~a). or `vision' but in all cases it is sounded through the talavya mouth position. the halanta j~a tends to n n be followed by an additional nasal consonant before the vowel (i.A.A 57 ka. as re ected in the changed symbol. This is about as close as one can get to describing the sound of halanta j~a. the alphabetical . the pronunciation. the nasalization is often carried over into n the vowel: to correct this. tip of the tongue from the murdhanya position. or as in the `z' sound in the English words `mirage'. s . this is beginning to sound like a prolonged halanta ja. which is of course. attending to both a sounds. `measure'. again holding the sibilant: note that the di erence between these sibilants is that the vocal cords vibrate for `his' and not for `hiss'.e. Although the j~a is originally formed by halanta ja joining with a following na n ~ (i. Now repeat this voiced sound allowing it to be strongly nasalized. and may be thus separated when. for example. .5 Pronunciation of j~a n The pronunciation of this is similar to the French `J' as in `Jean-Jacques'. Secondly.e. Now sound the English `his'. This means that halanta ksa may by sounded repeatedly without moving the . Now with the tongue in the talavya position. . As a practical method of approaching this sound. the alphabetical ~ n order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. as j re ected in the changed symbol. impossible to sound. the pronunciation. j~ + n + a) the n ~ halanta j~a is a single sound.Lesson 7. and may be thus separated when. And then repeat the sound but allowing the vocal cords to vibrate | with some imagination. is in practice ( n ) + a. . n which should be the same. `rouge'. and is strongly nasalized.

. arranged in alphabetical order: simply read through the list and you will nd that most of the symbols are easily recognizable. v+ ttva tT+ ttha tm+ tma t}y+ tmya ts+ tsa t + tsna . kka ktra kya + ksa .. ddha . :Ny+ nya .58 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. :Nf nta :NF ntha :Nq nda . dgha . dghra dna dba d dra drya Dm+ dhma Dy+ dhya .$m+ jma + ncya ~ thya ..Gm+ ghma nkta _ nktya _ nkya _ nkhya _ nga _ ngya _ nna __ nna _ nma _ + c~a n . dgra ddhya dya + dhnya :N dgya . :Nq ndra . gy+ gya .Gr+ ghra nka _ nksva _ .j+ jra + nja ~ dma . . dghra . ngha _ nya _ cy+ cya :]y+ j~ya n m+ ncma ~ tya . tt a .A. dgha .. #K+ kkha #c+ kca #N+ kna . ndya . .jJ jjha . dga . dda . dga .. Q dhra . ktva k kra r r krya m+ ksma y+ ksya . g+ gra gy+ grya . + ghna + ghnya . ndrya . :NQ ndha :NN+ nna :Nm+ nma . tk tkra r + tta y+ ttya + tna + tnya tp+ tpa ty+ tya + tra y+ trya t + tsnya Ty+ thya .6 List of Conjunct Consonants The following is a standard list of conjunct consonants. + ktrya kta + ktya kna + knya kma kla kva + kvya v+ ksva Ky+ khya K+ khra . :Nv+ nva tk tka . + ttra tpr+ tpra tv+ tva . + dhna chya . ddya ddha dbha dbhya dma dva dvya . :N . nkha _ nghya _ nghra _ + cca cC ccha C chra .. ..Gy+ ghya nksa _ . dya . .$v+ jva + njya ~ cm+ cma :]+ j~a n + nca ~ + jja cC cchra ...$y+ jya VC ncha ~ F thra . dhya .. .

. So. bba + bhna }pr+ mpra nty+ ntya + nna ns+ nsa :py+ pya bG+ bgha b.Lesson 7. . hna . having worked through the table. bva }p+ mpa }+ mra nt+ nta nDr+ ndhra n+ nra :pm+ pma :p~v+ psva .A Dr+ dhra nd nda npr+ npra : + ptya : pla b..y+ vya y+ scya + sna . . ~K+ skha + sna ~y+ sya . Just as a matter of interest. + pna :pv+ pva bD+ bdha b. . but.t R+ (kartsnya).+ vra + sra : sta . :Spr+ spra :Sm+ sma :Sy+ sya . .+ bra + mna }y+ mya nD+ ndha ny+ nya :pp+ ppa :ps+ psa .. n &+ ntra np+ npa : + pta :pr+ pra bj+ bja b. strya : stva : stha .d bda b.B+ bbha By+ bhya }b+ mba }v+ mva y+ lya v.y+ bya Bv+ bhva mm+ mma yv+ yva v+ lva + sca Dry+ dhrya Dv+ dhva nd ndra nm+ nma . hya hra hla lla vva y+ srya : stya . ~t+ sta ~ty+ stya ~ &+ stra + snya ~p+ spa ~P spha ~ + sra ~v+ sva ss+ ssa . :SNy+ snya . you may be con dent that you will be able to decipher any samyoga that you may meet.ZZ+ ssa : . hma mla k lka p+ lpa m+ lma h lha + vna v.. + bna . :Sp+ spa . + svya ..By+ bbhya Br+ bhra }B+ mbha yy+ yya 59 sla : stra . :Sv+ sva . ~tv+ stva sm+ sma . ~k ska ~T+ stha s}y+ smya hna hva The table does not cover all possible combinations of consonants.. it does contain many that are quite rare and which you may never come across in print. :SN+ sna .. . . the greatest number of conjunct consonants in a real word is ve: the usual example quoted for this is k*:a..Zy+ sya + sva . on the other hand.

very) (in-.Lesson 7. from the verb `attend'. A pre x. at) (con-. instead of. before) (sub-. given the meanings of these verbs. with. under) The English verb `to tend' derives from the pie root ten.B. together. which will also give its component parts of pre x(es) and dhatu. attentive. attendant. to. The grammarians list just twenty-two of these in alphabetical order they are: . it may prove di cult to arrive at the meanings of the particular verbs. The situation is Sanskrit is similar: the meaning of a pre xed verb (as a compound) needs to be looked up in the dictionary. Again. when appended to a verb. towards. instead of) (pre-. out of. its meaning alters. towards. it can be appreciated that that the pre xes are instrumental in modifying the original root to give its particular meaning. in) (por-. but the converse is not necessarily so: given the meanings of the root and pre xes only. attendance. to stretch: when a pre x is appended to it. then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and pre xes should contribute to enlarging that understanding. and they carry the sense of this compound as though it were a separate dhatu this is also the case in English. wholly) (dis-. which may then be separately looked up.B 7. the derivation of attention. apart. For example (with pre x meanings given): p Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood (more or less). Other words may be derived from that pre xed verb. away) (ex-.1 Verbal Pre xes attend contend distend extend intend portend pretend subtend (at-. before. as for example. is called an upasarga in Sanskrit grammar.

upwards. in. again. hard bad. less. opposite down. to. hard down. at. under. above towards. out. forward. into. away. following away. (reversing) apart. from. asunder. out. at near. for example: dhatu hr to take away . forth away. on. to a distance around. return. return. back. upon. implying separation or dispersion with. towards. near. excellent. along with. into. pari-hr to abandon . to.r to destroy vi-hr to roam . backwards.B 61 beyond. against. like. (reversing) up. under bad. near. on. a-hr to eat . but usually modi es the sense sometimes the changes is so great as to make the sense of the original dhatu quite unrecognizable. forth. close. out. forth back. fore against. from towards. proximate to. over. back. An upasarga may simply emphasize the original sense of the dhatu. onward. to.Lesson 7. across. pra-hr to hit . away. surpassing. from. above. forth. on. away. past. along. towards. into away. atiadhianuapaapiabhiavaaudupadurdusninirnisparaparipraprativisamsu- . to excess over. sam-h. towards. forth over. well The above list is included here for reference only. near. di cult. di cult. about before. and should not be learned however. next to. o . conjoined with good. onto after. a familiarity with the Sanskrit forms will be useful. together. out. down. o .

+ na= ~y+ A: am.t. 5. The girl's horses (two) take the fruit (pl.+ vxa a.B. in a good English dictionary.a.a. (b) By now the alphabet should be familiar: practise writing all the characters of the alphabet with particular attention to their proportions (see the note at the end of 4. The girl and the horse go among the trees (pl.l*.) for the men (pl. You (two) lead the horse to the fruit (pl.).a. You (pl.+ ba.+ naya.) of the tree.aya.) to the man. The horses (pl. ba. ba. 6.l*m.v+H{ 2.A.+ c+ a.5.h a.am.B. (e) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: 1.a.an+ na=*ay+ va.h a. (d) Look up the words `attend' etc. t+H va.A.+ vxa a. .l*.ayE+ l*Bante+{ ba. to see how their meanings link to the given etymology. (h) Now write your answers to (g) in devanagar .l*.) for fruit (pl.+ va.a.ta. na= ~y+ vxa a~y+ :P*. na=H 3.te+{ e A: +H :P*.t+{ 4.a. 4. A: ba.a.).) carry the fruit (pl.l*.1).l*.te+{ (f) Now translate the sentences in (e) into English. 3.aBy+H l*Ba.l ba.62 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. (g) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.) carry the trees (pl.d t+H c+{ +H vxa a~y+ :P*. given 7. The man takes the tree from the horse for the girl.+ A: a.l*. 2.) from the tree by horse.+H 5.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. na=*+H 6.an.1.an.l*.a. (c) Write out a fair copy of the devanagar sentences given in (e) below.

Lesson 8.A
8.A.1 Special Symbols
The following symbols are not strictly part of the alphabet, but constitute special symbols such as punctuation:
| This punctuation mark is used at the end of a half-verse or sentence. { This marks the end of a verse or paragraph. Y The elision of an A at the beginning of a word due to the rules of sandhi, is



? @ ^

indicated with this symbol called avagraha: it is not sounded. For example, te+Y.a.p+ for te+ A a.p+ is pronounced tea.a.p+ in transliteration it is represented by an apostrophe or prime mark, i.e. te pi. This symbol, called candrabindu (lit. `moon-dot'), placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel itself is nasalized for example, A< is A sounded through both nose and mouth together. Contrast this with AM , where the anusvara, which is just the bindu (`dot') above the vowel, is a nasal sound following after the vowel. The antahstha y l and v may also be nasalized. . This symbol indicates a compulsory anusvara (i.e. before an usman or . repha) in the Vedas, and is traditionally pronounced as a soft gna ( gn+ ). You may also nd it written as g,M+. The mystical symbol Om pronounced A ea3 m,+ and called the pranava sabda. ~ **: . An abbreviation is indicated by this sign, the rest of the word being provided from the context. This symbol is rare it is pronounced like a half visarga, and is called jihvamul ya when before k or kh, and upadhman ya when before p or ph. (See section 3.A.2.)

8.A.2 Savarna .

Those sounds which are pronounced in the same mouth position and with the same e ort within the mouth itself (i.e. the measure of contact or openness | see section 3.A.4) are called savarna (`same group'). This means that the ka-varga sounds . (k, kh, g, gh, and n | see section 2.A.2) are savarna, likewise ca-varga through _ . to pa-varga each form a savarna group of ve sounds. . For grammatical purposes, and their mouth positions di er. are also declared to be savarna, even though .


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

8.A.3 Nasal Substitution for Anusvara
The anusvara (see section 1.A.7) arises through the rules of sandhi: primarily it is the replacement for a nal m before a consonant. There are two traditions for pronouncing the anusvara: one tradition always pronounces it as an anusvara (a z -like sound in Northern India, and m,+ -like further South) the other tradition , substitutes the nasal that is savarna with the following consonant, i.e. if the . following consonant is a sparsa (one of the twenty- ve from k to m+) then the anusvara is sounded as the nasal of the same mouth position as the following letter | thus sMak*: p+ is pronounced sa *. p+, and sMa:]a.+ as saV]a.+, and so on. The second tradition is much like the pronunciation of `n' in English: sound the words `wink', `winch', and `wind' | prolonging the nasal if necessary | and note that the mouth position is determined by the following letter. Before ya la or va the anusvara may optionally be sounded as a nasalized version of that letter, for example sMaya.eag+ may be pronounced as say< ya.eag+. Monier-Williams, in his dictionary, follows the tradition of substituting the savarna . nasal before a sparsa (the twenty- ve from ka to ma), but not before an antahstha. . It would be useful (for these lessons at least) to practise that method.

8.A.4 Devanagar Numerals
The numbers one to ten respectively are expressed in Sanskrit as eka dva tri catur pa~can sas saptan astan navan dasan. The numeralss use the familiar order of n . . .. signi cance, so that 1234 is written as 1234. Here are the ten numerals in devanagar script, ordered 0 to 9:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Lesson 8.B
8.B.1 More Noun Declensions
The pratipadika form of nouns may end in letters other than those considered thus far: the table on the next page includes the three declension previously covered and adds agni ( re, pum-linga ending in -i), guru (teacher, pum-linga ending in . _ . _ -u), and nad (str -linga ending in - ). These declensions need not be practised, _ but it would be useful to spend some time observing the di erences between the declensions. The sandhi rule changing n to n following r or s follows through all declensions in . . trt ya eka-vacana and sasth bahu-vacana. . . ..

8.B.2 Adjectives
An adjective (visesana) quali es a noun: it is dependent the noun as an attribute. . . This dependence manifests in the grammar, requiring the visesana to agree with . . the noun in gender, case and number. Thus using alpa (small), we could have:

alpah narah alpam naram alpat narat vahanti . . alpa, mf(a)n. small sundara, mf( )n. handsome, beautiful, attractive

The small men (pl.) carry the small man from the small man. In Monier-Williams' dictionary a visesana is listed in the form: . .

where `mfn.' stands form `masculine-feminine-neuter', i.e. it may be declined in all three genders (as required by a visesana), and the `(a)' and `( )' inserted after the . . `f' of `mfn.' indicates the str -linga form in declension thus alpa declines like bala, _ and sundar like nad , in the feminine. For example:

alpa sundar bala tisthati ..

The small beautiful girl stands. As may be seen from the above examples, the visesana precedes the noun which it . . quali es.

phalebhyah . agneh . he nara naram narena . nad h . he narah . Feminine in - balah . nad bhih . narebhyah . gurave guroh . nad bhyah . phalayoh . phalebhyah . nadyah . bala he bale balam balaya balayai balayah . nad bhyah . balayam bale he bale bale balabhyam balabhyam balabhyam balayoh . agn nam agnisu . he nadyah . narah . balah . gurun gurubhih . he agnayah . Masculine in -i agnih . balayoh .66 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Declension Paradigms Masculine in -a Neuter in -a narah . balayah . he balah . phalanam phalesu . nadyam nadyau he nadyau nadyau nad bhyam nad bhyam nad bhyam nadyoh . nad nam nad su . naranam . agnibhyah . gurvoh . balanam balasu Masculine in -u guruh . gurunam . guroh . gurusu . he agne agnim agnina agnaye agneh . gurubhyah . naran naraih . balabhyah . nad he nadi nad m nadya nadyai nadyah . agnayah . narebhyah . phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale phale he phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh . agnyoh . agn n agnibhih . gurubhyah . agnibhyah . agnau agn he agn agn agnibhyam agnibhyam agnibhyam agnyoh . guravah . nadyah . naraya narayat narasya nare narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . he guravah . gurau guru he guru guru gurubhyam gurubhyam gurubhyam gurvoh . narayoh . he guro gurum guruna . naresu . balabhyah . Feminine in -a phalani he phalani phalani phalaih . . balabhih . nadyoh .

+ l*Ba.B. . tree A agn+ .d + f. 8.4 Vocabulary Summary The following is a complete list of all the vocabulary used in this course: kriya p gam.ta. re A: + m.+ naya. .l n. river na= m. using the adverb s ghram (quickly): narah s ghram gacchati . va.B.+ gacC a.t+ he stands m. girl vxa + m. thus (lesson 9. avyaya mf(a)n. fruit ba.+ f.d a.+ a.3 Adverbs An adverb (kriya-visesana) quali es a verb: it is indeclinable (avyaya).h a.l*.aGram. quickly I*a. and .t+ he goes p na.B. horse gua m.2) c+ ind.Lesson 8.t+ he speaks p va. beautiful.te+ he takes p va. teacher na. handsome ind.t+ .+ ind.Za. usually found immediately before the verb for example.a.te+ he leads p l*B. It is . a. the man goes quickly. small mf( )n.h va.d.t+ he carries . man :P*.B 67 8. p ~Ta.// A p+ suand:= naman visesana .

4.te+| 3{ na=*E+ suand:=*a.d am.N+ :P*.a.a.t.te+| 2{ suand:=*+ ba.l*.+ naya.+ suand:= m.Za. (b) Practise reading and writing the ten numerals in devanagar . (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.+ na E+ nayante+| 5{ A p+H vxa +H suand:=e A:gna.+ l*Bea.an+ A pa.ta.+ gacC a.5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. 2. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: ba.5. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .l*.t.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English.+ na=*a.+ ba.+ A . The girl carries the small fruit to the man's teacher. The beautiful girl leads the man to the small teacher quickly.+ l*Ba.a.+ A pam. .+ A: am.E+ a.a. 5.B.aGram.a. The man's teacher goes to the river by horse.l*.+ A: am. The teacher stands among the beautiful fruit of the small tree.a.+ suand:=*a.t. The girl of the teacher stands on the handsome horse. a.+ vxa am. 6.l*.+ vxa a.+ A:gnaye+ .t+| 1{ na=H A pam.am. 3.te+| 4{ gua=*v+H A pam.68 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8.A.t.a. The teacher of the girl stands in the small river.// agnam.+ na.

Lesson 8.B 0 1 2 3 4 + + 5 6 7 8 9 69 .

70 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9 8 7 6 5 + 4 3 2 1 0 .

!anam`anantM+ b. so one has A + A e+ A E+. There are three tones: raised (udatta). the udatta and svarita will be indicated by the acute and grave accent marks respectively. . or in ekasruti.1 Vowels Accents Accent is the sounding of a vowel at a higher or lower pitch or tone (svara). 9. and just as one has derivatives of the familiar form as A + A e+ A E+. listen to the `to' syllable in `photograph' and `photographer'). a neutral accentless tone.A The next three sections may be considered as informational only they are provided for completeness. Thus the above example in transliteration would be: satyam j~anamanantam brahma . a and a).2 Variations in Devanagar Alphabet Just as there are variations in the Roman alphabet (e. This is a variation of the form O . and svarita by the vertical bar above the vowel.g. Where these are marked in the dictionary in Roman transliteration. not raised (anudatta). (Although in grammatical treatises it may be indicated as a small u above the vowel. 9. English has a stress accent system (e. and a combination of the two or moving tone (svarita). but there is no stress system in Sanskrit (indeed there should be no stress at all in the study of Sanskrit!) Sanskrit is either sounded with the pitch accent described above.a. This is another form of .g.A. n . the accent is not marked. ` The anudatta is indicated by a horizontal bar under the vowel. These are only marked in the Veda.Lesson 9. for example: s!a. for example n'+ ). similarly I for . so there are variations in devanagar : some of the less obvious ones are illustrated below: A E H This is an alternate form of A.tyM+ :]a. while udatta is unmarked. An alternative form of J.A. In classical Sanskrit texts.

Vedic form of q. you may nd that much of the information now is clearer. 9. there are no hard and fast rules governing the formation of a samyoga however. n This is a variation of the form for + (ksa). Vedic form of Q. and the following page is a reference sheet of the character shapes of the alphabet.3 Variations in Samyoga . there are a few that are sometimes not obvious: .A.A.72 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Another variant of J.+ L \h The following are variations in the numerals: 1 =1=1 6 =6=6 4 =4=4 8 =8=8 5 =2 =5=5 9 =0 =9=9 9.1). This would be a good time to lightly revise all the notes about the alphabet. but far less common. An alternative of (hla).A.d (dr). D O P Q x This is a quite common form of . A radically di erent form of :N+. As was mentioned in Lesson 7. . J L N G F gM. Another form of the Vedic anusvara > (see 8. Another form of (hva). Obviously the same as l.4 Revision The next page has a summary of the information about the alphabet. An alternative form of :]+ (j~a). A variation of (hna). . starting from Lesson 1: now that you are more familiar with the alphabet. .

+ > : } | {z A aByanta= :praya.Za.l*.+ i a. + .t+ . + mUaDRany+ .a.j+ J V+ y+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ .l*.v.a= }| { a.a *vxa.v.t+ ta.y+ z k*:NF*.G+ z c+ C . - . z k*:N }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { ta.ZR+ > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : A:nuana.vasagR+ A A + I IR o a t+ O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH .ea. k K+ g+ .E+ tM+ t+H exceptions: Alphabetical Order v.a.pra.d D+ n+ l s+ 8 > A pa. + 8 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > < ~pxa.a.pra.t~pxa.asak IR *Sa.r tX+ R l .ta.:praya.Ga.h 9 > = > *:Sman. A:nt+H:~T+ 8 > < IR *Sa. .Lesson 9.e+ au am ah .ea.a.A 73 . tw+ R l . + A:nua~va.y+ mUaDRany+ .l*. + ba.r tx+ R a ta.y+ A ea.N+ .S+ A. ta.a.a.Ga.h a. tW+ R e ai te+ tE+ o ta.ea.N+ > > > < > > > > : ma.Z+ .v.S+ :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ 9 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > = > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ~pa.a.+ u u tu+ tU+ .a.d:nty+ k*:NF*.d:nty+ A ea.ya an+ k*:N ta.

Z+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ d .G+ z I c+ C j+ .D+ n+ l s+ o :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ .74 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory A k K+ g+ .J V+ y+ .h .

and the nipata (particle) is a catch-all for the remaining types of word. even if the word `gacchami' were omitted. and although they are separate words they are not used by themselves: words of this class are ca (and) and he (vocative particle). kriya vadati. and the nominal quali er or adjective (visesana): all these decline according to linga. upasarga (verbal pre x). naman (noun). The naman type includes the basic naman (common noun etymologically derived from a dhatu).B. For example: asvena gacchami iti vadati \I am going by horse. which conjugate according purusa . the samj~a (proper noun. This isolating function of iti may also be used to separate a de nition from the word being de ned. and so on. typically referring to something that has been said it is the Sanskrit equivalent of inverted commas.1.2 Use of iti The nipata iti means `thus': it lays stress on what precedes it. from what follows: in the above example. The nipata are avyaya (indeclinable). the sarva-naman (pronoun). personal name or technical term whose . There is no system of indirect or reported speech in Sanskrit.Lesson 9. . .1 Types of Words Sanskrit grammarians traditionally describe four types of words: kriya (verb). so the above may equally be translated as: He says that he is going by horse. The kriya type includes the basic kriya (verbs derived from a dhatu) and the nama-dhatu (verbs derived from nouns). as well as the verbal quali er (kriya-visesana) which is . the trt ya vibhakti of asvena is not related to the . or a grammatical rule from an example of its application.B.B. _ . 9." he says. indeclinable (avyaya). The upasarga (verbal pre x) has been discussed in 7. Note that iti grammatically isolates the phrase or sentence before it. n meaning cannot be etymologically determined). The naman and kriya have the fundamental notions of `being' and `becoming' respectively.A 75 9. vacana and vibhakti. . and nipata (particle). vacana and lakara.

t.Za.aGram.E+ A:gna.+ va.+ A: ean+ na=*ay+ va. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: na=H :P*.a. You (pl.a.d a.a.l nayase+ I*a. The beautiful girl leads the horse to the small trees (pl. .t+ ba. 4.+ A pa.d t+H| 1{ e .h t+H| 4{ vxa am.+ A: E+H .) from the girl's tree.l*.l*.B. thereafter practice sounding the order while following the alphabet chart on page 74.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order (which should be familiar by now) following it through the diagram on page 73 once familiar with the relationship of the alphabetical order to the diagram.) are quickly taking the girl's fruit (two) to the man. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .aya.a.h a.t+| 3{ :P*.l*. \I am taking the fruit (pl.+ vxa am.l va.a.an+ ba. Associating the sound/letter with its position on the chart provides a visual `short-cut' to where a sound/letter is in relation to the alphabetical order as a whole: this will prove to be a very useful trick when using the dictionary. in the form given in the chart on page 74 (ideally . The man says to the girl that he is carrying the tree to the river. 5. 3.76 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9.te+ I*a. The man and girl go to the handsome teacher by river.am+| 5{ na.he gua=*e+ ba.) to the horse. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.t+| 2{ e A: +H vxa a~y+ :P*.an+ l*Ba.l*. 2.).am. 6.+ vxa a.a.ayE+ va.) for fruit (pl.a.l*m.+ va. We (two) take the fruit (pl.+ suand:=*am.h a.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English.h should be on a line by itself). (b) Write out the alphabet once per day." the girl says to the teacher.h a.t+ A p+H na=H va.d + A pam.+ ba.

Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals: for example.3). This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusvara that was considered earlier. but each has its own eld of special cases and exceptions. to sound it aloud (or in the mind at least). It is quite . Have you heard why it is so? Well. which is pronounced as `cats and dogz'. and for the ease of pronunciation. (The apostrophe functions somewhat like the avagraha (Y). and to hear that sound. and thus it has an inherently phonetic script the English script does not do this.A. internal to an individual word. when reading the written word. and for the various pronunciations of the English letter `n' mentioned in that section (8. the letters are symbols representing the sounds: in Sanskrit the notation changes when the sound changes. but the sound is the same. Why should that be? Looking at it doesn't help you need to sound it. So. The rules of internal and external sandhi are largely the same. In the written form. Sandhi applies to vowels too: consider how \he is" becomes \he's". isn't it? So there is an English sandhi rule that a sibilant preceded by an unvoiced consonant is unvoiced. they are both replaced by a long IR . try swapping the sibilants around: `catz and dogs'. and preceded by a voiced consonant it is voiced (ghosa). inasmuch as it is not sounded.Lesson 10. when a long IR meets a short I. The rules of sandhi apply within a word as it is being developed from its elemental components to its fully in ected form: this is called internal sandhi. consider the English phrase `cats and dogs'. which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting. The rules also apply between words as they come together to form a sentence: this is called external sandhi. external to the individual words.1 Introduction to Sandhi Sandhi (`placing together') is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously. We shall examine external sandhi broadly and Sandhi applies whenever two sounds come together | and this is the point: it is . Di cult.A.) sounds coming together.A 10. When sounded | and that's the key | you will hear that both vowels have the same sound: certainly one has a short measure. natural. and the other a long measure. and this is one of the reasons that foreigners mutter darkly about English spelling! The rules of sandhi only make sense in sound and not in writing: thus it is important.

r ar ar l2 . In these notes. al al 3 A useful way of considering guna. . The breve ( ) and macron ( ) diacritical marks. arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. 2 In the grammatical formation of words. . Panini de nes .3 Vowel Sandhi Vowel sandhi. 10. in the same sentence or line of poetry: a vowel nal is not changed before a consonant or in pausa. 3 The vrddhi form of . the breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. used together ( ) indicate a long or short measure of the vowel. .A. and also gives .rddhi as the strengthening of the guna by the addition of a further measure of .5. and that means to work through each principle | in sound | and understand that they are simply statements of the obvious.2 Guna and Vrddhi . by the addition of a single measure of A (so as to leave A itself unchanged). 1 a a a a a a 1 e ai u o au . vrddhi form .78 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory only lightly touch on internal sandhi as it a ects the declension of formed words. guna as the three vowels A O and A e+. for example. simple vowel guna form . and v. This process has been described in Section 1. . considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. The grammatical terms guna (`secondary form') and vrddhi (`increase') can be . A. unless explicitly restricted.l. There are only six principles that cover all cases: it is not necessary to learn these. the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels and . namely A a. does not arise in the grammar.A. at the end of a sentence. is the strengthening of the ve simple vowels . and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel. the d rgha measure does not occur. and vrddhi as A + Oe and A E+. 10. but what is important is to understand them.A. . . Also V stands for any vowel. as you would expect.

A. + a a a a . )e +u)o + r ) ar . . the result is .Lesson 10. guna replaces both. they are both replaced by the d rgha measure of that vowel. It was mentioned earlier that the d rgha measure of is not used in the grammar (Section 1. When one of the ve simple vowels (hrasva. When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by one of the ve simple vowels other than A (hrasva or d rgha).4) and that and are savarna (Section 8. .A 79 1. . a+a)a + ) u+u)u r+r)r . + l ) al . so that when meets or . + V ) yV u + V ) vV r + V ) rV . 3. the rst vowel is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position: .A. . . vrddhi sound replaces both. When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by a guna or vrddhi sound.l + V ) lV where V stands for any di erent vowel. When a simple vowel (hrasva or d rgha) other than a is followed by a di erent vowel. long) meet a vowel of the same kind (hrasva or d rgha). a + e ) ai a + o ) au a + ai ) ai a + au ) au 4. short or d rgha. .2). Note that is not shown here. the . . 2.

-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -ai -a a-a a-a i-a -a i-a u-a r. -re-rai-ro-rau- Final Vowel -l. When a compound vowel (e ai o au) is followed by another vowel. though useful in its own way. -avr. -le-lai-lo-lau- -e -e -a a-a i-a -a u-a u-a r. -a r. -r.-ve-vai-vo-vau- -r . -yl. -ave-avai-avo-avau- Following Vowel aaiuur. -a l. -vl. -r. -vr. -a r. it splits into its component parts (a or a. l. is no substitute for understanding the principles in sound. -r.eaioau- . All the information on vowel sandhi may be conveniently displayed in tabular form | called a sandhi grid | which. 6. The antahstha . -a l. r.-a e-a ai-a o-a au- -o -o -a a-a -a -a u-a u-a r. -avr. -r. -la-la-li-l -lu-lu-r. e+a)e o+a)o 0 0 -a1 -a-a-e-e-o-o-ar-2 -ar-al-ai-ai-au-au- -ya-ya---yu-yu-yr-2 .-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -au -ava-ava-avi-av -avu-avu-avr.80 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 5. and overriding it. -ra-ra-ri-r -ru-ru-r. -a r. . may then optionally be elided: generally it is only retained when the preceding vowel was au. when O or A e+ are followed by hrasva A. As a quite non-obvious exception to the above rule.-ye-yai-yo-yau- -u -va-va-vi-v -u-u-vr-2 . -a l. -yr. e + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V ai + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V o + V ) a + u + V ) avV ) a V au + V ) a + u + V ) avV where V stands for any vowel. the A is elided and replaced by an avagraha. and i or u) and the second of those parts is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position.

Particles consisting of a single vowel. Examples of this are ij-ya derived from dhatu yaj. . and p. and the r . The breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. . For external sandhi these are: a. pronouns. Prolonged (pluta) vowels. while it is clear that -a + aproduces -a-. or verbs) ending in d rgha IR . The terminations of duals (whether nouns. and neither r nor l as a word initial. the grid cannot determine from -a.A 1 81 Note: l does not occur as a word nal. are included in the table for completeness. rather like the English `Ah' and `Oh'. b. One thing that the table does illustrate.. uc-atha from dhatu vac. .4 Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi There are some exceptions. as for example.A.Lesson 10. easy and easily. vowel of the same mouth position (and the following vowel is elided). . This is the complement to rule 4 in 10. and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel. . but they . sup-ta from dhatu svap.A. or ending in A e+: these are usually interjections or exclamations. where . called pragrhya (`to be taken separately'). A similar process occurs in English when a nal `y' is replaced by `i' before adding another su x. sandhi rules do not operate. holy and holiness.3.whether either (or both) of the original a's were long or not. the basic vowel may be replaced by its hrasva equivalent.rcch-ati from dhatu prach. c. 10.A.. . retained. 2 Optionally. for example: maha + rsi ) maharsi or maharsi. 10. . Samprasarana is the process whereby an antahsthah is replaced by the simple . . or O . beauty and beautiful. is that resolving a given sandhi into its components is not at all straightforward: for example.5 Samprasarana .

reman). from the verb `attend' given in 8. Words thus ` xed' by a su x (pratyaya) may be joined together to form a compound word. as in the following English examples: bedroom reside headache screwdriver blackbird gingerbread housekeeping sightseeing breakfast greenback newspaper songwriter daydream haircut paperback sunrise dressmaker handwriting rattlesnake wheelbarrow The compound word may simply be a conveniently brief way of expressing a longer phrase (e. attentiveness the state of having the quality of attending.1. as it were. are derived: attendant one who attends.g.g. attention the quality of attending.B. . where it may cause one to stumble when reading it).g. to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable..B 10. or express a speci c idea related to its parts (e. these su xes may be concatenated and further pre xes may be added. When a compound is not yet fully accepted in English writing (e. as: bread-winner full-grown light-weight roof-garden break-down ginger-beer old-fashioned single-minded double-decker heart-shaped pony-tail store-room far-fetched hot-house red-hot whole-hearted re. it is hyphenated. pigtail : a plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head from its resemblance to the tail of a pig]). As shown by the last word in this list. attendance the action of attending. .B.g. gravestone : stone marking a grave). as for example.Lesson 10. attentive having the quality of attending.1 Introduction to Compound Words The dhatu (root) is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity: in order to form a noun (naman) or adjective (visesana) etc. this activity needs to `freeze'. This ` xing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a su x (pratyaya) the process in English is similar for example. `inattentiveness'. or may have a meaning quite di erent from its parts (e.y lamp-post right-handed world-wide .

There are few exceptions to the above: words such as atmane-pada and parasmaipada where the case-a x of the rst word is not dropped.am+ Ideally. the vibhakti ending is added to the end of the :pra.B. AB avyay bhava (forms indeclinable (avyaya) functioning as an adverb) AB bahuvr hi (serves as an adjective qualifying an external principal) Other types of samasa are subdivisions. For example: na=*an. One exception to this should be noted: if the pratipadika ends in -an. very extensive use indeed so much so.( rst) purusa person = rst person. the virama ( . for example: prathama. or special cases. a compound word (samasa) is always written without a break. only the last member appears to decline. This makes expressions in Sanskrit at once concise and precise. anusvara or visarga. ) may only be used at the end of a sentence. while earlier members retain their pratipadika form.2 Joining Words in Writing Sanskrit is spoken without any break between words. for example: atman (self) + j~ana (knowledge) ) atmaj~ana. . then the four classes of samasa may be indicated as: AB dvandva (meaning `A and B') AB tatpurusa (A is in some case relationship to B) .Tam+ :pua *:S+ - compound as a whole. .a ean+ gacC a. that it is unusual to nd a sentence without a samasa. words are joined together in writing except after words ending in a vowel.+ A pean+ A: ean+ gacC a. but in transliteration these are often shown hyphenated.am+ ) na=*ana. If the principal (more important) word of the compound is underlined. A samasa is formed by simply placing the pratipadika (stem) forms together and applying the sandhi rules at the junction. then the n is dropped.Lesson 10. of these four main classes. all the principles are covered in considering the joining of just two words (call them `A' and `B') a more complex samasa is simply a case where A and/or B is itself a samasa. Although a samasa may comprise many words. Sanskrit makes extensive use of the samasa. are called a-luk samasa. n n In declining the compound word.e. 10. peana. self-knowledge. and the written form re ects this: after the operation of sandhi.B 83 In devanagar . i.

6.d + ma.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. 7.84 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 10. 26.h:=e maDu+ ma. i. 15.pa.+ + IR a= .S+ A anand k*:a.a. 24. 8.+ + O k*.a. 21./ a~t+ . by repeatedly pronouncing the word pairs aloud very swiftly. 28. 10.tman.SNa. (c) Join the following word pairs using vowel sandhi: this exercise is most usefully done in sound alone.Za.h + + O *v+ + O k*:tvam.+ + A anand + A a~y+ + A a.+ + A ea.+ a= + I yam.+ . 23.d a. 20.v+ + A: an+ 16.a. 2.d + I nd + *. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory.Za.h + .. 12. 4. 17.e+ :pa= m+ n+ + + I*a.+ + A anand + A aca. 27.e. + O *ta. 11.t+ + A .v+ gua ma. a. 9. 18.E+ + A a. not from right answers! 1.de va. and then writing down what is heard: the results may afterwards be checked against the rules or the sandhi grid.m.h:~te+ :pa= m+ :pra.t+ + A:kH + O *v+ .ty+ sa. 19.va. .tx+ :pa.ayR+ + I nd + A anand sa. 14.aDu+ k*:tRx+ A: + BU+ + A anand + IR *Z+ *k*:a= a.tam.aya.h + k*:tRx+ k*:+ n+ + A T+ + A:mxa. 30. 25. 5.a. ant+ na.d:nam. 22.+ + IR *Z+ + IR + O *v+ a. Do remember that the purpose of the exercises is a practical understanding: one learns from mistakes.p+ ma. 3. 13.B. 29.

Basically a nal s or r becomes r before a voiced (ghosa) sound (which includes the vowels.e+Y or O *Sa. A =.A. -Vs -Vh . a consonant or a pause in sound) the exception to this. -ah . One very important point to note about this table. the following consonant. -Vh .1 Visarga Sandhi This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form: Final Vowel -as -as Vs1 Vr2 Next Initial Sound The table is simple enough.g. avasana (e.++A@ becomes @A e+Y@. and the preceding vowel. 0 -a -a -a -a -as -as . Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs . -Vs -Vh . 3 any other ghosa vya~jana n . t/th. 1. any vowel other than a a- r- .e+Y before any other letter the visarga is dropped. 2 -Vr = any vowel before the nal r. is lengthened. -ah . -as -ah . is the last row: an avasana is a pause or stop in speech. is elided. t/thany other aghosa vya~jana n . Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs .. -as -ah . and a preceding A I or o lengthened. -as before a ghosa consonant becomes -o the -s is dropped before . where the nal is -r and the following word begins with r.. a vowel. c/cht/th. 2. Note: The words s+H or O *S+H followed by hrasva A becomes sa. the rst r is dropped. is that before c/ch t/th or . of course) the exceptions to this are: . unless that vowel is hrasva A in which case @A:s.{ ) 1 -Vs = any vowel except a or a before the nal s. followed by another =. if a i or u. And the nal s or r becomes a visarga before an unvoiced (aghosa) sound (whether . -o -a -o -o -as -as . it is replaced with a sibilant (s s or s) of the same mouth position as that of . as for example at the end of a sentence or line of poetry.Lesson 11.(a disallowed combination).A 11. -Vh .

with two exceptions: when a word ends in a short vowel and the following word begins with ch-. Before an h. . to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya ghosa sound. As with the visarga sandhi.h@ ) @gG+@). this should be replaces with an s.2 Consonant Sandhi As a rule.(which is ghosa) .is replaced by the . and the remaining three are nasals.and s-. then a c is inserted secondly. . remain unchanged when followed by an aghosa sound but note that a nal -t .) -VnnV- . .) -VnnVn __ -Vn V. and observe its special changes before l. then the nasal is doubled.1 this table covers the remaining consonants.A. consonant of the same mouth position when the following sound is ghosa. case the substitute replaces the following s. and _ the following word begins with a vowel. ... an anusvara and sibilant of the following mouth position of a following talavya. .A. and the h. . i. and may end (before an avasana or pause) one of eight consonants k t t p n n m _ .) -Vcch- -V_ V. . a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m n n n r l .. A . . and . 11. . a process called sandhi vigraha. this sandhi must be removed: where the word is given in the tables with a nal visarga. The kanthya nasal remains unchanged. changes to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya sound (both ghosa and aghosa). while the dantya nasal (like the -t) changes .: -V ch.as well).g.h.(in the last . @k . or h. . . The rst four of the nal consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa (except c) .86 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This also applies when a sentence is split up into its independent words (padani) by removing the external sandhi. this table is split according to the following sound being ghosa or aghosa. nal -m changes to anusvara before any consonant (see 8. or with any vowel except r and l. . .A. There are no sandhi changes when a vowel meets a consonant.and s. when the word is used in a sentence. murdhanya or dantya aghosa also note the special changes before l.e. The sandhi of words ending with a visarga . _~. The immediate relevance is that the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs is given in the form of independent words.3 for pronunciation of the anusvara). So. when a word ends in -n or -n preceded by a short vowel. mahaprana equivalent of that ghosa substitute (e. (h) were discussed in 11. these four are replaced by their ghosa equivalents. which means that sandhi rules applicable to a following avasana have already been applied. and to . . The nal aghosa (k t t and p) are basically replaced with the ghosa alpaprana . .

. .. < l@. -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . and which a ect the spelling of vibhakti endings in particular. . t/thp/phss/s. i.-bbh. 3 -~ s. . n n 1 2 Next Sound any vowel g/ghj/jhd/dh..A. 11. s unless it is the nal letter or followed by r. -g -d -d -b -n1 -n1 -m _ . .-ddh. .-n -n -m _ . .. n_ This is a nasalized l. 3 -k -t -cch-p -n -~ -m _ n . is replaced by even if there is an intervening m or h . -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . -n _ -n -n -m -n -n -m _ . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . .Lesson 11. y v h or m intervene _ . p ph b bh m. -g -d -l -b -n -l< 2 -m _ . -ggh. n when followed by a vowel. . d/dhb/bhn/my/r/v- lhk/khc/cht/th. -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . . -g -d -j -b -n -~ -m _ n .A Final Consonant (before avasana) 87 -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . -k -t -c -p -n -ms -m _ . . . . @n. . -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . . following s r r or r . .3 Internal Sandhi The two most common rules of internal sandhi.e. -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . m v y or n (which last becomes n).-ddh. . The nasal doubles to -_ n or -nn if the preceding vowel is short. . n . . r e ai o or au r. . . . .may also become -~ ch-. . . -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . is replaced by even if k kh g gh n. . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ .+ l@ becomes @. . are: s following k r i u u .

. tree-root. There are two types of dvandva: the gender of the last member the number is the sum of the members.B. .. `couple') samasa is a copulative compound in which the members. is characterised as having . rst member depends on (i. . Karmadharaya | this is a descriptive determinative compound. i.1 Dvandva Samasa The dvandva (lit. i. has a case relationship to).. also called samanadhikarana-tatpurusa. ... . . the members are di erent objects. .. the second. the members refer to the same object for example: denoting direction or a numeral as its rst member for example: purnacandrah ( purnah (full) candrah (moon) = full-moon. Samahara | the members are taken collectively as a unit it is always neuter sukham ca duhkham ca ) sukhaduhkham (note the singular) .e. and is characterised as having the same case ending . or modi es.. 11. . = root of a tree. .e. For example: Itaretara | the members are considered separately the gender of the compound is singular. . for example: = pleasure and pain.2 Tatpurusa Samasa . but has a word . .B. . . There are several types: di erent case endings if the compound is dissolved. The compound may be further classi ed according to the case relationship (dvit ya through saptam ) of the rst member to the second. .Lesson 11. would be in the same case (vibhakti) and connected by the conjunction c+ (and). .e. . The tat-purusa (lit. 11. `his man') samasa is a determinative compound in which the . For example: Tatpurusa | also called vyadhikarana-tatpurusa. . Dvigu | this samasa has the same sense as the karmadharaya. . ramah ca krsnah ca ) ramakrsnau (note the dual) = Rama and Krsna.B The following detailed notes may be used for reference: they need not be studied. Pairs of opposites are often put in this form. . .. if the compound is dissolved. vrksamulam ( vrksasya mulam (sasthi-tatpurusa) . if not compounded.

and the whole takes the form of the neuter singular for example: sakrodham ( sa. giving a negative or privative sense for example: a-j~anam ( a. lotus-eyed. singular (lit.). or a-) as its n . an-. to speak) also dvi.4 Bahuvr hi Samasa The bahuvr hi (lit.B O k*:vacan+ 89 eka-vacana. . . act. .(the sense is proportion) + sraddha (faith) = according to (one's) faith. and the last a noun (naman). The rst member is an indeclinable (preposition or adverbial pre x).Lesson 11. one . = with anger. `much rice') samasa is a descriptive compound forming an adjective (visesana) agreeing with a noun (expressed or understood) for example: . `an unchanging nature') samasa is indeclinable (avyaya) and functions as an adverb. while the latter becomes an adjective.3 Avyay bhava Samasa The avyay bhava (lit.A. n n 11.(negation or absence) + j~anam (knowledge) = ignorance.(many). = the son of the king. In the Vedic Sanskrit the determinative and descriptive compounds were distinguished by accents (see 9. the king's son (tatpurusa).speaking. (similarly a-kara etc. Na~-tatpurusa | a compound with a negative particle (na-.(the sense is accompaniment) + krodha (anger) yathasraddham ( yatha. .B.B. remains a noun. giving `dual' and `plural'] Upapada | this compound has a dhatu derivative as its second member for example: kumbha-kara ( kumbham (pot) + p kr (to do.(two). angrily.+ (king) + putra (son) raja-putra = whose son is a king (bahuvr hi) . The di erence between the tatpurusa and the bahuvr hi is that the former .jan. bahu. from p vac. 11. make) = potter . = whose eyes are (like) lotuses. rst member. padmaksa ( padma (lotus) + aksa (eye) .1): raja-putra ( =*a.


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

11.B.5 Exercises
(a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. (c) Write the following sentences in devanagar , applying sandhi rules as necessary | and it will be necessary quite often! | and then translate them into English. For example:

narah asvah ca alpan vrksan labhete . . . .
na=*e+Y a a.a. pa.anvxa a.a. < l*Bea.te+

1. narau alpam vrksam agnim asvat vahatah . . . 2. bala asvam naram ca vrksat labhate . . 3. phalani asvam vahati iti guruh balah vadati . . 5. narah vrksam agnim balayai asvena vahati . . . 6. bala asvam alpam nad m vrksat nayate . . 7. narah vrksan phalebhyah asvena gacchati . . . .

The man and horse take the small trees.

4. guru alpam naram vrksayat s ghram gacchatah . . .

8. guruh agnim narat gacchati iti alpa bala vadati . 10. alpebhyah phalebhyah sundaresu vrksesu gacchavah . . . . . . . 9. bala alpah asvah ca agnim narat gacchatah . . .

Lesson 12

From here forward the lessons will no longer be divided into parts `A' and `B', there will, however, be exercises related to the dictionary or Dhatu-Patha at the end of . each lesson.

Monier-Williams Dictionary

In the dictionary, words are listed in their pratipadika (stem) form, i.e. without the vibhakti endings that they gather in actual use therefore in seeking the meaning of words found in Sanskrit writings, the rst part of the word will be found in the dictionary, and the last syllable or two forming the vibhakti ending needs to be omitted. There will be an element of guesswork in this because only the six most common noun declensions have been given: forty declensions are necessary to cover all possibilities, and as many again for exceptions. The dictionary often marks the accents of vowels in transliteration: the udatta is marked with the acute accent ( ) and the svarita with the grave accent ( ) | this is illustrated in section 9.A.1. There is an interesting section on the subject of accents on page of the dictionary introduction, beginning with the fourth paragraph \Then a third improvement . . . ". The rest of the lengthy Preface and Introduction need not be read however, do note that the dictionary was completed at the end of the Nineteenth Century, and thus there is some Victorian coyness in translating sexual terms, which are sometimes given in Latin rather than English.

This dictionary is either very simple to use, or very di cult: the di erence lies in understanding the founding principles of the dictionary, and appreciating the devices that Monier-Williams has employed in order to make it simple to use. In this lesson the broad structure of the dictionary is explained, and subsequent lessons will cover the details.


Alphabet and Transliteration

Some of the devanagar characters used in the dictionary di er from the standard followed in these lessons, and some transliterations di er from the generally accepted standard. The alphabet used in the dictionary, in both devanagar and transliterated Roman characters, is presented below in the standard format, from which one may deduce the standard alphabetical order (which of course, the dictionary does use).


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

A A+






A ea. A Ea.



a a i
k K+ g+ .G+ z

u u ri r lri lr e o ai au am/an ah . . . . . . ka kha ga gha na _
c+ C .j+

V+ y+ .Z+

ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa _

ta . F tha . q da . Q dha . N na . = ra :S+ sha

t+ T+ .d D+ n+ l s+

ta tha da dha na la sa

pa :P pha b+ ba B+ bha m+ ma v+ va



Observe the devanagar characters used for A and its derivatives in the sixteen sakti, and the consonants J and :N+ observe also the transliteration for .r r l l, . .. the anusvara, s and s. These are also shown on page (facing page 1) of the . dictionary.

Monier-Williams distinguishes between a `true' anusvara (n) which is inherent in the word from its dhatu and is found in such words as AM :s+ (ansa) and a.hM:s+ (hinsa), and the `substitute' anusvara (m) which arises through the operation of the rules . of grammar, as for example sam,+ + sa.a= ) sMasa.a= (samsara). This distinction is . peculiar to Monier-Williams (the standard is to use m throughout), and may be . ignored: simply treat m and n as synonymous with the anusvara. .


Fundamental Structure

The dictionary is arranged on etymological principles, and it is this that makes it such a powerful tool. The two main advantages of this arrangement are, rstly, that cognate words derived from the same dhatu are gathered together, and this facilitates a broad understanding of the word, together with its applications and uses secondly, it becomes a trivial matter to trace the word back to its dhatu, thus allowing a penetrating insight into the very essence of the word. This combination, giving both breadth and depth to the understanding of a word, is immensely valuable in the penetrating study of the scriptures.

l . A word of caution: the dictionary contains a wealth of information | do be alert to attention being captured by some interesting item. The reason for this instruction is that the dictionary uses four levels of alphabetical order.Z+ in devanagar script should be between Bilasa and Bilma. the dictionary is also ordered alphabetically.ba. in this case).ba.a.l*. Bila Bilasa Bilma Bilmin Billa Bilva Bilvaka Bilvak ya Bilvala a. and Buddhaka and Buddhi (middle of third column). Now look at the next page: at the bottom of the rst column is the entry buaD.Lesson 12 93 Besides the etymological arrangement.l*.ba.l*nT+ a. h N+ order and ignore any intervening words in transliterated Roman script. and the sub-structure of derived words is listed under the devanagar entry in transliterated Roman script the derived words are themselves listed alphabetically. but to understand how to use this tool called a dictionary.l.l*.l a. and are all derived from the previous word in devanagar script ( a. and that each entry comprises just one paragraph.a. the entries could be listed as follows: a. the words a.l a. and not just two. the words in Roman script are themselves listed alphabetically.+ in large devanagar type. The seeming con ict between these two is resolved quite simply: the main etymological structure is ordered alphabetically in devanagar script.ba. The entries in this column should be the same as the list given above: con rm this. Look down the rst column.ba=*a. Such an entry indicates a major dhatu.Z+ a. At this stage the purpose is not to nd word meanings.a. Continuing through these .ba.l*nT+ a. For example. The words derived from this dhatu include Buddha (middle of second column). Similarly.ba.l a. but their order is independent of the outer structure using devanagar script.l*. Comments on the list: The entries in devanagar script are listed in alphabetical Do not proceed any further with this lesson until this principle of the independence of the two levels of alphabetical order is clear. as one would expect of a dictionary. Now open your dictionary at page 732.a.ba.a.ba. and observe that each entry begins with an indented word in devanagar or bold Roman script. The list also demonstrates the two levels of alphabetical order: without these levels.ba.a.

Work through these samasa until satis ed that they are in fact in alphabetical order.| at this stage just note that they are the guna and vrddhi forms | the . due to the rules of vowel sandhi. . but more of that later): observe that these words or listed in alphabetical order.through Bo. Similarly.e.g.(e. and thus out of sequence as far as the second level in concerned. Buddhagama and subsequent samasa are spelled out in full because. +). There are two points to appreciate here: rstly. is that a samasa like Buddhagama is before it. The next entry word is Buddhaka. This third level may be viewed as an extension of the second level. Thus these samasa sub-entries are truly a third level of alphabetical order.g. note that there can be several pages between devanagar entry words and secondly. where the leading hyphen is mentally replaced by the entry word. Buddhasena (with hrasva a). forming the samasa Buddhakalpa. Return to the second column. These form s . i. observe the change of the rst vowel from Buto Bo. signi cance of this will be explained later. The rest of the column has several more such words in bold type and each beginning with a hyphen (and the hyphen is not irrelevant. in strict alphabetical order. Now return to page 733. note that in the third column (about three inches (80 mm) down) is Buddhagama: the caret c ( c ) above the vowel indicates that it is long (d rgha) | it conveys more information in fact. and on the following page to Bau. which returns to the second level of alphabetical order: the point to note here.94 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory derived words on the next page.to Bau. is -vara-locana . following -kapalin . remembering the two levels of alphabetical order. Buddhagama (with d rgha a) follows after the previous samasa -sena. Three inches (75 mm) below this is -kapalin in bold type: nd this. note the strengthening of the dhatu vowel of the entry words from Bu. This means that -kapalin is appended to the entry word Buddha so as to form the samasa Buddhakapalin . Continuing at this level. the next word in bold type is -kalpa. Bodha). to the entry Buddha in the middle of column two. The next line contains the word (in feint italic type) -pari_ odhaka . the nal a of buddha is changed: thus. Bauddha). and similarly in the line below that. This is the third level of alphabetical order: samasa beginning with the entry word (which may be in Roman type or devanagar ) are listed within the body of the paragraph for that entry in alphabetical order.(e. as will be explained later. and nd the fourth samasa entry -kshetra (about 1 2 2 inches (60 mm) from the bottom). before the next word in devanagar script (bua.

and the last (b jin) is in transliterated Roman: these words are at di erent levels in the hierarchy of alphabetical orders.+ (the rst entry in the second column). given in both devanagar and Roman transliterated forms. the words at the top of page 735 are both at the second level but are in reverse alphabetical order. Note that these two sub-sub-entries listed under the . .e. of alphabetical ordering. Buddhiksetravaralocana. indicate respectively the rst and last entry words to be found on that page.4 Page Heading Words The words in the top margin of each page. being derive from di erent words in the devanagar script: had one been looking for bua}Ba. This situation does not happen often and so one forgets about it. sub-entry -ksetra. and note that the rst (birala) is in devanagar script in the text. Again. When you suspect that you have been misled by the page heading words. Do make use of these rather than the body of the text as you scan through the pages looking up a word: but don't rely on them totally. the heading words would have been quite misleading. i. Examine the words at the top of page 732 for example. on the next page the heading words are at the second and third levels and turning over the page.Lesson 12 95 further samasa when appended to -ksetra. 12. Buddhiksetrapari_ odhaka and s . . but for the moment leave aside words beginning with s+ (sa). turn a few pages backwards (towards A) and follow the devanagar entries in the body of the dictionary. for they can sometimes be misleading in that they do not indicate at which of the four levels of alphabetical order they occur. but be aware that it can happen. At this stage you could start to make use of the dictionary if there are words that you particularly want to look up. are also in alphabetical order: this is the fourth (and last!) level .

hrdaya . 5. visnu . hetu 3. The words in the list will all be found at the start of an entry (like buddhi) and not buried in the text the words may be in devanagar or transliterated in the dictionary. sar ra 18. 8. yoga 4. j~ana n 6. Common errors of rst-time users are: (1) Confusing the English and Sanskrit alphabetical orders.e. (3) Not seeing what is actually there.5 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary. page 733. rsi . rajas 11. . (6) Wasting time by reading interesting but irrelevant entries. guru 10. second (=b) column).. The exercise is to nd the word in the dictionary and not to examine the meaning of the word. 14.. vyakarana . You have been warned: but go ahead and fall at on your face anyway! But then do observe what tripped you up. 13.96 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 12. brahman 9. When you are more familiar with the dictionary. purusa . 1. ananta 20. krsna .. so simply nd the word and note the page and column in the form: buddhi 733b (i. both in the list of words and in the dictionary: watch those diacritics! (4) Failing to use the page heading words. 16. say fteen seconds. manas 17. ananda 7. bhakti 19. are two separate letters. (2) Forgetting that `a' and `a' for example. citta 12. it should take no longer to nd a word in the Sanskrit dictionary than it does in the English dictionary. atman 2.. prakrti . (5) Misunderstanding the structure of the devanagar and transliterated entries. 15.

up the word in the standard alphabetical order with that substituted nasal. and not only to words beginning with sam-. union.e. di culties may arise if the rules for pronouncing the anusvara are not thoroughly practised.Lesson 13 13. In looking up words containing the anusvara it is essential to sound the word. sa u .+ | and that is the alphabetical order in sound! u This principle applies wherever the anusvara occurs. p+ for sMa:]a. . the anusvara . i.d an+ the anusvara is sounded as the savarna m.+.(`altogether'. For example. saV]a. z .ve from ka to ma) and secondly.va. . the anusvara in sMa. and sMak*. examine the third column of page 1125 of the dictionary: the last three words given in devanagar script are sMak*:a. replacing the anusvara with its savarna nasal where applicable.d an+ similarly for sMak*: p+. of course. one needs to make the same nasal substitution for the anusvara for the words in the dictionary. -kartavya.a= is not substituted and therefore.pra.. -yu.) are listed after the antahstha and usman. anD+ etc. p+.D+. etc. in the word sMa.c. -vadin etc. completeness) is very common. sMa. expressing conjunction.+ in devanagar . look up sa *. Again. and derived from it (and hence transliterated) is the next entry word aham (note the anusvara): the samasa formed with aham | (-yati. For example.) are listed in alphabetical order | but note that the sparsa (-karana. follows the anusvara in the alphabetical order). sound them! Do remember that in the dictionary the anusvara before an antahstha is not . As an illustration of the importance of sounding the words. in column two of page 124 is the entry A h:m. . .+.+ and for sMa. the tradition followed by MonierWilliams makes this nasal substitution only before a sparsa (the twenty. then found in the dictionary where one would expect to nd sa}pra.l .+ and is .1 Words Beginning with Sa- The pre x sam. is sounded with its replacement savarna nasal to give A h: *=*N+ (and. and then look .a= will be before saga= which in turn will be before sMak*: p+. and thus there are many words beginning with it since the nal -m is often replaced with the anusvara. substituted with a nasal: for example. the last being in the dictionary order of sa *. . sa. There are two points to bear in mind here: rstly.va. in the dictionary order where the anusvara appears before the consonants.

p has two pre xes prati-sam.suc the next entry :pra. For the next three words.2 Structure of Devanagar Level The outermost layer of the dictionary. but this. The next dhatu bua . namely the entries in devanagar script. The next two entries are dhatu note that bua.s+ whose root is not known. *. simply be aware that a devanagar entry. or . This . This is followed by buak whose etymology is not known.d l. The last word in this column is in large devanagar type. and half-way down the column is :pra.98 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. Page 672 of the dictionary is representative of this type of entry: the second column begins with :pra. ten ways of conjugating verbs). which means that the dhatu is not known (to Monier-Williams anyway) and may be foreign words absorbed into Sanskrit.aB. should ideally only contain dhatu.+ and in transliteration is p conveniently split into the pre x and dhatu as prati.a. bua . together with the other information given in the dhatu entry.car.a. but in practice it includes those words whose form has changed radically (e. the dhatu bua. i " which stands for `class-1'.tasama.+. is followed by the onomatopoeic bua u *d and nally the dhatu buaD. or have a pre x added.aBa. and the dhatu bua. followed by \ cl.d Z. is class-6. the rst entry is ba.ts+ which is not a dhatu. and bua. is also given the alternative reading vung the similarity in both sound and form of b+ and _ v+ allows this to happen.e. The word buak is onomatopoeic (i. At this stage. . the personal name bua.g. and allows each element to be separately examined in the dictionary.f is given as .a. followed by its transliterated form and a class number.dis. The transliteration shows the etymology of the word. . buaq*. which is a dhatu. Returning to the top of the rst column. and buaq. and is followed by ba.a. it sounds .tasMaca=.d. These are followed by the onomatopoeic . gives references to columns two and three: common words like this are often listed in the devanagar with a cross-reference given to their etymological entry position. both class-1 and -10.e. but does illustrate the many types of entries listed in devanagar . whose dhatu is not known.tasuac. like the thing signi ed). indicating a major dhatu: the entry for this word begins with its transliterated form. That was a pretty mixed bag of words.+.a. except for those beginning with a pre x which form the bulk of the words listed in devanagar . by samprasarana). Turn to page 733 of the dictionary and examine the devanagar entries in the rst column. is a dhatu. will be explained in the next lesson.+ p having three pre xes prati-sam-a.buaq. no etymology is given. There are ten classes of dhatu (i. but the entry shows that it is derived from the dhatu badh. .a. The next word.

' (masculine. so Buddha can also be a masculine naman and further down (just before the bold type -kapalin ) is `n. indicating a visesana however. . . by a description indicating their meaning. The rst division of naman is into linga (gender). `f. as a bonus.' or `n. long. . from a quality (visesana) to . followed . .'. _ . which. . . .'. visesana (adjectives). six lines down is `m.' one may yet nd `m. .Lesson 13 99 13. feminine. . lofty. . str -linga naman _ 14th line: n. . napumsaka-linga naman. and are thus indicated in the dictionary as _ `mfn. you are given an insight into the mythology of India. avyaya form 7th line: m. A fuller illustration of this principle is shown under the entry . . and avyaya (indeclinables.' etc. guided by Dharma (Law). . for a long time . . in bringing a quality . and lightly read through the text for the word Buddha: the information provided about Gautama Buddha (the founder of Buddhism) is typical of the encyclop dic scope of the dictionary. Thus the same pratipadika form may be a visesana or a naman. m.d aGR+ near the bottom of the third column of page 481: 1st line: mf(a)n. to a naman. . tall . buried in the text for that word. where the gods and their consorts are the personi cation of universal forces: from Daksa (the Creative . typically kriya-visesana adverbs). Now lightly read through the text for the word Buddhi in the third column. so if the heading . Return to page 733. knowledge'. an oblong tank . must have the same linga as that naman. are listed in their pratipadika form. pum-linga naman . . thus the word Buddha can also be a neuter noun. a long vowel . there will be no `mfn. a wise man'.' Examine the entry for Buddha in the second column of page 733: it begins with `mfn. a wise or learned man'. Force) arises Buddhi (Intelligence). neuter). the speci c (naman). The converse does not apply: had the entry been `Buddha.3 Structure within non-Dhatu Entries The entries for naman (nouns). and must therefore be able _ to take any form of the three linga. 5th line: (am ) ind. word indicates `mfn.' buried in the text | this re ects the overall structure of the dictionary in tapering down from the general to the particular. . produces Bodha (Knowledge). The visesana. . This is the general order followed in the dictionary within the text for an entry word. a species of grass . visesana form . and this is shown in the dictionary _ by `m. long. . _ 12th line: (a ) f. Here. .

nd the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalin and -kalpa: the hyphen not only indicates that the word . The next page of the dictionary has a list of symbols that are used: read through and understand these. so that the words may readily be looked up separately: a denotes the joining of two short vowels.5 Special Symbols @ and a b c d The little circle (@) is a standard abbreviation symbol in the devanagar script to denote either the rst or last part of a word that has to be supplied from the context. rather than repeat the word in full. The caret symbols a b c d denote a joining of vowels.100 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. the abbreviation con or even c may be used similarly ly would mean consciously. b d denotes the joining of two long vowels.4 References and Abbreviations xxxiii On page of the Introduction is the List of Works and Authors that MonierWilliams has consulted in compiling the dictionary: look for a few works that you know to see how it is abbreviated in the body of the dictionary. a c 13. The last four symbols are not very clear. as a + a ) a. consciousness. as a + a ) a. c b denotes the joining of a long with a short vowel. 13. e.g. Bhag. Make it a discipline to look up the references (when appropriate) and abbreviations (always) when you are not sure what it stands for | this way you will very soon become familiar with them. if the word `conscious' is under discussion. and ness. a + i ) e. Monier-Williams also uses this symbol to abbreviate English words in order to save space. short or long. a + u ) o etc. as a + a ) a. These are used in the transliterated script for samasa (compound words). for Bhagavad-g ta and MBh. and very helpfully indicate the length of the nal and initial vowels at the point of union. The following page of the dictionary lists the abbreviations that are used. c denotes the joining of a short with a long vowel.6 Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Turning again to page 733 column two. for example. for MahaBharata. d These are also used when the rules of sandhi change the vowel sound. as a + a ) a. As an illustration of its use. but will be elucidated in the next section.

and varna for example. *.eaBa.+ a. this use of the caret symbol allows the second word of the samasa to be correctly determined as beginning with a d rgha a.l sMa~k*:t+ x k*:a.Lesson 13 101 is appended to Buddha (see section 12. 4.l*yuag+ mUa.a.va.a=*ea.pa a. 16. 9.veak sMaya.ta=e k l Guasa va.l* *.h a. and hyphenated appropriately. . is given the thin stroke in the caret symbol.pa.d e *cC ja. 19.vRa.Dya.anaya.va.3). Buddha-eduka and not Buddha-aiduka (which are the two possibilities listed in .tx+ a.2). Where the samasa is printed in full. section 10.paDxak .a.a.a.ta. 11.h:=*NyagaBR+ :pUa.a.p+ a *a.asan+ a. 7. Similarly.va. 18.h:k*:a. kaya .v. the samasa printed as Buddha duka stands for a. 12.N+ a.7 13.eag+ A. the `weaker' of the two vowels in terms of guna and vrddhi (see . 8. 13.Q sMagamama.A.t+ A:gxa.ta. Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary: the words may be at any of the four levels of alphabetical order.3): the reasoning here is that. 3. the vowel sandhi grid of 10. 5. but that kapalin and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary.va. A:nvaya. Baga.a.ya.a.a.eag+ Dya. may usually be separately found in the dictionary). 2. 14. 6.8 Supplement to Dictionary Dictionary Practice 1. If a word is not found in the main dictionary.+ mana. -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element. 17. and they may be printed in devanagar or transliterated Roman or both.va. and this is why the next samasa. . which stands for c Buddha-agama. 20.Za.A.t+ . 15. so that agama can be separately looked up.a ayaDamR+ ba. . 13. although O and Oe are both long vowels. 10. . as in Buddhagama. look for it in the supplement of Additions and Corrections beginning on page 1308.

102 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

token . This is best illustrated by example: nd the word Vy-a~jana in the third column of page 1029. make n clear .B. . .given in 7. .vi. n n. The dhatu of vya~jana is given in the rst column of page 11: n A: .+ vy. . Compare all this information with the description of vya~jana given at the start n of the rst lesson. .a~j . .1. `distribution'. `arrangement' .y. namely vyand dhatu a~j. . beautify to n cause to appear. indication . The next step in n analysing this word is to look up the two component parts of this verb.v+ Compare this with the sense of the upasarga vi. . . sign.+ p This is the kriya from which the naman vya~jana derives. . a consonant . . . In the middle of the second column is: vy. it is quite straightforward to trace a word to its dhatu. . follow the entry words backwards (towards A ) until an entry given in devanagar (the outermost level of alphabetical order).1 Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Since the dictionary is essentially etymologically arranged.+ a~j. ind. . before vowels for 3.Lesson 14 14. to celebrate . badge. . to decorate .ya . Now that may appear to be a very owery description of what . . . m. In the third column of page 949 is the entry: 3. . in comp. indicating . . . to cause to appear. a. ornament manifestation. speci cation a mark. `distinction'. n Vy-a~jana. mfn. used as a pre x to verbs and nouns . to anoint thoroughly to decorate. manifest. Since this entry is not in devanagar . decoration. display v. . to express `division'. adorn. a consonant. . In the second column of page 1028 is found: n v. . . .vi Here is an example of vowel sandhi used in forming a word. manifesting. .

which indicates that there is another entry budh. (Observe. Indeed.g. but in the class-1 conjugation the vowel has the guna form some other classes use the vrddhi form. many scriptures speak of the creative power of speech. conjugation as a class-4 verb. A. passive forms of the verb are given.i.) .A. bubodha) or pre xed with `a' (e.4.' which means that it may also be found as a class 4 atmanepada verb `( . xxi Next there is `cl. ti ' means that in the epics it may also be found conjugated in (class-4) parasmai-pada. no culture or civilisation | all this rich diversity is founded on the simplicity of vowels and consonants. before starting the English translations `to wake' etc. `cl. `bodhati. just as a matter of interest. xxvi The next eight lines show conjugations of this dhatu for other lakara (tenses and moods) etc. bodhati and bodhate for .e. abudhram). simply note that some of the forms have the rst syllable `re-duplicated' (e. .2 Dhatu Entry Information Turn again to the dhatu budh at the bottom of the rst column of page 733. which are printed in feint italic. show the lat (present . 14.63)' is a Dhatu-Patha reference next `budhyate ' shows the lat . but in this complicated hi-tech age the profundity of simple things is often overlooked: the ability to form a range of consonants is what separates man from animal. Without adorning the vowel sounds with consonants there would be no language: without language there would be no mathematics or science. where the form will be buddhyati.104 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory is simply a consonant. as also derivative verb forms. that the dhatu vowel remains unchanged when conjugated as a class-4 verb.' indicates that the dhatu conjugates according to class-1 rules in both parasmai-pada and atmane-pada this is followed by the Dhatu-Patha reference `(Dhatup.g. . te '. in the rst column on the next page). P. two words. Next.11)'. i.) Within the English translation section. The last four lines show associated verbs in several other Indo-European languages. . . (Again. which may or may not be another dhatu (in fact it is a visesana listed . and that creation itself is spoken into existence. but can it embellish that to say `Who could fool you?'.. indicative) prathama purusa eka-vacana forms. . also P. no history or philosophy. The `ep. That the dhatu is printed in large devanagar means that it is a major dhatu this is followed by the numeral `1'. A dog may be able to howl a perfect prolonged u3 . parasmai-pada and atmane-pada respectively. The following .

v. wrong. ci. both here and in A:nua. which both have the same etymological derivation. .t+ above. anu-cita.Lesson 14 105 Some dhatu entries give much less information. .v. there are ve entries for cit on pages 394{5. their meanings will be quite di erent: in such cases. Also note that these words do not have consecutive entries: indeed they may be separated by several pages. ( 1. turning to the second column on page 32. improper.aca. -pana m. and so on. . .aca.' in the list of abbreviations on page (two pages before page 1). A:nua. where entries have the same spelling. whilst others give more information.) |now nd the meaning of . 14. see s. `s. an-ucita. (for 2.aca.2. which in turn indicates that there is more than one dhatu ci (in fact there are three) the second is derived from p uc. p Note the numerals and the di erent derivations indicated in the transliterated forms. Note that the numerals appear before the transliterated form. mfn.+. gives pointers to where the other entry may be found. where it is given as {1.3 Numbered Entries Words having the same spelling may have quite di erent etymologies having di erent derivations. he usually. . but the overall format is similar. column. observe that there are two entries for A:nua:]a. Further down the column are two entries for anucchindat which have di erent derivations from the same dhatu. ci ). page 300. kr at the end of . Turning to page 662. xxxv Be aware that the numbered entries inform you that there are at least two entries with the same spelling: for example. such as k 1. but the rst is a verb and the second a noun. set or placed along or . as we shall see shortly. nd the two consecutive entries for A:nua. unusual strange .+ near the top of the px rst column. The entry for pratipana that we are now examining is at the third level of alphabetical order. p The rst is derived from 1. Monier-Williams numbers these 1. In the next column. mfn. which is found by looking up ucita on page 172c.t+ 1. but not always. For example.aB. .t+ 2.3. nd the entry for pratipana in the middle of the second .t+ | A:nua. such as ba. and we now need to nd it at the outermost (devanagar ) alphabetical order: this is at the bottom of the second column on page 667.aca. Here Monier-Williams gives a clear reference to where we have just come from: where the numbered entries are widely spaced ( ve pages in this case).

but that they can also mislead.. where it gives a cross-reference to page 1135 column 2: and indeed there it is listed as Sat-tva. some words may not be straightforward to nd. _ . Be warned that this numbering system is not perfect: for example. there are fortunately very few of them. If we look down the second column there are three entries for asta. The trick here is to escape out of the current level of alphabetical order to the next higher level: searching backward for the entry word under which these samasa are listed..vaca. Monier-Williams has here decided to have a separate entry word for samasa where the adjoining word starts with `a': astanga is on the third line of the rst column of page 117. and as a noun in the second column. _ Vicara | Turn to page 950: again. :pra:]a. and the page ends with a. for reasons best known to himself.4 Misleading Words Because of the etymological foundation of the dictionary and its four levels of alphabetical order. All the samasa listed on this page are derived from a. which in turn does not refer to the other two. .vak*:l : continue forward at the devanagar level. We shall examine three such words here.a= . It would be a useful exercise to nd them. looking for a. This .. but these are not numbered. This is the outermost (devanagar ) level | now remain at that level and search for vicara. However. . not according to the heading words which indicate that it is on the previous page. Although there are these inconsistencies. but neither of refer to cet in 397c. _ astanga here.. we come to a. The next devanagar entry is a.+ is indicated as a verb in the rst column of page 659. according to the heading words we should nd vicara in the middle of the second column. This will p be found near the bottom of 958c where it simply refers to vi.+ .car. if the word had not been found on page 1138. of samasa. not even at the third level _ . These examples illustrate that the page heading words are a useful guide to get within ten pages or so of the target word. However.106 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory and a sixth on page 398. Sattva | This will be found listed as sa v+ in 1138b.. but there is no astanga.v+ on the previous page. you would not have found it on this page. It is in fact listed at the third level in 1134c where it simply gives `see below' | this means scan forward over entry words (at level-1 or -2) for the entry. Again. Astanga | Turn to page 116: according to the heading words we should nd . and in the next column asta.vMa.Z+ on 953b. .t.. in the third column of page 401 are two entries for cea.v+ on the previous page. and thus the entry word is found near the bottom of 958b. 14.

Having found nothing useful under su+ ( ve entries) or sU+ (four entries) or ~va. sva-adhyaya. is irregular and the only recourse is to lists of paradigms. yata-atman. for example. until nally at the outermost devanagar level. The rst two don't help because we have already found that there is no entry word Yata | but there is an entry word ya. or sva-adhyaya. working from the left again. However. treat it as a samasa and use the sandhi rules to split it into parts at every syllable | this process may seem rather laborious. then examine entries at the next level of alphabetical order. then consider the following: (a) If it is a short word (one or two syllables) then it may not be listed in the dictionary at all: the declension of pronouns. Don't get excited: it is a guess and could be wrong.+ .5.5 Di cult Words Some words. yata-atman. are just plain di cult to nd.aDa.' And indeed there we nd two entries: the rst a as a noun and the second as a verb. we nd the closest entry is ~va. we would have arrived at ~v+ and thus nd the entries in 1277b. then examine the heading words a few pages before and after. Nevertheless.+. This detective work is illustrated with two words: Yatatman | The word is not found as a samasa under y+ or ya. col. following this clue to page 845 we nd Yatatman in the third column | who would have c guessed that it came from dhatu yam? Svadhyaya | Having worked our way to the devanagar level of alphabetical order. (b) If it has three or more syllables. and there is no entry word Yata. to produce su-adhyaya. or yata-atman. 14. When you have exhausted all the tricks that you know with the dictionary (see sections 12. but reading the text for that entry we nd `svadhyaya. this is not the end of the story: we want to nd the dhatu from which . but it does get there if the word is listed in the dictionary.7. su-adhyaya.Lesson 14 107 confusion arises because the page heading words may refer to any of the rst three levels of alphabetical order: if the word sought is not quickly found on the expected page.an+. see p 1277.t.4). and 14. sva-dhyaya. sva-adhyaya. because of their etymological development. If the word is still not found.t+ . So let's split the word at a: we could have yata-atman. Alternatively we could have tried splitting the word ourselves. svaadhyaya. 13.2.

So we do the same trick again.a. aca ak*.D+ (two entries). the English equivalent is also given): . nor is the entry word dhyaya found.+ we nd the entry word Adhy-aya! Having found the word. giving a-dhyaya: but nothing suitable is found under A (six entries).+ (not too much pride) A:Bay+ Look up the following words in the dictionary and trace their etymology as shown in 14.Da. and adhya-aya. adhya-aya. we return p to the devanagar level (A.ana. y+ (steadiness) .a.1 (as an aid.a.108 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory this word derives.pa. (fearlessness) :pUa. adhyaaya.Da. 6. and there the dhatu is given as . adhya-aya. but under A.NR+ (abundance) :pra. adh -aya.+ ). 4.ta.6 Dictionary Practice 1. 3. 5.a.mRa.h a= (withdrawal) A:ca. So we proceed to the next syllable: adhi-aya. starting from the left. but cannot nd adhyaya on page 23 where we would expect it. 2. 14. Again we nd nothing helpful under A +.d (skilled in painting) na.tama.tya.a.va.a.

a. of each dhatu from the Dhatu-Patha. after the rst dhatu in its section: for example. the class beginning with bhu. note the numeral forms used (especially for 8 and 9). is a class of dhatu derived from nouns. `Recitation of Roots') also encodes a wealth of grammatical . Note that this publication makes use of alternate character forms to those we have been using in this course (see section 9. is a dhatu dictionary. Payasya in 586a.2 The Contents Page This lists the ten gana.e.e.' is the abbreviation for `Nominal Verb'.a. e. see 2. Each gana is named . `freeze' an aspect of the activity of a dhatu whereas verbs.a. `beginning with'. and its meaning is restricted according to the context. (Note: `Nominal' is the adjectival form of `noun'.a.Lesson 15 15.1 A word standing alone expresses a universal: in a sentence it refers to a particular. and here means `derived from a noun'.N+ . names that have come to be used as verbs. and its application in the study of the scriptures. Bva.g. the rst is Bva. . Nouns. .d:ga. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha .2) and since the page numbers are also in devanagar .N+ . This lesson is concerned with extracting the artha.) The immediate utility of this page is that it connects the dictionary classi cation. where `Nom.1. which word p is formed from bhu-adi-gana. cl. 15. derive directly from the dhatu. which express the activity of a sentence. or classes of dhatu conjugation. i. or `meaning'. The eleventh class. where adi means . with that used in the Index. i. A word is thus given many meanings in the dictionary: the particular meaning is selected according to the context in which it is used.d:ga.A.+@. which name things. information about the conjugation of verbs and the formation of nouns derived from each dhatu: much of this information will not be used at this stage of the study. A dhatu is therefore the most universal element of all words and the Dhatu-Patha . . as it were: it provides a sense of the underlying meaning of the dhatu | usually in just one word! The Dhatu-Patha (lit. As an example of this class in the dictionary. k*:Nq*.

Thus all words derived from this dhatu have this sense of expansive good fortune | a sense that may be overlooked in some of the English words o ered in translation. .110 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15. etc. The artha is generally expressed in saptam vibhakti.+H Su+| giving both dhatu the same artha. forming a simple list of words which. and the artha may spread over more than one line. r fortune. success. of it.3 The Text Body BU+ sa a. For example.T.+| Turn to the rst page of the body of the Dhatu-Patha: after the heading the rest . ddhi (growth.ta. increase.am.1).pa.a.Tx+ .a.+ . or `meaning'. These extra syllables are called anubandha (lit.+ na. For example. In this type of samasa only the last word of the compound takes a vibhakti ending the others remain in their pratipadika form. the dhatu edh (to prosper. become happy grow strong { mw231c) is used `in the sense of v. the compound formed is an itaretara dvandva samasa (see 11. which may be translated as `in the sense of'.aya. `bound along with'). the dvi-vacana form and when three or more words. (sattayam).aD. na. Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored. would be expressed in the same vibhakti and be joined together with c+ (and). the bahu-vacana form. | mw1011a)'. of the page. and the next entry is: O :D+ vxa *E+| and so on.a. the above four appear in the dictionary as BU+ O :D. Note the layout which gives the dhatu and artha in two columns: there may be more than one dhatu in the rst column.B. When the artha has two or more words.+ and na.pEa aya.Za. In the Dhatu-Patha each dhatu usually has an extra syllable appended to the end . In the lefthand column the rst entry is: This is the rst dhatu (bhu) together with its artha. are divided into two columns.a a.aDx+ ya.R+ YY. the eka-vacana form is used when two words (formed into a samasa). and sometimes one appended before it: for example. Where the artha is a single word. and subsequent pages. and encode further grammatical information which is not now required: our interest at this stage is in the basic dhatu and its artha. a little lower down is the entry: na. not compounded.ea.

e. instead the words will need to be looked up separately. use the following: (a) eka-vacana endings have six forms: for an ending in -e. e . then the rst of the pair is a visesana. remove -i (i. from the stillness of unmanifest sound. ends in halanta vya~jana). read -a.ya. . The last . in other cases simply remove the -su. and then repeat the process with the following syllables | but do remember that sandhi rules apply at the junction of words. n for an ending in -uvi. when the artha is given as two separate words. both in saptam vibhakti. artha illustrated above. for an ending in -au.de| Here the dhatu hrad (to delight or refresh { mw1307c) is used `in the sense of unmanifest (avyakta { mw111b) sound (sabda { mw1052b)'. for those ending in -esu.e. . for an ending in -ayam. entry on the rst page is of this type: a. for an ending in -i. The itaretara dvandva samasa will generally not be found in the dictionary as one would expect to nd a samasa listed. read -i. is thus that which comes from within. This is straightforward enough: simply start at the left and nd the word in the dictionary that uses most syllables assume that is the rst word. read -a. .Za. (b) dvi-vacana samasa end in -yoh. (c) bahu-vacana samasa end in su. and not that happiness and refreshment that comes from without. read -i. . . read -a. .b. i. for an ending in -yam. through the senses | here we have a subtlety of meaning that is not at all obvious from the English translation. The quality of happiness and refreshment referred to. Some entries in the Dhatu-Patha di er from the common format of dhatu and .Lesson 15 111 To get back to the pratipadika form as listed in the dictionary. which is removed.d A v. For example. read -u.

r harm { mw1297c). For example.+ causatives (treated as having an I*t. The index also provides more grammatical information.t.hM:sa.) (d) When the artha is followed I*tyeak (= I*a.t+ . . and are comments by the compiler of this edition. this refers to artha given in di erent versions of the Dhatu-Patha as handed down. or `with the aim of harming'. enclosed by purnavirama . common grammatical features of their development into words.o*cya. Fortunately the Dhatu-Patha . it means that this artha is not given elsewhere in the Dhatu-Patha.R+H ( a. not mentioned elsewhere. (c) When the artha is followed by na. i.eacya. then this has the same artha as the previous dhatu. also).hM:sa.R+H ' may be translated as `for the purpose of'. (b) When the artha is given as a word followed by c+ .te+ = not spoken.te+ .a.e.R+H (prathama bahu-vacana of A TR+ bahu-vacana because the artha applies to several dhatu).+ = injury. expressing motive.112 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The interpretation of other variations in the format is described: (a) When the dhatu is followed by c+ ( = and. includes an index listing the dhatu in alphabetical order and indicating where each dhatu is listed in the body.4 The Index In the body of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu are grouped together according to .eacya. (na. This ordering is not at all helpful in seeking the entry for the dhatu.te+ = n+ . .A:nye+ = thus in another). then ` A Ta. dhatu k*:T. ( ) and may have the order of dhatu and artha reversed: these { dhatu have a special meaning when they are ama.+ m. i.+ has the artha a. some of which is helpful in nding the correct dhatu.e. (e) Where the artha is given as a samasa ending in A Ta. then the artha for that dhatu is that word together with the artha of the previous dhatu.O k = thus in one) e e or I*tyanye+ (= I*a.Ta.t+ . (f) Some entries have an unusual format. and may be construed as `for the sake of (causing) injury'.+ which prevents the normal lengthening of A in the causative). 15. .

(c) The bhasa (= speech synonymous with pada used in this . rst syllable of the gana. . as `P. is an Addendum listing entries that had been omitted from the main index. .a. ignored at this stage. (the table of contents . i. as: A:k .I*f. whereas the dictionary lists only one dhatu A:k.E+| u Note that the index has two entries for dhatu A:k with di erent anubandha .Ba.d:ga. . six columns wide. parasmai-bhasa. .ta. . and may be found on page 17 column 1. At the end of the index. so that a dhatu together with its grammatical information is listed on one line. or A ana. atmane and parasmai ). does not do so): this may be .' means divadi-gana parasmai-bhasa. one row of tabulated data. . do make use of the information given in the dictionary immediately after the dhatu heading word: this information gives the class (gana) and bhasa of the dhatu (see (b) and . in fact. `cl. which may be atmane-bhasa. (d) Whether the dhatu is sea.aya. These columns. (e) The page number on which the dhatu together with its artha may be found. bhasa `cl. is :pa= smE+ .e. expansion). (b) The gana to which the dhatu belongs: this column has just the . which is shown in full on the contents .f l*. vowels (i. ubhayato-bhasa (= both. A:g+ k*:a.e.+. (f) The column on that page where it may be found. on page 99.N+ .Lesson 15 113 The index starts on page 53: each page is divided into two columns. bhasa. .M+ ga.I*f. . page. A:k and A ak ).' means class 1 (bhvadi-gana) and atmane. A. .+ . this is the equivalent of ubhayato-bhasa in the Dhatu-Patha. .f (= s+ .a.a.Sa. . Where the dictionary gives both . Where the dhatu has more than one entry in the index.f (= A:n. 4 P. . provide the following information: (a) The dhatu together with its anubandha: the index is ordered alphabetically according to this column. . accepts augment I in its . (c) above) for example. from left to right. course). or . The rst entry of the index shows that the dhatu A:k (with its anubandha) belongs to Bva.'. in the Dhatu-Patha gives the order of the gana). etc. 1 A.

na. 15. and nally the artha is examined in the dictionary.aq . p .pa.a. w E.g. . and the remaining word in its pratipadika form is looked up in the dictionary. .l.a. .+ may be found in alphabetical order.d na. . dhatu is located in the index.l. which is listed in (Those seeking the technical reasons behind these changes should consult the commentaries to Panini 6. as :Na.d na. as in the Dhatu-Patha as a. alarm. (b) An initial n.1. p p . information provided in the dictionary.a. dread .+ may be spelt here with an initial :S. .1.+. as mua.58 respectively.) .d listed as :Na.d . . (1) Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use . . 6. p . Index: aV+ ] Ba.+ 1. sUa + asa.5 The spelling of the dhatu may di er from that given in the dictionary: (a) An initial s.+ listed as a.ju+@ :p+@ A@ 26 1 Dh.g.3 may be used to `remove' the vibhakti from the artha (although this declension should be familiar). and 7.Na.P.65.3.6) will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha: the . In this case the given artha is itself derived from the dhatu being examined. Body: aVaBa. it may require the insertion of a nasal after the vowel of the dhatu.a.d mua.g.Nq*k mua. (c) When the dhatu has a nal I as an anubandha. .d as :Sa.6 The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice (section 14.ana.Nq. then its artha found in the body. p Ba.114 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.Sa. Notes: This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it: in the index this is enclosed in square brackets so that the dhatu Ba. and thus provides no further insight into the sense of the dhatu than that provided by the dictionary entry. The class (juhotyadi-gana) and bhasa agree with the . These spelling changes may also be combined. ( bh ) fear.+. so the dhatu entry aVaBa. anand + Dhatu Spelling Changes p anand.+ .d.Sa.a.P. to fear. A anand nand listed as qu ] na.d sa.+ Baye+| p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n.bh .1. The notes in section 15. cl. . .+ may be spelt here with an initial :N.v. P. p E.64.+ is sought in the Dhatu-Patha body in the rst column of page 26: it is the second entry. p E.a.l na.vu+ o*. be afraid of mw758a Dh.

Lesson 15



Dh.P. Index: :pX+ r *:+@ :p+@ se+@ 39 1 Dh.P. Body: :pX+ :pa.a.l*na.pUa=*Naya.e+H | mw623a Palana mf( )n. guarding, nourishing . . . n. the act of guarding, protecting, nourishing, defending . . . mw642a Purana mf( )n. lling, completing, satisfying . . . m. `completer' . . . . n. the act of lling or lling up. Notes: The index has three entries for dhatu :pX+ , so the class (kryadi-gana) . and bhasa information from the dictionary is used to select the correct one. . The dhatu with its artha are in fact at the top of the second column of page 39: there are a number of such errors, so beware! The vibhakti ending of the artha is the dvi-vacana form (see section 15.3), so we can expect to look up two words in the dictionary. As nouns (which is the sense here), both words end in `-na' (with or without sandhi changes) | this is a common neuter su x usually meaning `the act of . . . ', and is given as such in the dictionary translation. The artha palana adds the sense of `nourishing' to the ` lling up' of purana . (which itself derives from the dhatu pr). This gives a bene cial aspect to the . dhatu: it is not to ll to the point of bloatedness, nor is it to ll with rubbish, but the sense is of generous abundance.

p :pX+ pr , cl.9 P. . . . to ll . . . to sate, cherish, nourish .


Dh.P. Index: . V,+ Bva.+@ o@ A@ 20 1 Dh.P. Body: . V,+ .h:=*Ne+| mw1289a Harana mf(a or )n. carrying, holding, containing . . . n. the act of . carrying or bringing or fetching. Notes: The gana and bhasa are used to select the dhatu entry. . . Dh.P. Index: k*:a.p+ Bva.+@ A +@ se+@ 8 2 Dh.P. Body: k*:a.p+ ca.l*ne+| mw391b Calana, mf(a)n. moving, movable, tremulous . . . n. shaking motion, shaking, trembling. Notes: If the dhatu is not found at its expected place in the alphabetical order in the index, nor in the Addendum, then check for applicable dhatu spelling changes (see section 15.5): the third rule applies here. Dh.P. Index:

p . 1.hri, cl.1. P.A. . . . to take, bear, carry .


p k*.}p,+ kamp, cl.1.A. . . . to tremble, shake.

(5a) mw395b

p aca.t,+ 4.cit, cl.1 . . . to perceive, x the mid upon, attend to . . .
aca.ta.+ Bva.+@ :p+@ se+@ 2 1


A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Dh.P. Body: aca.ta.+ saV]a.ane+| mw1133c Sam-j~ana mf( )n. producing harmony . . . n. unanimity, harmony . n with . . . consciousness . . . right perception Notes: Again, the gana is used to select the entry in the index. . Observe the aspect of harmony and unity provided by the artha: there is no passion or ulterior motive in the perception or attention of the dhatu cit.

(5b) mw300c

Dh.P Index: qu ] k*.V,+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2 x Dh.P. Body: qu*k*.V,+ k*.=*Ne+| x mw254a Karana mf(a)n. doing, making, e ecting, causing . . . m. a helper, . companion . . . n. the act of making, doing, producing, e ecting, . . . Notes: The dictionary entry for this dhatu is quite lengthy: reading through the rst column of page 301, it also gives `cl.1. P.' and `cl.5. P.' as well as `cl.8 (this is the usual formation in the Brahmanas, Sutras, and in classical Sanskrit)'. . The Dhatu-Patha does not list a class 2 dhatu k , hence the return to x . the dictionary for more information. In practice the cl.5 dhatu should also be examined, but its artha a.hM:sa.aya.am,+ , meaning `in the sense of injury' is inappropriate to the original word that led us to the dhatu in the rst place.

p k 1.kri . . . cl.2. P. . . . to do, make, perform, accomplish. x .


Dh.P. Index: a.va.d A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1 Dh.P. Body: a.va.d :]a.ane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n Notes: The gana and bhasa given in the dictionary are used to choose among . . , the ve entries in the index for dhatu a.va.d . Dh.P. Index: man+ a.d@ A +@ A@ 29 2 and manu+ t+@ A +@ se+@ 38 2 Dh.P. Body: man+ :]a.ane+| and manu+ A va.ba.eaDane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n mw101b Ava-bodhana, n. informing, teaching, instruction. Notes: Since the dictionary gives two classes for this dhatu and both are listed in the index, the artha for both need to be examined. In fact, given the original word that led to the dhatu, and which was to do with pride, both artha seem applicable: one to the opinion held in the mind, and the other to the expression of that opinion in word or deed (thus informing others).

p a.va.d, 1.vid, cl.2. P. . . . to know, understand, perceive, learn . . .


p man,+ man, cl.8.4. A. . . . to think, believe, imagine.

Lesson 15



Study of the Scriptures

Since most scriptures are available in translation, it would be a pointless exercise to apply the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to merely con rm the translation in fact, . all translations are signi cantly awed by two factors: the rst is the translator's level of understanding of the subject (in respect of the scriptures that means spiritual understanding) and his ability to express that understanding in another language secondly, the student (the reader of the translation) has his own limited associations with the words in his native tongue. These sources of error and misunderstanding are minimized by studying the scriptures in the original language, and, through tracing the etymology of each word to its nest, most universal source, thereby overcoming the limitations that the individual has with particular words and ideas. The translations are helpful in selecting a passage for study, and to con rm that the correct word is being traced through the dictionary. After this preparatory work with the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha, the passage is considered in relation to the . section of scripture in which it occurs, in relation to the scripture as a whole, in relation to the entire Veda: the mind is thus turned towards the spiritual world, and slowly trained to view all of life in terms of that spiritual world. It does take practice before realising that the scriptural texts can only be understood through contemplation and meditation. As an illustration of this method of study, let us examine a verse from the Bhagavad G ta: Chapter 10 Verse 33 is selected simply because it has some words and concepts introduced in this course. It is an extract from Sr Krsna's response to Arjuna's ... asking for details of His Glory and powers the rst line of the verse is:
A: a=*a.Na.amak*:a=*e+Y.;/ / / asm+

Of letters I am the letter A I am the copulative of compound words. At rst glance, this statement does not appear to be at all profound or have any spiritual associations whatsoever, but nonetheless we pursue it through the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to see what may be discovered. . Removing the sandhi from this line, we have:
A: a=*a.Na.am,+ A:k*:a=H A ;// / asm+ A: a=*a.Na.am,+ n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

| sasth bahu-vacana of A: a= . . .. mw3b A: a= a-kshara mfn. imperishable . . . n. a syllable, letter, vowel, sound, word. mw1a A 3.a a pre x having a negative or privative or contrary sense.

a. . . comprehensive. to ow. (connected with 7. the act of becoming or arising the place of being. concise. . working . . make.v+| mw760c 2. or n. doing. . .P. . equal.+ 2. mw1111b s+ 7. a cloud n. n H p | sasth eka-vacana of sa. perish . . along with. wane. to do. . male and female .asak mf( )n.sa ind. perishable m.l*ne+| mw1132a Sam-calana n. space. . . mw1152a sam. `equality' . . seat. A:k*:a=H | prathama eka-vacana of A:k*:a= . . qu ] k*. mw1152a sam+ 2. equivalent. being. . a= Bva. the letter or sound a.a.=*Ne+| x x mw254a Karana mf( )n.a. Dh. P. A:s+ A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1| A:s+ Bua. mw503b M n. world or universe. .sam ind. . shaking. existing . to be. m.asak . cl. trembling.asak*.118 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw327a Ksara mfn. exist.~y+ .kara mf( )n.1. causing .pa.+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2| qu*k*. P. A as+ A@ A +@ se+@ 23 1| A as+ o*. panion .V. the act of making. mw117a Dh. . with.Zane+| sa. . . e ecting. making.sa and 2. `similarity'.// / | eka-vacana uttama-purusa lat (present indicative) of as = `I am'. . P. . be present. mw504c a two. Bhag. becoming.sama mf(a)n. same. moving about.+ k*. (ifc. mw159c 1. A asm+ . . . a copulative compound (or any compound in which the members if uncompounded would be in the same case and connected by the conjunction `and'). p mw159c A as. .) an act.as cl.2.2. com. action the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word .A). . together with. a compound word. Dh. .ama.Bhu mfn. . m. mw1206b sa.a. Dh. .ama. . doing.as to sit quietly. f. water the body. succinct.P.kri .P. n. melting away. accomplish . . smooth . live.P.+ 1. 1. mw327a a=. .V.kri .+@ :p+@ se+@ 18 2| a= sa a. p. . a couple.vea. | prathama eka-vacana of n . altogether. . . stream. `having the same'. producing. e ecting . expressing `junction'. (see beginning of Lesson 3. (from sam-asa ). similar like. p mw274b k*:a= 1. glide to melt away. abide. .sama ). remain. ksar. p x mw300c k 1.Asa m. perform. mw503b original stem of dvi.. making. . . cl. like to or identical or homogeneous with . p A:s. even.+ 2.. m. brief relating to or belonging to a compound word m. mw1a A -kara m. . `conjunction' .ama. doing. agitation. a helper. .

are like creation. sna gives many examples of being the r. which is their source and support. which are deemed important and interesting. also. The mark of the dvandva samasa is that there is an equality between the joined elements. both. In responding to Arjuna's question. The primacy of its position at the head of the alphabet re ects its role as the source of the whole alphabet. . By analogy it is Consciousness that underlies the ever-changing variety of creation. . they may be unmanifest. moreover. . and all sounds are derived from A they are all but a modi ed form of that A . on their signi cance and meaning. and. the attention at the moment is on the words on this page. Re ections: The following personal re ections are o ered as illustrative of this process of study: they are neither right nor wrong. but are not subject to absolute destruction. as well as . yet allowing the elements to retain their individuality.Lesson 15 mw207a 119 engaged in. may change. they . Here the allusion is also to Consciousness as being the underlying Source and Support of p the manifest creation ( asa bhuvi.A. Giving this as the foremost of the samasa | where there is no di erence in importance between the elements | places the emphasis on that which links them together. The sounds of the alphabet are imperishable (aksara): they may be manifest. how then does one describe their source and support. and here the illustration is being the A of letters. neither good nor bad they are simply what were presented to the mind in considering the passage.B. By way of illustration. mw380a c+ Upa-vesana n. are derived all the consonants. holding it all together as one. K. All words are formed from sound. But what of the letters which form the words? Or the ink that forms the letters? And what about the paper that holds the ink in place? The plain white paper. `in this world'). c+ | avyaya c+ . is like Consciousness and all the words.1). foremost of several classes. and each retain its individuality (see 11.6 summarizes the core role of A in forming all the vowels and from the ve mouth positions of these vowels. In all languages the rst letter of the alphabet is A. . a seat the being devoted to or 2. In Sanskrit this is easy to demonstrate: the gure given in 1. which is taken for granted. If the sounds of the alphabet are imperishable. the ever-present A ? This may be understood as referring to the immutable Consciousness underlying the whole creation. the act of sitting down. ca ind.

l = time. then nd the artha in the Dhatu-Patha. it is not possible to select which of the entries in the Dhatu-Patha index is the correct one: one needs to examine .ta.) Da.a. and examine those words in the dictionary. Note: the verb A asm+ used in the rst line of this verse.+ | prathama eka-vacana of dhatr = dispenser. There are no right or wrong answers here. prathama eka-vacana of aksaya = inexhaustible. and write down what is presented to the mind.8 Study Practice As a practice in using the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha in studying the scriptures. . indeed. . .a.va. consider the passage in a universal or spiritual sense. Removing the sandhi from this line.e+ Da. .a.K+H{ A h:m.ta. .ta.K+H | prathama eka-vacana of visvatomukha = facing everywhere. prathama eka-vacana of k*:a.eamua.va a.+ A h:m. Having done this mechanical work. As with all exercise. is implied here. we have: A h:m. a little performed regularly has the greatest bene t in the long term.l*.eamua.ta. .lH Da.va a.a ay+H k*:a.ta.lH | Note: from the information given in the dictionary.+ a. so do not look for clever results: the exercise is one of stretching the mind to larger issues than those that daily life normally o ers.ta. the artha for the three possibilities and compare that with the meaning given in the dictionary. the other half of this verse from the Bhagavad G ta is o ered.+ | O *v+ | A: ay+H | k*:a.120 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.a. (The last entry is the most appropriate. and then write down your understanding in clear readable English. a. There is no rush with this part of the exercise: let the scripture come to mind over a period of a week or so.K+H{ I am verily Time inexhaustible I am the Dispenser facing everywhere.va a. avyaya = verily. A h:mea.eamua.hM a. together with its grammatical division down to the pratipadika level. tracing it to its dhatu where possible. Examine each word in the dictionary.// / prathama eka-vacana of personal pronoun `I'.+ O *v+ A: ay+H k*:a.

paperback.e. This translation provides a simple way of getting the context of a verse being studied. makes it an ideal work with which to begin. Despite the above quali cations. translated by Winthrop Sargeant. from simple chanting to mythology. though expensive for its size. This translation is especially suited to the Sanskrit student. . as it expresses the grammar of the text as well as giving a word-by-word translation. from comparative linguistics to liberation. The verses are not numbered: it is worth the e ort to work through the book numbering the verses in pencil. which.Suggestions for Further Study There are many reasons for studying Sanskrit. and is also useful in selecting a verse of interest to study. therefore translating from English into Sanskrit is irrelevant. from poetry to philosophy. ranging from the introductory level to academic tomes: the majority of these approach the subject as they would any other foreign language. the general reader will nd the rst ve books in the list useful to further study of the grammar: (a) The Geeta. There are a wide range of books on Sanskrit grammar available. and the building of a vocabulary detracts from the penetration of the scriptures (because of the limited worldly associations with familiar words). Whatever the reason. together with its magni cent philosophy and wealth of practical advice. with a view to translation. Furthermore. i. A personal bias needs to be declared here: my interest in Sanskrit lies in studying the scriptures. SUNY: 739 pages. the range of grammar needs to be very wide: from the full etymology of each word (including the signi cance of each a x) to the gurative use in the most sublime writings. as well as putting the Chapter number in the top outer margin of each page. rather than treating the study as a means to penetrate writings which express ideas and concepts foreign to the Western mind-set. the next obvious step is further study of the grammar. (b) The Bhagavad-Gita. paperback. The Gospel of the Lord Shri Krishna. The G ta is written with simple and straightforward grammar. translated by Shri Purohit Swami. rather than a literal translation: a delightful book. Faber and Faber: 80 pages. In clear easy-to-read language.

each introducing one or two topics. This contains approximately one third of the sutra s of Panini 's A. it is a reference work containing many tables of noun declension and verb conjugation. from in ected words. Motilal Banarsidass: 254 pages. Principal Upanisads.M. For further scriptural study. Hart. and large vocabulary.tadhyay s . paperback. this is a `hard' book because of its style. This is an exacting work and not to be tackled lightly. and Chhandogya. . with answers given at the back of the book. depth. but is essential study to penetrate to the full spiritual signi cance of words. George S. Motilal Banarsidass: 208 pages. but answers are not provided.and verb-endings and verb stems to the paradigm tables. A useful tool to determine the pratipadika forms of nouns. As a `part-time' student studying alone. . translation by A. Motilal Banarsidass: 451 pages. gathered together thematically to exhaustively explain word formations in Classical Sanskrit the text and commentary are in devanagar with English translation. are published with word-by-word translations of Swam Sarvananda etc. Hodder and Stoughton: 493 pages..122 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (c) Sanskrit Manual. Each lesson has translation exercises. of verbs. tense etc. by Swam Gambh rananda Brhadaranyaka . this book gives a broad understanding of the language without getting bogged down in details and exceptions. hardcover. in both directions. the Bhagavad G ta with Samkara's commentary in . by Swam Madhavananda). hardcover or paperback. by Sri Ramakrishna Math or with Samkara's commentary by Advaita Ashrama (Eight . (d) Teach Yourself Sanskrit. George L. with indices linking noun. . (f) Laghukaumud of Varadaraja. It is useful as a semi-reference book when examining a particular concept in depth: the next book is a lot easier for general study. As the title implies. (e) A Rapid Sanskrit Method. A Quick-reference Guide to the Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit. Bucknell. Divided into thirty lessons. translated by James R. This covers the grammar of Classical Sanskrit in some detail. Ballantyne.Sastry is published by Samata Books the major Upanisads . . Michael Coulson. Each chapter has translation exercises into and out of Sanskrit. paperback.

2. You (two) stand and we (two) speak. 7.B. We (pl.1. tisthasi vadati ca . 5.. . 5. 8. I stand and he speaks. 4. 6. 6. 2. vadathah tisthanti ca .) speak..3.. 4. vadasi tisthati ca . 2.. . 5.c.B. tisthami vadati ca .. .2.. . 2. They (pl. vadatah tisthati ca .e. You (s. You speak and I stand. vadasi tisthami ca ..B. 5. vadami tisthasi ca .1.2. tisthati vadatha ca . tisthathah vadathah ca .3.) stand and they (two) speak. vadatha tisthasi ca . 2.B. Answers: Lesson 2 2. tisthavah vadatha ca ..) speak and they (two) stand. I speak and you stand.d.) stand and you (two) speak. He stands and you speak.. tisthamah vadathah ca . . . You (pl. 3.. 7. They (two) speak and we (pl. 6. I stand and speak. 3. He stands and they (pl.. 4.) stand. 1. tisthati vadami ca . 6.Answers to Exercises Answers: Lesson 1 1.d. You (s.) stand and you (two) speak. .. .1... 4. tisthanti vadami ca .1. 3. You stand and I speak. 3.) stand and we (two) speak. 8.

v.) from the horse. The horse leads the man. 5. 5.1. . narah asvam nayate . . 5. 6. 6. 4. . Answers: Lesson 4 4. 3. narah asvan nayante .B. The man and the horse go from the tree.1. The horse carries the tree for the man. You (pl. asvau naram nayete 3. 4. 4. The man goes to the tree by horse. ksam nayate r . 4.c.e. 2. 5. We (pl. . ksam narat asvena labhavahe r . . vrksah asvah ca tisthatah . 2.B. . .) lead the men (two) to the trees (pl. 3. The man and the horse are leading.) take the trees (pl. 3. vrksan asvaih vahanti . 6. asvah naram v. The man and horses (two) are standing.3. .d. . He leads the horse from the tree for the man.). asvena gacchati 2. narah vadanti nayante ca . . 4.3. The horses (two) lead the man to the trees (pl.B.). asvan vrksat gacchamah . .1.1.B. asvah naram vrksebhyah vahanti .d. asvam naraya nayethe 3.3. 6. . The horse carries the man to the tree.124 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 3 3. The horse stands and the man speaks.3. 2..

2. He takes the man from the tree by horse.) of the men (pl. .) of the trees (pl. naram asvam v.3.) for the man.1. .. The man's horse takes the fruit from the girl. The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree.) lead the men (pl. 3. ksat vahathah r . 5. .) from the man's tree. 3. 6. 6. The horses (pl. The man carries the fruit (two) from the tree for the girl. . 8.d.). .) to the horse.) to the fruit (pl. .) are standing. The girls (two) stand among the trees and speak.) are standing among the trees (pl. He stands on the horse and speaks. narayoh vrksah tisthanti . The girls (pl. 5. (he) asva v. The man takes the tree from the horse. vrksesu narah asvah ca tisthatah .. . The men (two) take the fruit (pl. 4. .1.c. 8. 5.1. . 6.) by horse. . 7. you are standing on the horse. asvayoh tisthati . 2. 8. 9.B. O man.. 3. The horses (two) carry the trees (pl. 5. Answers: Lesson 6 6. narasya asvan vrksat labhate . . . . 7. . 10. . The horse goes to the man from the tree.B. . The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse.2. narasya asvah naram vrksebhyah vahati . The man's horses (pl. 2. 2. 7. . 4. . ksam naraya vahasi r .Answers to Exercises 125 Answers: Lesson 5 5. .B. The girls (two) take the fruit (pl. 4. The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit.e.). I go to the trees (two) and take the fruit (pl. asvau naram vrksam vahatah .

. asvam nayethe ca phalam labhe 3.)..2. 5. balayah asvau phalani naram labhete .) to the trees (pl. . ksat labhete r .3. .) for the man. . . .g. The man and the girl stand and talk. 4. 5. bala asvah ca vrksesu phalebhyah gacchatah . 4. narah bala ca v. . narah vrksan asvena phalebhyah gacchati . . . 6. 10. narah tisthati ca bala vadati . . . The girl's horse carries the fruit (pl.) of the tree for the girl. phalani vrksat asvena vahatha . asvah phalani balah naraya vahati . bala phale vrksat asvebhyah labhate . naram balam ca asvam vrksat labhavahe . asvah vrksasya phale balabhyah labhate . . . 3. 5. . r . asvah vrksan narebhyah vahanti . . asvam v. .B. narah vrksam asvat balayai labhate . balam vrksat narasya asvam vahavah . asvah vrksam balam naraya vahati . r . 4. 2.1.. 7. ksasya phalani nayethe r . .B. narah bala ca tisthatah vadatah ca .2.e. bale asve tisthatah ca phalam v. 2. .126 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6.1.. ksasya phalam balayai labhante . . . . The man's girl leads the horses (pl. 6. .).2. 5. 7. 2.1. 2.1. ksesu asvabhyam gacchatah (assume two horses). 3. We (two) carry the girl from the tree to the man's horse.B. . narah asvam phalena nayate .f. Answers: Lesson 7 7. . . . 3. 6. balayah asvah phalani naraya vahati . 8. . The horse takes the tree's fruit (two) from/for the girls (pl. . narah v.d.B. . . . The man takes the fruit (s. . . 7. 6. 4. . narasya bala asvan vrksan nayate . 9. . . .

sundar bala naram alpam gurum s ghram nayate 6.+ A: +H c+ vxa ea. . guroh bala sundare asve tisthati . 6.E+ :P*.e.h . .c.an+ nayea.d.5.te+| 2{ A: am. 5. bala agnim sundarat narat gacchati 2. The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for re.1.B.t.l*.l*.1.+H A: a. .an+ na= m. .) lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers (two). . narasya guruh nad m asvena gacchati . . . 6.+ A: ean+ va. .a.te+| 4{ ba. 4. The girl goes to the re from the handsome man. .a..+ ba.l*By+H gacC t+H| 5{ e A: +H vxa a.aya. 2.+ l*Bea. 2.2.. The teachers (pl.an+ vxa a.a. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river.+ A: a.Su+ :P*.l*.h T+| 1{ ba.l*.a. 3. 4.B. guruh alpasya vrksasya sundaresu phalesu tisthati .Answers to Exercises 7.a.Te+| 3{ na=H vxa am. ksam balam agnaye s ghram labhate r . balayah guruh alpayam nadyam tisthati .B.t. .a. . . bala alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati 3.1. narah alpam v. . alpah vrksah sundare agnau tisthati .B. 3. guravah alpam sundaram asvam nadyau nayante .a. . 5..5..ayE+ l*Ba.nt+| 6{ a 127 Answers: Lesson 8 8. 5. 8. sundar bala alpam asvam nad m nayate 4.h.l*. 8. . narau sundarani phalani alpat vrksat labhete .5.l*. :P*.an. The small tree stands in the beautiful re. .+ vxa a~y+ :P*. The men (two) take the beautiful fruit from the small tree.a.+ na=e By+H va.

5.ta. narah bala ca sundaram gurum nadya gacchatah . . .+ na am.5.Za.l*. 4.a.). . he guro bale nayase iti alpah narah vadati ." the girls (two) say. phalam vrksayat asvena naraya vahatah . 6. ksat labhavahe . . 9.1.+ gua *.aGram. .t+| 2{ ba.ta. 9. phalani balayah v.+ A: ean+ gacC a.Su+ a. .l*. 6.a.m.+ suand:=e A: e+ a.aya. 2.B.+H gua H A pa. 5.m.+ A pam.t+| 3{ gua=*e+H ba.+ . The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl.d am. 4.am." the small man says.te+| 5{ gua H A pa~y+ vxa a~y+ suand:=e *Su+ :P*. 3.f.l*m.B. vrksam nad m vahami iti narah balam vadati .1.1. 4.128 8.+ na= m.a.l*.t+| 4{ suand:=*+ ba. vrksam alpau agn asvaih s ghram vahami .a.l*.aya.e. . .+ naya. . 5. 3. a.l*. a. sundar bala asvam alpan vrksan phalebhyah nayate .B. They (two) carry the fruit (s. .h a. .+ na= ~y+ gua *. I quickly carry the tree to the small res (two) by horse (pl. . A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na= ~y+ gua H na. narah phalani labhate iti bale vadatah . balayah phale naram s ghram labhadhve .+ a. \The man is taking the fruit (pl.c.+ :P*.).5.+ va. .) from the tree by horse for the man. phalani asvam labhe iti bala gurum vadati 2.t+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 9 9. a.5. 6.t+| 1{ ba. . 2. asvah vrksasya phalani balayai vahati . The horse carries the fruit (pl. 3.d. r .5.+ A pam. nad alpam vrksam sundar m balam vahati . . you are leading the (two) girls.ta.) of the tree for the girl.B. \O teacher.

an+ A: am. ma. ma.am+ I*a.a.a. sa.aca.d am. ma.Ranand 25.+H :P*.+H vxa a.tyeak*.va.he: a= 24.+ c+ suand:= m.l*.5. :pa= ma. :pa.am.a.ayEa.f.a.tya.pa a.SN+ A a~y+ 2.aya. .d a.Z+ 4.t+ ba.+ l*Ba.a.l na= m.va.tam.t+| 2{ ba. :pa= mea a= 14.+ vxa a.h:~te+Y.a.v+ 6.an. k*.he| 4{ na=H ba.Za.antyamxa.+ na + gacC t+H| 5{ 129 suand:=*+ ba.+ l*BaDve+| 3{ e :P*.+ .S+ 8. v. a.a. 7.de v.m.Za.l*By+H naya.B.+ 12.anand 17.aya./ a~t+ 30. A anandE ta.Answers to Exercises 9. :pra.d 18.a.+ va.+ .v+ 27. k*:tRXak*:a= 5.l*. na.l*.v+ 15.m.an+ ba.an.l*.aDva. a.anand 3.+ e 26.te+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 10 1.SR+ or ma.ya.a.tman. a.+ l*Be+ I*a. .a.anand 21.he:nd a.Ea.a.+ A pa.a. .h a.+ :P*.yam. :P*.a. . sa.ya an+ 16.a.+ 28.+ 19.m. a. k*:pa..Za.l*.+ va. Bva.l*. gua.l*.h 10.+ A: am.and 9.+ gua *.a. k*.+ gua *.h a.a.+ va.l*.t. nea.h:=e Y.veRak*:tvam.va. nEa.t+ 20.Z+ 13.d:nam.+ 29.ayR+ 23.t+ na=H ba. maDva.vakH 22.t+| 1{ vxa am.d a. A: Ea. ma.d .+ na.T+ 11.aGram.d a.

5. ba. :n. 6. gua *.a ama. *.a M+ na=M c+ vxa a.l*.v+H (no sandhi) We (two) are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit (pl.a. A a." the small girl says.tya. pM+ vxa ama.t+ The man goes to the trees (pl./ The men (two) carry the small tree to the re from the horse.a.te+ The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree.4. pa. 10./ The girl and the small horse go to the re from the man. Citta 395c 12./ + ba.a.d a.eag+ 856b Pra-k. pa.tman.va.a.agnama a. 4.aya.a.l*. *Ba.a.a.t+ \I carry the fruit (pl. 6.130 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 11 1. hridaya 1302c . k*:SN+ 306b x or Krishna 308a .// + na=*a.l*. 4. na=*a.l*.+ va. . 8.M+ na.le*By+H suand:=e *Su+ vxa ea. *cC ta. 2.A.h a. na=*e+ vxa ama. pa.+ va. ." the teacher says to the girls (pl. 7.+ 737c 9. ba.l*. 9. 15.a.Za=*a= 1057c 18.a aya. 135a Hetu 1303c ya.S+ 226c 13. Rajas 863b 11. Answers: Lesson 12 1.b) The teachers (two) go quickly to the small man from the tree. a.a. na=*e+ vxa a.a.+ The words are given in the form found in the dictionary: 8.+ ba.l*.a.SNu+ 999a 14.Ra. Manas 783c 17. ba..h ta.d a. gua A pM+ na=M vxa a. 3. :P*.aya.anP*. *cC t+H .t+ agnM The man carries the tree to the re for the girl by horse.).). 3. 7.) by horse.t+ gua *:ba. A:nant+ 25a 20.d M+ vxa a. .a.) to the horse.t+ agnM \The teacher is going to the re from the man.) for fruit (pl.riti 654a J~ana 426a n A-nanda 139c Vy-akarana 1035c .a *h t+H .+ A: ean+ va.=*.a. A peaBy+H :P*. 2.acC aGrM+ gacC t+H (see 10. gua 359b 10. Bhakti 743a 19.l*.va.anya M+ va.e+Y a a. 5.le*Bya. :pua *:S+ 637a 16. b.agnM+ na=*a.e+Y ean+ gacC a.te+ The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree.Su+ gacC a.

5. 18. . . . before vowels for prati above mw661b :pra. Vi-veka 987c 14. . . -harati to withdraw . . . having a negative or privative or contrary sense p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n. Adhy-aropa 23b 17.A. cl. to fear. . mf(a)n. (as a pre x . P. Answers: Lesson 14 1. 2. Mleccha -jati 837c 20. . ( pr . . . towards. . .a. mw1302a . to ll .a (as a pre x . . dread . mw126a A + 4.Answers to Exercises 131 Answers: Lesson 13 -vyatireka 46b 2. n. alarm. . _ 16. 3. .9. . n.bh . .a. . mw758a Ba. near to. . absence or removal of fear. cl. fulness. praty-a.a. . near. cl.hri. mw642a Purna. .( bh ) fear. . . . Mudha 825b . 1. abstraction p mw677b :praya. mw648a :pX+ pr . . Kshatriya -dharma 325b 9. Hiranya -garbha 1299c . be afraid of . P.+ 1. Caus. plenty. ba. mw663c Praty. -paksha -pada 643c 19. p mw641a :pUa= pura. mfn.1. :pUa. Mano -bhava -_ asana 785b s 12. mw1a A 3. back . . drawing back . . . . . to take. ind. .l -yuga 262a 6.l -rupa -dhrik 729b . . abundance .hri P. Sam-gama -mani 1128c . mw677b Praty-ahara m. l Gu+ -sattva -ta 894b 3. Bhagavad -g ta 744a 1. . to sate.3. towards . Vi-vaha -kala 987b 4. . cherish. Note: It is not the second dhatu . A-grih ta 1309a . . . Sam-skrita 1120c . mw60c A:Bay+ a-bhaya. . 10. 8. carry. Sraddhatri 1095c . in comp. bear. k*:a. 7. nourish . .t+ 1.a . P. . Sam-yoga 1112b .vR+ 15.) .prati. . . Dhyana -yoga 521a 13. harati . . A:nvay+ 11. . . because of its meaning in translation this is con rmed by the conjugational form harati given at 677b.

. 1. Bhag. . freedom from unsteadiness. . mw12b Ati .. mfn. cl. .pa. man or fr. in comp. understanding.8. am. .1. (ifc. no.+ kamp. . . cl. manita. . mw300c k 1.kri . act. for 1. . mw396a Citra. neither . ( man ) opinion . cl. not too. mf(a)n. believe. . attend to . .4. not very much.mana. mf(a)n.a. mw396b Citra-karman .+ karman. . agitation.2. proud . mw963b a. or its dhatu a. shake 5. n. cl. . .Manin mfn (fr. . performance . . 1. . too . self-conceit. mw393a Capalya.pa. mw396b Citra-karman n. mw963c 2. 6. .mRan. . . skilled in the art of painting . . kri . unsteadiness. . . to perceive. knowing. . . p mw809a ma. then the n is dropped . not too proud or arrogant.a. excessive. intense. . p mw809c 1. having a negative or privative or contrary sense. . A. not.) fancying that one possesses.d 3.+ 4.manin. . perceive. n. pre x . excellent.cit.mana ) . . learn . . mfn. pride . cl. cols. if the pratipadika ends in -an. ckleness mw393a ca. distinguished . Note: See 10. a Nati (for na + ati . x the mind upon. mw1a A 3. Note: It is not the second dhatu k on 304a because its meaning given x in translation is not appropriate to that given for karman. . mw8c A-capalya.P.va. m. imaginary . to think. . . -manin . 2 and 3.}p. . a knower .1.manin. .1 on page 83: .l capala.Vid on page 965a. . extraordinary. painting . P. . . . -manin.a .2. ( kamp . . action. . .2. .B. mw523b Nati . to tremble. Mani.d 1. . . . n. . conspicuous. A. (o ni-ta.t. . p mw258b k*. unsteadiness. mw783a man. . accomplish . haughty. to do. ) shaking.Vid. nor. mw809b Mani -ta f. understand. . .+ man. ). .vid on 964c. . make. . f.) a Nati . perform. a mw523a n+ 2. . any extraordinary act . . . . . . Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4. . See p 809. .l capala. (from capo ) mobility . . . trembling mw252b k*.anak manika. .vid. o rma-vid. . . mw810b ma. . . .an+ 1. to know.132 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. a. mw395b aca. . . . . mfn.na ind. p mw388b ca. .va. x . . . imagine. . n. . . . .

just so.3.kshi cl. p mw260a k*:l. keeping. Dh.A. cause.+ 1. tasting. bearing . omni-present. a throw.va + mf(a)n. P. everyone whole.ju+@ o@ A@ 26 2| qu Da. and for the others the artha must be examined. P. entire. a + Bva. . facing all sides.1. wane. loss. kill. decay. immovable concentration of the mind upon. . p Da. keeping. . every.Answers to Exercises 133 Answers: Lesson 15 mw124b A h:m.kal to calculate or enumerate) .a.a=*Na.va. to be absorbed in . mw162a A-svadana n.aV.a . creator.ta. going.P. one whose s s face is turned everywhere.kala m. corrupt.P. mw514a Dhatri m.E+ sa ane+ c+| mw329a Kshepe m. universal. .pa.Z+ :pra. mw232b ind. to destroy.vea. injure.e+H| mw515a Dharana mf( )n. s p s mw992b a.Z+ tu+@ :p+@ A@ 36 1| a. mw1a A 3. .S+ -na mfn. everywhere.Sa. exempt from decay. having a negative or privative or contrary sense.kal . reckoning. . Note: Of the four entries for k*:l . (probably from 1. .va. all round. . p mw328a a + 4. . k*:l cu+@ :p+@ se+@ 42 2| k*:l ea. abuse. enjoying. (rarely A) .aV.Naya.dha cl. bearing. constitute to make. ( 3. waste. k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 45 1| k*:l A a~va. establisher. holding. `I'. . P. enumeration.Z. to enter. measurement. .vi_ to pervade) all. .va. ruin. invective. for vi_ va-tas. movement in general.pe+| Dh. founder. . really. P. establish. insult. . mw3b A: ay+ a-kshaya mf(a)n. . . procrastination . dimunition. .+ . supporting. . time (in general).P. . set . .P. undecaying. . urge on . the act of nourishing. . . The last is selected as being most suited to the dhatu meaning given in the original word k*:a. destruction. n. p mw989a a. . create. incite. mw328a 3. indeed. the rst may be eliminated because it is p aye+| atmane-pada.+ 1. bearer.l . sg. k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 48 1| k*:l ga. . arranger.+@ :p+@ A@ 5 2| a + mw278a k*:a. preserving. to impel. delay. sending. . generate. truly. kshaya m. maintaining .Zane+| . .+ Da. mw347a Gati f. . . qu ] Da. from or on all sides. appearance.l 2. . . the act of holding.6. direct or x the mind or attention mw513b upon . Dh.+ O *v+ nom. to put.d:ne+| Dh. calculation . gait . all-pervading. universally .ea. . mw994c Vi_ va-tas ind. becoming seen. s Dh. the act of eating. mw1128b Sam-khyana n. . all-containing. appoint. moving to and fro. Dh. . . pervade. produce. moving. mfn. cast .P. place. mw994c Vi_ va-to-mukha in comp. . 3.ea. dismissing . supporter. a. nourishing n.vi_ cl. mw650b :pa.P.

That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgement of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating. .g. opening. time is viewed linearly. face. to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness. in visvatomukha. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dhatu as `nourishing. .. for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable `constant'. Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time. and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit . intelligence. the phases of the moon. Or again. the rotation of the seasons. relative to which movement takes place. as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future in the East. and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years.K+ Re ections: In the West. seeking a result). however. as a measure of the movement in another sense time can be viewed as the cause of movement. the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Krsna . represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place.g. it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses.134 mw819c A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw692c Pra-ve_ a-na n. or as a multiple of cycles (e. . and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment. whilst the former is more an impersonal principle. . countenance . s mukha n. entering. In the second half of the line. `Providence' may be a better word to use than `Dispenser': the latter has a sense of purposive action (i. In daily life. and dhatr . supporting'. time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle (e. Taking mukha in the sense of `mouth'.e. the cycle of birth and death. both active and receptive.. rather than the active role of `creator. years): this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished. In one sense time can be viewed as an e ect of movement. . as the underlying constant. even their very existence. time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night. entrance into or egress out of. it represents a two-way opening through which food enters. entrance or penetration into . the mouth. sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses. aperture. In the light of the Vedic teaching. arranger' given for dhatr. and speech exits taking it in the sense of `face'. The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space. mua. time of day).

He (S) built (V) the dog (Oi ) a kennel (Od ). Sentence Elements A sentence comprises one or more of ve elements. It is the most essential word. For example: Jack and Jill (S) went up the hill (predicate). Love (S) is (V) blind (Cs ). Again (A) it (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A). place. He (S) became (V) a doctor (Cs ). The purpose of these notes is to brie y illustrate the technical terms and concepts of English grammar. These terms are gathered together thematically under three headings | Sentence Elements. each of which may comprise one or more words: (a) Subject: (S) in English grammar this is considered the main element or focus of the sentence. They (S) elected (V) him (Od ) chairman (Co ). (e) Adverbial: (A) these express a wide range of meaning (time. (c) Object: There are two types: (i) Direct Object: (Od ) expresses that which is directly acted upon by the verb (ii) Indirect Object: (Oi ) is the recipient or bene ciary of the activity. The judge (S) set (V) the prisoner (Od ) free (Co ). For example: The children (S) are playing (V). manner. NB: These notes are about English Grammar: the grammar of Sanskrit is rather di erent | do not confuse the two. and Finite Verb Forms | and then followed by an alphabetical list of other common terms that do not t under these headings. expressing an attribute of the subject (ii) Object Complement: (Co ) used with transitive verbs in the active voice and expressing an attribute of the direct object of the sentence. and every grammatically complete sentence must have one explicitly stated: even the subject may be implied.English Grammatical Terms On the assumption that the reader can speak correct English but is unfamiliar with formal grammar. and the rest of the sentence (the predicate) is considered to be a statement about the subject. the technical terms will not be strictly de ned but brie y described and followed by illustrative examples where appropriate. Unlike the other elements. There are two types: (i) Subject Complement: (Cs ) used with intransitive verbs. It expresses the agent of an active verb. or transitive verbs in the passive voice.) related to the activity of the sentence as a whole. . 1. which may be used to demonstrate similar or contrasting concepts in Sanskrit grammar. etc. (d) Complement: This completes the sense expressed by the verb. (b) Verb: (V) this expresses the activity of the sentence it agrees with the subject in person and number. Parts of Speech. there may be several of these in one simple sentence. She (S) gave (V) the food (Od ) to the dog (Oi ). as in the command `Run!'.

. and auxiliary. I live. (c) The verb is the dynamic part of the sentence. As such it is the most exible of the parts and appears in a wide variety of forms to express its manifold potential. with another: Jack and Jill wanted to go. 3. (a) A verb taking an object is called transitive (the `energy' of the activity is transferred to the object. (f) Conjunction: connects one word or phrase or sentence. These are: (a) Noun: used to name a person or thing. (c) Adjective: quali es a noun or pronoun: The happy dog wagged its long tail at the familiar gure. both concrete and abstract: The love of money is the root of all evil. and one that doesn't is called intransitive. as it were). The children are playing a game]. She was here.136 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. (g) Interjection: an exclamation expressing emotion: Alas ! Oh ! Ah ! Ahoy ! (h) Adverb: quali es a verb or adjective or another adverb: The very tall man spoke quite softly. (i) Verb: expresses the activity of the sentence: He built a house. I will sleep. the girl stepped from the house into the garden. expressing its relation to another noun or pronoun or to the verb: As the sun rose in the East. place. but may often be used either way: He beat the drum. animating the relatively static nouns etc. (e) Preposition: `governs' a following noun or pronoun. There are three types: transitive. I must have been sleeping. (b) The main verb may be accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs used to express tense or mood: I had slept. gender and case. intransitive. `an'. (b) Pronoun: used instead of a noun to designate a person or thing without naming it: He kissed her when they met she enjoyed it. etc. (d) Article: a name for the three adjectives `a'. Note: nouns and pronouns are categorized according to number. Verbs are typically one or the other. (ii) Common nouns name general things. They dig a hole. There are two types: (i) Proper nouns name a person. and are usually written with an initial capital letter: John and Mary went to London on Tuesday. Among these are: . `the': A boy gave an apple to the teacher. but were detained. Parts of Speech There are nine types of word called Parts of Speech. Finite Verb Forms The activity of the sentence is expressed by the verb.

(v) Mood: the verb form indicating an (emotional) quality or manner of the activity. (iv) Aspect: the verb form expressing the activity as: (a) Inde nite: the degree of completeness of the action is not speci ed. He eats that he may live. He had been standing. not as a fact. (c) Perfect: the action is in a completed or perfect state. You are there. Note: the verb agrees with the grammatical subject in person and number. May you live long. . The door was opened by him. He will stand.g. He stands. He has been standing. in the past. He opened the door. (b) Passive: e. present. He is standing. desire. He will have stood. He will have been standing. There are three basic moods: (a) Indicative: asserts a statement as a fact it may also express a condition or question: He stands. (ii) Number: the verb form indicating the grammatical number (singular. He was standing. or entreaty: Go ! Follow the instruction of your teacher. . He had stood. present. but as a condition. He stands. He has stood. future) at which the action is perceived as taking place: He stood. and future respectively: He stood.English Grammatical Terms 137 (i) Person: the verb form indicating the grammatical person ( rst. They stand there. plural) of the subject of the sentence: He stands here. He will be standing. (vi) Voice: the verb form indicating the relation of the subject to the activity as: (a) Active: e. (d) Perfect Continuous: combining the force of the previous two.g. . He is everywhere. He will stand. . third) of the subject of the sentence: I am here. Did he stand ? (b) Imperative: expresses a command. (b) Continuous: the action is not yet complete but still continuing. Continued overleaf . second. Help me! (c) Subjunctive: expresses an action. If he stands . (iii) Tense: the verb form indicating various times (past. or purpose: Were he here . These four are shown in order. advice.

to form a new word. etc. than teaching orally. possessor. neuter subject (stated or implied) and a predicate. feminine denotes a female. the masculine gender denotes Clause { a combination of words having a a male. The form the main clause. E. called to see me. itself.138 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4.. two or more simple sentences Gerund { a non.g. the book's author. and common denotes See also Compound and Complex Sentence. English uses two cases: the unmarked common case. Su x. my neighbour.g].g. Compare with Complex Sentence. 3] split into subjective and objective: I/me. E.g. Compare e. they/them.b. mood. and Gender { in English. formation and derivation of words the Case { one of the forms of a noun or expounding of the elements of a word with pronoun. The windows are open. committee. Examples of this last are: I.i. E. she/her. some other word. 2.: Show (S) me (Oi ) usually manifests with an `apostrophe-s'. he/him. number. John. of the semantic subject of the sentence. the Compound Sentence { a construction preposition `of'. i.e. the author's book. gender. and the genitive case.: The window is open. It may generally be rephrased with the e. having more than one clause. John. .nite verb form that linked together with conjunction(s) to form functions as a noun. we/us. I Etymology { the facts relating to the spoke to my neighbour. I opened the door. author of the book. i. author. More Grammatical Terms A x { a verbal element joined to a word I opened the door when John rang the bell.g. and person. and (loosely) the relation Exclamation { See Interjection 2. nouns and pronouns express natural (as opposed to grammatical) who/whom. with Compound Sentence. one larger complex sentence. un happy.g. 3. the book of the having more than one clause which are coordinate. gender. It usually ends in `-ing'. See Pre x. one being the Genitive { a grammatical form of a noun or main clause and the other(s) subordinate pronoun.: Writing a textbook is more di cult John rang the bell.c.e. E. which expresses its relation to their modi cations of form and sense.g. For Finite Verb { expresses the activity of a just six pronouns the common case is clause or sentence. 3] apposition with another when it refers to the same person or thing and is Declension { the change of form of mentioned immediately after it (often o set nouns and pronouns to express di erent by commas) to identify or describe it. denotes neither sex. Complex Sentence { a construction doctor. for example: heroine.: E.g.: grammatical relations. either or both. See Case. 1. what (Od ) you (S) did (V)](Od ).ii] Agreement { see Concord Conjugation { the change of form of verbs Apposition { a noun or pronoun is in to express tense. Concord { the agreement between words Agent { one who instigates or causes or in case. expressing its relation to another clause(s) which form sentence element(s) of word as source. and in performs the activity of the verb the role particular between the grammatical subject and the verb. etc.

with a passive verb.: Having heard this he went away. `turning left' (participial phrase). 139 together as an element of a sentence. in connected speech or writing. English makes little use of this to express grammatical meaning. the conjugation of verbs. 3. and may take take an object. Syntax { the study of sentence structure. Participle { a non. forming the grammatically complete expression of a single thought. faultless. E.English Grammatical Terms use of language.g. meaning as such. E. The two primary areas of study are morphology and syntax.g. primarily a xes and in ection.g. 2. See also Complex Sentence. Su x { a verbal element joined to the end of a word to form a new word. Morphology { the study of word structure. the audience addressed (second person). E. careful. Number { the property in words of expressing that one (singular).i] Phonetics { the science of vocal sounds (especially of a particular language) that deals with their production and representation. and in the nature of an adjective in qualifying a noun. and the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. In nitive. Participle. including the declension of nouns and pronouns. He considered the matter to have been settled. `because of' (prepositional phrase). Word { a minimal element of speech having . See Gerund. attribute. or more than one (plural) person or thing is spoken of. where the subject and direct object refer to the same thing or person also pronouns so used (usually ending in `-self'). It is usually preceded by `to'.nite Verb { A verb which has been turned into another Part of Speech it may express aspect and voice. A combination of words forming only one clause. It is meaningful by itself. By itself it expresses a universal concept in a sentence it denotes a speci c thing. relation. Sentence { a combination of words forming Simple Sentence { a series of words at least one clause.g. Re exive { describes transitive verbs Semantic { relating to signi cance or meaning. In ection { the change of word form to express di erent grammatical relations. friendship. Person { The three classes of pronouns and corresponding verb forms denoting the person speaking ( rst person).nite Verb. He saw himself in the mirror. im possible.g. primarily the conventions of arrangement by which the connection and relationship of words are shown. `on a hill' (adverbial phrase). etc. E. For example. shortly.g. e. e. the grammatical subject expresses the semantic object. and the rest of the world (third person). Grammar { the rules describing the best Phrase { a group of words which operate Pre x { a verbal element joined to the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning.nite verb form that functions as an adjective. In nitive { A non. See also Complex Sentence. hyper sensitive. Non.b. Verb { See Finite Verb and Non. It participates in the nature of a verb expressing aspect and voice.nite verb form that functions as a noun or adjective or adverb it names the activity in the most general sense. You need not read this.: he likes to read. anti septic.c.

140 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

86] Antahstha. Y : symbol for the elision of A at the beginning of a word due to sandhi. eight: the cardinal number the . 14{15. 9] Udatta.. `meaning': the word(s) provided in the Dhatu-Patha as the sense of the meaning . synonymous with atmanepada. `not raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system of Vedic Sanskrit. . A-ghosa. `inner e ort': the method (within the mouth) of articulating sounds. 109{112] Ardha-sprsta. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . 71. 75] Avyay bhava Samasa: an adverbial compound. e. and page reference(s) to where the word may be more fully described or applied. 21. 25. 91] Upadhman ya. gure eight. `raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system in Vedic Sanskrit. `thus': used as inverted commas. 73] Anubandha. 73] . . ^: the rare half visarga before pa or pha.. 83] Alpa-prana. Uttama-Purusa. 104. 73] Itaretara Dvandva Samasa: the basic copulative compound whose number is the sum of its members.rta. 9] An-udatta. 113] Atmane-bhasa. 9. 21. at the end of a line of verse. `last person': grammat. distinction in verb endings denoting the agent of the verb ( = English rst person). nasal: characteristic of those sounds uttered through both nose and mouth. 83. 80] Avasana: cessation of sound. . 63] . 22. the rst word of which is the more important. `bound along with': a letter or syllable attached to a dhatu and marking some peculiarity in its in ection. 113] Abhyantara-prayatna. 73] Anga. `slightly open': the `inner . 73] Avagraha. `half-contact': the `inner . 13. that do not have vibhakti endings. sa sa sa and ha. 64] Atmane-pada. unvoiced: characteristic of those Avyaya. sa . 22] s A-luk Samasa: a samasa wherein the rst word does not lose its vibhakti. 79] Artha. `expression for oneself': verbal voice. 89] Astan. 14. 85. 14. `stand between': general name . 71] Anunasika.g. 88] Iti. 63.Sanskrit Glossary and Index consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords not vibrating. 110] Anusvara. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . of a dhatu. indeclinable: that class of words . for the semi-vowels ya ra la va. `after sound': (1) a nasal sound following a svara. `slight contact': the `inner . ical person. verbal voice. 64. of those consonants uttered with minimal breath.. or separating a word from its de nition. a sa and ha. 87] Each entry word is given a simple translation (in single quotes where it is literal) followed by a brief description. 75] Isat-sprsta. e ort' applicable to the semi-vowels ya ra la and va. 22. 6] (2) sandhi substitute for an m before a consonant. stem: that part of an in ected word _ that remains unchanged (except for sandhi ) in the process of in ection. `expression for oneself': . 73] Isad-viv. `little breath': characteristic .

terminative compound which. 23. 88] .75] one. guttural and palatal: a x of nouns and adjectives.e. and au. . 22. expressed in J~a: pronunciation of. with the tonal accent (svara ) system of consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords vibrating. 23. a passive verb. ca-group: the group of stops ciation of o. the four of group of four consonants sa.. Eka. 13.r: the agent of the verb. `class': there are ten classes of . ^: a rare half-visarga before ka or kha. 56] . 22. 57] prathama with an active verb. one: the cardinal number the gure that quali es a. `single hearing': the neutral sound of Classical Sanskrit. 63] ~ Kanthya. singular number the word su x denoting dhatu. 63] _ (2) one of the four types of words. native compound having a dhatu derivative agent. 17. as contrasted Ghosa. and ai.rt ya with Tatpurusa Samasa. 26] Guna. ka kha ga gha na. 23. 13. .e. ka. `heated': general name for the Kriya.. vowels. 75] ha. `action': su to name it. 73] Vedic Sanskrit. 88] . or t. pa-varga. determinative com. 33. labial: the mouth position used Catur. 73] beginning with ca.Karman: the immediate object of the . 109. or prathama with a passive verb. 83. ka-group: the group of stops verbs to qualify or change its meaning. e.Jihvamul ya.Ca-varga. ka.142 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Upapada Tatpurusa Samasa: determi. (1) fully form Usman. `expression for both': -kara.second. i. 63] . cavarga. 13. 14. 13. See also dvi-. 49] pound: in which the rst word quali es the Karmadharaya Tatpurusa Samasa: de. 75] x appended to a Ubhayato-bhasa. ca cha ja jha na. 13. i. mouth position associated with the pronun. 64] va. guttural and labial: the indicate that the sound is nasalized. `quality': the secondary form of . 113] that one person or thing is referred to. 17. 51] . palatal: the mouth position the members would have the same case associated with the pronunciation of i. a. 60] beginning with ka.. guttural: the mouth position . 73] placed above a vowel or ya la or va to Kanthosthya. 113] . Sanskrit letter/sound verbal voice. 6. 13. . . Eka-vacana. verbal pre x: (1) a pre x to Ka-varga. bahu-vacana. 73] n Kart. 9] s word. verb: (2) one of in ected types of . 49] as its nal member. 89] Upasarga. 71] Osthya. 21] bhasa or atmane-bhasa. fourth case: dative Kanthatalavya. expressed in dvit ya with an active verb. verb. associated with the pronunciation of a. 73] ending. four: the cardinal number the . 73] Kriya-visesana. dhatu conjugation in parasmaikara. ya and sa. 13. voiced: a characteristic of those . 63] varga and ha. 64] Ksa: pronunciation of. Talavya. 73] Caturth Vibhakti. the mouth position associated with the Candrabindu. 78] Eka-sruti. and gure four. if dissolved. 67.. with the pronunciation of u. sa and the verb. `one-speaking': grammatical Gana.g. < `moon-dot': the symbol pronunciation of e. adverb: an indeclinable .

expression for another: verbal voice. particle: one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. 26. spoken to (madhyama-purus a ). 86] (3) verbal voice. ( ) full stop: indicates the { . `city of immortals': (1) the name of the Sanskrit script. `two-speaking': grammatical dual number the word su x denoting that two persons or things are referred to. 83. 64] Pa~cam Vibhakti. pa-group: the group of stops beginning with pa. 1. 64] Nama-dhatu. 21] Dantya. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of (prathama-purus a ). verbal voice. 26. word: (1) traditionally divided into four types. pa pha ba bha ma. `person': grammatical person. 75] Pa~can. 113] Parasmai-bhasa. 9] . See also eka. 33. grammar of Sanskrit in minute detail. 1] (2) variations in symbols. masculine: one of the three . 25. nominal verb: a verb derived from a noun. position associated with the pronunciation of the English `f' and `v'. 89] 143 three grammatical genders. 13. or vowels having this measure. and the . nine: the cardinal number the gure nine. ve: the cardinal number the n gure ve. expression for another: . person speaking (uttama-purusa ). 88] Dvigu Tatpurusa Samasa: a determina. see atmane-pada and parasmaipada. `long': the long measure.bahu-vacana. second case: accusative a x to nouns and adjectives. dental and labial: the mouth . la and sa. 63] Panini: a grammarian (circa 350 bc) whose . 71] (3) used in dictionary. verbal su x: the su x Napumsaka-linga. 25. 88] Dvit ya Vibhakti. 75] (2) general name for a fully in ected word. one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. 26. 8. 113] Na~-Tatpurusa Samasa: determinative n . fully describes the . 15. 113] Pa-varga. 9. work. 64] Dantosthya. 65] Purusa. _ grammatical genders.51] Pada. 75] Nipata. 13. 103. has been so perfectly described. 26] Dhatu. . su x to nouns and adjectives. third case: instrumental . Purna-virama.. 33. 5] Devanagar . 64] D rgha. 17. . 64] Dvandva Samasa. i. 109. 23.l. 50] Navan. dental: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . 92] Dva.e. 78. fth case: ablative n su x to nouns and adjectives. 32] Trt ya Vibhakti. tive compound having a numeral or word denoting direction as its rst member. synonymous with parasmaipada. neuter: one of the _ . two: the cardinal number the gure two.Sanskrit Glossary and Index of the kriya indicating purusa and va. root: rudimentary meaningful verbal element from which words are derived. 113] Parasmai-pada. 92. 114] Pum-linga. No other language. 73] Dasan. 51] Dvi-vacana. . 63] _ Tin-Vibhakti. three: the cardinal number the gure three. end of a verse or end of a paragraph. 75] Naman. ten: the cardinal number the gure ten. compound with a negative particle as its rst member. cana.tadhyay . `name': a noun. tavarga. 104. 104. copulative compound: a type of compound in which the words are of equal importance. to this day. 104. the As. 50. 51] Tri.

) stop: indicates a consonant without a following vowel. 14] . prana. See also eka. 26. . 83. or vowels having this measure. ` rst person': gram. cerebral: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . 89] Bahya-prayatna. adjective: it has the same case. kavarga. rst case: (1) nominative su x of nouns and adjectives. two. 22. 13.144 mystical symbol ?. number. 73] . . Repha: traditional name for ra which. Vacana. 63] Pranava Sabda: a name applied to the Mat. ubhayato-bhasa. See ekadvi. `middle person': the . 'speaking': grammatical number the word su x that one. 26] Bahuvr hi Samasa. 73] Bhasa. `prolonged': the prolonged measure. `breath': see alpa-prana and maha.napumsaka-li_ ga. 51] (2) and vocative. 26] Varga. matical person. outer e ort: the method (external to the mouth. see atmane-. indicative (simple present tense) one of the la-kara.and bahya-prayatna. 9] Maha-prana. second grammatical person distinction in verbal su x denoting the person spoken to ( = English second person). 1. 6. 32] n Virama. Pratipadika. `great breath': a character. 38] Prayatna. a descriptive compound: a compound forming an adjective qualifying an external noun. 21] La-kara. does not use the -kara su x. pum. . i. `measure': the length or duration for which a vowel is sounded these may be hrasva d rgha or pluta.rka: name applied to the rst sixteen . 6. 26] n . the throat) of articulating sounds. 13] Prana. 9] Prathama Vibhakti.bahu-vacana. speech: verbal voice. 17.r. 113] . as well as the personal endings for verbs (ti_ -vibhakti ). distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of ( = English third person).str . 17. . 14] Vibhakti: common term for the case endings used for nouns and adjectives (supvibhakti ). Madhyama-Purusa. ( . 2] Murdhanya. 17] Linga. 82] Prathama-Purusa. 13. `emitted': unvoiced breath after a vowel synonymous with visarga. 63] Visesana. and gender as the noun that it quali es. 1. pa-varga.dvi-vacana.e. 14. word stem: the stem form (i. 73] A Practical Sanskrit Introductory sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. e ort: the method of articulating sounds: divided into abhyantara. grammatical gender: there are three _ genders. 75] Visarga. 6] Matra. istic of those consonants uttered with extra breath. as found in the dictionary. unlike other sounds. 23.g. 65. 73] Visarjan ya.tavarga. or more persons or things are referred to. 5] Bahu-vacana. . without any case ending) of a noun or adjective. group: grouping of consonants according to some common quality.e. . l-a xes: a common term for the ten primary tenses and moods of Sanskrit verbs. 91] Pluta. . ra and sa. 17] Lat: a technical term for the present . 63] Pratyaya. 26. e. 13. su x: general name for any type of su x. parasmai-. 53] Virama. `many-speaking': the grammatical plural number the word su x indicating that many (more than two) persons or things are referred to. `emission': unvoiced breath after a vowel. ( ) stop: indicates the end of a | half-verse or end of a sentence.

73] Sandhi Vigraha. Sakti: name applied to the rst sixteen Sambodhana. . 91] accent system su x to nouns and adjectives. 38. 85{87] group of 25 stops ka through ma. `short': the short measure. 26. 63] . 4] Sanskrit. . 64] Sarva-naman. 51] having the same mouth position and `inner Samyoga. 1] (2) a term for the tonal . 88] Vrddhi. 81] . 88] the members would have di erent case Samprasarana: the process whereby an . six: the cardinal number the gure prathama-vibhakti. 13. or vowels having this measure. `position': the various mouth .tively as a unit the compound is treated as . 53] and adjectives. 51] . 86] Svara. mixed tone: one of the three gure seven. `contact': the `inner e ort' for the . 88] antahstha is replaced by a simple vowel. compound vowel: general for the vowels. addressing: case sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. . homophonic: categories of sounds . endings. . technical terms whose meanings positions used in uttering vowels and cannot be etymologically derived. 26] Samj~a. to nouns and adjectives. 1] endings. sixth case: genitive a x Savarna. accents (udatta an-udatta svarita ) of Vedic name for e ai o au. feminine: one of the three _ euphonic changes that arise when sounds are grammatical genders. `name of all': pronoun.nal': ending in Samanadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: consonant without a following vowel. if dissolved. `bound together': a conjunct e ort'. `consonant. . variation of Sas.. 71] Saptan. 1. 38. terminative compound which. 51] Halanta. 38. `increase': strengthened form of Samasa. calling. 73] separately. 53] a . determinative compound which. in a sentence so that the words stand 25 sparsa ka through ma.Sanskrit Glossary and Index 145 word. 13.Sup-vibhakti: case endings used for nouns rating vowel or pause. `placed together': a compound . 50. 77{81. 13] Sandhi. 75] Sasth Vibhakti. n name. the members would have di erent case Hrasva. 83] vowels.. 75] consonants. a neuter singular noun. `contact': the general name for the ease of pronunciation. `embellishment': general name Samahara Dvandva Samasa: copulative n for any consonant. six. 103] compound whose members are taken collecVyadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: de. . if dissolved. 71. `placed together': the system of Str -linga. `sound' or `tone': (1) a general term Sandhyaksara. seven: the cardinal number the Svarita. `separation of sandhi': removal of the sandhi between words Sprsta. proper noun: personal or place Sthana. 65] uttered in proximity it is the tendency to Sparsa. 78] Vya~jana. consonant consonants not having a sepa. 64] or tones (svara ) of the vowel Saptam Vibhakti. 6] ending of nouns and adjectives. . seventh case: locative pitches of Vedic Sanskrit.

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