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# Dynamics Laboratory Observation Note Book

By

Mr.B.Ramesh,

M.E.,(Ph.D),

Associate professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119 Ph.D. Research Scholar, College of Engineering Guindy Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

ii

**St. Joseph’s College of Engineering
**

Jeppiaar Educational Trust

(Christian Minority Institution) Jeppiaar Nagar, Rajiv Gandhi Road, Chennai – 600 119

ME 2307

Dynamics Laboratory

Observation Note Book V Semester Mechanical Engineering 2010 – 2011

Name Roll No. Reg. No. Year Branch Section

: : : : : :

iii

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Oscilloscope Vibration Shaker F. 9. Dynamic balancing machine. 3. Oscillating cylinder Mechanisms. 5 . Double rocker. b) Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia of axisymmetric bodies using Turn Table apparatus. and (9) Dynamic Balancing Machine. Motorised gyroscope. compound.. b) Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple.F.T. Porter. b) Forced Vibration of Cantilever beam – Mode shapes and natural frequencies. Analyzer. a) Transverse vibration of Free-Free beam – with and without concentrated masses. 12. Proell.Undamped and Damped Natural frequencies. 5. 4. Static and dynamic balancing machine. Students should be familiar with the use of the following device/equipments depending upon availability. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Slider Crank. (b) Balancing of reciprocating masses. 2. 7. Double crank. Epicyclic and differential gear trains. Governor . b) Vibration Absorber – Tuned vibration absorber. Proell and Hartnell governors. Crank Rocker. Tachometers – Contact and non contact Dial gauge Stroboscope Accelerometers – Vibration pickups Displacement meters. a) Single degree of freedom Spring Mass System – Determination of natural frequency and verification of Laws of springs – Damping coefficient determination. 5. 10. Vibrating table Vibration test facilities apparatus Gear Model Kinematic Models to study various mechanisms 1. effort etc.Syllabus ME2307 DYNAMICS LAB Aim: OBJECTIVES: i) To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery. 6. 9. 2. c) Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table. 10.Watt. and Hartnell Governors. Balancing of rotating masses. ii) To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing. Motion curves and study of jump phenomenon 7. Cams – Cam profile drawing. 11. b) Kinematics of single and double universal joints. 6. Porter. a) Determination of Mass moment of inertia of Fly wheel and Axle system. Governor apparatus . for Watts. b) Multi degree freedom suspension system – Determination of influence coefficient. 8. 3.Determination of range sensitivity. Whirling of shaft apparatus. Vibration of Equivalent Spring mass system – undamped and damped vibration. a). Motorized gyroscope – Study of gyroscopic effect and couple. Whirling of shafts – Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads. a) Kinematics of Four Bar. a) Study of gear parameters. 4. c) Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using bifilar suspension and compound pendulum. 8. 0 0 3 2 LIST OF EQUIPMENT (for a batch of 30 students) Cam analyzer. a) Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and Double Rotor systems.

12. 06. Forced vibration phenomenon of equivalent spring mass system with different damping condition. 05. 16. 08. 6 . 02. 10. Porter Governor Proell Governor Torsional vibration of single rotor system Torsional vibration of two rotor system Undamped free vibration of spring mass system Determination of whirling speed of shafts Compound Pendulum Hartnell Governor Bifilar suspension Cam analysis Balancing of rotating masses Determination of Gyroscopic couple Determination of influence coefficient (Multi degree freedom suspension method) Determination of transmissibility ratio by using Vibration Lab Determination of frequency of transverse of given square sectioned shaft with concentric fly wheel load. 07. 11. 14. 15. 13. 09. 04.Contents 01. 03. 17. Undamped free vibration of equivalent spring mass system.

Date Name of the Experiment No.E. of Expt 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Page No.ME 2307 Dynamics Laboratory Observation Note Book Prepared by: Mr. M.D. ReStaff Date marks sign 7 . B. Date of Sub. Department of Mechanical Engineering. INDEX Name of the staff : Sl.(Ph.) Associate Professor. Ramesh.

8 .

A rpm indicator with sensor to determine the speed.Exp. Porter arm setup Description of the setup: The drive unit consists of a DC electric motor connected through belt and pulley arrangement. Digital speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. The sleeve position and speed are then recorded. and inserted into the drive unit. fabricated frame. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided. The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball bearing. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then switch off the motor. Proell and Hartnell ) are provided using same motor and base. Digital rpm indicator with sensor 2. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter. The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. The following simple procedure may then be followed. The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of sleeve movement possible. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve displacement is measured directly by switching off the electronic control unit. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve of the governor. : Porter Governor Date Aim : : To determine the characteristic curves of the porter governor. Procedure: The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating weights and spring. Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains steady. DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed variation. This enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor. The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a weight sleeve to which weights may be added. The Hartnell governor provides means of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. Apparatus Required: 1. 3. 9 . The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical direction. No. Sleeve weights 4. where applicable.S. Measuring tape.

r ( mm ) Controlling force . N ( rpm ) Sleeve displacement . 1 Speed . F (N) 2 3 4 5 6 .Tabulation: Sl. X ( mm ) Diameter of rotation . mm Radius of rotation . No.

m Graphs: (i) Displacement vs Speed (ii) = = . m = mass of each ball . m Mass added Formulae: Controlling Force.Observation: Mass of each ball.g . rps Radius of rotation vs Controlling force . N Where. kgf . kgf ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 where. F = mω2 r . N = speed . rpm r = radius of rotation .

: --------- 12 .Model calculation: Reading No.

Result: Thus the characteristic curves of the porter governor are determined. 13 .

14 .

The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. The Hartnell governor provides means of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of sleeve movement possible. No. A rpm indicator with sensor to determine the speed. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve displacement is measured directly by switching off the electronic control unit. Measuring tape. The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. The sleeve position and speed are then recorded. : Proell Governor Date Aim : : To determine the characteristic curves of the proell governor. Apparatus Required: 1. 3. Digital rpm indicator with sensor 2. 15 . DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed variation.S. fabricated frame. Proell arm setup Description of the setup: The drive unit consists of a DC electric motor connected through belt and pulley arrangement. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter. The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a weight sleeve to which weights may be added. Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains steady. Sleeve weights 4. This enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor.Exp. where applicable. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M. Digital speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball bearing. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve of the governor. Proell and Hartnell ) are provided using same motor and base. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical direction. The following simple procedure may then be followed. and inserted into the drive unit. Procedure: The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating weights and spring. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then switch off the motor.

F (N) 2 3 4 5 6 16 . r ( mm ) Controlling force . 1 Speed . N ( rpm ) Sleeve displacement . mm Radius of rotation . X ( mm ) Diameter of rotation. No.Tabulation: Sl.

g . rps (ii) Radius of rotation vs Controlling force 17 . kgf . m = mass of each ball . N Where. kgf ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 where. N = speed .m Graphs: (i) Displacement vs Speed = = .Observation: Mass of each ball. F = mω2 r . m Mass added Formulae: Controlling Force. rpm r = radius of rotation .

: --------- 18 .Model calculation: Reading No.

19 .Result: Thus the characteristic curves of the proell governor are determined.

20 .

d = Diameter of disc A .3 + 1. The bearing housing is fixed to side member of the main frame. Specially designed chuck is used for clamping the end of the shaft. Twist the rotor through some angle and release.5 = 0. Grip the shaft at the bracket by means of chuck. Fix the rotor on the other end of the shaft. cm . Repeat the procedure for different lengths of shaft. Note down the time required for n = 5 oscillations.55 23 4. The bracket with fixed end of shaft can be clamped at any convenient position along the beam. N/m2 . : Torsional vibration of single rotor system Date Aim : To determine the period and frequency of torsional vibration of the single rotor system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. DA = Mass of disc A.Exp.8 . The ball bearing support to the flywheel provides negligible damping during experiment. Thus length of the shaft can be varied during the experiment. cm . Note down the length of the shaft. kgf . 4) Measuring tape 5) Stop watch and 6) Weights : Observation: Modulus of rigidity. Apparatus Required : 1) Shaft 2) Spanner 3) Chuck key Description of the setup: One end of the shaft is gripped in the chuck and heavy disc free to rotate in ball bearing is fixed at the other end of the shaft. G = Shaft diameter .35 x 1011 0. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Fix the bracket at any convenient position along the beam. mA = 3. No.

Tabulation : Sl. t ( sec ) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Period of vibration ( sec ) T exp T theo Frequency of vibration ( Hz ) F exp F theo 2 3 4 5 . L ( m) Time taken for n = 5 oscillations . 1 Length of the shaft. No.

N/m2 L = length of the shaft . T theo = 2π { sqrt (I / Kt ) } . Kt Where. Hz . kgf DA = diameter of the disc A . Hz .Formulae: Experimental period of vibration . m4 Experimental frequency of vibration . Nms2 Where. F exp = Theoretical frequency of vibration . G = modulus of rigidity . F theo = 1 / T exp 1 / T theo .m Polar moment of inertia . Moment of inertia. T exp = tm / n . m = ( G Ip ) / L . mA = mass of the disc A . I = mA ( DA2 / 8 ) . sec Where. Nm Torsional stiffness. Ip = ( π / 32 ) d4 . sec Where. = mean time taken for n oscillations tm n = number of oscillations = 5 Theoretical period of vibration .

: --------- 24 .Model calculation: Reading No.

25 .Result: The period and frequency of torsional vibration of the single rotor system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values.

26 .

Deflect the discs A and B in opposite directions by hand and release. Note down the time required for n = 5 oscillations. 4) Measuring tape 5) Stop watch 6) Weights and 7) Cross arms Observation: Diameter of the disc A . kgf 27 .725 . kgf .Exp. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Fix the discs A and B to the shaft and fit the shaft in bearing. No. Both discs are free to oscillate in the ball bearings. DA Diameter of the disc B . Apparatus Required : 1) Shaft 2) Spanner 3) Chuck key Description of the setup: Two discs having different mass moment of inertia are clamped one at each end of shaft by means of collet. mm . L Mass of the cross arms with bolts and nuts = = = = = = = = 230 200 3. DB Mass of the disc A. Mass moment of inertia of any disc can be changed by attaching the cross lever with weights. mm . mm .35 x 1011 5. mA Mass of the disc B.3 1. G Shaft diameter . Repeat the above procedure with different equal masses attached to the ends of cross arm. This provides negligible damping during experiment.5 0.74 0. kgf . N/m2 . d Length of the shaft between discs.m . Fit the cross arm to the disc A and attach equal masses to the ends of cross arm and again note down time. mB Modulus of rigidity of the shaft. : Torsional vibration of two rotor system Date : Aim : To determine the period and frequency of torsional vibration of the two rotor system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.

Tabulation: Sl. IB ( Nms2 ) Time taken for n = 5 oscillations ( sec ) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Period of vibration ( sec ) T exp T theo Frequency of vibration ( Hz ) F exp F theo 1 2 3 . Mass added to the disc A. ( kgf ) Moment of inertia of disc A . IA ( Nms2 ) Moment of inertia of disc B .No.

Ip Where. N/m2 = length of the shaft between discs . Hz Experimental frequency of vibration . d = = = tm / n . T theo Where. m4 . Hz . tm n Theoretical period of vibration .m . sec mean time taken for n oscillations number of oscillations = 5 = 2π { sqrt [(IA IB) / Kt(IA + IB)] }. G L Polar moment of inertia . Moment of inertia of disc A. IA Moment of inertia of disc B. IB Torsional stiffness. T exp Where. sec = mA ( DA2 / 8 ) = mB ( DB2 / 8 ) = ( G Ip ) / L .Formulae: Experimental period of vibration . F exp = Theoretical frequency of vibration . Nm = modulus of rigidity of the shaft . Nms2 . Nms2 . F theo = . Kt Where. m = = ( π / 32 ) d4 shaft diameter 1 / T exp 1 / T theo .

: --------- 30 .Model calculation: Reading No.

Result: The period and frequency of torsional vibration of the two rotor system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values. 31 .

32 .

This platform is used to add weights and a lock nut is also provided to clamp the weights added. T theo 33 mean time taken for n oscillations number of oscillations = 20 = 2π { sqrt [ W / ( g Kexpm) ] }. Apparatus Required : 1) 2) 3) Helical spring Platform Weights 4) 5) Measuring tape and Stop watch : Description of the setup: It consists of an open coil helical spring of which one end is fixed to the screw rod and a platform to the other end. Repeat the steps from 3 to 6 for other known weights. sec = . Attach the other end to the platform and add some weight. X = = Load / deflection = W / X . Measure the free length of the spring. T exp Where. Experimental period of vibration . tm n Theoretical period of vibration . : Undamped free vibration of spring mass system Date Aim : To determine stiffness of the given helical spring. period and frequency of undamped free vibration (longitudinal vibration) of spring mass system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.Exp. No. Stretch the spring through some distance and release. sec .m = = = tm / n . Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Observation: Length of the spring before loading Formulae: Stiffness of the spring.m Fix one end of the helical spring to the upper screw rod. Observe the time taken for n = 20 oscillations. Note down the deflection. N/m ( Length of the spring after loading – length of the spring before loading ) . K exp Deflection.

W Sl. ( kg ) 1 (N) Length of the spring after loading (m) Deflection. X (m) Stiffness.Tabulation: Load added. K exp = W/X (N/m) Time taken for n = 20 oscillations ( sec ) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Period of vibration ( sec ) T exp T theo Frequency of vibration ( Hz ) F exp F theo 2 3 4 K expm = .No.

N Kexpm = Experimental mean stiffness . Hz Graph : Deflection vs Load added .Where. Hz Theoretical frequency of vibration . W = Load added . F theo = 1 / T theo . N/m Experimental frequency of vibration . F exp = 1 / T exp .

Model calculation: Reading No. : --------- 36 .

K expm Graphically = = .Result: Stiffness of the spring. 37 . N/m . i) ii) Experimentally. N/m The period and frequency of undamped free vibration (longitudinal vibration) of spring mass system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values.

38 .

No.0584 kg d1 = 0. E (for copper) Length of the shaft. w = weight of the shaft per metre . 4) AC voltage regulator 2) Digital tachometer 3) Chuck key and Description of the setup: The apparatus is used to study the whirling phenomenon of shafts. Nctheo Static deflection due to mass of the shaft (UDL). Procedure: 1) The shaft is to be mounted with the end condition as simply supported. δs = (5wL4) / (384 EI) Where.16051 kg d3 = 0. A special design is provided to clear out the effects of bearings of motor spindle from those of testing shafts. N/m2 I = Mass moment of inertia of the shaft = ( π / 64 ) d4 .00511 m l3 = m : Formulae: = {0. : Determination of whirling speed of shafts Date Aim: To determine the whirling speed for various diameter shafts experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. Apparatus Required: 1) Shaft – 3 nos. L Shaft 1 (steel) m1 = 0.23 x 1011 .0031 m l1 = m Shaft 2 (copper) m2 = 0.27 )] } x 60 .06 x 1011 1.m Shaft 3(steel) m3 = 0. m E = Young’s modulus for the shaft material. 4) The above procedure is repeated for the remaining shafts. Observation: Young’s modulus. N / m2 . N / m2 . N/m L = Length of the shaft. m4 39 . 2) The speed of rotation of the shaft is gradually increased.Exp.00484 m l2 = m = = = 2.4985 / [sqrt (δs / 1. E (for steel) Young’s modulus.16496 kg d2 = 0. 3) When the shaft vibrates violent in fundamental mode ( I mode ). rpm Theoretical whirling speed. the speed is noted down. This consists of a frame in which the driving motor and fixing blocks are fixed.

No.Tabulation: Sl. I ( m4) x 10-12 Weight of the shaft per m. Diameter of shaft (m) Mass moment of inertia of the shaft . w ( N/m ) Whirling speed ( rpm ) Ncexp Nctheo 1 2 3 .

.

: --------- .Model calculation: Reading No.

Result : The whirling speed for various diameter shafts are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values. 43 .

44 .

Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) Observation: Length of the steel bar. T theo Where. The bar is supported by the knife edge. kgf Support the steel bar in any one of the holes. : Compound Pendulum Date Aim: To determine moment of inertia by using compound pendulum and period and radius of gyration of the given steel bar experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. Repeat the experiment with different length of suspension. cm 45 . It is possible to change the length of suspended pendulum by supporting the bar in different holes. Ktheo = = = t/n . L Number of holes Distance between two holes Mass of the steel bar Formulae: Experimental periodic time. sec = = = = . Allow the bar to oscillate and determine Texp by knowing the time taken for n = 10 oscillations. cm . cm 1. Note the length of suspended pendulum to measure OG. No. Apparatus Required: 1) Steel bar 2) Knife edge support Description of the setup: The compound pendulum consists of 100 cm length and 5 mm thick steel bar. T exp Where. 3) 4) Stop watch and Measuring tape : time taken for n oscillations number of oscillations = 10 = 2π { sqrt [ ( Ktheo2 + ( OG )2 ) / ( g (OG)) ] }. t n Theoretical periodic time.Exp. sec = Theoretical radius of gyration = ( L ) / 2√3 .575 .

K exp K expm = . 10.Tabulation: Distance of C. 15. I ( Nms2 ) Sl. 3. 13. 6. 1. 5. 2. 4. 14. No. 7. 8. 18. of the bar from support. 11. 9. OG ( cm ) Time taken for n = 10 oscillations . 16. 19.G. 12. t T exp ( sec ) Periodic time ( sec ) T theo Radius of gyration ( cm ) K theo Moment of inertia. 17.

G. Nms2 . cm = 2π { sqrt [ ( Kexp2 + ( OG )2 ) / ( g (OG)) ] }. kgf . of bar from support . sec = m Kexpm2 . I Where. T exp Moment of inertia . Kexpm m = distance of the C.OG Experimental periodic time.m = mean experimental radius of gyration = mass of the steel bar .

Model calculation: Reading No. : --------- 48 .

Ktheo 49 = = = . Kexpm Theoretical radius of gyration . cm . Nms2 . cm .Result: i) ii) iii) Moment of inertia of the given steel bar Mean experimental radius of gyration.

50 .

where applicable. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve displacement is measured using the formula. The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball bearing. No. DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed variation. Procedure: The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating weights and spring. and inserted into the drive unit. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter. Digital speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. Measuring tape. Proell and Hartnell ) are provided using same motor and base. : Hartnell Governor Date Aim : : To determine the characteristic curves of the Hartnell governor. This enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor. Apparatus Required: 1. Hartnell arm setup Description of the setup: The drive unit consists of a DC electric motor connected through belt and pulley arrangement. The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. The sleeve position and speed are then recorded. The Hartnell governor provides means of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. 3. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M.S. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then switch off the motor. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve of the governor. The following simple procedure may then be followed. The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of sleeve movement possible. Digital rpm indicator with sensor 2. The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a weight sleeve to which weights may be added. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical direction. A rpm indicator with sensor to determine the speed. fabricated frame. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided.Exp. 51 . Sleeve weights 4. Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains steady.

r ( mm ) Controlling force . 1 Speed . F (N) 2 3 . N ( rpm ) Sleeve displacement .Tabulation: Sl. No. X ( mm ) Radius of rotation .

kgf . N = speed . F = mω2 r . ro X a b = = = = = = . m = mass of each ball ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 where. m Initial radius of rotation.m where.m . ro Formulae: Controlling Force.m . rpm r = radius of rotation . N Where.m Graphs: (i) Displacement vs Speed (ii) Radius of rotation vs Controlling force 53 .Observation: Mass of each ball.m .m . kgf . rps initial radius of rotation sleeve displacement .m = ro + X ( a / b ) .

: --------- 54 .Model calculation: Reading No.

55 .Result: Thus the characteristic curves of the Hartnell governor are determined.

56 .

T exp = tm / n . Repeat the experiment by mounting the weights at equal distance from the centre ( D / 2 as shown ). Radius of gyration of the combined bar and body is then determined. Allow the bar to oscillate about the vertical axis passing through the centre and measure the periodic time T by knowing the time for say n = 10 oscillations. Note the suspension length of each cord must be the same. : Bifilar Suspension Date Aim: To determine the radius of gyration of given bar by using bifilar suspension and periodic time experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. Other ends are secured in the bifilar bar. In this case the body under investigation is bolted to the centre.Exp. tm = mean time taken for n oscillations n = number of oscillations = 10 = = = = . Observation: Distance between two cords. cm .l Mass added Formulae: Experimental periodic time. 2a Distance from centre to cord. a Length of the bar. sec Where. No.g . It is possible to adjust the length of the cord by loosing the chucks. The suspension may also be used to determine the radius of gyration of any body. cm . cm . Apparatus Required: 1) 2) 3) Vibration lab machine Measuring tape Weights 4) 5) Stop watch and Bar : Description of the setup: A uniform rectangular section bar is suspended from the pendulum support frame by two parallel cords. Top ends of the cords pass through the two small chucks fitted at the top. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) Suspend the bar from chuck and adjust the length of the cord ‘L’ conveniently.

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Suspension length, L ( cm ) Time taken for n = 10 oscillations ( sec ) t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Periodic time ( sec ) T exp T theo Radius of gyration ( cm ) K exp K theo

t1

1

2

Kexpm =

Experimental periodic time, T exp Where, Kexp a L

= = = =

[ (2π K exp ) / a ] [ sqrt ( L / g ) ] experimental radius of gyration distance from centre to cord suspension length

, sec , cm , cm , cm , sec , cm , cm

= [ (2π K theo ) / a ] [ sqrt ( L / g ) ] Theoretical periodic time, Ttheo Theoretical radius of gyration, K theo = l / ( 2 √3 ) Where, l = length of the bar

Model calculation: Reading No. : ---------

60

Kexpm Theoretically. cm The periodic time of the given bar is determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values. Ktheo = = .Result: Radius of gyration of given bar: i) ii) Experimentally. cm . 61 .

62 .

the constraint and control of follower motion are not maintained. This is a transient coefficient that occurs only with high speed. The shaft runs in a ball bearing. A graduated circular protractor is fitted co-axial with the shaft and a dial gauge can be fitted to note the follower displacement for the angle of cam rotation. The follower is properly guided in gun metal bushes. cam and the follower separate owing to excessively unbalanced forces exceeding the spring force during the period of negative acceleration. The machine is particularly very useful for testing the cam performance for jump phenomenon during operation. The unit is provided with the push rod in the two bush bearings. A spring is used to provide controlling force to the follower system. This is undesirable since the fundamental function of the cam follower system. This machine clearly shows the effect of change of forces on jump action of cam follower during operation. Jump phenomenon: The jump phenomenon occurs in case of cam operating under the action of compression spring load. Clearance and backlash are taken up : . (b) The supporting pillars should be properly tightened with the lock nuts provided. (c) Sharp edged cam with flat follower. jump or bounce out of contact with the cam. Also related are the short life of the cam flank surface. (b) An eccentric cam with flat follower. Jump and crossover shock: A cam follower retained against the cam with a compression retaining spring will under certain conditions. for any. highly flexible cam follower systems.Exp. This condition is most likely to occur with low values of damping and with high speed cams of quite flexible follower trains. (a) Circular arc cam with flat follower. Weights on the follower rod can be adjusted as per the requirements. It is used for testing various cam follower pairs. Crossover shock occurs in a positive drive cam mechanism when contact moves from one side of the cam to the other. reason while assembling following precautions should be taken: (a) The horizontality of the upper and lower glands should be checked by a spirit level. The arrangement of speed regulation is provided. With jump. No. high noise. i. At the free end of the cam shaft a cam can be easily mounted.e. vibrations and poor action. : Cam Analysis Date Aim : To draw the profile of the circular arc cam with flat face follower using the given apparatus. Description : The machine is a motorized unit consisting of a cam shaft driven by a AC/DC motor.. Should the unit be disassembled.

Tabulation: Forward stroke Angle in degree Follower lift in mm Dwell Return stroke Dwell Follower lift = .mm Circular arc cam with flat face follower – Diagram : 64 .

To study the effect of follower assembly weight on the jump speed when the spring force is kept constant. Upward inertia force = Downward retaining force [W/g] ω2r = W + S This is the equilibrium of force equation when jump will just start. When jump occurs the follower pounds on the cam surface giving a good thumping sound. The effects can be reduced by preloading the system to remove backlash. must be redistributed. Probably a good first approximation could be obtained by concentrating a portion of the mass at the bottom of spring and treating the motion as a system of two degrees of freedom. Spring ko loses compression when jump begins and is carried motion with the mass. The resulting motion now gets rather complicated because the mass. then. If a smaller number of cycles exist during this period. he states. This figure can probably be reduced slightly for appreciable amounts of damping. Spring Ko loses its compression whenever X exceeds by the amount of Ko was initially compressed during assembly. ω = sqrt[ (g/r)(1 + (s/W) )] This relation shows that as the follower weight increases the jump speed goes on decreasing. It must be noted. Procedure : Rotate the cam shaft with the help of the hand through some angle and note down the angle of cam rotation indicated on the protractor and the corresponding follower displacement indicated in the dial gauge. The speed of cam rotation and stroboscope frequency of neon lamp are gradually and simultaneously increased and at the time of jump to occur the follower is seen to loose contact with cam. W = weight of follower assembly ω = angular velocity = [2πN] / 60 rad/sec S = spring force (kg) = stiffness of spring x compression length r = distance according to the geometry of cam = l / (2π) where l is lift of the follower.during the crossover and impact occurs. Continue the experiment for 65 . The jump speed thus can be obtained from the stroboscope. To observe the phenomenon of jump(use of a stroboscope is necessary). it is necessary to calculate the pre-compression of K. keep the initial spring compression at a certain level and observe jump speed for different follower weights by adding them successively and plot the graph of follower weights vs jump speed. This condition can be expressed by the equation : [Bl K] / 360 ≥ 2 where Bl is the angle through which the cam rotates during positive acceleration period. Crossover takes place on the rise or return motion when the acceleration changes sign and when the velocity is at its peak. the system should be investigated mathematically to determine if jump exists. Roth Bart states that jump will not occur in high speed systems if at least two full cycles of vibration occur during the positive acceleration time-interval of the motion. ω2 = [(W + S) / (Wr) ]g Therefore . Thus to set up a criteria for jump. by designing for low peak velocity and by using rigid follower train. through that the system will vibrate at a new frequency after jump begins and then analysis of the motion using the old frequency is not a true description of the motion. too.

velocity and acceleration diagrams of the flat face follower : Calculation: 66 .Displacement.

67 .

Profile of the circular arc cam : 68 .

The X vs θ plot can be used to find out velocity and acceleration of the follower system. r2 = mm mm Result: Thus the profile of the circular arc cam with flat face follower has been drawn. r1 = Nose radius .different angles of cam rotation and draw the graph X vs θ. 69 . The exact profile of the cam can be obtained by taking observations X vs θ. Observation : Base circle radius or minimum radius of the cam. where X = displacement of the follower from reference initial position and θ = angle of cam rotation with reference from axis of symmetry chosen.