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Allan Block

TM

Mortarless Technology

Roadway Application

Slope Below Wall

Water Application

**Earth Anchor Application: 2 Terraces, Slope Above Wall Roadway Application
**

The information and product applications illustrated in this manual have been carefully compiled by the ALLAN BLOCK CORPORATION and to the best of our knowledge accurately represent ALLAN BLOCK product use. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated and its manner of use is the sole responsibility of the user.

FORWARD

This manual presents the techniques that we use in our engineering practice to design retaining walls. It is not intended as a textbook of soil mechanics or geotechnical engineering. The methods we use have evolved over the course of nine years and continue to evolve as our knowledge and experience grows. If any of the users of this manual want to offer suggestions about ways to improve our design, we would be very glad to hear them. The intended users of this manual are practicing engineers. When writing it, we assumed that the reader would already be familiar with the basic principles of statics and soil mechanics. We encourage others to contact a qualified engineer for help with the design of geogrid reinforced retaining walls. The example problems in this manual are based on walls constructed with Allan Block Retaining Wall System’s AB Stones. AB Stones provide a setback of twelve degrees from vertical. We believe that a twelve degree setback maximizes the leverage achieved by a battered wall, while providing a finished retaining wall that fulfills the goal of more useable flat land. Allan Block also has developed products with three and six degree setbacks. The equations that follow can be used for each product by selecting the appropriate angle. ( = 90 - Wall Batter)

AB Stones

AB Three

AB Lite Stones AB Classic 3º 6º 12º AB Lite Rocks AB Rocks

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter One - Concepts & Definitions

• Soil Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Retaining Wall Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sliding Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overturning Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of Water on Wall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . • Types of Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Forces Acting on Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Soil States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Active and Passive Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Pressure Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Active Force on the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Two-Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Calculating the Effective Unit Weight of the Wall Facing • Safety Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .3 .4 .4 .5 .5 .6 .7 .7 .8 .9 .9 .9 .11 .12 .14 .16 .17 .17 .18 .19 .22 .25 .25 .30 .31 .33 .35 .35 .39 .42 43 43 44 47 47 49

**Chapter Two - Basic Wall Design
**

• Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Simple Gravity Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sliding Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overturning Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Tieback Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Geogrid as a Tieback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earth Anchors as a Tieback . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Coherent Gravity Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Length of Geogrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing Pressure on the Underlying Soil . . . . Attachment of the Geogrid to the Wall Facing Mechanical Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

**Chapter Three - Surcharges
**

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surcharges on Simple Gravity Walls . . Surcharges on Tieback Walls . . . . . . . Surcharges on Coherent Gravity Walls External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . Internal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . • Tiered Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

**Chapter Four - Sloped Backfill
**

• • • • Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Gravity Walls with Sloped Backfill . . Tieback Walls with Sloped Backfill . . . . . . . Coherent Gravity Walls with Sloped Backfill. External Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 54 55 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 63 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Factor Against Sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Factors . . . . . . . . . . Safety Factor Against Overturning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Seismic Analysis • • • • • Introduction . . . . . . . . . Top of the Wall Stability . . . . Geogrid Pullout from the Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic Earth Force on the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Factor Against Sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Five . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Gravity Wall with Seismic Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factor of Safety Geogrid Tensile Overstress Geogrid / Block Connection Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . • Coherent Gravity Wall with Seismic Influence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Factor Against Overturning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................42 Average Bearing Stress of Top Wall Applied as Surcharge to Second Wall ...............Concepts & Definitions Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4a 3-4b 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 Forces Acting on Retaining Walls .......33 Freebody Diagram of Tieback Wall with Surcharge..............................................................................................................................................................................31 Freebody Diagram of a Simple Gravity Retaining Wall with Surcharge ................................20 Freebody Diagram for Bearing Pressure Analysis .........................19 Calculating the Spacing of Geogrid Layers ............................5 Effect of Wall Friction on Active Force .............................................................10 Diagram of Retaining Wall for Tieback Analysis ...........................49 Static Component of Active Pressure Distribution ......................17 Typical Geogrid Reinforcement Embedment for 3 Degree AB System...27 Effect of uniform Surcharge on a Retaining Wall ........................................................................................................................44 Coherent Gravity Wall with Sloped Backfill ................................................39 Retaining Wall with Three Tiers .........22 Friction Attachment of Geogrid to Blocks................................17 Typical Geogrid Reinforcement Embedment for 6 Degree AB System...........................................................30 Simple Gravity Retaining Wall with Surcharge...........4 Definition of Terms for Coulomb's Equation ......................13 Coherent Gravity Wall for Example 2-3 ..............12 Freebody Diagram of Retaining Wall for Tieback Analysis ..............................................................................49 Effect of Sloped Backfill on Spacing of Geogrid......................55 Dynamic Earth Force Pressure Distribution ..............56 Free Body Diagram of Coherent Gravity Wall Under Seismic Influence.......................................................................54 Dynamic Increment Component of the Active Pressure Distribution..............Seismic Analysis .......................................................................................59 Chapter Two ...............17 Freebody Diagram of a Coherent Gravity Wall ..................6 Schematic Diagram of Simple Gravity Retaining Wall.................................................................................................42 Tieback Wall with Sloped Backfill...........................17 Typical Geogrid Reinforcement Embedment for 12 Degree AB System.................................................................................................................................................................................55 Free Body Diagram of Simple Gravity Wall Under Seimic Influence ...............................6 Active Pressure Distribution on a Retaining Wall ....................4 Relative Pressures for the Three Soil States................Basic Wall Design Chapter Three ......LIST OF FIGURES Chapter One ....................................39 Pressure Distributions Due to the Soil Weight and Surcharge ................................................................35 Coherent Gravity Wall with Surcharge.........................................................32 Tieback Retaining Wall with Surcharge ................................Surcharges Chapter Four ..............34 Locations of Surcharge on Coherent Gravity Walls.....................47 Failure Surface in a Coherent Gravity Wall ..Sloped Backfill Chapter Five .....................................

A wet clay soil can be molded into a ball or rolled into a thread that resists being pulled apart. For these reasons. clay soil is not a good choice for retaining wall backfill. Clay. while clay particles are flat and smooth. The larger the friction angle the steeper the stable slope that can be formed using that soil. the difference between the two angles is small and for the design of retaining walls the angle of repose can be used to approximate the friction angle. once the clay becomes saturated. you can pick up a handful of sand and it will pour out of your hand as individual particles. Soil that consists mainly of sand has a larger friction angle than soil composed mainly of clay. Another way to describe soil is by the tendency of the particles to stick together -. smooth surfaces Still another way to describe a soil is by its natural tendency to resist movement. When subjected to external pressure. is much more cohesive than sand. Secondly. Even when it is wet. The surface irregularities of the sand particles tend to interlock and resist movement. The angle formed by the base of the cone and its sides is known as the angle of repose. or simply. The preferred soil for backfill behind retaining walls is soil that contains a high percentage of sand and gravel. Clay soil has some characteristics that make it undesirable for use as backfill for a retaining wall. while clay soil consists mainly of smaller particles. The main reason for Typical Soil Properties preferring a granular soil for backfill is that it allows water Soil Cohesion Cohesion Soil Friction to pass through it more Groups Compacted Saturated Angle readily than a nongranular. angular surfaces CLAY Small. The shear strength of the soil is the sum of the frictional resistance to movement and the cohesion of the soil. Sandy soil consists of relatively large particles. clay soil is not readily permeable and retains the water that filters into it. The added weight of the retained water increases the force on the retaining wall. SAND Large. the full force of the weight of water and most of the weight of the soil is applied to the wall. spherical. Inorganic Clays 1800 PSF 270 PSF 27º (86 KPA) (13 KPA) 1 .a property called cohesion. flat. the clay particles tend to slide past one another. has very low cohesion. If you take a dry soil sample and pour it out onto a flat surface. it will form a cone-shaped pile. Also. Once the cohesion is lost due to soil saturation. on the other hand. One way to describe it is by the average size of the particles that make up a soil sample. its cohesion decreases almost to zero. the friction angle (PHI ). such as is found at the beach. Sand. or clayey soil does.CHAPTER ONE Concepts & Definitions Soil Characteristics Soil can be described in many different ways. Such a soil is referred to as a granular soil and has a friction angle of approximately 32º to 36º. the 0 0 36º Clean Gravel-Sand Mix shear strength of a granular soil doesn't vary with 1050 PSF 300 PSF Sand-Silt Clay Mix moisture content and 32º (50 KPA) (14 KPA) therefore its shear strength is more predictable. However. The angle of repose of a soil is always smaller than the friction angle for the same soil. First of all. This is due to the fact that sand particles are roughly spherical with irregular surfaces. depending on the degree of compaction of the soil. This property can be expressed by a number known as the coefficient of internal friction.

**Retaining Wall Failure
**

There are two primary modes of retaining wall failure. The wall can fail by sliding too far forward and encroaching on the space it was designed to protect. It can also fail by overturning -- by rotating forward onto its face.

Sliding Failure

Sliding failure is evident when the wall moves forward, and occurs when the horizontal forces tending to cause sliding are greater than the horizontal forces resisting sliding. Generally, this will occur when either the driving force is underestimated or the resisting force is overestimated. Underestimating the driving force is the most common mistake and usually results from: 1) neglecting surcharge forces from other walls, 2) designing for level backfill when the backfill is in fact sloped, 3) using cohesive soils for backfill.

Sliding

Overturning Failure

Overturning

Overturning failure is evident when the wall rotates about its bottom front edge (also called the toe of the wall). This occurs when the sum of the moments tending to cause overturning is greater than the sum of the moments resisting overturning. As with sliding failures, overturning failures usually result from underestimating the driving forces.

**Effects of Water on Wall Stability
**

Perhaps the single most important factor in wall failure is water. Water contributes to wall failure in several different ways. If the soil used for backfill is not a free-draining granular soil, it will retain most of the water that filters into it. The force on a wall due to water can be greater than the force due to soil. As the moisture content of the soil increases, the unit weight of the soil increases also, resulting in greater force on the wall. When the soil becomes saturated, the unit weight of the soil is reduced because of the buoyant force of the water on the soil particles. However, the water exerts hydrostatic pressure on the wall. Therefore, the total force on the wall is greater Drainage than it is for unsaturated soil, because the force on the wall is the sum of the force exerted by the soil and the force exerted by the water. The problem is even greater if the soil contains a high percentage of clay. Saturated, high-clay-content soil loses its cohesion and the force on the wall increases. Good drainage is an essential for proper wall design.

AB Geogrid Wall Below Grade Section

AB Geogrid Wall Above Grade Section

2

Some clay soils exhibit the characteristic of expanding when wet. This expansion, coupled with contraction when the soil dries, can work to weaken the wall and cause failure. Another way in which water contributes to wall failure is by the action of the freezethaw cycle. Water trapped in the soil expands when it freezes causing increased pressure on the wall. Water in contact with the wall itself can cause failure of the structural materials. The freeze-thaw cycle is the basic mechanism by which rocks are turned into soil. The same thing can happen to a wall in contact with water during the winter months. Several things can be done to reduce the likelihood of wall failure due to water. First, use a free-draining granular material for the back fill. Second, create a drain field in and around the block cores and 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) deep behind the wall using a material with large individual particles, such crushed limestone. Third, install a drain pipe at the bottom rear of the base and provide outlets as needed. Finally, direct water away from the top and bottom of the wall using swales as required. All these measures will ensure that excess water is removed from behind the wall before it can build up or freeze and cause damage.

AB Gravity Wall Typical Section AB Geogrid Wall Typical Section AB Earth Anchor Typical Section

**Types of Retaining Walls
**

•Gravity

A wall that relies solely on its weight to prevent failure is called a gravity wall. For a gravity wall, the primary factor affecting the wall's resistance to overturning is the horizontal distance from the toe of the wall to the center of gravity of the wall. The greater this distance is, the less likely it is that the wall will overturn. For example, a wall four feet high and two feet thick will have a lower resistance to overturning than a wall two feet high and four feet thick, even if the weights are equal. Battering the retaining wall (sloping it into the backfill) also enhances stability by moving the center of gravity back from the toe of the wall.

•Geogrid

Studies have shown that retaining walls reinforced with several layers of geogrid act as giant gravity walls. “Geogrid reinforced soil masses create the same effect as having an extremely thick wall with the center of gravity located well back from the toe of the wall.” For this reason, reinforced soil walls are more likely to fail by sliding than by overturning.

•Anchor

Tieback walls rely on mechanical devices embedded in the backfill to provide the force necessary to resist sliding and overturning. Battering a tieback wall will shift its center of gravity and enhance its stability.

3

**Forces Acting on Retaining Walls
**

The forces that act on a retaining wall can be divided into two groups: • Those forces that tend to cause the wall to move • Those forces that oppose movement of the wall (see Figure 1-1) Included in the first group are the weight of the soil behind the retaining wall and any surcharge on the backfill. Typical surcharges include driveways, roads, buildings, and other retaining walls. Forces that oppose movement of the wall include the frictional resistance to sliding due to the weight of the wall, the passive resistance of the soil in front of the wall, and the force provided by mechanical restraining devices. When the forces that tend to cause the wall to move become greater than the forces resisting movement, the wall will move.

Soil States

The soil behind a retaining wall exists in one of three states: 1) the active state, 2) the passive state, 3) the at-rest state. Figure 1-1. Forces Acting on the Retaining Walls

When a wall is built and soil is placed behind it and compacted, the soil is in the at-rest state. If the pressure on the wall due to the soil is too great, the wall will move forward. As the wall moves forward, the soil settles into a new equilibrium condition called the active state. The pressure on the wall due to the soil is lower in the active state than it is in the at-rest state (see Figure 1-2). The passive state is achieved when a wall is pushed back into the soil. This could occur by building the retaining wall, placing and compacting the soil, and then somehow forcing the retaining wall to move into the backfill. Usually, the passive state occurs at the toe of the wall when the wall moves forward. The movement of the wall causes a horizontal pressure on the soil in front of the wall. This passive resistance of the soil in front of the wall helps keep the wall from sliding. However, the magnitude of the passive resistance at the toe of the wall is so low that it is usually neglected in determining the stability of the wall. The occurrence of the passive state behind a retaining wall is extremely rare and it will most likely never be encountered behind an Allan Block wall. The at-rest condition occurs whenever a retaining wall is built. Some designers may prefer to take a conservative approach and design for the higher at-rest pressure rather than the active pressure. However, this is not necessary since the amount of wall movement required to cause the pressure to decrease from the atrest level to the active level is very small. Studies of soil pressure on retaining walls have shown that the top of a retaining wall needs to move only 0.001 times the height of the wall in order for the pressure to drop to the active value.

Figure 1-2. Relative Pressures for the Three Soil States

There are some applications where the wall cannot be allowed to move. These include bridge abutments and walls that are rigidly connected to buildings. In cases such as these, the design should be based on the higher at-rest pressure; otherwise, the lower active pressure can be used. Designing on the basis of the active pressure will reduce the cost of the wall and give a more accurate model of the actual behavior of most retaining walls.

4

**Active and Passive Zones
**

When the wall moves forward, a certain portion of the soil behind the wall moves forward also. The area containing the soil that moves with the wall is referred to as the active zone. The area behind the active zone is called the passive zone. The line that divides the two zones is called the failure plane. The failure plane can be estimated by drawing a line that begins at the bottom rear edge of the wall and extends into the backfill at an angle of 45º plus one-half the friction angle of the soil (45º /2) and intersects a vertical line three 0.3 the height of the wall. (H x 0.3) The active zone for a geogrid reinforced soil mass includes the entire reinforcement zone and the area included in the theoretical failure surface. The origin of the theoretical failure surface is located at the back bottom of the reinforced zone.

Theoretical Failure Plan

Pressure Coefficients

The horizontal stress ( h) on a retaining wall due to the retained soil is directly proportional to the vertical stress ( v) on the soil at the same depth. The ratio of the two stresses is a constant called the pressure coefficient:

= ( h) ( v)

The pressure coefficient for the at-rest state can be calculated using the formula:

Ko = 1 — sin ( )

where: is the friction angle of the soil. The active pressure coefficient can be calculated using an equation that was derived by Coulomb in 1776. This equation takes into account the slope of the backfill, the batter of the retaining wall, and the effects of friction between the retained soil and the surface of the retaining wall. Figure 1-3 illustrates the various terms of Coulomb's equation.

**The Coulomb equation for the active force on a retaining wall is:
**

where:

Fa = (0.5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2

= the active force on the retaining wall; it is the resultant force of the active pressure on the retaining wall = distance from the bottom of the wall to the top of the wall = the active pressure coefficient Figure 1-3. Definition for Active Force for Coulomb’s Equation

Fa H Ka

Ka =

[

**csc ( ) sin ( sin ( +
**

w)

) + w) sin ( sin ( — i)

+

sin (

— i)

]

2

= angle between the horizontal and the sloped back face of the wall

i

w

= slope of the top of the retained soil = angle between a line perpendicular to the wall face and the line of action of the active force

5

5) (base) (height) = (0. the horizontal pressure increases linearly as the depth increases and the resulting pressure distribution is triangular. (Ph) is related to the vertical pressure (Pv) by the active pressure d As discussed previously. For a loose backfill. The magnitude of the resultant force of a triangular pressure distribution is equal to the area of the triangle. Figure 1-4.5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 The resultant force acts at a point above the base equal to one-third of the height of the triangle. Figure 1-5. the horizontal pressure coefficient: Ka Ph = (Ph) (Pv) = (Ka) (Pv) = (Ka) ( ) (d) Since Ka and are constants. The vertical pressure at any depth is given by: Pv Where: = ( ) (d) = the unit weight of the soil = the depth from the top of the retained soil mass. Effect of Wall Friction on Active Force Active Force on the Wall Once the active pressure coefficient has been determined. The active pressure distribution is triangular. Figure 1-5 shows the active pressure distribution on a retaining wall. the soil enters the active state by moving forward and downward. The resultant force of a rectangular pressure distribution acts at a point above the base equal to one-half of the height of the rectangle. w < . Adding a surcharge or slope above the wall has the effect of developing a rectangular pressure distribution.5) ( ) (Ka) (H) (H) = (0. At the interface of the soil and the wall. The pressure at the base of the triangle is given by: = (Ka) ( ) (H) The magnitude of the active force is: Ph Fa = (area of the triangle) = (0. the active force on the wall can be determined. The magnitude of w varies depending on the unit weight of the backfill. w is approximately equal to . however. Active Pressure Distribution on a Retaining Wall 6 .66) . Since retaining wall backfill is thoroughly compacted. Figure 1-4 shows the resultant active force on a retaining wall and the effect of wall friction on the direction of the force. For a dense back-fill. this downward movement of the wall is resisted by the friction between the soil and the wall. the design method in this manual assumes that w = (0.As the wall moves forward slightly. which reflects the fact that soil pressure increases linearly with soil depth.

Because of this. A typical unit weight for concrete is 135 lb/ft3 (2.635 ft) (0.163 kg/m3). Depending on the size of the wall.53 ft3 = 0.015 m3 = 0.97 foot (0. the volume of concrete for each Allan Block unit can be calculated: Vc = (72 lb) (135 lb/ft3) = 0.011 m3 Total Unit Weight The unit weight of the wall facing can now be calculated.83 m) tall with a facing depth of 0.5 ft) (0.92 ft3 = Vt Vc 3 = 0. the length of the wall is taken to be one foot (or one meter) and the wall is analyzed as a two-dimensional system.923 kg/m3) Once the unit weight of the wall facing is known.026 m3 — 0.92 ft — 0. Allan Block’s unit weight is the sum of the blocks plus the granular in fill material and is calculated below. the volume of the voids is: Vv = 0.53 ft3) (135 lb/ft3) + (0.923 kg/m3).011 m3) (1. is: Vt = (1. including the voids. Concrete usually weighs more than soil.83 m) (0. The unit weight of the concrete is 135 lb/ft3 (2.92 ft3) 0.19 m) (0.53 ft3 = (33 kg) (2.39 ft3 = (0. Assuming that the voids are filled with soil with a unit weight of 120 lb/ft3 (1.97 ft) = 0.3 m) = 0. the weight of the facing would be: Ww In general.061 kg/m3) (1.Two-Dimensional Analysis A retaining wall is a three-dimensional object.923 kg/m3).026 m3 = 130 lb/ft3 = 2. it is a simple matter to calculate the weight per linear foot of wall: Ww = (unit weight of wall) (volume of wall) = (unit weight of wall) (wall height) (facing depth) = (130 lb/ft3) (6 ft) (0. Calculating the Effective Unit Weight of the Wall Facing The effective unit weight of the wall facing is often needed for wall design.119 kg/m3 = (610 kg/m2) (wall height) For a wall 6 feet (1.015 m3 The total volume occupied by each standard Allan Block unit. length.163 kg/m3) = 0.3 m) = 1.46 m) (0.163 kg/m3) + (0.015 m3) (2.061 kg/m3 = (0. and depth.163 kg/m3) while a typical unit weight for soil is 120 lb/ft3 (1. the units for forces will always be pounds per foot (lb/ft) (kilograms per meter (kg/m)). From these values.97 ft) = 757 lb/ft = (125 lb/ft2) (wall height) = (2. In order to simplify the analysis. and the design engineer should know how to calculate the weight of the wall facing.026 m3 Therefore. this difference may be significant. the unit weight of the wall facing is: = (weight of concrete) + (weight of soil) (volume of block) w = (0.3 m). and the units for moments will be foot-pounds per foot (ft-lb/ft) (newton-meters per meter (N-m/m)).39 ft3) (120 lb/ ft3) (0. The weight of a AB Stone unit is approximately 72 lb (33 kg). the weight of the facing is: Ww 7 . It has height.

8 .0 These are the same values recommended by most governmental agencies.5 Overturning > 2.Safety Factors The safety factors used in this design manual conform to the guidelines of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). you should check your state and local building codes to make sure these safety factors are sufficient. However. they recommend using the following safety factors: Sliding > 1. In the draft version of Guidelines for the Design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls.

061 kg/m3) Find: The safety factor against sliding. Fr. Example 2-1: Given: Free body Ex.666) ( ) = 20º Unit weight of wall = 130 lb/ft3 (2.05m)2 9 . When the forces behind a wall are greater than a simple gravity system can provide. Simple Gravity Walls Simple gravity walls rely on the weight of the wall to counteract the force of the retained soil.44 ft)2 = 156 lb/ft = 2.923 kg/m3) w = (0.44 ft 3 = 78º = 120 lb/ft (1.295 N/m Sliding = (0. If a wall is stable without reinforcement.5. Sliding Failure A simple gravity wall will not fail in sliding if the force resisting sliding.923 kg/m3) (9.2197 (1. 2-1 = 30º Ka = 0. When the forces behind a wall are greater than a tieback system can provide.2197) (3. The minimum safety factor for sliding failure is 1. a coherent gravity wall can be built by using two or more layers of geogrid to stabilize the soil mass.CHAPTER TWO Basic Wall Design Techniques Gravity Wall Tieback Wall Coherent Gravity Wall Introduction One way to classify retaining walls is by the type of reinforcement the walls require. it is referred to as a simple gravity wall.5) (120 lb/ft3) (0. Fh. The first step is to determine the total active force exerted by the soil on the wall: Fa = (0. Figure 2-1 is a diagram showing the forces acting on a simple gravity wall.5) Fh.05 m) i = 0º H = 3. a tieback wall can often be built using a single layer of geogrid or anchors to tie the wall to the soil. Fr.2197) (1. 5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 = (0. must be greater than or equal to (1. The force resisting sliding is the frictional resistance at the wall base. SFS. sliding and overturning.81) (0. is greater than or equal to the force causing sliding.5) (1. Therefore. Two modes of failure must be analyzed. The following example illustrates the procedure for analyzing stability in sliding.

295 N/m) cos (20º) = (156 lb/ft) cos (20º) = 147 lb/ft = 2. The degree of the angle between the active force and a line perpendicular to the face of the wall is w. For very loose soil.666) . The coefficient of friction. the vertical component of the active force is: Fv = (2. Therefore.5 OK (147 lb/ft) = (4.3 m) = (130 lb/ft3) (3. we use the more conservative value of w = (0. because of the effects of friction between the soil and the wall. for compacted soil. 2-1 The safety factor against sliding is greater than 1. w approaches .130 N/m Finally. the active force acts at an angle to a line perpendicular to the face of the wall. the maximum frictional resistance is: Fr = = = = = (Vt) (Cf) (Vt) tan ( ) (Wf + Fv) tan ( ) (434 lb/ft + 53 lb/ft) tan (30º) 281 lb/ft = (6. 10 . However.295 N/m) sin (20º) = 785 N/m The weight of the wall facing must be determined before the frictional resistance to sliding can be calculated: Figure 2-1. w can be as low as (0.157 N/m = = = = (Fa) sin ( w) (Fa) sin [ (0.666) . w varies according to the unit weight of the soil. Cf .9 > 1. Fr is calculated by multiplying the total vertical force. the wall is stable and doesn't require reinforcement to prevent sliding failure. Thus. The active force can be resolved into a component perpendicular to the wall and a component parallel to the wall.05 m) (0.369 N/m + 785 N/m) tan (30º) = 4. Since our wall designs involve compacting the backfill soil. the wall must still be analyzed for overturning failure.130 N/m) = 1. the horizontal component of the active force is: Fh = (Fa) cos ( w) = (Fa) cos [ (0.5 OK (2.666) ( ) ] = (2.As explained in Chapter One.666) ( ) ] (156 lb/ft) sin (20º) 53 lb/ft Similarly. The total vertical force is the sum of the weight of the wall and the vertical component of the active force.97 ft) = 434 lb/ft = 6. Vt . is assumed to be equal to tan ( ).44 ft) (0. Thus.157 N/m) Free body Ex.9 > 1. the safety factor against sliding can be calculated: SFS = (Force resisting sliding) = Fr (Force causing sliding) Fh = (281 lb/ft) = 1.369 N/m The maximum frictional resistance to sliding. Schematic Diagram of Simple Gravity Retaining Wall = ( w) (H) (d) = (2061 kg/m3) (1.5. by the coefficient Wf of friction.

333) (3. 2-1 Mr = (Wf) [ (X1) + (0. Two forces contribute to the moment resisting overturning of the wall. Mr must be greater than or equal to (2.5) (1. Therefore. As calculated previously. which is triangular. the moments resisting overturning.5) (3.6 > 2.369 N/m) [ (0. Find the safety factor against overturning. for Example 2-1. must be greater than or equal to the moments causing overturning.Overturning Failure Overturning failure occurs when the forces acting on the wall cause it to rotate about the bottom front corner of the wall (Point A in Figure 2-1).333) H from the bottom of the wall. the vertical centroid is located at one-third the height of the triangle. the horizontal component of the active force acts on the wall (0.) The horizontal component of the active force is the only force that contributes to the overturning moment.6 > 2.149 m) + (0.333) (H) = (147 lb/ft) (0.05 m) = 754 N-m/m The safety factor against overturning is: SFO = (Moment resisting overturning) = Mr (Moment causing overturning) Mo = (436 ft-lb/ft) = 2.0. 5) (H) tan (90º— ) and (0.0 OK (168 ft-lb/ft) = (1.954 N-m/m) = 2.44 ft) = 168 ft-lb/ft = (2. 44 ft) tan (90º—78º) ] = 436 ft-lb/ft = (6. This wall is adequate in both sliding and overturning and no geogrid reinforcement is required.333) (3.333) (1. the safety factor against sliding is also greater than 1. Overturning 11 .05 m) tan (90º—78º) ] + (785 N/m) [ (0.0 OK (754 N-m/m) The safety factor against overturning is greater than 2. The moment causing overturning is given by: Free body Ex.333) (H) tan (90º— ) ] = (434 lb/ft) [ (0.0) Mo. For stability.5) (H) tan (90º— ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0. Therefore.5 for this wall. These are the weight of the wall and the vertical component of the active force on the wall. The minimum safety factor for overturning is 2.3 m) + (0. Mo. For triangular pressure distributions.157 N/m) (0.333) (H) tan (90º— ) account for the distance added to the moment arms because the wall is not vertical.333) (1. Therefore. 2-1 Mo = (Fh) ( 1) = (Fh) (0. Summing these moments about Point A: Free body Ex. the wall is stable and doesn't require geogrid reinforcement to prevent overturning. SFO.0.05 m) tan (90º—78º) ] = 1.44 ft) tan (90º—78º) ] + (53 lb/ft) [ (0. The active force is the resultant of the active pressure distribution. Mr.49 ft) + (0.954 N-m/m (NOTE: The quantities (0.97 ft) + (0.

57 m) (0.523 N/m Next. The first step in the analysis is to determine the weight of the wall facing: Wf = (5.2197 = 78º = 120 lb/ft3 (1.270 N/m 12 . SFS.57 m) Ka = 0.061 kg/m3) = 651 lb/ft = 9.Tieback Walls A simple gravity wall may be analyzed and found to be unstable in either sliding or overturning. The force on the wall due to the weight of the retained soil is calculated exactly as it was in the simple gravity wall analysis. Example 2-2: Given: = 30º = 20º w H = 5.16 ft (1.800 N/m = = 1.061 kg/m3) Find: The safety factors against sliding.923 kg/m3) i = 0º Unit weight of wall facing = 130 lb/ft3 (2. The single layer of grid or earth anchor is treated as a restraining device or anchor. Figure 2-2 is a schematic diagram of a tieback wall and Figure 2-3 is a freebody diagram of the forces on the wall.523 N/m + 1.923 kg/m3) (0. Diagram of retaining Wall for Tieback Analysis = 9.3 m) (2.57 m)2 = 5.108 N/m The horizontal and vertical components of the active force are: Fh Fv = (351 lb/ft) cos (20º) = = (351 lb/ft) sin (20º) = (5. When this occurs. and overturning.2197) (1. the next logical step is to analyze the wall with a single layer of geogrid or earth anchors behind it.16 ft) (0. the forces resisting failure in this instance are the frictional resistance due to the weight of the wall plus the friction force due to the weight of the soil on the grid or restraining force of the anchor. SFO.5) (1.108 N/m) sin (20º) 330 lb/ft 120 lb/ft = (5.747 N/m = 11.747 N/m The total vertical force due to the weight of the wall and the vertical component of the active force is: Vt = Wf + = 651 = 771 Fv lb/ft + 120 lb/ft lb/ft Figure 2-2. However.108 N/m) cos (20º) = 4.5) (120 lb/ft3) (0.16 ft)2 = 351 lb/ft = (0.97 ft) (130 lb/ft3) = (1.2197) (5. the active force of the soil on the wall is calculated: Fa = (0.

57 m) tan (90º—78º) ] = 3.800 N/m) (0. Freebody Diagram of Retaining Wall for tieback Analysis The safety factor against overturning is: Mr = = + = (Wf) [ (X1) + (0. A good rule of thumb is to place the reinforcement as close as possible to halfway between the top and bottom of the wall.800 N/m) = 1.510 N-m/m) Without reinforcement. a tieback wall will be required.97 ft) + (0.35 Fh (330 lb/ft) = Fr = (6.726 N-m/m) = 1.333) (5.5) (5.3 m) + (0.57m) = 2.16 ft) tan (90º—78º) ] 836 ft-lb/ft = (9.333) (1.35 Figure 2-3.149 m) + (0.47 Mo (2.523 N/m) [ (0.5) (H) tan (90º— ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0.The force that resists sliding of the wall because of friction between the wall and the soil is: Fr = (Vt) (Cf) = (771 lb/ft) tan (30º) = 445 lb/ft = (11.49 ft) + (0.270 N/m) tan (30º) = 6.47 Mo (567 ft-lb/ft) = Mr = (3.507 N/m The safety factor against sliding is: SFS = Fr = (445 lb/ft) = 1. Therefore.507 N/m) Fh (4.747 N/m) [ (0.726 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) ( 1) = (330 lb/ft) (0. 13 . this wall is not adequate with respect to either sliding failure or overturning failure.5) (1.16 ft) = 567 ft-lb/ft = (4.16 ft) tan (90º—78º) ] (120 lb/ ft) [ (0.333) (H) tan (90º— ) ] (651 lb/ft) [ (0.333) (1.510 N-m/m SFO = Mr = (836 ft-lb/ft) = 1.57 m) tan (90º—78º) ] + (1.333) (5.

dg = the depth from the top of the backfill to the layer of geogrid.7 m). In this case an average strength geogrid will be used. Another important assumption is that the geogrid will extend far enough into the passive zone to develop the full allowable design strength of the geogrid. of soil. 0. Fg The factor 2 is used since both the top and the bottom of the geogrid interact with the soil. A safety factor of 1. = the unit weight of the backfill soil.3 ft) (120 lb/ft3) (0.161 N/m). and 0.Geogrid as a Tieback A single layer of geogrid reinforcement acts as an anchor to keep the retaining wall from moving forward.75 for silts and clays. 2-2 tan( ) = the coefficient of friction (shear strength) between adjacent layers The next step in the design process is to estimate the length of geogrid required. Le Ci = the length of geogrid embedded in the passive zone of the soil. The relationship can be expressed as follows: Fg = (Unit weight of soil) x (Depth to grid) x (2) x (Area of the grid in the passive zone) x (Coefficient of friction) The following equation can be used to calculate the maximum potential restraining force: Fg where: = (2) (dg) ( ) (Le) (Ci) tan ( ) = the maximum potential restraining force.240 kg/m) (2) (0. Typical values of Ci are 0. a measure of the ability of the soil to hold the geogrid when a force is applied to it. The embedment length required to generate that force can be calculated as follows: Fg Le = (2) (dg) ( ) (Le) (Ci) tan ( ) = Fg (2) (dg ) ( ) Ci) tan ( ) = (833 lb/ft) (2) (2.85) tan (30º) (1. = the coefficient of interaction between the soil and the geogrid.7 m) (1. let dg = 2.923 kg/m3) (0. must be specified. dg.08 ft = = 0.5 is applied to this value and the design strength is 833 lb/ft (12. the full long-term allowable load is 1. To complete Example 2-2.85) tan (30º) = 3.30 ft (0.85 for sand or silty sands.249 N/m). Diagram Ex. First.250 lb/ft (18. The geogrid extends into the backfill soil and the frictional resistance due to the weight of the soil on top of the geogrid provides the restraining force. the depth to the geogrid.9 for gravelly soil.94 m 14 .

161 N/m) 4.3 ft) (120 lb/ft3) (3.7m) [ tan (30º) — tan (12º) ] = 0.The total length of geogrid required per linear foot of wall is: Lt where: = Lw + La + Le = = = = = total length of geogrid length of geogrid inside the Allan Block wall = 0.5 ft (0.08 ft = 4. let Fg = 833 lb/ft (12.94 m = 1. At this point. However.726 N-m/m) + (12.84 ft) — (5.57 m — 0.800 N/m = 3.0 ft (1. The maximum restraining force must be less than or equal to the LTADL.0 OK = 5.0 ft (1.95 m) is: Fg = (2) (2. 15 .16 ft — 2.161 N/m).26 m) + (1. 833 lb/ft (12.57 m — 0.5 and SFO > 2.5 OK = 3.96 ft = (0.16 ft — 2.12 ft = Lt — (0.0 ft (1.510 N-m/m = 5.52 m For the convenience of the workers installing the retaining wall. For this example.52 m) long.15 m).161 N/m).5 OK SFO = Mr = (836 ft-lb/ft) + (833 lb/ft) (5. you may want to go back.0 OK Since SFS > 1. and reanalyze the wall.52 m — (0. the safety factors against sliding and overturning can be recalculated: SFS = Fr + LTAD = (445 lb/ft + 833 lb/ft) Fh (330 lb/ft) = (6.7m) 2.16 ft — 2. even if it is not required for wall stability.85 m) tan (30º) = 845 lb/ft = 1.52 m) the actual embedment length is: Le = Lt — (0. the long-term allowable design load (LTADL) of the grid specified is only 833 lb/ft (12.84 ft) + (5. we round off the geogrid length to the nearest 0.161 N/m). Lt = 5. The estimated total length of geogrid required for the wall in Example 2-2 is: = (0. 5.3 ft) [ tan (30 ) — tan (12 ) ] = 3.87 > 1.255 kg/m However. Finally.84 ft (0.84 ft) — (H — dg) [ tan (45 — /2) — tan (90 — ) ] = 5.30 ft) Mo (567 ft-lb/ft) = (3. this retaining wall is stable with one layer of geogrid. Therefore.12 ft) (0.12 feet (0.87 > 1.7 m) [ tan (30º) — tan (12º) ] + 0.507 N/m + 12.57 m — 0.26 m) length of geogrid in the active zone Lt Lw La Le Lt (H — dg) [ tan (45 — /2) — tan (90 — ) ] length of geogrid embedded in the passive zone. shorten the geogrid to optimize the design.923 kg/m3) (0.7 > 2.3 ft) [ tan (30 ) — tan (12 ) ] + 3.52 m).0 ft — (0.7 m) (1. we recommend using a geogrid length that is sufficient to develop the full long-term allowable design strength of the geogrid.7 > 2. With a total geogrid length of 5.0.26 m) — (H — dg) [tan (45º — /2) — tan (90º— )] = 1.26 m) — (1.161 N/m) (1.94 m The maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid for an embedment length of 3.95 m) (0.85) tan (30 ) = (2) (0.

Earth Anchors as a Tieback A single row of earth anchors can be utilized to provide the additional tieback resistance.5 OK = = + = = (6.57 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (12.49 ft) + (0. (Past the theoretical failure plane) Lt 16 .130 x 1.7 m) [ tan (30º) — tan (12º) ] + 0.97 ft) + (0.149 m) + (0. or Fp.57 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (1.786 m) = 13.800 N/m = 3.964 N/m + 0. Reference Table 2-1 Page 50 = (13.3 > 2. Fga = The maximum potential restraining force.985 ft-lb/ft = (9.523 N/m) [ (0.523 N/m + 1.278 N-m/m * Use the least of Fwe. = 888 lb/ft + [0. For this example we will specify spacing of anchors on 8 foot (2.87 > 1.507 N/m + 12.0 ft = 4 ft = (1.5) (5.22 m Check to determine if the Fwe or the grid pullout from the block or rupture is the determining factor.58 ft) 2.278 N-m/m) = 5. Fp = 888 lb/ft + 0.130 x N Fp = Grid pullout from block.44 m) centers and Huesker 35/-20-20 geogrid (Diagram Ex.5 OK The safety factor against overturning is: Mr (Wf) [ (X1) + (0.747 N/m) tan (30º) = 6.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [(X2) + (0.9 (125 lb/ft)] = 919 lb/ft Diagram Ex.333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + *Fga (H/2) (651 lb/ft) [ (0.825 N/m)] = 13.161 N/m) 4. The earth anchors extend beyond the failure plane and provide additional resistance to overturning and sliding.130 x 1.985 ft-lb/ft) = 5.67) Fe ÷ 8 ft = 879 lb/ft = (0. Therefore the additional force resisting sliding is: Fr Fr Fwe Fga = (Wf + Fv) tan (30º) = (651 lb/ft + 120 lb/ft) tan (30º) = 445 lb/ft = (0.9 m) embedment into the passive zone. Fe = 10.333) (5.0 OK (2.2-2).964 N/m + [0.67) Fe ÷ (2.333) (1.9 (1.0 OK Mo (567 ft-lb/ft) = La + 3 ft = (5. (4. This additional force can be utilized in our calculations as follows: Preloaded value of anchor.130 x N = 12.161 N/m) Fr = The maximum frictional resistance to sliding.510 N-m/m) The anchor length requires a 3 foot (0.747 N/m) [ (0.57 m — 0.44 m) = 12.3 > 2.500 lbs. 2-2 = 12.507 N/m Fwe = Weighted design value of anchor.16 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (120 lb/ft) [ (0.415 N/m The resulting factor of safety with one row of earth anchors is: SFS = Fr + * Fga = (445 lb/ft + 833 lb/ft) Fh 330 lb/ft = 3. Note: The pullout from the block can be eliminated as the governing factor by bonding the block to grid interface with a construction grade adhesive.830 N/m = 833 lb/ft (12. SFO = Mr = (2. Fga.9 m = 1. = (9. This is the preloaded value of the anchor for correction for design purposes we will use a weighted value and correction for horizontal anchor spacing.5) (1.763 kg) Fe = Preloaded value of installed anchor.3 ft) [tan (30º) tan (12º) ] + 3.87 > 1.16 ft 2.296 m) + (0.161 N/m) (0.16 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (833 lb/ft) (2.

65m) 5. The wall must be analyzed for stability in sliding and overturning.0FT(1. The values shown in the figure will be used to analyze the stability of the wall.13 FT (0.52m) OfGeogrid 10. must be determined.0 FT (3. Typical Geogrid Reinforcement Embedment for 3 degree AB System 17 .0FT(1.13FT(1.13FT(1. SFO.05m) 10. Example 2-3: Figure 2-4 is a schematic diagram of a coherent gravity wall with two layers of geogrid.0 FT (3. Given: Retained Soil i wr r = 0º (Slope above wall) = 20º = 30º = = = = 0.56m) 1.923 kg/m3) (2. In addition. The subscripts r and o refer to the reinforced soil and the onsite soil.0 FT (3.87m) 0. the number of layers of geogrid required.87m) 6.34m) 6. and overturning.16m) 6. 2. Coherent Gravity Wall for Example 2-3 Find: The safety factors against sliding.002 kg/m3) Figure 2-4.05m) Figure 2-5. Figure 2-8 is a freebody diagram of the same wall. Typical Geogrid Reinforcement Embedment for 6 degree AB System Figure 2-7.2561 (1. The wall facing and reinforced soil mass are then treated as a unit and analyzed as a large simple gravity wall. Typical Geogrid Reinforcement Embedment for 12 degree AB System Figure 2-6.53FT(0.17 ft 120 lb/ft3 125 lb/ft3 (2.05m) 6.83m)OfGeogrid 5. Finally.1FT(0.8 m) wo o = 18º = 27º = 78º Kar H o r Kao = 0.83m)OfGeogrid 10. SFS. and their spacing.2197 9. A rule of thumb is that the minimum reinforcement length is 50% of the wall height for the 12º block systems and 60% of the wall height for 3º and 6º block systems. the bearing pressure of such a large gravity wall must be checked to ensure that it doesn't exceed the allowable bearing capacity of the soil.0FT(1.13FT(1. respectively. Length of Geogrid The first step in analyzing the stability of the wall is to estimate the length of geogrid required.Coherent Gravity Walls The theory behind coherent gravity walls is that two or more layers of geogrid make the reinforced soil mass behave as a single unit.

) The next step is to calculate the active force on the gravity wall. the total vertical force is calculated: Vt = Ww + Fv = (7.156 lb/ft = (2. The active force is given by the equation: Fa = (0.5) ( o) (Kao) (H)2 = (0.313 lb/ft = (109.915 lb/ft = (2.229 lb/ft (Fa) sin ( wo) (1.061 kg/m3) (2.938 N/m) sin (18º) = 5.391 N/m) tan (30º) = 63.8 m)2 = 18. The weight of the wall facing is equal to the unit weight of the wall facing times the height times the depth: Wf = (130 lb/ft3) (9.External Stability Once the length of the geogrid is known.0 ft 3 0. times the depth (measured from back face of wall to the end of the geogrid): Ws = (125 lb/ft3) (9.97 ft) = 1. The weight of the structure is the sum of the weights of the wall facing and the reinforced soil mass.011 N/m = (18.156 lb/ft) + (5.391 N/m The force resisting sliding is calculated by multiplying the total vertical force by the coefficient of friction between the reinforced soil mass and the underlying soil: Fr = (Vt) (Cf) = (7.539 N/m) + (5.3 m) = 16.983 N/m) + (86.938 N/m) cos (18º) = 18.938 N/m The horizontal and vertical components of the active force are: Fh Fv = = = = = = (Fa) cos ( wo) (1.8 m) (1.17 ft) (6.292 lb/ft) sin (18º) 399 lb/ft = (18.983 N/m The weight of the reinforced soil mass is equal to the unit weight of the backfill soil.002 kg/m3) for the unit weight of the wall facing would simplify the calculations and result in a conservative design.002 kg/m ) (2.157 N/m 18 .84 ft) = 5.852 N/m) = 109. times the height of the reinforced soil mass.470 lb/ft = (103.539 N/m (NOTE: Using a value of 125 lb/ft3 (2.256 m) = 86.5) (120 lb/ft3) (0. The properties of the retained soil are used to calculated the active force since it acts at the back of the reinforced soil zone.292 lb/ft = (0.923 kg/m3) (0. the weight of the coherent gravity wall can be calculated.071 lb/ft = (16.292 lb/ft) cos (18º) 1.2561) (9. 2-2 Next.5) (1.83 m — 0.556 N/m The total weight of the coherent gravity wall is: Ww = Wf + Ws = (1.470 lb/ft) tan (30º) = 4.071 lb/ft) + (399 lb/ft) = 7.852 N/m Diagram Ex.556 N/m) = 103.17 ft)2 = 1.2561) (2.8 m) (0.17 ft) (0.915 lb/ft) = 7.

250 lb/ft (18.3 > 2.5) (X1) + (0.5) (9.155 ft-lb/ft) = 8.3 m) + (0.5 for sliding failure and 2.852 N/m) [ (1.5) (6.333) (2.229 lb/ft) (0.5) (X2 — X1) + (X1) + (0. (We recommend no more than 4-course spacing between each layer of geogrid reinforcement for a 12º system and no more than 3-course spacing for 3º and 6º systems.5) (0. Applying a safety factor of 1.13 ft) + (0.8 m) = 16. the wall is adequate with respect to sliding and overturning.161 N/m) per layer of grid.5) (2.155 ft-lb/ft (16.3 m) + (0.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] 31. Freebody Diagram of a Coherent Wall Mr = (139.0 OK The minimum recommended safety factors for geogrid reinforced retaining walls are 1.87 m — 0. Geogrid for this example has the long-term allowable design load of 1.5 > 1. The first step is to determine the minimum number of layers of geogrid required. Since both safety factors for this wall exceed the minimum values.333) (2.5 OK (18.333) (9.915 lb/ft) [ (0.) This is done by dividing the total horizontal force at the back of the wall facing by the load each layer of grid can handle: 19 .793 N-m/m) Figure 2-8.97 ft) + (0. The process ends when both safety factors exceed the minimum recommended values.249 N/m).157 N/m) = 3.5 > 1.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] 139.3> 2.97 ft) + (0.333) (9.229 lb/ft) = Fr Fh = (63.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Ws) [ (0. Internal Stability This part of the design consists of spacing the geogrid layers so that each layer is subjected to a force less than or equal to the long-term allowable design load of the geogrid.13 ft — 0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0. the length of geogrid is increased and the analysis is repeated.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (399 lb/ft) [ (6.983 N/m) [ (0.5) (9.87 m) + (0.5) (0.156 lb/ft) [ (0.011 N/m) (0.0 for overturning failure.0 OK Mo Mo (3.333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] = + + = = + + = (1.5 OK Fh (1.375 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.793 N-m/m SFO = = Mr = (31.5 results in an allowable load of 833 lb/ft (12. In cases where either of the safety factors is lower than required.97 ft) + (0.313 lb/ft) = 3.8 m) tan (90º — 78º)] (5.3 m) + (0.556 N/m) [ (0.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (5.) Mr = (Wf) [ (0.333) (H) = (1.17 ft) = 3.5) (2.5) (1.011 N/m) The safety factor against overturning is: (NOTE: All moments are taken about Point A in Figure 2-8.753 ft-lb/ft = (18.The safety factor against sliding is: SFS = Fr = (4.753 ft-lb/ft) (16.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (86.375 N-m/m) = 8.

(Figure 2-9). the number of layers must always be rounded up to the nearest whole number or use a higher strength grid.5) ( r) (Kar) cos ( wr) (d1 + d2) The load on each layer of grid is given by: dh = d1 d2 Pavg d1 = distance from the top of the backfill to the bottom of the zone supported by the layer of geogrid. it may become necessary to put in more than the minimum number of layers. For this example. Internal Stability Internal stability is the ability of the reinforcement combined with the internal strength of the soil to hold the soil mass together and work as a single unit. Bulging Bulging occurs when horizontal forces between the geogrid layers causes localized rotation of the wall. Grid Rupture Rupture occurs when excessive forces from the retained soil mass exceed the ultimate tensile strength of the geogrid.30 layers = = = (0. Figure 2-9. Increase embedment length Increase number of grid layers 20 . N. The pressure at any depth is given by: Pi Fg where: = ( r) (di) (Kar) cos ( wr) = (Pavg) (dh) = = + = (0.N Fh = (0.5) (2002 kg/m3) (0.5) (P1 + P2) (0. Calculating the Spacing of Geogrid Layers The load on each layer of geogrid is equal to the average pressure on the wall section. Increase grid strength Pullout Pullout results when grid layers are not embedded a sufficient distance beyond the failure plane.17 ft)2 cos (20º) (833 lb/ft) = 1.8 m)2 cos (20º) (12.161 N/m) = = 1.161 N/m) Fh (0.2197) (2. multiplied by the height of the section. d2 = distance from the top of the backfill to the top of the zone supported by the layer of geogrid.5) ( r) (Kar) (H)2 cos ( wr) (12. dh. This is because the spacing of the layers is limited by the height of the individual Allan Block units.5) [ ( r) (d1) (Kar) cos ( wr) ( r) (d2) (Kar) cos ( wr) ] (0. Pavg. = 2 layers.161 N/m) (12.5) ( r) (Kar) (H)2 cos ( wr) (833 lb/ft) (833 lb/ft) 3 = (0.2197) (9.30 layers Since it is impossible to put in a fraction of a layer.5) (125 lb/ft ) (0. As the number of layers of geogrid increases.

To simplify the analysis.2197) (cos 20º) = 207 kg/m3 = 9.75 m).8 m — 1.9 lb/ft3) ) ]0. up from the bottom.58 m). the second layer of geogrid should be placed 5.002 kg/m3) (0.17 ft 4.5) ( r) (Kar) cos ( wr) = [ C (d1) + C (d2) ] (d1 — d2) = C (d1)2 — C (d2)2 Fg < 833 lb/ft (12. In general.9 lb/ft3 = (0. the geogrid should be placed between one-third and one-half of the distance from the bottom of dh to the top of dh.17 ft)2 — ( (833 lb/ft)/(12.161 N/m) Fg The condition for internal stability is that: or where: C (d1)2 — C (d2)2 < 833 lb/ft C = (0.5 = 1. 3 blocks. In this case.5 d1 = [ (9. Therefore. place the geogrid up one-half of the distance from bottom to top of dh.36 m Solving for dh: dh = (d1 — d2) = 9.62 inches or 0.2197) (cos 20º) = 12.42 ft = 4.5) (125 lb/ft3) (0.905 ft (0. 10 blocks. normally that means that the geogrid can only be placed at heights evenly divisible by 7.17 ft (2. For AB Stones standard units. place the geogrid up one-third of the distance from the bottom of dh to the top of dh.5) (2.42 ft = [ (d1)2 — ( (1.73 ft (1. Geogrid can only be placed between the blocks forming the wall facing. This wall only requires two layers of geogrid.75 ft = 2.8 m)2 — ( (1. The second layer should be placed at one-third to one-half the distance between the location of d2 and the top of the wall.36 m = 1.5 = 4.44 m Place the first layer of geogrid within dh so that the force above the geogrid is equal to the force below the geogrid.5 = [ (2. the first layer should be placed 1.8 m) Solving for d2: d2 = [ (d1)2 — ( (833 lb/ft)/C) ]0.635 ft (194 mm). For a triangular pressure distribution. let: C then: = (0.240 kg/m)/C) ]0. 21 .240 kg/m)/(207 kg/m3) ) ]0. from the bottom of the wall.161 N/m) (12. For a rectangular pressure distribution.

12 m = – 0. exerted on the gravity wall by the soil: R.071 lb/ft) (4.470 lb/ft) = 1. is the distance from the centerline of bearing of the gravity wall to the point of application of the resultant force.87 m) — 1.567 ft-lb/ft) + (2. setting the result equal to zero.185 m Assuming a linear bearing pressure distribution.5) (6.000 (192 kPa) pounds per square foot.87 m 22 . of the resultant vertical force. Most undisturbed soils can withstand pressures between 2.13 ft) – 3.391 N/m Figure 2-10.07 m) = (127. R.071 lb/ft + 399 lb/ft) = 7.229 lb/ft) (3.470 lb/ft = 103.470 lb/ft) = (109.62 ft = (0. The first step is to calculate the resultant vertical resisting force.705 ft-lb/ft) — (3. and solving for X.04 ft) — (399 lb/ft) (6.23 m) — (5.68 ft = – 0. It shows the forces acting on the wall.78 ft) X = (28.5) (1.852 N/m = 109.13 ft) = R = 109.539 N/m + 5.219 lb/sq ft L (6. In this case: e = (0. the maximum bearing pressure can be calculated and compared to the allowable bearing pressure.06 ft) — (7.391 N/m) The eccentricity. the average bearing pressure occurs at the centerline of the wall. Its magnitude is: avg = R = (7. Freebody Diagram for Bearing Pressure Analysis The next step is to locate the point of application of the resultant force.5) (6.13 ft) – X = (0.144 N-m/m) — (16.87 m) — X = (0.011 N/m) (0.5) (1.804 N-m/m) = 1.761 ft-lb/ft) = 3.391 N/m) (X) + (18.12 m (109. R = Fy = W + Fv = (7. MA = (7. This is done by summing moments around Point A. Figure 2-10 is a freebody diagram of the coherent gravity wall in Example 2-3.852 N/m) (2.500 (120 kPa) and 4.391 N/m = 58 kPa L 1.Bearing Pressure on the Underlying Soil Another consideration in the design of a coherent gravity wall is the ability of the underlying soil to support the weight of a giant gravity wall. e.470 lb/ft) (X) + (1.539 N/m) (1.353 N-m/m) + (12.68 ft (7. With this information.933 m) — (103.

631 ft-lb/ft = (b) (d)2 6 = (109.305 m/6) (1.500 lb/sq ft (120 kPa).219 lb/sq ft) — (—740 lb/sq ft) = 1. the maximum and minimum bearing pressures are calculated: avg mom = avg + mom = (1.566 N-m/m The section modulus of a 1-foot wide section of the wall is given by: S Where: b d S = the width of the section = 1.914 kg/m2 = (58 kPa) — (—116 kPa) = 174 kPa = 17. When the maximum bearing pressure is greater than the allowable bearing pressure the underlying soil is not stable.13 ft)2 = 6.305 m) = the depth of the section = L = 6.470 lb/ft) (—0.87 m)2 = 0.177 m3 The difference in stress due to the eccentricity is: mom = (—20.26 ft3 = MB S = (—4. The procedure outlined above can be simplified by rearranging the equations as follows: = avg mom = R L M = R S L (6)M = R L L2 (6) (R) (e) L2 Note that the eccentricity can be negative as well as positive.188 m) = —20.219 lb/sq ft) + (—740 lb/sq ft) = 479 lb/sq ft = avg — mom = (1. the bearing pressure due to the moment about the centerline of bearing is calculated.743 kg/m2 The maximum bearing pressure is greater than the allowable bearing pressure of 2.566 N-m/m) (0.305 m/6) (L)2 = (0.177 m3) = —116 kPa Diagram Ex. This is done by finding the moment due to the resultant vertical force about the centerline of bearing (Point B) and dividing it by the section modulus of a horizontal section through gravity wall. the wall is unstable with respect to the allowable bearing capacity of the underlying soil. Stabilizing the soil under the wall is accomplished by spreading the forces of the wall over a larger area.62 ft) = —4. 2-3 Finally.87 m) = (1 ft/6) (L)2 = (1 ft/6) (6. The moment due to the eccentricity of the resultant force is: MB = (R) (e) = (7. Engineers use this concept in designing spread footings.391 N/m) (—0.0 ft (0.Next. Therefore.959 lb/sq ft = (58 kPa) + (—116 kPa) = —58 kPa = —5. A conservative assumption is that the maximum bearing pressure occurs at the toe of the wall.13 ft (1. 23 .631 ft-lb/ft) (6.26 ft3) = —740 lb/ft2 = = (0.

0 ft tan (45 — /2) = 0. then increase the size of the base.5 ft/W W = 0.3 m Therefore. Soil Mechanics. 24 . tan (45 — /2) = 0.3 m) Base Footing Location: The toe extension will be equal to the footing depth.0 If FSbearing = qf max < 2.15 m = = = (Bi — 1) + (2) (W) (Bi — 1) + (2) (1 ft) (Bi — 1) + (2) (0. (di — 1) + 0. compare it to ultimate bearing (qf): qf Where: = (½) ( ) (B) (N ) + (c) (Nc) + (D) (Nq) (Craig. = 36º. Therefore. Fifth Edition) Nq Nc N = C D f = = = exp ( tan ) tan2 (45 + (Nc — 1) cot (Nq — 1) tan (1. Increment to next size: The material in the base will always be a select crushed stone. 303.0.15 m / tan (45 — 36º/2) W = 0. The ultimate bearing (qf) should be designed to a factor of safety of 2.5 ft.5 ft / tan (45 — 36º/2) W = 1. p.15 m/W W = 0. the incremental base size is: Increase Width by: di Bi = = (di — 1) + 0.4 ) /2) = Unit weight of foundation soils Original Base Size: = Cf = Cohesion of foundation soils = di = Depth of wall embedment = Buried block + Footing thickness (di).Once the max is determined.

the results exhibited a uniform behavior based on grid strengths and normal loads applied.103 N/m) Geogrid Length = 5.4 kg).6 cm) of grout above and below the grid layers is required. The maximum force in the geogrid occurs at the intersection of the failure plane .923 kg/m3) LTADS = 1322 lb/ft (19. This is called interlocking and results in additional resistance to sliding. 11. shows the equations derived from the testing for each type of grid and fabric tested. 7. provides a more uniform block-to-grid interlock than any system on the market. Pullout tests were conducted at the University of Washington.88. the voids of the Allan Blocks were filled with crushed limestone. (5.8 kg). The test values increased with added vertical loads.1 cm) 12° 30° 120 lb/ft3 (1. the voids were left empty. (226. Allan Block’s gravel filled hollow core provides a multi-point interlock with the grid. The surprising magnitude of the ACF for crushed limestone is due to a significant amount of interlocking between the crushed rock and the geogrid. From a total of 144 pullout tests. When the voids were left empty. In the first set. there was an apparent coefficient of friction (ACF) of about 3. the force on the geogrid is reduced to about two-thirds of the maximum force (McKittrick. As wall heights increase. Two sets of tests were run. Table 2-1 on page 50. (907.4 2 in. the ACF was about 0. A total of ten geogrids and two geofabrics were tested. When a grouted connection is specified. 1979).6 kg).18 kg) vertical load per lineal foot of wall. 1500 lbs. At the back of the wall.0 between the geogrid and the Allan Blocks. 15 = 130 lb/ft3 (2. (453. In the second set. pinless design of Allan Block raises questions on how the geogrid is attached to the wall facing. a minimum of 3 inches (7. (680. The location of the block to grid connection will be the determining factor for the amount of normal (vertical) load applied. some of the material used to fill the voids in the Allan Blocks becomes wedged in the apertures of the geogrid.300 N/m) Fis = Fa = 45 lb/ft (657 N/m) Fid = Fa + DFdyn + Pir = 1240 lb/ft (18.1 m) s 0. et al.2 ft Ao d = = = = = LTADS (Applied Load) (0. A typical pullout equation for service and ultimate loads takes the form X + Y * N. When the voids were filled with crushed limestone. Mechanical Connection A grouted / mechanical connection may be desirable in special circumstances such as for geogrid layers under high seismic loading or when barriers are attached. The hollow cores of the Allan Block provide for a cell to encapsulate the geogrid placed between block courses.1 ft (1. The variables X and Y are constant values as determined by testing.6 m) Geogrid Courses = 3. FSmech = Example 2-4 Given: H = 10. combined with the weight of the Allan Block units. In addition.the boundary between the active and passive zones of the retained soil. Pullout tests were conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville by Kliethermes. Each product was tested three times under four loading conditions. 1000 lbs.Attachment of the Geogrid to the Wall Facing A logical question to ask is: What keeps the geogrid from slipping out from between the courses of Allan Block? The answer is that the weight of the Allan Blocks sitting on top of the geogrid creates friction between the blocks and the geogrid. The hollow core.061 kg/m3) w 25 . The force on the geogrid decreases as the horizontal distance from the failure plane increases. is load applied to the block. Factors of safety for this connection are determined by comparing the long-term allowable design strength (LTADS) of the geogrid to the applied load at the face.667) (3. The data compiled was consistent. The normal (vertical) load N. 500 lbs. and 2000 lbs. our exclusive "rock lock" connection.

In such circumstances. FSconn = Fcs (Fis)(0.213 N/m) = 13.240 lb/ft (18.5 . ok 2.130 (1.667) 1.1. Static geogrid/block connection capacity 2.122 N/m) (18. ok = 29.667) 1.Find the factors of safety for: 1.103 N/m)(0.30 m) = = 85 lb/ft (1.964 N/m + 0.122 N/m) (657 N/m)(0.525 ft) (130 lb/ft3) (0.240 lb/ft)(0.5 The peak connection strength (Fcs) is an equation of a line generated by comparing the maximum pullout force under various normal loads. ok In comparing the dynamic factor of safety with the static. ok Therefore: FSconn = = = = (13. the peak connection strength (Fcs) is: Fcs = 888 lb/ft + 0.213 N/m) Therefore. FSconn = Fcs Fid Fcs (Fid)(0. the applied load on each grid will increase due to the presence of the dynamic increment force (DFdyn) and the seismic inertial force (Pir).130 (85 lb/ft) = 899 lb/ft = 12.1.2 ft — 9.9 m) (2.5.9 1. Dynamic geogrid/block connection capacity 3.667) 1. The static geogrid/block connection capacity factor of safety is determined by comparing the peak connection strength. The numbers in this example are based on testing done with Allan Block and Fortrac 35/20-20 geogrid.103 N/m) (899 lb/ft) (1.061 kg/m3) (0. Mechanical (grout) geogrid/block connection capacity 1.122 N/m) = 899 lb/ft = Fa + DFdyn + Pir = 1.122 N/m The applied load (Fis) is equal to the active force acting on the wall: Fis = Fa = 45 lb/ft (657 N/m) FSconn = = (899 lb/ft) (45 lb/ft)(0. to the applied load on each layer of geogrid.1 1.130(N) = 12. In a seismic condition.1 1. which is a function of the normal load.1 m — 2. a mechanical connection is desirable. 26 .130(N) Where the normal load (N) is: N = (H — grid elev) ( w) (d) = (10.667) 1.667) (13.964 N/m + 0. we see a dramatic decrease.97 ft) = (3.9 1.1 (13. The resulting equation for Fcs is: Fcs = 888 lb/ft + 0.667) = 29.

1.300 N/m) (1.322 lb/ft) (1.5) (1.5) (252 lb/ft2 + 149 lb/ft2) = 201 lb/ft2 = (0.923 kg/m3) (0.14 m) = 10.666) (F1) = (0.2197) (1.2197) (2. 2-3 The force on the geogrid at the back face of the wall will be approximately two-thirds of F1: Fw = (0.666) (F1) = (0.2197) (5. is: N = (120 lb/ft3) (0.3.1.67) (1.2197) (9.002 kg/m3) (0. Friction Attachment of Geogrid to Blocks P2 = ( ) (Ka) (d2) = (125 lb/ft3) (0.002 kg/m3) (0. ok = 2.6 1.66 m) = 730 kg/m2 Pavg = (0.6 1.666) (750 lb/ft) = 500 lb/ft = (0. caused by the weight of the aggregate-filled blocks above the bottom geogrid layer. For a mechanical connection in a seismic condition. ok Example 2-5 Let's analyze the wall of Example 2-3 for pullout of the geogrid.45 ft) = 867 lb/ft = (1.847 N/m 27 .232 kg/m2 Figure 2-11. Calculate the horizontal force on the bottom layer of geogrid: P1 = ( ) (Ka) (d1) = (125 lb/ft3) (0.8 m) = 1.240 lb/ft) (0.103 N/m) (0.232 kg/m2 + 730 kg/m2) = 981 kg/m2 F1 = Pavg (dh) = (201 lb/ft2) (3.3 m) (2. Figure 2-11 shows the wall and some of the dimensions that will be needed in the calculations.971 N/m Diagram Ex.307 N/m The force resisting pullout.971 N/m) = 7.67) (18.67) = (19.44 ft) = 149 lb/ft2 = (2.27 m) = 12. FSconn = LTADS (Fid)(0.17 ft) = 252 lb/ft2 = (2.666) (10.97 ft) (7.73 ft) = 750 lb/ft = (981 kg/m2) (1.67) = (1. the factor of safety for geogrid/block connection is a comparison of the long term allowable design strength of the geogrid (with no creep reduction factor taken due to the temporary nature of a seismic event) to the dynamic applied load on each grid.67) = 2.

012 N/m) = 4.666) (6.004 N/m The force resisting pullout.97 ft) (3.300 N/m) The safety factor against pullout for the bottom layer of geogrid is: SFP The horizontal force on the top layer of geogrid is: P2 P3 Pavg F2 = ( ) (Ka) (d2) = (125 lb/ft3) (0.736 N/m) (4.0 = (7.059 N/m).130 (867 lb/ft) = 1.666) (408 lb/ft) = 272 lb/ft = (0.964 N/m + 0.666) (1100 lb/ft) = 732 lb/ft = (0.002 kg/m3) (0.5) (730 kg/m2 + 0 kg/m2) = 365 kg/m2 = (Pavg) (dh) = (75 lb/ft2) (5. Therefore.5) (149 lb/ft2 + 0 lb/ft2) = 75 lb/ft2 = (0.67 m) = 6. The tensile force on the geogrid at the back face of the concrete blocks is approximately two-thirds of the maximum tensile force: Fw = (0.942 N/m) = 13.130 (400 lb/ft) = 940 lb/ft = Fr = 12. Any layer of geogrid located below this critical depth can be assumed to be safe from pullout failure. the force holding the geogrid between the blocks will be equal to or greater than the long-term allowable design load of the geogrid.847 N/m) = 14.000 lb/ft) = 2. and the presence of surcharges.634 N/m) = 2.666) (F2) = (0.736 N/m The safety factor against pullout for the top layer of geogrid is: SFP = (940 lb/ft) = 3.695 N/m The required pullout resistance for a single layer of geogrid is equal to the tensile force at the back face of the concrete blocks times a safety factor of 1.Using Huesker 35/20-20 equation from Table 2-1: P = Fr = 888 lb/ft + 0.666) (F2) = (0.2197) (0 ft) = 0 lb/ft2 = ( ) (Ka) (d3) = (2.45 (272 lb/ft) = (13.2197) (1.059 N/m).130 (5.71 lb/ft = (1.44 ft) = 400 lb/ft = W2 = (1.004 N/m) = 3.634 N/m = (14. if any.059 N/m) = 10. The long-term allowable design load for Huesker geogrid is 1100 lb/ft (16.05 m) = 5.666) (16.130 (12. the maximum required pullout resistance for any one layer of geogrid is: Fr = 1100 lb/ft = 16.45 At a certain depth.0 (500 lb/ft) = 12. is: N2 P = W2 = (120 lb/ft3) (0.44 ft) = 408 lb/ft = (Pavg) (dh) = (365 kg/m2) (1. the slope of the backfill. The critical depth will be different for each wall depending on the type of soil.67 m) = 730 kg/m2 = ( ) (Ka) (d3) = (125 lb/ft3) (0. caused by the weight of the aggregate filled blocks above the top geogrid layer.3 m) (1.059 N/m 28 .2197) (0 m) = 0 kg/m2 = (0.000.5.2197) (5. In a properly designed wall.964 N/m + 0.942 N/m = Fr = 888 lb/ft + 0.002 kg/m3) (0.923 kg/m3) (0. the maximum tensile force in any layer of geogrid will be less than or equal to 1100 lb/ft (16.44 ft) = 149 lb/ft2 = ( ) (Ka) (d2) = (2.012 N/m The force on the geogrid at the back face of the wall will be approximately two-thirds of F2: Fw = (0.

SFP Wf Wb dc The critical depth for the wall in Example 2-3 can be determined by rearranging and solving the equation given above: dc = F (Wf) (Wb) (SFP) = (1.3 ft (1.81) = 6.100 lb/ft) (120 lb/ft3) (0.3 m) (1.5) (16.3 ft = 1.923 kg/m3) (0.97 ft) (1.89 m) or more below the level of the backfill need not be checked for pullout failure. Diagram Ex.5) (9. any geogrid layer placed 6.The following equation can be used to calculate the critical depth at which the pullout resistance equals the long-term allowable design load of geogrid: Fr where: = (SFP) (Wf) (Wb) (dc) = = = = the safety factor against pullout the unit weight of the wall facing the width of the wall facing (from front to back) the depth at which the pullout resistance equals the long-term allowable design load of the geogrid. 2-3 29 .89 m = For the wall in Example 2-3.059 N/m) (1.

Chapter Three Surcharges Introduction A surcharge is an external load applied to the retained soil. Surcharges located beyond the point of intersection will have a minimal effect on the wall and will be neglected. A surcharge located directly behind a wall will have a much greater effect than one located ten or twenty feet behind the wall. Keep in mind that the back of a coherent gravity wall is located at the end of the geogrid furthest from the wall facing.simple gravity walls. There are several theories about how to calculate the stress at some point within the soil and they range from relatively simple to extremely complex. a live load is that which is transient in its influence on the wall structure and a dead load is that which is taken as a permanent influence on the wall structure. This assumption is fairly accurate for surcharges covering a large area and will result in an error on the conservative side while greatly simplifying the analysis." In this chapter. tieback walls. The one that we have chosen to use is illustrated in Figure 3-1. and other retaining walls. Generally. a conservative approach is followed that does not assume the presence of the live load weight and vertical forces. In order to properly determine the effects of a surcharge load. The nature of a surcharge can be defined as a live load or a dead load. If the dead load is on the retained soil. a coherent gravity wall with a live load surcharge on the infill soil will act to decrease FOS overstress and also decrease FOS for sliding and overturning. 30 . Typical surcharges include: sidewalks. in good soil if the distance from the back of the wall to the surcharge is greater than the height of the wall. For example. the effect of the surcharge will be insignificant. We assume that the force due to a surcharge load on the retained soil is transmitted downward through the soil at an angle of 45º + /2 to the horizontal. In our calculations for stability. Essentially. Any surcharge located between the Figure 3-1 front of the wall and the point of intersection will have a measurable effect on the wall. More exact methods of analysis are available and can be used if desired. we see an increase in FOS sliding and overturning. Another assumption we make in analyzing a surcharge load is that the stress within the soil due to the surcharge is constant with depth. The effect a surcharge has on a wall depends on the magnitude of the surcharge and the location of the surcharge relative to the wall. we will show how to apply the force due to surcharges to each of the three types of retaining walls -. ( is the friction angle of the soil. driveways. Retaining walls as surcharges will be dealt with in a separate section entitled "Tiered Walls. we see a decrease in FOS overstress and an increase in FOS sliding and overturning. roads. be it the retained soil or the infill soil affects individual forces on the wall resulting in increased or decreased stability factors of safety.) The plane of influence can be approximated by drawing a line up from the bottom rear edge of the wall at an angle of 45º + /2 until it intersects the top of the backfill. and coherent gravity walls. we see decreases in FOS sliding and overturning. buildings. As for a coherent gravity wall with a dead load surcharge on the infill soils. The location of the live or dead load surcharge. it is necessary to determine how the stress within the soil varies with vertical and horizontal distance from the surcharge. If the live load surcharge is acting on the retained soil.

The first step in the analysis is to calculate the pressure on the retaining wall due to the surcharge: Pq = (q) (Ka) = (120 lb/ft2) (0. the pressure due to the surcharge has both a horizontal component and a vertical component. Therefore. the horizontal force due to the surcharge is a force that tends to cause both sliding and overturning. the next step in the analysis is to calculate the horizontal and vertical components of the pressure: Pqh Pqv = = = = = = = = = = = = (Pq) cos ( w) (26 lb/ft2) cos (20º) 24 lb/ft2 (Pq) sin ( w) (26 lb/ft2) sin (20º) 9 lb/ft2 (Pqh) (H) (24 lb/ft2) (3. Simple Gravity Retaining Wall with Surcharge = (129 kg/m2) cos (20º) = 121 kg/m2 = 1.2197) = 26 lb/ft2 = (586 kg/m2) (0. The sidewalk is 4 feet wide (1. Therefore. the wall can be analyzed as described in Chapter Two.189 Pa = (129 kg/m2) sin (20º) = 44 kg/m2 = 433 Pa Finally. Effect of Uniform Surcharge on a Retaining Wall Surcharges on Simple Gravity Walls Example 3-1: Figure 3-2 shows the simple gravity wall of Example 2-1 with a uniform surcharge of 120 lb/ft (586 kg/m2) behind it. 2.2 kg/m = 453 N/m Fqv Figure 3-3 is a freebody diagram showing the active forces on the wall. the total surcharge forces on the wall are calculated: Fqh = (121 kg/m2) (1. Wall Friction is Neglected in this Example. (The rest of the forces have already been calculated in Example 2-1. because of the effects of friction between the wall and the soil. CASE 1 X = 0 Pq = (q) (Ka) Sliding Force: Fs = (Pq) (H2) COS ( w) Overturning Moment: Mq = (0. it must be added to those forces when the safety factors are calculated.05 m) = 46. Assume that the surcharge is a sidewalk running parallel to the face of the wall.44 ft) 31 lb/ft Figure 3-2. 31 .Assumptions: 1.) For a simple gravity wall.05 m) = 127 kg/m = 1. Stress in Soil Due to Surcharge Does Not Vary with Depth.5) (H2) (Fs) CASE 2 0 < X < L2 Pq = (q) (Ka) Sliding Force: Fs = (Pq) (H1) COS ( w) Overturning Moment: Mq = (0.44 ft) 83 lb/ft (Pqv) (H) (9 lb/ft2) (3.22 m) and is located right next to the back of the wall. Now that the force and pressure distribution due to the surcharge are known.2197) = 129 kg/m2 Again.5) (H1) (Fs) CASE 3 X > L2 Pq = 0 Sliding Force: Fs = 0 Overturning Moment: Mq = 0 Figure 3-1.246 N/m = (44 kg/m2) (1.

Freebody Diagram of a Simple Gravity Wall with Surcharge Mr = (Wf) [ (X1) + (0.333) (3.5) (1.05 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] 2.05 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (453 N/m) [ (0.44 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (31 lb/ft) [ (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0.157 N/m) + (1.29 (147 lb/ft) + (83 lb/ft) = (4.53 = (2. This illustrates that a surcharge can make the difference between a stable wall and an unstable one.97 ft) + (0.333) (3.5) (H) = (147 lb/ft) (0.44 ft) = 311 ft-lb/ft = (2.157 N/m) (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] = (434 lb/ft) [ (0.3 m) + (0. with the surcharge on the backfill.5) (3.05 m) + (1.408 N-m/m SFO = Mr = (477 ft-lb/ft) Mo (311 ft-lb/ft) = 1.246 N/m) (NOTE: Fr and Fh were calculated in Example 2-1).5) (1.140 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.333) (1.246 N/m) (0.5) (3.5 for sliding and 2.130 N/m) + (453 N/m) tan (30º) = 1. the safety factors are much lower than the recommended minimum values of 1.3 m) + (0.333) (H) + (Fqh) (0.The safety factor against sliding is: SFS = Fr + (Fqv) (Cf) Fh + Fqh = (281 lb/ft) + (31 lb/ft) tan (30º) = 1.44 ft) + (83 lb/ft) (0.369 N/m) [ (0.333) (1.44 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] = 477 ft-lb/ft = + + = (6.05 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (785 N/m) [ (0.49 ft) + (0.5) (3.97 ft) + (0. The safety factor against overturning is: Figure 3-3.333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fqv) [ (X2) + (0.140 N-m/m) (1.0 for overturning.29 (2. 32 .408 N-m/m) = 1.44 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (53 lb/ft) [ (0.5) (1.53 Notice that.05 m) = 1.149 m) + (0.

827 N/m q Lq Fg The maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid is: This is the maximum potential restraining force that can be developed by the geogrid due to the weight of the soil and the surcharge. let Fg = 833 lb/ft (12.161 N/m).12 ft) + (120 lb/ft2) (2. calculate the horizontal and vertical components of the pressure on the wall due to the surcharge: Pqh = (1. For this example.263 Pa Next.the force due to the weight of the soil on top of the geogrid and the force due to the surcharge.Surcharges on Tieback Walls Just as in the case of simple gravity walls.80 m) ] tan (30º) = 16. This force has two components -.150 Pa) cos (20º) = 1.747 Pa) (0.0 ft (0. the surcharge also adds to the vertical force on the geogrid and this helps resist wall failure.30 ft) (120 lb/ft3) (3.85) [ (0.154 lb/ft = (2) (0. we will assume that the surcharge is felt only by the portion of the geogrid lying directly beneath the surcharge.85) [ (2.245 Pa) sin (20º) = 426 Pa Pqv 33 . If the actual force is less than both the maximum potential restraining force and the long-term allowable design load (including safety factor).61 m) behind the front wall face and ending 6.95 m) + (586 kg/m2) (0. a surcharge on a tieback wall adds a horizontal force that contributes to wall failure. Example 3-2: Figure 3-4a. = (2) (0. Tieback Retaining Wall Analyze the tieback wall of Example 2-2 with a surcharge of 120 lb/sq ft (586 kg/m2) beginning 2. in lb/ft2 (Pa) = the length of the geogrid in the passive zone that is underneath the surcharge. the design is adequate. The actual restraining force will vary to balance the force on the wall due to the weight of the soil and the surcharge force. Figure 3-4a is a schematic diagram of the wall and Figure 3-4b is a freebody diagram showing the forces on the wall. The first step in the analysis is to calculate the maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid. check to see if a restraining force equal to the LTADL will provide acceptable factors of safety.923 kg/m3) (0. and calculate the factors of safety. then the design is acceptable. These two components are represented by the terms in the square brackets: Fg where: = (2) (Ci) [ (dg) ( ) (Le) + (q) (Lq) ] tan ( ) = the surcharge.0 ft (1.081 Pa = (1.2197) = 1. Since the maximum potential restraining force is over twice the long-term allowable design load (LTADL) of the geogrid selected. the LTADL of the selected geogrid.83 m) behind the front wall face. The first step is to calculate the magnitude of the pressure on the wall due to the surcharge: Pq = (q) (Ka) = (120 lb/ft2) (0. To be conservative and to simplify the analysis.70 m) (1. If so.2197) = 26 lb/ft2 = = = = = = (Pq) cos ( w) (26 lb/ft2) cos (20º) 24 lb/ft2 (P) sin ( w) (26 lb/ft2) sin (20º) 9 lb/ft2 = (5.62 ft) ] tan (30º) = 1. However. The vertical force due to the surcharge is transmitted down through the soil and the full force of the surcharge is felt on the geogrid.

97 ft) + (0.800 N/m) (0.5) (2. 5) (Hq) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fg) (H — dg) = + + + = + + + (651 lb/ft) (120 lb/ft) (21 lb/ft) [ (833 lb/ft) [ (0.34 (330 lb/ft) + (56 lb/ft) = (6.33 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (5.244 ft-lb/ft (9. the total surcharge forces on the wall are calculated: Fqh = (Pqh) (Hq) = (24 lb/ft2) (2.333) (5.16 ft 2.296 m) + (0.30 ft) = 3.296 m) + (0. the safety factors can be calculated: Figure 3-4b.71 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (12.161 N/m) (1.57 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (1.16 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (0.49 ft) + (0.333) (1.5 and SFO > 2.34 (4.507 N/m) + (12. Note that in some cases the surcharge actually increases the stability of the wall.149 m) + (0.333) (H) + (Fqh) (Hq) = (330 lb/ft) (0.16 ft) + (56 lb/ft) (0.33 ft) = 21 lb/ft = (426 Pa) (0.57 m — 0.13 Mo (632 ft-lb/ft) Mr = Mo (14.57 m) + (768 N/m) (0.081 Pa) (0.5) (0.399 N-m/m) = 5.57 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (302 N/m) [ (0.747 N/m) [ (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [(X2 + (0.33 ft) = 632 ft-lb/ft = (4. it is important to check the stability of the wall without the surcharge if it is possible that the surcharge may be removed.333) (5. such as a parking lot or driveway. 34 .523 N/m) [ (0.13 (2.244 ft-lb/ft) = 5.5) (5.0.782 N-m/m SFO = = Mr = (3.399 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.161 N/m) + (302 N/m) tan (30º) = 3. Also check the stability without the surcharge if it is a live-load surcharge.5) (0. Tieback Retaining Wall SFS = Fr + Fg + (Fqv) (Cf) Fh + Fqh = (445 lb/ft) + (833 lb/ft) + (21 lb/ft) tan (30 ) = 3.5) (2.701 m) = 14.71 m) = 302 N/m Next.16 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] [ (0. Therefore.Finally.97 ft) + (0.33 ft) = 56 lb/ft = (1.5) (1.333) (1.71 m) = 768 N/m Fqv = (Pqv) (Hq) = (9 lb/ft2) (2.71 m) = 2.333) (H) tan (90º — )] + (Fqv) [ (X2) + (0. the stability of this retaining wall is acceptable.782 N-m/m) Since SFS > 1.800 N/m) + (768 N/m) Mr = (Wf) [ (X1) + (0.

748 Pa) on the backfill. The surcharge in Location A contributes to the forces resisting both sliding and overturning. the effect on the entire reinforced soil mass (external stability) must be analyzed. Q.5 ft (0.256 N/m) that is located 2.762 m) from the front face of the wall and acts at the center of the uniform surcharge. This force can be added to the forces resisting sliding when calculating Fr: Fr = (Ww + Fv + Q) (Cf) = [ (7.521 lb/ft = [ (103. Recall that the back of a coherent gravity wall is located at the end of the geogrid farthest from the wall facing.071 lb/ft) + (399 lb/ft) + (360 lb/ft) ] tan (30 ) = 4. it also contributes both to the forces causing overturning and the forces resisting overturning.176 N/m 35 . The surcharge will have an effect on both sliding failure and overturning failure.825 N/m) + (5.256 N/m) ] tan (30º) = 66. Locations of Surcharge on Coherent Gravity Walls Example 3-3: Consider the coherent gravity wall analyzed in Example 2-3. of 360 lb/ft (5. In the same manner. Figure 3-5. Location A: The surcharge can be resolved into an equivalent vertical force. Figure 3-5 shows three possible locations of a surcharge. Surcharges at location B contribute to the forces causing sliding and overturning. In Location C. First. External Stability The effect of a surcharge on the external stability of a coherent gravity retaining wall is nearly identical to the effect on a simple gravity wall and depends on the location of the surcharge. Analyze the external stability of the wall with the surcharge in the three locations shown in Figure 3-5. The surcharge will affect the stress in each layer of geogrid and will influence the spacing of the layers. the effect of the surcharge on the individual layers of geogrid (internal stability) must be analyzed. Second. but with a three-foot-wide surcharge of 120 lb/ft2 (5.539 N/m) + (5.Surcharges on Coherent Gravity Walls Analyzing the effects of a surcharge on a coherent gravity wall is a two-part problem. the surcharge contributes partly to the forces causing sliding and partly to the forces resisting sliding.

For Location B.122 N/m The horizontal and vertical components of the force on the reinforced soil mass due to the surcharge are: Fqh = (Fq) cos ( wo) = (282 lb/ft) cos (18º) = 268 lb/ft = (4.87 m) + (0. the added force due to the surcharge must be taken into account when calculating the bearing pressure on the underlying soil.17 ft) = 3.122 N/m) sin (18º) = 1.521 lb/ft) Fh (1.748 Pa) (0.64 (16.793 N-m/m) Thus. such a surcharge can have a detrimental effect on the internal stability of the wall.0 ft) + (0.333) (H) = (1.2561) (2.122 N/m) cos (18º) = 3. However.68 (18. 13 ft) + (0.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] 32.274 N/m Notice that the pressure coefficient for the onsite soil is used.5 ft) + (9.011 N/m) Q can also be added to the moments of the forces resisting overturning: Mr = (Ww) [ (X1) + (0. The magnitude of the force is: Fq = (q) (Kao) (H) = (120 lb/ft2) (0.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (5.256 N/m) [ (0. Location B: A surcharge in this location has the same effect on the external stability of a coherent gravity wall as on a simple gravity wall.753 ft-lb/ft = (18.68 = (66.411 ft-lb/ft) = 8.229 lb/ft) (0.011 N/m) (0. 333) (9.071 lb/ft) [ (3.64 (3.5) (2.212 N-m/m) = 8.8 m) = 4.793 N-m/m The new safety factor against overturning is: SFO = Mr = Mo (32.212 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.2561) (9.753 ft-lb/ft) = (144.762 m) + (2.91 m) + (0.852 N/m) [ (1.17 ft) = 282 lb/ft = (5. Also.8 m) = 16. 333) (2.539 N/m) [ (0.920 N/m Fqv = (Fq) sin ( wo) = (282 lb/ft) sin (18º) = 87 lb/ft = (4.5) (H) tan (90º — )] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0. the effect of a surcharge in Location A is to make the wall slightly more stable with respect to sliding and overturning.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (5.333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Q) [ (X3) + (H) tan (90º — ) ] = + + = = + + = (7.229 lb/ft) = 3.333) (2.411 ft-lb/ft (103.5) (9. In this case.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] 144.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (360 lb/ft) [ (2.The new safety factor against sliding is: SFS = Fr = (4.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (399 lb/ft) [ (6.176 N/m) = 3. the surcharge results in a horizontal force with its point of application located at H/2 on the back of the reinforced soil mass. This is because the surcharge is located entirely outside the reinforced soil zone and the surcharge force is transmitted through the onsite soil.333) (9. the safety factors against sliding and overturning are: 36 .

17 ft) = 6.38 = (139.920 N/m) (0.91 (1.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] Mo + (Fqh) (0.011 N/m) + (3. half of the surcharge is over the reinforced soil zone and half is not.313 lb/ft) + (87 lb/ft) tan (27º) = 2.8 m) = 6.920 N/m) SFO = Mr + (Fqv) [ (X2) + (0.155 ft-lb/ft) + (87 lb/ft) [ (6.38 Location C: With the surcharge at Location C.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (3.SFS = Fr + (Fqv) (Cf) Fh + Fqh = (4.467 lb/ft = [ (103.375 N/m) + (1.274 N/m) ] tan (30º) = 65.13 ft) + (0.793 N-m/m) + (3.229 lb/ft) + (268 lb/ft) = (63.122 N/m) cos (18º) = 3.8 m) (0.071 lb/ft) + (399 lb/ft) + (180 lb/ft) + (87 lb/ft) ] tan (30 ) = 4.497 lb/ft = (18. the effects on the coherent gravity wall are a combination of the effects of a surcharge at Location A and a surcharge at Location B.229 lb/ft) + (268 lb/ft) = 1.852 N/m) + (2. The part of the surcharge over the geogrid will contribute to the stability of the wall with respect to sliding and overturning.2561) = 4.931 N/m 37 .2561) = 282 lb/ft = (5.011 N/m) + (3.920 N/m Fqv = (Fq) sin ( wo) = (282 lb/ft) sin (18 ) = 87 lb/ft = (4.274 N/m) [ (1.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (16. Therefore.5 (Q) + Fqv] (Cf) = [ (7.753 ft-lb/ft) + (268 lb/ft) (0.748 Pa) (2.5) (9.274 N/m) tan (27º) = 2.17 ft) (0.5) (9.539 N/m) + (5.87 m) + (0.5) (2.274 N/m The force resisting sliding is: Fr = [Ww + Fv + 0. The horizontal and vertical components of the force on the reinforced soil mass due to the surcharge are: Fq = (q) (H) (Kao) = (120 lb/ft2) (9.157 N/m) + (1.5) (2.628 N/m) + (1.5) (H) = (31.920 N/m) = 21.122 N/m Fqh = (Fq) cos ( wo) = (282 lb/ft) cos (18 ) = 268 lb/ft = (4.91 (18.410 N/m The force causing sliding is: Fs = Fh + Fqh = (1.122 N/m) sin (18º) = 1.

333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fqv) [ (X2) + (0.57 (22.17 ft) = 4.5) (2.071 lb/ft) [ (3.57 (4.920 N/m) (0.539 N/m) [ (0.0 ft) + (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (0.274 N/m) [ (1.98 (1.5) (H) = (1.5) (360 lb/ft) [ (5.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] 145.5) (2.5) (9.497 lb/ft) = (65.281 N-m/m The safety factor against overturning is: SFO = (32.13 ft) + (0.333) (H) + (Fqh) (0.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (0.98 The sum of the moments resisting overturning is: Mr = (Ww) [ (X1) + (0.5) (9.5) (5.8 m) + (3.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0.467 lb/ft) = 2.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (0.333) (9.333) (2.931 N/m) = 2.982 ft-lb/ft) = (145.229 lb/ft) (0.011 N/m) (0.723 ft-lb/ft = + + + = (103.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (5.281 N-m/m) 38 .8 m) = 22.17 ft) + (268 lb/ft) (0.410 N/m) (21.25 ft) + (9.256 N/m) [ (1.609 N-m/m) = 6. 982 ft-lb/ft = (18.The safety factor against sliding is: SFS = (4.13 ft) + (0.6 m) + (2.852 N/m) [ (1.87 m) + (0.333) (9.87 m) + (0.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (399 lb/ft) [ (6.333) (2.723 ft-lb/ft) = 6.5) (Q) [ (X3) + (H) tan (90º — ) ] = (7.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (1.5) (2.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (87 lb/ft) [ (6.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] = 32.91 m) + (0.5) (9.609 N-m/m The sum of the moments causing overturning is: Mo = (Fh) (0.

The quadratic equation is: Figure 3-7. the designer must either solve a quadratic equation or use a trial and error method. a surcharge can also have an impact on the spacing of the geogrid layers.Internal Stability In addition to its effects on sliding and overturning failure. Pressure Distributions Due to the Weight and Surcharge 0 where: = [ ( r) (Kar) cos ( wr) ] (dh)2 + ( 2) [ (d1) ( r) (Kar) cos ( wr) + (q) (Kar) cos ( wr) ] (dh) + 2 (Fga) = depth from the top of the wall to the bottom of the area reinforced by this layer of geogrid = the long-term allowable design strength of the geogrid. d 1 Fga The quadratic formula is: 0 = ax2 + bx + c x = dh. It does so by putting an additional load on some or all of the layers of geogrid. The addition of the surcharge stress makes calculating the grid spacing more complicated. The first step in analyzing the effects of a surcharge on internal stability is to determine the horizontal soil stress within the reinforced soil zone. located as shown in Figure 36. These lines are drawn at an angle of 45º + /2 to the horizontal and mark the limits of the zone of influence of the surcharge within the soil. The rectangular pressure distribution represents the effect of the surcharge on the wall facing. The surcharge is 2 ft (0. let: b = ( 2) [ (d1) (a) + (q) (z) ] c = (2) (Fga) 39 z = (Kar) cos ( wr) a = ( r) (z) To use the quadratic formula to solve for .” The magnitude of the horizontal surcharge stress is: Figure 3-6. Instead of solving a linear equation to find the maximum allowable distance between two layers. Once again.747 Pa).one due to the soil weight and one due to the surcharge.2197) cos (20º) = 1. Notice the diagonal lines connected to the beginning and end of the surcharge pressure diagram.2197) cos (20º) = 25 lb/ft2 = (5. Coherent Gravity Wall with Surcharge Pqh = (q) (Kar) cos ( wr) = (120 lb/ft2) (0.186 Pa Figure 3-7 shows the wall facing with the two pressure distributions that affect it .747 Pa) (0. we will use the wall of Example 2-3 with a surcharge of 120 lb/sq ft (5. The horizontal stress due to the surcharge will act only on the portion of the retaining wall located in the area labeled “ZONE OF INFLUENCE.61 m) wide.

dh d2 = 3.8 m — 1.2197) cos (20 ) + (586 kg/m2) (0.5) (125 lb/ft3) (0.07 kPa c = (2) (Fga) = (2) (833 lb/ft) = 1.2197) cos (20 ) ] = 523 lb/ft2 = (—2) [ (2. the geogrid should be placed 3 blocks up.190 N/m 40 .17 ft (2.2197) cos (20º) = 413 kg/m3 b = (—2) [ (d1) ( r) (Kar) cos ( wr) + (q) (Kar) cos ( wr) ] = (—2) [ (9.9 m). and using the data of Example 2-3. determine the geogrid spacing for the wall. the first root. The next step in the analysis is to determine if more than one additional layer of geogrid is required. at a height of 1.62 inches (19.97 ft) = 1.6 m = (0. This is done by calculating the total horizontal force on the wall above height d2 and comparing it to the allowable design strength of the geogrid.15 (4.2197) cos (20 ) ] = 2.6 m)2 cos (20º) = 5.002 kg/m3) (0.5) (3.2 (—2.479 kg/m) (2) (413 kg/m3) = —b Since the wall is only 9.2 m = 1.17 ft — 3.905 ft (0.2197) cos (20 ) + (120 lb/ft2) (0. 16.97 ft = 5.0 or 1.5) (1.322 N/m dh b2 — 4ac 2a (—523 lb/ft2)2 — (4) (26 lb/ft3) (1.666 lb/ft = (2) (12. In this case.2 ft)2 cos (20º) = 349 lb/ft = (0.557 kg/m2 = 25. the geogrid can only be placed at heights that are even multiples of 7.99 ft However.002 kg/m3) (0.002 kg/m3) (0. The horizontal component of the active force above d2 is: Fh = (0.5) (2. Therefore.17 ft) (125 lb/ft3) (0.8 m) (2. for Allan Block standard units.97 ft (1.97 = —(—2.479 kg/m = 24.5) ( r) (Kar) (d2)2 cos ( wr) = (0.2 m) = d1 — dh = 9.Example 3-4: Given the wall depicted in Figure 3-6.2197) (1. Use the quadratic formula to determine dh for the first layer of geogrid: a = ( r) (Kar) cos ( wr) = (125 lb/ft3) (0.557 kg/m) = 5.6 m The first layer of geogrid should be placed at a height equal to one half of dh: hg = (0.2 ft = 2.58 m).2197) (5.8 m) tall.666 lb/ft) = —(—523 lb/ft2) (2) (26 lb/sq ft3) = 16.4 cm).557 kg/m2)2 — (4) (413 kg/m3) (2.15 or 3.161 N/m) = 2.2 m) = 0. cannot be valid.2197) cos (20 ) = 26 lb/ft3 = (2.

52 (833 lb/ft) = (18.190 N/m) + (1.2197) (9.6 m) + (0.002 kg/m3) (0. 2 layers of geogrid are required.748 Pa) (0.58 m) cos (20º) = 1.161 N/m) = 1.161 N/m).265 lb/ft = (15.6 m — 0. set d1 = d2 and use the quadratic formula to determine dh for the Ft hg = (H — d2) + (0.748 Pa) (0.5) (1. In that case.35 ft (1.528 N/m The number of layers of geogrid required is: N = (1.The horizontal component of the surcharge force is calculated based on the height from d2 to the top of the zone of influence depicted in Figure 3-7: Qh = (q) (Kar) (d2 — hz) cos ( wr) = (120 lb/sq ft) (0.57 ft = (2.2197) (1.2 ft) = 6.2 ft) + (0.894 N/m) + (2. Another way to tell that you are working on the last layer of geogrid is to go ahead and do the analysis using 4ac].2197) (2.2197) (5.) The geogrid should be placed at a height equal to: = Fh + Q h = (349 lb/ft) + (82 lb/ft) = 431 lb/ft = (5.52 Therefore.17 ft)2 cos (20 ) = 1.634 N/m) = 18.2 ft — 1.2197) (9.400 N/m Since the total horizontal force above height d2 is less than the allowable design strength of the geogrid. 833 lb/ft (12.8 m)2 cos (20º) = 15. The horizontal component of the active force on the wall facing is: Fh = (0. you are working on the the quadratic formula.085 lb/ft = (0. If you calculate a negative number for the quantity [b2 last layer of geogrid.528 N/m) (12.6 m) = 2 m Rounding down to the nearest 7.8 m — 1. calculate the total horizontal force on the wall facing and divide it by the allowable design strength of the geogrid. 41 .4 cm): hg = 6.5) (5.9 m). then only one more layer of geogrid is required. the new dh is equal to the height of the wall above d2 (If more than one layer is required.5) dh = (9.58 m) cos (20º) = 2.210 N/m The total horizontal force on the wall above height d2 is: next layer of geogrid.894 N/m The horizontal component of the surcharge force on the wall facing is: Qh = (120 lb/sq ft) (0. To check the number of layers of geogrid required.8 m — 0.210 N/m) = 6.2197) (2.17 ft — 1.905 ft) cos (20º) = 180 lb/ft = (5.17 ft — 5.62 inches (19.905 ft) cos (20º) = 82 lb/ft = (5.5) (125 lb/ft3) (0.5) (2.634 N/m The total horizontal force on the wall facing is: Ft = (1.085 lb/ft) + (180 lb/ft) = 1.265 lb/ft) = 1.

you should do a global stability analysis or have someone do one for you. the threat of global instability increases also. Retaining Wall with Three Tiers Figure 3-9. use your best engineering judgement or seek advice from a local expert. This average bearing stress is then applied as a uniform surcharge to the retained soil mass of the second wall from the top. The analysis of tiered walls can become very complicated. The process is repeated until all of the tiers have been analyzed. using the design procedures presented earlier. We have decided upon a design method that we feel comfortable with and will briefly describe it below. as the number and walls increase. However. Then. Again. As a final step.52 m) walls can have as great an impact on the underlying soil as a single 15 ft (4.6 m) wall. Figure 3-8. check the maximum soil bearing pressure of the bottom wall to make sure it doesn't exceed the allowable bearing pressure of the onsite soil. If you are not comfortable with this design method. (See Figure 3-9.Tiered Walls Sometimes it is desirable to build two or more smaller walls at different elevations rather than one very tall wall. if you are concerned about the global stability. you as an engineer must use your own judgement. A tiered wall consisting of three 5 ft (1. find the average bearing stress of the top wall on the underlying soil. You should also be aware that. Next.) The second wall is then analyzed using the procedures described earlier in this chapter. Such an arrangement is called a tiered wall and an example is pictured in Figure 3-8. The first step in the design of a tiered wall is to decide how many tiers there will be and the height of each tier. Average Bearing Stress of Top Wall Applied as Surcharge to Second Wall 42 . design the top retaining wall.

the design procedures in this manual are based on the assumption that only noncohesive soils will be used as backfill.923 kg/m3) Unit weight of wall facing = 130 lb/ft3 (2.44 ft (1. (This is not true if the cohesion of the soil is taken into account.949) 260 (3.2847 0. The slope of the backfill must be taken into account when designing a geogrid-reinforced retaining wall. Changing the slope of the backfill from 0º to 26º increased the active force by 67%. However.061 kg/m3) i (degrees) 0 18 26 0.3662 Ka Fa 1 lb/ft (1 N/m) 156 (2.2197 0. In that case. The wall in Example 2-1 would not be stable if the back-fill had a slope of 26º. Sloped backfill is one of the most significant factors contributing to the active force on the wall. the effect of the sloping backfill is automatically taken into account by using Coulomb's equation to calculate the active force. For simple gravity walls. The active pressure coefficient of Coulomb's equation is given by: where: i = the slope of the backfill. it should be noted that the slope of the backfill cannot exceed the friction angle of the soil. Ka = [ csc ( ) sin ( — ) sin ( + w) + sin ( + w) sin ( sin ( i) — i) ] 2 Let's look at the wall in Example 2-1 and see what effect changing the backfill slope has on the active force.05 m) = 120 lb/ft3 (1.796) The table below shows the effect increasing the backfill slope has on the active pressure coefficient and the active force. Example 4-1: Given: w = 20º = 30º = 78º H = 3. 43 .277) 202 (2. Also. the backfill must be sloped. Coulomb's equation for the active force on the wall includes a term that changes the magnitude of the pressure coefficient as the slope of the backfill changes.) Simple Gravity Walls With Sloped Backfill As discussed in Chapter One.CHAPTER FOUR Sloped Backfill Introduction Sometimes it is not feasible or desirable to build a retaining wall that is tall enough to allow for a flat backfill.

16 ft (1.52 m) 3 = 120 lb/ft (1.47 m L1 is known.3 ft) + (1. Calculate the maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid for the wall in Figure 4-1 and compare it to the value calculated in Example 2-2.2847 = 2.85 m d1 L2 is given by: L2 = Lg — (dg) tan (90º — ) = (5.37 m 44 .79 ft = (0. However. Example 4-2: Given: Figure 4-1. the sloped backfill also has an effect on the maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid that should be taken into account.52 ft = 0.87 m) H Lg = 5. Tieback Wall with Sloped Backfill i w = 18º = 20º = 30º = 78º Ka dg Hg = 0.923 kg/m3) Unit weight of wall facing = 130 lb/ft3 (2.Tieback Walls with Sloped Backfill Just as in the case of simple gravity walls. but with the backfill sloped at 18 . the maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid was calculated to be 845 lb/ft (12. In Example 2-2.7 m) tan (90º — 78º) = 1.87 m) tan (45º — 15º) — (1. Figure 4-1 shows the tieback wall of Example 2-2. the effect of the sloping backfill is automatically taken into account when calculating the active force using Coulomb's equation.3 ft (0.86 ft (0. Assuming that the backfill slope begins at the front of the wall facing.97 ft + Xa Xh = (0. then L1 is given by: L1 = 0.57 m) = 5.97 ft) + (Hg) tan (45º — /2) — (H) tan (90º — ) = (0. d2 can be calculated: = dg + (L1) tan (i) = (2.7 m) = 2.7 m) + (0.3 m + Xa Xh = (0.061 kg/m3) The maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid is given by: Fg = (2) (Ci) ( ) (davg) (Le) tan ( ) where: davg = (0.0 ft) — (2.3 m) + (Hg) tan (45º — Once /2) — (H) tan (90º — ) = (0.51 ft = (1.3 ft ) tan (90º — 78º) = 4.0 ft (1.5) (d1 + d2) d1 = depth from surface of backfill to the geogrid at the point where the failure plane intersects the geogrid d2 = depth from surface of backfill to the geogrid at the back end of the geogrid layer.336 N/m) (see page 2-12).57 m) tan (90º — 78º) = 0.52 m) — (0.97 ft) + (2.46 m) tan (18º) = 0.16 ft) tan (90º — 78º) = 1.52 ft) tan (18º) = 2.3 m) + (0.86 ft) tan (45º — 15º) — (5.

923 kg/m3) (0.12 ft) tan (30 ) = 1. First.220 N/m) 45 .5) (120 lb/ft3) (0.161 N/m). the long-term allowable design strength of AB-260 geogrid is 833 lb/ft (12. Increasing the slope of the backfill from 0º to 18º increased the magnitude of Fg by 42%.7 m) + (1.5) (d1 + d2) = (0. the active force on the wall must be calculated using the new active pressure coefficient: Fa = (0.37 m) tan (18º) = 1.99 ft = 1.51 ft — 1.619 N/m The horizontal and vertical components of the active force are: Fh Fv = (455 lb/ft) cos (20º) = 428 lb/ft = (6.Once L2 is known.161 N/m) = 3.85) (120 lb/ft3) (3.04 (428 lb/ft) = (6. If the safety factors are too low.2847) (1.523 N/m + 2.805 N/m The safety factor against sliding is: SFS = (466 lb/ft + 833 lb/ft) = 3. davg can be calculated and the maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid can be determined: davg = (0.0 m Fg = (2) (0.52 ft = 2.619 N/m) cos (20º) = 6.805 N/m + 12.264 N/m) tan (30º) = 6.220 N/m = (455 lb/ft) sin (20 ) = 156 lb/ft = (6.264 N/m The force resisting sliding is: Fr = (651 lb/ft + 156 lb/ft) tan (30º) = 466 lb/ft = (9.923 kg/m3) (0.5) (1.77 ft = (0.198 lb/ft = (2) (0.99 m) (0.161 N/m) before calculating the safety factors for sliding and overturning. add one or more layers of geogrid and analyze the wall as a coherent gravity wall.15 m) = 1.2847) (5.57 m)2 = 6.3 ft) + (4.77 ft) = 3.47 m = 0.16 ft)2 = 455 lb/ft = (0. d2 can be calculated: = dg + (L2) tan (i) = (2. Therefore.37 m — 0.619 N/m) sin (20º) = 2.336 N/m).497 N/m The maximum potential restraining force on the geogrid for a flat back fill was 845 lb/ft (12.26 ft) (3.15 m d2 The length of geogrid embedded in the passive zone of the soil is: Le = L2 — L1 = 4.51 ft) tan (18º) = 3.5) (0.28 ft = (0.79 ft + 3.04 (6.5) (2.85) (1.9 m Now.9 m) tan (30º) = 16. Let's complete the example and see what effect the sloping backfill has on the safety factors. Fg should be set equal to 833 lb/ft (12. as pointed out in Chapter Two. However.85 m + 1.

252 N-m/m) With the backfill sloped at 18º.333) (5.16 ft) = 735 ft-lb/ft = (6.16 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (833 lb/ft) (2.333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fg) (Hg) = (651 lb/ft) [ (0.267 ft-lb/ft = + + = (9.333) (5.264 N/m) [ (0.333) (1.57 m) = 3.The safety factor against overturning is: Mr = (Wf) [ (X1) + (0.5) (1.87 m) 14.523 N/m) [ (0.267 ft-lb/ft) = 4.333) (1.161 N/m) (0. 46 .528 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.220 N/m) (0.57 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (12.86 ft) = 3. the wall is still stable although the safety factors have been reduced by about 20%.16) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (156 lb/ft) [ (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0.44 (735 ft-lb/ft) = (14.44 (3.57 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (2.528 N-m/m) = 4.49 ft) + (0.3 m) + (0.15 m) + (0.5) (5.333) (H) = (428 lb/ft) (0.97 ft) + (0.252 N-m/m SFO = (3.

5) (1.12 ft = (2.002 kg/m3) = 10.8 m) (0.061 kg/m3) (2.319 N/m) + (10.3 m) + (2.26 m) = 103.83 m) tan (18º) ] (2.3440 0. Second.685 N/m) = 114. Third.83 m — 0. First.685 N/m Figure 4-2. the weight of the wall is greater.071 lb/ft = (2.0 ft) tan (18 ) = 11.17 ft) (0.8 m) (1. Wt: Wr = (130 lb/ft3) (9.004 N/m External Stability The external stability of the wall can be calculated as it was in Example 2-3.8 m) + (1.17 ft) (6. the height of the retaining wall is taken to be the height at the back of the reinforced soil mass.84 ft) = 7.17 ft) + (6.0 ft) tan (18º) ] (125 lb/ft3) = 731 lb/ft = (0. He at the rear of the coherent gravity wall: He = (H) + (Lg) tan (i) = (9.071 lb/ft) + (731 lb/ft) = 7.83 m) [ (1. Calculate the safety factors for sliding and overturning of the wall in Figure 4-2. Wr to the weight of the triangular section. with three differences. the active force on the retained soil mass is greater because of the sloping backfill. Example 4-3: Given: i wo wr o = = = = 18 18 20 27 ' r Kao Kar = = = = 30 78 0.002 kg/m3) (2.002 kg/m3) The first step is to calculate the effective height. The increased weight is due to the backfill soil that is located above the wall facing and over the reinforced soil mass.83 m) tan (18º) = 3.0 ft) [ (6. the area designated Wt contains the soil that contributes the extra weight. In Figure 4-2. The increase in the active force is automatically accounted for by using Coulomb's equation to calculate the active force. The total weight of the wall can be calculated by adding the weight of the rectangular section.0 ft — 0.923 kg/m3) = 125 lb/ft3 (2. Compare these values to the safety factors in Example 2-3.8 m) 3 = 120 lb/ft (1.319 N/m Wt = (0. as shown above.17 ft (2. Coherent Gravity Wall with Sloped Backfill Ww = (Wr) + (Wt) = (7. the resistance to sliding.2847 H o r = 9.5) (6.97 ft) + (125 lb/ft3) (9.802 lb/ft = (103. He.Coherent Gravity Walls With Sloped Backfill One effect of a sloped backfill on a coherent gravity wall is to increase the weight of the wall and consequently.39 m 47 .

333) (He) tan (90º — ) ] = + + + = = + + + = (1.987 ft-lb/ft = (35.523 N/m) tan (30º) = 72.12 ft) = 8.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] + (0.5) (9.427 lb/ft) = (72.13 ft) + 43.39 m) = 40.836 N-m/m The moment causing overturning is: Mo = (Fh) (0.987 ft-lb/ft) Mr Mo = (193.464 N/m) (0.3440) (11.427 lb/ft = (37.5) ( o) (Kao) (He)2 = (0.473 N/m) (35.12 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (16.5) (1.3440) (3.289 N/m The horizontal component of the active force is: Fh = (Fa) cos ( wo) = (2.552 lb/ft) sin (18º) = 789 lb/ft = (37.960 lb/ft = (114.552 lb/ft = (0.836 N-m/m) (40.983 N/m) [ (0.04 Fh (2.5) (120 lb/ft3) (0.551 ft-lb/ft) = 4.87 m) + (0.685 N/m) [ (1.551 ft-lb/ft + (0.552 lb/ft) cos (18º) = 2.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Wr) [ (X2) + (0.319 N/m) [ (1.156 lb/ft) [ (0.39 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] 193.427 lb/ft) (0.85 Mo (8.85 48 .5) (2.5) (2.333) (3.333) (11.923 kg/m3) (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Wt) [ (X3) + (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [ (X4) + (0. 960 lb/ft) = 2.08 ft) + (789 lb/ft) [ (6.464 N/m) = 2.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (103.523 N/m) [ (1.08 m) + (0.071 lb/ft) [ (3.24 m) + (2.333) (He) = (2.333) (11.523 N/m The force resisting sliding is: Fr = (Ww + Fv) (Cf) = (7. the active force on the coherent gravity wall is calculated: Fa = (0.333) (3.5) (9.473 N/m The safety factor against sliding is: SFS = Fr = (4.12 ft)2 = 2.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (0.55 ft) (731 lb/ft) [ (4.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (11.39 m)2 = 37.802 lb/ft + 789 lb/ft) tan (30 ) = 4.Next.289 N/m) sin (18º) = 11.149 m) + (0.289 N/m) cos (18º) = 35.49 ft) (7.004 N/m + 11.04 The moment resisting overturning is: Mr = (Wf) [ (X1) + (0.464 N/m The vertical component of the active force is: Fv = (Fa) sin ( wo) = (2.17 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (9.034 N-m/m) = 4.8 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (10.034 N-m/m The safety factor against overturning is: SFO = = Mr = (43.

Sloping the backfill cut the safety factors by 42% for sliding and 48% for overturning.2197) (9.As calculated in Example 2-3.2197) (1. It begins at the bottom rear edge of the wall facing and extends upward at an angle of 45º + /2 to the horizontal.5) [ (125 lb/ft3) (0.3. That point is shown as Point A in Figure 4-3.fill. Internal Stability Studies have shown that the failure plane for the soil inside the reinforced soil mass is not well represented by a straight line at an angle of 45º + /2 to the horizontal. the depth should be measured from the point where the failure plane intersects the geogrid layer to the top of the backfill. Doing so will result in a slightly conservative design. the depth can be measured from the point where the vertical portion of the assumed failure surface intersects the top of the back.35 m) cos (20º) ] (2. The load on a layer of geogrid is given by: F = (Pavg) (dh) Suppose the wall in Figure 4-4 had a flat backfill.5 and a safety factor against overturning of 8. Effect of Sloped Backfill on Spacing of Geogrid Layers.17 ft — 4.5) (P1 + P2) (d1 — d2) = (0. the failure surface looks more like the one depicted in Figure 4-3. Instead. the same wall with a flat backfill had a safety factor against sliding of 3.199 N/m Figure 4-3.42 ft) = 833 lb/ft = (0. However. The failure surface continues upward at that angle until it intersects a vertical line located behind the wall facing a distance equal to one-third the height of the wall.42 ft) cos (20º) ] (9. 49 . Failure Surface in a Coherent Gravity Wall Figure 4-4.002 kg/m3) (0. the load on the bottom layer of geogrid would be: F1 = (Pavg) (dh) = (0.8 m) cos (20º) + (2. When analyzing the loads on the individual layers of geogrid. Let's examine the effect of sloping backfill on the bottom layer of geogrid in the wall shown in Figure 4-4.2197) (4.17 ft) cos (20º) + (125 lb/ft3) (0.5) [ ( r) (Kar) (d1) cos ( wr) + ( r) (Kar) (d2) cos ( wr) ] (d1 — d2) = (0. to simplify the analysis.35 m) = 12.5) [ (2002 kg/m3) (0.8 m — 1.2197) (2.

43 kN/m) + 0.29 kN/m) + 0.332 N/m Increasing the slope of the backfill from 0º to 26º increased the load on the bottom layer of geogrid by more than 100%.76 kN/m) + 0.130 x N 431 lb/ft (6.732 lb/ft = (0.241 x N for N < 1056.450 x N 496 lb/ft (7.86 m) = 25.1 ft) cos (20 ) ] (10. This can be done by adding another layer of geogrid between the existing layers and moving the top layer up.601 x N 1214 lb/ft (17.194 x N 496 lb/ft (7.54 lbs for N > 969. GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT PRODUCT MIRIFI 3XT MIRIFI 5XT MIRIFI 7XT FORTRAC 35/20-20 FORTRAC 55/20-20 FORTRAC 80/30-20 SYNTEEN (SYMPAFORCE) 35/30-25 SYNTEEN (SYMPAFORCE) 55/30-25 SYNTEEN (SYMPAFORCE) 80/30-20 RAUGRID (LUCKENHAUS) 2/3-30 RAUGRID (LUCKENHAUS) 4/2-15 RAUGRID (LUCKENHAUS) 6/3-15 TERRAGRID (WEBTEC) 35 X 30-25 TERRAGRID (WEBTEC) 55 X 30-25 TERRAGRID (WEBTEC) 80/30-20 STRATTA 300 STRATTA 500 P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = PULLOUT RESISTANCE EQUATIONS 551 lb/ft (8.04 kN/m) + 0.231 x N 989 lb/ft (14.70 lbs for N < 969.463 x N 1500 lb/ft (21. it may be possible to reduce the load on the individual layers of geogrid merely by repositioning the layers of geogrid.31 m) cos (20º) + (2.5) [ ( r) (Kar) (d3) cos ( wr) + ( r) (Kar) (d4) cos ( wr) ] (d3 — d4) = (0.92 kN/m) + 0. start from the bottom of the wall and calculate the maximum dh as in Example 2-3.11 kN/m) + 0.20 lbs for N > 1056.002 kg/m3) (0.488 x N 827 lb/ft (12.24 kN/m) + 0.93 kN/m) + 0.231 x N 989 lb/ft (14.85 ft) cos (20 ) + (125 lb/ft3) (0.445 x N 830 lb/ft (12.325 x N 888 lb/ft (12.07 kN/m) + 0.002 kg/m3) (0. use the depth from Point A rather than the depth from the top of the wall facing.96 kN/m) + 0. When designing a wall with a sloping backfill. Since the allowable design load on Huesker 35/20-20 is only 833 lb/ft (12.141 x N 933 lb/ft (13. Kar = 0.625 x N 777 lb/ft (11.625 x N 1054 lb/ft (15.24 kN/m) + 0. But this time.3662) (10.85 ft — 6.625 x N 1054 lb/ft (15.70 lbs for N > 1073.161 N/m).38 kN/m) + 0.61 kN/m) + 0.554 x N 988 lb/ft (14.34 kN/m) + 0.5) [ (125 lb/ft3) (0.76 kN/m) + 0.31 m — 1.625 x N 777 lb/ft (11.89 kN/m) + 0.86 m) cos (20º) ] (3.54 lbs for N > 969.3662) (6.105 x N 395 lb/ft (5.20 lbs for N < 1073.5) (P3 + P4) (d3 — d4) = (0. In some cases.287 x N 1091 lb/ft (15.For the wall in Figure 4-4 with a backfill slope of 26º.34 kN/m) + 0.3662) (3.38 kN/m) + 0.70 lbs for N > 1073.70 lbs for N < 969. the load on the bottom layer of geogrid will have to be reduced.3662) (1.43 kN/m) + 0.41 kN/m) + 0.71 kN/m) + 0.5) [ (2.488 x N 340 lb/ft (4.54 lbs Table 2-1 Pullout Resistance Equations 50 .96 kN/m) + 0.105 x N 395 lb/ft (5.1 ft) = 1.3662 and the load on the bottom layer of geogrid is: F1 = (Pavg) (dh) = (0.54 lbs for N < 1073.554 x N 1709 lb/ft (24.

the vertical acceleration is assumed to be zero (Bathurst. Dean. NCMA Segmental Retaining Walls . For our calculations. "Retaining Walls Stand Up to the Northridge Earthquake"). Since the nature of segmental retaining walls is flexible. performs better than rigid structures in real life seismic situations (Sandri. which is flexible in nature. 1994. California and the Kobe earthquake in Japan proves that a soil mass reinforced with geogrid. an allowable deflection can be accepted resulting in a more efficient design while remaining within accepted factors of safety. the minimum recommended factors of safety for design in seismic conditions are 75% of the values recommended for static design.CHAPTER FIVE Seismic Analysis Introduction In seismic design we take a dynamic force and analyze it as a temporary static load. 1998. The following design uses the earth pressure coefficient method derived by Mononobe-Okabe (M-O) to quantify the loads placed on the reinforced mass and the internal components of the structure. Due to the temporary nature of the loading. The forces from seismic activity yield both a vertical and a horizontal acceleration. with the addition by Mononobe-Okabe of a seismic inertia angle ( ). PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS The calculation of the dynamic earth pressure coefficient is similar to the static earth pressure coefficient derived by Coulomb. Kae = [ [ 1+ cos ( + — )2 cos ( ) cos ( )2 cos ( w — sin ( + w) + ) sin ( —i— ) cos ( w — + ) cos ( + i) ] ] 2 Where: w = peak soil friction angle i = back slope angle = block setback = seismic inertia angle = angle between the horizontal and the sloped back face of the wall The seismic inertia angle ( ) is a function of the vertical and horizontal acceleration coefficients: = atan Where: ( Kh 1 + Kv ) Kv Kh = vertical acceleration coefficient = horizontal acceleration coefficient 51 .Seismic Design Manual. 1998). The lack of wall failure during the Northridge earthquake in Los Angeles.

). For Infill soils: If d = 0. 1926). (See equations below) The acceleration coefficient (Ao) varies from 0 to 0.67 Ao (Ao) (1 in) d Kh = 0. If d > 0. then: Kh = (1.45 — Ao) Ao This equation.5cm) d ( ( ) ) 0.The vertical acceleration coefficient (Kv) is taken to be zero based on the assumption that a vertical and horizontal peak acceleration will not occur simultaneously during a seismic event (Bathhurst et al.67 Ao (Ao) (2.6 cm). AASHTO provides recommendations for the acceleration coefficient based on the seismic zone that the retaining wall is being designed for. It is assumed to be constant at all locations in the wall. is used in AASHTO / FHWA guidelines. 52 . then: Kh = Ao d > 1.25 ) 0.25 0. The allowable deflection (d) represents the lateral deflection that the retaining wall can be designed to withstand during a seismic event.25 The following example illustrates the calculation of the dynamic earth pressure coefficient for the infill and retained soils with a typical allowable deflection of 3 inches (7.67 Ao (Ao) (2. For Retained soils: If If d 1. then: Kh = 0.25 This is a standard equation for the horizontal acceleration coefficient based on the Mononobe-Okabe methodology (Mononobe. The equation used to determine the horizontal acceleration coefficient (Kh) varies depending on the amount of deflection allowed and whether it is calculated for the infill soils or the retained soils. The amount of deflection allowed in design is based on engineering judgement. then: Kh = 0.67 Ao (Ao) (1 in) d Kh = 0. Okabe.5 cm) d ( ( ) 0. 1929. The horizontal acceleration coefficient (Kh) is based on the acceleration coefficient (Ao) and the allowable deflection (d) of the wall system. A good approximation is the acceleration coefficient (Ao) multiplied by the wall height (H). proposed by Segrestin and Bastic.4 in our calculations and is defined as the fraction of the gravitational constant g experienced during a seismic event.

67 (0. Kaer) for the infill and retained soils.162 Kh = 0.5 cm ) ) 0. based on the assumption that a vertical and horizontal peak acceleration will not occur simultaneously during a seismic event.67 Ao (Ao)(2. Kae = [ [ ( cos ( + — )2 + ) cos ( ) cos( )2 cos ( w — sin ( + w) 1+ sin ( —i— ) cos ( w — + ) cos ( + i) ] ] 2 The first step is to calculate the acceleration coefficents.2) cos (12)2 cos (23 — 12 + 9. the dynamic earth pressure coefficient for the infill is: Kaei = [ [ cos (34 + 12 — 9.25 0. Kv = 0. Since the allowable deflection is greater than zero.4)(2. To determine Kh.2) cos (12 + 0) 53 ] ] = 0.162 1+0 ) = 9.2) cos (23 — 12 + 9.4) ( ( (0.EXAMPLE 5-1 Given: i wi d i Find: = = = = 34° 2/3(34°) = 23° 3 in (7.25 Kh = 0.2º Finally.4)(1 in) 3 in ( ) 0. the following equation is used: Kh = 0.67 (0.5 cm) 7.2) 1+ sin (34 + 23) sin (34 — 0 — 9.2)2 cos (9.276 2 .4) (0.162 The seismic inertia angle ( ) is: = atan ( Kh 1 + Kv ) = atan ( 0.67 Ao (Ao)(1 in) d ) 0.25 = 0.25 = 0. we must look at the allowable deflection (d).5 cm) d Kh = 0.4 The dynamic earth pressure coefficients (Kaei.6 cm) 0º r wr Ao = = = = 28° 2/3(28°) = 19° 12º 0.

67 Ao (Ao) (2.5 cm) d 0.The same process is followed in determining the dynamic earth pressure coefficient for the retained soil.4) (1 in) = 0.5) (Kae .2)2 cos (9. the horizontal acceleration coefficient is the following: Kh = 0.67 (0.5 cm ( ( ) 0.2) cos (12)2 cos (19 — 12 + 9. 5-2.2) cos (19 — 12 + 9. and 5-3 illustrate the pressure distributions for the active force.4) (2. The magnitude of the dynamic earth force is: Fae = Fa + DFdyn Where: Fa = Fae = DFdyn = (0. dynamic earth increment.2º The dynamic earth pressure coefficient for the retained soil is: Kae = [ [ 1+ cos (28 + 12 — 9.67 Ao (Ao) (1 in) d ( ) 0.25 = 0. The magnitude of the resultant force (Fae) acts at a ratio of the dynamic active earth force moment to the wall height (m).2) sin (28 + 19) sin (28 — 0 — 9.5) (Ka) ( ) (H)2 (0.2) cos (12 + 0) ] ] = 0.25 Kh = 0.162 (0. Here again.4) 7.Ka) ( ) (H)2 Figure 5-1.5 cm). 54 . the vertical acceleration coefficient (Kv) is equal to zero.25 Kh (0.361 2 DYNAMIC EARTH FORCE ON THE WALL The dynamic earth force is based on a pseudo-static approach using the Mononobe-Okabe (M-O) method.162 1+0 ) = 9.25 ) 0. With the allowable deflection greater than 1 inch (2.5 cm) Kh = 0.162 Next. and the dynamic earth force. multiplied by the height of the wall. the seismic inertia angle ( ) can be calculated: = atan ( Kh 1 + Kv ) = atan ( 0.5) (1 + Kv) (Kae)( ) (H)2 (0.67 (0.4) 3 in ( ) = 0. Figures 5-1. Static Component of Active Pressure Distribution The magnitude of the resultant force (Fa) acts at 1/3 of the height of the wall and DFdyn acts at 6/10 of the height of the wall.

1 Overturning > 1.4 3 3 wall facing = 130 lb/ft (2.5 Note: The values 1.2197 0. 68.061 kg/m ) 3 3 soil = 120 lb/ft (1. 1996. the weight of a simple gravity wall must counteract the static and temporary dynamic forces of the retained soil. the same equilibrium principles apply as in a static gravity wall analysis with additional consideration for the seismic earth force and the allowed reductions in required factors of safety for sliding and overturning. Sliding > 1. SIMPLE GRAVITY WALL WITH SEISMIC INFLUENCE In seismic analysis. Dynamic Increment Component of the Active Pressure Distribution Safety Factors Figure 5-3. (5. Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls). Example 5-2: Given: i w = = = = = = = r = 30° i d Ao = = = = 78° Kai Kar H Kaei 2/3( ) = 20° (90 .20 ft (0.67 m) 0.923 kg/m ) Kaer = 0.Figure 5-2.1 cm) 0.5260 0° 2 in. Figure 5-4 illustrates the forces on a simple gravity wall during a seismic event. P.1 and 1.2197 2. In the following example. Dynamic Earth Force Pressure Distribution The minimum accepted factors of safety for seismic design are taken to be 75% of the values recommended for static design.5260 Find: The safety factor against sliding (SFS) and overturning (SFO). (Collin. 55 .) = 12° 0.5 are based on 75% of the recommended minimum factors of safety for design of conventional segmental retaining walls. Note: The dynamic earth pressure coefficients Kaei and Kaer were determined by following the allowable deflection criteria established at the beginning of the section.

010 N/m Maximum frictional resistance to sliding: Fr = (Wf + Fav + DFdynv) tan ( ) = (277 lb/ft + 22 lb/ft + 30 lb/ft) tan (30°) = 190 lb/ft = (4.227 N/m Dynamic earth force increment: DFdyn = Fae — Fa = 153 lb/ft — 64 lb/ft = 89 lb/ft = 2227 N/m — 930 N/m = 1.296m) = 4.5) (1 + Kv) (Kae) ( ) (H) = (0.97 ft) = 277 lb/ft = (2.67 m) (0.67)2 = 2.2197) (120 lb/ft3) (2.5260) (1.923 kg/m3) (0.297 N/m) cos (20°) = 1219 N/m Fah = (Fa) cos ( w) = (64 lb/ft) cos (20°) = 60 lb/ft = (930 N/m) cos (20°) = 874 N/m = (Fa) sin ( w) = (64 lb/ft) sin (20°) = 22 lb/ft = (930 N/m) sin (20°) = 318 N/m DFdynv = (DFdyn) sin ( w) = (89 lb/ft) sin (20°) = 30 lb/ft = (1.5) (1 + 0) (0.5) (0.67 m)2 = (95 kg/m) (9.755 N/m 56 . Free Body Diagram of Simple Gravity Wall Under Seismic Influence = (0.5) (Ka) ( ) (H)2 = (0.297 N/m) sin (20°) = 444 N/m Fav The next step is to determine the resisting forces: Weight of the wall facing: Wf = ( wall facing)(H)(d) = (130 lb/ft3) (2.061 kg/m3) (0.20 ft)2 = 64 lb/ft = (0.The first step is to determine the driving forces exerted by the soil on the wall: Active earth force: Fa = (0.010 N/m + 318 N/m + 444 N/m) tan (30°) = 2.81) = 930 N/m Dynamic earth force: Fae = (0.923 kg/m3) (0.20)2 = 153 lb/ft 2 Figure 5-4.20 ft )(0.5) (1 + 0) (0.2197) (1.297 N/m Resolving the active earth force and the dynamic earth force increment into horizontal and vertical components: DFdynh = (DFdyn) cos ( w) = (89 lb/ft) cos (20°) = 84 lb/ft = (1.5260) (120 lb/ft3) (2.5) (0.

333) (H) tan ( )] + DFdynv [(L + s) + (0.171 ft) + (0.20) tan (12)] = 221 ft-lb/ft = (4. L = length of geogrid) 57 .Safety factor against sliding (SFS): SFSseismic = (Force resisting sliding) (Force driving sliding) = = = Fr Fh + DFdynh 1.20) tan (12°)] + (30 lb/ft) [(0) + (0.5) (0.9 Overturning Failure In seismic analysis.333) (0.3 = 1. and the vertical component of the dynamic earth increment force contribute to the moment resisting overturning failure of the wall.1 ok (190 lb/ft) (60 lb/ft + 84 lb/ft) (2.3 shows that an AB gravity wall during an earthquake in a seismic zone 4 is stable and does not require reinforcement to prevent sliding.333) (2.5 ok (277 lb/ft + 22 lb/ft) tan (30) (60 lb) (4.9 = 2. As a comparison.49 ft) + (0.171 ft) + (0.6)(H) tan ( )] = (277 lb/ft) [(0.053 m) + (0.67 m) tan (12°)] + (318 N/m) [(0) + (0.149 m) +(0.3 The factor of safety of 1.010 + N/m + 318 N/m) tan (30) (874 N/m) = 2.219 N/m) = 1.5) (2.20) tan (12)] + (22 lb/ft) [(0) + (0.5 times the moments causing overturning (Mo).6) (0.5)(H) tan ( )] + Fav [(L + s) + (0. the moments resisting overturning (Mr) must be greater than or equal to 1.053 m) + (0. the factor of safety in a static condition is the following: SFSstatic = = = (Force resisting sliding) (Force driving sliding) = Fr Fh = (Wf + Fav) tan Fh 1.67 m) tan (12°)] = 976 N-m/m Note : (s = setback per block. Mr = (Wf ) (Wfarm) + (Fav) (Faarmv) + (DFdynv) (DFdynarmv) = (Wf ) [(X1) + (0. The moments resisting overturning (Mr): The weight of the wall.6) (2.5 ok 1.755 N/m) (874 N/m + 1. the vertical component of the active force.67 m) tan (12°)] + (444 N/m) [(0) + (0.1 ok 1.010 N/m) [(0.

4 < 1.The moments causing overturning (Mo): The horizontal components of the active and dynamic forces contribute to the moment causing overturning failure of the wall.333)(H) + (DFdynh) (0.333) (2.67 m) tan (12°)] + (318 N/m) [(0) + (0.5) (H) tan ( )] + (Fav) [(L + s + (0. Mo = (Fah) (Faarmh) + (DFdynh) (DFdynarmh) = (Fah) (0.171 ft) + (0.149 m) + (0.5. Mr = (Wf) (Wfarm) + (Fav) (Faarmv) = (Wf) [(X1) + (0.0 = (915 N-m/m) (195 N-m/m) = 4.053 m) + (0.67 m) = 195 N-m/m SFOstatic = Mr Mo 2.67 m) tan (12°)] = 915 N-m/m Mo = = = = = = (Fah) (Faarmh) (Fah) (0.5 (221 ft-lb/ft) (155 ft-lb/ft) (976 N-m/m) (685 N-m/m) = 1.67 m) + (1219 N/m) (0.333) (2.6) (2.7 2.20) tan (12°)] = 208 ft-lb/ft = (4010 N/m) [(0.49 ft) + (0.2 ft) 44 ft-lb/ft (Moments resisting overturning) (Moments driving overturning) (208 ft-lb/ft) (44 ft-lb/ft) = 4.4 < 1.0 ok 58 .5) (0.6) (0. = 1. Geogrid reinforcement for this wall is needed to achieve proper factor of safety.2 ft) + (84 lb/ft) (0.5) (2.333) (0. This shows that the gravity wall is not adequate with respect to overturning failure.6)(H) = (60 lb/ft) (0.333) (0.2 ft) = 155 ft-lb/ft = (874 N/m) (0. Evaluating the wall under static conditions we see that the required factors of safety are met.333) (H) tan ( )] = (277 lb/ft) [(0.333) (2.333) (0.5.7 = (874 N/m) (0.0 ok 2.67 m) = 685 N-m/m Safety Factor Against Overturning (SFO): SFOseismic = (Moments resisting overturning) (Moments driving overturning) = = = Mr Mo Not ok Not ok 1.333) (H) (60 lb/ft) (0.20) tan (12º)] + (22 lb/ft) [(0) + (0.

5 59 . SFSseismic = Frseismic Fah + DFdynh + Pir 1. Pir = Khr (Wf + Ws + Wi) This force along with the dynamic earth increment force combine with the static earth forces from the retained soil and the weight forces from the wall structure to create the conditions during an earthquake. and the backslope angle. SFOseismic Mr Mo = (Wf) (Wfarm) + (Ws) (Wsarm) + (Fav) (Faarmv) + (DFdynv) (DFdynarmv) (Fah) (Faarmh) + (DFdynh) (DFdynarmh) + (Pir) (Hir) 1. the formula for calculating the factor of safety sliding is the same as the gravity wall analysis with the addition of the seismic inertial force (Pir) and the weight of the reinforced soil (Ws).1 Figure 5-5. The seismic inertial force is the sum of the weight components that exert a horizontal inertial force within a reinforced soil mass during a seismic event. As can be seen below. The three components exerting this inertial force are the block facing.1 times the forces causing sliding. the reinforced soil mass. a seismic inertial force (Pir) is introduced. Free Body Diagram of a Coherent Gravity Wall Under Seismic Influence Where: Frseismic = (Fav + DFdynv + Wf + Ws) tan ( i) Factor of safety against overturning The factor of safety against overturning is computed in the same way as a simple gravity wall with the addition of the seismic inertial force (Pir) and the weight of the reinforced soil (Ws).COHERENT GRAVITY WALL WITH SEISMIC INFLUENCE Seismic inertial force (Pir) In the external stability analysis of a geogrid reinforced retaining wall during a seismic event. The principle being that the forces resisting sliding must be 1. Factor of safety against sliding Calculating the factor of safety against sliding for a coherent gravity wall follows the same stability criteria as a simple gravity wall.

67) (Ao) d (0.030 N/m) (19.381 lb/ft = 0. we must first determine the frictional resistance to sliding (Fr).5 1.1 cm = 0.923 kg/m ) Find: The safety factor against sliding and overturning.25 = (0. the seismic inertial force is calculated: Pir Since.67) (Ao) (Ao) (2.799 N/m ] tan (30°) = 71.381 lb/ft (71.05 m) 0 lb/ft = (90 — ) = 12° DFdyn = i d Ao H Wi = 6.166 N/m 1. Safety Factor Against Sliding Based on the given information.1 ok 1.360 lb/ft) sin (20°) + (716 lb/ft) sin (20°) + 1.4) 2 in = 0.1 ok 60 .855 N/m) sin (20°) + (10.5cm) 5.453 N/m) cos 20º + 20.862 N/m + 93.1 cm) Khr (Ao) (1 in) = (0.4 10.862 N/m + 93.3870 = 0.25 0.4) (0.4) (2.67) (0.179 (1. = Khr (Wf + Ws + Wi) d = 2 in (5.67) (0.5cm) d 0.425 lb/ft (93.179 ( ( ) ) 0.453 N/m) sin (20°) + 18.030 N/m Next.0 ft (3.865 lb/ft = [(19.292 lb/ft + 6. Fr = (Fav + DFdynv + Wf + Ws) tan ( ) = [(1.799 N/m) = 130 lb/ft3 (2.1 1.179 (18.25 = (0. the safety factor against sliding can be calculated: SFSseismic = (Forces resisting sliding) (Forces driving sliding) = = = Fr Fh + DFdynh + Pir = = 1.292 lb/ft (18.865 lb/ft) (1.179 Pir ( ( ) ) 0.2197 = 0.862 N/m) = 2/3( ) = 20° = 0° = = = = 2 in (5.166 N/m Finally.425 lb/ft ] tan (30°) = 4.Example 5-3: Given: i w = r = 30° Kai Kar Kaei Kaer = 78° = 0.3870 Fa Wf Ws = 1.425 lb/ft + 0 ) = 1.061 kg/m3) wall facing 3 3 soil = 120 lb/ft (1.25 = 0.453 N/m) = 1.2197 = 0.5 (4.1 cm) 0.360 lb/ft (19.360 lb/ft) cos 20º + (716 lb/ft) cos 20º + 1.855 N/m) cos 20º + (10.4) (1 in) = (0.855 N/m) 716 lb/ft (10.292 lb/ft + 6.799 N/m + 0 ) = 20.

053 m + (0.492 ft-lb/ft = (112.5) (10 ft) tan (12°)] [(1.Comparing the seismic SFS to the static SFS below.5 1. we again see much higher safety values for static.6) (3.360 lb/ft) sin 20°] [6.053 m + (0. SFSstatic = = = (Forces resisting sliding) (Forces driving sliding) (4.333) (10 ft) tan (12°)] [(716 lb/ft) sin (20°)] [6.030 N/m) (19.171 ft) + (0.360 lb/ft) cos (20°)] (0.05 m) tan (12°)] + [(10.492 ft-lb /ft) = 4.5 ok Safety Factor Against Overturning The safety factor against overturning is equal to the moments resisting overturning divided by the moments driving overturning (Mr / Mo) and must be greater than or equal to 1.855 N/m) cos (20°)] (0.717 lb/ft) [0.5 ok 61 = (166.453 N/m) cos (20°)] (0.86 m + 0.053 m) + (0.966 N-m/m The moments driving overturning (Mo): Mo = = = = (Fah) (Faarmh) + (DFdynh) (DFdynarmh) (Fah) (0.1 ft + 0.855 N/m) cos 20º = = = Fr Fh 3.333) (10 ft) + [(716 lb/ft) cos (20°)] (0.6)(H) [(1.86 m + 0.8 = Fr (Fa) cos ( w) 1.333) (3.360 lb/ft) cos 20º (71.1 ft + 0.171 ft + (0.661 N/m) [0.6) (3.5 ok 1.293 ft-lb/ft) 1.333) (3.5) (H) tan ( )] + Fav [(L + s) + (0.966 N-m/m) = 4.865 lb/ft) (1.5) (3.86 m + 0.293 ft-lb/ft = [(19.171 ft + (0.333) (H) tan ( )] + DFdynv [(L + s) + (0.5 (L + s) + (0.5.5 (1.453 N/m) sin (20°)] [1.05 m) + [(10.5 (8.05 m) tan (12°)] = 166. The moments resisting overturning (Mr): Mr Where: = (Wt) (Wtarm) + (Fav) (Faarmv) + (DFdynv) (DFdynarmv) Wt = Ws + Wf = (Wt) [0.333) (H) + (DFdynh) (0.925 N-m/m Safety Factor Against Overturning (SFO): SFOseismic = (Moments resisting overturning) (Moments driving overturning) = Mr Mo 1.05 m) tan (12°)] + [(19.1 ft + 0.6) (10 ft) tan (12°)] 37.855 N/m) sin 20°] [1.5 (6.6) (H) tan ( )] = + + = (7.8 3.5 (36.925 N-m/m) .05 m) = 36.6) (10 ft) 8.5 ok = (37.

05 m) tan (12°)] + [(19.333) (10 ft) tan (12°)] = 35.360 lb/ft) cos (20°)] (0.5) (10 ft) tan (12°)] + [(1.8 .053 m) + (0.950 N-m/m SFOstatic = (Moments resisting overturning) (Moments driving overturning) = 8.5) (3.5 (6.171 ft) + (0.05 m) tan (12°)] = 158.644 ft-lb/ft = (112. In a seismic event.0.333) (3.1 ft + 0.5 ok = (35.6 (He) — (grid) (H) (He) Fa DFdyn and.855 N/m) sin 20°] [(1.171 ft) + (0. the dynamic earth force increment (DFdyn).333) (3.950 N-m/m) = 8.256 ft-lb/ft) Internal Stability 1.360 lb/ft) sin 20°] [(6. Fid Where: = Fa + DFdyn + Pir = (Ka) cos ( w) ( ) (Ac) (0.736 N-m/m) (18. the sum of the active force (Fa).333) (H) = [(1.5) = 0.644 ft-lb /ft) (4.86 m + 0.5 (L + s) + (0.717 lb/ft) [0.333) (H) tan ( )] = (7. [ ( )] (Kae) cos ( w) ( ) (Ac) Pir = (Kh) ( ) (Ac) 62 . geogrid pullout from the soil. and the seismic inertial force (Pir) represent the tensile force on each layer of geogrid.05 m) = 18.Comparing the seismic (SFO) to the below static (SFO): Mr Where: = (Wt) (Wtarm) + Fav Wt = Ws + Wf = (Wt) [0. and localized or top of the wall stability.1 ft + 0.5) (H) tan ( )] + (Fav) [(L + s) + (0.4 = Mr Mo = (158.053 m) + (0.736 N-m/m Mo = (Fah) (Faarmh) = (Fah) (0. These calculations are identical to those for a static stability analysis with the exception of the seismic forces introduced which affect the tensile loading on the geogrid.5 ok The factor of safety checks for the internal stability of a geogrid reinforced retaining wall under seismic conditions include the geogrid overstress. the tensile force on each grid must first be determined.4 1.855 N/m) cos (20°)] (0. geogrid / block connection strength. Factor of Safety Geogrid Tensile Overstress In order to calculate the factor of safety for geogrid tensile overstress.5 (1.333) (10 ft) = 4.256 ft-lb/ft = [(19.661 N/m) [0.86 m + 0.

FSoverstressed = LTDS Fid 1. FSpullout where. The unreinforced height of the wall (Ht) is simply the total height of the wall minus the elevation at which the last grid layer is placed. we calculate the factor of safety against geogrid tensile overstress. The (grid) (H) term in the dynamic earth force increment equation refers to the elevation of the geogrid. we do not take a reduction of the geogrid ultimate strength for long-term creep.667) 1. which is equal to the long term allowable design strength of the geogrid divided by the tensile force acting on that grid. = Fp Fid 1. Localized Stability. Geogrid / Block Connection Capacity The factor of safety for connection strength is equal to the peak connection strength divided by the tensile force on that layer of grid multiplied by 2/3.The variable Ac in the above equations represents the amount of area influencing each geogrid layer.0 In the calculation of the factor of safety geogrid tensile overstress for a seismic event. Top of the Wall Stability To determine local or top of the wall stability (SFS and SFO). which was developed through empirical test data and is a function of the normal load acting at that point and is the following: Fr = 805 lb/ft + (Wf) tan (56º) = 11. This is due to the short-term loading during a seismic event.1 Geogrid Pullout from the Soil The factor of safety for geogrid pullout from the soil is equal to the pullout capacity of the geogrid divided by the tensile force on each geogrid. the wall parameters and soils forces in the unreinforced portion of the retaining wall are focused on.1 Fp = 2 (Ci) tan ( ) [(He) — (grid) ( ) (Le)] The above pullout capacity equation takes into account the geogrid interaction coefficient (Ci) and is calculated based on the length of geogrid embedded beyond the line of maximum tension (Le). We take the additional 2/3rds reduction on the tensile force due to the reality that some of the tensile force is absorbed by the soil in the influence area. The local weight of the facing is: Wf = (Ht) (t) ( wall) The local sliding resistance (Fr) is an equation based on the Allan Block shear strength. FSconn = Fcs Fid (0. Once the tensile force is determined for each grid.752 N/m + (Wf) tan (56º) 63 .

5) (Ka) ( ) (Ht)2 (0.5 SFSlocalseismic = Fr (Fa + DFdyn + Pir) cos ( w) 1.Fa Dynamic Earth Force Infrement: Seismic Inertial Force: DFdyn = = (Kh) (Wf) Finally.6 Ht + t) (Fa) cos ( w) (Ht/3) + (DFdyn) cos ( w) (0.5 64 . the safety factor equations are: SFSlocalstatic = Fr (Fa) cos ( w) 1.1 SFOlocalstatic = Wf [(Ht/2) tan SFOlocalseismic = Wf [(Ht/2) tan + t/2] + (Fa) sin ( w) [(Ht/3) tan + t] + (DFdyn) sin ( w) (0.5) (1 + Kv) (Kae) ( ) (Ht)2 Fae .6 Ht) + Pir (Ht/2) 1.The soil and surcharge forces are as follows: Active Force: Dynamic Force: Fa Fae Pir = = (0.1 + t/2] + (Fa) sin ( w) [(Ht/3) tan (Fa) cos ( w) (Ht/3) + t] 1.

Chapman & Hall. 1990. and G. Leshchinsky. New York: The Macmillan Company." Draft version. Whitman. K. Wetzel. R." Chapter 8 in Introductory Soil mechanics and Foundations.0 in Road Design Manual -. Report 79-1. McKittrick. "A Design Procedure for Geotextile Reinforced Walls. "Modular Concrete Retaining Wall and Geogrid Performance and Laboratory Modeling. Washington: 1987. “Soil Mechanics” Fifth Edition. Peck. F. "Earth Retaining Structures and Slopes. J. Inc.B. Paul: 1985. Sowers.W. "Walls." Reinforced Earth Technical Services. 1970. Paul: July/August.Task Force 27. Lambe and R.. Kliethermes. Ralph." Geotechnical Fabrics Report. "Reinforced Earth: Application of Theory and Research to Practice. Perry.V. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1987. Craig.Part II. edited by T. Das “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering” Third Edition.P. McCullough. "Problems in Earth Pressure. D. G.. 1992 Braja M. and E.F. D. 1994 65 . St." Chapter 13 in Soil Science. Chapter 10. 1978." University of Wisconsin-Platteville. "Guidelines for the Design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls.REFERENCES American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials -." Section 9-4. and R.B. St. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Arlington. 1969. E. Buttry.. Sowers. VA: The Reinforced Earth Company.

0 ft (0.2145 Find: The safety factor against sliding.3 m) = 5.547 N/m = (Fa) sin ( w) = (116 ft/lb) sin (24º) = 47 lb/ft = (Fa) sin ( w) = (1.923 kg/m3) (0.675 N/m = (Fa) cos ( w) = (116 ft/lb) cos (24º) = 106 lb/ft = (Fa) cos ( w) = (1.693 N/m) sin (24º) = 689 N/m = ( w) (H) (d) = (130 lb/ft3) (3.5 Fh 106 lb/ft = Fr = 4.511 N/m = Fr = 309 lb/ft = 2.91 m) 3 = 120 lb/ft (1.520 N/m + 689 N/m) tan (36º) = 4.97 ft) = 378 lb/ft = ( w) (H) ( d) = (2.0 ft) (0.061 kg/m ) a = a = [ [ [ csc ( ) sin ( — ) sin ( + w) + sin ( + sin ( w) sin ( — i) i) ] 2 csc (87) sin (87 — 36) sin (87 + 24) + sin (36 + 24) sin (36 — 0) sin (87 — 0) ] 2 a = 0.547 N/m = 2.061 kg/m3) (0. The first step is to determine the total active force exerted by the soil on the wall: Fa Fh Fv Wf Fr SFS = (0.666) (36) = 24º H = 3.2145) (0.91 m)2 = 1. SFS.92 > 1. 5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 = (0.923 kg/m3) 3 3 w = 130 lb/ft (2.5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 = (0.5 OK OK 66 .2145) (3.7782124 0.511 N/m Fh 1.693 N/m) cos (24º) = 1.966219657 + 0.91 m) (0.0 ft)2 = 116 lb/ft = (0.713957656 ] 2 = 0.5) (1.520 N/m = (Vt) (Cf) = (Wf + Fv) tan ( ) = (378 lb/ft + 47 lb/ft) tan (36º) = 309 lb/ft = (Vt) (Cf) = (Wf + Fv) tan ( ) = (5.Sample Calculations Example S-1: Given: i = 0º = 36º = 90 — 3 = 87º w = (0.92 > 1.5) (120 lb/ft3) (0.

333) (H) = (106 lb/ft) (0.12 = 78º i = 0º = 120 lb/ft3 (1.Find: The safety factor against overturning.9 m) tan (90º — 87º) ] = 1.48 > 2.547 N/m) (0.72139389 ] ] 2 = 0.333) (0.15 m) + (0.0 OK Example S-2: Given: = 36º H = 3.0 ft) tan (90º — 87º) ] = 263 ft-lb/ft = (5.974 Pa) = (.666) (36) = 24º w Ka = Ka = Ka = [ [ [ csc ( ) sin ( — ) sin ( + w) + sin ( + w) sin ( sin ( i) — i) ] 2 csc (78) sin (78 — 36) 2 sin (78 + 24) + sin (36 + 24) sin (36 — 0) sin (78 — 0) 0. SFO.989013448 + 0.9 m) tan (90º — 87º) ] + (689 N/m) [ (0.5) (3.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (FV) [ (x2) + (0.520 N/m) [ (0.333) (3. Mr = (Wf) [ (x1) + (0.5) (0.333) (0.923 kg/m3) 3 (2.176 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.3 m) + (0.061 kg/m3) w = 130 lb/ft q = 250 lb/ft2 (11.0 ft (0.176 N-m/m) (464 N-m/m) = 2.9 m) = 464 N-m/m = = SFO Mr = (263 ft-lb/ft) Mo Mr Mo = 2.684079382 0.97 ft) + (0.1599 67 .0 ft) tan (90º — 87º) ] + (47 lb/ft) [ (0.0 OK (106 ft-lb/ft) = (1.9 m) = 90 .333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] = (378 lb/ft) [ (0.333) (3.49 ft) + (0.0 ft) = 106 ft-lb/ft = (1.48 > 2.

5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 = (0.1599) (3.1599) (0.327 N/m + (690 N/m) tan (36º) = 1.0 ft) = 111 lb/ft = (Pqh) (H) = (1.459 N/m = (Vt) (Cf) = (Wf + Fv) tan ( ) = (378 lb/ft + 35 lb/ft) tan (36º) = 300 lb/ft = (Vt) (Cf) = (Wf + Fv) tan ( ) = (5.97 ft) = 378 lb/ft = ( w) (H) (d) = (2.916 Pa) sin (24º) = 779 Pa Fqh Fqv = (Pqh) (H) = (37 lb/ft2) (3.0 ft)2 = 86 lb/ft = (0.76 > 1. The first step is to determine the total active force exerted by the soil on the wall: Fa Fh Fv Wf Fr = (0.222 N/m) cos (24º) = 1.5) (120 lb/ft3) (0. SFS.5 Fh + Fqh 79 lb/ft + 111 lb/ft = Fr + (Fqv) (Cf) Fh + Fqh = 4.750 Pa = (Pq) sin ( w) = (40 lb/ft2) sin (24º) = 16 lb/ft2 = (Pq) sin ( w) = (1.5) (1.9 m) = 690 N/m SFS = Fr + (Fqv) (Cf) = 300 lb/ft + (48 lb/ft) tan (36º) = 1.1599) = 1.327 N/m Pq Pqh Pqv = (q) (Ka) = (250 lb/ft2) (0.116 N/m = (Fa) sin ( w) = (86 lb/ft) sin (24º) = 35 lb/ft = (Fa) sin ( w) = (1.9 m)2 = 1.595 N/m OK OK 68 .0 ft) (0.9 m) = 1.916 Pa) cos (24º) = 1.Find: The safety factor against sliding.061 kg/m3) (0.0 ft) = 48 lb/ft = (Pqv) (H) = (766 Pa) (0.9 m) (0.222 N/m = (Fa) cos ( w) = (86 lb/ft) cos (24º) = 79 lb/ft = (Fa) cos ( w) = (1.974 N/m2) (0.5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 = (0.5 1.1599) = 40 lb/ft2 = (q) (Ka) = (11.916 Pa = (Pq) cos ( w) = (40 lb/ft2) cos (24º) = 37 lb/ft2 = (Pq) cos ( w) = (1.116 N/m + 1.3 m) = 5.222 N/m) sin (24º) = 497 N/m = ( w) (H) (d) = (130 lb/ft3) (3.923 kg/m3) (0.76 > 1.459 N/m + 497 N/m) tan (36º) = 4.772 Pa) (0.595 N/m = (Pqv) (H) = (16 lb/ft2) (3.

Mr = (Wf) [ (X1) + (0.333) (H) + (Fqh) (0.333) (3.74 m) = 90 .666) (27) = 18º csc ( ) sin ( — ) sin ( + w) + sin ( + sin ( = 250 lb/ft2 (11.795 N-m/m) Mo (1.5) (3.7 > 2.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] = + + = = + + = Mr (378 lb/ft) [ (0.333) (3.572880034 ] 0.3 m) + (0.0 ft) + (111 lb/ft) (0.061 kg/m3) = (.052 N-m/m) = 1.9 m) = 1.9 m) + (1.0 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (48 lb/ft) [ (0.5) (0.15 m) + (0.116 N/m) (0.052 N-m/m SFO = = Mr = (409 ft-lb/ft) Mo (245 ft-lb/ft) Mr = (1.0 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] 409 ft-lb/ft (5.5) (0.49 ft) + (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0.5) (3.5) (H) = (79 lb/ft) (0.0 = 1.333) (0.0 ft (2.333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fqv) [ (X2) + (0.256 69 .795 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.9 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (690 N/m) [ (0.9 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] 1.0 ft) = 245 ft-lb/ft = (1.333) (0.595 N/m) (0.12 = 78º i Ci w = = 0º 0.997257186 + 0.Find: The safety factor against overturning.0 NOT OK NOT OK Example S-3: Given: = 27º H = 9.5) (0.923 kg/m3) (2.75 q w = 120 lb/ft3 = 130 lb/ft3 (1.974 Pa) Ka = Ka = Ka = [ [ [ w) sin ( — i) i) ] = 2 csc (78) sin (78 — 27) 2 sin (78 + 18) + sin (27 + 18) sin (27 — 0) sin (78 — 0) ] 0.0 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (35 lb/ft) [ (0.9 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (497 N/m) [ (0.97 ft) + (0.97 ft) + (0.7 > 2.794507864 2 0.3 m) + (0. SFO.459 N/m) [ (0.5) (3.

620 N/m + 5.323 N/m Fh 17.33.259 m + (2.75) tan (27º) 12.85 + (H — dg) [ tan (45º — ( 2)) — tan (90º — ) ] + 2.4) = 2.05 ft = 0.602 N/m = ( w) (H) (d) = (130 lb/ft3) (9.85 ft — (9 ft — 4.5 = 0.624 m = 0.161 N/m 2 (1.323 N/m = Fr = 774 lb/ft Fh 1.128 N/m = (Fa) cos ( w) = (1.97 ft) = 1.620 N/m = (Vt) (Cf) = (Wf + Fv) tan ( ) = (1.35 m) (18.85 + (H — dg) [ tan (45º — ( 2)) — tan (90º — ) ] + 0.75) tan (27º) = 2.865 N/m) (0.241 N/m = 0.0 ft) (0.44 ft) (0.44 ft) [ tan (45º — 13.135 lb/ft = ( w) (H) (d) = (2.128 N/m) sin (18º) = 5. Le = (Lt — Lw — La) = 5 ft — 0.4) = 0.35 m) (0.44 ft) (120 lb/ft3) (0.524 m — 0.244 lb/ft) sin (18º) = 384 lb/ft = (Fa) sin ( w) = (18.5º) — tan (90º — 78º) ] + 0.602 N/m) tan (27º) = 11.05 ft = 0.74 m) (0.241 N/m = (Fa) sin ( w) = (1.923 kg/m3) (0.135 lb/ft + 384 lb/ft) tan (27º) = 774 lb/ft = (Vt) (Cf) = (Wf + Fv) tan ( ) = (16. Fg Find = 2 (dg) ( ) (Le) (Ci) tan ( ) Le.183 lb/ft = (Fa) cos ( w) = (18.256) (9. SFS. = = Le 833 lb/ft 2 (4.5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 = (0.5 NOT OK (Need Geogrid) NOT OK (Need Geogrid) Analyze with single layer of grid.Find: The safety factor against sliding.439 m Actual Embedment Length.05 ft = 4.183 lb/ft = Fr = 11. The first step is to determine the total active force exerted by the soil on the wall: Fa Fh Fv Wf Fr SFS = (0.74 m — 1.74 m — 1.85 ft + (9 ft — 4.3 m) = 16.624 m = 1.5) (1.33 ft = 1.5) ( ) (Ka) (H)2 = (0.72 ft = Lw + La + Le = 0.5º) — tan (90º — 78º)] + 2.71 m Maximum potential restraining force with Le = 2.244 lb/ft) cos (18º) = 1.0 ft)2 = 1.65 > 1.5) (120 lb/ft3) (0.244 lb/ft = (0.128 N/m) cos (18º) = 17.35 m) [ tan (45º — 13.256) (2.65 > 1. 70 .648 m Lt = Lw + La + Le = 0.74 m)2 = 18.259 m — (2.061 kg/m3) (2.

2 > 1.385 N/m = (Vt) (Cf) = (7.323 N/m + 12.0 ft) (6 ft — 0.732 m = 1. the total surcharge forces on the wall are calculated: Fqh Fqv = (Pqh) (H) = (61 lb/ft2) (9.5 NOT OK (Needs More Geogrid) NOT OK (Needs More Geogrid) = Fr + Fg = 11.3 (H) + 0.598 N/m (tan 27º) 17.135 lb/ft + 5.915 Pa) (2.794 lb/ft = 6.74 m) = 7.161 N/m Fh 17.206 N/m Pressure on the retaining wall due to the surcharge Pq = (q) (Ka) = (250 lb/ft2) (0.75) tan (27º) = 13.241 N/m = 1.208 > 1.74 m) + 0.4 ft = 5.75) tan (27º) = 949 lb/ft = 2 (1.82 m — 0.732 m = 0.36 > 1.206 N/m + 2.163 N/m = 100.929 lb/ft = Wf + Ws = 16.915 Pa = (Pq) sin ( wo) = (Pq) sin ( wo) = (64 lb/ft2) sin (18º) = 20 lb/ft2 = (3.241 N/m + 7.4 ft = 0.94 ft Round up to Lg = 6 ft = 0. Solve using onsite soil Vt Fr = Ww + Fv = 6.974 Pa) (0.620 N/m + 84.85 ft + 2.5 OK = 2.71 m) (0.385 N/m) tan (27º) = 3.256 m) = 84.3 (H) + 0.598 N/m Find the safety factor against sliding: SFS = Fr + (Fqv) tan Fh + Fqh = Fr + (Fqv) (Fqv) Fh + Fqh = 3.783 N/m + 5.183 lb/ft + 549 lb/ft = 54.987 N/m = (Pqv) (H) = (Pqv) (H) = (20 lb/ft2) (9. Pqh Pqv = (Pq) cos ( wo) = (64 lb/ft2) cos (18º) = 61 lb/ft2 = (Pq) cos ( wo) = (3.923 kg/m ) (0.0 ft) = 180 lb/ft = (947 Pa) (2.5 OK 71 .161 N/m = Fr + Fg = 774 lb/ft + 833 lb/ft Fh 1.85 ft) = (125 lb/ft3) (9.313 lb/ft = Ww + Fv = 100.256 m) = (2.256 m + 0.85 ft + 2.929 lb/ft + 384 lb/ft = 7.3 (9 ft) + 0.33 ft) (0.987 N/m = 2.256) = 3.783 N/m Vertical Force.Fg SFS = 2 (4.35 m) (1.256) = 64 lb/ft2 = (q) (Ka) = (11.36 > 1.065 Pa) cos (18º) = 2.602 N/m = 106.726 lb/ft + 180 lb/ft (tan 27º) 1.313 lb/ft) tan (27º) = (Vt) (Cf) = (106.44 ft) (120 lb/ft3) (2.3 (2.256 m + 0.74 m) (1.74 m) = 2.163 N/m = Wf + Ws = 1.065 Pa Find the horizontal and vertical components of the pressure.0 ft) = 549 lb/ft = (Pqh) (H) = (2.85 ft) = 5.065 Pa) sin (18º) = 947 Pa Finally.002 kg/m3) (2.794 lb/ft = ( r) (H) (Lg — 0.5 Lmin = 0.82 m Ws Ww = ( r) (H) (Lg — 0.726 lb/ft = 54.183 lb/ft = 1.820 N/m 3 but max is 833 lb/ft but max is 12.

333) (9.184 N/m) Internal Stability: r r wr = 30º = 125 lb/ft3 (2.241 N/m) (0.13 ft) + (0.5) (X1) + (0.183 lb/ft) (0.620 N/m) [ (0.184 N-m/m Mo = (Fh) (0.5) (H) = (1.3 > 2.87 m — 0.665 N/m) Mr = (140.297 m) + (0.0 OK OK (6.0 ft) = 6.74 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] 140.987 N/m) (0.016 ft-lb/ft) (26.97 ft) + (0.0 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (384 lb/ft) [ (6.5) (9.5) (9.5) (2.794 lb/ft) [ (0.666 (30º) = 20º Kar = Kar = [ [ csc (78) sin (78 — 30) 2 sin (78 + 19.3 > 2.74 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (2.759747 0.74 m) + (7.Find the safety factor against overturning: Mr = (Wf) [ (0.5) (0.297 m) + (0.2197 72 .87 m) + (0.621 ft-lb/ft) Mo Mo = 5.97 ft) + (0.297 m) + (0.163 N/m) [ (0.5) (1.98) sin (30 — 0) sin (78 — 0) 2 0.87 m) + (0.0 = 5.98) + sin (30 + 19.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] Mr = + + + = = + + + = (1.5) (9.602 N/m) [ (1.5) (9.016 ft-lb/ft = (17.5) (0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fv) [ (X2) + (0.995147 + 0.5) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Ws) [ (0.135 lb/ft) [ (0.74 m) = 26.333) (H) + (Fqh) (0.0 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (180 lb/ft) [ (6.0 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] (5.5) (6.665 N-m/m SFO = = = Mr = (31.625671 ] ] = 0.333) (2.97 ft) + (0.5) (2.74 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (84.333) (H) tan (90º — ) ] + (Fqv) [ (X2) + (0.5) (X2 X1) + (X1) + (0.13 ft) + (0.598 N/m) [ (1.5) (2.333) (2.002 kg/m3) = 0.333) (9.5) (2.621 ft-lb/ft (16.0 ft) tan (90º — 78º) ] 31.0 ft) + (549 lb/ft) (0.74 m) tan (90º — 78º) ] (5.13 ft — 0.

1 3 826 kg/m ( 2.2197) cos (20º) = 0.974 Pa) (0.2197) (1.2197) cos (20º) = 52 lb/ft2 = (q) (Kar) cos ( wr) = (11.767 kg/m ) (1.322 N/m dh = = = = ( 571 lb/ft2)2 4 (26 lb/ft3) (1.666 lb/ft) 2 (26 lb/ft3) (571 lb/ft2) (391 lb/ft2) = 18.74 m — 1.161 N/m) = 24.5 ft) = 1. hg = 1/2 dh = 1/2 (3. Fh = 0.07 m) = 0.472 Pa Quadratic equation = — b z a b b2 — 4ac 2a = (Kar) cos ( wr ) = (0.974 Pa) (0.5 ( r) (Kar) (d2)2 cos ( wr ) = 0.2197) cos (20º) = 2.67 m — 0.767 kg/m2) ( 571 lb/ft2) d2 = d1 = d1 dh = 9.0 ft — 3.2197) (5.6 or 1.2065 = ( r) (z) = (125 lb/ft3) (0.2197) (1.5 The wall is only 9 ft (2.818 N/m hg) cos ( wr ) = (250 lb/ft2) (0.5 ft = 5.5 ft dh = 2.002 kg/m3) (0.53 m) cos (20º) 73 .2197) (5.64 m) is not valid.0 ft) (26 lb/ft3) (250 lb/ft2) (0.53 m Analysis to determine if more than one additional layer of geogrid is required.Pqh = (q) (Kar) cos ( wr ) = (250 lb/ft2) (0.51 (5.767 kg/m2)2 4 (413 kg/m3) (2.666 lb/ft = (2) (Fga) = (2) (12.5 or 3.5 (2.67 m)2 cos (30º) = 5.002 kg/m3) (0.887 kg/m2) = 5.75 ft = 1/2 dh = 1/2 (1.2065) = 26 lb/ft3 = ( r) (z) = (2.5 (125 lb/ft3) (0.2065) ] (11.5 ( r) (Kar) (d2)2 cos ( wr) = 0.74 m) (413 kg/m3) c = (2) (Fga) = (2) (833 lb/ft) = 1.479 kg/m) 2 (413 kg/m3) 2 (2. ( 2.5 ft)2 cos (30º) = 360 lb/ft = 0.07 m = 1.148 Pa (q) (z) ] = (q) (z) ] = 2 [ (9.974 Pa) (0.2065) = 413 kg/m3 = = = = 2 [ (d1) (a) 571 lb/ft2 2 [ (d1) (a) 27.75 ft) cos (20º) hg) cos ( wr) = (11.2065) ] 2 [ (2.211 N/m Qh = (q) (Kar) (d2 = 194 lb/ft = (q) (Kar) (d2 = 2.5 ft 1.67 m The first layer of geogrid is placed at 1/2 dh.74 m) tall 3 52 lb/ft so 18.

2197) (9.5 (1.5 (125 lb/ft3) (0.029 N/m < 12.5 (5.419 lb/ft Qh = 15. Fh = 0.2197) (2.2197) (9.75 ft) cos (20º) 0.5 (2002 kg/m3) (0.220 N/m Qh = (q) (Kar) (H = 374 lb/ft hg) cos ( wr ) = (250 lb/ft2) (0.7 = 2 Layers = 1.0 ft)2 cos (20º) = 1.67 m) = 1.08 ft (1.67 m) + 0. Layer 2 = 5.25 ft 0.0 ft 1.5 (dh) = (2.683 N/m 12.5 ( r) (Kar) (H)2 cos ( wr ) = 0.045 lb/ft + 374 lb/ft = 1.419 lb/ft LTADS 833 lb/ft = N = 20.211 N/m + 2.55 m) = 8 blocks from bottom.974 N/m2) (0. = (H = (H d2) d2) 0. 74 .220 N/m + 5.0 ft — 5.045 lb/ft = 0.9 m Check number of layers of geogrid required.52 m) = 13 blocks from bottom.Ft Ft hg = Fh = Fh Qh = 360 lb/ft + 194 lb/ft = 554 lb/ft Qh = 5. Layer 3 = 8.161 N/m Only one more layer of geogrid is required.5 ft) + 0.74 m — 1.53 m) cos (20º) = (q) (Kar) (H hg) cos ( wr) = (11.463 N/m Ft = Fh = Fh Qh = 1.5) = 6.161 N/m = 1.2197) (2.029 N/m = 554 lb/ft < 833 lb/ft Only one more layer of geogrid is required. the total number of grid will need to be three. = 8.5 (dh) = (9.683 N/m Ft = N = 1.74 m = 5.91 m).7 = 2 Layers Because the maximum spacing of geogrid is 3 ft (0.5 ( r) (Kar) (H)2 cos ( wr) = 0.255 ft (2.58 m) = 3 blocks from bottom.818 N/m = 8.74 m)2 cos (20º) = 15.905 ft (0.463 N/m = 20. Layer 1 = 1.

Slope Below Wall Slope Surcharge Roadway Application Roadway Surcharge Live Surcharge On Wall Multi Terraces .Surcharge Above Wall.

675 • Taiwan Patent #NI-090824 Australian Patent #133. #185.Allan Block Retaining Wall Systems Visit our web site allanblock.306 & 682.484.286 & 2. & Other Patents Pending • ICBO #5087 • Copyright © 1999 • engman1099 .010 & 5. MN • 952-835-5309 • 952-835-0013 . Edina.012.236 • Canadian Patent #2.133..909.394 • Int’l.com Allan Block Corporation • 7400 Metro Blvd.Fax US Patents #4.

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