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Aspen 2002

Aspen 2002


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Guidelines for the Use of
Parenteral and Enteral
Nutrition in Adult and
Pediatric Patients
Guidelines for the Use of
Parenteral and Enteral
Nutrition in Adult and
Pediatric Patients

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Metabolic bone disease (MBD) has been reported in
infants and premature neonates receiving PN.1,2

incidence of MBD is unknown, but it is common in
patients receiving long-term PN.3,4

Biochemical evi-
dence of MBD may include hypercalciuria, hypercalce-

mia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated serum alkaline
phosphatase, low-normal plasma parathyroid hor-
mone, and normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and low 1,25
hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations.4,5

The etiol-
ogy of bone demineralization or inadequate bone
matrix mineralization is multifactorial and often asso-
ciated with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D defi-

Aluminum accumulation in bones8


excessive vitamin D may also contribute.9


Hypocalcemia in MBD patients may be due to
decreased calcium intake or increased urinary calcium
elimination. Because of solubility limitations, calcium
and phosphate in neonatal PN are generally inade-
quate to meet the needs for optimal bone growth. There
are few clinical trials investigating MBD in infants and
children and most data are derived from studies in
adult patients.
Investigators have shown that very low birth weight
infants who received high calcium (1.68 mM/dL) and
phosphate (2 mM/dL) in their daily PN had greater
calcium and phosphate retention and greater bone
mineral content.7,10,11

Hypocalcemia due to hypercal-
ciuria has been consistently reported in patients
receiving PN. Factors known to promote hypercalci-
uria include increased calcium intake, decreased phos-
phate supplementation, excessive amino acid infusion,
chronic metabolic acidosis, and cyclic PN infusion. A
reduction in calciuria and bone pain can be achieved by
reducing calcium intake and altering the calcium-to-
phosphate ratio from 1:1.5 to 1:2.12

Several studies
have correlated amino acid intake with hypercalci-

Chronic metabolic acidosis from excessive
amounts of amino acids or from D-lactic acidosis can
lead to MBD by direct loss of bone involving buffering
bone systems or impaired vitamin D metabolism.15,16
Two studies comparing cycled versus noncycled
administration of PN showed that cycling increases
bone mineral loss.14,17

In one of these studies, mea-
surement of bone mass by photon absorbtiometry
showed reduced vertebral bone mass but not wrist
bone mass in long-term (55.2 8.7 months) PN

Small amounts of aluminum are present in calcium
and phosphate salts, vitamins, heparin, and trace ele-
ment solutions.18

Aluminum in PN solutions may
result in a decreased rate of bone formation.18,19

Koo et


found that aluminum accumulated at the miner-
alization front of bones in premature infants. Measure-
ment of serum aluminum concentration can help deter-
mine the role of aluminum excess when MBD is
suspected in long-term PN patients. Aluminum toxic-
ity may be a particular problem in young infants whose
kidneys cannot adequately excrete aluminum com-
pared with older children. The FDA has recommended
restriction of aluminum contamination in large volume
parenterals to a maximum of 25 g/L. Patients who
have elevated aluminun levels should have parenteral
sources of aluminum investigated.21
Underlying conditions and concurrent medications
may also be responsible or predispose to MBD. These

JanuaryFebruary 2002



are especially prevelant in patients with malabsorp-
tion, glucocorticoid administration, and antineoplastic

Several reports of improvement of MBD after vita-
min D removal from PN suggest a possible role of
vitamin D in the development of MBD.9,22

If this is
attempted, it is advised that patients have their
plasma PTH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25
hydroxyvitamin D concentrations measured. If PTH
and 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are low and
25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are normal, then
vitamin D should be withdrawn from the PN solution.

Practice Guidelines

Complications Unique to Neonates:
Metabolic Bone Disease

1. Calcium and phosphate should be provided in
adequate amounts to assure optimal bone miner-
alization in long-term PN patients. (A)
2. Serum aluminum concentrations should be mea-
sured whenever unexplained MBD is present in
long-term PN patients. (B)
3. In patients with low PTH and 1,25 hydroxyvita-
min D concentrations and normal 25 hydroxyvi-
tamin D concentration with MBD, vitamin D
should be removed from the PN solution. (B)


1. The TS, Kollee LA, Boon JM, et al: Rickets in a preterm infant

2. Kien CL, Browning C, Jona J, et al: Rickets in premature infants
receiving parenteral nutrition: A case report and review of the
literature. JPEN 6:152–156, 1982
3. Shike M, Harrison JE, Sturtridge WC, et al: Metabolic bone
disease in patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutri-
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parenteral nutrition: Osteopenia without mineralization defect.
Am J Clin Nutr 44:89–98, 1986
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low remodeling bone disease during cyclic total parenteral nutri-
tion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60:109, 1985

6. Leape LL, Valaes T: Rickets in low birth weight infants receiving
total parenteral nutrition. J Pediatr Surg 11:665–674, 1976
7. Prestridge LL, Schanler RJ, Shulman R, et al: Effect of paren-
teral calcium and phosphorus on mineral retention and bone
mineral content in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr
122:761–768, 1993
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Clin Nutr 38:264–269, 1983
14. Lipkin EW, Ott SM, Chesnut CH, et al: Mineral loss in the
parenteral nutrition patient. Am J Clin Nutr 47:515–523, 1988
15. Cunningham J, Fraher LJ, Clemens TL, et al: Chronic acidosis
with metabolic bone disease. Am J Med 73:199–204, 1982
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Nutrition 14:149–152, 1998
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21. Seidner DL, Licata A: Parenteral nutrition associated metabolic
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22. Verhage AH, Cheong WK, Allard JP, et al: Increase in lumbar
spine bone mineral content in patients on long-term parenteral
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436, 1995



Vol. 26, No. 1, Supplement

Section XIII: Specific Guidelines for Disease—Pediatrics

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