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INDEX

S.No
1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 Lab Objective

Contents

Page No.
2 3 5 7 10 20 22 35 55

Introduction About Lab Guidelines to Students List of Syllabus Programs (JNTU) Description about UNIX commands Discription about shells Solutions for Programs Viva Questions and Answers References

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LAB OBJECTIVE
Upon successful completion of this Lab the student will be able to: 1. Demonstrate how to use the following Bourne Shell commands: cat, grep, ls, more, ps, chmod, finger, ftp, etc. 2. Use the following Bourne Shell constructs: test, if then, if then else, if then elif, for, while, until, and case. 3. Learn tracing mechanisms (for debugging), user variables, BourneShell variables, read-only variables, positional parameters, reading input to a BourneShell script, command substitution, comments, and exporting variables. In addition, test on numeric values, test on file type, and test on character strings are covered.
4. Copy, move, and delete files and directories

5. Write moderately complex Shell scripts. 6. Make a Shell script executable. 7. Create a ".profile" script to customize the user environment. 8. Use advanced features of File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 9. Compile source code into object and executable modules. 10. Execute programs written in c under UNIX environment

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INTRODUCTION ABOUT LAB

There are 66 systems ( Compaq Presario ) installed in this Lab. Their configurations are as follows : Processor RAM Hard Disk Mouse Network Interface card : : : : : Present AMD Athelon ™ 1.67 GHz 256 MB 40 GB Optical Mouse

Software  All systems are configured in DUAL BOOT mode i.e, Students can boot from Windows XP or Linux as per their lab requirement. This is very useful for students because they are familiar with different Operating Systems so that they can execute their programs in different programming environments.  Each student has a separate login for database access Oracle 9i client version is installed in all systems. On the server, account for each student has been created. This is very useful because students can save their work ( scenarios’, pl/sql programs, data related projects ,etc) in their own accounts. Each student work is safe and secure from other students.  Latest Technologies like DOT NET and J2EE are installed in some systems. Before submitting their final project, they can start doing mini project from 2nd year onwards.

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 MASM ( Macro Assembler ) is installed in all the systems Students can execute their assembly language programs using MASM. MASM is very useful students because when they execute their programs they can see contents of Processor Registers and how each instruction is being executed in the CPU.  Rational Rose Software is installed in some systems Using this software, students can depict UML diagrams of their projects.  Softwares installed : C, C++, JDK1.5, MASM, OFFICE-XP, J2EE and DOT NET, Rational Rose.

 Systems are provided for students in the 1:1 ratio.

 Systems are assigned numbers and same system is allotted for students when they do the lab.

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Guidelines to Students
How to Run Shell Scripts There are two ways you can execute your shell scripts. Once you have created a script file: Method 1 Pass the file as an argument to the shell that you want to interpret your script. Step 1 : create the script using vi, ex or ed For example, the script file show has the following lines echo Here is the date and time date Step 2 : To run the script, pass the filename as an argument to the sh (shell ) $ sh show Here is the date and time Sat jun 03 13:40:15 PST 2006

Method 2: Make your script executable using the chmod command. When we create a file, by default it is created with read and write permission turned on and execute permission turned off. A file can be made executable using chmod. Step 1 : create the script using vi, ex or ed For example, the script file show has the following lines echo Here is the date and time date Step 2 : Make the file executable

c contains the following lines : main() { printf(“ welcome to GNEC “). or ed to write the program.out Step 3 : To run the program. such as vi.c. } Step 2 : Submit the file to CC ( the C Compiler ) $ cc show. the file show. type a.c If the program is okay. For example. the compiled version is placed in a file called a. The name of the file containing the program should end in .out Welcome to GNEC .out $ a. just type the filename $ show Here is the date and time Sat jun 03 13:40:15 PST 2006 How to run C programs Step 1 : Use an editor.6 $ chmod u+x script_file $ chmod u+x show Step 3 : To run the script. ex.

Log in to the system Use Vi editor to create a file called myfile. 5. my table e) use the sort command to sort the file my table according to the first field. Call it mytable(same name) h) print the new file.txt which contain some text. my table d) use the vi command to correct any errors in the file. Correct typing errors during creation Save the file Logout of the file Session 2 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Log into the system Open the file created in session 1 Add some text Change some text delete some text Save the changes Logout of the system WEEK2 a) log into the system b) Use the cat command to create a file containing the following data.27 6830 sita 36. Call the sorted file my table(same name) f) print the file my table g) use the cut & paste commands to swap fields 2 and 3 my table. 2.65 4320 ramu 26.15 1450 raju 21.86 c) use the cat command to display the file. 3. Call it mutable use tabs to separate the fields 1425 ravi 15. 4.7 List of Lab Exercises Syllabus Programs ( JNTU ) WEEK1 Session 1 1. my table i) logout of the system .

Use the date and who commands in sequence ?(in one line) such that the output of date will display on the screen and the output of who will be redirected to a file called my file2. write a sed command that deletes the first character in each line in a file write a sed command that deletes the character before the last character in each line in a file.provided they exits in the current directory c) Write a shell script that determines the period for which a specified user is working on the system WEEK6 a) write a shell script that accepts a file name starting and ending line numbers as arguments and displays all the lines between the given line numbers b) write a shell script that deletes all lines containing a specified word I one or more files supplied as arguments to it. Write a sed command that swaps the files and second words in each line in a file WEEK4 a) pipe ur /etc/passwd file to awk and print out the home directory of each user.a file.8 WEEK3 a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) log in the system use the appropriate commands to determine ur login shell use the /etc/passwd file to verify the result of step b. b) Develop an interactive grep script that asks for a word and a file name and then tells how many lines contain that word c) Repeat d) Part using awk WEEK5 a) Write A shell script that takes a command –line argument and reports on whether it is directry . WEEK7 a) Write a shell script that computes the gross salary of a employee according to the following 1) if basic salary is <1500 then HRA 10% of the basic and DA =90% of the basic .Use the more command to check the contents of myfile2. use the who command redirect the result to a file called myfile1.Use the more command to see the contents of myfile1.or something else b) Write a shell script that accepts one or more file name as a arguments and converts all of thenm to uppercase.

Let it offer the user the choice of copying . 1) file type 2) number of links 3) read.9 2) if basic salary is >1500 then HRA 500 and DA =98% of the basic The basic salary is entered interactively through the key board b) Write a shell script that accepts two integers as its arguments and computes the value of first number raised to the power of the second number WEEK 8 a) Write an interactive file handling shell program. It should check whether the two file contents are same or not. such as the file name . 1) To extract a sub string from a given string 2) To find the length of a given string WEEK 10 Write a C program that takes one or more file or directory names as command line input and reports the following information on the file.renaming or linking files. Once the use has made a choice. b) Write a shell script that takes a login name as command –line argument and reports when that person logs in c) Write a shell script which receives two files names as arguments. If they are same then second file should be deleted. write and execute permissions 4) time of last access (Note: use /fstat system calls) WEEK 11 Write C program that simulate the following unix commands a) mv b) cp . c) Write a shell script to perform the following string operations.new name and so on. have the program ask the user for necessary information.removing . WEEK 9 a) Write a shell script that displays a list of all files in the current directory to which the user has read write and execute permissions b) Develop an interactive script that asks for a word and file name and then tells how many times that word occurred in the file.

cat /etc/passwd This command displays the "/etc/passwd" file on your screen. It displays your current position in the UNIX filesystem. cat file1 file2 file3 > file4 This command combines the contents of the first three files into the fourth file. Command Syntax pwd pwd Description Examples "pwd" stands for print working directory. cat /etc/profile This command displays the "/etc/profile" file on your screen. This command is used to create. It is simply used to report your current working . view and concatenate files. Notice that some of the contents of this file may scroll off of your screen.10 WEEK 12 Write a c program that simulates ls command (Use system calls /directory API) Basic Unix commands Command Syntax Description Examples CAT cat [argument] [specific file] “cat" is short for concatenate. pwd There are no options (or arguments) with the "pwd" command.

It provides a very basic listing of the files in your current working directory. The long listing will provide important information about file permissions. file size. The -R option . It is used to list information about files and directories. and all sub-directories of /usr. ls This is the basic "ls" command. and they are not shown. ls -al /usr This command lists long information about all files in the "/usr" directory. ls -l The -l option tells the "ls" command to provide a long listing of information about the files and directories it reports. and creation date. ls ls [options] [names] Description Examples "ls" stands for list.11 Command Syntax directory. including hidden files. Filenames beginning with a decimal are considered hidden files. This is probably the most used version of the ls command. ls -a The -a option tells the ls command to report information about all files. user and group ownership. with no options. It combines the functionality of the -a and -l options. ls -alR /usr | more This command lists long information about all files in the "/usr" directory. ls -al This command provides a long listing of information about all files in the current directory.

old Assuming in this case that tmp is a directory. Command Syntax Options mv mv [options] sources target -b backup files that are about to be overwritten or removed -i interactive mode. ls -ld /usr Rather than list the files contained in the /usr directory. This is very useful when you want to check the permissions of the directory.12 tells the ls command to provide a recursive listing of all files and sub-directories. this example renames the directory tmp to the new name tmp.bad".bad This command renames the file "Chapter1" to the new name "Chapter1. and not the files the directory contains. mv Chapter1 /tmp This command moves the file "Chapter1" into the directory named "/tmp". you'll be asked whether to overwrite the file The "mv" command is used to move and rename files. rm Description Examples Command . mv tmp tmp.old. (Notice that if "garbage" is a directory. mv Chapter1 Chapter1. "Chapter1" would be moved into that directory). if dest exists. this command lists information about the /usr directory itself (without generating a listing of the contents of /usr). mv Chapter1 garbage This command renames the file "Chapter1" to the new name "garbage".

13 Syntax Options rm [options] files -d. This can be a safer way to delete files. --verbose explain what is being done Description Examples The "rm" command is used to remove files and directories. (Warning . never prompt -i. --interactive prompt before any removal -r. --recursive remove the contents of directories recursively -v. even if it is a non-empty directory (super-user only) -f. and "Chapter3". . The -i option stands for inquire. --directory unlink FILE.bad This command deletes the file named "Chapter1.be very careful when removing files and directories!) rm Chapter1. "Chapter2". rm *. -R. You must answer y (for yes) for each file you really want to delete. rm Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command deletes the files named "Chapter1".html".html This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename ends with the characters ".bad" (assuming you have permission to delete this file). rm -i Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command prompts you before deleting any of the three files specified. --force ignore nonexistent files.

cp /usr/fred/Chapter1 .profile. you must always specify both the source and destination of the file(s) to be copied. This example assumes that you have write permission in the current . including any sub-directories and files. are erased from the disk.profile" to a file named ". This command copies the file named "Chapter1" in the "/usr/fred" directory to the current directory. you'll be asked whether to overwrite the file -p preserves the original file's ownership. and timestamp The "cp" command is used to copy files and directories. permissions. and all of its' contents.profile. rm -r new-novel This command deletes the directory named "new-novel".bak".14 rm index* This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename begins with the characters "index". Note that when using the cp command. Command Syntax cp cp [options] file1 file2 cp [options] files directory Options -b backup files that are about to be overwritten or removed -i interactive mode.bak This command copies your ". group. Description Examples cp .profile . if dest exists. This directory.

grep 'fred' /etc/passwd This command searches for all occurrences of the text string 'fred' within the "/etc/passwd" file. e. grep '^fred' /etc/passwd This command searches for all occurrences of the text string 'fred' within the "/etc/passwd" file.15 directory. It will find and print (on the screen) all of the lines in this file that contain the text string 'fred'. Command Syntax grep grep [options] regular expression [files] Options match -i -n -v -w case-insensitive search show the line# along with the matched line invert match. rather than substrings Description Examples Think of the "grep" command as a "search" command (most people wish it was named "search"). cp /usr/fred/Chapter1 /usr/mary This command copies the "Chapter1" file in "/usr/fred" to the directory named "/usr/mary".g. a user named "alfred" would not be matched. It is used to search for text strings within one or more files. including lines that contain usernames like "fred" . find all lines that do NOT match entire words. because the letter "a" will be in the first column. This example assumes that you have write permission in the "/usr/mary" directory. Using this moreadvanced search.and also "alfred". grep 'joe' * This command searches for all occurrences of the text string . but also requires that the "f" in the name "fred" be in the first column of each record (that's what the caret character tells grep).

letters. Command Syntax Description rmdir rmdir [options] directories The "rm" command is used to remove files and directories.be very careful when removing . Command Syntax Description Examples mkdir mkdir [options] directory name The "mkdir" command is used to create new directories (sub-directories). and creates any intermediate directories that are needed.) mkdir -p /home/joe/customer/acme This command creates a new directory named /home/joe/customer/acme. (This example assumes that you have the proper permissions to create a new sub-directory in your current working directory. mkdir /usr/fred/tmp This command creates a new directory named "tmp" in the directory "/usr/fred". mkdir tmp This command creates a new directory named "tmp" in your current directory. "tmp" is now a sub-directory of "/usr/fred". (Warning . and the directory "acme" is created inside of customer. If only /home/joe existed to begin with.) mkdir memos letters e-mail This command creates three new sub-directories (memos.16 'joe' within all files of the current directory. then the directory "customer" is created. and e-mail) in the current directory. (This example assumes that you have the proper permissions to create a new directory in /usr/fred.

This directory. rm index* This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename begins with the characters "index".html". rm *. This can be a safer way to delete files. rm -r new-novel This command deletes the directory named "new-novel". and all of its' contents. and "Chapter3".bad This command deletes the file named "Chapter1. including any sub-directories and files.html This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename ends with the characters ". cd /usr . chdir cd [name of directory you want to move to] Description Examples "cd" stands for change directory.bad" (assuming you have permission to delete this file). The -i option stands for inquire. It is the primary command for moving around the filesystem.17 files and directories!) rm Chapter1. "Chapter2". are erased from the disk. rm Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command deletes the files named "Chapter1". rm -i Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command prompts you before deleting any of the three files specified. You must answer y (for yes) for each file you really want to delete. Examples Command Syntax cd.

This is very useful when you're in the middle of a project. Command Syntax Description kill kill [options] IDs kill ends one or more process IDs. cd Using the Korn shell. "/usr" becomes your current working directory. cd Issuing the "cd" command without any arguments moves you to your home directory. this command moves you back to your previous working directory. In order to do this you must own the process or be designated a privileged user. To find the process ID of a certain job use ps. and keep moving back-and-forth between two directories. cd /usr/fred Moves you to the "/usr/fred" directory.if this is the only directory matching this wildcard pattern. Examples Command Syntax Description ps ps [options] The "ps" command (process statistics) lets you check the status of processes that are running on your Unix . cd /u*/f* Moves you to the "/usr/fred" directory .18 This command moves you to the "/usr" directory.

ps -ef The -e and -f arguments are normally combined like this to show full information about every process running on the system. the output of the ps -ef command is often piped into the more command. ps -f The -f argument tells ps to supply full information about the processes it displays. ps -ef | more Because the output normally scrolls off the screen. ps The ps command by itself shows minimal information about the processes you are running. This is probably the most often-used form of the ps command. ps displays full information about the processes you are running. this command will not show information about other processes running on the system. ps -fu fred This command shows full information about the processes currently being run by the user named fred (the -u option lets you specify a username). ps -e The -e argument tells the ps command to show every process running on the system.19 system. Examples . In this example. Without any arguments. The more command lets you view one screenful of information at a time.

Be aware that there are several dialects of these script languages which tend to make them all slightly platform specific. It has been around for so long that is it virtually bug free. in the main. This is a shame because there are several compromises within the C Shell which . On UNIX systems. csh and ksh. most likely because the are a simple way to string together a bunch of UNIX commands for execution at any time without the need for prior compilation. I have adopted the Bourne shell syntax as the defacto standard within this book. Not forgetting the ease with which other scripters can read the code and understand what is happening. they are generally completely portable across the whole UNIX world. Lastly. It has a very compact syntax which makes it obtuse for novice users but very efficient when used by experts. to the different UNIX flavours in use on some platforms. Bourne Shell: Historically the sh language was the first to be created and goes under the name of The Bourne Shell. All script languages though have at their heart a common core which if used correctly will guarantee portability. The different dialects are due. leading most users to believe that it is twice as good.20 Why Use Shells? Well. most of the scripts used to start and configure the operating system are written in the Bourne shell. Where these differences are known to cause difficulties I have made special notes within the text to highlight this fact. The Shell History: The basic shells come in three main language forms. It also contains some powerful constructs built in. C Shell: Next up was The C Shell (csh). as long as they have been written to a common standard. so called because of the similar syntactical structures to the C language. The UNIX man pages contain almost twice as much information for the C Shell as the pages for the Bourne shell. These are (in order of creation) sh. Also because its generally fast to get a script going.

The real reason why the C Shell is so popular is that it is usually selected as the default login shell for most users.21 makes using the language for serious work difficult (check the list of bugs at the end of the man pages!). True. Differences between csh and sh syntax will be highlighted where appropriate. with future UNIX releases only supporting sh and ksh. there are so many functions available within the C Shell that if one should fail another could be found. and history lists. There are rumours however. that C Shell is destined to be phased out. The point is do you really want to spend your time finding all the alternative ways of doing the same thing just to keep yourself out of trouble. . The features that guarantee its continued use in this arena are aliases.

it will pay off eventually.22 Korne Shell: Lastly we come to The Korne Shell (ksh) made famous by IBM's AIX flavour of UNIX. The extensions over and above the Bourne shell exceed even the level of functionality available within the C Shell (but without any of the compromises!). However. because not all platforms are yet supporting the Korne shell it is not fully portable as a scripting language at the time of writing. Persevere. Korne Shell does contain aliases and history lists aplenty but C Shell users are often put off by its dissimilar syntax. Any sh syntax element will work in the ksh without change. The Korne shell can be thought of as a superset of the Bourne shell as it contains the whole of the Bourne shell world within its own syntax rules. This may change however by the time this book is published. making it the obvious language of choice for real scripters. .

Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password: ****** $ vi myfile ~ Unix is Case Sensitive ~ Never leave the Computer without logging out when you are working in a time sharing or network environments. Correct typing errors during creation 4.23 SOLUTIONS: WEEK1 Session 1 1. 2. 3. 7. 4. Logout of the file Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password: ****** $ vi ~ Unix is Case Sensitive ~ Never leave the Computer without logging out when you are working in a time sharing or network environments. 3. Log in to the system 2. ~ Shell Programming : wq Log into the system Open the file created in session 1 Add some text Change some text delete some text Save the changes Logout of the system .txt which contain some text. 5. Use Vi editor to create a file called myfile. Save the file 5. 6. Type <Esc> : wq myfile $ Session 2 1.

65 <tab> 26. print the new file. Call it mutable use tabs to separate the fields 1425 4320 6830 1450 ravi ramu sita raju 15. my table c.24 WEEK2 Log into the system Use the cat command to create a file containing the following data.15 <tab> 21.15 21. use the vi command to correct any errors in the file. use the cut & paste commands to swap fields 2 and 3 my table. my table b.86 a. logout of the system Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password:****** $ cat –c1-14 1425 <tab> ravi <tab> 4320 <tab> ramu <tab> 6830 <tab> sita <tab> 1450 <tab> raju <tab> $ cat myfile $who|more $ sort +0 -1 mytable 15. use the cat command to display the file.65 26. Call it mytable(same name) f. print the file my table e. my table g.27 36. use the sort command to sort the file my table according to the first field.27 <tab> 36. Call the sorted file my table(same name) d.86 <tab> .

Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password:****** $ echo $SHELL csh $ who >| myfile1 $ more myfile1 $ date|who >myfile2 $ more myfile2 . b. h. log in the system use the appropriate commands to determine ur login shell use the /etc/passwd file to verify the result of step b. c. d. e.25 WEEK3 a. use the who command redirect the result to a file called myfile1. Use the date and who commands in sequence ?(in one line) such that the output of date will display on the screen and the output of who will be redirected to a file called my file2.Use the more command to see the contents of myfile1. g. write a sed command that deletes the first character in each line in a file write a sed command that deletes the character before the last character in each line in a file.Use the more command to check the contents of myfile2. Write a sed command that swaps the files and second words in each line in a file f.

dat I/P: 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 O/P: 2 Computers 1232 Clothing 3141 Computers 9161 Textbooks 21312 Clothing 3252 Computers 1232 Supplies 2242 Text books 15462 . Develop an interactive grep script that asks for a word and a file name and then tells how many lines contain that word Repeat Part using awk (d) Sol: $ awk ‘$2 ==”Computers” && $3 >10000 {print}’Sales.26 WEEK4 pipe ur /etc/passwd file to awk and print out the home directory of each user.

27 WEEK5 a) Write A shell script that takes a command –line argument and reports on whether it is directry .provided they exits in the current directory c) Write a shell script that determines the period for which a specified user is working on the system (a) Sol: echo "Enter a file name:" read f if [ -f $f ] then echo "File" elif [ -d $f ] then echo "Directory" else echo "Not" fi Output: Directory .a file.or something else b) Write a shell script that accepts one or more file name as a arguments and converts all of thenm to uppercase.

dat I/P: line1 line2 line3 line4 line5 line1 line5 O/P: (b) Sol: i=1 while [ $i -le $# ] do grep -v Unix $i > $i done .28 WEEK6 (a) Write a shell script that accepts a file name starting and ending line numbers as arguments and displays all the lines between the given line numbers (b) Write a shell script that deletes all lines containing a specified word I one or more files supplied as arguments to it. (a) Sol: $ awk ‘NR<2 || NR> 4 {print $0}’ 5 lines.

29 WEEK7 a) Write a shell script that computes the gross salary of a employee according to the following 1) if basic salary is <1500 then HRA 10% of the basic and DA =90% of the basic 2) if basic salary is >1500 then HRA 500 and DA =98% of the basic The basic salary is entered interactively through the key board (b)Write a shell script that accepts two integers as its arguments and computes the value of first number raised to the power of the second number echo " Enter the Salary " read sal if [ $sal<1500] then da=`expr $sal*90/100` hra=`expr $sal*10/100` gsal=’expr $sal +$hra+$da echo “$gsal” elif [$sal>1500] hra=500 da=’expr $sal*98/100’ gsal=’expr $sal+$hra+$da gross=`expr $sa + $da + $hra` fi fi (b) a=$1 b=$2 c=pow($a.$b) echo”$c” .

new name and so on. (b) Write a shell script that takes a login name as command –line argument and reports when that person logs in (c) Write a shell script which receives two files names as arguments. It should check whether the two file contents are same or not. PROGRAM echo "Enter I File Name:" read f1 echo "Enter II File Name:" read f2 d=`cmp $f1 $f2` d1="" if [ $d -eq $d2 ] then echo "Two Files are similar and $f2 is deleted" rm $f2 else echo "Two Files differ each other" fi .renaming or linking files.30 WEEK 8 (a) Write an interactive file handling shell program. such as the file name . If they are same then second file should be deleted. Once the use has made a choice. have the program ask the user for necessary information.removing . Let it offer the user the choice of copying .

then printf " Read" fi if [ -w $dn/$fn ].then printf " Execute" fi printf "\n" done else printf "\n$dn not exists or not a directory" fi . (c) Write a shell script to perform the following string operations. then printf "<$fn> Directory " elif [ -f $dn/$fn ] then printf "$fn File " fi if [ -r $dn/$fn ].then printf " Write" fi if [ -x $dn/$fn ]. then printf "\nFiles in the directory $dn are :\n" for fn in `ls $dn` do if [ -d $dn/$fn ].31 WEEK 9 (a) Write a shell script that displays a list of all files in the current directory to which the user has read write and execute permissions (b) Develop an interactive script that asks for a word and file name and then tells how many times that word occurred in the file. 1) To extract a sub string from a given string 2) To find the length of a given string (a) PROGRAM # File Name : list.sh #!/bin/bash read -p "Enter a directory name : " dn if [ -d $dn ].

sh #!/bin/bash read -p "Enter a file name : " fn if test -f $fn then echo "The contents of the file $fn is :" cat $fn echo "No. of Words : `wc -w $fn`" echo "No.32 (b) PROGRAM # File Name : wcount. of Line : `wc -l $fn`" echo "No.scr O/P: Enter the String: Now is the time The String length : 15 . of Characters: `wc -c $fn`" else echo "$fn is not exists or not a file" fi (c) PROGRAM Print “Enter the String:\c” read strIn strlen=${# strIn} print the string length is : $strlen $ strlen.

if(stream==(FILE*)0) { fprintf(stderr. write and execute permissions time of last access (Note: use /fstat system calls) PROGRAM #include<stdio. } return(). int buffer_character.”r”). 3. } . exit(1). 2.(printed to standard error)\n). fclose(stream). file type number of links read. stream=fopen(“test”. 1.”Error closing stream.33 WEEK 10 Write a C program that takes one or more file or directory names as command line input and reports the following information on the file. 4. exit(1).h> main() { FILE *stream.”Error opening file(printed to standard error)\n”). } } if(fclose(stream))==EOF) { fprintf(stderr.

"r").c */ #include<fcntl. int sc=0.h> main(int argc. if(fp==NULL) printf("unable to open a file".sc).34 WEEK 11 Write C program that simulate the following unix commands (a) mv (b) cp /* File Name : bspace1. else { while(!feof(fp)) { ch=fgetc(fp).h> #include<stdio.argv[1]). } printf("no of spaces %d". fp=fopen(argv[1]. printf("\n"). } } . if(ch==' ') sc++. char ch.h> #include<unistd.char *argv[]) { FILE *fp. fclose(fp).

} fd=open(argv[1]. exit(0).h> main(int argc.argv[1]). char ch[1]. if(fd==-1) printf("%s is not exist". } . else { printf("Contents of the file %s is : \n".h> #include<fcntl.1)>0) printf("%c".ch[0]). if (argc<2) { printf("Usage: mycat filename\n").35 WEEK 12 Write a c program that simulates ls command (Use system calls /directory API) PROGRAM: #include<stdio.char *argv[]) { int fd.O_RDONLY). close(fd).ch.argv[1]). while(read(fd.i.h> #include<stdlib.

and a 5 digit random numbers if you are from the Korn shell. i. It will return a undefined variable if you are from the C-Shell. it’s responsible for controlling the computer’s resources and scheduling user jobs so that each one gets its fair share of resources. What scheme does the Kernel in Unix System V follow while choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices? Kernel follows Round Robin scheme choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices in Unix System V.36 Viva Questions & Answers What is a Make file? Make file is a utility in Unix to help compile large programs. How can you tell what shell you are running on UNIX system? You can do the Echo $RANDOM. List the system calls used for process management: System calls fork() exec() wait() […] Description To create a new process To execute a new program in a process . You could also do a ps -l and look for the shell with […] What do you mean by u-area (user area) or u-block? This contains the private data that is manipulated only by the Kernel. This is local to the Process. just a return prompt if you are from the Bourne shell. It helps by only compiling the portion of the program that has been changed Could you tell something about the Unix System Kernel? The kernel is the heart of the UNIX operating system. each process is allocated a u-area.e.

we use chmod(filename. w-write. specified in the command line with appropriate option. The operating system kernel . The user-level programs The kernel hides the system’s hardware underneath an abstract. in a file(s). The kernel assembles all of the following UNIX concepts from lower-level […] What is the use of ‘grep’ command? ‘grep’ is a pattern search command. read. high-level programming interface. Example: To change mode of myfile to ‘rw-rw-r–’ (ie. It searches for the pattern. The hardware .Compares two files byte by byte and displays the first mismatch diff .[…] Explain the layered aspect of a UNIX system. It is responsible for implementing many of the facilities that users and user-level programs take for granted.37 How do you change File Access Permissions? Every file has following attributes: owner’s user ID ( 16 bit integer ) owner’s group ID ( 16 bit integer ) File access mode word ‘r w x -r w x.tells the changes to be made to make the files identical What is the significance of the “tee” command? . x-execute To change the access mode. What are the layers? What does it mean to say they are layers? A UNIX system has essentially three main layers: .mode). write permission for user .r w x’ (user permission-group permission-others permission) r-read. Syntax : grep Example : grep 99mx mcafile What difference between cmp and diff commands? cmp .

it stands for ‘disk usage’.38 It reads the standard input and sends it to the standard output while redirecting a copy of what it has read to the file specified by the user. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 . what is its use? Yes. With the help of this command you can find the disk capacity and free space of the disk. . Is ‘du’ a command? If so. How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.kills all processes in your system except the login shell.

The trick is to use the special symbol “-“ (a hyphen) for those commands that recognize the hyphen as std input. This implies that a process exists with the given PID. or […] What does the command “ $who | sort –logfile > newfile” do? The input from a pipe can be combined with the input from a file . There are four possible results from this call: ‘kill()’ returns 0. Example: PATH. MAIL and TERM How many prompts are available in a UNIX system? Two prompts. where the copy on write bit of a page is set and that page is shared by more than one process. HOME. the Kernel allocates new page and copies the content to the new page and the other processes retain their references to the old page. a name-value pair created and maintained by the shell. when the bit is set? In situations like. ‘errno == ESRCH’ either no process exists with the given PID. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges. PS1 (Primary Prompt). How the Kernel handles the copy on write bit of a page.39 Explain kill() and its possible return values. ‘kill()’ returns -1. It is system-dependent whether the process could be a zombie. In the above command the output from who becomes the std input to sort . meanwhile sort opens the file […] What are shell variables? Shell variables are special variables. Is it possible to create new a file system in UNIX? Use ‘su’ command. PS2 (Secondary Prompt). and the system would allow you to send signals to it. After copying the Kernel updates the page […] Difference between the fork() and vfork() system call? .

What are the requirements for a swapper to work? The swapper works on the highest scheduling priority. and pfdata table entries.But the vfork() system call do not makes any copy of the parent’s address space. And for swapping […] What is Expansion swap? At the time when any process requires more memory than it is currently allocated. page table. so it is faster than the fork() system call. When the parent process calls fork() system call. if not found then it will look for the ready-to-run process for swapping. while swapping. the Kernel performs Expansion swap. At last Kernel swaps the […] What is Fork swap? fork() is a system call to create a child process. The child process as a result of the vfork() […] How the Kernel handles the fork() system call in traditional Unix and in the System V Unix. and return to the user state without swapping the parent process. Then the address translation mapping is adjusted for the new virtual address space but the physical memory is not allocated. the child process is created and if there is short of memory then the child process is sent to the read-to-run state in the swap device. […] What are the entities that are swapped out of the main memory while swapping the process out of the main memory? . But the major requirement for the swapper to work the ready-to-run process must be core-resident for at least 2 seconds before swapping out. Kernel in System V Unix. makes the duplicate copy of the parent’s address space and attaches it to the child’s process. manipulates the region tables. Firstly it will look for any sleeping process. while swapping? Kernel in traditional Unix. To do this Kernel reserves enough space in the swap device. by incrementing the reference count of the region table of shared regions.40 During the fork() system call the Kernel makes a copy of the parent process’s address space and attaches it to the child process.

The regions (text. Historic Unix uses one Swap Device and Unix System V allow multiple Swap Devices What is an advantage of executing a process in background? The most common reason to put a process in the background is to allow you to do something else interactively without waiting for the process to complete. it performs the following: Kernel decrements the Reference Count of each region of the process. This symbol tells your shell . Practically. swaps the region out of the main memory. If the reference count becomes zero. Process before swapping is residing in the primary memory in its original form.41 All memory space occupied by the process. there may be few empty slots in any of the regions and while swapping Kernel do not bother about the empty slots while swapping the process outAfter swapping […] What are the events done by the Kernel after a process is being swapped out from the main memory? When Kernel swaps the process out of the primary memory. data and stack) may not be occupied fully by the process. Kernel locks the other swapping process while […] What is major difference between the Historic Unix and the new BSD release of Unix System V in terms of Memory Management? Historic Unix uses Swapping – entire process is transferred to the main memory from the swap device. &. theoretically. process’s u-area. At the end of the command you add the special background symbol. if the process’s u-area contains the Address Translation Tables for the process then Kernel implementations do not swap the u-area. whereas the Unix System V uses Demand Paging – only the part of the process is moved to the main memory. Kernel allocates the space for the swapping process in the swap device. Is the Process before and after the swap are the same? Give reason. and Kernel stack are swapped out.

Each process has process context. usually by receiving a signal. Unix processes have the following states: Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run . Example: cp *.* […] What Happens when you execute a program? When you execute a program on your UNIX system. the system creates a special environment for that program.42 to execute the given command in the background. Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system. which is everything that is unique about the state of […] What are the process states in Unix? As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances. Zombie : The […] . Stopped : The process has been stopped.

but […] What are various IDs associated with a process? Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. The `fork()’ used to create a new process from an existing process.43 What is a zombie? When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent. sockets. One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the […] How can you get/set an environment variable from a program? Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()’. . the parent calls `wait()‘. message queues. but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()’. the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it . The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the ‘parent process’ whose PID is ‘Parent Process ID’. Explain fork() system call. The identification for the user is […] Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up. and the existing process is called the parent.for example. In the […] How can a parent and child process communicate? A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes. The new process is called the child process. To be able to get this information. The parent gets the child’s pid returned to him. Every process is associated with a particular user called the ‘owner’ who has privileges over the process. shared memory). We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()’. the parent may need to check the child’s exit status.

This is done by executing the file /etc/init. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. The swapper inturn creates 3 children: the process dispatcher. […] . special process called the ’swapper’ or ’scheduler’ is created with Process-ID 0. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation.44 While booting.2 and 3 respectively.vhand and dbflush with IDs 1.

minor device numbers. The first argument to […] How do you create special files like named pipes and device files? The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence. If it is a device file.45 What is a shell? A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. directory or special file. The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block. The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks in the file. For example: If the device is a disk. it makes the other entries like major. . The 11th address points to a one-level index block. kernel assigns new inode. When you mount another file system on to your directory. System call results and other information from the OS […] How does the inode map to data block of a file? Inode has 13 block addresses. 1. major […] What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system? A link is a second name (not a file) for a file. but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different computers. The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block. This provides a very large maximum […] Discuss the mount and unmount system calls The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system. 3. 2. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe. the unmount system call detaches a file system. you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree.

the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it .duplicate to a desired file descriptor fcntl(filedes.cmd. the system creates a special environment for that program. In the […] How can a parent and child process communicate? .arg) .write data to an open file lseek(filedes.from) .46 Symbolic link ‘is’ a file that only contains the name of another file.create file close(filedes) .read data from an open file write(filedes. Unix processes have the following states: Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run .mode) .flag.mode) .arg) .position an open file dup(filedes) . Each process has process context.bytes) .close an open file read(filedes. Stopped : The process has been stopped. Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource. Zombie : The […] What is a zombie? When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent. the parent calls `wait()‘.bytes) . the parent may need to check the child’s exit status.buffer.buffer.request.change properties of an open file ioctl(filedes.open file creat(pathname.Operation […] What are the Unix system calls for I/O? open(pathname.change the behaviour […] What Happens when you execute a program? When you execute a program on your UNIX system.offset.duplicate an existing file descriptor dup2(oldfd. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system. To be able to get this information. which is everything that is unique about the state of […] What are the process states in Unix? As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances.for example.newfd) . usually by receiving a signal.

Explain fork() system call. special process called the ’swapper’ or ’scheduler’ is created with Process-ID 0.47 A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes. One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the […] How can you get/set an environment variable from a program? Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()’. […] What is a shell? . message queues. The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the ‘parent process’ whose PID is ‘Parent Process ID’. but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. The parent gets the child’s pid returned to him. We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()’.2 and 3 respectively. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. The new process is called the child process. shared memory). but […] What are various IDs associated with a process? Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. While booting. This is done by executing the file /etc/init.vhand and dbflush with IDs 1. The identification for the user is […] Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()’. The `fork()’ used to create a new process from an existing process. Every process is associated with a particular user called the ‘owner’ who has privileges over the process. The swapper inturn creates 3 children: the process dispatcher. sockets. and the existing process is called the parent.

3. major […] What is a FIFO? FIFO are otherwise called as ‘named pipes’. data can be read only in the order written. This provides a very large maximum […] Discuss the mount and unmount system calls The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system. you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. Once data is read from named pipe. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe. it cannot be read again. the unmount system call detaches a file system. System call results and other information from the OS […] How does the inode map to data block of a file? Inode has 13 block addresses. The 11th address points to a one-level index block. It is used in interprocess communication where a process writes to one end of […] . The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block. FIFO (first-in-firstout) is a special file which is said to be data transient. 1. If it is a device file. The first argument to […] How do you create special files like named pipes and device files? The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence. For example: If the device is a disk. 2. The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block.48 A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. When you mount another file system on to your directory. minor device numbers. it makes the other entries like major. directory or special file. The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks in the file. Also. kernel assigns new inode.

open file creat(pathname.bytes) .offset. Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode.arg) . In addition to descriptions about the file.newfd) .close an open file read(filedes. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file.flag.buffer.duplicate to a desired file descriptor fcntl(filedes. time of last modification. Only kernel modifies directories.create file close(filedes) .49 What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system? A link is a second name (not a file) for a file. but processes can read directories. The inode contains info about the file-size.duplicate an existing file descriptor dup2(oldfd. kernel makes two entries […] What is ‘inode’? All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called ‘inode’.cmd. time of last access.write data to an open file lseek(filedes.from) . The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs.Operation […] What are the Unix system calls for I/O? open(pathname.bytes) .mode) . permission and so on.read data from an open file write(filedes. its location. When new directories are created. Symbolic link ‘is’ a file that only contains the name of another file.arg) .position an open file dup(filedes) . but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different computers.request.mode) .change properties of an open file ioctl(filedes. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains.buffer.change the behaviour […] Brief about the directory representation in UNIX s a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. the inode contains pointers […] .

The inode contains info about the file-size. In addition to descriptions about the file. Only kernel modifies directories. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains. Incase if the file does not exist in the directory the commond will create a newfile in file system. A ‘regular file’ is just an ordinary data file in the disk. A ‘regular file’ is just an ordinary data file in the disk. . Thus. time of last access. Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode. A ‘block special file’ represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer […] Brief about the directory representation in UNIX A Unix directory is a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. its location.50 How are devices represented in UNIX? All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory. but processes can read directories. Thus. When new directories are created. The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs. A ‘block special file’ represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer […] How is the command “$cat file2 “ different from “$cat >file2 Answer The Commond $cat file in unix is used to display the content of the file and where as commond $cat >> file is to append the text to the end of the file without overwritting the information of the file. device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. time of last modification. kernel makes two entries […] What is ‘inode’? All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called ‘inode’. the inode contains pointers […] How are devices represented in UNIX? All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory. device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. permission and so on.

51 $cat >file means to create a new file $cat file means to open an existing file. That utility will execute the command with help of kernel and the output is given to shell. Answered By: selva. When processing a command the searchs for the utility for the command in the directories specified in the PATH varible and it in invokes that utility. And then the displays out put to the user. When processing a command the searchs for the utility for the command in the directories specified in the PATH varible and it in invokes that utility. That utility will execute the command with help of kernel and the output is given to shell. And then the displays out put to the user. Answer Which command is used to delete all files in the current directory and all its subdirectories? #rm -fr <Directory name> # rm -rf * Answer Answered By: Amit Shiknis Date: 12/25/2007 rm -r * .ravi Date: 7/13/2007 cat > file it means creating file for file cat file it means used to display the file content Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command. Answer Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command.

charcater device file and block device file type field in the file's inode structure Answer b--. It stands for listing the files Chapter with suffix 1 to 5 but it will display the files in columns as with-x option. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges. How does the kernel differentiate device files and ordinary files? Device filles are of 2 types --.character device file How to switch to a super user status to gain privileges? Answer Use ‘su’ command.block device file c--.They include TERM.SHELL. What are shell variables? Answer Shell variables are system environment variables. MAIL the output of the shell variable we can see by typing the command .52 What is the use of the command "ls -x chapter[1-5]" Answer Yes you are correct.

What is redirection? Redirection is a feature in Unix where the data from the standard out put or a file.kills all processes in your system except the login shell.out put redirection >> -.so on. Answer > -. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 .out put redirectin(appending at the last) < -.can be redirected i. How to sfind free space in unix/linux . How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? Answer With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.kills all processes in your system except the login shell.53 $>echo $TERM ansi at the prompt.e divert to a file or a program and vice versa. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 .input redirection How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? Answer With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.

but doesn't affect other links. All Links have same inode number. 3.just reduces the link count . ls -l command shows all links with second column value 1 and the link points to original file.Removing any link . to concatenate (attach) two strings? For concatenating two string we use cat command.Links have different inode numbers. Link has the path for original file and not the contents.cat str1 str2 Explain the UNIX Kernel. 2.the link becomes "dangling" link which points to nonexistant file. of links. Links have actual file contents 4. What is the difference between soft link and hard link in unix operating system ? Hard Links : 1. .54 Answer Df and du commands are used for checking free space on disk . df -h or df -Humanreadable gives human readable format of free space. 4. 3.ls -l command shows all the links with the link column(Second) shows No. Answer Soft Links(Symbolic Links) : 1. 2.Removing soft link doesn't affect anything but removing original file . Answer Ex:.

55 Answer UNIX Kernel is heart of the operating system.$. PS2. cpu. Pearson Education. .@. PS3. Venkatesh Murthy. How many prompts are available in a UNIX system? Unix/ Linux Supports four Prompts PS1. Fourth Edition. UNIX kernal is loaded first when UNIX system is booted. 2)Unix concepts and applications. Sumitabha Das.% are 4 prompts REFERENCES: Books: 1)Introduction to UNIX & SHELL programming. It handles allocation of devices. TMH. PS4 Answer #. M.G. memory from that ponint on.

Foster – Johnson & other.56 3)Unix for programmers and users. Wile Y. Ables. Giberg.F. pearson education. E.A. B. 3rd edition. Thomson. 5)Beginning shell scripting.India. Forouzan & R. 4)Unix and shell Programming –A text book. . Gaham Glass & K.

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