P. 1
MotherofDemocracyDASSK

MotherofDemocracyDASSK

|Views: 4,917|Likes:
Published by arzarni
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma, Myanmar
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma, Myanmar

More info:

Published by: arzarni on Aug 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/19/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

1942/ pufwifbmv 6 Ù ae@v,f 2 em&DwGif *syefacwfaq;±Hk
}uD; (,ckEdkifiHawmfumuG,fa&;wuUodkof) ta&SŒbuf tpGefqHk;cef;r
aqmifwGif olejyKq&mr rcif=unfESifh ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf Adkvf
csKyfAdkvfawZwdk@ vufxyfr*FvmyGJjyKvkyfonf?

pufwifbmv 7 Ù nae 5 em&DtcsdefwGif &efukef+rdKŒNippon

Military Club(rifwdkrpf&Sif[dkw,f) Y ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf Adkvf
csKyfAdkvfawZESifh ZeD;a':cif=unfwdk@ r*Fvmxrif; wnfcif;{nfhcHau|;
arG;onf?

1943/ ZGef 13 Ù AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unfwdk@. om;OD;
atmifqef;OD;udk zGm;jrifonf?
1944 ar 10 Ù AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unfwdk@. 'kwd,
om; atmifqef;vif;udk zGm;jrifonf?
1945 ZGef 19 Ù AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unfwdk@. wwd,
ajrmuforD; atmifqef;pk=unfudk eHeuf 3; 35 em&DwGif zGm;jrifonf?

oef;0if;vIdif

252

1946 pufwifbm 22 Ù AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unfwdk@
.pwkwÎorD;udk zGm;jrifonf? (zGm;jrifjyD; 5 &uft=umwGif uG,fvGef
onf?)

1947 Zlvdkif 19Ù eHeuf 10 em&D 35 rdepfY &efukef+rdKŒ&Sd twGif;
0efrsm;±Hk; (,ck0ef}uD;rsm;±Hk;) Y tpnf;ta0;usif;yaepOf *VKefOD;apm.
vufyg;apvlowform;wdk@.vkyf=uHowfjzwfr_a=umifh zcifAdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;usqHk;cJh&onf? vkyf=uHcH& pOfu atmifqef;pk=unfonf
2 ESpforD;t&G,fom &Sdao;onf?

1949 Ù &efukef+rdKŒpdef@z&efppfuGefAifhausmif;wGif a':atmifqef;pk
=unf pwifynmoif=um;onf?
1953 Zefe0g&Dv 16 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf. tpfudkvwf
atmifqef;vif;onf trSwf25/ wm0gvdef;vrf; (,ckAdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef;jywdkufvrf;) &SdaetdrfYa&epfaoqHk;onf?
arv Ù trSwf 25 / wm0gvdef;vrf;aetdrfrS A[ef;+rdKŒe,f trSwf
54/ wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;aetdrfodk@ a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@rdom;pk
ajymif;a&$Œonf?

1957 rS 1960 Ù &efukef+rdKŒ t*Fvdyfrufo'pf uGefAifhausmif;

AdkvfcsKyf vkyfMuHcH&onfh twGif;0efrsm;½kH;

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

253

(txu - 1 '*Hk) wGif a': atmifqef;pk=unf qufvufynmoif=um;
cJhonf?

1960 Ù rdcifjzpfola':cif=unf tdENd,EdkifiHqdkif&m jrefrmEdkifiH oH
trwf}uD;tjzpf cef@tyfjcif;cH&I rdcifESifhtwl tdENd,EdkifiH e,l;a'vD+rdKŒ
odk@ vdkufygaexdkifcJhonf?
1960 rS 1961 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonfa,±lESifh ar&DuGefAifh
ausmif;
(Convent ofJesus and Mary) ESifh av'D&S,f&D&rfaumvdyf(Lady

Sheri Ram College) wdk@Y qufvufynmoif=um;onf?
1962 rS 1963 Ù a'vDwuUodkvfY EdkifiHa&;ody`Hbmom&yfudk
avhvmqnf;yl;cJhonf?
1964 rS 1967 Ù atmufpzdk@wuUodkvf [l@pfaumvdyfY '\eaA
'/ EdkifiHa&;ody`HESifh pD;yGm;a&;ynm&yfrsm;udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJhjyD; 0dZ…m*k%f
xl;bGJ@udk &&SdcJhonf?

1968 Ù vef'efwuUodkvfta&SŒwdkif;ESifh tmz&duavhvma&;Xm
e/ EdkifiHa&;ody`HXmeY okawoevufaxmuftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif
onf?

trSwf 54 wuúodkvf&dyfomvrf;? a':atmifqef;pkMunfaetdrf

oef;0if;vIdif

254

1969 rS 1971 Ù e,l;a,muf ukvor*~taxGaxG twGif;a&;
rSL;csKyf±Hk;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh b¾ma&;qdkif&mudpP&yfrsm;t=uHay;aumfrwD

(Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions United

Nations Secretariat, New York)wGif vufaxmuftwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf wm
0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf?

1971 Edk0ifbm 31 Ù ajrmufydkif;Ak' ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&mordkif;a=umif; okawoDa'gufwmrdkufu,ftJ&pf(Dr.

Michael ViallancourtAris) ESifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@ xdrf;jrm;vuf
xyfonf?

1972 rS 1973 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf blwefEdkifiH EdkifiHjcm;
a&;0ef}uD;±Hk;ESifh ukvor*~rsm;qdkif&m t=uHay;t&m&Sdtjzpf wm0efxrf;
aqmifcJhonf?

1973 {jyD 12 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh a'gufwmrdkufu,f
tJ&pfwdk@. om;}uD; jrifhqef;atmif ac: tvufZef'g;
(Ale»ander John

Christopher Aris) udkzGm;jrifcJhonf?
1975 rS 1977 Ù atmufpzdk@wuUodkvf abmh'vD,ef pm=unfh
wdkuf
(Bodleian Library) Y jrefrmpmESifh ay/ yk&ydk'f uwfwavmuf jyKpkol

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

255

ynm&Siftjzpf aqmif&Gufonf?
1977 pufwifbm 24 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh rdkufu,ftJ&pf
wdk@. om;i,f xdefvif;ac: uifrf
(Dannian Kim Arundel Aris) udk zGm;jrif
onf?

1995 rS 1986 Ù *syefEdkifiH/ wdkusKdwuUodkvf ta&SŒawmiftm&S
qdkif&mavhvma&;XmewGif okawoeynm&Siftjzpf oGm;a&muf okaw
oejyKcJhonf?

1987 Ù tdENd,EdkifiH/ qif;rvm;+rdK@&Sd txl;avhvma&; tdENd,
ody`HXmewGif okawoDtjzpfvkyfudkifonf?
Ù vef'efwuUodkvfta&SŒwdkif;ESifh tmz&duavhvma&;XmewGif yg&
*lbGJ@twGuf “1920-1945 twGif; xkwfa0cJhaom pme,fZif;rsm;onf
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;udk taxmuftultjyKcJhyHk” trnf&Sd bGJ@vGefpmwrf;
udk wifoGif;onf?

1988 Ù vef'efwuUodkvfu a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; yg&*l
bGJ@,l&eftwGuf xdkufwefoltjzpf owfrSwfonf?
1988 rwf Ù rdcif}uD;a':cif=unfemrusef;jzpfr_a=umifh rdcif}uD;
tm; jyKpkapmihfa&Smuf&ef a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf jrefrmEdkifiHodk@
a&muf&Sdvmonf?

=o*kwfv 8 Ù jrefrmEdkifiH w0Srf;vHk;Y 88 'Drdkua&pD ta&;awmf

yHk}uD; ay:aygufcJhonf?

=o*kwf 26 Ù a&$wD*HkapwDawmftaemufbufrkcfwGif a':atmif
qef;pk=unfonf rqvtpdk;&. jynfolvlxktm; t=urf;zuf+zdKcGJaer_
udk qef@usifcJhaom rdef@cGef;udk vlaygif;wpfodef;ausmfwufa&mufonfh
vlxktpnf;ta0;yGJY yxrqHk;t}udrf rdef@cGef;ajym=um;cJhonf?
1988 pufwifbmv 14 Ù OD;atmif}uD;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh
ol&OD;wifOD;wdk@. jynfolw&yfvHk;odk@ yef=um;csufpmwapmif xkwfjyef
a=unmonf?

pufwifbm 18 Ù &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk ppfwyfrS vuf

oef;0if;vIdif

256

eufjzifh t=urf;zuf+zdKcGif;ypfvdkufjyD;aemuf ppfwyfrS tm%modrf;ydkuf
um e0w ac: EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;cJh
onf?

pufwifbm 27 Ù trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfudk a':atmifqef;pk
=unf/ OD;atmif}uD;/ ol&OD;wifOD;/ OD;0if;wifwdk@jzifh pwifzGJ@pnf;cJhonf?
pwifzGJ@pnf;pOfu trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf
(NLD) . A[dktvkyftr_
aqmiftzGJ@0ifrsm;rSm -
(1) OD;atmif}uD;

- OuUX

(2) ol&OD;wifOD;

- 'kOuUX

(3) a':atmifqef;pk=unf

- taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;

(4) OD;=unf[ef

- twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if

(5) OD;cspfcdkif

- twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if

(6) OD;0if;wif

- twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if

(7) a':jrifhjrifhcif

- vlxkvlwef;pm;XmerSL;

(8) OD;vGif

- b¾ma&;XmerSL;

(9) OD;atmifvGif

- jyef=um;a&;XmerSL;

(10) OD;atmifa&$

- pnf;±Hk;a&;XmerSL;

(11) OD;=unfarmif

- okawoeXmerSL;

(12) OD;ba&$

- tkyfcsKyfa&;XmerSL;

wdk@ jzpfonf?

pufwifbm 30 Ù trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfudk a&G;aumufyGJ
aumfr&Sifodk@ w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcJhonf? tzGJ@csKyfY a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;wm0efudk ,lcJhonf?
atmufwdkbm 3 Ù trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfudk a&G;aumufyGJ
aumfr&Sifu a=unmcsuftrSwf (3) jzifh EdkifiHa&;ygwDtjzpf twnfjyK
a=unmonf?

'DZifbm 10 Ù trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf OuUXtjzpf 'kwd,
OuUXOD;wifOD;tm; a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufvdkufa=umif;ESifh OD;atmif}uD;ESifh

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

257

twl tjcm; A[dkOD;pD;tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf=uaom(1) OD;=unf[ef (2) OD;ba&$
(3) OD;eef;EG,f (4)OD;ausmfjrifhav; (5) OD;cifarmifarmif (6) OD;omxdk
(7) OD;odef;Edkif (8)OD;rif;'if (9) OD;cifndK (10) OD;bdk;atmif (11) OD;
armifarmif (12) OD;aZmf0if;OD;wdk@uvnf; tzGJ@csKyftzGJ@0ifrsm;tjzpf Ekwf
xGufjyD;jzpfa=umif; a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifodk@ ta=umif;=um;cJhonf?
'DZifbm 13 Ù tzGJ@csKyfrS OD;atmif}uD;tygt0if yk*~dKvf (12) OD;udk
xkwfy,fvdkufa=umif; aumfr&Sifodk@ ta=umif;=um;pm ay;ydk@onf?
'DZifbm 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfrdcif r[moD&dok"rR a':cif
=unfonf &efukef+rdKŒY uG,fvGefonf? uG,fvGefcsdefY om;atmifqef;OD;
ESifh orD;jzpfol a': atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@ usef&pfcJhonf?
1989 azazmf0g&D 9 Ù trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[dktvkyftr_
aqmiftzGJ@udk jyifqifzGJ@pnf;I a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifodk@ ay;ydk@onf?
,if;wdk@rSm -
(1)OD;wifOD;

- OuUX

(2)a':atmifqef;pk=unf

- taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;

(3)OD;0if;wif

- twGif;a&;rSL;

(4)OD;cspfcdkif

- twGif;a&;rSL;

(5)OD;=unfarmif

- okawoerSL;

(6)OD;atmifa&$

- pnf;±Hk;a&;rSL;

(7)OD;vGif

- b¾ma&;rSL;

(8)OD;atmifvGif

- jyef=um;a&;rSL;

(9)a':jrifhjrifhcif

- vlxkvlwef;pm;XmerSL;

wdk@ jzpfonf?

Zlvdkif 20 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; e0w tpdk;&u EdkifiHawmf
tm; aESmifh,SufzsufqD;vdkolrsm;. ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,fapmifha&Smuf
onfhOya'yk'fr 10(c) t& aetdrfwGifwm;qD;rdef@xkwfjyefI wm;qD;
vdkufonf?

'DZifbm 22 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrftus,fcsKyfjzifh

oef;0if;vIdif

258

xdef;odrf;cHaepOftwGif; ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwGif yg
0if,SOf+ydKifrnf[k a=unmonf? odk@aomf wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwf
a&;ygwDtm; udk,fpm;jyKI &efukefwdkif;A[ef;+rdKŒe,f rJqENe,ftrSwf
(1) wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh ,SOf+ydKif&ef tqdkjyKxm;jcif;cH&ol OD;
vbef*a&mifrS uef@uGufv$mwifoGif;cJh&m &efukefwdkif;a&G;cs,f wif
ajr‡mufyGJusif;ya&;aumfr&SifrS vufcHppfaq;I a&G;aumufyGJOya'yk'fr
10 (i) jzifh jidpGef;onf[kqdkum trnfpm&if; wifoGif;v$mudk y,fcscJh
ojzifh 0ifa&muf,SOf+ydKifcGifh r&cJhacs?
1990 rwfv 27 Ù ygwDpHktaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJudk usif;ycJh&m/
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf rJqENe,f 447 e,fY 0ifa&muf ,SOf
+ydKifcJh&m 392 e,fY tEdkif&&SdcJhonf? tzGJ@csKyfonf wEdkifiHvHk;wGif rJ
qENe,f 485 ae&mY 392ae&mtEdkif&&Sdaoma=umifh 82 &mcdkifE_ef;
ausmf tEdkif&&SdcJhonf?

Zlvdkifv 27 Ù e0w ppftpdk;&onf twGif;a&;rSL; AdkvfcsKyfcifnGef@
vufrSwfjzifh trdef@trSwf 1§90 udk xkwfjyefI 1990 jynfhESpf/ Zlvdkifv
28-29 wGif tzGJ@csKyfA[dkOD;pD;tzGJ@rS }uD;rSL;jyKvkyfrnfh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;
vS,frsm; yxrt}udrf nd‡E_dif;tpnf;ta0;}uD;udk [ef@wm;uef@owf
vdkufonf?

Zlvdkif 28/ 29 Ù ,m,DOuUXOD;=unfarmifOD;pD;onfh *ENDcef;r t
pnf;ta0;}uD;udk jyKvkyfcJhonf?

1991 'DZifbm 10 Ù
1991 ckESpftwGuf jidrf;csrf;a&;
Edkb,fqkudk a':atmifqef;pk
=unftm; ay;tyfcsD;jr‡ifhcJh&m jidrf;
csrf;a&;Ekdb,fqkudk rdcifudk,fpm;
om;}uD;jzpfol jrifhqef;atmifu
aemfa0;EdkifiH/ atmfpvdk+rdKŒY wuf
a&mufqk,lcJhonf?

Nidrf;csrf;a&;Edkb,fqkwHqdyf

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

259

1995 Zlvdkifv 10 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; aetdrftus,f
csKyftjzpf wm;qD;xm;onfhtrdeftm; e0wtpkd;&rS jyefvnf±kyfodrf;
ay;cJhonf?

Ù e,l;a,muftajcpdkuf ‘rpf’ (Ms)r*~Zif;rS 1995 ckESpftwGuf
trsKd;orD; xl;c|efqka&G;cs,f&mY a':atmifqef;pk=unfyg0ifcJhhonf?
1999 rwfv 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfcifyGef;jzpfol rkdufu,f
tJ&pf vef'ef +rdKŒY uG,fvGefcJhonf?
2000 rwf 18 Ù tdkif,mvefEdkifiH 'AŠvif+rdKŒwGif a':atmifqef;pk
=unftm; 'AŠvif+rdK@awmf vGwfvyfa&;qkudk *k%fjyKcsD;jr‡ifhcJhonf?
=o*kwf 24 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 'kwd,OuUXol&OD;wifOD;
&efukefwdkif;pnf;±Hk;a&;aumfrwDOuUXocifpdk;jrifh/ &efukefwdkif; pnf;±Hk;a&;
tzGJ@0ifa'gufwmrsKd;atmif/ tzGJ@csKyfvli,f 16 OD; (,mOfarmif;ESpfOD;
tygt0if) wdk@ESifhtwl &efukefwzufurf; 'v+rdKŒrSwqifh &efukefwkdif;
uGrf;jcHukef;ESifh aumhrSL;+rdK@rsm;odk@ pnf;±Hk;a&;udpPrsm;aqmif&Guf&ef &ef
ukef+rdKŒyef;qdk;wef;qdyfurf;rSwqifh c&D;xGuf&efpDpOfcJh&m yef;qdk;wef;
qdyfurf;wGif 1 em&DcGJcef@ tm%mydkifrsm;rS ydwfqdk@xm;cJhjyD; wzufurf;odk@
ul;cGifh&cJhonf? 'v+rdKŒodk@a&muf&Sdonfhtcg }udKwifapmifhqdkif;aeonfh
tzGJ@csKyfum;ESpfpD;jzifh uGrf;jcHukef;odk@c&D;xGufvmpOf 'v+rdKŒrS 3 rdkifcef@
ta&muf usefppfom;&yfuGufwGif tm%mydkifrsm;rS a&SŒc&D;rqufEdkif&ef

oef;0if;vIdif

260

twif;t"rR ydwfqdk@wm;jrpfxm;cJhojzifh pufwifbmv (1) &uf ae@n
11; 15 em&DtcsdefwGif &JwyfzGJ@ESifh ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;tiftm; 300 ausmf
u a':atmifqef;pk=unftzGJ@tm; 0ifa&mufpD;eif;jyD; twif;t=uyfzrf;
qD;csKyfaESmifac:aqmifjyD; &efukef+rdKŒaetdrfodk@ jyefydk@cJhonf?
pufwifbm 1 rS 14 xd Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; 'kwd,
t}udrf aetdrftus,fcsKyf zrf;qD;cJhjyefonf?
2000 pufwifbm 21 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 'kwd,OuUX
OD;wifOD;ESifhtwl tzGJ@0ifrsm;vdkufygI tzGJ@csKyf v_yf&Sm;r_r&SdEdkif&ef ydwfyif
wm;qD;r_rsm;/ tzGJ@csKyf±Hk;rsm;ydwfodrf;jcif;/ qdkif;bkwfrsm;csapjcif;rsm;udk
pHkprf;avhvm&ef yxrc&D;pOftjzpf naerD;&xm;jzifh rEœav;+rdKŒokd@ oGm;
a&muf&efpDpOfcJh&m rD;&xm;vufrSwfukefaeonf[k ta=umif;jyI vuf
rSwfa&mif;csray;bJ aemufwae@ eHeufapmapm 2000 jynfhESpf pufwif
bm 22 &ufae@wGif &efukefblwm}uD;rS t"rR aetdrfodk@jyefydk@jyD; wwd,
t}udrf aetdrftus,fcsKyf zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cJhonf?
2001 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; *smreDtajcpdkuf EdkifiHwum
EdkifiHa&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_rsm; vGwfvyfpGmaygif;pnf;a&;qdkif&m qkay;a&;
tzGJ@}uD;u
Collegue United NationsqkcsD;jr‡ifhonf?
2002 ar 6 Ù ukvor*~. v#KdŒ0Suf,Hk=unfr_nd‡E_dif;csuft&
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; etztpkd;&u aetdrftus,fcsKyfrS jyefvnf
v$wfay;cJhonf?

ar 23 Ù AdkvfrSL;atmifOD;aqmifonfh 0g&ifhEdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;rsm;u
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ocifodef;azaetdrfwGif *k%fjyKyGJusif;yonf?
ar 25 Ù tar&duefjynfaxmifpk&Sd bmhofaumvdyf. 142 }udrf
ajrmuf bGJ@ESif;obiftcrf;tem;Y a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; *k%fxl;
aqmifyg&*lbGJ@ csD;jr‡ifhonf?
2003 ar 30 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf tzGJ@0ifrsm;ESifhtwl
ppfukdif;wkdif;/ 'DyJ,if;+rdKŒe,f pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOftwGif; olr. ,mOfwef;
tm; ppftpkd;&. a'gufwdkiftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom =uHŒzGH@ESifhpGrf;tm;
&Sifrsm;u 'DyJ,if;+rdKŒe,f usD&GmteD; t=urf;zufwdkufcdkufcJh=uonf?

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

261

olrtm; axmufcHonfhtzGJ@0ifrsm; 282 OD; aoqHk;I &maygif;rsm;pGm
xdcdkuf'%f&m&&SdcJhonf?
ar 31 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf etzvufyg;aprsm;. acsmif;
ajrmif; wdkufcdkufr_cHcJh&mrS toufraovGwfajrmufcJhjyD;aemuf a&OD;+rdKŒ
t0if*dwfta&mufY tm%mydkifrsm;. zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
ZGef 2 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; trSwf (6) wifhum;wyf&if;
{nhf&dyfomwGif zrf;qD;xm;&mrS tif;pdefaxmifodk@ydk@I xdef;odrf;cJhonf?
ZGef 24 Ù tif;pdefaxmifrS a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; &JrGefwyf
pcef;&Sd &Jacgif&dyfomodk@ ajymif;a&$Œxdef;odrf;cJhonf?
pufwifbm 16 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; aq;±HkwufcGJpdwfuk
o&eftwGuf &JrGef&dyfomrS &efukef+rdKŒtm&Sawmf0ifaq;±Hkodk@wifydk@cJh
onf?

2003 pufwifbm 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; tm&Sawmf
0ifaq;±HkrS aetdrfodk@jyefydk@I pwkwÎt}udrf aetdrftus,fcsKyf xdef;odrf;
cJhonf?

2004 {jyD 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; awmfudk&D;,m;EdkifiHrS
2004 ckESpftwGuf *Grf*sL;vl@tcGifhta&;qk csD;jr‡ifhonf?
Edk0ifbm 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; EdkifiHawmftm; aESmihf
,SufzsufqD;vdkolrsm;. ab;tEœ&m,frSumuG,fapmifha&Smufonfh
Oya'yk'fr 10 (c) jzifh jypf'%fwESpf xyfrHwdk;cJhonf?
2005 Edk0ifbm 27 Ù etz ppftpdk;&u a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tm; aemufxyfjypf'%f (6) v xyfrHwdk;cJhonf?
2006 rwf 1 Ù qGD'ifEdkifiHpawmh[krf;+rdKŒwGif jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDacgif;
aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; 2005 ckESpftwGuf tdkavmhyef;qk
csD;jr‡ifhcJhonf?

arv 20 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ukvor*~edkifiHa&;XmerS
vufaxmuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; tDb&m[if*rfbm&Du awG@qHkcJh
onf?

oef;0if;vIdif

262

arv 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; etztpkd;&u tus,f
csKyfoufwrf;wESpf xyfrHwdk;cJhonf?
Edk0ifbm 11 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ukvvufaxmuf t
axGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; *rfbm&Du oGm;a&mufawG@qHkcJhonf?
2007 Zefe0g&D 1 Ù ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf bef
uDrGef;onf jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ppfacgif;aqmifrsm;udk a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tm; c|if;csufr&Sd jyefvnf v$wfay;&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf?
Zefe0g&D 18 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf ol. Edkb,fqka=u;aiG
rsm;udk tcGefay;aqmifjcif;r&SdbJ jynfywGiftoHk;jyKcJhonf[k ppftpdk;&
ydkif jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmY pGyfpGJa&;om;onf?
atmufwdkbm 2 Ù pufwifbma&$0ga&mif oHCmhawmfvSefa&;}uD;
tjyD; ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf. t=uHay;yk*~dKvf rpPwm
*rfbm&Donf a': atmifqef;pk=unftm; xyfrHawG@qHkcJhonf?
atmufwdkbm 24 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrftus,fcsKyf
(12) ESpfjynfhtjzpf urBmh+rdKŒ}uD; 12 +rdKŒwGif w+ydKifeufwnf; qENjyyGJ
usif;ycJh=uonf?

atmufwdkbm 25 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh pum;ajymqdkEdkif&ef
=um;cH qufoG,fa&;0ef}uD;twGuf tvkyform;0ef}uD; OD;atmif=unf
udk etztpdk;&u cef@tyfcJhjyD; awG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;twkta,mifrsm;
zefwD;jyocJhonf?

Edk0ifbm 8 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf (3) ESpftwGif; yxrqHk;t
}udrf ol. ygwDA[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@rsm;ESifh awG@qHkcGifh&cJhonf?
2009 ar 6Ù tar&duefEdkifiHom; *|ef0DvsH,ufawmonf a':
atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrfjcH0if;twGif;odk@ etzppftpdk;&tm%mydkif
rsm;. pDpOfay;r_jzifh wdwfwqdwf 0ifa&mufcJhonf?
ar 18 Ù ppftpdk;&u a':atmifqef;pk=unfaetdrf tus,fcsKyf
azmufzsufr_yk'fr (22) jzifh tif;pdeftxl;w&m;±Hk;Y w&m;pGJqdkonf?
=o*kwf 11 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; aetdrftus,fcsKyf

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

263

azmufzsufr_yk'fr 22 jzifh tvkyf=urf;ESifh axmif'%f 3 ESpf csrSwfcJhonf?
trdef@csrSwfjyD; rdepfydkif;twGif;rSmyif etzppfacgif;aqmif AdkvfcsKyfrSL;}uD;
oef;a&$. trdef@pmjzifh xdkcsrSwfxm;onfhjypf'%fudk xuf0ufav#mhcs
vdkufjyD; qdkif;iHhjypf'%ftjzpfxm;&Sdum a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ae
tdrf tus,fcsKyf (18) vodk@ ajymif;vJcsrSwfay;vdkufonf?
atmufwdkbm 2 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftay: etzppftpdk;&u
rw&m;jypf'%fcsrSwfr_tay: &efukefwdkif;w&m;±Hk;odk@ a':atmifqef;pk
=unf. tusKd;aqmifa&SŒaersm;u t,lcHv$mwifoGif;r_udk wdkif;w&m;±Hk;
u y,fcscJhonf?

'DZifbmv 21 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf. a&SŒaersm;u A[dk w
&m;±Hk;csKyfodk@ t,lcHjyifqifcGifhav#mufxm;r_udk A[dkw&m;±Hk;csKyfu vuf
cHcJhonf?

2010 Zefe0g&D 14 Ù trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[dktvkyftr_
aqmiftzGJ@udk jyefvnf wdk;csJŒzJG@pnf;cJhonf? tzGJ@csKyfA[dktvkyf tr_
aqmiftzGJ@0ifrsm;rSm -
(1)OD;atmifa&$

- OuUX

(2)ol&OD;wifOD;

- 'kwd, OuUX

(3)a':atmifqef;pk=unf

- taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;

(4)OD;vGif

- twGif;a&;rSL;

(5)OD;0if;wif

- tzGJ@0if

(6)OD;cifarmifaqG

- tzGJ@0if

(7)OD;oef;xGef;

- tzGJ@0if

(8)OD;pdk;jrifh

- tzGJ@0if

(9)OD;vSaz

- tzGJ@0if

(10)OD;vGef;wif

- tzGJ@0if

(11)OD;nGef@a0

- tzGJ@0if

(12)a'gufwmoef;jidrf;

- tzGJ@0if

(13)OD;tkef;}udKif

- tzGJ@0if

oef;0if;vIdif

264

(14)OD;0if;jrifh

- tzGJ@0if

(15)OD;xGef;xGef;[def

- tzGJ@0if

(16)a'gufwm0if;Edkif

- tzGJ@0if

(17)OD;Om%f0if;

- tzGJ@0if

(18)OD;[Homjrifh

- tzGJ@0if

(19)OD;odef;nGef@

- tzGJ@0if

(20)a'gufwmar0if;jrifh

- tzGJ@0if

wdk@ jzpfonf?

2010 Edk0ifbm 13 Ù etzppftpkd;&u a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd
jrefrmpHawmfcsdef nae 5 em&D 15 rdepfwGif aetdrftus,fcsKyfrS jyefvnf
v$wfay;cJhonf? xdk@aemufa':atmifqef;pk=unfonf rdepfydkif;t
wGif;rSmyif ol@jcHa&SŒodk@xGufI vlxkudkrdef@cGef;wdkajym=um;cJhonf?
Edk0ifbm 14 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrftus,fcsKyfrS
vGwfajrmufvmjyD;aemuf A[ef;+rdKŒe,fa&$*Hkwdkifvrf;&Sd trsKd;om;'Drdku
a&pDtzGJ@csKyf±Hk;a&SŒYae@v,f 12 em&DwGif vlxktm; E_wfcGef;qufrdef@cGef; ajym
=um;cJhonf?

Edk0ifbm 23 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfaetdrftus,fcsKyfrS vGwf
ajrmufcJhjyD;aemuf om;i,fuifrfac: udkxdefvif;onf jynf0ifcGifhADZm
&&Sdojzifh jrefrmEdkifiHodk@ vma&mufjyD; rdcifjzpfoltm; awG@qHkonf?
Edk0ifbm 26 Ù vGwfvyfonfhtm&StoH
(RFA)rS pDpOfwifquf
onfh vlxkESihfa':atmifqef;pk=unftar;tajzu¾Y te,fe,f t
&yf&yfy&dwfowfrsm;. ar;jref;csufrsm;udk a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
yxrqHk;t}udrfajz=um;cJhonf?
'DZifbm 28 Ù vlxkacgif;aqmifa':atmifqef;pk=unfonf vl
i,frsm;tm; tzGJ@csKyf±Hk;Y awG@qHkaqG;aEG;I =o0g'pum;ajym=um;onf?
2011 arv 12 Ù ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf. txl;
t=uHay;yk*~dKvf ADa*s;erfAD;,m;onf ‚if;. jrefrmEdkifiHc&D;pOftwGif; a':
atmifqef;pk=unfESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;cJhonf?

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

265

ar 19 Ù tar&duefjynfaxmifpk ta&SŒtm&SESifh ypdzdwfa&;&m
'kwd,vufaxmufEdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;*sKd;Zuf,Gef;onf jrefrmEdkifiHc&D;
pOftwGif; a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh olr.aetdrfY oGm;a&mufawG@qHk
aqG;aEG;cJhonf?

ZGefv 10 rS 19 Ù jrefrmEdkifiHtrsKd;orD;rsm;ae@ (a':atmifqef;pk
=unfarG;ae@) txdrf;trSwf±dk;&m,Ofaus;r_ *DwyGJawmfudk tzGJ@csKyf±Hk;Y
pnfum;pGmjyKvkyfcJhonf?
ZGefv 19 Ù jynfwGif;jynfy+rdKŒ}uD;rsm;Y a':atmifqef;pk=unf.
66 ESpfajrmufarG;ae@txdrf;trSwfyGJrsm;udk pnfum;odkuf+rdKufpGm usif;
ycJhonf?

ZGef 21 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; EU Oa&myor*~OuUXESifh
EdkifiHjcm;a&;&mESifh vHkjcHKa&;&mt}uD;tuJ. t=uHay;yk*~dKvf rpPwma&m
bwful;yg;ESifh tD;,ludk,fpm;vS,f (11) OD;wdk@u ‚if;.aetdrfodk@ oGm;
a&mufawG@qHkaqG;aEG;cJhonf?
ZGef 23 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; tdENd,EdkifiHjcm;a&; 'kwd,
0ef}uD;
Ms. Narupama Rao u ol.aetdrfodk@ oGm;a&mufawG@qHkaqG;
aEG;cJhonf?

Zlvdkifv 4 rS 7 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf jrefrmEdkifiHodk@ a&muf
&Sdaeaom om;i,fudkxdefvif;ESifhtwl (4) &uf=um yk*Hzk&m;zl; oGm;
a&mufcJhonf?

Zlvdkif 19 Ù (64) }udrfajrmuftmZmenfae@tcrf;tem;odk@ a':
atmifqef;pk=unfESifh tzGJ@csKyftzGJ@0ifrsm;wufa&mufI tmZmenf}uD;
rsm;udk vGrf;ol@yef;acGcs tav;jyKcJhonf?
Zlvdkif 25 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh jynfaxmifpk0ef}uD; OD;
atmif=unfwdk@onf ae@v,fwem&DwGif wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf; pdef;vJh
uefom tpdk;&{nfha*[mY 1 em&DESifh 15 rdepf=um awG@qHkaqG;aEG;cJhjyD;
jynfwGif;jynfyowif;axmuf 80 ausmf.ar;jref;csufrsm;udk jyefvnf
ajz=um;oGm;cJhonf?

oef;0if;vIdif

266

tcef; (14)
a':atmifqef;pkMunf bGJUuAsmrsm;

vlom;wdkif;onf pnf;pdrfcsrf;omudk tvkd&Sd.? qif;&J'kuQrS uif;
a0;vdk.? csD;rGrf;ajr‡mufyifhr_udkcH,lvdk.? uJh&Jh±_wfcsjcif;cH&jcif;rS vGwfuif;
vdk.? olwpfxl;tusKd;xuf rdrdtusKd;ukdom ydkrdkIvdkvm;ayonf? T
onfrSm omrefvlom;wkdif;wGif&Sdwwfaom oabmxm;yif jzpfonf?
omrefvltqifhrSausmfvGefI pnf;pdrfcsrf;omudk rrufarmol/ qif;
&J'kuQudk rr_ol/ ajr‡mufIvnf;rajrmuf/ ajcmufIvnf;ra=umufol/
udk,fusKd;udkpGef@I trsm;tusKd;twGuf rdrd,Hk=unfcsufudk &if0,fydkufI
owœd&Sd&Sdaqmif&Gufaeaom t=uifyk*~dKvfwdk@onf TavmuY wu,f
&SdonfqdktHh? pHwifxdkufol/ armfuGef;wifxdkufoljzpfonf? Todk@ t
rsm;. =unfndKav;pm;xdkufaomyk*~dKvfrsm;wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onfvnf; wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh a':atmifqef;pk=unf
udk txÎKy`wWda&;olrsm;ua&;=uonf? aqmif;yg;a&;olrsm;u a&;=u
onf? Zmwfvrf;qifum ol@b0wpfpdwfwpfydkif;udk AD'D,dkrSwfwrf; ±dkuf
olu±kdufI ±kyf&Sif±kdufolu ±kduf=uonf? xdkenf;wlpGm uAsmq&mrsm;u
vnf; uAsma&;pyfI rSwfwrf;wifcJh=uonf?
Todk@ a':atmifqef;pk=unf tm;a&;pyfcJhaom a':atmifqef;pk
=unfbGJ@uAsmrsm;udk vufvSrf;rDa&GŒpkpnf;azmfjyvdkufygonf?

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

267

arG;aeYqkrGef

=unf&$ifapaom/ rmapaom[k
arG;aomae@rSm/ wdk@oligonf
arwœm=unfvif/ &$if&$ifydk@?
a'gif;ysKdtdk;a0 wGefapzdk@
jrwfqkrGefaumif; awmif;=updk@??

rif;ok0Pf

arG;aeYo0Pf

wdkif;usKd;jynfjyK
udk,fpm;jyK&Sif
r_dif;ocifrSef;
atmif;qef;pk=unf
pk{u&Dtm;
arG;zGm;&ufwGif
usef;rmygap
csrf;om;ygap
qkoGifoGifavmif;vdkufygonf?

'*kefwm&m

rD;vQHxJuMum

&J - ZGJ - Om%f - pnf; - wm
ra=umufw&m;aw;uAsm
rD;v#HxJu=um? ?

OD;0if;wif

oef;0if;vIdif

268

&Jqdkwm

] &J&ifhjcif;?

ZGJqdkwm

] pGJjrJjcif;?
Om%fqdkwm] Om%fynm}uD;rmjcif;?
pnf;qdkwm] pnf;urf;&Sdjcif;?
wmqdkwm] wm0efodjcif;/ wm0ef,ljcif;/ wm0efcHjcif;?

66 'grSr[kwf 'Drdkua&pDtvif;yGihfxJu
r[mtmZmenf

“'Drdkua&pDpepfudk yHkazmf&mY
wOD;wa,mufxJvkyfaqmifvdk@r&edkifygbl;?
vkyfom;jynfoltm;vHk; yl;aygif;vkyfudkif
aqmif&GufrSom &&SdedkifrSmjzpfygw,f”

a':atmifqef;pkMunf

66 ²²² wJh
tarSmifacwftdk}uD;xJu
awmufywJhtvif;ouU&mZf
a&$a&mifawGeJ@ 0if;xdef
aojcif;rJhtvif;tdrfay:uaw;
ig ²²² a[m'Dreufcif;opfxJrSmarG;vdk@ ²²²

66 ²²²wJh
'Drdkua&pDopftem*wfac:oH
'Drdk ²²² qdkwm ²²² jynfol
ua&pD ²²² qdkwm ²²² tm%m
'Drdk ²²² qdkwm ²²² vlxk
ua&pD ²²² qdkwm ²²² tcGifhta&;
vlxktm%m vlxktcGifhta&;
vlxkudkjyefay;

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

269

igwdk@ r[mjynfolawGudk
igwdk@ r[mjynfolawGydkifwJh
igwdk@ydkifwJh igwdk@'Drdkua&pDudk
ig ²²² r[mjynfolawGudkjyefay;
ESvHk;aoG;xJu igwdk@r[mjynfolw&yfvHk;&JŒ
r[m'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJG
=unfhprf; ²²² aumif;uif}uD;uGJrwwf yGufyGufnHvdk@ ²²²

66 ²²² wJh
a&'D,dktoHvd_if;xJrSm ,Hk=unfyGifhawGv_dif;x
vlxkaA'&eH@opfawGeJ@ ar$;a0aewJh
tar&JΠ'Drdkua&pDac:oH tvif;aw;u
ordkif;trSefw&m;xJrSm
[öopPHawGeJ@ xm0&ysHoef;
'g ²²² igwdk@cspfwJh ighr[mEdkifiHawmf&JŒ tvif;wHcg;aygh²²

66 ²²² wJh
ESif;qD±dkif;opfawG yGifha0v_dif;x
tm%awmfvSefwJhacwf+ydKifxJu r[maEGOD;
ZGef 19 &JΠ,Hk=unfcsufrdk;yGifhOD;udk cl;qGwfzdk@
0dnmOftvif;vrf;udkazmuf
udk,fusKd;pGef@pdwfeJ@ tem*wftdyfrufudkwl;azmf
oHr%da&mifawmufaewJh ±dk;r}uD;awGu
,Hk=unfyGifhtvHudk &ifuGJrwwfv$ifhxlvdk@ ²²²

66 ²²²wJh
urBmxJu r[mtvif;oauFw
ESvHk;om;r[m 'Drdkua&pDtvif;wdkufudkzGifhjy

oef;0if;vIdif

270

nom;tarSmiftdkqkd;}uD;xJu
EkysKdpdrf;vef;vmr,fh reufcif;ppfppfudkar#mf
'Drdkua&pDtvif;wdkufyGJac:oH tawmif,Suf
vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJtwGuf,Hk=unfcsuf
toufeJ@ZGJcwf
p=u0ÏmurBmxJrSm &J&Jrufvdk@ ²²²

66 ²²² wJh
tmZmenfr[mol&Jaumif;wdk@vrf;
,Hk=unfr_touf0dnmOfeJ@ jzwfoef;
r[mjynfolawGvmaomvrf;rSm
ESvHk;om;udkcif;
=unfhprf; ²²² 'Drdkua&pDyef;awGu
vif;xdef0if;vufaumif;uifopf}uD;ay:wufvdk@ ²²²

66 ²²² wJh
oHr%d,Hk=unfcsuf[m
vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJtwGuf ²²² "g;
acwfqdk;acwfysuf}uD;&JΠtarSmiftdkxJrSm
&J&JyGifhjyL 'Drkdua&pDacwfOD;tvHrSm
ESvHk;om;eJ@ v$ifhxl
jynfolawGtwGuf xm0&,Hk=unfcsufeJ@
jidrf;csrf;a&;csKd;jzLiSufuav;ysHoef;zdk@
A[k0g'opf&JŒ tvif;+rdKŒudkwnfvmjyD; ²²²

66 ²²² wJh
twkrJhr[mtmZmenfocifatmifqef;&JŒ
vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJrSonf

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

271

ck ²²² acwf+ydKifxJu r[m'Drdkua&pDopfwdkufyGJ&JŒ
r[mtmZmenf
igwdk@r[mjynfolawGcspfwJh
atmifqef;pk=unf
urBmwnfrnfh tvif;vrf;udkazguf
a[m ²²² 66 ²²²wJh jyuQ'defxJu tvif;ouU&mZf
tarh&iftHkajroif;cJxJu zGm;jrifvmawmhr,f
r[m'Drdkua&pDtvif;vrf;udkazguf
wdk@acwfudka&muf&rnfrSmrvGJyg
wdk@Arm r[moDcsif;xJu r[muAsmpmom;
r[m'Drdkua&pDtvif;vrf;ay:rSm
=unfh=uprf;a[h
r[m'Drkdua&pDyef;opfawG
a0vdk@ ²²²? ?

armifaEGxuf

jynfoludkcspfaom …jynfolucspfaom …ol

tJ'Drsuf0ef;&JŒ
El;nHhjywfom;aom t=unfhawGatmufrSm
pdk;&GHŒtm;i,fpdwfawG ajyavsmhuG,faysufoGm;
tJ'DE_wfcrf;u
0Hhpm;csKdjrdefaomtjyHK;awGzl;tyGifhrSm
ar#mfvifhcsuftaoawG jyef&Sifoefvef;pGifhvm ²²²
tJ'DESvHk;om;u
ajyjypfnifomaom &ifckefoHpnf;csufrS
toG,foG,faomvm;&mawGaygif;qHka&SŒquf=u²²
ol@rsuf0ef;awGu igwdk@twGuf pGrf;tm;

oef;0if;vIdif

272

ol@E_wfcrf;u igwdk@vdktyfwJhtvif;a&mif
ol@ESvHk;om;u igwdk@azG&SmaewJhtvSw&m;
ol[m ²²² ydwfxm;cH&wJh wHcg;txyfxyfudk
&ifeJ@&if;jyD; wdk;zGifhwdk;xGufol
ol[m ²²² &J&ifhjcif;jy,k*fudk xkqpfzefqif;
pdwf0dnmOfawGudk a=umuf&GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;apol
ol[m ²²²arwœmvufeufudk tjyHK;rysufudkifpGJ
trkef;wHwm;awGudk jidrf;csrf;jcif;ESifh +ydKvJapol
ol ²²²
tbdk;tbGm;wdk@&JŒ ²²² orD;pk
OD;OD;a':a':wdk@&JŒ ²²² rpk
armifwdk@r,fwdk@&JŒ ²²² tefwDpk
om;wdk@orD;wdk@&JŒ ²²² tarpk

wdkif;jynfeJ@vlrsKd;&JŒ ²²² atmifqef;pk=unf
ol[m ²²² rdom;pkwdkif;&JŒ rdom;pk0if
tay;t,lrJh jrwfEdk;cspfcifjcif;awGeJ@
tjyeftvSefarwœmouf0ifcJh=u ²²²
jynfoludkcspfaom ²²² jynfolucspfaomol@udk
jynfolvlxk&JΠESvHk;om;awGxJuae
b,fvkdrS z,fxkwfvdk@r&aybl;? ?

aebkef;vwf

u½kPm

tar
olronf
AdkvfcsKyf.orD;

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

273

wdkif;jynf. rD;±_;wefaqmif
'Drdkua&pD. tvSzk&m;
vGwfvyfjcif;. zD;epfiSuf
±dk;om;jcif;. oHwref
nDnGwfjcif;. rsKd;aphcsol

tar
olronf
ppftm%m}uD;pdk;a&;udkwGef;vSef
jynfoltm;vHk;. tonf;ESvHk;
n‡dK;csKH;csdeJ@aewJh trdjynfpD;yGm;a&;udk
xm0pOfawG;tav;ay;ol
wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;. rdcif
trsKd;om;&if=um;apha&;
xm0pOfawG; tav;ay;ol

tdkarar
wdkif;jynfwdk;wuf/ udk,fusKd;rzuf
rsKd;jrwfZmenf/ Zmr%Drdk@
xm0pOftjyHK;jynf&Gmu
xm0pOfESvHk;=unfomap?

?

jra'gif;EG,f

armifacG;zdkYuAsm

ajcvufrJhayr,fh
ypfcsif&mudkypfvdkufwJh
ypfwdkif;axmifw,fuGJ@??

oef;0if;vIdif

274

armifoif;cdkif

rskd;qufZmwdaoG;

Adkvfrif;a&mifaoG;
atmifqef;aoG;wdk@pka0;cJh&m
ighcE<"monf ighwdkif;jynfESifh
ighjynfolwGufjzpf&rnf??

armifMuL;&ifh

2010 Edk0ifbm 13

tara& ²²²
ae&mifr0if va&mifrvif;
arSmifrdkuftcef;usOf;av;&JŒt=um;
tarhowif;rsm; 0ifa&mufvmawmh
usaemfav ²²²
rsuf&nfrsm;awmif0Jrdyg&JŒ?

?

rJarSmifr_efukyfvdk@aewJh
tvsm;&Snf&Snf teHarsmarsm
ausmwcif;pm ae&muav;rSm
usaemf[m
'Dae@udkapmifhar#mfwrf;waecJhwmyg?

?

ae&mifjcnfudkr& vtvif;urjzm
usaemfr±_±_duf&vJ&Sdygap ²²²
jynfolawGtwGuf tvif;a&mif
jynfolawGtwGuf rD;±_;wefaqmif

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

275

[dk; tarSmifwdkufawGudkqkwfjzJvdk@
xGef;yaevdkufyHkrsm;
usaemfhtcef;av;xJ=um;
jzmvif;oGm;avovm; ²²² ?

?

aZ,smaomf
(aumhaomif;tusOf;axmifwGif;ü a&;zGJUygonf?)

arG;aeYordkif;

arG;ae@wdkif;rSm
trSwfw&mawG&Sdw,f
trSwfw&mwdkif;rSm
'%f&mawG&Sdw,f
'%f&mwdkif;rSm
ordkif;&Sdw,f??

opfjidrf;

wdkYAdkvfcsKyf&JU orD;

usKyfwdk@jynfoltuskd;
a&SŒwef;wifxrf;ydk;ayr,fh
jynfolawG&JŒ ±_rnD;wJh
usKyfwdk@AdkvfcsKyf&JŒorD;?

jidrf;csrf;cspf=unf
olrxlaxmifrnfhjynf
igwdk@awG ra&mufa&mufatmif csDwufrnf?
cspf=unfjidrf;csrf;

oef;0if;vIdif

276

olr wnfaqmufrnhfvrf;
igwdk@awG ra&mufa&mufatmifvSrf;?

?

ausmf&ifarmif (a&OD;)

tarhaus;Zl;

uGef,ufavvm; ²²²
uGif;qufavvm; ²²²
'Da&tvm; jznf;jznf;wufoGm;?

pnf;vHk;r_tm; nDnGwfr_tm;
vufcsif;wGJxm; cdkifjrJr_tm;
aoG;ruGJwJh 'dk@jynfaxmifpktm;
tjyma&mifEkEk jidrf;csrf;r_tm;
&mZ0ifwGifr,fh *Eœ0ifyef;csDum;
tjzLay:tjymEk ‘tarpk’ qGJwJh arSmif0iftEkynmum;
‘om;qufjyD;qGJ’ wJh vufqifhurf;ay;r_vm;
om;qufjyD; rqGJ&ufbl;tar
tarh&JŒvuf&m om;rzsuf0Hhbl;tar
tarh&JŒcHpm;r_ om;rarS;rSdefapcsifbl; tar
tarh&JŒwifjyr_ om;tusnf;wefatmif rvkyfyg&apeJ@ tar
tarhxuf om; wpfvr}uD;0Hhygtar
om;tmacgif vSHrpl;0Hhyg tar
om; t&Sifvwfvwf r[majr}uD;xJ rqif;0Hhygtar?

tar[m ²²² taryg tar&,f?
tarhaemufrSm om;wdk@&Sdw,f?
tarhab;rSm om;wdk@aer,f?

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

277

tarhajcvSrf;aemufudk om;wdk@xyf=uyfruGmvdkufr,f?
tararm&if om;wdk@wGJac:ay;r,f
tarqm&if om;wdk@cl;cyfau|;r,f
tar ²²² av#mufvSrf;aewJhjidrf;csrf;r_udk om;wdk@0dkif;&Hay;r,f
tar ²²² ,ufaewJrsKd;qufopfuGef,ufudk
om;wdk@csnfaESmifay;r,f
om;wdk@tarhudk 'DvdkyJ aus;Zl;qyfcGifhjyKyg tar

uJ a[h tarhom;awG
nDapaemf ²²² nDap
vufcsif;wGJxm; r[mtiftm;
pdwfcsif;qufxm; r[mtiftm;
&JaoG;eDxm; r[mtiftm;
tarhaus;Zl;udk qyf=uygpdk@vm;?

ausmfol

jrwfrdcifa'gif;

tarSmifroef;/
ta&mifrEGrf;ygwJh/
atmifqef;a[h pk=unf?

jrefjynfxk&JŒ
tefwDpk Zmenf?

auG@rajy;ygbl;/
zathaoG;[m eDeD&Jygvdk@/
jynfhta&;rSm nDnDZGJeJ@/

oef;0if;vIdif

278

wnf=unfqJa[h bmrxD/
Armjynf&JŒacgif;aqmifaumif;?

wu,f,kwfrm jydwœmrsm;&,fu/
tus,fcsKyfrSm ydwfumxm;±Hkru/
rdp>mw&m; tarSmifOm%fqifhvdk@/
axmif'%fESifhyif xyfzdcsifvnf;/
AswdœOmOf rajymif;ygbl;/
owœdtpOf aumif;ygbd/
jrwfrdcifa'gif;?

a'gif;Munfpif

rdcif rkqdk;r

vifa,mufsm;udk oHa,mZOfrxm;
trSefw&m;udk tm;udk;&Smol

om;orD;awGeJ@ rywfouf
tem*wfeJ@ qufqHcsifol

ajr;uav;awGudk awG@csifpdwfxdef;
jidrf;csrf;a&;udk ar#mfvifhaeol??

Munfarmifoef;

qHkrSwf

tar
aeaumif;yg&JŒvm; tar
jcHeHygwf 54 udk

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

279

tarhvufeJ@ udk,fwkdifzGihfr,hfwae@udk
wuUodkvf&dyfomu opPmawmfrysuf
apmifhaeqJyg tar ²²² ?

&Sdygw,ftar
u|efawmfholi,fcsif;awGvnf; &Sdygao;w,f
olwdk@vnf; aeaumif;=uyg&Jh
wcsKdŒuawmh
EdkifiHom;ajymif;vJcH,l&if;
jrefrmjynfudk cspfae=uwkef;yJ tar
Zmwdajrudk tvnftywfjyefwdkif;
‘t&iftwdkif;yJaemf’ vdk@
0wfauswef;ausE_wfquf
aps;0,frysuf=uygbl;
wcsKdŒuawmh
'kuQonfa,mifaqmif&if;
(olwdk@ta&;twGuf) 'dk@ta&; 'dk@ta&;eJ@
e,l;a,mufuae
tarhvGwfajrmufa&; }udK;yrf;ae=uowJh ²²²?

tarhygwDvnf; &Sdygao;w,f tar
wcsKdŒu rJqG,fwkef;rSm wcsKdŒu rJray;zdk@ajym
ygwDzsufodrf;cdkif;umrS arG;ae@yGJvkyfeJ@
a=unmcsufrxkwfwmhwmuvGJ&if
t&ifvdk crf;crf;em;em;ygyJ tar
&efukefuawmh csLcsm&Smw,f tar
OD;aESmuf,dkpD;r_udk ukpm;wkef; attdfkif'Dtufpfjzpf
rD;pufarmif;oHawG=um;u ‘pcef;c%vdkufcJhyg’ ac:vdk@ac:

oef;0if;vIdif

280

q,fwef;orm;awGu tESdyfcef;rSmpmusuf
wcsKdŒu xrif;rcsufEdkifawmh
xrif;&nf0,faomuf&w,f tar ²²² ?

bmyJajymajym tar
&efukefrSm ausmfoleJ@ axmifrSL;
olwdk@ ESpfOD;avmufawmh
b,folrS tvkyfrrsm;bl;av

tar
tarr&Sdwkef; uGsefawmfwdk@ em*pfudk odoGm;w,f
a&$0ga&mif/ tDvufxa&mepfOya'/ e,fjcm;apmifhwyf/
a&G;aumufyGJ/ aejynfawmf
'gawGeJ@vnf; &if;ESD;oGm;w,f
tajymif;tvJawGuawmh
trsm;}uD;ayghtar&,f
&efukefrSm arG;cJhwJhvlawGu
EdkifiHjcm;om;vkyfjyD; jyefvm
Zmwdudk &GH&SmovdkvdkeJ@ jyef=unfh
rcsdayr,fh rajymomygbl;tar
uGsefawmhwdk@u edrhfyg;csdefudk; ²²²

tar
uGsefawmfwdk@ wdkufyGJrSm
c%c%usqHk;ay;ae&wmu
jyuQ'defpm&GufawGyg tar
a[mwpf&Guf a[mwpf&GufeJ@
qkwfjzJypfaevdkuf=uwm

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

281

tJ'g &uf&mZmawGcsnf;yJqdkwm
uGsefawmhwdk@ todaemufuschJygw,f tar
tar
ajym=unfhyg&ap
u|efawmfar#mfvifhaewmuav
'Drdkua&pDvnf; [kwfcsifrS[kwfr,f
jidrf;csrf;a&;vnf; ygcsifrSygr,f
tpnf;ta0;vnf; wufcsifrSwuf&ygvdrfhr,f tar
'gayrJh
EdkifiHom;awG EdkifiHjcm;om; jzpfp&mrvdkawmhwJhae@
'kuQonfawG 'kuQo,fp&mrvdkawmhwJhae@
ESpfa,muf&Sd&if oHk;zGJ@ruGJawmhwJhae@
ynmwwf&if xrif;riwfwJhae@
ta&mifrwlwmudk &efolvdk@ rowfrSwfwJhae@
tJ'Dae@udkyg tar

u|efawmfvJoGm;&if tarxlay;yg
tarhtm;eJ@ raerem;}udK;pm;prf;yghr,f
u|efawmfwdk@tm;vHk; &efukefrSm jyefqHk=uzdk@av?

urÇmpdk;rif;

ol&Jaumif; tmZmenf

a':atmifqef;pk=unfwJh?
oltrnfudk &Gwfqdk=unfh±Hkr#eJ@
ol@udk &efjyKvdkolawGudk uwkefu&ifawGjzpfapovdk
ol@jynfolawGtwGufawmh tm;tifawG opfapolaygh?
ol[m

oef;0if;vIdif

282

Adkvfrif;a&mif&JΠjrpf
trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif
vGwfvyfa&;rD;±Sl;wefaqmif&Jh orD;
tmZmenfrsKd;yDyD
rsKd;*k%faqmifonfh trsKd;aumif;orD;aygh?

ykcHk;ay:usvmwJh0efwm
&J&ifhpGmcH,lxrf;
rsKd;qufopfawGeJ@ vufurf;
rsKd;cspfa[mif;awGeJ@ wJGtwl
awmfvSefa&;c&D;=urf;udk
&J&J}uD;v$ifhxlxm;wJh r[mvlom;wa,mufaygh?
rw&m;r_awGudkzDqef
vSHpGyf usnfqH csdef;ajcmufr_'%fawGudk tHwk
&J&ifhr_eJ@ tm%mzDqef&if;
&dk;om;r_eJ@ acgif;aqmif/ Om%fynmeJ@ E_dif;csifh
cdkifusnfr_eJ@ c&D;quf/ jidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf OD;wnf
wdk;wufa&;twGuf&nfn$ef;jyD; em,u*k%feJ@xHkr$ef;wJholjzpfw,f?

tm%m&Siftqufqufu
ppfwyf}uD;wckvHk; tvJ$oHk;pm;jyk
acwftysufysufjyKef;vnf; *±krjyKyJ
trsKd;rsKd;ESdyfpuf/ t}udrf+udrfvSnfhywf
tvDvD &ufpuf/ tcgcg owfjzwf
tzefzefxdk;ESuf ordkif;wGifatmif aumufuspf&ufpufjyD;
“vrif;udk acG;a[mifwJhZmwf”udk ucJhayr,fh
oluawmh
ywœjrm;pdefausmufvdk &J&JawmufcJholjzpfw,f?

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

283

jidrf;csrf;a&; tvHwvlvljr‡ifhjyD;
urBmhtjyifzufxdawmif v$ifhxlcJholjzpfw,f?

ol@ordkif; arS;rSdefjyD;
ol@b0 ao;odrfatmif
tm%m&Sif Om%fwdrfwdrfeJ@
avSmiftdrfpH tusOf;cs
aoa=umif;=uH ao;odrf=uayr,fh
ol@*k%f ol@owœd ol@ordkif; ol@tpGrf;uawmh
vSnf;aeavSatmif;ru urBmt&yf&yfxd ysHŒESH@vsufygyJ?

ol[m
jrefrmtm;vHk;udk,fpm;jyK
trsKd;orD;rsm;tm;vHk;udkf,fpm;jyK
tzdESdyfcHtm;vHk;udk,fpm;jyK
vlom;tm;vHk;udk,fpm;jyK
jidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf udk,fpm;jyKoltjzpf
urBmw0Srf;u av;pm;or_eJ@ cspf=uw,f?

olr[m
&J&JeDpGifh ESif;qDyef;wyGifhjzpfovdk
jidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf csKd;iSufvnf;jzpfw,f?

pdrf;vef;ar$;v$wJh a&=unfcsrf;jr vnf;jzpfovdk
+ydK;jyuf&ifh&ifh jynfwef pdefwyGifhvnf;jzpfw,f?

vlom;tm;vHk;&JŒpHjyjyK ouf&Sd±kyfxkvnf;jzpfovdk
owœd&JŒ udk,fyGm;wck vlom;tusKd;jyKolvnf;jzpfw,f?

oef;0if;vIdif

284

arwœm&JŒ jy,k*ftjzpf vlxk&JŒ tarGwck jzpfovdk
awmfvSefjcif;&JŒ"g;wvuf
avmu&JΠtm;aq;wcGufvnf;jzpfw,f?

ol[m wdk@tm;vHk;&JΠrdcif/ avmuudk tvSqifolvnf;jzpfw,f?
ol[m tmZmenfwOD;vnf; jzpfovdk
ol&Jaumif;wOD;vnf; jzpfw,f?
ol[m tmZmenfwOD;vnf;jzpfovdk
ol&Jaumif;wOD;vnf;jzpfw,f?

ol&defxuf

5²8²2011

ÙÙÙ

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

285

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s

International Awards, Honors & Appointments

( 1 9 9 0 - 2 0 1 0 )
1. Honorary Fellow St. Hugh’s College (Oxford, UK) 1990
2. Thorolf Rafto Human Rights (Norway) 1990
3. Sakharov Freedom of Thought (European Parliamnet) 1991
4. Noble Peace Oslo, Norway 1991
5. Honorary Member International EN (Norwegian Center) 1991
6. Humanities Human Rights Award (USA) 1991
7. Honorary Member International PEN (Candian Center) 1991
8. Marisa Bellisario Price Italy 1992
9. Annual Award of the International Human Rights Law Group
(USA) 1992
10. Honorary President Students’ Union London School of Economics
and Political Science (UK) 1992
11. Honorary Member International PEN (English Center) 1992
12. Honorary Life Member University of London Union (UK) 1992
13. Honorary Professional Fellowship Law and Society Trust (Sri
Lanka) 1992
14. Honorary Doctorate in Political Science Thammasat University
(Thailand) 1992

oef;0if;vIdif

286

15. International Simon Bolivar prize UNESCO 1992
16. Prix Litteraire des Droits de I’Homme Nouveaux Droits de
I’Homme, France 1992
17. Honorary Member World Commission on Culture and
Development (UNESCO) 1992
18. Member Academie Universelle des Cultures (Paris) 1993
19. Rose Prize arbejderbevaegelsens International Forum/
International Forum of the Danish Labour Movement,
Copehagen 1993
20. Victor Jara International Human Rights Center for Human Rights
and Constitutional Law, Los Angeles, USA 1993
21. Member of the Advisory Board Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center
for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University 1993
22. Honorary Doctorate of Law University of Toronto (Canada) 1993
23. The Freedom of the City Commune of Giugliano, Italy 1993
24. Bremen Solidarity City of Bremen, Germany 1993
25. Premio Mujer Progresista (Federacion Mujeres Progresistas /
Spanish Federation of Progressive Women, Madrid) 1993
26. Honorary Doctorate Philosophy & Letters, Free University of
Brussels 1994
27. Honorary Adviser Forum of Democratic Leaders in the Asia-
Pacific 1994
28. The Freedom of the City Aversa, Italy 1995
29. Liberal International Prize for Freedom Britain’s Liberal
Democracy Party, UK 1995
30. Honorary Doctorate of Laws Queen’s University, Canada 1995
31. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding (for
1993) India 1995
32. Gandhi Award Simon Fraser University, Canada 1995
33. Honorary Doctorate of Civil Law University of Oxford 1995
34. IRC Freedom Award International Rescue Committee 1995
35. Companion of the Order of Australia 1996

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

287

36. Liberal International Prize (UK) 1996
37. Asia Human Rights of Law (Japan) 1996
38. W. Averell Harrimen Democracy Award National Democratic
Institute U.S.A 1996
39. Rajiv Shmirti Parashka [ Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Award] India
1996
40. Empty Chair Award Women of the Year Lunch, London, UK
1996
41. Honorary Doctorate of Law Charles University in Prague, Czech
Republic 1997
42. Honorary Doctorate of Letters Sydney University of Technology,
Australia 1997
43. Honorary Doctorate of Letters California Chapman University,
U.S.A 1997
44. Honorary Doctorate of Law Natal University, South Africa 1997
45. Honorary Doctorate of Law America University, Washington
D.C, U.S.A 1997
46. Distinguished Alumni Award Central University/ Delhi University
1997
47. Honorary Citizenship of Rome (Italy) (May 23, 1997)
48. Honorary Doctorate of Letters Glasgow University (UK) 1997
49. Pearl S. Buck Woman’s Award Pearl S. Buck Foundation (USA)
1997
50. International Award St. Angela’s Peace and Justice Group,
Waterford (Eire) 1997
51. Profiles in Courage Award Kennedy Society of Denmark 1997
52. Honorary Doctorate Cambridge University (June 1998) 1998
53. Freedom of the City (Oxford, UK) 1998
54. Honorary Doctorate of Laws University of Wales, Cardiff 1998
55. Honorary Doctorate of Laws University of Bristol (UK) 1998
56. Honorary Doctorate of Laws University of Melbourne (Australia)
1998

oef;0if;vIdif

288

57. Honorary degree Universite’ catholique de Louvain, Belgium –
December 1998
58. Honorary Degree University of Bath (UK) – December 1998
59. Honorary Degree Bucknell University – May 1999
60. Freedom Award International Republican Institute, USA
(October 1999) 1999
61. The Freedom of the City of Dublin Award Ireland (November
1999)
62. 2000 CAW Nelson Mandela Human Rights Award Canada
(December 2000) 2000
63. Presidential Medal of Freedom Award U.S.A (December 2000)
2000
64. Collage United Nations Prize 2001 Germany (June 2001) 2001
65. International Social Welfare Prize University of Southern
California School of Social Work (December 8) 2001
66. AI Neuharth Free Spirit Award U.S Foundation, Washington,
USA 2003
67. MTV Humanitarian Award, “Free Your Mind” MTV Europe,
EDINBURGH,UK 2003
68. The 2004 TIME 100, The most influential people in the world
today TIME Magazine 2004
69. Kwangju Human Rights Award May 18 Memory Foundation
from South Korea 2004
70. TIME’s Asia’s Hero 2004 TIME MAGAZINE 2004
71. The Honorary Citizen of Paris France 10/ 12/ 2004
72. Honorary Doctorate in Politics, Philosophy and Economics
Rangsit University, Thailand 13/ 12/ 2004
73. Outstanding Women in Buddhism United Nations Gender and
Religious Department 8/ 03/ 2005
74. Honorary Degree in Political Science Thammasat University,
Thailand 19/ 06/ 2005
75. Freedom of the City Award The City Council of Edinburgh,

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

289

Scotland 16/ 06/ 2005
76. Freedom of Galway City Galway city, Ireland June 2005
77. UNISON Honorary Membership UNISON, Britain’s largest trade
union, June 2005
78. Olof Palme Prize Sweden, February 2006
79. Freedom Award Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, USA
March 2006
80. New Statesmen Magazine Hero New Statesmen Magazine, May
2006
81. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Deshprem Award,
India 2007, March 2007
82. An honorary doctorate (LLD) honoris causa Award from
University of Cape Town, South Africa, December 2007
83. Freedom of Glasgow (the freedom of Scotland’s largest city)
2007
84. Rome for Peace and Humanitarian Action 2007
85. Special Award for Lifetime Achievement in Politics 2007
86. “Abogados de Atocha” international prize from Spain, 22 January
2008
87. Congressional Gold Medal, United States of America, 24 April,
2008
88. Honorary Canadian Citizenship, May 6, 2008
89. The Freedom of the City, June 10, 2008
90. Catalonia International Prize 2008, MOTHERS OF COURAGE
(shard with Dr. Cynthia Maung), November, 2008
91. Honorary Member of the Club of Madrid, November 20, 2008
92. Honorary Council Member, December 20, 2008
93. Trumpet of Conscience Award, January 19, 2009
94. Freedom of the City of Glasgow, March 4, 2009
95. Mahatma Gandhi International Award for Peace and
Reconciliation – MAGI Award, May 22, 2009
96. Democracy and Peace Award of Japanese Diet Member’s League

oef;0if;vIdif

290

Japanese Diet Members’ League in support of Democracy in
Myanmar, Tokyo, Japan (2009, June 19)
97. The Honorary Doctor of Laws (LLD) at Derry’s Millennium Forum,
the University of Ulster in Derry, Ireland, UK on Tuesday, July
7, 2009. (2009, June 24)
98. The Ambassador of Conscience Award the recipient of Amnesty
International’s highest honorary (Irish band U2 is publicly
announcing Aung San Suu Kyi’s award Monday night at a
Dublin concert.) (2009, July 27)
99. Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Award for Democracy instituted. The
Pakistan People’s Party, Islamabad, Pakistan. (2010, June 21)
100. Honorary Individual Membership. Council of Asian Liberals
and Democrats (CALD) (2010, June 29)
101. Queen of Myanmar’s Democracy and Human Rights. Manav
Ekta Parishad, India (2010, November 25)

ÙÙÙ

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

291

trnf&if;OD;oef;0if;jzpfonf? 1958 ck/ Zlvdkifv 22 &ufae@wGif
&efukef+rdKŒ/ A[ef;+rdKŒe,fY trda':wifat; (uG,fvGef)/ tzOD;pdefxGef;
(aA'ifvuQ%mq&m) wdk@rS zGm;jrifonfh wOD;wnf;aomom;jzpfonf?
i,fpOfu pmayESifhyef;csD0goemxHkI ausmif;eH&Huyfpmapmifwdk@wGif
aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;om;I yef;csDo±kyfazmfyHkrsm; a&;qGJcJhonf? ausmif;
yef;csD+ydKifyGJY qkt}udrf}udrf&&SdcJhonf? ausmif;aepOfuyif ausmif;pm
=unfhwdkufrSL;tjzpf t}udrf}udrfaqmif&GufcJhonf?
xdk@aemuf 10 wef;atmifjrifjyD;aemuf 1980 jynfhESpfwGif wyfr
awmf (avwyf) odk@ 0ifa&mufI ppfr_xrf;&GufcJhonf? 1977 ckESpf/ Edk0if
bmvxkwf ‘oifhb0’ r*~Zif;yg “tem*wftmumovGef;yHs,mOf”
ody`Haqmif;yg;jzifh pmaye,fodk@pwif0ifa&mufcJhonf? 1982 wGif wyfr
awmf(avwyf)rS EkwfxGufcJhonf? 1992 ckESpf xkwfa0cJhaom ‘ausmuf
rsuf&wemvufpGJ’ pmtkyfonf yxrqHk;vHk;csif;pmtkyfjzpfjyD; quf
vufI ‘aer0ifao;onfhbk&ifrsm;’(y/ 'kwGJ)/ ‘vlwdkif;twGuf okw
aA'if’/ ‘±kyfwkrSajymaom jrefrmhordkif;0ifyk*~dKvfxl;rsm;’/ ‘20 &mpk jref
rmhordkif;udkajymjyaeaomae@&ufrsm;’/ ‘tESpfcsKyfjrefrmhordkif; tbd
"mef’ (y/ 'kwGJ)/ ‘20 &mpk tausmf=um;qHk; tm&Sacgif;aqmifrsm;’/
‘toHk;cs±lyo#wœ&ynm’/ ‘tausmfaZ,spmqdkawmfrsm;’/ ‘jrefrmh o
rdkif;Y arhaysmufIr&aom trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’/
‘O=oatmfjrnf ukef;abmifwnf’/ ‘e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&; jidrf;csrf;a&;zcif
}uD; rsKd;cspfpmqdkawmf}uD; ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;’/‘eDaygeef;usbk&if’/ ‘'kwd

oef;0if;vIdif

292

,ajrmuf t,fvDZbufbk&ifr’/ ‘*syef{u&mZfbk&if’/ ‘EdkifiHhOao#mif
rif;{u&mZfrsm;’/ ‘EdkifiHawmfvkyf=uHr_w&m;cH *VKefOD;apm. aemufqHk;
ae@rsm;’ ponfwdk@ a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf? odk@aomf ‘0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ekb0
ESifh pmayrSwfwrf;’/ ‘wdk@zcif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; bmrSmcJhovJ’/ ‘ol
wdk@jrifaom AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’/ ‘±kef;xGufcJh&aom Armjynf’/ ‘a'guf
wmbarmf. EdkifiHa&;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;’/ ‘19 &mpk jrefrmhordkif;udk
ajymjyaeaomae@&ufrsm;’/ ‘teufazmf&cufaom ae@pOfoHk; jrefrm
a0g[m&rsm;tbd"gef’/ ‘AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. b0ESifh "gwfyHkrSwfwrf;’/
‘jrefrmhordkif;0ifpmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;’/ ‘jrefrmhordkif;wauG@rS txifu&
EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;’ ponfhpmtkyfrsm;onf ,ae@wkdif rxkwfa0&
ao;ay?

,cifuokwpG,fpHk r*~Zif;wGif yifwdkifaqmif;yg;&Siftjzpf 1986
rS 1996 ckESpftxd (10) ESpfwdkifwdkifa&;om;cJhonf? xdk@jyif ‘jrefrmhaps;
uGufpD;yGm;a&;*sme,f’ ESihf ‘jr&dyfndK’ *sme,fwdk@wGif yxrqHk; wm0efcH
xkwfa0cJhjyD; ,if;*sme,fY t,f'DwmcsKyftjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonf? oef;
0if;v_difuavmiftrnftjyif ‘ody`Hcspfol’/ ‘a&$Gjynfatmif’/ ‘pdefv_dif
wif’/ ‘ae&JpGrf;’/ ‘jynf[def;atmif’/ ‘oef;a&$Edkif’ ponfh uavmifuGJ
rsm;jzifh ydawmufyGifhopf/ jrefrmopf/ EG,feD/ pHy,fjzL/ cs,f&D/ rkc/ ESvHk;tdrf/
ayzl;v$mr*~Zif;rsm;Y a&;om;cJhonf? ,cktcg rdk;rc/ acwf+ydKif/ opPm/
rdk;}udK;/ csKd;vif;jym ponfhtifwmeufbavmufrsm;Y ordkif;qdkif&m
aqmif;yg;rsm;ESifh pmayqdkif&maqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;vsuf&Sdonf?
2000jynfhESpf/ arvwGif etzppftpdk;&u “±kyfwkrSajymaom jref
rmhordkif;0if yk*~dKvfxl;rsm;” pmtkyfudkta=umif;jyKI yk'fr 17§20 jzifh
axmif'%f 7 ESpfcsrSwfcJh&m tif;pdef/ om,m0wDaxmifrsm;Y &ufaygif;
2387 &uf (6 ESpf ESifh 8 v) wdwduscHjyD;aemuf 2007 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv
3 &ufae@wGif om,m0wDaxmifrS jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
vGwfajrmufcJhjyD;aemuf ordkif;qdkif&mpmayrsm;qufvufa&;om;cJh&m
ordkif;qdkif&mpmtkyf pkpkaygif; (15) tkyf ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;cH&jyD;

'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

293

etztppftpdk;&u ‚if;tm; jyefvnfzrf;qD;&efpDpOfaeonfudk }udKwif
od&SdcJhojzifh 2010 jynfhESpf/ Zlvdkifv 6 &ufae@wGif xdkif;EdkifiHodk@ acwœ
wdrf;a&SmifvmcJhonf? ,cktcg wwd,EdkifiHY tajccsaexdkif&ef jyifqif
vsuf&Sd+yD;/
SAW txufwef;ausmif;Y ausmif;q&mtjzpf jrefrmbmom
ESifh orkdif;bmom&yfrsm;ydk@cs&if; ordkif;qdkif&mpmay jyKpkvsuf&Sdonf?

ÙÙÙ

qufoG,f&efvdyfpm
Ph : (66) 897 -033 -128

Email : jamesparr007@gmail.com

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->