'Dru

kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

'D r d k u a&pD r d c if B uD ;
a':atmif q ef ; pk M unf
oef;0if;vIdif

1

2

oef;0if;vIi
d f

owÅq
d w
k d m raMumufwm[m wu,fo
h wÅd r[kwb
f ;l /
aMumufvsufeJY udk,fvkyo
f ifhvkyfxdkufwmudk vkyf
wm[m wu,fo
h wÅy
d /J tJ'aD wmh 'l;wkew
f ek e
f YJ vkyw
f hJ
ol[m awmfawmfowÅd&Sdw,fvYdk ac:&rSmyJ/
atmifqef;pkMunf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

3

odkY ...
'Drdkua&pDrdcifBuD;
a':atmifq ef;pkMunf
eSihf
,HkMunfcsufaMumif h *kP fodu©m&SdpGmjzifh tusOf;usaeaom
edkii
f a
H &;tusOf;om;rsm; tm;vH;k udk &nfne
T ;f vsuf?
oef;0if;vIi
d f
31 - 7 - 2011
"In honour of
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (Mother of Democracy)
And I honour all political prisoners
Those who stand for political integrity in
Burma."
Than Win Hlaing
July 31st 2011

4

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aus;Zl;wifvTm
þpmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf EdkifiHa&;todpdwf"gwf pmaypdwf
tjynfht0jzifh ulnDxkwfa0ay;aom tpfudkBuD; BMC apmaerif;ESifh tpfr
BuD;aemfeDeDvGifro
d m;pktm;vnf ;aumif; ? trSmpmcsD; jr§ihfay;aom OD;Adkvf
aomif; (OuúX-NLD-LA)tm;vnf;aumif;? tzufzufrS 0dki;f 0ef;ulnaD y;
aom ref;rsK;d jrifhEiS fh rsuEf SmzHk;'DZidk f;a&;qGJay;aom oD[armifarmif? twGif;
'DZidk f;jyKvyk fay;aom udkrif;rif;? uGefysLwmpmpDpm½dkuaf y;aom apmtJhuvdk
0g;wdkUtm; txl;aus; Zl;wif &SdaMumif; trSwfw& azmfjytyfygonf/
oef;0if;vdIif
31 - 7 - 2011

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

5

'Dru
kd a&pDrcd ifBu;D a':atmifqef;pkMunf
rmwdum
1/ BMC apmaerif; (xkwaf 0ol) \ trSmpm
-7
2/ OD;Adv
k af omif;\ trSmpm
-9
3/ rdcifaESmifBuKd ;udk ajzygthH - atmifqef;pkMunf
- 11
4/ tcef; (1) 'Dru
kd a&pDrcd ifBu;D
- 12
5/ brsK;d bd;k wl Adv
k cf sKyo
f rD;
- 19
6/ tcef; (2) aemufco
H rdik ;f
- 40
7/ tcef; (3) ppfwyftmPmodr;f ydu
k jf cif;
- 90
8/ tcef; (4) yxrqk;H aetdrt
f us,cf sKyu
f mv
- 106
9/ tcef; (5) Edb
k ,fqck s;D jri§ chf &H
- 144
10/ tcef; (6)
? trsK;d om;nDvmcH
- 159
11/
? trsK;d orD;xl;cReq
f &k &Sd
- 163
12/
? twdkut
f cdkucf H&
- 164
13/
? vGwv
f yfa&;qk
- 169
14/
? *kPjf yKaw;
- 170
15/
? 'kw,
d tBurd af etdrt
f us,cf sKyf
- 170
16/
? wwd,tBurd f aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf
- 171
17/
? rdwzf ufEikd if rH sm;aygi;f pnf;a&;qdik &f mqk - 171
18/
? jyefvnfvw
G af jrmuf
- 171
19/
? *kPjf yKcs;D jri§ yhf JG
- 174
20/
? *kPx
f ;l aqmifyg&*lbJGU
- 174
21/
? a':vmwpfoef;wefvGwv
f yfaom
pdw"f mwfqk
- 174
22/
? atoif Edik if w
H um 'Dru
kd a&pDqk
- 175

6

23/
24/ tcef; (7)
25/
26/
27/
28/
29/
30/
31/
32/ tcef; (8)
33/ tcef; (9)
34/
35/
36/
37/ tcef; (10)
38/ tcef; (11)
39/
40/
41/ tcef; (12)
42/ tcef; (13)
43/ tcef; (14)
44/

oef;0if;vIi
d f

? &cdik jf ynfe,fpnf;½k;H a&; c&D;pOf
- 176
? 'DyJ,if;vkyBf uo
H wfjzwfrI
- 177
? *Gr*f sL;vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;qk
- 183
?'DyJ,if;vkyBf uo
H wfjzwfrt
I a&;,l
aqmif&Guaf &;aumfr&Sif
- 184
? *kPx
f ;l aqmifyg&ND rKd o
U q
l k
- 185
? &efppfwuúov
kd f *kPx
f ;l aqmifyg&*lbJGU - 185
? tdak vmhzyf rf;qk
- 187
? trSew
f &m;pdw"f mwfE;dI aqmfoq
l k
- 191
? ppftpd;k &udk ta&;,l&ef Edb
k ,fq&k iS rf sm;
vkjH cKaH &;aumifpo
D Ykd pmydYk
- 193
? a':atmifqef;pkMunf pmayvuf&mrsm; - 195
? tuGuq
f ifxyfrH zrf;qD;cH&rI
- 206
? tJet
f ,fv'f D txl;aMunmcsuf
- 212
? umhwu
f rfbJvf xyfraH wGq
U Hk
- 216
? twkta,mifa&G;aumufyGJ
- 217
? a':atmifqef;pkMunfvw
G Nf yD
- 218
? vGwaf jrmufNy;D umv Edik if aH &;
aqmif&u
G cf surf sm;
- 222
? (64) ESpaf jrmuf tmZmenfaeY
- 235
? a':atmifqef;pkMunf tdwzf Giahf y;pm - 239
? a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ rderYf mS csuf
- 242
? a':atmifqef;pkMunf 'dik ,
f m&D
- 251
? a':atmifqef;pkMunf bJu
GU Asmrsm;
- 266
? International Award, Honors
& Appointments (1990- 2010)
- 285

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

7

xkwaf 0ol\trSm
rMumrDu a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ (66) ESpaf jrmufarG;aeY tcrf;t
em;wckü usaemft
h m; pma&;q&moef;0if;vIid u
f vlxak cgif;aqmif a':
atmifqef;pkMunfb0yk&H yd rf sm;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDBuKd ;yrf;rIrsm;tm; rSww
f rf;
wifjyKpx
k m;onfh ]'Drdku a&pDrdcifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf} pmtkyu
f kd
xkwaf 0ay;yg&ef yefMum;vmonft
h wGuf rqdik ;f rwGbJ 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;
ompGmjzifh xkwaf 0ay;vdu
k yf gonf/
þpmtkyt
f m; xkwaf 0&onfh t"dutaMumif;t&if;rSm a':atmif
qef;pkMunf\ q,fpEk pS f (2) ckausmMf um 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;ESihf trsK;d om;vGwf
ajrmufa&;twGuf OD;aqmifO;D &Gujf yKr?I cdik rf mNrJjraH om oEéd|mef&rdS EI iS hf EIid ;f
wkz,
G rf &Sdaom ud,
k u
f sK;d pGeYv
f w
T rf Irsm;onf usaemfwt
Ydk wGuf vrf;jyMu,f
ozG,?f rD;½I;wefaqmifozG,f rm;rm;rwfrwfjzpfwnfaeonf[k xdxd
&S&S cHpm;&íjzpfygonf/ olr\ av;pm;*kP,
f zl ,
G &f m jrifhjrwfr?I *kPo
f u
d m©
&Spd mG wdu
k fy0JG ifrI? ajymifajrmufaomol&owÅEd iS hf ud,
k fusK;d riJah om pGeYv
f Twf
tepfemcHrw
I u
Ykd vnf; usaemfwq
Ykd ifEaTJ eaom w&m;aomwdu
k yf JGukd qk;H
cef;wdik q
f ufvufqifE&TJ eftwGuf vdt
k yfaeonfph w
d "f mwfcGet
f m;rsm;udk
wd;k yGm;aponft
h wGuaf Mumifv
h nf;jzpfygonf/
þpmtkyw
f ae&mü q&moef;0if;vIid af &;om;ouJo
h yYkd if a':atmif
qef;pkMunfonf ]rd;k usa&Tu,
kd }f r[kwyf g/ vGwv
f yfa&;zcif trsK;d om;
acgi;f aqmifBu;D Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;\ orD;jzpfaomfvnf; vlxak cgi;f aqmif
tjzpfoYkd jynfov
l x
l u
k vG,v
f ifw
h ulae&may;cJjh cif;r[kwyf g? (23)
ESpMf um Edik if aH &;c&D;Murf;wGif trsK;d rsK;d tzkzH Hk tprf;oyfc?H txkqpfc&H Ny;D rS
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d aygi;f pkjH ynfow
l &yfv;Hk \ wckwnf;aom arQmv
f ifch suf
tvif;a&mifjzpfonfh trsK;d om;jyefvnf&ifMum;apha&;udk azmfaqmifay;
Edik rf nfh acwfopfjrefrmhordik ;f wGif vlxak xmufcrH t
I &Sq
d ;Hk aom Edik if jH yK
acgi;f aqmif? Edik if w
H ume,fy,fwGif av;pm;todtrSwjf yKc&H aom Edik if H
a&;okcrdeftqifo
h kdY a&muf&v
Sd moljzpfygonf/ wdik f;&if;om;wOD;taejzifh

8

oef;0if;vIi
d f

vnf; a':atmifqef;pkMunfuo
hJ Ykd yk*Kd¾ vw
f OD;tm; acgif;aqmiftjzpf ydik f
qdik &f jcif;\wefz;kd udv
k nf; tav;teuf*P
k ,
f rl yd gonf/
tESpf (35) ausmMf um u&iftrsK;d om;tpnf;t½k;H wGif u&ifah wmf
vSeaf &;&nfreS ;f csurf sm; atmifjrifjynfh0apa&;twGuf usa&muf&mtcef;
u@rS OD;aqG;qHjrnfw
h m0ef,lcho
J lwOD;taejzifh wef;wla&;ESihf ud,
k yf kid fjy
Xmef;cGiu
fh dk azmfaqmifEkid rf nfh jynfaxmifpkppfppfxal xmifa&;onf usaemf
\ tEdrÅ &nfreS ;f csujf zpfygonf/ þ&nfreS ;f csujf ynf0h apa&;twGuf wck
wnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm jynfwiG ;f ppfudk tjrefq;kH &yfpJawGq
Y akH qG;aEG;tajz
&Smonfeh nf;jzifh trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;udk wnfaqmufjcif;jzpfonf
[k tckid t
f rm,kMH unfygonf/ ,if;uJhokYd jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;? awGU qkaH qG;
aEG;a&;? trsK;d om;jyefvnf&ifMum;apha&;ESihf ppfreS af om jynfaxmifpk ppf
ppfuw
dk nfaqmufa&;wnf;[laom wdkif;jyK? jynfjyKvkyfief;pOf tqifq
h ifh
wGif vlxkacgi;f aqmifa':atmifqef;pkMunfonf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;
pkjH ynfov
l x
l Mk u;D w&yfv;Hk tm; vrf;jyMu,fozG,f OD;aqmif vrf;jyrIjzifh
Nidrf;csrf;aom? wef;wlí om,m0ajymaom vlrsKd;aygif;pkrH Dw
S if;aexdkirf nfh
vlt
U zJt
GU pnf;w&yfuk d wnfaqmufEkid rf nf[al om,kMH unfrIjzifh þpmtkyf
udk xkwfa0ygonf/
þpmtkyfonf pmzwfot
l m; wpkHw&maomtusK;d aus;Zl;udk ay;pGr;f
Edik cf yhJ gu þpmtkyu
f kd a&;om;jyKpck ahJ om q&moef;0if;vIid Ef iS hf xkwaf 0cJh
aom usaemfwo
Ykd nf vGepf mG rSyif 0rf;omMunfE;l aerdrnfrmS rvJ{G uef[k
½d;k om;pGm ,kMH unfaerdygonf/
xkwfa0ol
BMC apmaerif;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

9

trSmpm
Edik if aH wmfvyk Mf urH w
I &m;cH *VKeOf ;D apm\ aemufq;kH aeYrsm;? tESpcf sKyf
jrefrmhordik ;f tbd"ge?f Edik if OhH aoQmifrif;{u&mZfrsm;? e,fcsq
JU efu
Y siaf &; rsK;d
csppf mqdq
k &mMu;D ocifu,
kd af wmfridI ;f ? trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmifMu;D Adv
k cf sKyf
atmifqef;txkyw
Ü pd Å onfph mtkyfrsK;d pHkudk a&;om;jyKpck haJ om q&moef;0if;
vdiI u
f o
Jh Ykd xif&mS ;onfEh ikd if aH &;tusO;f om;a[mif; pma&;q&mwpfO;D a&;
om;jyKpak om 'Dru
kd a&pDrcd ifMu;D a':atmifqef;pkMunf pmtkyüf trSmpm
a&;om;cGi&fh &Sdonft
h wGuf usaemft
h aejzifh twdik ;f rod 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om
*kP,
f al erdygonf/
1991 ckepS t
f wGuf urÇmjh ird ;f csr;f a&;Edb
k ,fq&k &Scd aJh om jrefrmh'rD kd u
a&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pkMunfonf Adv
k cf sKyo
f rD;yDyD ppftPm&Sif
pepfukd z,f&mS ;í jrefrmEdik if v
H t
Ul cGit
hf a&;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pD&&Sad &;twGuf
tyifyrf;tqif;&Jcu
H m rdru
d ,
kd af &;ud,
k w
f mrsm;udk ab;csw
d í
f owÅ&d &dS dS
wdu
k yf 0JG ifaeoljzpfonf/ olonf jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDta&;twGuf wdu
k fy0JG if
aeaom omrefEikd if aH &;acgif;aqmifwpfO;D r[kwaf y/ olUzcif Adv
k cf sKyf
atmifqef;uJo
h Ykd acgif;aqmifrt
I &nftaoG;ESihf odraf rGx
U ufjrufí jref
rmEdik fi&H dS wkid f;&if;om;vlrsK;d pktm;vH;k ESihf urÇmjh ynforl sm;uyg ,HMk unf av;
pm;wefz;kd xm;jcif;cH&aom21 &mpk\ tausmaf Z,s trsK;d orD; Edik if aH &;
acgif;aqmifjzpfayonf/
odu
Yk vdk xif&mS ;aom vlxak cgi;f aqmif a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ t
aMumif;udk a&;om;xm;onfh pma&;q&moef;0if;vIid pf mtkyw
f Gif trSmpm
a&;om;cGif&h &Sjd cif;onf usaemf\ Edik if aH &;b0jzwfoef;rIrsm;ü xl;jcm;
onfh rSww
f idk fwpfct
k jzpf rSw,
f lcyhJ gonf/ tvGev
f nf; 0rf;ajrmufMunfE;l
rdygonf/
,aeY jrefrmEdik if \
H yuwdtajctaersm;onf vGwv
f yfa&;ESit
hf wl
pwifayguzf mG ;vmcJo
h nfh jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D onf qufvufawmufavmif
aeqJjzpfjy;D ? qufvufí us,jf yefo
Y Gm;Edik o
f nft
h EÅ&m,f&adS ecsed üf trsK;d

10

oef;0if;vIi
d f

om;&ifMum;apha&;udk Edik if aH &;enf;vrf;jzifh jird ;f csr;f pGm jynfov
l x
l Ek iS hf t
wl OD;aqmifajz&Si;f aeaom a':atmifqef;pkMunfuo
hJ kU d ½d;k om; wnfMunf
ajzmifrh wfonfh acgif;aqmifwOD;taMumif;udk tcsed o
f ift
h cgoifh pmtkyf
tjzpf a&;om;jyKpx
k w
k af 0Edik jf cif;onf aeESiv
hf ? a&TEiS hf jryrm tvGew
f &m
usufoa&r*Fvmw&m;ESihf jynfhpHkí uRefawmfwdkUtm;vHk;twGuf *kP,
f l
zG,&f m udpw
ö &yfvnf; jzpfayonf/
Oya'pd;k rdk;rIuif;rJjh y;D tkycf sKyo
f l ppftmPm&Sit
f qufquf\ rw&m;
zdEydS rf ?I csKycf s,t
f Edik u
f sirhf rI sm;aMumifh vlt
U cGit
hf a&;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDta&;
qH;k ½I;H aysmufu,
G u
f m u@aygi;f pHk acwfaemufusí qif;&JwGi;f epfae&
onfh jrefrmEdik if u
H kd w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k jy;D acwfrzD NUHG zKd ;wd;k wufonf?h w&m;
rQwrI&o
dS nfh jird ;f csr;f aom Edik if aH wmfopfBu;D udk wnfaqmufvMkd uaom
us&mtcef;u@toD;oD;rS rsK;d qufopfvil ,frsm;tm;vH;k twGuf a&m
uReaf wmfwt
Ykd m;vH;k twGuyf g tav;xm;zwf½&I rnfh pmtkyaf umif; wpf
tkyjf zpfaMumif; rdwq
f ufa&;om;ay;vdu
k yf gonf/

jird ;f csr;f aysm&f TiEf ikd Mf uygap/
OD;Adv
k af omif; (OuUXú )
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzGcJU sKyf
(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

11

rdcif\ aESmifBudK;udk ajzygtHh

rdcif\aESmifBuKd ;wdu
Yk kd ajzygthH
onf;pGmaomtemudk ukpm;ygthH
orD;\vHv
Yk 0d&,
d jzifh
emvefxyl gaptH…
h

orD;\ pdwu
f ;l wdo
Yk nf
tu,ftjzpfodkY
a&mufaomtcsed w
f iG f
toifwYo
dk nfvnf;
aysmjf rL;Mu&rnf…

arG;aus;Zl;udkrodwwfaom
xdkow
l dkYtm;
odem;vnfatmif
qGJaqmifEikd pf Gr;f udk
orD;tm; ay;ygav…

tjcm; tjcm;aomolwdkY\
½Iwcf sjcif;
uJ&h jJh cif;
rke;f wD;&G&hH mS jcif;
emrnfzsujf cif;wdu
hk kd
awG&U tHah omab;&efwu
Ykd kd orD;tvsOf;*&krjyk
orD; xDrnfr[kw.f ..
rdcifxrH S ]'griS go
h rD;}[laom
h u
H o
kd m awmifw
h yg\ …
wb0wGif usL;&ifo
wcgomao&onfjzpfí
tb,fenf;ESihf ao&onfjzpfap avmuwGif rdcif\ aus;Zl;udk
orD;ü rxl;jcm;… todwwfqHk;orD;jzpf&ygvdk\
atmifqef;pkMunf

12

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tcef; (1)
'Dru
kd a&pD rdcifBuD;

,ae@jrefrmEdkifiHawmfwGif ppftm%m&Siftpdk;&tm;jzKwfcsI 'Drdk
ua&pD EdkifiHawmfopf=uD;wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf jynfolvlx=k uD;tm;
OD;aqmifOD;&Gujf yKum wdkufyJq
G ifEa$J eolrsm;wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf vlxak xmufcHr_/ ,k=H unfr_ESifh =unfnKdav;pm;r_ trsm;qkH;&&Sad e
aom acgi;f aqmifwOD;jzpfonf? wenf;qd&k aomf “'Dru
kd a&pDawmfveS f
a&;=uD;.rdcif=uD;”jzpfonfudk rnfolrS jiif;r&ay?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf vuf&Sdppftm%m&Siftpdk;&. ppftm
%m&Sifpepfqk;d udk z,f&Sm;aeol oufoufr#omr[kwb
f J 'Dru
dk a&pD&&Sd
a&;twGuf ol@b0udk tyifyef;tqif;&JcjH yD; txD;usefb0udk aysmaf ysmf
=uD;ay;qyfum =uHŒ=uHŒcHZGJowWt
d jynfht0jzifh wdkuyf 0GJ ifaeaom vlxk
acgi;f aqmifvnf;jzpfonf? Ttcsufuyif ol. trGefjrwfqH;k aom
*k%fj'yfjzpfonf?
xdk@a=umifha':atmifqef;pk=unfonf jrefrmEdkifiHwEdkifiHwnf;ESifh
omoufqidk fonfh yk*~Kdvw
f OD;r# r[kwfouJo
h dk@ a':atmifqef;pk=unf
ESifh ppftm%m&SifyÉdyuQonf jrefrmEdik fi.
H jynfwGif;a&;udpP oufouf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

13

r#omvnf; r[kwfonfrmS xif&Sm;ayonf? ppftpd;k &onf 1990 a&G;
aumufyGJudk ypfy,f&ef vkyaf qmifcGifhr&Sday? jrefrmjynfolvlxkonf
jyD;cJhaom 1990 a&G;aumufyGJY olwk@d . tajccHEdkifiHom; &ydkifcGifhudk
tokH;jyKvsuf olwdk@=udKufESpfoufonfh acgif;aqmifudk olw@dk udk,pf m;
Edkiif Hawmfut
dk kyfcsKyf&ef tcGifhtm%mtyfESif;cJh=ujyD;jzpf&m/ 1990 a&G;
aumufyGJ&v'fukd ppftpdk;&xifovdk y,fzsufydkifcGifhr&Sdacs? vlxYk om
tcGifhta&; tjynfht0&Sdayonf?
‚if;jyif jrefrmEdkiif Honf tmqD,t
H zG@J 0ifEikd if HwEdkiif jH zpfojzifh “tm
qD,H vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif” wGifvnf; tzGJ@0ifjzpfonf?
xd@k a=umifh tmqD,Ha'owGif; vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;udk umuG,&f ef
ESifh jr‡ifhwif&ef tmqD,HtzGJ@0ifEidk fiHjzpfonfh jrefrmEdkifiHYvnf; wm0ef
&So
d nf? od@k aomf vl@tcGit
fh a&;qkid &f m tajccH&ydik cf iG rfh sm;wGif ta&;=u;D
onfh vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdka&;om;jzef@csdcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm toif;tyif;
zGJ@pnf;v_yf&Sm;EdkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm rdrdESpfoufonfh EdkifiHa&;ygwDtm;
axmufcHciG fh/ rdrdESpfoufonfh Edik fiHa&;acgif;aqmiftm; udk,fpm;vS,f
tjzpf a&G;cs,cf ef@yidk fcGirfh sm;udk ydwyf ifwm;jrpfxm;aom jrefrmEdik if t
H m;
tmqD,Hv@l tcGifhta&;aumfr&SifwGif tzG@J 0iftjzpf vufrcHoif[
h k a'
owGif; vl@tcGifhta&;tzGJ@rsm;u a0zefaxmufjyvsuf&do
S nf?
,ae@ jrefrmEdik fiHwiG f a':atmifqef;pk=unftygt0if rdrd,H=k unf
csuftwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDa&;wufºuGpGm v_y&f Sm;aqmif&Gufaeolrsm;udk zd
ESdyI
f vl@tcGiht
f a&;rsm; csK;d azmufusL;vGefaeaom ppftpd;k &tm; tm
qD,H vl@tcGifha&;aumfr&Sit
f zGJ@=uD;rS xkwfy,foifha=umif; tmqD,H
tzGJ@=uD;tm; a'owGif;vl@tcGifhta&;aygif;pkHu jyif;xefpGm wdkufweG f;
vsuf&Sdaeonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. ±kd;om;ajzmifhrwfrt
_ m; ppfAkv
d fcsKyfrsm;u
aumufuspfpOf;vJpGmwdkufcdkufav/ ppftkyfpktm; vlxku atmhESvkH;
emavjzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. ud,
k fusK;d pGe@f tepfemcHr_ukd ppf
Adkvcf sKyrf sm;u apmfum;±_wfcsv#if ppftyk pf u
k kd vlxu
k qef@usiaf vjzpf

14

oef;0if;vIi
d f

rnf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. EdkifiHa&;tcef;u¾udk arS;rSdeaf tmif zdEdyS f
av olr.Edik fiaH &;acgi;f aqmifry_ H&k yd u
f ydI
k awmufajymifjrifrh m;av jzpf
onf? xdk@jyif Edik fiaH &;enf;t&ajz&Sif;&ef awG@qakH qG;aEG;a&; olr. urf;
vSrf;csut
f m; ppftyk pf kuausmcdki;f av ppftm%m&Siw
f k@d tzdk@ tem*wf
rJhavjzpfrnfrmS rvGJ{uefyif?
xdk@jyif ppftpdk;&tvdkus ppftm%mwnfjrJa&;twGuf wzuf
owfa&;qGx
J m;aom 2008 zG@J pnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'wGif trsK;d orD;rsm;udk
y"geusonfh acgi;f aqmifra_ e&mrsm; &,lciG rfh &Sdatmif jyÏmef;[ef@wm;
xm;onfuakd wG@&onf? Tvky&f yfrmS a':atmifqef;pk=unfuo
kd mru
jrefrmtrsK;d orD;tm;vk;H udyk g cGjJ cm;ESrd cf svu
kd jf cif;yifjzpfonf? pifppf t
rsK;d orD;rsm;tm; rl0g'a&;&m csrSw&f mwGif yg0ifciG hrf &atmif ydwyf if [ef@
wm;aeolrsm;rSm ya'o&mZftawG;tac:a[mif;vufcHol vuf&dS ppf
tm%m&Sifrsm;yifjzpfonf?
trsK;d orD;rsm;tay: vdifcGJjcm;zdEdyS fr_rsm;yaysmufa&;qdkif&m EdkifiH
wumoabmwlncD suu
f kd Edik if aH ygif; (130) .axmufcrH j_ zifh ukvor*~
taxGaxGnDvmcHqkH;jzwfcsuf (34§180) t& 1979 'DZifbmv 18
&ufae@wGif twnfjyKxm;jy;D jzpfonf? ,if;oabmwlncD sufudk jrefrm
EdkifiHuvnf; vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;jyD;jzpfI rvJGraoGvdkufemusifhokH;&
rnfw
h m0ef&aSd yonf? ygvrD efvw
$ fawmfrsm;or*~ (IPU) . okawoejyK
csuft& EdkifiHwumygvDrefv$wfawmfrsm;wGif trsKd;orD;v$wfawmf
udk,pf m;vS,f 8017 a,muf&djS yD;/ trsKd;om;v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f
36006 OD;&Sdaoma=umifh ygvDrefvw
$ af wmfrsm;wGif trsKd;orD; ud,
k pf m;
jyKcGifh (18 '\r2 ) &mcdkiEf _ef; &Sdonf? 'Drdkua&pDpepfusifhokH;aomEdkifiH
aygif; 189 Edik if t
H euf Edik if aH ygif; 30 wGif trsK;d orD;Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmif
rsm; OD;aqmifvsuf&o
Sd nfudk awG@&onf? Tordik f;a&pD;a=umif;udk Adv
k f
oef;a&$OD;aqmifonfh ppftkyfpku qef@usifaeonfrSm tvGefrdkufrJ&m
a&mufayonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf rdk;usa&$uk,
d t
f rsKd;orD;r[kwfay? &Spf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

15

q,fh&Spfjynfol@'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfykH=uD;rS vlxkuwifajr‡mufvdkuf
aom vlxkacgif;aqmifjzpfonf? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pkH av;pm;
todtrSwjf yKxm;aom jynfolw&yfv;kH . vlxkacgi;f aqmifvnf;jzpf
onf?
jyD;cJah om 1990 jynfEh pS /f arv 27 &ufae@wiG f usif;ycJah om
a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudk jyefvnfokH;oyf=unfhv#if jynfolvlxu
k a':
atmifqef;pk=unf OD;aqmifz@JG pnf;xm;onfh NLD ygwD v$waf wmfu,
kd f
pm;vS,rf sm;tm; wcJeuf qENay;cJjh cif;rSm wenf;tm;jzifh jynfol@uk,
d f
pm; wdkif;jynfta&;t&mrsm;udk pDrHtkyfcsKyfEdik f&ef tcGifhtm%m
(Authorization or Mandate) v$Jtyfvdkufjcif;yifjzpfonf?
xdk@jyif a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkaygif;pkH.
axmufcrH _ukd &&Sx
d m;±krH #ru Edik if Hwum xdyw
f ef;acgif;aqmif=u;D rsm;.
,k=H unftm;xm;r_udkyg&&Sdonfh EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonf? xdk
tcsuu
f dk ppftkypf u
k rodusKd;u|jH yKI rsuu
f ,
G fjyK&ef=udK;pm;ygu jrefrm
EdkifiHonf rnfonfhtcgrS wnfjidrfat;csrf;I wdk;wufzG@HjzdK;r_udk &&SEd dkif
rnfr[kwaf y?
od@k jzpf&m ppftkypf o
k nf Om%ftar#mt
f jrif=uD;rm;I &ifu
h suaf om
EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonfh a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; npfenf;
rsK;d pko
H ;kH um jrefrmEdik fijH zpfpOfxrJ S 0dik ;f y,fxw
k &f eftm;xkwjf cif;rSm Om%f
tajr‡mftjrifenf;yg;I todOm%fEkHjcmr_[kyif qdk&ayrnf?
ppftkyfpk tuGufususpDrHcaJh om 2010 a&G;aumufyGJ. t"du
ypfrSwfonf a':atmifqef;pk=unf jzpfaeonfudk xif&Sm;pGm awG@jrif
ae&onf? 1990 a&G;aumufyJ&G v'fEiS fh a':atmifqef;pk=unf. tcef;
u¾udk 2010 a&G;aumufyt
GJ opfjzifh acszsu&f efjzpfaeayonf? xdkok@d
rlv&nf&G,fcsuu
f dk,fYu r±dk;om;onfhtavsmuf ppftpdk;&. 2008
em*pfzGJ@pnf;ykEH Sifh EdkifiHa&;ygwrD sm; rSwfyHw
k ifOya'wdk@onf 'Drku
d a&pD
qef@usifa&;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unfqef@usifa&;pDrHcsuf jzpfaea=umif;
odomvSayonf? xdk@a=umifh a&G;aumufyGJrusif;yrDuyif 2010 a&G;

16

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aumufyGJonf qdwfacgif;udkcsdwfI acG;om;a&mif;rnfh twkta,mif
a&G;aumufyGJ[k jynfwGif;jynfy Edik fiHa&;tuJcwform;rsm;/ 'Drku
d a&pD
tiftm;pkrsm;u tuJjzwfxm;=uonf? ‚if;wdk@ awG;xifxm;onfht
wdkif;yif 2010 jynfhESp/f Edk0ifbm 7 &ufae@wGif usif;yjyD;pDoGm;onfh
a&G;aumufyo
GJ nf rJvdrrf cJ ;kd r_rsm;/ rJrormr_rsm;/ twif;t"rR tEdkiu
f sihf
jcrd ;f ajcmufxnfx
h m;onf=h udKwifrJrsm;jzifh ajymifusus vdrfvnf tEdkif
,loGm;r_rSm ,kdolr&Suf jrifol&SufyrmjzpfcJh&onfrdk@ rnfolurS a&G;
aumufy&GJ v'fudk todtrSwrf jyKcJhacs? odk@aomf ppftkypf konf rnfol@
udkr# *±krpdu
k fbJ twkta,mifa&G;aumufyJjG zifh tpd;k &zG@J yguvnf; jref
rmhEkid fiHa&;ordik f;onf qufvuftarSmifxu
k sum jynfolvlxk w&yf
vkH; 'kuQyifv,fa0aernfrSm rvGJ{uefyifjzpfonf?
xdk@a=umifhvnf; jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;u ppftpdk;&. twkt
a,mifa&G;aumufyJ&G v'fESifh r=umrD tpd;k &zGJ@rnfhowif;xuf Ed0k ifbm
v (13) &ufae@u jyefvnfvw
G af jrmufvmaom a':atmifqef;pk=unf
vGwfajrmufr_owif;u jynfwGif;jynfy urBmhxdyfwef;owif;tjzpf
v$rf;rdk;aeonfrSm odomvSayonf?
xd@k a=umifh vlx&k ifxt
J onf;xJY&Sad eaom a':atmifqef;pk=unf
udk z,f&Sm;ypf&ef etzppftpd;k &. qd;k npfaomt=urH mS atmifjrifz,
G f
r&Sday? ta=umif;rSm vlxktay: a':atmifqef;pk=unfxm;&Sdonfh ap
wemrsKd; ppfAkv
d fcsKyfrsm;wGif wa&G;om;r#r&Sdojzifh vuf&Sdppftpdk;&udk
jynfow
l dkif; atmhESvkH;emaeayonfrSm rnfolrSjiif;r&ay?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu vlxkay:xm;&Sdonfhapwemudk wcgu
Todk@ zGifh[cJhzl;onf“jynfov
l x
l ktwGuf usrtvdck sifqkH;uawmh ppfrSefwhJ vGwfvyf
cGifhatmufrSm vkHvkHjcKHjcKHae&zdk@eJ@ ppfrSefwJhvHjk cKHr_atmufrSm vGwfvGwf
vyfvyf aexdik fEdkifzdk@ygy?J ta=umufw&m;=uD;pdk;r_ taESmiftzGJ@awGudk
z,f&mS ;Edik w
f hv
J lxt
k jzpf usrjrifawG@vydk gw,f? vGwv
f yfwhv
J lom;awG
tjzpf jrefrmjynfoal wG acgi;f armh&ifaumhaeEdik w
f mudk usrjrifawG@vdyk g

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

17

w,f? usrwdk@tm;vkH;twGuf ydkjyD;om,mcsrf;ajr@wJh/ ydkjyD;vkHjcKHr&_ SdwJh
vl@abmifwckudk pn;fpnf;vkH;vkH; aysmfaysmf&i$ f&$if =udK;yrf;wnfaqmuf
ae=uwmudk usrjrifawG@vdkygw,f”
Edik if aH &;jy\emudk Edik if aH &;enf;t&ajz&Si;f &ef a':atmifqef;pk
=unfu wpdkufrwfrwf arwWm&yfcHcJhaomfvnf; ppftkyfpkonf ol&J
abma=umifpmG tjrOJ yuQmjyKcho
J nf? ppftpdk;&onf vl@tcGit
fh a&; csKd;
azmufr_rsm;/ tm%mtvGJokH;pGJr_rsm;/ rdrdESifh rdrdaqGrsKd;aumif;pm;a&;
twGuf wdkif;jynfo,HZmwESifh b¾maiGa=u;ajrmufrsm;pGmudk cdk;,l
xm;r_rsm;ESifh qufwu
dk frSm;cJhonfh trSm;rsm;tay: tjypfay; ta&;,l
cH&rnfudk ta=umuf=uD; a=umufaeayonf? ta=umufw&m;onf
rvkjH cKHonfph dw"f gwaf =umifjh zpfymG ;cJ&h m ,if;wd@k onf bmwckrS wdik f;jynf
ESifh vlrsKd;twGuf aumif;r_rvkyfcJhonfhtwGuf rdru
d ,
dk fusifhw&m;udk
rdr.
d vdyjf ymck±H ;Hk wGif tppftaq;rcH0b
hH J tjrJvyd jf ymrvkjH zpfum vlxk
. jyefvnfwek @f jyefta&;,lcH&rnfukd ta=umuf=uD; a=umufaejcif;yif
jzpfonf[k qdk&ayrnf?
od@k uvdk ppftpd;k &tm; vlxku atmhEv
S ;Hk emoavmuf a':atmif
qef;pk=unftm; jynfolw&yfvkH;u ,kH=unfav;pm;um tm;udk;ae
onfrmS olr. Om%ftajr‡mt
f jrif=u;D rm;r_/ pdwf"gwjf rifhrm;r_/ wdik ;f jynf
ESiv
fh lrsKd;tay: rdrdu,
dk fusKd;pGef@tepfemcHr_rsm;a=umifhyifjzpfonf?
xdk@a=umifh Adv
k rf LS ;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm. orD;jzpfol a'guw
f mvS
ausmaf Zmu a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS fh ywfoufI tifwmAsL;wckwGi-f
“a':atmifqef;pk=unfrSm tm;aumif;csuf awmfawmfrsm;rsm;
awG@&ygw,f/ yxrtcsuu
f jrefrmEdkiif H jynfow
l &yfv;kH u tvGeaf v;
pm; cspcf if=unfnKd wJh jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;ol&aJ umif;=uD; Adv
k fcsKyfatmif
qef;&J@orD;tjzpf zcif&ŒJ =oZmt&Sed u
f kd &&Sv
d u
kd Ef ikd rf y_ gy?J
'kwd,tcsufu a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk,fwdkifuvnf; zcifeJ@
±kycf si;f wln±D rH k u pdw"f mwftaeeJ@vnf; tawmfwn
l w
D mudk awG@&ygw,f?
jynfolawG&JŒvGwaf jrmufr/_ csrf;omºuG,f0r_awGtwGuf toufukyd if

18

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ay;&/ ay;& ay;qyfz@dk tqifoif&h djS y;D yifyef;qif;&J'u
k aQ wGukv
d nf; cHEidk f
&nf&drS _ygyJ?/ ol@&JŒpGe@f v$wfr_awGu 'gawGudk oufaojyaeygw,f?
wwd,tcsufu a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JΠEdkifiHa&;vkyf[ef
awGuk=d unf&h if zcifAv
dk fcsKyfvkyd J EdkifiaH &;tuif;yg;r_/ oabmxm;=uD;r_
pwmawGukd awG@&wJhtjyif jrefrmjynfoal wGuo
kd mru vlrsK;d pkawGukyd g
pnf;±kH;odrf;oGif;Edkifwmudk awG@&ygw,f?
'ga=umifhyJ a':atmifqef;pk=unftaeeJ@ jrefrmEdkifiH&JŒtem*wf
Edik fiHa&;avmurSm tvGefta&;=uD;wJh acgi;f aqmifr_tcef;u yg0ifEkid f
r,fqkw
d m usr ,kH=unfygw,f?
a':atmifqef;pk=unftaeeJ@ wjcm;Edik if aH &;orm;awG &rxm;wJh/
&zd@k vnf;rjzpfEkid fwJh Edik fiw
H umaxmufcHr_udk us,fus,f0ef;0ef;&&Sdxm;
r_uvnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unfuk,
d pf m;jyKwJh jrefrmEdik if u
H jynforl sm;
twGuf tiftm;w&yfygyJ?
tcsKyfajym&&ifawmh ppftm%m&Sifpepfqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJ odk@
r[kwf (a':atmifqef;pk=unfpum;eJ@ajym&&if) jrefrmEdik fi&H ŒJ 'kw,
d
trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&; v_yf&Sm;r_wdkuyf GJ=uD;&JŒacgif;aqmif rD;&_;wef
aqmiftjzpf a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk jrefrmjynfolawG&&Sdxm;jyD; 'D
twGuf jrefrmjynfolawG tvGefuHaumif;w,fvdk@ ajymEdkifygw,f?/
jynfwiG ;f jynfyaxmufcrH e_ @J a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m jrefrmjynfol
awGukd qif;&Jjcif;uif;a0;wJ/h csr;f omºu,
G f0wJEh idk if aH wmfopf=uD;udk wnf
aqmufEdkifvdrhrf ,fvdk@ ar#mfvifhrdygw,f&Sif”[k ajym=um;cJhonf?
ÙÙÙ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

19

brsKd;bd;k wl Adv
k cf sKyforD;

a':atmifqef;pkMunf rdom;pk

odk@uvdk vlxkw&yfv;kH . =unfndKav;pm;r_ESifh tm;udk;tm;xm;
jyKjcif;cH&aom a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd jrefrmhvw
G fvyfa&;Adou
k mESifh
wyfrawmfzcif=uD; Adv
k fcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unfwdk@rS 1945 ckEpS f
ZGev
f 19 &ufae@eeH uf 3; 35 em&DwGif &efuek jf rKd @Y zGm;jrifco
hJ nf? arG;csi;f
4 OD;teuf wwd,ajrmufjzpfjyD; zcifAv
kd cf sKyfatmifqef;vkyf=ucH &H pOfu
(2) ESpf orD;t&G,fom &Sdao;onf?
1949 ckEpS rf S 1957 ckEpS ftxd &efuek fjrKd @pde@f z&ef@pu
f GeAf ifah usmif;wGif
ynmoif=um;cJhonf? 1950 ckESprf S 1960 jynfEh pS t
f xd &efuek jf rdKŒt*F
vdyrf ufo'pfueG Af ifah usmif; (,ck txu 1 '*k)H wGif qufvufoif=um;
cJhonf?
1960jynfhEpS fwGif rdcifjzpfoal ':cif=unf tdEd,
N Edkifiq
H idk f&m jrefrm
EdkifiHot
H rwf=uD;tjzpf EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfOD;Ek. cef@tyfjcif;cH&ojzifh
rdcifEiS fhtwl tdEd,
N EdkifiH e,l;a'vDjrdKŒodk@ vdkufygco
Jh nf? tdEd,
N EdkifiHwGif
a,±_ESifhar&DueG fAifhausmif; (Convent of Jesus and Mary) ESifh av'D&S,f&D
&rfaumvdyf (Lady Shri Ram College) wdk@Y qufvufynmoif= um;

20

oef;0if;vIi
d f

onf?
e,l;a'vDjrdKŒod@k rdcifEiS fhtwla&muf&pSd Ofu b0tpdwftydkif;tcsKdŒ
udk bdvyfjyefoef;[k vlord sm;aom 'dk&moef;at;u “a=umuf&ŒGH jcif;rS
vGwu
f if;a&;” trnf&dS jrefrmbmomjzifh a&;om;xm;aompmtkyw
f iG f
Tod@k a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf?
“e,l;a'vDjrdKŒodk@ rdcifESifh twl
a&mufvmpOf u atmif qef ;pk = unf
onf uspfqHjrD; wkwfwkwf&Snf&Snf=uD;
rsm;ESihf 15 ESpt
f &G,f uav;rav;jzpfyg
onf? a,±_ESifh ar&DuGefAifhausmif;ESifh
av'D&,
S f&D&rfaumvdyfwdk@Y qufvuf
ynmoifygonf? xdktcsdefrSpI olr.
tdENd,rdwfaqG todkif;t0ef;rSm us,fjyef@vmygonf? r[wWr*ENDESifh
*s0g[mvmae±l;wd@k . wdki;f jynfukd pl;prf;avhvmem;vnfEkid &f ef atmif
qef;pk=unftzdk@ tcGifhaumif;jzpfygonf? atmifqef;pk=unf. zcif
vnf; Twdik f;jynfuakd &mufz;l jyD; ae±l;ESiafh wG@qaHk qG;aEG;um &if;ESD;cifrif
aom em;vnfr_ &&SdcJhygonf? atmifqef;pk=unf.rdcif oHtrwf=uD;
cef@tyfjcif;cH&csdefu ae±l;onf 0ef=uD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifqJ
jzpfygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf tawG@t=uKHA[kokw us,jf yef@ap&ef rdcifa':
cif=unfppD Ofay;aomudprP sm;teuf atuDAidk f;em;ac: *syefyef;tvSjyif
enf;/ tEkynmbmom&yfrsm;avhvmjcif;ESifh jrif;pD;oifjcif;wdk@yg0if
onf? tdE,
Nd Edik if HorRw=uD;. ud,
k &f aH wmfwyfzJ@G avhusi&hf m jrif;pD;uGi;f
Y tdE,
Nd t&m&S=d uD;rsm;. om;orD;rsm;/ Edik if w
H umoHwrefrsm;. om;
orD;rsm;ESihf yef'pfae±l;.ajr; tif'&D m*END. om;jzpfol qefa*s;*ENw
D k@d EiS hf
atmifqef;pk=unf awG@qakH vh&ydS gonf? trSwf 24 tuUbmvrf; (No.24
Akbar Road) &SdaetdrfwGif pEN,m;qufoif&ygonf? xdk oHtrwf ae
tdrfonf =uD;rm;I tvGefcrf;em;wifhw,faom yef;O,smOfysK;d xm;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

21

onfh jcH0if;us,f=uD;twGif; wnf&Sdygonf? tqifjh rifhqkH;tdENd, t&m
&Sd=uD;rsm;twGuf owfrSwfxm;aomtdrfrsKd;jzpfjyD; tpdk;&u jAdwdo#
vufxufuuJo
h k@d vSyaumif;rGepf mG xde;f odr;f xm;ygonf? a':cif=unf
udk txl;av;pm;aomtm;jzifh xdkaetdrfudk ay;xm;jcif;jzpfonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf txl;ESpo
f ufrufarmaom 0goemw&yfrSm
pmzwfjcif;yifjzpfonf? olr. pmtkyfpmayjrwfE;dk r_udk tm;ay;cJhaom
0ef=uD;csKyfOD;Ek. (pD;yGm;a&;t=uHay;yk*~Kdvf OD;tkef; 1931-1981) udk
atmifqef;pk=unfu tpOfav;pm; cspfcifaus;Zl;wifa=umif; r=um
c%ajymjyavh&o
Sd nf? awmifilZmwdzmG ;OD;tkef;onf &efuek w
f uUov
dk f
wGif ynmqnf;yl;I wzufrS ynmoif&if; jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
wdkufwGif owif;axmuftjzpfvkyfudkifcJhaom owif;pmq&mwOD;
vnf;jzpfonf? olonf 1934 ckEpS w
f iG f 0dZm… bG@J &&Sjd yD; Oya'0dZm… bG@J
twGuf &efukefwuUodkvfwiG f qufvufynmqnf;yl;&if; wuUodkvf
or*~wiG f b¾ma&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&Gucf ho
J jl zpfonf? 1936 wGif wuU
odkvo
f r*~oydwfwdkufyGJESifh=uKHcJhjyD;aemuf Oya'pmar;yGJudk rajzjzpfcJh
awmhay? wuUodkvo
f ydwt
f jyD;wGif ynmawmfoiftjzpf ta&G;cH&jyD;
t*Fvefjynf vd'fwuUodkvfwGif vlr_0efxrf;ynm&yf oif=um;cGifh&cJh
onf? xdk@aemuf jrefrmEdkifiHodk@rjyefawmhyJ ynma&;bGJ@udk qufvuf
qnf;yl;onf? t*FvefjynfwGifaexdkifpOftwGif; jrefrmEdkifirH S vGwfvyf
a&;twGuf ta&;qd&k efvma&muf=uaom Adv
k fcsKyaf tmifqef; trSL;jyK
aom udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@tm; tultnDrsm;pGmay;cJhonf?
1948 wGif jrefrmEdkiif Ho@kd jyefvnfa&muf&jdS yD; ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;
ESihf or0g,r0ef=u;D tjzpf cef@tyfjcif;cH&onf? 1949 wGif jrefrmEdik if .
H
yxrqkH; jAdwdefEkid fiHqkid f&m jrefrmEdik fiHoHtrwf=uD;tjzpf wm0efay;jcif;
cH&onf? 1955 ckEpS w
f iG f qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifpq
k kid &f m jrefrmEdik fiH txl;
tm%mukefvJ$tyfjcif;cH&aom oHtrwf=uD;tjzpf ajymif;a&$Œwm0ef
xrf;cJholjzpfonf?
OD;tke;f onf pmay0goemxkHov
l nf;jzpf&m atmifqef;pk=unftm;

22

oef;0if;vIi
d f

zwfoifhzwfxu
dk fonfh jrefrmESihf t*Fvyd fpmtkypf m&if;&Snf=uD;rsm; OD;pGm
ay;olrsm;teuf wOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? atmifqef;pk=unf. tody
nm tawG;tac:ydik f; zG@HjzdK;wdk;wufr_udk ydkIowdjyKrdjyD; pdwf0ifpm;cJh
olrmS wcsed u
f emrnf=uD;cJah om &efuek fwuUov
kd o
f r*~. td;k a0r*~Zif;
t,f'w
D mtzGJ@0ifESifh atmifqef;pk=unf.zcif Adv
k fcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh
twl wuUodkvfausmif;aezwf OD;ndKjr (1914-1985) yif jzpfonf?
aemufydkif;wGif OD;ndKjronf pme,fZif;avmuwGif tvGefemrnf=uD;
cJah om pmtkyrf sm;pGmudk a&;om;cJhonfh pma&;q&mwOD;jzpfvmygonf?
olu wjcm;olrsm;xufyifydkjyD; atmifqef;pk=unfzwf&ef t*FvdyfESifh
jrefrmpmtkyaf ygi;f rsm;pGmudk vrf;n$efay;cJo
h nf? OD;ndKjrvufaqmifay;
cJhaom tvGeftzdk;wefonfh [m;Awf*Eˆ0ifpmtkyfwGJwpkHvkH; (Harvart
Classic) udk tvGefwefzdk;xm;jyD; r=umc%zwfcJha=umif;vnf; atmif
qef;pk=unfu ,ae@wdik f owdw&&Sad eygonf? Tpmtkyfrsm;jzifh
atmifqef;pk=unfonf pmayavmuwHcg;udk zGihv
f pS Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf? atmif
qef;pk=unf. pmzwf0goemrSm tdE,
dN ra&mufcifuyif tjrpfw,
G jf yD;
jzpfygonf?
e,l;a'vDjrdKŒqifajczke;f tpGet
f zsm;&Sd ara&mfvD (Mehrauli) &yfuu
G f
wGif *±kwpdu
k x
f ed ;f odr;f xm;Edik fjcif;r&So
d nfrSm=umjyDjzpfI ysupf ;D ,d,
k iG ;f
aeonfh tmaomu0d[m&trnfwGiaf om Ak'b
< momXmewck&o
dS nf?
xdkXme jyefvnf&iS foefvmEdik fap&ef a'vD&SdAk'<bmom0ifrsm;/ txl;
ojzifh Ak'b
< mom ud;k uG,af omEdik if Hrsm;rS oHtrwfrsm;. tultnDukd
a':cif=unf&,lcJhygonf? Tvkyfaqmifr_a=umifh a'vD&Sd Ak'<bmom
0ifrsm;ESifh tdE,
Nd Edik fiH tjcm;a'orsm;rS Ak'<bmom0iftcsKdŒtwGuf jyef
vnftouf0ifvmjyD; jzpfa om tmaomu0d[m&onf ESpfpOfus
a&mufaom Ak'<bmomyGJawmf=uD;rsm;usif;y&m/ bk&m;0wfjyK&m/ urR
Xmef;bm0empD;jzef;&mXme jzpfvmygonf?
a':cif=unfonf jrefrm/ xdkif;/ uarBm'D;,m;EdkifiHom; Ak'<bmom
bkef;awmf=uD;rsm;tm; rSefrSefyifhzdwf qGrf;uyfw&m;emavh&d.
S ? atmif

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

23

qef;pk=unf.tpfudk atmifqef;OD;vnf; ausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif;
t*FvefraS &mufvmaomtcg TudpPrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&u
G fygonf?
tarESifhorD;udk jrefrmrsm; cspfcifav;pm;onfhtwdkif; a':cif=unf.
vkyfazmfudkifzufoHwrefrsm;ESihf yef'pfae±l;rStpcsDI tdE,
Nd tpd;k &tzGJ@
0iftaygi;f wd@k uvnf; cspcf if
av;pm;=uygonf? tdENd,
wGif &&Scd aJh om tawGŒt=uKH
rsm;onf atmifqef;pk=unf
twGuf tifrwefta&;yg
pd w f t m;xuf o ef z G, f & m
jzpfcJhygonf? ,ckwdkif olr
onf tdEd,
N Edkiif t
H ay: xm;
&Sad om arwWmESihf oHa,mZOf
wd@k rmS cdik rf mvsu&f ydS gonf?
xdt
k csed u
f a'vD&dS jAdwd a':cifMunfEiS hf a':atmifqef;pkMunf
o#r[mrif;=uD;rSm qmaygvf*dk;bkof (Sir Paul Gore Booth) (aemiftcg
avmh'fbGJ@ &) jzpfygonf? ,cif jrefrmEdkifiHwGif oHtrwftjzpf wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJhpOfu olESihf ol.ZeD; yufx&D&mS (Patricia) wdk@onf a':cif
=unfESifh aumif;pGm odu|rf;cJh.? xdkcifrif&if;ES;D r_rSm tdENd,Y jyefvnf
qef;opf &Sifoefvmygonf? odk@ESifh atmifqef;pk=unf atmufpzdk@'f
wuUov
kd fo@kd ynmoif&efomG ;aomtcg aygvEf iS hf yufx&D&mS wd@k u rdb
ud,
k pf m;apmifha&Smuf&ef wm0ef,cl .
hJ ? atmifqef;pk=unfonf olw@kd .
rdom;pk0ifwOD;uJhok@d olw@kd om;ESpfa,mufEiS hf orD;ESpaf ,mufw@dk . nDr
&if;csmwOD;uJho@kd jzpfvmygonf? xdrk o
d m;pktrd fwiG yf if 4if;wd@k .rdwfaqG
rsm;tjyif 4if;wd@k zdw=f um;{nfch aH om Edik fiaH &;orm;rsm;ESihf tpd;k &t&m&Sd
rsm;udk atmifqef;pk=unf odu|rf;cGifh&cJhygonf? xdkyk*dK~ vfrsm;. toGif
tjyif/ trltusi/fh tajymtqdkEiS fh xl;jcm;aom "avhp±dkufuav;rsm;
udk atmifqef;pk=unf pdw0f ifpm;pGm avhvmcJ.
h ? xdkyk*dK~ vfrsm;rSm ol

24

oef;0if;vIi
d f

u|rf;0if&awmhrnfh us,f0ef;vSaom urBmavmurS yk*~dKvfrsm;yif r
[kwyf gavm?
aEG&moDausmif;ydw&f ufrsm;twGif; atmifqef;pk=unfonf rdcif
&Sd&m e,l;a'vDok@d jyefavh&.
Sd ? od@k aomf wESpfwiG f usr&Sd&m t,f*s;D &D;
,m;jrdK@ (Algiers) odk@vmaeygonf? usronf e,l;a'vD ukvor*~
jyef=um;a&;XmerS t,f*s&D ;D ,m;Edik if /H t,f*sm&D;,m; (Algeria) jrdKŒawmf
odk@ajymif;a&$Œum tvm;wlXmewckzGifh&ef wm0efay;jcif;cH&ygonf?
t,f*sD;&D,m;onf 1962 ckESpfwGif csm;vf'Da*gvf (Charles de Gaulle)
tpdk;&ESifh atAD,efpmcsKyf (Treaty of Evian) udk vufrSwx
f k;d jyD; vGwfvyf
a&;&cJo
h nfrmS r=umao;yg? jyifopfxHrS vGwfvyfa&;&&ef &SpEf pS =f um
±kef;uefr_aemufydkif; wajz;ajz;emvefxlqJEdkifiHjzpfygonf? xdk@a=umifh
t,f*sD;&D;,m;jrdKŒwGif ae&mxdik fcif; tvGef&Sm;yg;aejcif;/ ysufpD;,d,
k Gif;
aeaom&yfuGurf sm; aygrsm;aejcif;/ tajctaeaumif;rGefaom[dw
k ,f
rsm; enf;yg;aejcif;ESihf 0efaqmifrv
_ yk fief;rsm; vGepf mG rS uef@owfxm;jcif;
wdk@rSm tHh=ozG,f&mr[kwfyg?
zGiv
hf pS pf oH±;Hk rsm;/ ukvor*~±;Hk rsm;ESihf 0ifa&mufvmqJ pD;yGm;a&;
vkyif ef;rsm;omru t,f*s;D &D;,ef;vlrsK;d rsm;uyg tdraf e&mrsm;ESihf vkyf
ief;cGifae&mrsm;&Edkif&ef oJoJrJrJ vkH;yrf;&SmazGae&ygonf? t,f*sD;&D;
,m;wGif tcsdef=umjrifhpGm tajccsaexdkifcJhaom jyifopfvlrsKd; ajrmuf
rsm;pGmrSm wdik ;f jynfrS xGucf mG oGm;=ujyD jzpfaomfvnf; tjcm;vlopfrsm;
rSm 0ifvmrpJjzpfygonf? xdo
k rl sm;rSm ppfrx
_ rf;rnft
h pm; y&[dw vkyf
ief;trsKd;rsK;d wd@k wiG f 0ifa&mufwm0efxrf;aqmif&ef a&G;cs,af om jyifopf
trsKd;om;vli,frsm;/ ausmif;q&mq&mrrsm;/ axmufyaHh &;pDrHudef; t
vkyform;rsm;ESifh tvnftywfoufoufvmolrsm; jzpf=uygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf a&muf&SdvmcsdefwGif [Gm&DblrD'D,ef (Houari
Boumedirre) u tmrufbifbJvm; (Ahmed Ben Bella) tm; pHerlemxm;
avmufatmif aoG;xGufo,
H kdr_uif;rJhaom tm%modr;f yGJjyKvkyfum
jzKwfcsjyD; &uftenf;i,ftwGif;jzpfygonf? zdwf=um;cH&aom {nfhcH

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

25

yGrJ sm;pGmodk@ oGm;&rnfxuf atmifqef;pk=unfu t,f*s;D &D;,ef;vlrsKd;
rsm;ESifh awG@qu
kH m 4if;wd@k widk ;f jynftwGi;f jzpfysuaf eor#uadk vhvm&ef
ydkrkI
d pdwftm;xufoefygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfrSm zwf±_usufrSwf
&ef pmtkyfwaowWmvnf; ygvmygonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm vGwfvyf
a&;±kef;uefr.
_ '%fudk cHcJh&olrsm;tm; ulnDaxmufy&Hh ef pDrHude;f rsm;udk
uGyfuaJ eaomtzG@J tpnf;wckESihf usrwdk@qufo,
G yf gonf? pDrHued ;f w
&yf. wm0ef cHjzpfol vli,fwOD;vma&mufI 4if;wd@k vkyfief;ta=umif;
&Si;f jyygonf? vGwv
f yfa&;wdu
k yf w
GJ Gif usq;Hk cJhaom&Jabmfrsm;. use&f pf
olZeD;rsm;twGuf aetdrrf sm;aqmufvyk af e=u&m t,f*s;D &D;,ef;vlrsK;d
rsm;omru EdkifiHwumrS vli,frsm;yg 0ifa&mufulnD&ef zdwfac:=udK
qdka=umif; ajymjyygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfvnf; xdkaqmufvkyfa&;
pcef;wGif &ufowWywf tawmf=um oGm;a&mufaexdkifum vkyftm;
ay;cJhygonf? oGefoif=uD;=uyfolrSm ±k&Sm;vlrsK;d jzpfjyD; vkyfazmfukid fzuf
rsm;rSm t,f*s;D &D;,m;/ jyifopf/ vufAEGe/f e,fomvefEiS hf *smreDpaom
wdik f;jynfrsm;rS vli,frsm;jzpfygonf? tpm;taomufESifh ae&mxdkifcif;
ay;aomfvnf; vkycf ray;yg?
atmifqef;pk=unf. rdwaf qGrsm;onf olrtm; umAD;vD; (Kabyle)
awmifwef;rsm;odk@ vufxufr*FvmwyGJ wufa&muf=unf±h &_ ef ac:oGm;
zl;onf? usrwd@k EpS Of ;D twlwl qm[m&oJuE mW &tpyf&dS jrdKŒav;wjrdKŒ
wdkifatmifvnf; c&D;&SnfxGufcJhygonf? aEG&moDtyl&Sdef jyif;xefvGef;
vSojzifh xdkxufvGefI roGm;EdkifcJhyg? aemuftvnftywf c&D;w&yf
taeeJ@ a&mracwfu aqmufvkycf Jhaom jrdKŒysu=f uD;&Sd&modk@ oGm;cJh.?
xdjk rdKŒysuw
f Gi;f &Sd v[mjyifZmwf±H=k uD;. ausmufjym;cif;xm;aom w
vif;jyifay:wGif bifbv
J m;. opPmcHwyfrsm;u “bifbv
J m; oufawmf
&Snfygap” [laom pmvkH;=uD;rsm;jzifh a&;xm;ygonf? atmifqef;pk
=unf armf±u
dk o
kd @kd c&D;xGufchjJ y;D pydeEf kid if aH wmifbufurf;ajcudv
k nf; ajc
csro
d nfqo
kd avmuf a&mufcyJh gonf? xd@k aemuf ausmif;pmjyefusujf y;D
ausmif;ydwf&uftqkH;wGif atmufpzd@k 'fodk@ jyefoGm;Edik fcJhygonf?”[lI

26

oef;0if;vIi
d f

a&;om;azmfjyxm;avonf?
1962-63 ckES pf rsm;wGi f a':
atmifqef;pk=unfonf a'vDwuU
odv
k Yf Edik fiHa&;odyHb
` mom&yfukd avh
vmqnf;yl ;cJhonf? 1964 ckESpfrS
1967 ckEpS ftwGi;f atmufpzd@k 'f wuU
odkv&f Sd [l;pfaumvdyfY '\eaA'/
EdkifiHa&;ody`HESifh pD;yGm;a&;ynm&yf
rsm;udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJjh yD; 0dZm… *k%f
xl; (B.A Honour) bG@J uk d &&Scd o
h J nf? bG@J
a':atmifq ef; pkMunf
&&Sd jyD;aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unf
atmufpzdk Ywuúodkvfü ynmoifMum;pOf onf vydki;f r# [l;pfaumvdyfwGif pm
oif=um;yd@k csonf? ,if;aemuf ordkif;okawoD [,l;wifum (Hugh
Tinker) ESiht
f wl okawoevkyfief;wdk@ aqmif&GufcJhonf? 1968 ckESpf
wGif vef'efwuUokv
d f ta&SŒydkif;ESihf tmz&du avhvma&;Xme/ EdkifiHa&;
odyX`H meY ok awoe vufaxmuftjzpf wm0efxrf;&GufcJhonf?
xdk@aemuf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk e,l;a,mufY aexdkifv#uf&Sd
aom bdvyfjyefoef;ESifhtwlaexdki&f ef e,la,mufjrdKŒodk@ a&muf&SdcJh
onf? bdvyfjyefoef; ac: 'dk&moef;at;onf t,f*sD;&D;,m;wGif (4)
ESpw
f mr# wm0efxrf;aqmifcjhJ yD;aemuf ukvor*~XmecsKyfo@kd jyefvnf
a&muf&adS ecsdejf zpfonf? bdvyfjyefoef;ESihf rdom;pkyrm&if;ES;D aeaom
z&ef@xa&*g (Frank Trager) u 4if; Edkiif w
H um qufqaH &;bmom&yf
ygarmuQtjzpfaqmif&Guaf eaom e,l;a,mufwuUov
kd Yf a': atmif
qef;pk=unf bGJ@veG foifwef;wuf&ef ulnDpDpOfay;cJhonf? ygarmuQ x
a&*gonf tar&dueftpdk;&. axmufyhHa&;tpDpOfjzifh jrefrmjynfwGif
ESpftawmf=um aexdkifcJhzl;onf? olonf ta&SŒawmiftm&SESihf ta&SŒ
zsm;Edik if Hrsm;wGif us,jf yef@pGm c&D;vSnv
hf nfz;l um xdka'orsm;. udpt
P
00wdk@wGif pdwf0ifpm;olwOD; jzpfygonf? xdka&;om;cJhaom “bm;rm;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

27

ya'o&mZfEikd if rH S orRwEdik if o
H @kd ” trnf&pdS mtkyu
f kd a&;om;xkwaf 0cJh
onfrSm r=umjrifah o;acs? olonf a':atmifqef;pk=unf. wdk;wufr_
udk *±kwpdu
k favhvmI vdktyfonfrsm;udk ulnDyHhydk;ay;cJhonf? a':
atmifqef;pk=unfESifh bdvyfjyefoef;wdk@aexdkif&m ref[wfwifrS e,l;
a,mufwuUov
dk o
f @dk omG ;&aom bwfpu
f m;c&D;rSm tawmftwef t
vSr;f a0;jyD; um;rl;wwfaom a':atmifqef;pk=unftwGuf yifyef;cufcJ
ygonf? bwfpfum;rSwfwdkifrS yef;jcHwckudkjzwfjyD; 0g&Sifwef&ifjyif
(Washington Square) odk@ oifwef;wuf&ef a':atmifqef;pk=unf
oGm;&aomvrf;Y usupf m;avh&daS om vrf;o&J vl&rf;um;wdk@. tE W
&m,fuvnf; &Sdao;onf? odk@aomf a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@aetdrfrS
ukvor*~±kH;udrk l 6 rdepfcef@ vrf;av#muf±kHjzifh a&mufEdkifayonf?
xd@k a=umifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf ukvor*~wiG f tvkyf0ifjy;D
aemufrS ynmqufvufoif=um;&ef pdwful;ay:onf? tvkyfav#muf
v$mrsm;/ axmufcpH mrsm;/ awG@qHak r;jref;jcif;rsm;ESihf jzpf±;kd jzpfpOf=uef@
=umr_ESihf tcuftcJrsm;udk ausmv
f eG jf yD;aomtcg a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf ukvor*~Y tvky&f &SdoGm;onf? ukvor*~Y 2 ESpfr# xrf;&GufcJh
jyD;aemuf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKy±f ;Hk tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf b¾ma&;qdik &f m
udpP&yfrsm; t=uHay;aumfrwDwiG f vufaxmuftwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcGifh &&Sdco
Jh nf?
tqdkygXmerS aumfrwD0ifrsm;onf rdrw
d k@d Eidk if Hrsm;. udk,pf m;vS,f
rsm;tjzpf cef@tyfxm;&jcif;r[kwfbJ b¾ma&;qdkif&mudpPrsm;wGif
u|rf;usiforl sm;tjzpf cef@tyfjcif;cH&olrsm;jzpfygonf? ukvor*~EiS fh
t&eftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm;vkH;tjyif urBmhusef;rma&;tzGJ@/ pm;eyf&duQm
ESihf v,f,mpdkuyf sKd;a&;tzG@J rsm;uJhok@d aom txl;at*sifprD sm;. pDrHued ;f
tpDtpOfrsm;ESihf bwf*swrf sm;udk xdak umfrwDu avhvmrSwfcsucf s jyif
qifjy;D oabmwlnrD &_ &ef wifjy&ayonf? tvkyfrSm cufcJaomfvnf;
ukvor*~vyk fief;rsm;. ukeu
f sp&dwu
f kd tao;pdwpf pd pf&jcif;ESihf xl;c|ef
xufjrwfaomtzGJ@0ifrsm;wd@k a=umifh pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;ayonf? xdk

28

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESihf a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aumif;pGmodu|r;f vmcJo
h nf?
ukvor*~0efxrf;rsm;onf naeydkif;ESifh oDwif;ywfukefydkif; tm;
vyfcsdefrsm;wGif vkyftm;ay;avh&dS=uonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfaexdkifaom ref[wfwif&t
Sd drfEiS fh odyfra0;
vSaomae&mwGif e,l;a,mufaq;±kH=u;D rS zGiv
fh pS x
f m;aom bJvAd ,l;
(Belleview) a*[mY jrdK@=u;D &Sdtqif;&Jq;kH / aq;ukoIr&aom a&m*gpJG
uyfaeolrsm;ESihf cku
d ;dk &mrJhrsm;udk xde;f odr;f apmifha&Smufxm;onf? b0
udk &ifrqdkifEkid fawmhbJ udk,fpdwEf Spfjzm jydKvJvkrwwfjzpfaeolrsm;udk
xdak q;±kHo@kd ac:vmavh&o
dS nf? jrefrmrsm;tm; pmzwfjyay;&ef/ tazmfjyK
&ef tpDpOfrsm;wGiyf g0if&ef vkyt
f m;ay; trsKd ;orD;/ trsKd;om; tjrJ
tvdk&Sdaeonf? xdktpDpOfwiG f a':atmifqef;pk=unfyg0ifI tywfpOf
em&Daygif;rsm;pGm vkyt
f m;ay;cJo
h nf?
Tonfwdk@um; a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf rdcifa':cif=unf.
y&[dwvkyfief;udk tarGqufcjH cif;yifjzpfonf?
xdpk Ofu jrefrmEdik firH S OD;oef@onf ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGif;a&;
rSL; wm0efxrf;aqmifaecsed jf zpfygonf? ['fpifjrpfuv
kd rS ;f I jrif&aom
ol.tdrf=uD;onf &D;Am;a';vf (River-dale) t&yfwiG &f jdS yD; a':pktrd rf S
um;ESifh wpfem&Dcef@oGm;&ygonf? OD;oef@tdrfY wnfcif;usif;yaom
we*FaEGae@xrif;pm;yGrJ sm;rSm a':pktzd@k tvGepf w
d &f i$ fvef;zG,f&mrsm;
jzpfchyJ gonf? tjcm;OD;oef@. rdwfaqGrsm;vnf; vma&muf=ujy;D jrefrm
vlrsK;d wd@k t}udKufawG@aprnfh jrefrm[if;vsmrsm;ESihf jrefrmtpm;tpm
rsKd;pHkudk wnfcif;au|;arG;avh&Sdonf? OD;oef@. ajr;wOD;OD;. arG;ae@uJh
odk@aom txl;{nfhcHyGJrsm;Y jrefrmrsm;tjyif EdkifiHwumrS ukvor*~
tjrJwrf;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkyg zdwf=um;{nfhcHwwfonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHrS ukvor*~tjrJwrf;oHuk,
d fpm;vS,Of D;pdk;wif. zdwf
=um;{nfhcHyHkrsm;rSmrl tenf;i,fuGmjcm;ygonf? olonf &D;Am;a';vf
Yyif OD;oef@.aetdrfavmuf =uD;us,cf rf;em;jcif;r&Sad om tdrw
f vH;k Y
aeonf? taxGaxGnv
D mcH=uD; usi;f ycsed jf zpfaom pufwifbmv 'kwd

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

29

,ywfrS 'DZifbmvv,fcef@qkv
d #if OD;pk;d wifonf tvkyu
f pd rP sm;/ jrefrm
udk,fpm;vS,ftzG@J ESifh tjcm;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@rsm;udk {nfhcHau|;arG;&
jcif;jzifh rtm;rvyfatmif&adS yonf? oDwif;u|w/f wefaqmifrke;f vrsm;
wGif bmoma&;qdik &f m ae@=u;D tcg=u;D rsm;Y e,l;a,mufjrKd Œ&Sd jrefrmrdwf
aqGrsm;udk ol.tdro
f @dk zdwfac:{nfch Havh&Sdonf? OD;pd;k wif oabmxm;
=uD;oljzpfonfhtavsmuf jrefrm
rsm;udk od;k rsm;/ qdwrf sm;[lI cGjJ cm;
rqufqHay? qdwfrsm;qdkonfrSm
ppftm%m&SiAf v
k d af e0if;vufatmuf
jrefrmEdik if .
H tajctaeudk a0zef
axmufjyolw@kd jzpfjy;D ,if;wd@k ukd jref
rm oH±Hk;todki;f t0dkif;u y,fxm;
jcif;udk cH&wwfygonf? OD;pdk;wif.
aetdrfY rnfolrqkd vGwfvyfyGifh
vif ; pG m rd rd w dk @ rwl u GJ j ym;aom
oabmxm;rsm;udk wifjyaqG;aEG;
bdvyfjyefoef;
jiif;ckHcGifh jyKEdkifayonf?
ac: 'd&k moef;at;
wae@ ukvor*~taxGaxG nDvmcHusif; yaecsdefY a':atmif
qef;pk=unfESifh bdvyfjyefoef;wdk@ukd OD;pk;d wifu aetdrfo@dk xrif;pm;csed ;f
cJh&m xdkpOftjzpftysufudk bdvyfjyefoef;u Todk@jyefajymif; ajymjy
cJhonf?
“OD;pk;d wif. &D;Am;a';vf aetdro
f @k d usrwd@k ae@v,favmuf a&muf
oGm;cJyh gw,f? yef;rsm;/ &Guv
f yS ef;rsm;ESifh a&$a&mifjc,f jrefrm,Ge;f xnf
rsm;ESifh jynfah eaom av;axmifhyHk{nhfcef;r}uD;twGif;&Sd qdkzmrsm;/ uk
vm;xdkifrsm;udk tcef;eH&H uyfI aumfzDyef;uefwifI pm;yGJ=uD;rsm;udk
xdik fcaHk &SŒwGif tpDtpOfcsxm;ygonf? qdkzmrsm;ESifh ukvm;xdkifrsm;ay:
wGif taxGaxGnv
D mcH wufa&muf&ef a&muf&Sdaeaom jrefrmoH t
rwf=uD;rsm; woDwwef;=u;D xdik fae=uygonf? usrwdk@EiS hf rawG@z;l ao;

30

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aom olrsm;tm; rdwfqufay;jyD; ‘pk’ udk tcef;wzufpGef;&Sd vl}uD;ESpOf D;
=um;wGif xdkifapygonf? usrudkrl udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@OD;aqmifvmcJh
aom AdkvfrSL;=uD;armifvGif&Sd&mESihf reD;ra0;wGif xdkifapygonf? OD;pkd;
wif. ZeD;u opfo;D azsmf&nfrsm;/ tmvl;a=umfrsm;udk pm;yGJ ay:odk@csjy;D
aemuf csufjyKwfa&;udpPrsm;udk tjyD;owfprD H&ef uyfvsuftcef;xJodk@
0ifoGm;ygonf? tm;vHk; wa,mufwayguf tv†my/ ov†my pum;
ajymjy;D aemuf udk,fpm;vS,t
f zGJ@t=u;D tuJu ‘pk’ udk rnfuho
J @dk ukv
or*~Y tvkyfvkyfygoenf;? rnfonfhEdkiif Hul;vufrw
S fudk udkifaqmif
xm;oenf;? olrrdcifonf oHtrwf=uD;r[kwaf wmhojzifh ‘pk’ taeESihf
oHwrefrsm;qdik &f m Edik if Hu;l vufrw
S u
f kd jyeftyf&rnf/ ,cktxd jyefrtyf
&ao;onfqko
d nfrSm rSefygovm;? oHwrefqkid f&mEdkifiu
H ;l vufrSwfudk
qufvufuikd fxm;jcif;rSm Oya'ESirhf nDa=umif;/ olr odrnfjzpfa=umif;/
tvGefreS nf;vrf;rusaomudpjP zpfojzifh tjrefq;kH jyifqif&efvadk =umif;
Z,fqufovdkajymum OD;aqmifwku
d fcdkufygawmhonf?
jrefrmoHwrefavmurS yk*K~d vfrsm;u OD;vGifajymor# rsufESmvdk
rsufESm&toGifjzifh axmufco
H Hrsm;jyKum ‘pk’ udk rvdo
k nfhrsuEf mS rsm;
jzifh 0dik f;=unfhae=uygawmhonf? ‘pk’u [efrysuf wnfjidrpf Gm&Sdaejcif;
rSm usrtwGuf tawmfpdwfoufom&mjzpfapygonf? xdkaemuf ‘pk’
u Áa¹EN&Sd&Sd vef'ef&SdjrefrmoH±Hk;Y olrav#mufxm;onfrSm tcsdeft
awmf=umaejyDjzpfaomfvnf; ,ckwkid f tusK;d ta=umif; bmwckrS rod
ao;a=umif;/ rnfuJho@dk aomta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh Tr#txd xl;
xl;jcm;jcm; =uef@=umaeonfudk olem;rvnfEdkifjzpf&a=umif;/ e,l;
a,mufo@dk olrynmoif&efvmcJ&h mY vuf&EdS kid if u
H ;l vufrw
S fuykd if udik f
aqmifae&a=umif;/ pm;0wfaea&;twGuf tvky&f SmcJh&m uHaumif;
axmufrpGmjzifh ukvor*~Y tvkyf&&Scd Jha=umif;/ jrefrmEdkifiHom; jzpf
a=umif; taxmuftxm;jy&ef EdkifiHul;vufrSwfrSm vdktyfcsufjzpf
a=umif;/ vaygif;rsm;pGmuyif av#mufxm;cJhaom Edik fiHul;vufrSwfudk
vef'efoH±;Hk rSy@dk ay;&ef apmifhaevsufyifjzpfa=umif;/ EdkifiHul;vufrSwf t

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

31

opfa&mufvmonfEiS hf ta[mif;udk =unfjzLpGm jyeftyfrnfjzpfa=umif;/
Edik fiHjcm;Y tvkyfvyk fudkifEdkif&ef Edkifiu
H l;vufrSwf (oHwrefqdkif&myJjzpf
ap/ ±dk;±dk;yJjzpfap) wckckvdktyfonfudk tckwufa&mufvmwJh OD;av;
tm;vH;k em;vnfvrd rhf nf[k ol,q
l a=umif; ‘pk’ u ,Ofaus;odraf rG@pmG
tcsufusus ajymoGm;ygonf?
vef'efraS &muf&adS eaom jrefrmoHtrwf=uD;u ‘pk’taeESihf Edik if H
ul;vufrSwftopf&&ef av#mufxm;cJo
h nfrmS vaygif;rsm;pGm &SdjyDjzpf
a=umif;udk twnfjyKum xHk;pHtwdkif; av#mufvm$ udk &efukefo@dk y@dk xm;
jy;D jzpfa=umif;ajymygawmhonf? tb,fah =umifh vaygi;f rsm;pGm=umjyjD zpf
aomfvnf; ta=umif;rjyefao;onfukd ol rod&dyS ga=umif; xyfavmif;
ajym=um;cJhonf? trSeftm;jzifh jrefrmjynfY Todk@ xHk;pHtwdkif; aESmifh
aES;=uef@=umr_rsm;udk jzpfay:apaom ±_yfaxG;ayGvDvSonfh AsL±dku&uf
,E W&m;ESifh =udK;eDpepftqifhqifah =umifh tvkyfrwGiu
f s,faer_rsm; t
a=umif;udk tcef;wGif;&Sd usrwdk@tm;vHk; od&djS yD;jzpfygonf? xdktcgrS
tjcm;oHtrwfrsm;uvnf; ‘pk’ taeESihf TuJo
h @dk vyk f±kHr#vJI
G tjcm;
a&G;cs,f&mvrf;r&SdcJah =umif; em;vnfoabmaygufcJhygawmhonf?
udk,fpm;vS,f tzG@J t=uD;tuJ. rsufEmS xm;um; jrwfav;ajymovdk
“idI
k &DIr&aomrsuEf mS xm;” jzifh wdk;v#Kdawmif;yefaomavoHEiS hf tp
utajctaeudk vH;k aphywfaph em;rvnfcJha=umif;/ &efuek af &mufaom
tcg Edkifiu
H l;vufrSw±f ;Hk u vkyfp&m&Sdonfrsm;udk vsifjrefpmG vkyf&ef ol
udk,fwdkifn$ef=um;vdu
k frnfjzpfa=umif; ajym=um;oGm;onf? Tyk*~dKvf
rsm;rSm ‘ pk’ xuf touftm;jzifh =uD;=uolrsm;jzpfaomfvnf; aumif;
aomt&nftcsi;f jzifh tcsed pf D;onfh ‘vl=u;D ’ rsm;r[kw[
f k usr xifjrif
rdygonf? usrvnf; tcGifh=uHKaeonfESihf csufaumif;,lum “Edik fiHul;
vufrSwaf wG vH;k vHk;rudkifwhaJ e@ jrefjrefa&mufygapvd@k usrwdk@ ar#mfvifh
&rSmyJ”[k ajymvdu
k rf yd gonf? xd@k aemuf usrwdk@ ae@v,fpm twlwuG
pm;aomuf=uygonf?
tjrJwrf;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@xJwGif jrefrmjynftajctaeudk usr

32

oef;0if;vIi
d f

wdk@ yGifhyiG fhvif;vif; ajymqdkaqG;aEG;aomrdwaf qGwOD;vnf; ygonf? xdk
rdwfaqGu “pk” . a0zefcsufrsm; ody&f JvGef;onf[k ajymaomtcg/
‘pk’ u “,H=k unfcsuft& owœ&d d±S rkH u tquftEG,ft&vnf; owœ&d dS
wmud;k ” [k jyefvnfacsycJyh gonf? olrqdv
k o
dk nfrmS ‘pk’ onf Adv
k fcsKyf
atmifqef;ESifha':cif=unfwk@d . &ifaoG;jzpfojzifh ol@uadk wmf±Hkwef±kH ESyd f
vdk@&rnfr[kwf[k qdkvdk[efwlaeygonf? usrtxifawmh ‘pk’ onf
Adkvcf sKyfatmifqef;orD;rdk@ aoG;om;t&awmfpyfaeonfomru pdwf
"gwfuvnf; atmifqef;pdwf"gwftjynfh&Sdonfh zatwlorD;yDoonf
[k xifjrifaerdygawmhonf?”

a':atmifqef;pkMunfEiS hf olcY ifyeG ;f a'guw
f m rdu
k u
f ,ftJ&pf
a':atmifqef;pk=unf ukvor*~±;Hk Y wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOfrmS
yif a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf wuUodkvfY pwifzl;pmqkHchaJ om a'guf
wmrdkufu,ft&J pf (Dr.Michael Viallancourt Aris) ESihf 1971 ckESpf/
Edk0ifbmv 31 &ufae@wGif vufxufxdrf;jrm;cJhonf? rdkufu,ftJ&pf
onf jAdwo
d #vlrsKd;wOD;jzpf+yD; atmufpzdk@'fwuUov
dk fY ajrmufykid f; Ak'<
bmom r [m,me. vlr_a&;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&mordkif;a=umif;udk
txl;jyKavhv maeaom okawoDwOD;jzpfonf? olonf ,if;ynm

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

33

&yfqik d &f m pmtkypf mwrf;trsm;tjym;udv
k nf; a&;om;jyKpx
k w
k af 0cJo
h nf?
ukvor*~±;kH Y 3 ESprf # wm0efxrf;aqmifc+hJ y;D aemuf a':atmifqef;
pk=unfonf qufvuftr_rxrf;awmhbJ om;orD;rsm;ESifh odkufoku
d f
0ef;0ef;&Sdrnfh tdrfaxmifonfb0udk a&G;cs,f&ef qkH;jzwfvdkufygonf?
odk@ESifh b0opfw&yf pygawmhonf? TtcsdefrSpaom jzpfpOfrsm;rSm
trsm;od+yD;jzpfonf? cifyeG ;f jzpfol rdkufu,ftJ&pfonf ESpftawmf=um
uyif [dr0E WmEdkifiHav;jzpfaom blwefEkid fiHY bk&ifhom;awmf/ orD;
awmfrsm; pmjyq&mtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tpdk;&bmomjyefXmet=uD;
tuJtjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? a':atmifqef;pk
=unfonf blwefY wESpcf ef@aecJo
h nf? blwefonf ukvor*~tzG@J =u;D
.tzGJ@0iftjzpf r=umao;rDurS 0ifco
Jh jzifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
csufjcif;yif blwefEidk fijH cm;a&;±kH;Y ukvor*~upd Prsm;qdkif&m t=uHay;
t&m&St
d jzpf tvkyf&cJhonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@dk ZeD;armifEo
SH nf om;OD; jrifhqef;atmif
ac: tvufZENm; (Alexander John Chirstopher Aris) udk rsuEf mS jrif
&ef t*Fvefodk@jyefvmonf? om;t=uD; jrifhqef;atmifudk 1973 ckESpf
{jyDv 12 &uf =umoyaw;ae@wGif zGm;jrifcJhonf? rdkufu,fu vef'ef
wuUokv
d fY yg&*lbGJ@oifwef;pwifjyD; rsm;r=umrD atmufpzd@k 'fwuU
odkvf ynm&SiftvkyfcGifxJ 0ifvdkufygonf? 'kwd, om;i,f xdefvif;
ac: uifrf (Dannaian Kim Arundel Aris) udk 1977 ckESpf/ pufwifbm
24 &uf pae@aewGif zGm;jrifonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf uav;
rsm;tm;jyKpyk sKd;axmifjcif;/ &efuke&f drS dcifxHo@dk tvnftywfoGm;jcif;wd@k
jzifh rdrdb0udk at;csrf;pGm jzwfoef;vmcJhonf?
tdrfaxmifhwm0efudkxdrf;odrf;&ef a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf pm
ayrsm; pIa&;om;vmcJo
h nf? pmzwf0goemoefonft
h avsmuf olr
onf t*FvdyfESifh jyifopfbmom pmtkyftajrmuftrsm; pkaqmif;cJh
onf? rdkufu,f. wdbufqdki&f mpmtkyrf sm;ESifh okawoeqdki&f m pm
tkyfpmwrf;rsm;uvnf; wae@xufwae@rsm;jym;vmcJh&m tdrYf xm;p

34

oef;0if;vIi
d f

&myifr&Sdatmif jynfhv#aH eygawmhonf? uav;rsm;uvnf; pmzwf
0goemygolrsm;tjzpf =uD;jyif;vmcJh=uygonf?
1975 ckESpfrS 1977 ckESpftxd (2) ESpfcef@ atmufpzdk@'fwuUodkvf
abm'vD,efpm=unfhwdkuf (Bolein Library) Y jrefrmpmtkyEf Sihf ay/
yk&ydk'f uwfwavmufjyKpkol pm=unfw
h dkufvufaxmuftjzpf wm0ef
xrf;&GufcJhonf?
xdk@aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf olr.zcif AdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef; txWKy`wWdukad &;om;&ef pwifpOf;pm;vmcJhonf? odk@jzifh *syefbm
ompum;udk ZG=J uD;pGmjzifh pl;pl;pdu
k pf u
kd o
f ifygawmhonf? Adv
k cf sKyfatmif
qef;. b0wpdwfwydkif;ESifh *syefEidk fiH qufpyfaeaoma=umifh *syefESifh
qufo,
G yf /Hk *syefEikd fio
H @dk &Jabmfo;Hk usyd rf sm;ac:aqmifomG ;cJyh t
Hk p/ *syefY
ppfynmoif=um;cJhykHtv,f/ *syefwk@d ESifhtwl jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;=udK;
yrf;cJhykHtqk;H *syefqkid f&mtaxmuftxm;rsm;avhvm&efjzpfonf? xdk@
jyif jrefrmjynfta=umif; a&;om;xm;aom t*Fvdyjf refrmpmtkyrf sm;/
*syefjynfta=umif;a&;om;xm;aom t*Fvyd Ef iS hf *syefbmompmtkyf

a':atmifqef;pkMunfEiS hf olr\ *syefpm q&mr rDcsu
D w
kd m&D

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

35

rsm;udyk g wajz;ajz;pkaqmif;vmcJo
h nf? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;. txWKy`wdW
udk taxmuftxm;cdik cf ikd v
f v
Hk jHk zifh jyKpk&ef&nfoefxm;&m pepfwus
okawoejyKygawmhonf?
wzufrv
S nf; 1985-86 ESprf sm;wGif *syeftpd;k &. ynmoifqk
udv
k ufcu
H m *syefEikd if u
H sKw
d w
kd uUov
kd /f ta&SŒawmiftm&Sqikd &f m avh
vma&;XmewGif okawoeynm&Sit
f jzpf oGm;a&mufoak woejyKcJyh g
onf? *syefEikd if YH okawoejyKpk&if; *syef-jrefrmcsp=f unfa&;toif;
tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESiahf wG@qu
Hk m 4if;wd@k rw
S qifh olrzcifEiS o
hf u
d |r;f cJah om t
ouf&iS q
f J *syefppfzufqikd &f m t&m&S/d t&mcHrsm;ESih f tqufo,
G &f cJh
onf? xdt
k csed u
f rdu
k u
f ,fonf tdE,
dN jynfajrmufyikd ;f qif;rvm;+rdKŒ&Sd
tdE,
dN Edik if H tqifjh rifh pmayavhvma&;Xme okawoeynm&Sit
f jzpf
a&muf&adS eonf?
xdo
k @kd oak woejyK&if; 1987 ckEpS w
f iG f tdE,
dN Edik if q
H if;rvm;jrdKŒ&Sd
txl;okawoejyKa&; tdEN,
d odyXH` me (Indian Institute of Advanced
Study) wGif okawoeynm&Sif (Resarch Fellow) tjzpf vkyu
f ikd cf o
hJ nf?
,if;od@k vyk u
f ikd &f if; vef'efjrdKŒ&Sd vef'efwuUov
kd f ta&SŒwdik ;f ESihf
tmz&duavhvma&;XmewGif yg&*lb@JG ,&l efvnf; bG@J ,pl mwrf;wapmif
udk jyKpk&efppD Ofco
hJ nf? xkt
d csed fu olr. vkyu
f ikd v
f y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;onf
vk@H v}uD;jcif;ESihf oEMÏd mef cdik cf ikd rf mrmcsxm;jcif;udk jyoaeonf[k qd&k
ayrnf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. bG@J ,&l ef wifoiG ;f cJo
h nfph mwrf;trnfrmS
“jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;wdu
k yf w
JG iG f pme,fZif;rsm;u taxmuftuljyKcJyh Hk
(1910-1945)” jzpfonf?
xdEk pS w
f iG yf if rdcif}uD;a':cif=unfonf rsupf rd w
S rd u
f kd cGpJ w
d u
f o
k &ef
twGuf vef'efjrKd Œod@k a&muf&v
dS mcJo
h nf? cGpJ w
d rf r_ sm; atmifatmifjrif
jrif&o
dS jzifh aq;ukor_a=umifh roufrom&S&d aomfvnf; a':cif=unf
twGuf pdw&f i$ v
f ef;csr;f ajrŒzG,t
f csed jf zpfygonf?
vef'efjrdKŒwGif ESpv
f =umr#aexdik jf yD;aemuf a':cif=unfonf 1987

36

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ZGefvwGif rsufpd tawmf tajctaeaumif;vmojzifh jrefrmjynfodk@
pdwf&$ifvef;pGmjyefoGm;cJhonf? vef'efudk tvnftywfa&muf&SdpOfu
rnfr#pdwfcsrf;ajrŒcJha=umif;/ 4if;wd@k EiS fhawG@qHck Jh&onfuv
dk nf; yDwjd zpf&
a=umif; ponfjzifh rdwfaqGtrsm;tjym;udk pma&;today;cJhonf?
od@k aomf &efuek jf yefa&mufI 10 vrjynfrh D 1988 ckEpS /f rwfvukef
ydki;f wGif jyif;xefaomavjzwfjcif;'%fudkcH&ygonf? a':atmifqef;pk
onf qif;rvm;rS olr. tvkyfudk&yfxm;cJhum rdcifudkjyKpk&ef a&muf
vmygonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpw
k iG f aexdik t
f vkyv
f yk af eaom olr
tpfuk d atmifqef;OD;vnf; 10 &ufcef@ vma&mufvnfywfcho
J nf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf tdrfaxmifruscifuvnf;aumif;/ tdrf
axmifjyKjy;D aomtcgYvnf;aumif; rdcif=uD;xHreS rf eS f vma&muf vnf
ywfaexdkicf ho
J nf? rdcifa':cif=unfonf ajr;rsm;udk olrrsupf rd cGJrD wESpf
tvdu
k &efuek af etdrfwiG f &Sijf yKr*FvmyGJukd rdom;pk0ifrsm;ESiht
f wl udk,f
wdkif=uD;=uyfjyD; usif;ycJhonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ rdu
k u
f ,fEiS fh om;
ESpfa,mufonf tdENd,rS vef'efjrdK@odk@ 1987 pufwifbmvtwGif;

a':cifMunf ½kyt
f avmif;udk jyifxm;pOf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

37

jyefa&mufvm=ujyD; wuUokv
d fynm&SifavmuwGif jyefvnfaeom;w
ustcsdefY rdcif=uD;a':cif=unf avjzwfa=umif; owif;a&mufvmyg
awmhonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf a=u;eef;&&Sdjcif; csufcsif;yif
&onfah v,mOfjzifh rdcif =uD;tm;jyKpk&ef &efukefodk@ vdkufygcJhonf?
1988 ckEpS w
f iG f rdcif=uD; a':cif
=unf emruse;f r_a=umifh jyefvnf
a&muf&dv
S maom a':atmifqef;pk
=unfonf jrefrmhEdkiif Ha&; tvSnfh
tajymif; wqpfcsKd;auG@wiG f rar#mf
vifhyJ xdawG@cJh&ayonf? Tae&m
Y ociftkef;jrifh/ OD;axG;jrifh/ ocif
wifjrwdk@udkvnf; &if;ESD;awG@qkHcJh&
onfudk azmfjy&efvkad yonf?
wdk;wufa&;
ociftkef;jrifo
h nf Adkvcf sKyf
ociftek ;f jrifh
atmifqef;ESifhyk*~dKvfa&;t& &if;ESD;oljzpfonf? wdk;wufa&;ESifh *sme,f
ausm*f sme,fwk@d wiG f t,f'w
D mtjzpf aqmif&u
G cf haJ om wd@k Armtpnf;
t±k;H 0ifwOD;vnf;jzpfonf? ociftkef;jrifu
h dk 1918/ {jyD 28 &ufae@wiG f
yJc;l wdik f;a'o=u;D / vufyw
H ef;jrdKŒY tzOD;zd;k aumif;/ trda':at;wifw@kd rS
zGm;jrifonf? 1933 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmvwGif vufyw
H ef;jrdKΠtpd;k &txuf
wef;ausmif;Y wdk@Armtpnf;t±kH; aºuG;a=umfoHpm&Gufrsm; jzef@a0jcif;
jzifh e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk pwifaqmif&GufcJhonf? *se,f
ausmfOD;cspaf rmifrSm xdpk Ofu ol. ausmif;q&mjzpfonf? 1934 ck/ rwf
vwGif vufyw
H ef;jrKd Πtpd;k &txufwef;ausmif;rS q,fwef;atmifc&Jh m
aq;wuUodkvfodk@rwufa&mufbJ &efukefowif;pmavmuodk@ 0if
a&mufvyk u
f ikd cf hjJ y;D a&ausm&f yfwGif *sme,fausmfOD;cspaf rmifEiS hf twlae
xdkifonf?
1938 ckEpS /f {jyDvwGif ykord fwGiu
f sif;yaom wwd,t=urd f jrefrm
Edik fiHvkH;qdkif&m ausmif;om;rsm;uGefz&ifhodk@ wufa&mufcJhonf? 1938

38

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif wdk;wufa&;owif;pmt,f'Dwmtjzpf 0ifa&mufvkyf
udkifco
Jh nf? 1938 u olwnf;jzwfxw
k af 0cJhaom‘axmift&om’ pm
tkyf xif&Sm;ausmf=um;cJhonf? *sme,fausmfwGifvnf; aqmif;yg;rsm;
a&;om;onf? 1939 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D wGif qDr;D cGuf uavmiftrnfjzifh
a&;om;cJhaomaqmif;yg;wyk'af =umifh wd;k wufa&;owif;pm tmrcH t
awmif;cH&onf? xdkESpfrSmyif wdk@Armtpnf;t±kH;XmecsKyf tr_aqmif
tjzpf a&G;cs,fcH&onf?
1947 ckESpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;usqkH;cJhjyD;aemufyidk f;Y use&f pfol
a':cif=unfrdom;pkESifh taea0;vmcJhjyD; wESpfwcgcef@om oGm;vm
qufo,
G fr_&dcS Jhavonf? 1967 ckESpf a':cif=unf tdENd,oHtrwf=uD;
tjzpfrS tjidrf;pm;,lI jrefrmEdkifiHo@dk jyefvnfa&muf&v
Sd mjyD;aemufyidk f;
wGif r=umc%qdkovdk qkHjzpfcJholjzpfonf? xdkpOfu a':atmifqef;pk
=unf t*FvefjynfwGif ynmoif=um;aeqJjzpfonf?
1984 ckEpS f a':atmifqef;pk=unf jrefrmEdik if o
H @kd acwWjyefa&mufchpJ Of
OD;tke;f jrifEh Sijhf yefvnfawG@qHck ho
J nf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf yg&*lb@J G ,&l ef
pmwrf;jyKpkaepOftwGif; vdktyfaomordkif;taxmuftxm; tcsuf
tvufrsm;udk pkaqmif;ay;&ef OD;tkef;jrifhudk tultnDawmif;cJhonf?
OD;tkef;jrifhuvnf; vdktyfaomordkif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk pm=unfh
wdu
k frsm;pGmrS rdwLW ul;wefu;l / pmtkyt
f a[mif;qdik rf sm;rS 0,fwef0,fI
pkaqmif;ay;cJhonf?
4if;aemufydkif;wGif a':cif=unf. use;f rma&;tajctae wpwp
csKdŒwJv
h maomtcg OD;tkef;jrifhonf a':cif=unftrd fodk@ ae@pOfvkv
d kd 0if
xGufI vdktyfor#udk ulnDay;cJhonf? 1986 ckESpf a':atmifqef;pk
=unf yg&*lbGJ@&jyD;aemuf jrefrmEdkifiHodk@acwWjyefvmpOf ol.om;ESpf
a,muftm; rdcif=u;D a':cif=unfu &Sijf yKay;cJo
h nf? &SifjyKyGJtjy;D rdom;
pk pkHpkHvifvif&SdaepOftwGif; OD;tkef;jrifhu a':atmifqef;pk=unftm;
wdik ;f jynfEiS v
hf rl sK;d twGuf wckcu
k dk wm0ef,al qmif&u
G fay;apcsiaf =umif;
aqG;aEG;ajym=um;cJhonf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

39

xdk@aemuf 1987 ckESp/f arvwGif a':cif=unfonf t*Fvefodk@
rsupf cd GJ&efomG ;a&mufcjJh yD; ZGefvqef;wGif jrefrmEdkifiHo@dk jyefa&muf&v
Sd m
cJhonf? 1988 ckESpf/ rwfvtukefwGif a':cif=unfavjzwfjyD;aemuf
{jyDvqef;wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unf &efukefodk@vdkufygcJhonf? OD;tkef;
jrifhu a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; a':cif=unf. usef;rma&;tajctae
ESirhf ;D pmukeq
f cD rf;t&G,af &mufaeonfrk@d rnfok@d r#jyefvnf use;f rmvm
vdrrfh nf ol rxifa=umif; zGifh[ajym=um;cJhonf? xdkpOfu a':cif=unf
onf touf 75 ESpf&SdjyDjzpfonf?
tu,fI rdcif=uD;wdrf;yg;cJah omf t*Fvefo@dk rjyefbJ jrefrmjynfrSm
aexdkifI wdkif;jynftwGuf wckckudk wm0ef,lvkyfay;apcsifa=umif;
xyfraH jym=um;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf rdcif}uD;a':cif=unfonf 1988 ck/
'DZifbm 27 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhavonf?
odk@uvdk jrefrmEdkifiHwGif tpOftjrJtajccsaexdkifI wdkif;jynfESifh
vlrsKd;twGuf apwemoef@oef@/ &nf&G,cf suf&Sd&/Sd cH,lcsujf yif;jyif;jzifh
Edik fiHa&;vkyfaqmifygu ol.udk,fa&;ud,
k fwmpGe@f vw
$ rf r_ sm;/ &ifqidk f=uKH
awG@&rnfhtcuftcJrsm;udk ay;qyf&rnfudk =udKwifwGufqxm;jyD;jzpf
onf? xdkpOf rwfvausmif;om;ta&;tcif;. aemufqufwGJ 'Drdku
a&pDvy_ f&mS ;r_rsm; ay:aygufaejyDjzpfonf?

40

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tcef;(2)
aemufco
H rdik ;f
jynfaxmifpktzGJ@csKyf(yxp)tpdk;&udk vufeufjzifjh zKwfcs tm%m
odr;f cJah om AkdvfcsKy=f uD;ae0if;OD;aqmifonfh ppfwyftm%modr;f awmf
vSeaf &;aumifpu
D 1962 ckEpS /f Zlvik d v
f 4 &ufae@wiG f jrefrmh qd&k ,
S f
vpfvrf;pOfygwD ac: rqvygwDudk zGJ@pnf;xlaxmifcJhonf?
rqv ygwDonf 26 ESpfwmumvtwGif; jynfolvlx=k uD; w&yf
vk;H tm; rpm;&0cref; pdwful;,Ofq&dk S,fvpf0g'rsm; r_di;f wdu
k fum jrefrmh
qd&k ,
S v
f pf0g'vrf;pOfudk twif;t=uyftaumiftxnfazmfcrJh a_ =umifh
ta&SŒawmiftm&SwiG f o,HZmwrsm;aygºu,
G I
f pD;yGm;a&;zHG@jzdK;wd;k wuf
aejyDjzpfaom jrefrmEdik fiHonf pD;yGm;a&;/ EdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm; =uKHawG@
vmum urBmhrdom;pkY zGH@jzdK;r_tenf;qkH;EdkifiHtjzpf pm&if;0ifoGm;cJh&
ayonf?
Tod@k tajctaersm; jynfolvlxt
k wGif;jzpfay:aepOf pufr_wuU
odkvaf usmif;om;tcsKd@ESifh tif;pdef=udKŒukef;taemuf&yfuGufrS vli,f
tcsKdŒwd@k . rar#mfvifhbJ cdkuf&efjzpfyGm;cJ&h onfh omref&efyaGJ v;wckudk
ta=umif;jyKI 1988 ta&;awmfykH pwifjzpfay:cJhavonf?
1988 ck/ rwfv 12 &uf/ paeae@n 9 em&D 15 rdepftcsdecf ef@wiG f
tif;pdefjrdK@e,f/ =udK@ukef;blwmteD; pENm0if;vufzuf&nfqdkifY pufr_
wuUodkvf 'kwd,ESpfausmif;om;rsm;jzpf=uaom armifausmfqef;0if;/
armif0if;jrifhtygt0if ausmif;om; 4 OD;ESifh t&ufrl;aeonfh &yfuGuf
aumifpDOuUX.om; aZmfaZmf (ac: ) nDnDvGiftygt0if taygif;tyg
5 OD;wd@k u pdik f;xD;qdik foDcsif;zGifhcdkif;&mrS pum;rsm;cdu
k f&efjzpfyGm;cJhonf?
,if;odk@ausmif;om;udk0if;jrifht±dkufcH&ojzifh OD;acgif;/ ausmESihf vuf
armif;wdk@wGif aygufjyJzl;a&mifaom '%f&mrsm;&&Scd Jh=uonf? xd@k a=umifh
ausmif;om; 3 OD;vnf; &Jpcef;od@k omG ;a&mufwikd =f um;cJo
h nf? tif;pdef&J
pcef;rSvnf; vufzuf&nfqdkifwGifjzpfyGm;cJhaomtr_ESifhywfowfI O

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

41

ya'yk'rf (325/ 114) t& tr_ziG t
fh a&;,ljyD; jypfru
_ sL;vGe&f mwGif yg0ifchJ
onfh aZmfaZmf (ac: ) nDnDvGifESifh vli,f 5 OD;wdk@tm; zrf;qD;cJhonf?
oufqkid &f mausmif;tm%mydik frsm;ESifh jynfo@l &Jwyfz@JG 0ifrsm;u ta&;,l
aqmif&GufcJhjcif;a=umifh xdkudpPrSm xdkntwGuf jyD;pD;cJhavonf?
1988 ckEpS f/ rwfv 13 &ufae@wGif tif;pdefjynfol@&Jpcef;rS zrf;qD;
xm;aomaZmfaZmf (ac: ) nDnv
D Gifonf &yfuu
G af umifpD OuUX.om;
jzpfaeaoma=umifh jyefvnfvw
$ fay;cJo
h nf? ,if;od@k aZmfaZmfqo
kd ltm;
jyefvnfvw
$ af y;vdkufonfudk ausmif;om;rsm;od&Sd=uaomtcg pufr_
wuUokv
d fausmif;om; 20 cef@ jynfol@aumifp±D kH;odk@ oGm;a&muf uef@
uGufcJh=uonf? &yfuGufaumif pDOuUXu *±krpdkuf/ em;raxmifvdk
a=umif; jiif;y,fvu
dk fI ausmif;om;rsm; a'goolyek x
f um aumifp±D H;k
udk cJrsm;jzifhypfcwfcJh=uonf? pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;ESifh
&yfuu
G faumifpOD uUXom;ESihf =uKd Œuke;f taemufyikd ;f om;vli,frsm; xyf
rH cdkuf&efjzpfyGm;cJh=u&m ausmif;om;tcsKdŒxyfrH'%f&m&&Sdc=Jh ujyefonf?
xdt
k ajctae xdkowif;udkod&=Sd uonfESifhwjydKifeuf ausmif;om;rsm;
pkpnf;jy;D pENm0if;vufzuf&nfqidk fEiS hf =udKŒukef;taemuf&yfuu
G jf ynfo@l
aumifp±D kH;wdk@tm; cJrsm;/ ckHrsm;jzifyh pfaygufjcif;/ atmf[pfqJqdkjcif;rsm;
jyKvkyfcJh=uonf? xdktajctaewGif &yfuGufor0g,rtoif;qdkif rD;
avmifr_jzpfyGm;&m &yfuu
G fvlxku rD;jidrf;owfjyD; ausmif;om;rsm;udk
0dki;f vdkuf&efjyK=uonf? wif;rmjyif;xefaeaom tajctae wpwp
=u;D xGm;vmum aemufq;kH Y tif;pdev
f rf;r=uD;ay:wGif wzufEiS hw
f zuf
&efapmifcJh=uonftxd jzpfcJh=uonf?
Todk@ qdk;&GmpGmjzpfysuaf eonfudk oufqdkif&mtm%mydkifwdk@u
jidrf;csrf;ajyvnfpmG rajz&Sif;bJ vkHjcKHr_xed ;f odr;f a&;wy f(vkx
H def;) rsm;udk
apv$wfI t=urf;zufjzdKcGi;f cdkif;cJo
h jzifh rwfv 14 &ufae@eeH uf 3 em&D
tcsdefcef@wGif acwWvlpkuGJoGm;cJo
h nf? ,if;odk@aoewfrsm;jzifh ypfcwf
vlpkcGJr_a=umifh ausmif;om; 5 OD;'%f&m&&SdcJhjyD; 4if;wdk@teuf pufr_
wuUov
dk f ae@ausmif;om;rsm;jzpf=uaom armifzkef;armf 23 ESpfESifh

42

oef;0if;vIi
d f

&efuek pf ufrw
I uúov
kd f
armifpk;d Edik w
f k@d aoqkH;cJ=h uonf? armifzke;f armfonf ,refEpS rf SpI pufr_
wuUov
kd af bmvk;H toif; twGif;a&;rSL;wm0ef,cl h&J mrS vuf&dS twGi;f
a&;rSL;xH aiGpm&if;rsm;oGm;a&mufvJt
$ yf&ef oGm;a&mufpOf qlyrl j_ zpfyGm;
pOfEiS fh=uKHawG@um vkHjcKHa&;wyfzJ@G 0ifrsm;ypfcwfr_a=umifh aoewfusnf
xdrSefcJhjcif;jzpfonf? q&mESifhausmif;om;rsm;u aoewfxdrSefaom
armifzkef;armftm;ayG@,jl yD; pufr_wuUodkvt
f wGif;wGif 0Sufxm;cJh=u
onf? armifpdk;Edkifonf aq;±kaH &mufjyD;aemufr=umrDyif aoqkH;oGm;cJh
onf?
xd@k a=umifh rwfv 14 &ufae@wGif pufrw
_ uUov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;
onf aoqk;H '%f&m&ol ausmif;om;rsm;udk ta=umif;jyI qufvuf
qlylqENjycJh=uonf? xdk@jyif ausmif;omrsm;ta&;ESifh ywfowfaom
awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udkvnf; tpd;k &tm;awmif;qdkcJh=uonf?
(u) ausmif;rydwfa&;/
(c) ausmif;ywf0ef;usiv
f jkH cKHa&;csxm;aom &Jrsm;±kyfodr;f ay;a&;/
(*) awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk tjrefqH;k ajz&Si;f ay;Edkifrnfh wm0ef&Sdol
wOD;OD;ESifh ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,f acgif;aqmifig;OD;u

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

43

awG@qkHvufcHnEd‡ i_d f;ay;&efESifh ajz&Sif;ray;Edkifygu wm0ef&o
Sd l
rsm; teD;odk@rvma&muf&ef/
xd@k jyif xdkae@reG f;vGJ 2 em&Dcef@wGif ausmif;0if;tkwef H&/H uGr;f ,mqdkif
wdk@wGif atmufygawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udkvnf; xyfrHuyfcJh=uonf?
(u) 13/ 3/ 88 ae@jzpf&yfukd owif;pmrsm;xJY trSet
f wdik ;f a&;
om;&ef/
(c) aoqk;H olausmif;om;rsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;ud,
k w
f idk f oj*KF [f
cGifhjyK&ef/
(*) tjypfraJh omaoqk;H ol ausmif;om;rsm;tm; 0rf;enf;a=umif;
rSwfwrf;wifay;&ef/
(C) rsuf&nf,Akd kH;/ usnfjzifhypfolwdk@udk ta&;,lay;&ef/
(i) ausmif;om;rsm;vdv
k m;csuu
f kd w&m;0iftzGJ@tpnf;w&yf&yfrS
wm0ef,laqmif&Gufay;&ef/
aemufwae@jzpfaom rwfv 15 &ufae@wGif ynma&; 'kwd,0ef
=uD; a'gufwmarmif'Donf ausmifom;rsm;udk csufcsif;oGm;a&mufnd‡
E_id f;cJah omfvnf; tqifrajybJ qufvufwif;rmaecJhonf? xdpk OfrmS yif
vkHxed f; 500 cef@onf &efukefpufrw
_ uUodkvfukd 0ifa&mufpD;eif;cJhjyD;
ausmif;om;rsm;udk 0ifa&muf±u
kd Ef u
S cf &hJ m ausmif;om;trsm;tjym; zrf;
qD;cH&jyD; '%f&m&&SdcJh=uonf? xd@k a=umifh pufr_wuUov
dk f0if;twGif;Y
xde;f r&avmufatmif qlyltkHºuGvmcJo
h nf? xdkpOftwGif; oufqidk f&m
tm%mydik fw@kd u ae&yfjyefvo
dk al usmif;om;rsm; jyefEkid af =umif;jzifh xkwf
jyefa=unmum ausmif;rsm;udk acwWydwfvu
kd favonf? &efukepf ufr_
wuUov
kd t
f a&;tcif;onf &efuek w
f uUov
kd yf ifrod@k a&muf&do
S mG ;um
tkHºuGr_rsm; ydrk dk=uD;xGm;vmcJhonf? pufrw
_ uUov
dk fausmif;om;rsm;
onf rwfv 16 &ufae@wGif &efuek w
f uUokv
d f (yifr) y&0k%f&Sd ausmif;
om;rsm;ESifhyl;aygif;um xdkrSwqifh &efukew
f uUodkvf (vSKdife,fajr) odk@
ul;vl;&ef pdkif;jyif;vm=uonf? ,if;odk@ ausmif;om;rsm; &efuek fwuU
odv
k f (v_dife,fajr) od@k tul; wHwm;jzLteD;odk@ta&mufwiG f &JwyfzJ@G 0if

44

oef;0if;vIi
d f

rsm;u ypfcwf±u
dk fESuv
f pl kcGJ=uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;udk tifvsm;uef
abmifwiG f acsmifyw
d ±f ku
d Ef u
S cf rhJ E_ iS yhf wfowfI Adkvrf LS ;csKyaf [mif; atmif
=uD;u (8/ 6/ 88) &ufpGJjzifh a&;om;xm;aomtdwzf Gifhay;pmwGif T
odk@azmfjyxm;onf?
“acgif;udk±dkucf GJ/ emem±dkuf”[k pufxJrSmtrdef@ay;cJha=umif;/ rdef;
uav;rsm;udkqHyifqGJ±dkuf/ a&xJuefcs/ xbDu|wfIajy;onfh rdef;u
av;udk qHyifqGJI±dkufa=umif;/ rdef;uav;tavmif;ESpfavmif; a&xJrS
ay:vma=umif;”ponfjzifhazmfjyxm;onf? 4if;tjyif tif;vsm;uef
abmifay: Yjzpfonfhnu vlrsm;pGmaoqkH;cJha=umif;/ tavmif;rsm;udk
nwGif;csif;rD;±_dŒcJha=umif;/ aoqkH;olrsm;ESifhywfowfI wvcef@=umrS
rdbrsm;xH pmjzifhta=umif;=um;a=umif;/ axmifxJwGifvnf; vkHxdef;
ykvyd frsm;u 0if±u
dk af =umif;/ ausmif;olrsm;udk t"rRusiahf =umif;/ axmif
xJwGif rsm;pGmn‡O;f yrf;ESyd pf uf=ua=umif;/ vlaygi;f 283 a,mufaoqkH;cJh
a=umif; tp&Sdonfjzifh a&;om;xm;avonf?
tvm;wl rwfv 17 &ufae@wGifvnf; &efuek fwuUodkvt
f wGif;
pka0;a&muf&daS eaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk vlpkcGJ twif;t"rR t=urf;
zufjzKd ciG ;f cJo
h nf? rqvtpdk;&xkwo
f wif;pmrsm;Yrl qENjyausmif;om;
ausmif;ol 154 a,mufudkom pDppfxdef;odrf;cJhonf? aoqkH;ol/ '%f
&m&olvkH;0r&Sd[k a&;om;azmfjy=uonf?
rqvtpdk;&onf ausmif;om;rsm;. ausmif;om;rsm;ta&;ESifh
ywfowfI awmif;qdkcsurf sm;udk vk;H 0vspfvsL±_Ir&awmhojzifh rwfv
17 &ufae@wGif pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sifudk zGJ@pnf;ay;cJh&onf? xdkaumfr&Sif
onf 12/ 3/ 88 &ufae@wGif &efukefpufr_wuUodkvaf usmif;rsm; jzpf
yGm;cJhaom ta&;tcif;udk pkHprf;wifjy&rnfjzpfayonf? xdak umfr&Sift
zG@J udk jynfaxmifpkqk&d ,
S fvpforRwjrefrmEdik if H Edkiif aH wmfaumifprD S 1988
ckESpf/ rwfv 17 &ufpGJyg trdef@a=ujimpmtrSwf (45§88)jzifh xkwfjyef
a=unmcJh&m xdktrdef@a=umfjimpmt& xdkaumfr&Siw
f Gif(u) OD;barmf (jynfol@w&m;ol=uD;tzGJ@0if)-OuUX

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

45

(c) OD;vSwifh - jynfol@Oya'tusKd;aqmif-tzGJ@0if
(*) a'guw
f marmif&edS f -jynfo@l vkyif ef;ppfaq;a&;tzG@J 0if
xdk@tjyif ,if;trdef@a=umfjimpmwGif aumfr&Si.
f twGif;a&;rSL;
tjzpf OuUXu wm0efay;tyfou
l aqmif&u
G &f rnfjzpfjyD; pkpH rf;a&;
aumfr&Sio
f nf ta&;cif;rnfuo
hJ k@d pwifay:aygufcho
J nf? ta&;cif;wGif
ausmif;om; 2 OD; aoewf'%f&mjzifhaoqkH;cJh&jcif;rSm rnfonfh ao
ewfjzifh rnfol.vufcsufa=umifhjzpfonfudk tcsuftvufrsm; trSef
&&Sad tmif pkHprf;ppfaq;I tpD&ifcpH mudk (17/ 4/ 88) &ufae@ta&muf
Edik if aH wmfaumifpDo@kd wifjy&efyg&o
dS nf? xd@k tjyif ta&;cif;ESihf ywfowf
onfh aumfr&Sif.okH;oyfcsuf/ t=uHjyKcsuf/ tvm;wlta&;tcif;rsKD;
ray:ayguaf p&ef aqmif&u
G foifo
h nft
h csurf sm; vdkygu xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjy
&rnfjzpfonf?
tpd;k &rS pkpH rf;ppfaq;r_rsm;jyKvkyaf epOftwGi;f rSmyif ausmif;om;
rsm;ESifh jynfolvlxkyl;aygif;um qENjyr_rsm; qufvufjzpfyGm;cJhonf?
rwfvta&;tcif;twGi;f Y tpk;d &. t=urf;zufjzKd cGi;f r_a=umifh ausmif;
om;rsm;ESihf &[ef;&Siv
f al jrmufrsm;pGm aoG;ajruscho
J vd/k vlaygi;f rsm;pGm
xdcdkuf'%f&m&&Sdum zrf;qD;cHcJh&avonf?

emrnfq;kd jzifh ausmMf um;&m tif;pdet
f usO;f axmif
rwfv 18 &ufae@wiG f odrfjzLvrf;Y at;csrf;pGm qENjyaeolrsm;

46

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tm; zrf;qD;I xdkae@n oef;acgiaf usmt
f csed w
f Gif tcsKyfum;jzifh tif;pdef
tusOf;axmifodk@ydk@aqmifcJh&m tif;pdefaxmifa&muf&Sd vmaomtcg
(71) OD;wifaqmifvmaom tcsKyu
f m;wpD;wGif (41) OD;aoqk;H aeonf
udk awG@&SdcJh&onf? tpd;k &xkwfjyefcsufrsm;wGifrl tcsKyfarmfawmf,mOf
rsm; rvkaH vmufra_ =umifh ,mOfwpD;wGif wifaqmif&rnfh tcsKyfom;OD;
a&xuf ydkIwifaqmifch&J jcif;/ 45 rdepfom armif;ESif&rnfch &D;udk vrf;
ydwfqdk@r_tajctaersm;t& 2 em&Dcef@=umatmif armif;ESif&r_rsm;
a=umifh jzpf&onf[lI azmfjycJhonf?
aoqkH;olrsm;udk AdkvfwaxmifjrdK@e,f/ jrdK@e,fjynfol@&Jwyfz@GJ rSL;u
19/ 3/ 88 &ufae@wGif AdkvfwaxmifjrdK@e,f/ jrdK@e,fw&m;ol=uD;tzGJ@odk@
aor_ aocif;zGifhjyD; ppfaq;ay;yg&ef wifjycJo
h nf? Adv
k fwaxmif w&m;
ol=uD;tzG@J onf xdak e@wiG fyif jrdK@e,fwm0efcq
H &m0ef/ oufqkid f&m jynf
ol@&t
J &m&Srd sm;ESit
hf wl tif;pdet
f usO;f axmifo@dk oGm;a&mufppfaq;cJh
onf? aor_aocif;zGifhvSpfppfaq;csuft& 4if;wdk@onf rsuf&nf,kdAkH;
"gwfaiG@ ±_±_dufrdIaomfvnf;aumif;/ tcsKyf,mOftwGif; wifaqmif&
rnfhOD;a&xuf ydkrdkwifaqmifcJhojzifh touf±_rGef;usyfIvnf;aumif;
aoqk;H cJh&jcif;jzpfa=umif; awG@&SdcJh&onf? tqdkygudpPEiS fhpyfvsO;f I 19/
7/ 88 ae@wiG rf S xkwfjyefa=unmcJhjy;D xdkowif;xkwjf yef&ef =uef@=umae
&jcif;rSm jidrf0yfydjym;a&;udk axmuf±_I qlylr_r=uD;xGm;ap&eftwGuf
jzpfa=umif; xkwfjyefcho
J nf?
,if;odk@aoqkH;cJhr_a=umifh jynfxJa&;ESifh/ omoema&;0ef=uD;Xme
0ef=uD; OD;rif;a*gif EkwfxGufoGm;cJh&onf? xdk@jyif 1988 rwfvtwGif;
jzpfymG ;cJah omta&;tcif;wGif jzpfay:vmcJah omudpPrsm;twGuf wm0ef
ruif;=uonfh 0ef=uD;csKyfOD;armifarmifcESifh jynfo@l Oya'tusKd;aqmif
tzGJ@OuUX OD;jrifharmiftm; 1988 Zlvdkif 26 &ufae@wGif &mxl;rS Ekwf
yg,fcJhonf?
1988 rwfvtwGif;jzpfyGm;cJhaom ta&;tcif;ESifhygwfowfI
arv 9 &ufae@ ae@pGJyg Adv
k frLS ;csKyfa[mif; OD;atmif=uD;. (41) rsufESm

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

47

yg&daS ompmrsm;onf vlxt
k wGi;f ysHŒES@H cho
J nf? xdk@jyif OD;atmif=u;D onf
(1) “udkif;-tckawmhaumif;Edik f=uao;&JŒvm;” [laom pmw
apmifudk 12/ 5/ 88 &ufae@wGif vnf;aumif;/
(2) “tif;vsm;uefabmifjy\em”[laom pmwapmifudk 8/ 6
88 &ufae@wGif vnf;aumif;/
(3) “prf;acsmif;/ ajreDukef; &wemykH±ky&f iS f±kHudprP sm;”[laompmudk
22/ 7/ 88 &ufae@wGifvnf;aumif;/
(4) “u|eaf wmfwk@d ESpOf D;xJtwGuo
f mjzpfonf”[laompmudk 9/
7/ 88 &ufae@wGifvnf;aumif;
(5) “vl@tcGifhta&;tjynfht0&&Sda&;udpP”[laompmudk 19/ 7/
88 &ufae@wGifvnf;aumif; jzef@a0cJhonf?
rnfodk@yifqkad pumrl xdktcsdefujzef@a0cJhaom OD;atmif=uD;. pm
wef;rsm;onf jynfov
l x
l u
k dk Edik if aH &;Ed;k =um;apcJo
h nf? 4if;a&;om;xm;
aompmwrf;udk wckcsif;avhvm=unfhygu atmufygtwdkif; awG@&Sd&
onf?
(u) 12/ 5/ 88 &ufpjJG zifh a&;om;xm;aompmY awmfveS af &;
aumifpD tm%modr;f jyD; 26 ESpt
f =um tajctaeonf ,k,
d iG ;f ,ko
H m
ru ysufpD;jcif;ru ysufpD;oGm;jyD; EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;tm;vkH;
usqH;k jcif;ruusq;kH cJah =umif;/ vufatmuf&dw
S m0ef&o
Sd rl sm;u wm0ef
,l=u&ef acgif;cHvakd =umif;/ rdrt
d aejzifh pmwrf;wapmif a&;om;wifjy
cJha=umif;/ AdkvfrSL;csKyfatmif=uD; EkwfxGufcgeD; ygwDOuUX=uD;u okH;ESpf
vkyfr,f/ ratmifjrifv#if Adkvfatmif=uD;wdk@vky=f uyg[k ajymcJha=umif;/
Edkiif Ha&;orm;vkyfazmfudkifzufwiG f OD;EkEiS fh ygwDOuUX=uD;/ AdkvfrSL;csKyf
a[mif;atmif=uD;om&Sjd y;D usev
f lrsm;rSm uG,v
f eG jf yDjzpfa=umif;/ r=umrD
wdik ;f jynfqefjy\emjzpfawmhrnfjzpfa=umif;/ pufr_vkyfief;tm;vk;H vdk
vdkydwfxm;&jyDjzpfa=umif;/ 'kuQa&mufrnft
h a&;udk owday;&a=umif;
azmfjyxm;onf?
(c) 8/ 6/ 88 &ufpGJjzifh a&;om;xm;aompmwrf;wGif ausmif;om;

48

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ta&;tcif;udk OD;pm;ay; a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf? pmwrf;. ed'gef;t
ydik ;f wGif ,cifu ausmif;om;or*~taqmufttku
H kd jzdKzsuo
f w
l &m;cH
rSm 4if;r[kwfa=umif; &Sif;vif; a&;om;xm;ygonf? 1988 rwfv
ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;ESiyhf wfowfI ygwOD uUX=uD;taejzifh wm0efr
,l&ef/ 4if;udpP.w&m;cHrSm ygwDOuUX=uD;r[kwfa=umif;/ =udKŒukef;&yf
uGuo
f r0g,rqdik fukrd D;±_Œd r_onf ausmif;om;rsm;r[kwaf =umif;/ tvGJ
okH;pm;cJo
h t
l m; zkH;uG,&f efpm&if;&Si;f vdI
k rD;±d@_ cJhjcif;jzpfa=umif;/ ausmif;
om;rsm;udt
k ifvsm;uefabmifwGif acsmifydwf±ku
d fa=umif;/ rdef;uav;
rsm;udk qHyifq±GJ dkuf/ a&xJuefcs/ xbDu|wfIajy;onfh rdef;uav;udk
yif qHyifqGJI ±du
k af =umif;/ rdef;uav;tavmif;ESpaf vmif; a&xJuay:
vma=umif; ponfjzifha&;om;xm;&m trSefwu,faoqkH;cJhjcif;/ jyif;
xefpmG '%f&m&&SdchjJ cif;r&S[
d k tpdk;&xkwo
f wif;pmrsm;. rrSerf uef azmf
jyr_udk t±_u
d x
f ;dk wkef@jyefxm;ayonf? 4if;jyif Adkvrf SL;csKyfa[mif; atmif
=uD;.pmwrf;Y tif;vsm;uefabmifay:wGifjzpfonfhnu vltrsm;t
jym;aoqk;H cJah =umif;/ tavmif;rsm;udk nwGi;f csi;f rD;±_@d cahJ =umif;/ aoqk;H
olrsm;ESifhywfowfI wvcef@=umrS rdbrsm;xH pmjzifhta=umif;=um;
a=umif;/ axmifxw
J iG v
f nf; vkx
H ed ;f ykvyd rf sm;u 0if±u
kd af =umif;/ ausmif;
olrsm;udk t"rRusifha=umif;/ axmifxJwGifrsm;pGm n‡Of;yrf;ESdypf uf=u
a=umif;/ vlaygi;f 283 a,muf aoqk;H cJha=umif;ponfjzifh a&;om;xm;
&m zwf±_&olrsm; wkefv_yaf jcmufjcm;um a'gocHjyif;cJh=u&onf?
(*) 7/ 3/ 88 &ufpGJjzifha&;om;xm;onfhpmwrf;wGifrl AdkvfrSL;csKyf
a[mif;atmif=u;D onf *syefEidk if rH S Edkiif aH &;orm;rsm;ESihf awG@qHI
k wdkif;
jynftusKd;aus;Zl;&Sdrnfhudp&P yfrsm;udk wdkifyifaqG;aEG;cJha=umif;/ vuf&Sd
wm0efxrf;aqmifae=uaom0ef=uD;rsm;ESifh Edik fiHjcm;qufqHa&; tqif
rajyojzifh 4if;xHvma&mufawG@qjkH yD; OuUX=uD;xHwifjyay;&ef ajymqdk
jcif; jzpfa=umif;ponfjzifh a&;om;xm;avonf?
TuJhok@d OD;atmif;=uD;. jzef@a0pmrsm; jyifyavmuY ysHŒESHaecsdef
twGi;f rSmyif 1988 arv 13 &ufae@wGif (17/ 3/ 88 ) &ufae@u zG@J

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

49

pnf;ay;cJhonfh &efukefpufr_wuUov
dk fausmif;om;wcsKdŒESifh =udKŒukef;
taemuf&yfuu
G fvlxktcsKdŒwdk@ jzpfyGm;cJhaomta&;tcif;ESifh pyfvsOf;
onfh tpD&ifcHpmudk wifoGi;f cJhonf? xdktpD&ifcHpmwGif tcef; (14)
cef;cGJI pmrsufESm 292 rsuEf mS jzifh tao;pdwpf pkH rf;azmfxw
k f&&Scd sufrsm;
udk wifjyxm;onf?
zkef;armfta&;tcif;udo
k ;kH oyf=unfv
h #if rqv ppftm%m&Sifrsm;
. =uD;rm;onfh yxrtrSm;wckrSm &yfuGufaumifpOD uUXudk bufvu
dk f
umuG,fay;r_ESifh vkHxed f;wyfzGJ@tiftm; tqrwefokH;jyD; ausmif;om;
rsm;udk t=urf;zufESdyfuGyfr_yifjzpfonf? 'kwd,trSm;rSm owif;pdppf
wif;=uyfr_jyKvkyfxm;onfomru owif;vdrv
f nfa=unmjcif;yifjzpf
onf? vkHxdef;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;tm; jynfxJa&;0ef=uD;XmeESifh &JcsKyfwdk@u
tkycf sKyf&aomfvnf; rqv. tkyfcsKyfa&;,E &W m;zG@J pnf;ykHt& trde@f ay;
pepfonf a&maESmaecJhjyD; txufrS pGufzufr_rsm;pGm&SdcJhonf? &efukef
wdkif;Yvnf; a'oygwDOuUX/ wdik f;aumifpDOuUXESifh &efukefwkid f;ppfXme
csKyfwidk ;f rSL;[lI trdef@ay;Edkio
f nfh tm%mydik f (3) OD;&Sdonf? &efukejf rdKŒ
vkHjcKHa&;twGuf wyfr (22)/ (44)/ (77) wdk@ukd qGJac:&mwGifvnf; wyfr
awmfumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf csucf si;f rodvu
kd &f bJ t"du±k%f; ESrd Ef iS ;f &mY
vnf; vkx
H def;rsm;ESifh ppfwyf a&maxG;aeonfukd wyfrLS ;rsm;u r=udKuf
ESpo
f uf=uacs?
1988 arv 30 &ufae@wGif ausmif;rsm;jyefvnfziG fhvSpfonfhtcg
tusOf;axmifujyefvw
G v
f monfh ausmif;om;rsm;u ,if;wdk@ tawG@
t=uKHrsm;udk jyefvnf&iS ;f vif;=u&m ZGef 15 &ufae@rS 20 &ufae@txd
&efuek fwuUodkvf tyef;ajz&dyfomwGif qENjyyGJrsm; qufwdkufjzpfyGm;
cJhjyefonf? &[ef;oH Cmawmfrsm;/ tvkyform;rsm;/ txufwef;
ausmif;om;rsm;ygrusef jynfov
l lxkyg tajrmuftrsm;yg0ifvm=u
onf?
ZGefv 21 &ufae@wGif ausmif;rsm;udk jyefydwfa=umif; a=unmcJh
aomfvnf; oydwaf rSmufrr_ sm; wjynfv;Hk od@k ysŒH ESHomG ;cJo
h nf? ,if;ae@Y

50

oef;0if;vIi
d f

&efuek w
f uUov
kd f (yifr)/ vdycf ;Hk aq;wuUov
dk f (1) ausmif;om;rsm;onf
wuUokv
d f0ef;twGif;rS jyifyodk@xGuv
f mjyD; vlxkESifhyl;aygif;um v_dif/
prf;acsmif;/ urm&Gwf/ r&rf;ukef;/ tif;pdefjrdKŒe,frsm;wGif qENjycJh=u
onf? prf;acsmif;jrKd Œe,fwiG f &JwyfzJ@G 0ifrsm;u at;csr;f pGm vufeufrhjJ zifh
qENjyaeolrsm;udk ypfcwfEdrS fESif;&m aoa=uxdcu
dk rf r_ sm;&Scd Jhonf? xdkae@
rSmyif &efukefjrdKŒxJ&Sdaq;wuUodkvfukd ausmif;om;xkonf jynfvrf;
twdkif;qufvufcsDwufoGm;&m [Hom0wDt0dkif;tausmf ajreDukef;
ta&mufY vkx
H ed ;f wyfz@GJ rsm;.wm;qD;r_a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh vkH
xdef;wyfzGJ@rS yÉdyuQjzpfyGm;&m teD;tem;&Sd&yf=unfhaeonfh jynfolvl
xk. ylaygi;f wdu
k cf u
kd rf a_ =umifh vkx
H ed ;f 20 ESifh jynfow
l &mausmf aoqk;H
cJh&onf?
tpd;k &owif;pmrsm;Y qlyt
l =urf;zuform;rsm; vufeufrsKd;pkHjzifh
xdk;ckwfwdkufcku
d fr_a=umifh jynfo@l &JwyfzGJ@0if 6 OD; usqkH;jyD;/ 25 OD; jyif;
xefpmG '%f&m&&Scd o
hJ nf[k vdrn
f ma&;om;xm;cJhaomfvnf; jynfov
l l
xkaoa=uxdcdkufr_udkrl zkH;zdxm;cJhonf?
xdt
k awmtwGi;f awmif=u;D jrKd ŒESihjf ynfjrKd Œrsm;Yvnf; vlxq
k ENjyr_
rsm;jzpfymG ;cJ&h m yk'rf 144 xkwjf yefco
hJ nf?odak omf jynfjrdKŒY jzpfyGm;vsuf
&Sad om tkºH uGqENjyr_rsm; vk;H 0xde;f r&awmhojzifh 1988 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f
22 &ufae@wGif tpdk;&u ppftkycf sKyfa&;a=unmum ppfwyfrS vufeuf
jzifh jzdKcGif;cJhonf?
,if;uJo
h @kd Edik fit
H ES@H &dS jrKd Œ=uD;rsm;wGif qlyt
l ºHk uGrr_ sm;jzpfymG ;aepOfrmS
1988 Zlvkdif 23 &ufae@wGif jrefrmhq&kd ,
S fvpfvrf;pOfygwD ta&;ay:
nDvmcH usif;ycJhonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;Y ygwDOuUX OD;ae0if;onf
,if;Y tjypf&Sdra_ =umifh EkwfxGuf&aomfvnf; “ppfwyfqdkwm rdk;ay:
axmifjyD;awm yh pfwmr[kwfbl;? ypf&ifreS af tmifypfw,f” [k vlxEk iS hf
ausmif;om;rsm;udkped af c: jyD; ordki;f wGif trnf;puf=u;D xifatmif ajym
=um;oGm;cJhonf? Zlvidk f 24 &ufae@wiG f qufvufusif;yjyKvkycf Jhaom
rqvygwD ta&;ay:nDvmcH'w
k d,ae@tpnf;ta0;Y wyfrawmf pnf;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

51

±kH;a&;aumfrwDrS nDvmcH &J
abmfarmifoifu
h OD;atmif=u;D
. 41 rsufESmygpmESifh ywf
owfI xnfhoGif;ajym=um;
oGm;cJhonf? 4if;. wifjy ajym
qdkcsurf mS “wuUokv
d o
f r*~ t
aqmufttkHudk 1962 ckESpf/ Zl
vdkifv 8 &ufae@wGif azmufcGJ
zsufqD;onfhjzpf&yfrSefudk &Sif;
tmPm&Sifa[mif;
vif;ajym=um;cJhjcif;onf o
Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D ae0if;
rdkif;wGif rSefuefaomjzpf&yfudk twdtvif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;&Sdonfh
EdkifiaH &;upm;uGufjzpfa=umif;/ ,if;udpPwGif AdkvfrSL;csKyfa[mif; atmif
=uD;onf OuUX=uD;tay: ausmif;om;ESifhjynfolvlxku txiftjrif
vGJrSm;r_jzpfay:atmif v_H@aqmfcsufomjzpfonfudkawG@&Sd&a=umif;/ 4if;
onf wdkif;jynf. pGrf;tm;pk=uD;okH;&yfjzpfaom jynfol/ wyfrawmfESifh
Edik if aH wmfacgi;f aqmif=u;D rsm;udk jyKd uGJatmifprD cH sujf zifh ,if;or*~upd u
P kd
tcGifhaumif;,lum jynfou
l dk qlyx
l ºuGap&ef zefwD;cJhjcif;jzpfa=umif;/
xdk@tjyif rwfvESifhZGefvta&;tcif;rsm;wGif jzpfay:cJo
h nfh tajctae
rsm;udk r[kwfrrSev
f rd fnmpGyfpJI
G jynforl sm;xifa,mifxifrmS ;jzpfap&ef
pmwrf;rsm;udka&;om;I jynfolESiafh usmif;om;rsm;udk jzef@a0cJah =umif;/
wcsdefwnf;wGif acgif;aqmifyidk f;ESifhwyfrawmftwGif; aoG;uGaJ tmifjyK
vkyfjyD; OuUX=uD;tay: opPmapmifhod cspcf ifav;pm;oa,mif csOf;uyf
um 4if;tm%m&&Sd&ef =uKd ;yrf;cJha=umif;/ olonfOuUX=uD;tay: opPm&Sd
onf[ak jymqdka&;om;aeaomfvnf; OD;Eku EdkifiaH wmfuk d awmfvSefyek f
uef&ef jynfyod@k xGufcGmrnfhudpPudk OuUX=uD;tm; qufvufwifjyr_
r&SdcaJh =umif;/ 1970 jynfEh pS w
f iG f OD;Ek. jynfajy;olykeftcsKŒd jrpf0u|ef;ay:
a'ood@k 0ifa&mufc&Jh mwGiv
f nf; wyfrawmfEiS jfh ynfow
l @dk y;l aygi;f I axmf
ydkifppfqifa&;jzifh tjy;D tydkifacsr_ef;cJhonfudk wyfrawmfonf wyfcGJESpfcGJ

52

oef;0if;vIi
d f

pmolykeu
f kd wyfom;tvk;H t&if;ok;H jyD; acsr_ef;jcif;onf ra&mif&mqDv;l
jzpfaea=umif;/ olykeftiftm;rsm;aom&Srf;jynfe,fa'owGif wyftif
tm;enf;enf;ESifh ppfqifa&;0ifaeonf[k ajymqdkcaJh =umif;/ 4if;onf
at;csrf;om,maom trmcHe,fajrwGif jynfajy;olyek frsm; =uD;xGm;
vmapaomqENjzifh r±d;k om;aomt=uHtOm%fukd OuUX=uD;xHo@dk a&;
om;wifjycJha=umif;/ olonf wdkif;jynfudk wu,fcspfjrwfEdk;ol rsKd;cspf
yk*~Kdvt
f ppftrSefjzpfv#if Todk@a&SŒaemufrnDnGwfaom ajymqdka&;
om;r_ukd rjyKvkyo
f ifah =umif;/ OuUX=uD;onf Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESiht
f wl
vGwfvyfa&;wdu
k yf 0JG ifc±hJ rHk #omru wdik ;f jynfwGif ta&;=uKv
H mwdik f; wm
0ef,cl Jhonfhacgif;aqmifjzpfa=umif;/ txl;ojzifh 1958-59 ckESpfwGif
wdkif;jynfwGiftdrfapmifhtpdk;&tjzpfjzifh wm0ef,lapmifha&Smufay;cJhjyD;
1962 ckESpfwGif wdkif;jynftpdwfpdwfjydKuGrJ nfh tajctaersm;a=umifh
xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufc&hJ a=umif;/ xd@k a=umifh OuUX=uD;taejzifh ygwDEw
k f
xGuu
f pd u
P kd jyefvnfpOf;pm;ay;yg&ef wifjyyga=umif; aqG;aEG;oGm;onf?
od@k aomf Zlvdkif 25 &ufae@wGif usif;ycJhaom nDvmcH wwd,ae@
ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0; qk;H jzwfcsufcsrw
S fcJh&m vrf;pOfygwOD uUX=uD; OD;
ae0if;ESifh ygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; OD;pef;,kwdk@tm; ygwDwm0efrS
EkwfxGucf Gihjf yKjyD;/ ygw0D iftjzpfrS tem;,lcGihjf yK&ef/ jynfol@qENcH,yl JrG jyK
vkyf&efwdk@twGuf qkH;jzwfcJh=uonf?
Zlvdkif 26 &ufae@wGif ygwDA[dkaumfrwD '\rt=udrf tpnf;t
a0;udk jynfo@l v$waf wmftpnf;ta0;cef;rYusi;f yjyKvyk &f m A[dk aumf
rwD0ifrsm;u OD;pdefvGiftm; ygwOD uUXtjzpf wifajr‡mufcJh=uonf? xdk@
tjyif Edkiif aH wmf0ef=u;D csKyf OD;armifarmifcESihf jynfol@Oya'tusKd;aqmif
tzGJ@OuUX OD;jrifharmifwdk@tm; tcsKyfum;twGif; vlaygif; 41 a,muf
avrGef;usyfaoqkH;r_EiS fhywfowfI jzKwfcsvdkuo
f nf? xdk@aemufZlvkid f
27 &ufae@wGif qufvufusif;yjyKvkyfcJhaom pwkwˆt=udrf jynfol@
v$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;rSvnf; OD;pdev
f iG t
f m; Edkiif aH wmfaumifpD OuUX
ESihf Edik if HawmforRwtjzpf a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm‡ ufch=J uonf? xd@k tjyif Edik if H

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

53

awmfaumifpt
D wGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf OD;xGe;f wifw@kd uv
dk nf;aumif; a&G;cs,f
cJh=uonf? Zlvdkif 28 &ufae@wGif ausmif;om;rsm;onf vlpkvla0; rjyK
vky&f [k xkwfjyefxm;aomtrdef@udkqef@usifjyD; a&$wd*kHb&k m;Y oydwf
pcef;zGifhvSpI
f pk±kH;qENjycJh=uonf?
Zlvkid f 29 &ufae@ta&mufwGif ppftpd;k &rS OD;atmif=uD;ESihf taygi;f
tyg 9 OD; (OD;=unf[ef/ atyDowif;axmufOD;pdef0if;/ OD;cifndK/ OD;=unf
armif/ OD;ba&$/ OD;cspu
f ku
d k/d OD;xGe;f a&$/ OD;atmifjrif/h OD;aZmf0if;OD;) wd@k tm;
Edkiif Hawmfudkxdyg;rnfhtE W&m,frS =udKwifumuG,fonfhy'k frjzifh xdef;
odrf;vdkufonf?
tajctaerSm wjznf;jznf;ydkrdkqdk;0g;vmum tpdk;&qef@usifa&;
aºuG;a=umfoHrsm;onf vrf;rrsm;ay:odk@ a&muf&SdvmcJhonf? 1988 Zl
vdik f 28 &ufae@rpS I &efuek jf rdK@awmfpnfyifom,ma&;e,ferd w
d ft
wGif;&Sd jrdK@e,frsm;Yynmoif=um;aeaom ausmif;rsm;odk@ysŒH ESH@a&muf&Sd
vmonf? qENjyausmif;om;rsm;onf ,if;ae@rS =o*kwfv 2 &ufae@
txd a&$w*d &Hk ifjyifawmfay:wGif oydwpf cef;rsm; zGiv
hf pS cf =Jh uonf? qENjy
ausmif;om;rsm;onf bk&m;&ifjyifay:wGif pkpnf;um vma&muf=u
aom vlxyk &dwo
f wftm; vufurf;pmapmifrsm;a0iSjcif;/ tpdk;&qef@
usifa&;a[majymjcif;/ pmuyfjcif;wdk@udk jyKvkyfcJh=uonf?
ausmif;om;tiftm;pkESifh jynfolwdk@ pk±kH;rdaomtcg bk&m;ay:rS
wqifh &efukejf rdKŒtwGif;&Sd jrdKŒe,ftcsKdŒwGif vSnhv
f nfqENjycJh=uonf?
xdk@a=umifh rqv tpd;k &onf 1988 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f 3 &ufae@wiG f
EdkifiHawmfaumifp.
D a=unmcsuftrSwf 5§88jzifh &efukew
f idk f; ppftyk f
csKyfa&;Oya'udk xkwjf yefco
hJ nf? xd@k tjyif Edik fiaH wmf. pDrcH ef@crJG t
_ m%m
ESifh w&m;pD&ifr_tm%mrsm;udk umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k fcsKyf=uD; apm
armiftm; tyfEiS f;cJo
h nf? umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyo
f nf Edik fiHawmfaumifpD
a=unmcsuf 5§88 yg vkyfyidk fcGit
fh & xdkae@rmS yif umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf
±kH;. ppftkyfcsKyfa&;a=unmcsuftrSwf (2)udk xkwfjyefI &efukefwdkif;
ppfXmecsKyf/ wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfwkid f;rSL; Adkvrf SL;csKyfrsKd;nGe@f tm; rdru
d ,
dk fpm;

54

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk aqmif&u
G f&ef tm%mv$Jtyfay;cJhonf?
od@k jzifh 1988 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f 3 &uf n 7 em&DrpS I 1988 =o*kwf
v 24 &ufae@txd &efukefwkid f;ppfXmecsKyf ppftkyfcsKyfa&;trdef@rsm;udk
atmufygtwdkif;xkwfjyefcJhonf?
(u) &efukefwidk f;ppfXmecsKyf/ ppftkyfcsKyfa&;trde@f trSwf (1§88)
jzifh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;a'oowfrSwfjcif;ESifh ppfa'orSL;rsm;cef@tyfjcif;?
(c) &efuek w
f ikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf/ ppftyk cf sKyfa&;trde@f trSw(f 2§88)jzifh
pDrHcef@cGJr_ESifh w&m;pD&ifr_wdk@EiS fhywfowfI n$ef=um;csufxkwfjyefjcif;?
(*) &efuek w
f ikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf/ ppftyk cf sKyfa&;trde@f trSw(f 3§88)jzifh
ppftyk fcsKyfa&;a'owGif w&m;pD&ifjcif;?
(C) &efuek w
f ikd ;f ppfXmecsKyf/ ppftkycf sKyfa&;trde@f trSwf (4§88)jzifh
jynfo@l vyk fief;ppfaq;a&;tzG@J tqifq
h ifw
h @dk ukd pDrcH ef@caJG &;udpPrsm; quf
vufaqmif&u
G fapjcif;?
(i) &efuek w
f idk ;f ppfXmecsKyf/ ppftyk cf sKyfa&;trde@f trSwf(6§88)jzifh
nrxGu&f / vrf;rsm;ay:wGif vlig;a,mufEiS hf ig;a,mufEiS t
hf xuf oGm;
vmv_y&f mS ;jcif;rjyK&trdef@rsm; xkwjf yefjcif;?
(p) &efuek w
f ikd f;ppfXmecsKyf/ ppftyk cf sKyfa&;trde@f trSw(f 9§88)jzifh
ppftkycf sKyfa&;trde@f trSw(f 6§88)jzifh xkwjf yefwm;jrpfcsurf sm;tm;
±kyfodrf;jcif;?
1988 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv 5 &ufae@twGif; ppftkycf sKyfa&; t=uH
ay;tzG@J tm; wyfrawmfrt
S &m&Sd=u;D wOD;ESihf jynfo@l Oya'tusKd;aqmif
tzGJ@rS wOD;tygt0if ckESpfOD;jzifh zGJ@pnf;aqmif&Gufco
Jh nf? xdk@jyif um
uG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adkvcf sKy=f u;D apmarmifonf &efuek w
f idk ;f ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f
rSL;tm; umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf±kH;. a=unmcsuftrSwf(2) t& v$Jtyf
xm;aomtm%mt&yf&yfuu
dk sio
hf H;k apvsuf atmufygtwdkif;ppftyk f
csKyfa&;tzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;cJhonf?
(u) AdkvfrSL;csKyf rsKd;n$ef@ - OuUX (wdik f;rSL;/ &efuek fwidk f;ppfXmecsKy)f
(c) OD;&J0if; - tzGJ@0if (OuUX/ &efukefwdki;f a'oygwDaumfrwD)

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

55

(*) OD;ausmfodef; - tzGJ@0if (OuUX/ &efuek fwdkif;jynfol@aumifpD)
(C) AdkvfrLS ;=uD; atmifcif - tzG@J 0if (jrdKŒawmf0ef/ &efuek fjrKd Œawmf
pnfyifom,ma&;tzGJ@)
(i) Adv
k rf LS ;=uD; oef@Zif - tzG@J 0if ('kw,
d wdik ;f rSL;/ &efuek w
f ikd ;f
ppfXmecsKyf)
(p) Adv
k frSL;=uD; cifjrifh - tzG@J 0if (ppfa'orSL;/ trSwf (1) ppfa'o)
(q) AdkvfrSL;=uD; odef;xGef; - tzGJ@0if (ppfa'orSL;/ trSwf (2)
ppfa'o)
(Z) Adv
k rf LS ;=uD; omaX; - tzG@J 0if (ppfa'orSL;/ trSwf (3) ppf
a'o)
(ps) Adv
k rf LS ;=u;D rsK;d aqG - tzG@J 0if (ppfa'orSL;/ trSwf (4) ppfa'o)
(n) 'kw,
d Adv
k rf SL;=u;D odef;jrifh - tzG@J 0if (OuUX/ wdkif;w&m;ol=u;D
tzG@J )
(É) OD;rsKd;n$ef@ - tzGJ@0if (OuUX/ wdkif;vkyfief;ppfaq;a&;tzGJ@)
(X) OD;qef;jrifh - tzGJ@0if (&JaxmufcsKyf/ jynfol@&JwyfzGJ@XmecsKyf)
(È) AdkvfrSL;=uD; aZmfrif;- tzGJ@0if (n$e=f um;a&;rSL;csKyf/ rD;owf
OD;pD;Xme)
(Ê) a'gufwm OD;pdef&D - tzGJ@0if (&efukew
f dkif;usef;rma&;OD;pD;Xme)
(%) 'kwd,Adv
k frSL;=uD; atmifoef; - twGif;a&;rSL; (ppfOD;pD;rSL;yxrwef;)
(w) 'kwd,Adkfvrf SL;=uD; wiftkef;- wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (vuf
axmufppfOya'csKyf/ &efukefwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf)
,if;uJhok@d ppftkycf sKyfa&; a=unmusifhokH;jcif;udk rqv tpdk;&u
EdkifiaH wmfvHjk cKHa&;ESifh jynfol@tdk;tdrfwdk@udk umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef t
vdk@iSm urBmhEdkifirH sm;wGif usifho;kH vsuf&Sdaom usifhxkH;rsm;ESifhtnD jynf
axmifpk qdk&S,v
f pforRw jrefrmEdkifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'yk'fr
(76) t& tyfESi;f xm;aom vkyfykid cf iG rfh sm;udk ok;H pGJvsuf xkwfjyefcahJ om
Edkiif aH wmfaumifp.
D a=unmcsut
f rSw(f 5§88)t&jzpfonf[q
k o
kd nf?

56

oef;0if;vIi
d f

,if;odk@ ppftkyfcsKyfa&; a=unmcJhjyD;aemuf ArmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m
ausmif;om;rsm;or*~u ppfOya'xkwjf yefcsuu
f kd zDqefum &Spaf v;vk;H
taxGaxGoydw=f uD;twGuf v_@H aqmfa&;pmapmifrsm; pwifjzef@a0cJho
vdk vlaygif;ajrmufrsm;pGmuvnf; qENjycJhonf?

Todk@jzifh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;pwifonfh 1988 =o*kwfv 3 &ufrS 8
&ufae@txd &efuek fjrdK@tygt0if jrdKŒ=uD; 19 +rdKŒY jidr;f csrf;pGm qENjy
awmif;qkdaeaom vlxk=uD;tm; vkHjcKHa&;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;u ypfcwf&Sif;
vif;r_a=umifh &[ef;&Sifvl ausmif;om;rsm; axmifcsDaoqkH;cJh&onf?
1988 =o*kwfv 8 &ufae@ ordkif;wGifrnfh taxGaxGoydw=f uD;udk jynf
olvx
l koed ;f csq
D ifEc$J =Jh uonf? xdkae@nae 5 em&DwiG f jrKd Œawmfcef;ra&SŒ&Sd
ajruGufvyfY qENjyolrsm; pka0;a&muf&SdvmjyD; awmif;qkdr_rsm;udk
awmif;qdjk cif;/ tpd;k &qef@usifa&; ajymqdjk cif;rsm;jyKvyk u
f m a&muf&v
Sd m
aom vlx=k uD;tm; qENjyacgif;aqmifrsm;u tvSnfhusw&m;a[m
ajymae&m &efukefwdkif; wdkif;rSL;u tjrefq;kH vlpck GJ&ef toHcsŒJ pufrS a=u
jimcJhonf? vlx=k uD;u rdrt
d pDpOfwdkif; ra=umufr&GHŒ/ rwkerf v_yf quf
vufjyKvkyfc&Jh m n 11 em&DwGif enf;AsL[mwckESifh ajcjrefwyf&if; (2)
&if;wdk@onf jrdK@awmfcef;rrSaeI armif;jyefaoewfrsm;jzifh w&pyfypfcwf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

57

r_a=umifh vlxkaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm xyfrHaoG;ajruscJh&jyefonf? =o*kwf
v 11 &ufae@wGif tzGJ@tpnf;aygif;pk/H or*~/ toif;tzGJ@rsm; at;csrf;
pGm qENjyaeonfv
h x
l t
k m; ppfwyfu xyfrHypfcwf&m vlxkaxmifaygi;f
rsm;pGm aoa=u'%f&m &&Sdcho
J nf?
,if;odk@ &ufpufpmG ypfred @f ay;cJah om Edik if aH wmforRw OD;pdefviG ftm;
jynfyowif;pmapmifwckjzpfonfh wdkif;rf (Time) r*~Zif;=uD;u (8/ 8/
88) xkwfwGif om;owform;odk@r[kwf vlowform; (The Butcheer)
tjzpf a&;om;cJhavonf?
xdkae@rSmyif emusnf;a'gojzpfaeaom vlxk=uD;u &efukefwdkif;
twGif; jrdKŒe,f&pJ cef;rsm;udk pD;eif;0ifa&mufwdkufcdkuu
f m rD;±_d@zsufqD;
cJ=h uonf? xd@k twl 1988 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f 10 &ufae@wiG f jrefrmjynfjrdKŒ
=uD;rsm;Y qlyltkHºuGr_rsm; qufwdkujf zpfyGm;cJhonf?
xdkodk@aom tajctaet&yf&yfa=umifh =o*kwfv 12 &ufae@wGif
OD;pdefvGio
f nf rqvygwDOuUXtjzpfrv
S nf;aumif;/ Edik if aH wmfaumifpD
OuUXtjzpfrv
S nf;aumif; EkwfxGufoGm;cJh&onf?
jynfwGif;jynfyEdkifiHrsm;wGif emrnfqdk;jzifhausmf=um;cJhaom OD;
pdefvGifonf rGefjynfe,f/ aygifjrdKŒe,f/ aumhu&if&GmwGif tzOD;a&$&if/
trda':rm=uD;wd@k rS 1924/ Zefe0g&v
D 22 &ufae@wiG f zGm;jrifco
hJ nf? y
nmt&nftcsi;f edryhf g;I ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf wyf&if; (1) wyf
cGJ (3) Y wyfom;tjzpf 0ifa&mufppfrx
_ rf;&if; *syefacwf r*Fvm'kH ppf
wuUov
dk Af kv
d o
f ifwef;wwd,odk@ wufa&mufcho
J ljzpfonf? xd@k aemuf
ajcvsifwyf&if;(3)/ csif;aoewfudkifwyf&if;/ trSwf (4) aoewfudkif
wyf&if;wdk@Y toD;oD;xrf;&GufcJholjzpfonf?
,if;aemuf taemufawmifwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf 'kwdkif;rSL;/ taemuf
ajrmufwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyw
f idk ;f rSL;tjzpf aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ jl zpfonf? xdkrw
S qifh
or0g,r0ef=uD;Xme/ ydk@aqmifqufoG,af &;0ef=uD;Xme/ jynfxJa&;ESifh
omoema&;0ef=u;D Xmewd@k Y 0ef=u;D tjzpfvnf;aumif; xrf;&Gucf o
hJ v
l nf;
jzpfonf?

58

oef;0if;vIi
d f

xdk@aemuf EdkifiHawmfaumifpD0iftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ EdkifiHawmf
aumifpt
D wGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ rqvygwD wGzJ uftaxGaxG
twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif; tqifhqifhxrf;aqmifcJholjzpfonf?
rqvygwD OuUXESifh EdkifiHawmforRwtjzpf EkwfxGuo
f Gm;cJhjyD;aemuf
2004 ckESpf/ {jyDv 9 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf?
rqvtpdk;&u =o*kwfv 8 &ufae@rS =o*kwfv 14 &ufae@txd
&Spfq,fh&pS f'Drku
d a&pDta&;awmfy=kH uD;tm; t=urf;zufjzdKcGi;f cJhr_a=umifh
aoqkH;ol/ '%f&m&ol/ zrf;qD;xdef;odr;f cH&olrsm;udk xdefcsefI atmuf
ygtwdik f; xkwfjyefcJhonf?
(u) aoqk;H olrsm;? ? trsKd;om; (106) OD;/ trsKd;orD; (8) OD;/
pkpkaygif; (114) OD;?
(c) '%f&m&olrsm;? /? oHCm (6) yg;/ trsKd;om; (304) OD;/
trsK;d orD; (26)OD;/ pkpkaygif; (336)OD;?
(*) zrf;qD;xde;f odrf;cJ&h olrsm;? ? oHCm (27) yg;/ trsKd;om;
(2557) OD;/ trsK;d orD; (381) OD;/ pkpak ygi;f (2965) OD;wd@k jzpf
onf?
xdkumvwGif vkjH cKHa&;wyfzJ@G 0ifrsm; xdcdkufaoqkH; '%f&m&&Sdr_ t
ajctaersm;udkvnf; (u) wyfrawmf
(1) aoqkH;ol
(2) OD;
(2) '%f&m&ol (10) OD;
(3) vufeufwvuf qkH;±_H;?
(c) jynfol@&J
(1) aoqkH;
(2) '%f&m&
(3) vufeuf

(16) OD;
(4) OD;
(27) vuf qkH;±_H;wdk@jzpfonf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

59

xdkumvtwGi;f t=urf;zufrr_ sm;a=umifh ysuq
f ;D qk;H ±_;H r_pm&if;rsm;
udv
k nf; oufqikd &f m0ef=u;D Xmetvdu
k f atmufygtwdik ;f azmfjycJo
h nf?
(u) aqmufvyk af &;0ef=uD;Xme
usyf (1827260)
(c) jyef=um;a&;0ef=uD;Xme
usyf (802255)
(*) pGr;f tif0ef=uD;Xme
usyf (2843983)
(C) v,f,mESio
hf pfawm0ef=uD;Xme
usyf (141550)
(i) trSwf (1) pufr0_ ef=uD;Xme
usyf (725346)
(p) or0g,r0ef=uD;Xme
usyf (10373778)
1988 =o*kwfvwGif jzpfyGm;cJhaom &Spfq,fh&Spf 'Drdkua&pDta&;
awmfykHonf &efukefjrdK@wckwnf;wGifomr[kwfbJ EdkifiHtESH@/ +rdKŒe,ft
rsm;tjym;wGijf zpfymG ;cJ&h m qk;H ±_;H ysufp;D r_rsm;/ aoa=u'%f&m&ol trsm;
tjym;&SdcJhonf?
TuJhok@d tajctaersm;±_yaf xG;aepOfumvtwGif;rSmyif rqv
ygwD ygwAD [dak umfrwD (11) =urd af jrmuf tpnf;ta0;udk 1988 =o*kwf
v 19 &ufae@wGif &efukefjrdKΠjynfol@v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;cef;rY
usif;yjyKvkyfcJhonf? xdktpnf;ta0;rS vpfvyfoGm;aomygwDOuUX
ae&mtm; ygwAD [dktvkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwD0if a'guw
f marmifarmif
tm; a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcJh=uonf? xdkae@ ae@vnfydkif;wGif qufvuf
usif;yaom pwkwt
Î =udrf jynfol@vw
$ fawmftpnf;ta0;rS Edik fiHawmf
aumifpOD uUXESihf Edkiif aH wmforRwtjzpf a'gufwmarmifarmifukyd if a&G;
cs,fvu
dk fa=umif; a=unmcJhonf?
a'guw
f marmifarmifonf EdkifiaH wmforRwjzpfvmjyD;aemuf EdkifiH
awmfaumifp.
D a=unmcsuftrSwf (7§88) jzifh EdkifiHawmfwGif vuf&Sd
jzpfysuaf eaom Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ jynfo@l a&;&mpDrcH ef@cGaJ &; tajc
taet&yf&yfESifhpyfvsOf;I jynfolwk@d . ppfreS faomoabmxm;rsm;udk
&,lEkid f&eftwGuf jynfo@l w&m;ol=uD;tzGJ@OuUX OD;wifatmif[ed ;f OuU
Xtjzpfaqmif&u
G rf nfh jynfo@l qENavhvmpkpH rf;a&;aumfr&Sifudk tzGJ@0if
11 OD;jzifh 1988 =o*kwfv 19 &ufae@rS tpjyKI atmufygtwdki;f zGJ@

60

oef;0if;vIi
d f

pnf;cJhonf?
(u) OD;wifatmif[ed ;f - OuUX (OuUX/ jynfol@w&m;ol=u;D tzG@J )
(c) OD;pef;armif - tzGJ@0if (EdkifiHawmfaumifpD0if)
(*) OD;pdkif;atmifxGef; - tzJG@0if (EdkifiaH wmfaumifpD0if)
(*) a'gufwm ref;oufpH - tzJG@0if (EdkifiHawmfaumifpD0if)
(i) OD;bjidrf; - ('kwd,OuUX/ tvkyform;tpnf;t±kH;/ A[dkOD;pD;
tzG@J XmecsKyf)
(p) OD;cspfaqG - ('kwd,OuUX/ awmifolv,form;tpnf;t±kH;
A[dkOD;pD;tzGJ@XmecsKyf)
(q) a'gufwmxGef;oif - (ygarmuQcsKyf/ aq;wuUodkvfrE Wav;)
(Z) OD;vSxGe;f - (jynfo@l vw
$ fawmfu,
dk pf m;vS,/f ausmufwef;2)
(ps) OD;apmv_dif - (ausmif;tkyf=uD;/ [oFmwaumvdyf)
(n) OD;atmifw;kd - twGi;f a&;rSL; (tzG@J 0if/ 0efxrf;a&G;cs,af vhusihf
a&;tzGJ@)
(É) OD;cifarmifat; - wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL; (n$ef=um;a&;rSL;csKyf/
A[dkw&m;±kH;/ jynfol@w&m;ol=uD;tzGJ@)
xdkpOftwGif; ociftkef;jrifhonf a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ocif
wifjrESifhrdwfqufay;cJhonf?
ocifwifjronf ociftek ;f jrif.
h urf;vSrf;csut
f & a':atmifqef;
pk=unfok@d tultnDay;&eftwGuf oabmwlncD suEf Spcf suu
f kd awmif;
qkcd Jhonf?
(1) a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS fh OD;axG;;jrifw
h @dk EpS Of D; a&;om;xkwjf yef
xm;aom tpd;k &ESihjf ynfolwk@d tm; arwWm&yfccH sufpmwrf;wGif jrefrmhqkd
&S,v
f pfygw0D ifrsm;tm; *dk%f;*%&So
d abmxm;&Sdjcif;onf rSm;,Gif;ae
onf? xdkoabmxm;udk ±kyfodrf;&ef?
(2) aemif ygwpD 'Hk rD u
kd a&pD tajctaersm;ay:xGe;f vmjyD; Edik if aH &;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

61

ygwDrsm;ay:aygufvmygu ol@ (ocifwifjr) tm; EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;wGif
ryg0ifr_udk cGifhjyK&ef?
xdo
k abmwlncD sufEpS cf sufukd a':atmifqef;pk=unfu oabmwl
vufccH haJ =umif; jyef=um;cJo
h jzifh ocifwifjru a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd
uln&D ef qufoG,cf jhJ cif;jzpfonf? xd@k aemufwiG f ocifwifjr t=uHay;cJh
onft
h wdki;f a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@kd a&;om;xkwaf 0cJah om “jynfo@l
twdkifyifcHuGefz&ifhusif;yI jy\emrsm; nd‡E_dif;ajz&Sif;a&;” pmwrf;
wGifyg&Sdonfh rqvygw0D ifrsm;tay: *kd%f;*%oabmxm;jzifh a&;
om;xm;csufudk jzKwfy,f&efpmwrf;udk xyfrH±ku
d fESdyfjzef@jzL;cJhonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf xdak rwWm&yfcHcsufpmwrf;udk xdkpOfu
Edik if aH wmfaumifpt
D wGi;f a&;rSL; ol&OD;ausmx
f iftm;qufo,
G fjyD; ay;yd@k
cJhonf? vlcsif;awG@qkH&efvnf; =udK;pm;cJhonf? odk@aomf awG@qkHcGifhr&cJh
ay? xdk@aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf ol.oabmxm;udk a'guf
wmarmifarmifxw
H ifjy&ef ocifwifjrtm;wifjyI =uKd ;pm;cJah o;onf?
ocifwifjru a':atmifqef;pk=unf. tultnDawmif;cHr_rsm;ESihf ywf
owfI yxrOD;pGm olESi&hf if;ES;D aom w&m;ol=uD;tzG@J OuUX OD;wifatmif
[def;tm; qufoG,ftultnDawmif;=unfhrnf? OD;wifatmif[def;
oabmwlv#if OD;wifatmif[ed ;f ESifh yxrawG@jy;D a'guw
f marmifarmif
ESifh qufvufawG@qkH&efwdk@udk t=uHay;cJhonf[kod&onf? xdkudpPudk
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu oabmwlojzifh OD;wifatmif[ed ;f ESihf awG@qkH
a&;twGuf ocifwifjronf Akdvrf SL;&JxËG f (&Jabmok;H usdyf0if) ESifh oGm;
a&mufaqG;aEG;cJhonf? Adv
k rf SL;&JxËG u
f OD;wifatmif[de;f udk oGm;a&muf
awG@qckH JhjyD; a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh orRw a'gufwmarmifarmifwdk@
awG@qaHk qG;aEG;Edkiaf &;twGuf =um;rS yg0ifaqmif&u
G af y;&ef aqG;aEG;cJh&m
OD;wifatmif[def;u oabmwlcJhonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh OD;wifatmif[def;wdk@ awG@qHak &;twGuf
pDpOfch=J u&m 1988 ckEpS f/ =o*kwfv 21 &ufae@wiG f awG@qHjk zpfcJh=uonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu “jynfol@twdik fyifcn
H v
D mcHusi;f yI jy\em

62

oef;0if;vIi
d f

nd‡E_dif;ajz&Sif;a&;” pmwrf;ygoabmxm;rsm;udk OD;wifatmif[de;f tm;
&Si;f jyjyD; a'guw
f marmifarmifEiS hf awG@qaHk qG;aEG;wifjycGi&hf &S&d ef =um;rS
tultnDay;a&;udpu
P dk wifjycJhonf?
xd&k uftwGif;rSmyif a':atmifqef;pk=unfu ocifwifjrudk EdkifiH
a&;acgi;f aqmif;a[mif;rsm;/ wwfoyd nm&Sit
f pkrsm;ESihf awG@qakH qG;aEG;
vdo
k nfhta=umif; ajymvmjyefojzifh ocifwifjru taumiftxnf
azmfay;cJhonf? ocifwifjronf olESio
fh u
d |rf;aom armifuk,
d kESifh awG@
qkHjyD; wwfodynm&Sifrsm;ESifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@awG@qkHa&;udk t
ultnDawmif;cHcJhonf?
xdktpDpOft& 1988 =o*kwv
f 21 &ufae@ rGef;vGJ 1 em&DwGif
=unfjh rifwdkif/ Adv
k o
f l&vrf;teD;&Sd vufzuf&nfqdkifwqdkif. tay:xyf
wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS fh Edik if aH &;orm;a[mif;rsm;jzpf=uonfh 0d"&l
ocifcspfarmif/ ocif cifatmif/ ocifxeG ;f cif/ a&SŒaetoif;rS OD;bxGe;f /
armifuk,
d /k OD;xGe;f wif/ rk&H Gmwifa&$/ pmayynm&Sirf sm;jzpf=uonfh OD;0if;
wif ([Hom0wDowif;pm)/ armifaomfu/ OD;vS0if;(avol&w
J OD;)/ a':
atmifqef;pk=unf. ±kH;tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf=uaom ocifwifjr/ Adv
k fpHom
ausmf/ OD;omxGef;(ausmufjzL)/ OD;vSwifwdk@wufa&muf aqG;aEG;yGJjyK
vkyfch=J uonf?
,if;aqG;aEG;yGJu OD;wifatmif[ed f;OD;aqmifaom jynfo@l qENcH,l
a&;aumfr&Sifudk todtrSwfjyKjyD; jynfol@qENv_yf&mS ;r_rsm;udk Oya'
abmiftwGif;rS jidrf;csrf;pGm;v_yf&Sm;&ef/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf acgif;
aqmifI vlxktpnf;ta0;yGJ=uD;wck tjrefqkH;jyKvkyf&efw@dk udk oabm
wlqkH;jzwfcJh=uonf?
xdkpOftwGif; 1988 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv 24 &ufae@wGif EdkifiHawmf
aumifpOD uUX a'guw
f marmifarmifxHo@kd rsKd;cspw
f yfrLS ;a[mif;=u;D rsm;.
tcsuf (10) ygaomwifjycsuw
f apmif (23/ 8/ 88) &ufae@wGif xGuf
ay:vmcJhonf? tqdyk g 10 csuw
f iG f “wygwDavm/ ygwpD Hak vm”/ “jynf
ol@qENc,
H al ep&mrvdkawmha=umif;”ESifh “=um;jzwftpd;k &”zG@J pnf;ay;I

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

63

'Dru
kd a&pDa&G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufyJrG sm; jyKvkyaf y;&ef t"du azmfjycJh=uonf?
vufrw
S fa&;xdk;Iawmif;qdck Jh=uaom wyfrSL;rsm;rSm (1) AdkvfrSL;csKyfa[mif; OD;atmifa&$
(2) AdkvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;apmjrifh
(3) AdkvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;vGif
(4) Akdvrf SL;=uD;a[mif; oD[ol& OD;vSarmf
(5) Akv
d frSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;=unf0if;
(6) Adkvrf SL;=uD;a[mif; OD;a&$
(7) Adv
k frSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;wifOD;
(8) Akv
d frSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;wifarmif
(9) AdkvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;odef;wkwf
(10)AdkvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;cspfcdkif
(11) AdkvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;wifxGef;
(12)Akv
d frSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;batmif
(13) AkdvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;at;armif
(14) AdkvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;=unfarmif
(15)AkdvfrSL;=uD;a[mif; OD;xGef;atmifausmf
wdk@jzpf=uonf?
'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJ0ifaumfrwD (&efukef)uvnf; ,if;tzGJ@. o
abmxm;udk atmufygtwdki;f xkwfjyefco
Jh nf?
(u) vwfwavmtajctaet& jynfolrsm;.qENazmfxkwfjyD;
jzpfojzifh qENcH,lyGJ jyKvkyf&efrvdk?
(c) jynfol@qENazmfxkwfyJG ta&;ay: ygwDnDvmcHESifh ta&;ay:
v$wfawmfwdk@udk oydwfarSmuf&ef?
(*) vuf&SdzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'udk zsufodrf;ay;&ef?
(C) v$wfawmfESihw
f uG tm%mydkiftzGJtpnf;rsm;tm;vkH;udk
jynfolrsm;u xkwfy,fjyD;jyDqo
dk nfhta=umif; a'o/ jrdK@e,f/
&yfuu
G faus;&Gm/ a'otvdkuf a=unmoGm;&ef?

64

oef;0if;vIi
d f

(i) =um;jzwftpdk;& csufcsif;zGJ@pnf;oGm;&ef?
(p) ygwDpkHa&G;aumufyGJ tjrefqH;k usif;y&efwdk@jzpfonf?
Todk@jzifh jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;u tkHºuGawmif;qdkr_a=umifh jynf
ol@qENavhvmpkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sifudk zsufodrf;vdkufa=umif; a=unmcJh
onf? od@k jzifh xdkae@rSmyif orRw a'guw
f marmifarmifu ppftkycf sKyfa&;
Oya'udk ±kyfodr;f vdkufa=umif; a=unmcJhonf?
xdk@jyif xdkae@rSmyif OD;atmif=uD;tygt0if zrf;qD;xm;olrsm;ESifh
tusOf;om;pkpkaygif; 2750 udk jyefv$wfay;cJhonf?
,if;tajctaersm;udk rqv ygwOD uUXESihf orRw a'gufwmarmif
armifu =o*kwfv 24 &ufae@n 8 em&DwGif wdkif;jynfodk@ toHv$ifhred f@
cGef; ajym=um;cJhonf? 4if;rdef@cGef;wGif “..........aemufESpfywf okH;ywftwGif;rSm ygwDta&;ay:nDvmcH
xyfac:ygr,f? wygwDpepfudk ESpfoufovm;/ ygwDpkHpepfudkESpfouf
ovm;/ jynfol@qENc,
H lzk@d tqdkjyefwifyghr,f/ nDvmcHu jynfo@l qENcH
,lz@dk jiif;y,fv#if usaemftygt0if ygwAfD [dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwD
0if (14) OD; tm;vk;H ygwDwm0efrS Ekwx
f u
G f=uygr,f? nDvmcHu jynfo@l
qENc,
H zl k@d q;kH jzwf&if aemufae@rmS jynfo@l v$waf wmfu tpnf;ta0;qk;H

a':atmifqef;pkMunf vlxpk nf;a0;yJGü rdecfY Ge;f ajymMum;aepOf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

65

jzwfjyD; tjrefqH;k jynfv;kH u|wfqENcH,lyGJusif;yzdk@ pDpOfyghr,f? jynfol@
qENc,
H lyGJu=dk uD;=uyfzdk@ aumfr&Sifw&yfudk jynfolawG av;pm;,kH=unf
rnfhyk*~dKvfrsm;jzifh jynfolawGeJ@nd‡E_dif;jyD; zGJ@pnf;ygr,f? tJh'Da&G;aumuf
yGaJ wGrSmawmh usaemfa&m EdkifiHawmfaumifpD/ 0ef=uD;tzGJ@/ jynfo@l w&m;
ol=uD;tzGJ@/ jynfo@l Oya'tusKd;aqmiftzGJ@e@J jynfol@vyk if ef;ppfaq;a&;
tzGJ@wdk@rS yk*dK~ vfrsm;a&m 0ifa&mufti&G;cH=uawmhrSm r[kwfygbl;? a&G;
cs,fwifajr‡mufcH&jyD;wJhaemuf zGJ@pnf;rnft
h zGJ@tpnf;rsmudk wm0efv$J
ajymif;ay;zdk@udkom tajccHOya'u tyfESif;xm;onfhwm0efESifhtnD
apmifhxdef;aqmif&Guo
f Gm;=urSmomjzpfygw,f”[lI rdef@=um;cJhonf?
,if;odk@ ppftkyfcsKyfa&;±kyfodrf;a=umif;a=unmcJhojzifh &efukejf rdK@
wGi;f Y vkHjcKHa&;wm0efxrf;&Gufaeaom vkHjcKHa&;wyfz@GJ rsm;udk ±kyford ;f I
&efuek fjrdKŒtpGef/ jrdKŒjyifESifh ta&;=uD;aomtaqmufttkHrsm;/ puf±kH/
tvkyf±rkH sm;/ wuUokv
d fy&0k%frsm;od@k ajymif;a&$ŒtajcjyKapjyD; toifzh J@G
pnf;xm;&Scd Jhonf?
xdkuo
Jh dk@ vkHjcKHa&;wyfzJ@G 0ifrsm; &efukefjrdKŒrS ±kyford f;oGm;jyD;aemuf
tif;pdefaxmiftygt0if tjcm;tusOf;axmifrsm;rS &mZ0wftusOf;
om;rsm;pGm jypf'%frsm;av#mah ygI
h tpdk;&u w&m;0ifv$wfay;cJhonf?
xdo
k @kd axmiftoD;oD;rS v$wv
f u
kd af om &mZ0wftusOf;om;rsm;onf
*dak 'girf sm;azmufjcif;/ vk,ufowfjzwfjcif;/ jynfolyidk fypPn;f rsm; zsupf ;D
jcif;rsm; qufvufjyKvyk fvmcJo
h nf? xdk@a=umifh jynfov
l x
l krmS rdrw
d @kd jrdKŒ
e,ftvdku/f &yfuGut
f vdu
k /f uif;tzGJ@rsm;zG@J pnf;jcif;/ 0g;uyfrsm;/ jcpH nf;
±dk;rsm;um&Hxm;&Sdjcif;wdk@udk jyKvkyfcJh=ujyD; "g;vSH/ 0g;c|efrsm;udkiaf qmif
v#uf ae@/ n rjywf vkHjcKHa&;uif;rsm; csxm;apmifh=unfhcJh=uonf?
xdkpOftwGif; =o*kwv
f 24 &ufae@wGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvm
aom AkdvfrLS ;csKyaf [mif;atmif=uD;onf =o*kwv
f 25 &ufae@ naeydik ;f
wGif prf;acsmif;jrdK@e,f y'krRmuGif;Y vlxk (5000) wufa&mufonfh
a[majymyGJwckjyKvkyfcJhonf? xdka[majymyGJY OD;atmif=uD;u wyfr
awmfukd rjzKd caJG &;/ vuf&aSd cgif;aqmifrsm; Ekwx
f Guaf y;a&;/ ,m,Dtpdk;&

66

oef;0if;vIi
d f

zGJ@pnf;a&;ESihf 'Drdkua&pDwdk@udk a[majymcJhonf?
=o*kwfv 26 &ufae@wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf; a&$wd*kH
bk&m; taemufzufrkcfY a[majymyGJjyKvkyfcJhonf? xdka[majymyGJodk@
&JabmfokH;usdyf0ifAdkv&f efEdkifESifh ±kyf&Sifrif;om;OD;xGef;a0wdk@vnf; wuf
a&mufch=J uonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfu“&[ef;&Siv
f l jynfot
l aygi;f
wd@k / tck vlxktpnf;ta0;=uD;[m jynfov
l x
l k&ŒJ qENukd wurBmvkH;u
odap&ef xkwaf zmfjyvdu
k w
f mygyJ? tJ'h aD wmh vlxt
k pnf;ta0;yG=J uD;rSm
jynfov
l x
l [
k m pnf;urf;&S&d deS @J nDnDnw
$ n
f w
$ f qufjyD; vkyfoGm;=uyg&
ap/ tck't
D pnf;ta0;yG=J u;D wem&De;D yg;aemufuswmudv
k J usrawmif;
yefygw,f/ 'Duv
dk mwJhtcgrSm vrf; tifrwefydwaf ewma=umifhrdk@v@dk r
a&mufvmEdkifcjJh cif;jzpfygw,f?
'Duae@ usif;ywJhtpnf;ta0;yGJ=uD;uawmh jynfov
l lxkw&yfvH;k
[m ygwDpkH'rD dkua&pDpepfu&dk csifaewJhqEN jyif;jyaewma=umifhrdk@ usif;
y&wJh tpnf;ta0;yGJ=uD;jzpfygw,f/ tcktpnf;ta0;yGJ=uD; jzpfEidk fwJh
tajctaeudk b,folawGupjy;D OD;aqmifcw
Jh mvJqadk wmh Armjynfu
ausmif;om;ausmif;oltaygif;jzpfygw,f? 'Dausmif;olausmif;om;t
aygi;f &JΠOD;aqmifra_ =umifh 'Dausmif;olausmif;om;taygi;f [m touf
taocHjyD; OD;aqmifay;cJw
h ma=umifhrdk@ usrwdk@ 'Dvdktpnf;ta0;yG=J uD;
vkyfEidk w
f t
Jh ajctaeudk a&mufch&J ygw,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd v@dk toufaysmuf
oGm;wJh ausmif;om;ausmif;oltm;vkH;udk wrdepfcef@*%
k fjyKjyD;aemuf
tr#a0wJhtaeeJ@ tm;vkH;wdwfwdwfqdwfqdwfjidrfjidrf wrdepfcef@jidraf p
csifygw,f?
tcrf;tem;rSL;.toH (usqkH;oGm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;udk t
av;jyKaomtm;jzifh wrdepfcef@jidro
f ufyg&ef arwWm&yfcHygonfcifAsm;)?
tckqv
kd @dk &d&S if tm;vkH; 'DrmS a&mufae=uwJh vlxyk &dwo
f wf=uD;[m
'Dru
kd a&pDpepfukd ar#mfreS f;jyD;awmh 'DrmS a&mufaew,fv@kd xifygw,f/ tJ'h D
awmh'Drdkua&pDyef;wdik fudka&mufzdk@&mrSm vlxt
k m;vk;H u pnf;pnf;vkH;
vkH;/ nDnDn$wn
f $wf/ pnf;urf;&Sd&deS @J csDwufrSyJ a&mufEdkifrmS yg? 'Dupd Pudk

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

67

usrtcef;u¾udv
k J enf;enf;&Sifjyyg&ap/ bmjzpfvk@d vJqadk wmh vl t
aygif;u usrta=umif;udk odyfjyD;awmh rod=uygbl;/ rod=uwJhtcgus
awmh odcsifwJhqENawGvnf;&Sdygw,f/ 'gu rSefwJhtwdkif;ygyJ/ odawmh
vnf;odxdkufygw,f/ tJh'aD wmh tcsK@d uvnf; ajym=uw,f/ usr[m
Edik if jH cm;rSmaew,f/ Edik fijH cm;om;eJ@trd af xmifusaew,f/ jrefrmjynfEkid f
iH a&;ta=umif; bmodovJv@kd vJ ajym=uygw,f/ yxr usr'Duaepjy;D
awmh jynfolvlxek @J yGiyhf iG v
fh if;vif; qufqyH g&ap/ usrEdik if Hjcm;rSm aecJh
w,fqw
dk mvJ rSefygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'gav;twGufa=umifheJ@ usr wdkif;
jynftay:rSmxm;wJharwWm[m b,fvdkeJ@rS usqif;roGm;Edkifygbl;?
aemufwckajymcsifwmuawmh usr[m jrefrmjynfEdkifiHa&;t
a=umif; bmrSem;rvnf;bl;wJh/ wu,fawmh em;vnfvGef;vdk@cufae
wmyJ/ jrefrmhEdkifiHa&; b,favmuf±_yfaxG;w,f/ 'D±_yfaxG;r_'%fudk az
azb,favmufccH &hJ w,fqw
dk m usrwd@k rdom;pk todq;Hk ygy/J azaz pdwf
yrf;udk,fyrf;eJ@ 'DEdkifiHa&;udkvkyfaqmifvmwm[m bmtusKd;pnf;pdrrf S
rcHpm;cJh&ygbl;/ 'ga=umifhrdk@vdk@vJ vGwfvyfa&;&jyD;wJhtcgusvdk@&Sd&if
xyfjyD;awmhtm%mvkwJh EdkifiHa&;rsKd;udk qufrvkyfbl;qdkwm azaz t
wdtvif; ajymoGm;ygw,f?
'Dvkad jymoGm;rsK;d a=umifhr@kd vJ usrvJ Edik if Ha&;avmueJ@ a0;a0; uif;
uif;aecsifygw,f/ tJh'Dvkd a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifcJhvsufom;eJ@ tckrS
bmvdk@'Dvt
dk a&;tcif;rSm yg0ifaeovJvk@d ar;p&m&Sdygw,f/ tJh'D[mu
awmh 'Dta&;tcif;[m wwdkif;jynfvkH;eJ@qdkifwJh ta&;tcif;jzpfaeyg
w,f/ usrvJ azazh&JŒorD;vkyaf ejyD;awmh acgif;a&Smifjy;D awmhaevd@k rjzpf
awmhbl;/ 'Dta&;tcif;[m wu,fawmh 'kwd, vGwv
f yfa&; wdkuyf GJ
=uD;vdk@ ac:&ifvnf;jzpfygw,f/ 'Drdkua&pDvGwfvyfa&;udkwrsKd;om;vkH;
vdkcsifwJhqENjyif;jyvGef;vd@k jzpfay:vmwJhwku
d fyGJ=uD;jzpfygw,f?
'Dru
dk a&pDe@J ywfowf&if azazajymcJw
h t
hJ csuaf v;wckukd usrzwf
jycsifygw,f? 'Dtcsufuawmh “usaemfwdk@[m 'Drdkua&pD0g'udkom
acwfpm;atmifvky&f r,f/ tJh'D0g'rsKd;t&om vGwfvyfwJhArmEdkifiH xl

68

oef;0if;vIi
d f

axmifEdkifatmif=udK;pm;&r,f/ 'grsKd;rvkyEf idk f&if usaemfwk@d jrefrmjynfu
vlawGveJ pfemr,f/ usaemfw@kd wikd ;f jynfuv
kd J urBmu =unfah evd@k r&wJh
wae@ *syefeJ@*smreD 0dkif;jyD;tESrd fcH&ovdk tESdrfcH&r,fqdkwmudk owd
&Sd=u&r,f? 'Drku
d a&pD0g'uom vGwfvyfa&;eJ@ qDavsmfw,f? 'D0g'om
jidrf;csrf;a&;udk tm;ay;w,f?” tJh'g[m azazajymcJhwJh pum;awGyg/
'ga=umifhr@dk vdk@ usr[m usr&J@taz tpOftvmtwdik ;f 'Drku
d a&pD
vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJudk 0ifvdk@ E$Jc&Jh ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drdkua&pD&zdk@&ef
jynfov
l lxktm;vk;H pnf;vkH;nDn$wfzdk@vdkygw,f/ nDn$wf&if bmrqdk
jzpfEkid fygw,f/ rnDn$wf&if bmrSrwwfEidk fbl;?
jynfolvlx[
k m nDnDn$wfn$wfr&SdEdkifvdk@&Sd&if b,f0g'yJjzpfjzpf
wdkif;jynfudk tusKd;ray;Edkifbl;? tJh'D[mudk tm;vkH;pGJrSwfxm;zdk@ vdkyg
w,f? pnf;urf;r&Sdvdk@&d&S ifvnf; b,f0g'rS ratmifEidk fygbl;? tJh'Dawmh
usrwdk@ EdkifiHoEl kid fiHom;awG[m nDnw
$ zf @kd / pnf;urf;&Sdzk@d tjrJvkyd gw,f?
'DnDn$wfzdk@ta=umif;awGajymaewkef;rSm usrwdk@wckyJajymcsifyg
w,f? ,ck usrajymoGm;wJh pum;awGxJrmS wcsKd@uvnf; oabmus
r,fhpum;awGygr,f/ rusr,fhpum;awGvnf;ygr,f/ 'gayr,fh usr t
aeeJ@uawmh jynfolvlxkudk rSefrSefuefuefajymoifhw,fvdk@ ,kH=unf
w,f/ usrpdwfxrJ Sm&Sdovdk rSefrSeu
f efuef ajymoGm;rSmyJ/ =udKuf&ifvJ
axmufcH=uyg/ r=udKuf&ifvJ usrpdwfxJrSm rSefwJhtwdik f;vkyfwmyJ/ r
=udKufwmawmh b,fvdkrSrwwfEdkifbl;/ usr wckajymcsifwmu tck
tcsdefrSm wyfrawmfe@J jynfolvlxkt=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uGJae=uygw,f/
'Dpdwf0rf;uGJr_[m aemifwdkif;jynftwGuf tE W&m,ftrsK;d rsKd;jzpfEdkifyg
w,f? Armhwyfrawmfqw
dk m usrtaz jyKpyk sK;d axmifay;cJw
h hJ wyfrawmf
yg?
azaz ysKd;axmifcw
Jh Jh wyfrawmfqkw
d m pum;t&omr[kwfygbl;/
tppftrSefygyJ/ azazudk,fwidk f ca&aphwGif;us atmufajcuaepjyD;
awmh 'Dwyfrawmfudk xlaxmif&r,fqdkwm ol@vufa&;eJ@ a&;xm;wJh
pm&Gupf mwrf;awGv&J ySd gw,f/ azazu wyfrawmftwGuf bm&nfrSef;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

69

csufawG&SdcJhovJ/ tJh'D&nfrSef;csufwckavmuf usr zwfjyyg&ap?
“'Dwyfrawmf[m 'DEdkifiH/ 'DvlrsKd;twGuf/ 'DvlrsKd;awGudk;uG,f&m/
vJavsmif;&m/ qnf;uyf&mqdw
k hJ taersK;d jzpfap&r,f/ 'Dvrkd [kwb
f J wyf
rawmfu Edik if o
H El idk if Hom;awG&ŒJ pdwx
f rJ mS atmhEv
S ;Hk emp&mjzpfr,fqk&d if
'Dwyfrawmfudkwnfaxmifxm;wJh &nf&G,cf sufawG[m tvum;jzpf
oGm;awmhrSmyJ?
usr rSerf eS yf aJ jymyg&ap/ usr[m wyfrawmf&@J tay:rSm tifrwef
oHa,mZOf=uD;ygw,f? azazwnfaxmifcw
hJ hJ wyfrawmfvnf;jzpfw,f/
usrwd@k qdw
k mvJ i,fi,fuwnf;u &JabmfawGvufxrJ mS =uD;vmwm
ygy?J jynfolvlxk=uD;uvnf; azazhtay:rSm tifrwefarwWm&Sw
d ,fqdk
wm usrodygw,f? 'DarwWmawGtwGufvnf; usr tifrwefaus;Zl;
wifygw,f? azazjyKpkysKd;axmifchJww
Jh yfrawmfe@J azazhtay:rSm tifr
wefarwWm&SdwJhvlxk=uD;xJrSm yËdyuQ rjzpfapcsifygbl;/ wyfrawmfom;
awGukv
d nf; usr 'Dae&muaeyJ arwWm&yfcyH g&ap? vlxk tm;ud;k Edik w
f hJ
wyfrawmf=uD;jzpfygap/ wdkif;jynf. *k%foduQmudkxdef;odrf;EdkifwhJ wyf
rawmf=uD; jzpfygap/ jynfov
l x
l kuvnf; jzpfjyD;cJhwh[
J mawGukd =udK;pm;
cGiv
fh $wfjyD;awmh wyfrawmftay:rSm arwWmrysufygapeJ@v@dk awmif;yef
yg&ap? usrwdk@tm;vk;H [m nDnDnw
$ n
f w
$ ef @J qufvyk o
f mG ;rSom wnf
wHch dkifjrJwJh jynfaxmifpkyef;wdkif=uD;udk a&mufEkid frmS yg? tck ra&mufao;
ygb;l / 'Dru
dk a&pDyef;wdkiu
f adk wmif ra&mufao;ygb;l / ra&mufcifu uGJuJG
jym;jym; r&SdygeJ@? tm;vkH;wnDwn$wx
f J 'Drku
d a&pDyef;wdik u
f kd OD;wnfjy;D
awmhcsDwufoGm;=uyg? tJh'Dvdk csDwufoGm;wJhae&mrSm jidrf;csrf;wJeh nf;
vrf;udk ok;H apcsiyf gw,f/ vlrsK;d wrsK;d [m Edik fio
H El idk fiHom;taygif;wd@k [m
pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ@ +idrf;csrf;wJhenf;awGeJ@ udk,fvdkwq
Jh ENawGudk jznfhpGrf;Edkif
w,fqkw
d m tifrwef*k%foduQmeJ@jynfph kHwJhtjyKtrljzpfygw,f?
'Dvy_ &f Sm;r_=uD;udk OD;aqmifchw
J haJ usmif;om;awGeJ@ ywfowfvk@d usr
ajymp&mav;awG&ySd gw,f/ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tifrwefraS wmf
ygw,f? olw@dk &ŒJ vuf±kH;&nfukv
d J jyjyD;ygjy/D tckvJ qufjyD;awmhow
l @dk &JŒ

70

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ESv;kH &nfudk jyr,fqdkwm usr,kH=unfygw,f?
'Dausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf; tcsif;csif;nDnDn$wn
f $wfeJ@ qufjyD;
vufwo
JG mG ;zd@k usr arwWm&yfccH siyf gw,f/ tckq&kd if ausmif;om;awGxJ
rSmvnf; tzGJ@tpnf;awG&=Sd uygw,f/ 'DtzGJ@tpnf;awG[m tm;vkH;
pk±kH;jyD;awmh wnDwn$wfwnf; jzpfomG ;apcsiyf gw,f/ tJh'[
D mtwGuf
vJ ausmif;om;nDvmcHwckac:r,fvdk@ usr=um;aeygw,f/ 'DnDvmcH
=u;D jzpfay:vmwJt
h cgus&if ausmif;om;awGtm;vk;H wpkwpnf;wnf;
jzpfoGm;ygapvd@k usr qkawmif;vdkufygw,f?
ausmif;om;av;awGu usrudak r;=uw,f? usr&JŒaemufrmS b,f
Edkiif Ha&;orm;awG&SdaeovJ/ 'DEdkifiHa&;orm;awG[m usrudk=udK;qGJjyD;
awmh olw@dk uked if;oGm;rSmudk pdk;&drw
f ,fvk@d ajym=uygw,f/ tJh'Dvdk yGiyfh Gifh
vif;vif;ajymwm usrtifrwef0rf;omw,f/ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;
tifrwefyiG v
hf if;w,f/ oG,0f u
kd w
f phJ um;awG rajymwufb;l / usruvJ
rSew
f t
hJ wdkif;yJ jyefjyD;awmhajymvdkuyf gw,f/ usraemufrmS b,fEidk fiaH &;
orm;rS r&Syd gb;l ? usr ckvyk af ewJv
h yk if ef;[mawmh jynfov
l x
l v
k ckd siw
f hJ
'Drdkua&pDjzpfajrmufa&;twGufudk 0dkif;jyD;awmh ulnDcsifygw,fqdkwJh
Edik fiaH &;orm;a[mif;=u;D awG&ydS gw,f/ tJ'h ED idk fiaH &;orm;a[mif;=u;D awG
udk usruawmh &Sif;&Sif;yJajymxm;ygw,f? 'Dvu
dk lnDvdk@ aemifEdkifiHa&;
tjrwfxkwrf ,fqk&d if usrvk;H vk;H raxmufcb
H ;l qdw
k musr tckuwnf;
u ajymxm;ygw,f?
jynfov
l x
l ka&S@rSm usrjyefjyD;awmh ajymygr,f/ 'Drkdua&pD&&Sad &;
twGuf 0dik f;0ef;ulnDwhJ Edik fiaH &;orm;=uD;awG[m aemif Edik fiaH &; tjrwf
xkwfzdk@=udK;yrf;&if usrudk,fwdkifwufjyD;awmh 'Dvl=uD;awGudk ±_HŒcsay;
ygrh ,f?
aemufwckuawmh usrwdk@widk f;jynfrSm vl=uD;eJ@vil ,f=um;xJrSm
uGJumG r_awG&Sdygw,f/ tJh'DuGJuGmr_awGudkvnf; ajz&Sif;zdk@vdkygw,f/ vl
i,fawGuvli,fawG/ vl=u;D awGuvl=u;D awGqw
kd hJ pdwx
f m;awGjzpfaeyg
w,f/ jynfolvlxk&JŒtiftm;[m wae@xufwae@=uD;vmygjyD? 'Dvdk

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

71

=uD;vmvd@k vJ ydjk yD;awmh pnf;eJ@/ urf;eJ@ xde;f zdk@vkyd gw,f/ pnf;r&SdwJh tif
tm;/ trSefw&m;eJ@rudkun
f w
D t
hJ iftm;qdkwm b,fawmhrS aumif;usK;d
ray;Edkifygbl;?
trsm;twGufyg tE &W m,fjzpfEkid fygw,f? tJh'ga=umifhrdk@vdk@ trSef
w&m;eJ@udkufnw
D JhpGrf;tm;udkyJ qufjyD;awmhokH;=uyg/ trSefw&m;eJ@ r
udu
k fnw
D JhpGrf;tm;udk rokH;=uygeJ@? tck vlxb
k ufuae tm;=uD;aewJh
tcsed frmS tm;i,fwt
Jh ykid ;f udv
k J Edik x
f ufp;D eif;rvky=f uyge@J / 'Dvdk Edik x
f uf
pD;eif;vkyfwm[m tusifhraumif;ygbl;/ jynfolvlx&k J@ *k%fou
d Qmudk
vnf; usqif;apygvrd hrf ,f? jynfov
l x
l zk ufuaejyD;awmh cGiv
hf w
$ Ef ikd fwhJ
oabmxm;&Sw
d ,fqdkwmudk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; xifay:ygap/ tckqdk
vdk@&Sd&if usrwdk@[m tm;vkH; jynfov
l lxktaygi;f u bmudkvdkvm;ae
ovJqw
dk mpOf;pm;vdkufv@dk &d&S if t"dutcsuu
f awmh ygwpD kH'Drku
d a&pD
pepfudk vdkvm;ae=uygw,f/ wygwDpepfudk jzKwfcscsif=uygw,f?
aemuf tckqkv
d k@d &d&S if orRw a'guw
f marmifarmif[m vlxq
k ENcH
,lyu
GJ sif;yzdk@/ rusif;yzdk@ nDvmcHac:r,fv@dk qdkygw,f/ usrtaeeJ@ajym
&&ifawmh 'DvlxkqENcH,lyGJ[m rvdkawmhygbl;? wwdkif;jynfvkH;&JΠqEN
[m uGufuGufuiG f;uGif;ay:aeygjyD? tm;vk;H [m ygvrD ef'Drku
d a&pDpepf
udkyJ vdkvm;aew,fqdkwm tifrwefrS ay:vGifaeygjyD? 'Dpepfudk tjref
qkH;ay:vmEdik zf @dk vkyaf y;zdk@qkw
d m ,ck tm%mydik t
f pd;k &awG&ŒJ wm0efjzpf
ygw,f?
yef;wdkifudkra&mufao;bl;qdkwm rarh=uygeJ@? 'Drdkua&pD&wJhtcg
usv@dk &&dS if b,fvjdk ynfaxmifp=k uD;udk wnfwhcH idk fjrJatmif b,fvv
kd yk &f
r,fqkw
d mudk pOf;pm;xm;=uygOD;? wdkif;jynf&JŒtem*wfudk a&S;&_=uyg/
wdkif;jynf&@J tem*wfta&;udk rawG;=uvk@d &d&S if tckvufiif;jzpfay:vm
wJh jyKjyifajymif;vJr_awGuvnf; udk,fhwdkif;jynfudk tusKd;ay;Edkirf Sm r
[kwfygbl;? tJ'h aD wmh azazajymcJo
h vdk usrwd@k Edkiif o
H El kid fio
H m;rsm;[m
pnf;urf;±kad ozd@k / nDnw
$ zf @kd qw
kd mudk b,fEpS cf gyaJ jymajym ajymvd@k rukef
Edkifatmif ajym&r,fhudpP=uD;wckjzpfaeygw,f?

72

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tckusrwd@k [m vlxq
k ENcH,yl =JG uD; rvdkawmhygb;l ? ygwDp'kH Drku
d a&pD
pepfudkyJ vdkvm;ygw,f? 'D[mudk jrefjrefjzpfatmifvkyfay;=uyg/ 'D[m
jzpfay:vmatmifv@kd w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJaG wGjzpfEkid zf @kd tajctae
udk zef;wD;ay;zd@k vykd gw,f? tckqv
kd @kd &d&S if jynfolvx
l w
k &yfv;Hk [m vuf
&Sdtpdk;&tay:rSm t,kHt=unf tifrwefysufaew,f? tJh'Dawmhum
oef@&Sif;pif=u,fwJh/ w&m;r#wwJha&G;aumufyGJjzpfay:vmzdk@ ta&;udk
tu,fIrsm; b,fvjdk zpfatmifvkyf&rvJ/ vkyaf y;zdk@&mawmif;ygw,f?
t"du&nf&,
G cf suu
f awmh 'Dtpk;d &vnf;r[kwfb;l / =um;jzwftpd;k
&vnf;r[kw/f aemuftpdk;&vnf;r[kwfbl;/ jynfaxmifpk=uD; wnfwHh
cdkifjrJ om,m0jzdK;a&;twGuf vkyfay;EdkifwJhtpdk;&ygyJ/ 'D t"duudpP t
ay:rSm rsuaf jcrjywfygapeJ@/ wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ tem*wfta&;udk rarhyge@J /
arhoGm;vd@k &&Sd if tck&&SdwJhatmifjrifr_[m aemifus qkH;±_;H r_jzpfoGm;Edkifyg
w,f? tckusrwdk@ b,ftajctaerSma&mufaejyDv/J yef;wdkifudk uGuf
uGufuGif;uGi;f jrifae&ygjyD? jrifaewJhyef;wdkifudk tm;vk;H vufwJjG y;D awmh
csDwufoGm;=uygpdk@/ pdwf0rf;ruGJ=uygeJ@/ ausmif;om;av;awGzufu t
xl;pdwf0rf;ruGJzdk@vdkygw,f? ausmif;om;av;awGudk pdwf0rf;uGJatmif
vnf; xdk;qGray;=uygeJ@? ausmif;om;av;awG[m wdkif;jynf&JŒtem
*wfacgi;f aqmifay;r,fh vli,fav;awGjzpfygw,f? 'Dausmif;om;av;
awG&@J pw
d f"gwu
f satmif vkyfvku
d rf ,fq&dk if aemifwkid f;jynfnDnw
$ fa&;
twGuv
f J xdyg;oGm;ygvdrhrf ,f?
nDn$wfa&;ta=umif;ajymaewJhtcsed frmS jynfaxmifpkta=umif;
c%avmufajymvdkufyg&ap? vlrsKd;pkawGtm;vkH;[m nDn$wfzdk@vdkyg
w,f? ckvltrsm;pkvlrsKd;pkuawmh jrefrmvlrsKd;awGjzpfygw,f/ vlrsm;pk
jrefrmawG[m vlenf;pkawGjzpfwJh wdkif;&if;om;awGe@J pnf;pnf;vkH;vkH;
jzpfzk@d tvGe=f uKd ;pm;zdk@vykd gw,f? tm;rsm;aewJhvq
l kw
d m tm;enf;aewJh
vlukd tpOftjrJav#mjh y;D awmh n‡may;zd@k vykd gw,f? tJ'h aD e&mrSm 'DwygwD
pepfukd axmufcaH ewJhval wGe@J ywfowfv@kd vJ usr wckajymyg&ap/ ygwD
0ifaygif; tajrmuftrsm; 'DygwaD y:rSm t,kHt=unfr&Sdawmhbl;qdw
k m

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

73

usrodygw,f? t,kHt=unfr&Sdawmhv@dk &d&S ifvJ 'Dygwu
D xGuv
f ku
d =f u
yg? ygwD0ifu'fjym;awGvJ jyeftyfvdkuf=uyg?
'gayr,fhvnf; olwdk@&J@t,kHt=unft& ygwD0iftaeeJ@ qufjyD;
xrf;aqmifaewJhvlawGukv
d nf; tE W&m,frjyK=uygeJ@? 'Drku
d a&pDqkw
d m
rm;rm;rwfrwf udk,,
fh H=k unfcsuf ud,
k &f ESd kid fwpJh epfrsKd;jzpfygw,f? olwk@d
u qufjyD;,kH=unfr,fqdkvdk@&Sd&if tE W&m,frjyK=uygeJ@/ udk,fhbmom
ud,
k v
f ckd sifwyhJ ef;wdik fuo
kd m nDnn
D w
$ n
f w
$ w
f ufyg/ ud,
k u
f tm;=u;D ae
vdk@ tm;enf;wJholudk jyefjyD;*vJhpm;acswJhudpPrsKd; rjzpfay:ygapeJ@? tck
qdkvk@d &Sd&if usrwdk@rSef;xm;wJhtcsdefxuf trsm;=uD;tcsdev
f GefoGm;ygjyD/
tJ'h aD wmh usrpOfpm;xm;wmxuf enf;enf;ydkjy;D awmh twdkcsK;H jy;D awmh
ajym&r,ft
h ajctaersKd;jzpfaeygjyD? 'Dtpnf;ta0;yGu
J akd emufqHk; usr
ajymcsifwmuawmh usrwdk@vx
l [
k m nDnw
$ zf k@d vkyd gw,f/ pnf;urf;&Szd k@d
vdkygw,f/ trSew
f &m;eJ@uku
d fnDwJhprG f;tm;udk qufjyD;okH;oGm;zdk@vdkyg
w,f? tJh'Dvdk okH;oGm;rSom usrwdk@vdkwJhyef;wdkifudk a&mufEdkifygw,f/
tJh'aD wmh usrtEl;tn$wf jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;udk awmif;yefyg&ap/
jynfolvx
l ktm;vk;H nDnw
$ =f uygap/ pnf;urf;&Sdygap/ trSew
f &m;eJ@
udkun
f DwJhvlrsKd;w&yfjzpfygap/ jynfolvlxktm;vkH; ab;b,m tjzm
jzmrS a0;uGm=uygap? aemufq;Hk taeeJ@ usrwd@k &ŒJ aºu;G a=umfou
H awmh
- qENc,
H lyGJtvdrk &Sd?
- wygwDpepfzsufodrf;ypf?
- ygwDpH'k Drdkua&pDpepf wnfaqmuf=u?
- w&m;r#waoma&G;aumufyJG tjrefqkH;usif;yay;?
qdkwJh aºuG;a=umfoHygyJ”[lI ajym=um;oGm;onf? vlxkuvnf;
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. tqdjk yKcsuu
f kd wcJeufaxmufcHI aºuG;a=umf
oHrsm;jzifh eHeuf 11 em&D 30 tcsdefwGif vlxktpnf;ta0;udk ±kyo
f drf;
vdkufonf?
xdkpOftwGif; EdkifiHawmf 0ef=uD;csKyfa[mif; OD;Eku em,u
tjzpftrSL;jyKaom “'Drdkua&pDESifhjidrf;csrf;a&;tzG@J (,m,D)”udk 1988

74

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ckEpS f/ =o*kwv
f 29 &ufwiG f &efuek w
f kid ;f A[ef;jrKd Œe,fY atmufygtzG@J 0if
21 OD;jzifhzJ@G pnf;cJhonf?
(1) OD;Ek (0ef=uD;csKyfa[mif;)
- em,u
(2) ref;0if;armif (EdkifiHawmforRwa[mif;) - OuUX
(3) AkdvfrSL;atmif (v$wfawmfOuUXa[mif;) - 'kOuUXa[mif;
(4) ol& OD;wifO;D (Adkvcf sKy=f u;D a[mif;) - taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
(5) OD;oef;pdef (ygvDreftwGif;0efa[mif;) - wGJzuf taxGaxG
twGif;a&;rSL;
(6) OD;atmif (jrif;jcH) - aiGxdef;
(7) ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&) - tr_aqmif
(8) ocif cifatmif (om,m0wD) - tr_aqmif
(9) ocifodef;az (0g;c,fr) - tr_aqmif
(10)OD;atmifa&$ (tjidrf;pm;AdkvfrSL;csKyf) - tr_aqmif
(11) OD;apmjrifh (AdkvfrSL;csKyfa[mif;) - tr_aqmif
(12)OD;cifarmif (0ef=uD;a[mif;) - tr_aqmif
(13) OD;xGef;pdef (jrdwf) - tr_aqmif
(14) Adkvrf SL;xGef;wif (v#yfppftzGJ@ OuUX) - tr_aqmif
(15)OD;baqG ('kwd,twGif;0efa[mif;) - tr_aqmif
(16)OD;n$ef@atmif (ygvDreftwGif;0efa[mif;) - tr_aqmif
(17) ocifcspf ('kOuUX §bm;aumifp)D - tr_aqmif
(18) OD;bxGe;f (OuUX§&efuek fa&S@aersm;aumifp)D - tr_aqmif
(19) OD;&Jacgifne$ @f (ygvrD eftrwfa[mif;) - tr_aqmif
(20) OD;oka0 (,cifygvDref 'Drkdua&pDygw0D if) - tr_aqmif
(21) a'guw
f m0rfudka[m(tjidrf;pm;oHtrwf=uD;) - tr_aqmif
,if;'Drdkua&pDESifh jidrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ@ (,m,D). &nf&G,cf sufrsm;rSm
(1) vufiif;ay:aygufvsu&f Sdaomjy\emrsm;udk tpGrf;ukef ajz
&Si;f &ef/
(2) 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf qENjyolrsm;. w&m;0ifawmif;qdkcsufrsm;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

75

&&Sda &;ud k aqmif&Gufa y;&efwd k@jzpfonf? OD;Eka cgif ;aqmifa om
tqdkygtzGJ@tpnf;onf ta&;tcif;twGif; yxrOD;qkH; pwifay:ayguf
cJhaomtzGJ@tpnf;jzpfonfhtjyif pifjydKiftpd;k &zGJ@pnf;Edik f&ef yxrOD;qkH;
ajcvSrf;vnf;jzpfonf?
tvm;wl ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*~/ wuUodkvfESifh
aumvdyaf ygif;pHq
k &m§rrsm;or*~/ &efuek fjrdKŒvHk;qdik &f m&[ef;ysKrd sm;
or*~/ usef;rma&;0efxrf;rsm;or*~/ aq;wuUov
kd Ef iS hf ausmif;om;rsm;
or*~EiS fh ajrmufOuUvmyjrdKŒe,fausmif;om;rsm;or*~ponfw@dk zGJ@pnf;
ay:ayguv
f mcJh=uonf? xd@k jyif &efuif;trSwf (1) tajccHynmtxuf
wef;ausmif;/ awmifOuUvmytrSwf (2) tajccHynm txufwef;
ausmif;/ '*HkjrdKŒe,f jynfol@aumifpD±Hk;/ '*Hjk rdKŒe,fygwD,lepf±;Hk / vom
jrdKŒe,fygwD,el pf±Hk;/ vrf;rawmfjrdKŒe,fygwD,lepf±k;H eSifh jrdKŒe,fjynfol@
aumifpD±Hk; ponfwdk@udk ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh or*~tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u
oydwpf cef;rsm; zGifhvSpfv_yf&mS ;vmcJh=uonf?
xd@k aemuf 1988 ckEpS f/ =o*kwfv 31 &ufae@wGif tpd;k &0ef}uD;
tzGJ@u a=unmcsuftrSwf 1§88 jzifh jrdKŒe,fjynfol@aumifpD±Hk;rsm;/
Edkiif Hawmfykid ftaqmuftODrsm;udk odrf;ydkufum oydwfpcef;zGifhvSpfae
olrsm;udk z,f&mS ;=u&ef xkwfjyefa=unmonf?
xdpk OftwGi;f Edkiif aH wmforRw a'gufwmarmifarmifu 1988 ckEpS /f
pufwifbmv 1 &ufae@wGif “rdrw
d k@d onf tajccHOya'/ w&m;Oya'wdk@ukd apmifx
h def;vdu
k fem&
rnfjzpfa=umif;/ Oya'rsm;ESifhtnD ESpfouf&mpepfudk jynfolrsm; a&G;
cs,fEdkif&ef r=umrDusif;yawmhrnfhygwDnDvmcHESifh v$waf wmfwdk@rS qHk;
jzwf=urnfjzpfa=umif;/ jynfo@l qENc,
H yl EJG Sihf taxGaxGa&G;aumufyrJG sm;
wGif vGwfvyfaomjynfow
l @dk rS qHk;jzpf=urnfjzpfa=umif;/ jynfol@qENcH
,lyGEJ iS fh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif vGwfvyfaom jynfolwdk@ av;
pm;aomyk*~dKvfrsm;u }uD;=uyfI ulnD=u&ef arwœm&yfcHvdka=umif;/
ausmif;om;or*~zGJ@pnf;a&;ukd pnf;urf;wuszGJ@pnf;&ef oabmwl

76

oef;0if;vIi
d f

a=umif;ESifh 1962 ckESpfZlvidk fv 8 &ufae@ azmufcjGJ zdKcsc&H aom ausmif;
om;or*~taqmufttHkudk jyefvnfwnfaqmufay;rnfjzpfa=umif;/
jynfo@l 0efxrf;rsm;tm;vH;k vkyfief;cGifodk@ jyefvnf0ifa&mufI jynfol@
tusK;d udk o,fydk;=uapvkda=umif;” ponfjzifh rdef@cGef;ajym=um;oGm;
onf?
1988 ckEpS f/ pufwifbmv (2) &ufae@wGif 0ef}uD;tzG@J csKyf n$ef
=um;csuf (3§88) udk xkwfjyefI jynfol@0efxrf;rsm;tm;vHk; tvkyf
odk@ jyefvnf0ifa&muf&ef E_d;aqmfcJhonf? odk@aomf 0efxrf;rsm;u xdk
nGef=um;csufrsm;ESifh trdef@rsm;onf 4if;wdk@ESifh rywfoufovdak ecJh=u
jyD; ,if;wdk@. rlvEdkifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufrsm;udk qufvufaumftxnf
azmfcJh=uonf?
tvm;wl pufwifbm (3) &ufae@wGif ynma&;0ef}uD;ESifh wuU
odkv/f aumvdyfq&m/ q&mrrsm;ESifh awG@qHkjcif;tcrf;tem;udk wuU
odkvrf sm; A[dak umifpDcef;rwGif jyKvkyfcJhjyD; pufwifbm(2) &ufae@u
xkwfjyefcJho nfh Edkifi HawmforRw a'gufwmarmifa rmif. rdef@cG ef;yg
ausmif;om;or*~z@JG pnf; a&;/ ausmif;om;or*~taqmufttHak qmuf
vkyfa&;udpw
P @kd EiS hf pyfvsOf;I ausmif;om;or*~,m,Dtr_aqmiftzG@J EiS hf
q&m/ q&mrrsm; ,m,Dtr_aqmiftzG@J wdk@. oabmxm;rsm;udk
awmif;cHcJhonf? ,if;wdk@. oabmxm;xkwfjyefcsufwGif “ausmif ;om;ESifhjynfolonf wom;wnf;jzpfI jynfolrsm;.
awmif;qdck sujf zpfonfh wygwpD epfzsuo
f dr;f a&;ESifh =um;jzwftpd;k & csuf
csi;f zG@J pnf;a&;/ 'Drku
d a&pD&&Sda&;wd@k udk vdkufavsmjcif;r&Sdor# umvywf
vHk; u|Eykf fwo
dkh nf ausmif;om;or*~zpGJh nf;jcif;udkvnf; vufcHvdrfhrnf
r[kw”f [lI yg&do
S nf?
xdk@twl ,if;ae@ (2 ² 9 ² 88) wGif 'Drdkua&pDESifh jidrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ@
(,m,D) A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@tpnf;ta0;udk trSwf (10) 0uF
bmvrf;Y jyKvyk cf =Jh ujyD; a=unmcsuftrSwf (2) udk xkwjf yefch=J uonf?
,if;a=unmcsufwGif -

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

77

“ jynfwGif;ygwpD 'Hk Drdkua&pDtjrefqk;H ay:xGe;f vma&;twGuf jynf
olw@dk . wcJeufqENjy taxGaxGoydwfju;D udk 1988 ckEpS /f pufwifbm
8 &ufae@wGif qifE$Jrnfjzpfa=umif;/ 'Drdkua&pDESifhjidrf;csrf;a&;(,m,D)
. oabmxm;ESifh vkyif ef;pOfukd axmufcHaom &[ef;&Sifvljynfolrsm;
onf tqdkygtaxGaxGoydwf}uD;wGif tvH;k t&if;jzifh tpGrf;ukefyg0if
qifE=J$ u&efEiS fh vlxktwGif; pdw0f rf;uGjJ ym;r_r&d/S txl;aoG;pnf;nDnw
G f
=u&ef/ tzsuform;rsm;u trsKd;rsKd;zsufqD;&ef vkyf=uHvdrhrf nf? 4if;udk
&ifqidk fEdkif&eftwGuf txl;pnf;urf;ao0yf=u&ef/ TwdkufyGJ}uD;onf
ESvk;H &nfwu
dk yf JjG zpf&m rnfo@dk yif &efpv_@H aqmfonfjzpfap/ t=urf;rzuf
rd=u&ef” wd@k yg&o
dS nf? Ta=unmcsuo
f nf rqvppftpd;k &jzKwfcs&ef
twGuf jynfolvlxktm;v_H@aqmfvdkufjcif;yifjzpfonf?
pufwifbm 5 &ufaeh or0g,rtoif; 0efxrf;rsm;or*~tzG@J
(,m,D)/ wmarGjrdKŒe,fusL&Siq
f &m§rrsm; or*~tzG@J (,m,D)/ ajrmuf
OuUvmyjrdKŒe,f a&SŒaersm;or*~tzG@J (,m,D)/ use;f rma&;0efxrf;rsm;
or*~tzG@J (,m,D)/ rlqviftcrJhaq;±Ht
k vkyform;or*~tzG@J (,m,D)/
omauw+rdKŒe,fpmayv_y&f mS ;r_tiftm;pk (,m,D)/ jrefrmhtmrcHvyk f
ief;aumfyakd &;&Si;f tvkyo
f rm;or*~tzG@J (,m,D)/ pme,fZif;or*~t
zGJ@(,m,D)/ av,mOftif*sifeD,mrsm;or*~tzGJ@ (,m,D) ESifh vl@tcGifh
ta&;qdkif&m trsKd;om;aumfrwDtzGJ@wdk@udk zGJ@pnf;cJh=ujyD; wygwD tm
%m&Sifzsufodrf;a&;ESifh =um;jzwftpd;k & tjrefqHk;zGJ@pnf;ay;a&;udk
awmif;qdck Jh=uonf?
xdkae@rmS yif tpd;k &u oydwpf cef;rsm;ESihf qENjyaeolrsm;tm; wef
jyeftzsuftarSmifv
h kyif ef;rsm; vkyu
f idk Ef ikd &f ef &efuke+f rKd Πppfrx
_ rf;a[mif;
rsm;trsm;pkaexdik f&m awmifOuUvmy+rdKŒe,fpDrHudef; (1) &yfuGuf t
wGif;odk@ uyprS xkwfvkyfcJhaom wkwf/ "g;vufeufrsm;ESifh *sif*vdao
wœmrsm; vma&mufcsay;r_a=umifh owif;jyef@um &yfuGufvx
l Ek iS hf xdyf
wdku&f ifqdkifawG@+yD; tjyeftvSet
f =urf;zufwdkufcdkufcJh=uonf? ,if;
wdkucf dkufr_a=umifh ppfwyfrSpdwfºuGaq;rsm;ESifh xHkaq;rsm;xdk;ay;xm;

78

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aomvlaygi;f (23) OD; acgi;f jzwfr;D ±_dŒowfjcif;cH&onf? pDru
H def;&yfuGu&f dS
tdrfajc(46) vH;k vnf; rD;±_dŒzsufq;D cHcJh&onf? tvm;wlyif &efuke+f rdKŒ
uav;aq;±H}k uD;od@k jzefjh zL;ay;a0aeaom a&wdkiu
f u
D kd tqdycf wfco
hJ nfh
ppfwyfrS apcdkif;cJholig;OD;vnf; towfcHcJh&onf?
tqdkygowif;onf vGwfvyfaom yk*~vdupmapmif/ owif;pm/
*sme,fw@kd wGif "gwfyrkH sm;ESiw
hf uG azmfjyyg&S&d m &efuek /f rE aW v;tygt0if
+rdKŒ}uD;rsm;txd *,uf±ku
d foGm;cJhavonf?
4if;jzpf&yfa=umifh jynfoEl iS w
fh yfrawmf=um;wGiv
f nf;aumif;/ EdkifiH
awmfacgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf jynfov
l x
l t
k =um;wGifvnf;aumif; ,H=k unf
r_uif;rJhvmum tpdk;&tm; xdyfwdku&f ifqdkifqef@usifr_rsm;udk wd;k yGm;
vmcJhonf?
tvm;wlyif axufvrS ;f a&;wyfz@JG 0ifrsm;ESihf OD;ae0if;.orD; r*F
vm'Hkppfaq;±Hrk S aq;0efxrf;t&m&Sd Adv
k frSL;cifpENm0if;yg0ifaomtkyfpk
u trsm;pm;oH;k aeaom tpm;tpmESifh a&wdk@wiG f tqdyfcwfr_a=umifh
vnf;aumif;/ &yfuu
G rf sm;od@k vu
kd v
f rH ;D uGi;f ypforl sm;a=umifv
h nf;aumif;
jynfolvlxktaygif; txdwftvef@usD;vef@pmpm; jzpfapcJh&onf?
,if;uJho@dk ae&mtES@q
H lyt
l ºHk uGqENjyaepOftwGif; pufwifbmv
9 &ufae@wGif &efukef+rdKŒ/ 0uFbmvrf;/ jcHtrSwf(10) Y 'Drdkua&pDESifh
jird ;f csr;f a&;tzG@J (,m,D) em,uOD;EkEiS hf jynfwiG ;f jynfyowif;pmq&m
rsm;awG@qI
Hk oif;pm&Sif;vif;yGjJ yKvkycf Jhonf? owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGw
J Gif
OD;Eku “ 1947 ckEpS fwkid f;jyKjynfjyKv$waf wmfu twnfjyKcJhaom zGJ@pnf;
tkyfcsKyfyt
kH ajccHOya't& usaemfomv#if w&m;0if 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpf
a=umif;ESihf pif+ydKiftpdk;&zG@J pnf;a=umif;” a=unmcsuf xkwjf yefcho
J nf?
4if;.pif+ydKiftpdk;&wGif orRwref;0if;armif/ 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek/ um
uG,f a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifO;D ponfw@dk jzifhz@GJ pnf;a=umif;a=unmcJhonf?
,if;udpPESifh ywfoufI pufwifbmv 9 &uf nae 8 em&D 25
rdepftcsdefwGif bDbDpDtoHv$iXfh mewGif OD;Ekonf taxGaxGa&G;aumuf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

79

yGJrsm;udk wvt=umwGif usif;yay;rnfjzpfa=umif;/ 4if;wOD;wnf;om
w&m;0if0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfa=umif;/ urBmhEkid fiHrsm;u 4if;udkom todtrSwf
jyK&efawmif;qdka=umif; xkwfv$ifhoGm;cJhonf? OD;atmif}uD;url OD;Ek.
vkyfaqmifcsufonf tvGeftE W&m,f}uD;a=umif;/ a':atmifqef;pk
=unfuvnf; OD;Ek.vkyfaqmifcsufrSm ravsmfuefa=umif;/ vli,f
trsm;pkuvnf; 4if;wdkh.}udK;yrf;xm;aomatmifyJu
G kd vuf0g;}uD;tkyf
tjrwfxkwo
f Gm;onf[k xifjrifa=umif; xkwfazmfajym=um;oGm;cJh=u
onf?
pif+ydKiftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;jcif;ESifh ywfoufI at&S0dpf (Asia Weeks)
pmapmifrS owif;axmufwOD;u OD;EkESihf awG@qaHk r;jref;onht
f cg OD;Eku
“ usaemfw@kd [dkok;H a,mufe@J nDnGwzf @kd vltcsKŒd u odyv
f v
dk m;cJh=u
ygw,f/ [dkoHk;a,mufqdkwm a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ OD;wifOD;ESifh OD;
atmif}u;D wd@k jzpf=uygw,f? olwk@d ok;H OD; usaemfwdk@tzG@J eJ@aygif;r,fqk&d if
aygif;Edkifygw,f? usaemfuawmh tzGJ@x0J ifvm&if usaemfhvrf;pOfrk@d us
aemfyJ acgif;aqmif&rSmyJ?
usaemfwckckvyk cf sijf yq
D &kd if wcgwav usaemf&h aJ bmfawGe@J awmif
rwdkifyifbJ csufcsif;vkyw
f wfygw,f? 'gayr,hf olw@kd u usaemfvyk w
f m
r}udKufbl;qdk&if usaemfacgif;aqmifr_u qif;ay;r,f? usaemfvkyfwm
[m olwk@d vufcHw,fq&dk if usaemfhukd axmufcH=u&rSmyJ? tJ'g[m 'Drdk
ua&pDygyJ? 'gayr,hf usaemf[m y&d,m,fr&Sdwv
Jh l/ tavmoHk;q,f
jrefjrefqefqefvyk w
f wfwv
Jh q
l kjd yD; ajym=uw,f? y&d,m,fr&Sdwo
Jh [
l m
wcgwavraumif;wmjzpfwwfayr,fh wcgwavusawmh aumif;
wwfygw,f?
OD;ae0if;u usaemfhqDu tm%mudk vk,lvdk@ rjzpfEdkifygbl;? 'gay
r,hf usaemf[m tajccHOya't& w&m;0if0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfw,fqkdwm
Armjynfoal wGa&m/ ArmjynftjyifbufuvlawGyg odatmif usaemf
vkyfcsifw,f? [dkvluawmh tajccHOya't& w&m;0ifxm;wJh acgif;
aqmifr[kwfygbl;? usaemfom tajccHOya't& acgif;aqmifjzpf±kw
H if

80

oef;0if;vIi
d f

rubl;/ jynfolawG&JΠwcJeufaxmufcHru
_ kd &xm;oljzpfygw,f” [lI
&Sif;vif;ajym=um;oGm;onf?
xd@k aemuf pufwifbmv 10 &ufae@wiG f rqvygwD ta&;ay:ygwD
nDvmcHudk &efukef+rdKŒjynfol@vw
$ fawmftpnf;ta0;cef;rY usif;y jyK
vkycf ho
J nf? xdknDvmcHu ygwDppHk epfjzifh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG usi;f y
&ef qHk;jzwfcsuf csrSwcf Jhonf? xdknDvmcHwGif ygwDpHkOuUX a'gufwm
armifarmifu “ ygwn
D DvmcHrS qHk;jzwfvu
dk fonfhtwdik f; jynfol@v$wfawmfwGif
ygwDpHk'Drku
d a&pDpepf v$Jajymif;usifhoHk;Edik f&ef v$wfawmf. tqHk;tjzwf
cH,rl nfjzpfa=umif;/ ygwDp0Hk if,SOf+ydKifEkid f=urnfh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ
}uD;udk tjrefqHk;ESifh tr#wqHk;/ tvGwfvyfqHk;jzpfatmif usi;f yay;&ef
pDpOfxm;a=umif;” ajym=um;oGm;onf?
1988 ckEpS f/ pufwifbmv 11 &ufae@wGif pwkwt
Î }udrf jynfol@
v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;udk qufvufusif;ycJhonf? xdk tpnf;ta0;
wGif jynfo@l v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,rf sm;. t=uHjyKwifjycsufrsm;tay:
jynfo l@v$wfawmfu vufcHoabmwlum EdkifiHawmfaumifpDO uUX
a'guw
f marmifarmifu (u) ygwDpHkpepfjzifh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJrG sm;usif;y&ef/
(c) ygwDpHkpepfjzifh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;yEdkifa&;t
wGuft[efhtwm; jzpfaeaom tajccHOya'yg oufqdkifjyÏmef;csuf
rsm;ESihf tjcm;Oya'/ enf;Oya'rsm; y,fzsuaf y;Edik af &;twGuf jynfo@l
v$wfawmfu Edik fiHawmfaumifpDodk@v$Jtyf&ef?
(*) tajccHOya'yk'fr 43 (u) t& pwkwÎt}udrf jynfo@l v$wf
awmf. ykrH eS o
f ufwrf;onf taxGaxGa&G;aumufyu
GJ si;f yjyD;I jynfo@l
v$waf wmftopf pwifpnf;a0;onfah e@txdom jzpfa=umif; av#mhayhg
owfrw
S f&ef?
(C) pwkwt
Î }udrf jynfol@v$waf wmfyÌrtpnf;ta0;u zG@J pnf;
ay;xm;aom a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm‡ ufyJu
G si;f ya&;aumfr&Siu
f kd zsuford ;f ay;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

81

&ef?
(i) w&m;r#waom taxGaxGa&GaumufyGJ atmifjrifpGm usi;f y
Edkiaf &;twGuf atmufygazmfjyyg yk*Kd~ vrf sm;udk a&G;cs,fwm0efay;tyf&ef?
(1) OD;baX; (tjidrf;pm; b¾mawmfrif;}uD;)
(2) OD;ausmfnGef@ (tjidrf;pm;uae'gqkid f&m jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;)
(3) OD;pef;armif (tjidr;f pm;ac|wmpkaqmif;a&;ESihf tmrcHpmcsKyf
rif;}uD;)
(4) OD;apm=um'd;k (tjidrf;pm;Adv
k frSL;csKyf)
(5) q&mcs,f (,cifygvrD eftrwfEiS hf jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf ud,
k pf m;
vS,f)
(p) a&G;aumufyJaG umfr&SifwGif tzGJ@0ifOD;a&wdk;jcif;/ vpfvyfonfh
ae&mwGit
f pm;xdk;jcif;udprP sm; aqmif&Guyf idk cf iG hu
f kd jynfo@l v$waf wmfu
EdkifiHawmfaumifpDodk@ v$Jtyf&ef?
(q) ygwDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk rSwfyw
Hk ifjcif;/ a&G;aumufyGJ pnf;rsOf;
pnf;urf;rsm;ESifh vkyif ef;wm0efrsm; a&;qGjJ yÏmef;ay;jcif;wd@k ukd aumfr&Sif
ESifh nd‡Ed_i;f aqmif&Gufay;a&;twGuf jynfol@v$wfawmfu EdkifiHawmf
aumifpDo@dk v$Jtyf&ef?
(Z) taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJudk jynfol@ v$wfawmftwGufom
usif;y&ef?
(ps) taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJu
G si;f yrnfah e@onf ,ae@rSpI oH;k v
jynfhaomaeh[k owfrSwfay;&ef/ od@k aomf ay:ayguv
f mrnfh ygwDtzGJ@
tpnf;rsm;u a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifok@d t=uHjyKcsuft& ,ae@rSpI
wvcGJjynfah omae@xuf rapmbJjzpfap/ oHk;vausmfveG o
f nht
f cgrS jzpf
ap jyifqifowfrSwfusi f;yEdkifonfh vkyfydkifcGifhudk jynfol@v$wfawmf
aumifpDo@dk v$Jtyf&efwdk@jzpf=uonf?
xdk@aemuf a&G;aumfyGJaumfr&Sifonf rdrdwdk@aumfr&Sif. oabm
xm;udk wdkif;jynfodk@wifjy&ef ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ
usif;ya&;aumfr&Si.
f a=unmcsuf trSw(f 1) udk atmufygtwdik ;f xkwf

82

oef;0if;vIi
d f

jyefvdkuo
f nf?
“ 1? Taumfr&Sit
f zG@J 0ifrsm;onf touft&G,t
f & tzufzufrS
tem;,lae=uaom yk*~dKvfrsm;jzpfI rnfonfhygwDEidk fiHa&;udkr# quf
vufvkyu
f kid f&ef &nf&G,fcsu&f =Sd uolrsm;r[kwf=uyg? rdrw
d k@d . udk,fa&;
udk,w
f mtwGufvnf; wpHkw&m ar#mfrSef;xm;jcif;&Sd=uolrsm; r[kwf
=uyg? odk@&mwGif ,ae@jzpfay:aeaom wdkif;jynf.tajctaet& EdkifiH
awmfaumifpD aumfr&SiftzGJ@0ifrsm;tm; taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ}uD;udk
vGwfvyfpmG =um;0ifaqmif&u
G af y;&ef arwœm&yfccH sut
f &vnf;aumif;/
11 ² 9 ² 88 &ufaehu jynfol@v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;wGif EdkifiHawmf
orRw. rdefh=um;csuftwdkif; ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ
aumfr&Sif.vkyif ef;rsm;udk Edik if aH wmfaumifpDu wpHw
k &mpGuzf ufr_ rjyK
&Hkomr aumfr&Si.
f vdt
k yfaom tultnDrsm;udak y;rnf[k tmrcHcsuf
ay;jyD;v#if a&G;aumufyJrG sm;udk tvGwfvyfqk;H / tr#wqHk;/ tjrefqHk;
jyKvyk af y;&ef arwœm&yfccH h&J m taxGaxGa&G;aumufyu
GJ pd rP sm;wGif aumf
r&Sifonf vGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh&Sdonf[k ,Hk=unfjcif;a=umihf
vnf;aumif;/ aumfr&Sit
f zGJ@0ifrsm;onf apwemtjynhft0ESifh wwf
pGrf;or# aqmif&Gufay;&ef aumfr&SifwGif yg0ifcJh=ujcif;jzpfygonf?
2? odk@ygI ygwpD Hk'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ}uD;udk r=umrD
usif;y&eftwGuf ygwpD k'H rD ku
d a&pDudk awmif;qdkae=uaom &[ef;&Sifvl/
ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;/ jynfolrsm;tygt0if wm0ef&Sdaom acgif;
aqmifrsm;onf Taumfr&SifESihf yl;aygif;ulnDaqmif&u
G f=ujyD; vdk
tyfaom t=uHOm%frsm;ay;=uyg&ef av;pm;pGm zdwaf c:tyfygonf?”
odk@aomf jynfolvx
l Ek iS hf 'Dru
kd a&pDacgi;f aqmifrsm;u tpd;k & usi;f y
rnfah &G;aumufyJu
G kd t,Hkt=unfr&SdbJ =um;jzwftpd;k & zG@J pnf;ay;&efukd
om awmif;qdkcJh=uonf? tpdk;&u oH;k vjynhfaeaomae@wGif taxG
axGa&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;yay;rnfqdkaomtcsufudkvnf; jiif;
qdkcJh=uonf?
1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 13 &ufae@wGif A[ef;+rdKŒe,f/ trSwf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

83

(94) ewfarmufvrf;&Sd ygwDpkH'Drku
d a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ usif;y
a&;aumfr&Sif±Hk; tpnf;ta0;cef;rY jyKvkyfcJhaoma&G;aumufyJG aumf
r&SifEiS fh Edik if Ha&;acgi;f aqmiftzG@J tpnf;rsm;awG@qkyH o
JG @kd OD;atmif}u;D / a':
atmifqef;pk=unf/ ol&OD;wifOD;/ &efuek fjrKd @v;Hk qdkif&m &[ef;ysKdor*~tzG@J
csKyf/ jrefrmEdik fiv
H Hk;qdkif&m tvkyo
f rm;or*~tzGJ@csKyf(&efuke)f / Oya'±Hk;
rsm;qdkif&m tvkyform;or*~(&efukef)/ wuUodkvfbJ@G & ausmif;om;
a[mif;rsm;tzGJ@/ 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyGJ0ifausmif;om;rsm;tzGJ@/ wuUodkvf
rsm; (&efuke)f wd@k rS OuUXESifh twGif;a&;rSL;rsm;/ udk,pf m;vS,frsm; wuf
a&mufcJh=uonf?
xdkaqG;aEG;yGw
J iG f OD;atmif}u;D / a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ ol&OD;wifOD;
ESifh wufa&mufvm=uaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;u ygwDp'Hk Drdk
ua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJaG umfr&Siw
f iG f yg0ifonfyh k*dK~ v}f u;D rsm;udk
rdrw
d @kd taejzifh av;pm;,H=k unfyga=umif;/ *g&0vnf;jyKyga=umif;/ ok@d &m
wGif Taumfr&Siu
f dk vuf&t
Sd pdk;&u zGJ@pnf;ay;jcif;jzpfI wdkif;jynfESifh
jynfolvlxku tpdk;&tay: vHk;0t,Hkt=unfr&Sd=uawmhojzifh tpdk;
&u a&G;cs,cf ef@xm;onfh aumfr&Sifukd vH;k 0vufrcHEikd af =umif;/ ,H=k unf
r_vnf;r&Sd=ua=umif;/ vuf&St
d aetxm;wGif oHk;vtwGif; a&G;
aumufyGJrsm;usif;yygu 26 ESpfwmr# zG@J pnf;xm;jyD; EdkifiaH wmfb¾
jzifh pnf;±H;k v_y&f mS ;aeonfh tm%m&ygwu
D dk ,cktxd ygwDtzG@J tpnf;
rsm;/ rzGJ@&ao;aom/ b¾maiGvnf;r&SmazG&ao;aom tzG@J tpnf;rsm;
taejzifh a&G;aumufyw
GJ Gif yg0if,OS f+yKd if&ygu rnfonfhenf;ESirhf # w&m;
r#waom a&G;aumufyrGJ jzpfEkid fa=umif;/ wyfrawmfom;rsm;tm;vHk;eSifh
tpdk;&0efxrf;trsm;pkrmS vuf&t
dS m%m&ygwD. ygwD0ifrsm;jzpfaeao;
&m wyfrawmfEiS 0hf efxrf;rsm;tm; rnfr#yif =um;aeyg[k nGe=f um;csuf
xkwfaeapumrl jynfolvx
l ku ,Hk=unfr_r&Sd=ua=umif;/ ,ck t+rdKŒ+rdKŒ
te,fe,fwGif tkyfcsKyfa&;,Eœ&m;vnf;r&Sd/ vHkjcHKr_vnf;r&Sdojzifh a&G;
aumufyjGJ yKvkyf&efrjzpfEkid fa=umif;/ odk@jzpfI jynfolvlxku ,H=k unf=u
onhf yk*K~d vfrsm;yg0ifaom “ =um;jzwftpdk;&” tjrefqk;H zG@J pnf;ay;oifh

84

oef;0if;vIi
d f

a=umif; aqG;a@;G cJh=uonf?
xdk@tjyif 15 ² 9 ² 88 &ufae@xkwf a=u;rHkowif;pmwGifvnf;
“OD;atmif}uD;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS fh ol&OD;wifO;D wd@k . jynfolw&yf
vH;k od@k yef=um;csu”f acgif;pOfyg pmwapmifukv
d nf; (14 ² 9 ² 88) &ufpGJ
jzifh ‚if;wd@k ok;H OD;udkwkid f vufrSwaf &;xdk; xkwfa0xm;onfhtwdkif; azmf
jyxm;onfudk awG@&onf? xdkyef=um;csufrSm 1? wae@xufwae@ =uHKawG@vm&onfh pD;yGm;a&;tcuftcJ t
usyftwnf;=um;rSyif jynfolwk@d . 'Drku
d a&pDwku
d yf t
GJ &Sdefonf jrihfrm;
vmcJhonf? wEdkifiHv;Hk r=uHKpzl; jyif;xefvSonfh 'Drdkua&pDa&;twGuf
jynfolw&yfvHk;u qENjyKaeygvsuf tpdk;&u yxraomf rodusKd;u|H
jyKum tcsdeq
f o
JG nfeh nf;y&d,m,fuo
kd m usio
hf ;kH cJ&h mrS ,cktcg wxpf
avsmhjyD; ygwDpHkpepfjzifh a&G;aumufyJu
G kd oHk;vtwGif; usif;yay;&ef a&G;
aumufyGJaumfr&Sifudk yk*dK~ vfig;OD;jzifh zGJ@pnf;ay;cJyh gonf?
2? jynfow
l @kd u tpd;k &udk r,H=k unfyg? xd@k a=umifhvnf; a&G;aumuf
yGaJ umfr&Sifudk r,Hk=unfyg? tvGefwkad wmif;vSaom oH;k vqdkonfh t
csdet
f wGif;Y tm%m&tpdk;&. taxmuftyHhcHygwED Sifh bmwckrS t
oifrh jzpfao;aom tjcm;ygwDw@dk . ,SOjf ydKifta&G;cH&rnfh a&G;aumufyGJ
qdkonfrmS vnf; rnfodk@r# w&m;r#wr_r&SEd dkif[lonfhtcsufudkvnf;
jynfolwdk@u aumif;pGmodae=uygonf? Ttcsufrsm;udkvnf; ,ae@
qENj yae=uonfh jynfol@tiftm;pkrsm;u tpdk;&uzGJ@ay;onfh a&G;
aumufyGJaumfr&Sifa&SŒarSmufY jywfom;pGm wifjycJhjyD;jzpfygonf?
3? qENjytiftm;pk}uD;xJY a&SŒwef;rS aoG;ajrus wdkufyGJ0ifcJh=u
onfh ausmif;om;vli,frsm;onf twufºuGqHk; yg0ifolrsm;jzpf=u
onf? ,cktcgwGif jynfolwk@d eSifh vufwGJjyD; jidrf;csrf;pGm qENjyonfh
ausmif;om;rsm;&So
d vdk tpdk;&. tcsdefqJrG _enf;y&d,m,fudk repf+rdKŒo
jzifh jyif;jyaompdwf"gwfa=umifh tpmiwfcHqENjyausmif;om;rsm;udk
vnf;aumif; awG@jrifvm&onf? trsm;jynfox
l YJ tm;rvkt
d m;r&
jzpfjcif;/ ,ckxuf jyif;xefvSaomajcvSr;f udyk if vSrf;vdkaomolrsm; &Sd

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

85

vmonfudkyif awG@vmygonf?
4? odk@aomf T'Drdkua&pDwu
dk fyJGonf ESvHk;&nfwku
d fyGJjzpfygonf?
pnf;urf;aooyfpmG qENjy&if; &J&ifhaomESvHk;&nfowœdjzihf atmifycGJ H,l
&rnfhwdkufyjGJ zpfonf? tpdk;&onf jynfoal wGtvd&k o
Sd nfh =um;jzwf t
pd;k &w&yf tjrefqHk;zGJ@pnf;&efrSwyg; tjcm;enf;vrf;r&Sdyg/ ausmif;om;
xktygt0if jynfolw&yfv;Hk uvnf; xufjrufonfEh SvHk;&nf owœd
udo
k m ppfreS o
f nfv
h ufeuftjzpf ravsmah omZG/J rqkwrf epfaom pdwf
"gwjf zifh jidrf;csrf;pGmqENjyr_udk raoGz,fvpJ w
d fr&Snrf /_ qENjyif;jyr_w@dk jzifh
t=urf;zufr_/ aoG;xGufoH,dkr_ESifh tjcm;tedÏm±Hkjzpfay:r_rsKd;rsm; rjzpf
ay:apzdk@ txl;a&Smif&Sm;&ef vdktyfygonf?
“ppfrSefaom'Drku
d a&pDwu
dk fyGJ rkcsatmifjrif&rnf?”
(yH)k ····· ( OD;atmif}uD;)
(yH)k ····· ( a':atmifqef;pk=unf)
(yH)k ····· (ol&OD;wifO;D )
[lI jzpfonf?
xd@k tjyif (13 ² 9 ² 88) &ufae@xkwf Adkvfwaxmif owif;pmwGif
vnf; “vuf&dS tpd;k &udk jynfol,k=H unfrv
_ 0Hk uif;rJu
h m =um;jzwf tpd;k
&zGJ@v#if oydwrf sm;&yfpJrnf? OD;atmif}uD;/ ol&OD;wifO;D ESifh a':atmif
qef;pk=unfwdk@ awGhqHkaqG;aEG;jyD; oabmxm;udk EdkifiHawmf orRwxH
ay;ydk@” [laomacgif;pOfjzifh a&;om;xm;avonf?
“ ygwpD pHk epfjzifh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyu
GJ sif;yrnfu
h pd eP iS fh ywfouf
I u|ekfyfwdk@. oabmxm;udk wifjyvkdygonf? vuf&SdtajctaerSm
wwdkif;jynfvk;H wGif tpdk;&tkyfcsKyaf &;,Eœ&m; &yfqkid f;aejyD; jynfolvlxk
w&yfv;kH r=uHKpzl; pm;0wfaea&;/ vHjk cHKa&;jy\emrsm;ESihf &ifqikd af e&yg
onf?
ukefaps;E_ef;rsm; w&dyf&dyf}uD;jrifhvmjcif;/ tvkyftudkifysufI qif;
&J'kuaQ &mufjcif;/ &efuek f+rKd ŒwGi;f Yyif vHkjcKH ru
_ kd tpd;k &u wm0efr,lEidk I
f
rdrdwk@d bmomvHjk cHKa&;udk wm0ef,lae&aom jynfov
l lxkrmS pdwq
f if;&J

86

oef;0if;vIi
d f

udk,q
f if;&JESihf ylyefaomua&mufae&ygonf?
tajctaerSm ae@pOfESifhtr# qdk;&Gm;vsuf&Sdygonf? Tjzpfay:ae
aom tajctaewGif tpdk;&u a&G;aumufyJu
G sif;yay;Edkifrnfh tajct
aer&Syd g? wae@xufwae@/ wem&Dxufwem&D ydrk q
kd ;kd &Gm;aeaom pD;yGm;
a&;/ vlra_ &;/ EdkifiaH &;/ vHkjcHKa&;tajctaersm;udk wm;qD;Edkif&efrSm wdkif;
jynfu vufcHEkid frnhf=um;jzwftpdk;& tjrefzGJ@pnf;ay;jcif;rSty tjcm;
enf;vrf;r&Sad wmhyg?
vuf&t
dS pd;k &tay:wGif jynfov
l x
l k ,Hk=unfrv
_ ;kH 0uif;aejyD;jzpfI
tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;ay;aomaumfr&Sifu OD;pD;usif;yay;rnfha&G;aumufyJu
G dk
wdkif;jynfu ,Hk=unfvufcH=urnfr[kwfyg?
jynfolvlxv
k ufcHrnfh =um;jzwftpd;k &zG@J onfEiS w
fh jyKd ifeuf qENjy
r_rsm;/ oydwaf rSmufrr_ sm;&yfpjJ yD; tpd;k &,Eœ&m;rsm; jyefvnf vnfywf
jcif;/ a&mif;0,fazmufum;jcif;rsm; jyefvnftouf0ifvmrnf[k u|Eykf f
wdk@ ,Hk=unfygonf?
xdk@a=umihf pD;yGm;a&;jyefvnfxal xmif&efESifh 'Drdkua&pDjyefvnf
wnfaqmufI taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ usif;yay;&ef =um;jzwftpdk;&
tjrefqHk;zGJ@pnf;ay;&efom &Sdygawmhonf?
tajctaerSm tcsde&f Sdoa&GΠqd;k &Gm;aombufok@d ul;ajymif;aeyg
ojzifh tcsed rf qdik ;f bJ =um;jzwftpd;k & tjrefqk;H zGJ@pnf;ay;&ef awmif;qdk
ygonf” [lI azmfjyxm;onf?
xdk@o@dk yef=um;csurf sm;/ awmif;qdck sufrsm; xkwfjyefcJhjyD; r=umrDrSm
yif jynfolvlxw
k &yfv;kH vrf;ray:xGuI
f “wygwDtm%m&Sif pepf
zsufodrf;a&;/ =um;jzwftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;a&;” aºuG;a=umforH sm; ydkrku
d s,f
avmifcJhygawmhonf?
xdkpOftwGif; tpd;k &wm0ef&Sdolrsm;ESifh aumfr&Sifvl}uD;rsm; awG@qHk
aqG;aEG;aecsdefrSmyif AdkvfrSL;csKyfa[mif;atmif}uD; vufrSwfa&;xd;k xm;
aom udk,fwidk fvufa&;jzifhpmudk rdwWLul;pufjzifh trsm;jynfolt=um;
jzefah 0vmonfudk awG@&./ xdkpmwGif OD;atmif}uD;u “a&G;aumufyGJ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

87

aumfr&SifzGJ@ay;jcif;ESifh a&G;aumufyGJusif;yrnfhtpdk;&. a=unmcsufudk
rdrd,k=H unfa=umif;/ odk@jzpf&m oydwfrsm;vnf; anmif;vmjyDjzpfI o
ydwfveS f=u&efwu
dk fwGef;a=umif;/ tu,fI rdrdwifjyonfhtwdkif; a&G;
aumufyGJvkyfray;v#if rdrdudk,fwkid faq;±Hka&SŒrSm tpmiwfcHum rdrd
udk,w
f dkif "gwfqDavmif;rD;±_dŒjyD; qENjyrnfjzpfonf” [k a&;om;xm;
onf? a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifu OD;atmif}uD;. ay;pmonf tjyKo
abmaqmifonf[k ,lqum auseyf0rf;omcJ=h uonf[k od&onf?
xdkpOftwGif; 1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 14 &ufae@wGif jrefrm
EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;rsm;or*~odk@ OD;atmif}uD;/ a':atmifqef;
pk=unf/ ol&OD;wifOD;wdk@u tdwfzGihaf y;pmwapmifukd ay;ydk@cJhonf? xdk
pmtjynfhtpHkrSm
(1) 1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 14 &ufae@wGif tpdk;& a&G;cs,f
cef@tyfxm;aom a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufyaJG umfr&Siu
f ,ae@Eidk if w
H Gif 'Dru
dk
a&pDwu
kd yf J0G ifae=uaom tiftm;pkrsm;udk OD;aqmifra_ y;ae=uaom OD;
Ek/ OD;atmif}uD;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ ol&OD;wifOD;/ ausmif;om;rsm;
tzGJ@ESifh &[ef;tzGJ@rsm;tm; awG@qHkaqG;aEG;cJhygonf?
(2) xdkodkhawGhqHkaqG;aEG;tjyD;Y vl}uD;rif;rsm;or*~rS tqdkyg tzGJ@
toD;oD;rS vl }u;D rsm;udk aq;wuUov
dk f (1) ausmif;cef;rod@k zdwfac:I
aqG;aEG;cJhygonf? tqdkygaumfr&SifY rdrdw@dk . cdkifrmaom&yfwnfcsuf
t& =um;jzwftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;a&;[lonfhtajccHrludkom qGJudkifI ajym
=um;cJah =umif; ausmif;om;rsm;tm; &Si;f vif;ajym=um;cJhygonf?
(3) ausmif;om;rsm;u vl}uD;rsm;. &yfwnfcsufudk vufcH}udK
qdkygonf? odk@&mwGif ,ckwdkif tpdk;&. tcsdefqGJr_udk pdwfr&Snfr_/ pdwf
"gwfjyif;xefwufºuGr_wdk@jzifh TaqG;aEG;yGJjyKvkyfonfah e&mYyif vl}uD;
rsm;u =um;jzwftpdk;&w&yfudk zGJ@pnf;ay;&ef wifjyawmif;qdkcJhygonf?
vl}uD;toD;oD;uvnf; TudpPudk rdrw
d k@d .tzGo
J @dk wifjy&efvdkonfjzpf
I qdkif;iHh&ef jyefvnfaqG;aEG;ygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; tpdk;
&zGhrJ _udk tcsdef=um=umrqdkif;vdkojzifh (48) em&DtwGif; jzpfatmif jyef

88

oef;0if;vIi
d f

=um;ay;yg&ef yef=um;cJhygonf?
(4) ,ae@ tajctaew&yfwiG f =um;jzwftpd;k &zGJ@pnf;&efrmS trSef
wu,f vdktyfcsuq
f dkonfudk tzGJ@tm;vHk;a&m/ jynfolw&yfvk;H uyg
vdkvm;awmif;wonfhtcsuf jzpfygonf? odk@&mwGif vuf&Sdtpdk;& r
jyKwaf o;bJ tpd;k &opfw&yfukd rdrdw@dk qENt&zGJ@pnf;ygu =um;jzwftpd;k
&r[kwfbJ pifjyKd iftpdk;&w&yfjzpfvmEdkiyf gonf? Tod@k jzpfygu awmfvSef
a&;wGif tcsdeftcgroifhbJ ajcvSr;f rdygu rvdkvm;tyfaom [ef@wm;
aESmif,
h Surf E_ Sihf tjcm;tEœ&m,frsm; jzpfvmEdkiyf gonf? xdk@a=umifh vuf&dS
tpdk;&tm; z,f&Sm;jyD; jynfolwdk@vdkvm;aom =um;jzwftpdk;& jzpfay:
vmrSom jynfolwdk@tyfESif;onfhtm%m&yfjzifh ,ae@jzpfay:aeaom
tajctae tcuftcJtm;vHk;udk ajz&Sif;aqmif&GufEidk frnft
h jyif jynf
oltm;vHk;vdkvm;aom ppfrSefonh'f Drdkua&pDtpdk;&w&yf jzpfay:vm
atmif w&m;r#wonfh a&G;aumufyJjG yKvkyfay;Edik f&ef vdktyfonfh tpD
trHtm;vHk;udk jynfolw@dk tvdkus jyKvkyfay;Edkif=uygrnf?
(5) Tod@k jzpfygI ausmif;om;rsm;vdktifqENukd usaemfw@dk oabm
aygufpmemygonf? vdkvm;aom&nfrSef;csufjcif;vnf; wlnyD gonf?
odk@&mwGif azmfjyjyD;cJhonft
h csut
f vufrsm;tay: av;eufpmG pOf;pm;
&rnfjzpfygaoma=umifh ,cktcsdefwiG f qENrapmrdzkhd av;pm;pGm arwœm
&yfcHygonf”[lI azmfjyxm;onf?
xdk@aemuf 1988 ckEpS f/ pufwifbmvwGif aumfr&Siv
f }l u;D rsm;onf
EdkifiHawmforRwa'gufwmarmifarmiftrSL;jyKaom EdkifiHawmf aumifpD
0ifrsm;ESifh awG@qcHk Jh=uonf? tqdkygy*k ~dKvfrsm;ESifh awG@qkcH JhpOf aumfr&Sif
tzG@J 0ifv}l u;D rsm;u rqvygww
D iG f wyfrawmf/ jynfo@l &EJ iS hf 0efxrf;rsm;
yg0ifaeonfhudpPudkpHkprf;&m EdkifiHawmforRw a'gufwmarmifarmifu
aumfr&Sit
f aejzifh rnfhok@d aqmif&Guaf pvdak =umif; t=uHay;yg/ t=uaH y;
onhftwdkif; aqmif&Gufygrnf[k ajym=um;cJhonf?
xdkhaemuf aumfr&Sifvl}uD;rsm;t=uHjyKonfhtwdkif; EdkifiHawmf
aumifpOD uUX a'guw
f marmifarmifonf a=unmcsuf 14§88 udk xkwf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

89

jyefum “jynfol@0efxrf;rsm;onf Edik fiHawmftay:opPmxm;I jynfol@
0efuo
kd m xrf;aqmif&rnfjzpfojzifh ygwDppkH epfwGif usiho
f ;kH cJo
h nfh tpOf
tvmESifhtnD jynfol@wyfrawmf/ jynfol@&Jwyfz@GJ paom umuG,fa&;
wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;/ jynfhol@0efxrf;tzGJ@tpnf;toD;oD;/ EdkifiHydkifpD;yGm;a&;/
bkwfaumfydka&;&Sif;tzGJhtpnf;toD;oD;rS 0efxrf;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHawmf
b¾mrS vpmcHpm;=uaom tjcm;0efxrf;rsm;onf ,ae@rpS I rqv
ygwDtygt0if rnfonfhEidk fiHa&;ygwDtzGJ@tpnf;0ifr# rjzpfap&” [lI
xkwfjyefcJhonf?
xdk@ae@rSmyif rqvygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; OD;at;udkonf
jynfol@wyfrawmf/ jynfol@&JESifh 0efxrf;rsm;tm; vrf;pOfygwD ygwD0if
tjzpfrS EkwfxGufcGifhjyKcJhonf?
ÙÙÙ

90

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tcef; (3)
ppfwyftmPmodr;f ydu
k jf cif;
xdk@aemuf jynfolvlxk. qENjyr_rsm;onf vHk;0&yfwef@jcif;r&SdbJ
qufvufI =um;jzwftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;a&;udk awmif;qdkaeojzifh rqv
ygwDOuUXESifh EdkifiHawmfaumifpOD uUX a'guw
f marmifarmifonf EdkifiH
awmftm%mudk vH;k 0xde;f odr;f EdkifpGrf;r&Sdonft
h wGuf umuG,fa&;OD;pD;
csKyf AdkvfcsKy}f u;D apmarmif (aemifAkv
d cf sKyfrSL;}uD;) tm; ppfwyfrS tm%m
odrf;ydkuf&ef tcsufjyvdkufawmhonf?
Todk@jzifh jynfolw&yfvHk;awmif;qdkaeonfh =um;jzwftpdk;& zGJ@
pnf;ay;a&;udk rsuu
f GufjyKum 1988 ckEpS f/ pufwifbmv 18 &ufae@
wGif Edkiif Htm%mudk vufeuftm;ud;k jzifh odrf;ydkufvku
d fawmhonf? jref
rmhEikd if Ha&;ordki;f wGif ppfwyftm%modr;f r_ oHk;}urd &f cSd o
Jh nf? 1958 ckESpf
wGifw}udrf/ 1962 ckESpfwiG f w}udrfESifh ,ck 1988 ckESpw
f Gifw}udrf jzpf
onf?
,if;odk@ tm%modrf;ydkufchjJ yD;aemuf ,if;ae@rmS yif trde@f trSwf
1§88 jzifh EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ac: e0wudk zGJ@
pnf;a=umif; a=unmcJhonf? e0wtzGJ@wGif (1) Adv
k fcsKyf}uD;apmarmif
- OuUX
(2) 'kAv
kd fcsKyf}uD;oef;a&$
- tzG@J 0if
(3) Adv
k fcsKyfarmifarmifcif
- tzGJ@0if
(4) Adv
k fcsKyfwifxeG f;
- tzGJ@0if
(5) Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf atmif&aJ usmf - tzG@J 0if
(6) Adv
k cf sKyf bke;f jrifh
- tzG@J 0if
(7) Adv
k cf sKyf pdeaf tmif
- tzG@J 0if
(8) Adv
k cf sKyf cspaf qG
- tzG@J 0if
(9) Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf ausmb
f
- tzG@J 0if
(10)AdkvfrSL;}uD; armifoifh
- tzGJ@0if
(11) AdkvfrSL;csKyf armifat;
- tzGJ@0if

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

91

(12)AdkvfrSL;csKyf Om%fvif;
- tzGJ@0if
(13) AdkvfrSL;csKyf jrifhatmif
- tzGJ@0if
(14) Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf jroif;
- tzG@J 0if
(15) Adv
k rf SL;csKyfxeG ;f =unf
- tzG@J 0if
(16)AdkvfrSL;csKyf at;aomif
- tzGJ@0if
(17)AdkvfrSL;csKyf rsKd;nGef@
- tzGJ@0if
(18)AdkvfrSL;csKyf cifnGef@
- twGif;a&;rSL; (1)
(19) Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;wifO;D
- twGi;f a&;rSL; (2)
ponf yg0ifcho
J nf?
1988 pufwifbmv 18 wGif e0wtzGJ@}uD;onf a=unmcsuf
trSwf 2§88 jzifh jynfol@v$wfawmf/ EdkifiHawmfaumifp/D 0ef}uD;tzGJ@/
jynfo@l w&m;ol}u;D tzJ@G / jynfo@l Oya'tusK;d aqmiftzG@J / jynfo@l vyk if ef;
ppfaq;a&;tzJ@G / jynfol@aumifpDtqifq
h ifrh sm;udk zsuo
f rd ;f vdu
k af =umif;
a=unmvdkufjyD; 'k0ef}uD;tm;vHk;udkyJ wm0efrS&yfpJa=umif; a=unmcJh
onf?
,if;aemuf xdkae@rSmyif a=unmcsut
f rSwf 3§88 jzihf jrefrmEdik fiH
onf vGwv
f yfIwufºuGaomEdkifijH cm;a&;0g'udk qufvufusiho
f k;H rnf
[k a=unmcJo
h nf? wqufwnf;rSmyif trdef@trSwf 2§88 jzifh jynfol
vlxkw&yfvHk; vdkuef m&efEiS fh Xmeqdik f&m0efxrf;/ tr_xrf;rsm;udk quf
vufwm0efxrf;aqmif&ef trdef@trSwf 3§88 wdk@udk xkwfjyefcJhonf?
trde@f 3§88 t& 0efxrf;tm;vH;k onf 1988 pufwifbmv 19 &uf
ae@rSpI vkyfief;cGifodk@ jyefvnf0ifa&muf=u&efEiS fh pufwifbmv 26
&ufae@txd vkyfief;cGifr0ifygu wm0efr&S yfpJrnfqdkonfhtrdef@rsm;udk
quf wdkufxkwfjyefcJhonf?
pufwifbmv 18 &uf wae@wnf;rSmyif a=unmcsuf (1§88)/
(2§88)/ (3§88) ESihf trde@f trSwf (1§88)/ (2§88)/ (3§88) wd@k ukd
qufwku
d fxkwfcJhjyD; e0wppftpdk;&tjzpf pwifouf0ifv_yf&Sm;vmcJh
onf?

92

oef;0if;vIi
d f

e0wOuUX AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifonf 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpfvnf;
aumif;/ Edkiif aH wmft}u;D tuJtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ umuG,af &;0ef}u;D ESihf
umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyt
f jzpfvnf;aumif; ,lxm;onht
f jyif Edik if Hjcm;a&;
0ef}uD;tjzpfyg ,lxm;vdkufao;onf?
e0wppftpdk;&onf tm%modrf;ydu
k fjy;D jyD;csi;f ta&;awmfyk}H u;D udk
rif;rJhp±dkufvy_ f&Sm;r_}uD;tjzpf ±_jriftykycf s uifyGe;f wyfum enf;vrf;
aygif;pHkjzifh+zdKcGif;um zrf;qD;ta&;,lr_rsm;udk quf wdkufvkyfaqmifcJh
onf? tm%modrf;tpdk;&jzpfaomfvnf; rqvESifh rqvacgif;aqmif
rsm;tm;vH;k pm&if;0ifrsm;jzpfcaJh oma=umifh rqvzufrS t}uD;tus,f
ckcHumuG,fay;I &yfwnfc=Jh uonf? ,if;odk@ rqvygwDtm; ckcHum
uG,af y;&yfwnfchaJ omajumifh e0wtm; ‘ae0if;wyf’ [kyif jynfow
l hdk
u avSmifajymifac:a0:cJh=uonf? xdk@jyif EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfydjym;r_ wnf
aqmufa&;tzGJ@}uD;udk vlxku ‘jidrfyd’ tzGJ@[k uifyGef;wyfcJh=uovdk
,if;wd@k csrw
S v
f yk fuidk af eonfh vrf;pOfay:vpDESifh vkyaf qmifcsurf eS o
f r#
udkvnf; ‘uvdefaphjirf;qif jidryf dvrf;pOf’ [kyif avSmifajymif ac:a0:cJh
=uonf?
xd@k aemuf 1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 19 &ufae@ rGe;f vGJ 1 em&DwGif
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme '*H&k dyfomY e0wtzG@J u aumfr&SiftzG@J 0ifrsm;
tm; zdw=f um;I tpnf;ta0;usif;ycJhonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;odk@ e0
w OuUX AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif (aemifAdkvfcsKyfrSL;}uD;/ ,ckuG,v
f Gef)
trSL;jyKonfh tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf=uaom 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyfjuD;oef;a&$ (,ck
etzOuUXAdkvfcsKyfrLS ;}uD;)/ Adv
k fcsKyfarmifarmifcif(a&) / Adkvcf sKyfwifxeG ;f
(av)/ AdkvfcsKyf pdefatmif (,ckuG,fvGe)f / Adv
k fcsKyf cspfaqG/ twGif;a&;
rSL; (1) Adv
k rf SL;csKyfcifneG /hf twGi;f a&;rSL; (2) Adkvrf LS ;}u;D wifO;D (vky=f uHc&H )
wdEkh iS hf aumfr&SiOf uUX OD;baX;trSL;jyKonfh aumfr&SiftzG@J 0ifrsm;jzpf=u
aom OD;apm=um'd;k / OD;pef;armif/ OD;ausmfneG @f EiS hf aumfr&Sit
f wGi;f a&;rSL;
OD;at;armifwdk@ wufa&mufcJh=uonf? tzGJ@0if q&mcs,fonf tpnf;
ta0;odk@wufa&muf&ef vrf;ydwfaeonft
h wGuf cGihyf efco
Jh nf? tpnf;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

93

ta0;wGif e0w OuUXu rdrdwdk@wyfrawmfESifh 0efxrf;rsm;onf rnf
onhEf kid fiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;. tzGJ@0ifrsm;r[kwfawmha=umif;/ rdrdw@dk onf
=um;aetzGt
Jh pnf;rsm;jzpfjy;D jynforl sm;udk tvkyftau|;jyK&rnfh tzGJ@
tpnf;rsm;jzpfa=umif;/ ,ckjynfolrsm; vdkvm;awmifhwaeonhf ygwDpHk
'Dru
dk a&pDukd tjrefq;Hk taumiftxnfazmfay;Edik af &;twGuf ygwDpkH 'Drkd
ua&pDt axGaxGa&G;aumufy}GJ uD;udk tvGwfvyfq;Hk / tr#wqHk;ESifh t
jrefq;Hk jyKvkyaf y;&ef aumfr&Sit
f zG@J 0ifvl}uD;rsm;udk arwœm&yfcHa=umif;/
aumfr&Sif.vkyfief;rsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;jyD; aumfr&SiftzGJ@0ifvl}uD;rsm;u
rnfo.
l rsuEf mS udrk # raxmufxm;bJ ormorwfusus "rR"Ïd mefusus
w&m;tr#wqH;k aqmif&Gufay;apvdkyga=umif;/ aumfr&Sif. vkyfief;rsm;
ESifh pyfvsOf;I rdrw
d k@d onf tzG@J tpnf;taejzifah omfvnf;aumif;/ wOD;
csif;taejzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ }udK;udkifr_/ vrf;nGefrv
_ kH;0jyKvkyfrnf
r[kwaf =umif;/ a&G;aumufyJOG ya'/ enf;Oya'rsm;a&;qGJ&mwGif aumf
r&Sit
f zG@J 0ifv}l uD;u awG@qakH qG;aEG;vdak om tzG@J tpnf;udjk zpfap vl}u;D
rsm;u awG@qHkaqG;aEG;vdkaom tzGJhtpnf;udkjzpfap/ yk*K~d vfwOD;csif;udk
jzpfap awG@qaHk qG;aEG;t=uOH m%frsm;&,ljy;D vGwv
f Gwv
f yfvyfa&;qGJEkid f
a=umif;/ aumfr&Sifu a&;qGJaxmufcHay;ydk@onfhOya'rsm;udk tjrefqk;H
jyÏmef;ay;rnfjzpfyga=umif;/ ygwpD k'H rD u
kd a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufy}GJ u;D
atmifjrifpGmusif;yEdkifrnfh vdktyfonfhtultnDrsm;udkvnf; tjynfh
t0ay;oGm;rnfjzpfyga=umif; ajym=um;oGm;onf?
Todjkh zifh e0wtzGJ@onf 1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 18 &ufpJGyg
a=unmcsuftrSwf 1§88 jzifh ygwpD Hk'Dru
dk a&pD taxGaxG a&G;aumuf
yG}J uD;ukd }uD;rSL;usif;yay;&ef a'guw
f marmifarmif vufxufu zG@J pnf;cJh
aom a&G;aumufyu
GJ sif;ya&;aumfr&Siu
f kd qufvufwm0efay;tyfch&J m
aumfr&Sifonf rdrd.vkyfief;rsmudk taumiftxnfazmfEkid fa&;twGuf
e0wtzGJ@u 1988 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv 21 &ufae@wGif ygwpD k'H rD u
kd a&pD
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGu
J si;f ya&;r&SiOf ya' (e0wtzGJ@ Oya'trSwf
1§80) udk jyÏmef;ay;cJhonf?

94

oef;0if;vIi
d f

xdk@aemuf aumfr&Sio
f nf jynforl sm;ESihf Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;. t=uHjyK
csufrsm;udt
k ao;pdwaf vhvmjy;D jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf a&G;aumufyOJG ya'
onf usif;y&ef&Sdonfh ygwpD Hk'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJtwGuf
w}udrfomtoHk;jyK&ef &nf&,
G fIvnf;aumif;/ aemifwGif usif;yrnfh
a&G;aumufyGJrsm;ESifh =um;jzwfa&G;aumufyGJrsm;twGufudkrl xdktcsdef
wGifrS pOf;pm;a&;qG=J uap&ef &nf&,
G fIvnfaumif;/ jynfol@vw
$ af wmf
a&G;aumufyGJOya'udk jyKjyifa&;qGjJ yD;aemuf epwtzGJ@odk@ wifjycJhonf?
e0wtzG@J onf ,if;Oya'=urf;udk 1989 arv 25 &ufae@wiG f
aumfr&SifESifh n‡dE_dif;pdppfjyD;aemuf 1989 ar 31 &ufae@Y jynfol@v$wf
awmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya' (e0wOya' trSw1f 4§89) udk jyÏmef;ay;cJh
onf? ,if;Oya'wGif tcef;aygi;f (15)cef;ESihf yk'rf aygi;f (82) ck yg0ifonf?
enf;Oya'jyÏmef;csufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif aqmif
&Gu&f rnfh tao;pdwef nf;pepfOya'rsm;udk 1989 ZGef 30 wGif jyÏmef;
ay;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf Edik fiHa&;ygwDrsm; rSwfykw
H ifjcif;Oya'/ enf; Oya'
rsm;udk jyÏmef;jyD;aemuf aumfr&Sifonf a&G;aumufyJG 0ifa&muf,OS fjydKif
vdkaom EdkifiHa&;ygwDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk 1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbm 30
&ufae@rSpI rSwyf HkwifcGifhjyKcJhjyD;aemuf aemufqHk;&ufrS 1989 azazmf
0g&D 28 &ufae@ukd aumfr&SifrS owfrSwfa=unmay;cJhonf?
odkhuvdk EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwif zGJ@pnf;cGifhjyKvdu
k fjyD;
aemuf “ atmif - pk - wif” tjzpf txl;yl;wGJvy_ &f mS ;ae&mrS OD;atmif
}uD;bufrS (4) OD;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unfbufrS (4) OD;/ OD;wifOD;bufrS
(4) OD; pkpak ygi;f (12) OD;yg0ifonfh trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf A[dt
k vkyf
tr_aqmiftzGJ@udk 1988 ckESp/f pufwifbm27 &ufae@wGif pwifzJ@G pnf;
vdkujf y;D w&m;0ifrw
S fyw
kH ifc&hJ m a&G;aumufyJaG umfr&Siu
f 1988 atmuf
wdb
k m 3 ae@pyJG g a=unmcsut
f rSwf (3) jzifh w&m;0ifEidk if Ha&;ygwt
D jzpf
twnfjyK xkwfjyefa=unmay;cJhonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfbufrS (4) OD;rSm a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ OD;
0if;wif/ a': jrifhjrifhcifESifh OD;atmifvGif (±ky&f Sio
f ±kyfaqmif/ 'g±ku
d fwm)

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

95

wdk@ jzpfonf? yxrqHk; pwifzGJ@pnf;pOfu trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
(NLD) . A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@0ifrsm;rSm (1) OD;atmif}uD;
- OuUX
(2) OD;wifOD;
- 'kOuUX
(3) a':atmifqef;pk=unf
- taxGaxGwGif;a&;rSL;
(4) OD;=unf[ef
- twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if
(5) OD;cspfcikd f
- twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if
(6) OD;0if;wif
- twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if
(7) a': jrifjh rifch if
- vlxv
k w
l ef;pm;XmerSL;
(8) OD;vGif
- b¾ma&;XmerSL;
(9) OD;atmifviG f
- jyef=um;a&;XmerSL;
(10) OD;atmifa&$
- pnf;±Hk;a&;XmerSL;
(11) OD;=unfarmif
- okawoerSL;
(12) OD;ba&$
- tkycf sKyfa&;XmerSL;
wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf pwifz@GJ pnf;prSmyif vlxkt=um; a&
yef;tpm;qHk; EdkifiaH &;tzG@J tpnf;jzpfvmcJhonf? wdak wmif;vSonfh um
vtwGif;rSmyif trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyftwGif; ygwDtzGJ@0ifOD;a&
wdk;wufrsm;jym;vmonf?
xdk@aemuf tzG@J 0ifO;D a& (30) yg0ifaom A[dOk ;D pD;tzG@J udk xyfrzH @JG pnf;
onf? A[kdtvkyftr_aqmiftzGJh pwifzJG@pnf;pOfuJhodk@ A[dkOD;pD;tzGJ@udk
vnf; “atmif-pk-wif” wOD;csif;pDrS wzufv#if (10) OD;uspD E_ef;xm;
jzifh zGJ@pnf;cJhonf?
A[dOk D;pD;tzGJ@0ifopfrsm;rSm
(1) OD;cifndK
(2) OD;aZmf0if;OD;
(3) OD;rif;'if
(4) OD;ausmfjrifhav;

96

oef;0if;vIi
d f

(5) OD;omxdk
(6) OD;odef;Edkif (*k%fxl;)
(7) OD;cifarmifarmifjrifh
(8) OD;armifarmif
(9) OD;eef;EG,f
(10) OD;bd;k atmif
(11) OD;aomif;'ef
(12) OD;vSarmif
(13) OD;apmjrifh
(14) OD;a&$
(15) OD;at;armif
(16) OD;wifat;
(17) Adkvf&JxGËf (&JabmfoHk;usdyf)
(18) OD;oef;xGef;
(19) OD;csdefydk;
(20) OD;vSarmif
(21) OD;xGe;f wif
(22) OD;aomfu (armifaomfu)
(23) OD;ukd,k (armifudk,k)
(24) OD;rdk;ol (armifrk;d ol)
(25) OD;csrf;at;(armifp;l prf;)
(26) a'gufwmwifrsKd;0if;
(27) a'gufwmoufrif;
(28) OD;0if;cuf
(29) OD;wifa&$
(30) OD;cifarmifaqG
wd@k jzpfonf?
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf zGJ@pnf;jyD;pumvrSmyif &efukef

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

97

tygt0if wEdik if v
H ;kH a'otoD;oD;u wufa&mufvm=uonhyf gwD0if
olrsm;ESifh qufvufpnf;±H;k v_yf&Sm;vdkolrsm;udk ygwD0if (tzGJ@csKyf0if)
av#mufv$myHkpH (25) apmifE_ef;pDxkwfay;jyD; ,m,Dpnf;±Hk;a&;rSL;rsm;
tjzpftodtrSwfjyKay;cJhonf? odk@jzifh tzGJ@csKyf0ifOD;a&onf tcsdefwdk
twGif;rSmyif tqrwefwk;d yGm;vmcJhayonf? tjcm;aomEdik fiaH &;ygwD
tzJG@tpnf;rsm;tm;vkH;u tHh=o,l&avmufatmif tcsdefwdktwGif;
a&yef;pm;vmr_onf tzG@J csKyf. taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; a':atmifqef;
pk=unftay: vlxk. ar#mfvifhtm;xm;,kH=unfr_ESifh av;pm;r_yifjzpf
onf?
,if;od@k vlxak xmufcrH _}u;D rm;vmaom trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzJ@G
csKyf}uD;twGif; yxrqkH;ay:xGufcJhonfh jy\emrSm tzJG@csKyf. OuUX
OD;atmif}uD;ud,
k w
f kid u
f pwifzefw;D azmfxkwcf o
Jh nf? “tzJ@G csKyftwGi;f
uGejf rLepfrsm; a&muf&adS eyg+yD? ,if;udk tjrefq;Hk z,f&mS ;ypfa&;” qdo
k nfh
jy\emyif jzpfonf? xdkpOfu OD;atmif}u;D . 1988 Edk0ifbm 29 &ufpJG
yg ta&;ay:oHk;oyfcsufrSm atmufygtwdkif;az: jyxm;onf?
ta&;ay:okH;oyfcsuf
(1) ,ckvuf&Sdtajctaet& trsK;d om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfwGif
uGefjrLepfESihf uGefjrLepfvdkvm;oltkyfpk }uD;xGm;vmonf?
(3) xdk@a=umifh (1) tdk*sD§,l*sDESifh uGejf rLepfvy_ f&Sm;r_ukd ta=umif;
jyKI teD;tem; (a&G;aumufyGJa&G;csde)f wGif a'gufjzKwfI y,fEdkifonf?
(2) tjcm; y,fEidk af omtcsurf mS aiGa&;aju;a&;jzpfonf? wdik ;f ESijfh ynf
e,frsm; wGif aiGpm&if;ppfjyD; jzpfae&efvko
d nf?
(4) xdk@a=umifh ‘atmif-pk-wif’ruG&J ef vdkonf? txl;*±kpdkufI
}udK;pm;&efvdkonf?
(5) xdkhajumifh ‘atmif-pk-wif’ tzGJ@twGif;rS uGefjrLepfrsm;/ uGef
jrLepfvdkvm;olrsm;udk tem;,l&ef arwœm&yfcHoifhonf?
(6) ajcurjrJ vufujrJ/ vufurjrJajcujrJ&ef/ tu,fI trsKd;

98

oef;0if;vIi
d f

om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyftm;y,fv#if t&eftzG@J &Sd&efvko
d nf?
(7) jynfaxmifpt
k rsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDygwD (Union National Democracy
Party – UNDP ) onf t&eftzGJ@omjzpfI trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzG@J csKyf.
tvHawmfatmufwiG &f o
dS nf? trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyu
f dk rnfonfh
ta=umif;a=umifrh S ruGaJ tmif tbufbufrS }udK;pm;&rnf? tjcm;tzG@J
rsm;u txifrSm;/ tjrifrSm;jzpfatmif aoG;xdk;jcif;udk tjrefqHk; &Sif;jy
&efvko
d nf?
(8) jynfaxmifpt
k rsKd;om;'Drku
d a&pDygwo
D nf vGwv
f yfa&;umv
(zqyv) tzGJ@csKyftvHawmfatmufwGif jynfol@&Jabmf/ qdk&,
S fvpf
woD;yk*~vrsm; v_y&f Sm;r_ykpH H/ ,ckrsKd;cspf&Jabmfa[mif;rsm;tzJG@ v_yf&Sm;
r_yHkpHtwdkif; trsK;d om;wyfaygif;pktzGJ@tpnf;wcktjzpfjzifh v_yf&Sm;=u
&rnfjzpfonf?
(yHk) atmif}uD;
9 - 11 - 88
,if;od@k OD;atmif}uD;u uGejf rLepfwq
H dycf yfEydS jf y;D z,f&mS ;ypfvo
kd nfh
yk*Kd~ vf (8) OD;rSm OD;0if;wif/ a': jrifjh rifch if/ OD;atmifviG (f rif;om;)/ OD;xGe;f
wif/ OD;ud,
k (k armifu,
kd )k / OD;csrf;at; (armifpl;prf;)/ OD;wifa&$ (rH&k Gm) ESifh
OD;0if;cufwdk@ jzpfonf?
A[dktvkyt
f r_aqmiftzG@J 0ifrsm;ESifh A[dkOD;pD;tzGJ@0iftrsm;pk}uD;u
,if;udpPESifh ywfoufjyD; ,if;odk@rjzpfoifha=umif; azsmifhzsem;cscJhaomf
vnf; jy\emajyvnfr_r&&SdbJ ouFm&Sif;yGJ}uD;udk rJcJt
G qHk;tjzwf jyK
vkyf&onftxd jyKvkyfcJh&onf? rJc&GJ mY OD;atmif}uD;bufrS ±_H;edryfh gu
EkwfxGufay;a&;ESifh (8) OD;bufu ±_;H edrfhv#if (8) OD;pvHk; E_wfxu
G fay;
a&;udk oabmwlnDrj_ zifh A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmif (12) OD;/ A[dOk D;pD;tzGJ@0if
(30) tygt0if pkpkaygif; (42) OD;jzifh rJcGJ&m OD;atmif}uD;.vkyf&yftay:
OD;atmif}uD;. tpkzufrS yg0ifaomyk*~dKvfrsm;yif uef@uu
G fcJhojzifh OD;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

99

atmif}uD; ±_H;edrfhoGm;cJhonf? xd@k a=umifh OD;atmif}uD;onf tzGJ@csKyf
OuUXtjzpfrS Ekwx
f Gufay;vdu
k f&onf? OD;atmif}uD;ESifhtwl OD;atmif
}uD;bufrS OD;=unf[ef/ OD;ba&$/ OD;eef;EG,f/ OD;cifarmifarmif/ OD;om
xdk/ OD;odef;Edkif/ OD;rif;'if/ OD;cifndK/ OD;ausmfjrifhav;/ OD;bdk;atmif/ OD;
armifarmif/ OD;aZmf0if;OD;wdk@ (12) OD;vnf; EkwfxGufoGm;cJh=uonf?
,if;aemuf trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfonf 1989 ckEpS /f 'DZif
bmvtwGif;rSmyif A[dktvkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwDudk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;
cJh&m A[dktvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwDopfrSm atmufygtwdik f;jzpfonf?
(1) OD;wifOD;
- OuUX
(2) a':atmifqef;pk=unf - taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
(3) OD;0if;wif
- twGi;f a&;rSL;
(4) OD;cspfcidk f
- twGi;f a&;rSL;
(5) OD;=unfarmif
- okawoerSL;
(6) OD;atmifa&$
- pnf;±Hk;a&;rSL;
(7) OD;vGif
- b¾ma&;rSL;
(8) OD;atmifvGif
- jyef=um;a&;rSL;
(9) a': jrifhjrifhcif
- vlxv
l lwef;pm;XmerSL;
wd@k jzpfonf?
OD;atmif}uD;ESifh (12) OD;wdk@u tzGhcJ sKyrf S EkwfxGufa=umif; a=unm
cJjh yD; tzG@J csKyfurl OD;atmif}u;D ESihf (12) OD;wdk@ukd tzG@J csKyrf S xkwyf ,fvku
d f
a=umif; a=unmcJyh gw,f? OD;atmif}u;D ESit
fh zG@J 0ifrsm;onf “jynfaxmif
pk trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDygwD” tjzpf oD;jcm;cGJaxmifcJh=uonf?
OD;atmif}uD;ESifhtzGJh EkwfxGufoGm;jyD;aemuf trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pD
tzG@J csKyfonf tiftm;avsmhenf;roGm;onfhtjyif ydkIyif tiftm;}uD;
xGm;vmcJhonf? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh r[mrdwfzGJ@vm=u
onfhygwDaygif;rSm (46) ygwDtxd wd;k yGm;vmcJhonf? rsKd;csp&f Jabmfrsm;
tzGJ@ESifh trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDygwDwdk@onf trsKd;om;'Drku
d a&pDtzG@J cskyf
. b,fawmifyHESifh nmawmifyHozG,f jzpfay:vmcJhonf?

100

oef;0if;vIi
d f

trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf. jyef=um;a&;vkyif ef;wcktjzpf ‘rSwf
wrf;v$m’ pmpOfukd yHkreS fxkwaf 0cJhonf? ,if;rSwfwrf;v$mwGif wjynf
vHk; a'otoD;oD;u rawmfrw&m;tzrf;tqD;cH&r_rsm;/ tjypfay; t
a&;,lcH&r_rsm;ESifh w&m;r#wr_r&Sdonfh tjzpftysuu
f pd Prsm;tay: uef@
uGujf cif;/ &_HŒcsjcif;udk azmfjycJhonf?
xd@k a=umifh e0w tpdk;&. jynfxaJ &;ESihf omoema&;0ef}u;D Xmeu
“yHkESdyfolrsm;ESifh xkwaf 0olrsm; A[kdrSwfyw
Hk iftzGJ@neG f=um;csu(f 38)”
udk xkwfjyefI 1962 ckEpS f yHkEySd fo/l xkwfa0olrsm; rSwfykw
H ifolrsm; rSwf
yHkwifOya'udk vdkufemjcif;r&Sdygu xda&mufpGmta&;,lrnfjzpfajumif;
xkwjf yefa=unmvdkufaomtcg e0w tpdk;&tay: ydkI tjrif r=unf
vifjzpfcJhonf?
xdkumvtwGif; 1989 ckESpf/ arv 12 &ufae@wGif ausmufwH
wm;+rdKŒe,f/ 37 vrf; trSwf 145 &Sd r[meENmykHESdyw
f dkuftm; ppftpd;k &
u w&m;r0ifpmapmifrsm;±dkuef ySd frj_ zifh ta&;,laqmif&u
G cf h&J mwGif trs;kd
om;'Drku
d a&pDtzGJ@csKyf. ±dkufESdyq
f Jpm&Gupf mwrf;rsm; yg&o
dS Gm;cJhonf?
xdt
k jzpftysuw
f @dk onf NLD tm; tm%mzDqefa&;vrf;a=umif;ay:od@k
wGef;wifvdkufovdk jzpfoGm;cJ&h onf?
xdahk emuf 1989 ckEpS f/ ZGev
f 6 &ufae@ wGif jynfxaJ &;ESihf omoem
a&;0ef}uD;Xme. a=unmcsut
f rSwf 38 tay: rvdkufemEdkifa=umif;
NLD u ta=umif;=um;cJhonf?
xdkpOftwGif; ZGefv yxrywftwGif;Y a':atmifqef;pk=unfeSifh
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. wwfodynm&Sifrsm;jzpf=uonfh armif
aomfu/ a': jrifhjrihfcif/ om,m0wDprf;prf;EJ@G / armifudk,k/ armif0Ho/
armifcufyef/ OD;wifr;kd wd@k tzG@J awG@qkaH qG;aEG;cJ=h uonf? xdak qG;aEG;yGw
J iG f
wwfoyd nm&SiftzGJ@u a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk [ife&Da';zpf aomf
±d;k .pmyd'k fudk pma&;q&marmifaomfu &GwfjycJhonf? tzGJ@0iftm;vHk;u
oabmusI NLD jrefrmvdkudkufnDrnfhpmom;udk 0dkif;I t=uHjyKay;
=uonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfu ‚if;wd@k .t=uHjyKcsuu
f dk oabmusI

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

101

tpnf;ta0;wGif tm%mzDqefa&;vdkif;udk aqG;aEG;&ef OD;0if;wif
tm;wm0efay;tyfco
hJ nf? OD;0if;wifu tvkyt
f r_aqmif tpnf;ta0;
wGif “trsm;oabmrwlwhJ trdef@tm%m[lor# wm0eft&zDqef=u”
qdkonfhaºuG;a=umfoHudk wifjycJh&m tm;vHk;uoabmwlI NLD .
aqmifyk'ftjzpf pmwrf;rsm;±dkuEf ySd f&mwGif “Tpmapmifonf e0w t
pd;k & jynfxaJ &;0ef}u;D Xme. zdEdyS cf sKycf s,af om trde@f tm%mudk zDqefI
xkwfa0aompmapmifjzpfonf” [k &J&J0Hh0Hh azmfxkwfjyocJhonf?
,if;udpPESifhywfoufI a':atmifqef;pk=unfu “tm%mzDqefa&;qdw
k mvnf; usrwd@k a=unmcJhjyD;jyD? rw&m;wJh
trdef@tm%mzDqefa&;/ 'gukv
d nf; ‘e0w’ todtrSwfjyKygw,f? usr
wdk@[m rw&m;wJt
h rde@f tm%m zDqefr_pDpOfw,fqw
dk m ta&;}uD;wm
u bmvJ/ vGwfvyfpmG yHkEdyS x
f kwfa0ydik fcGihyf /J t&iftywf owif;pm&Sif;
vif;yGJwkef;u 'DudpPeJ@ywfoufvdk@ usrwdk@ ajymjyD;oGm;jyD;ygjyD? 1962
ckEpS f yHkEdyS x
f w
k fa0olrsm;ESihf rSwyf w
Hk ifOya't&qdv
k k@d &&Sd if usrwdk@ tzGJ@t
pnf;[m vGwv
f Gwfvyfvyfxkwaf 0ydik cf Gih&f r,fh tzGJ@tpnf;yg? 'gayr,hf
'DtcGifhta&;udk ydwfyifjyD;awmh usrwdk@udk trdef@tm%meJ@ ydwfyifjyD;
awmh vGwfvGwfvyfvyfyEHk dyS fxkwfa0cGirfh &Syd gbl;/ yHEk dyS fxkwfa0jcif; rvkyf
&bl;vdk@ajymwJhtcgusawmh usrwdk@taeeJ@ wajz;ajz;&oifh&xdkufwJh
tcGiht
f a&;awG[m r&wJt
h jyif avsmv
h mygvm;qdw
k m uGuu
f u
G f uGi;f
uGi;f jrifvmygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk@vk@d 'Dtrde@f tm%mudkawmh zDqef&r,f/
usrwdk@ xkwfoifhxkwfxdkufwhpJ m&Gupf mwrf;awG qufjyD; xkwf&r,f?
tck oHk;/ av;&uftwGif;rSmjzpfwJhudpPawGukd =unfhjcif;tm;jzihf
usrwdk@taeeJ@ pm&Gufpmwrf;xkwfzdk@qdkwm b,favmufvdkvJqdkwm
xif&mS ;ygw,f? e0wtaeeJ@ owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGv
J yk v
f u
kd w
f ,f/ jrefrmh
toHuae a=unmvdu
k w
f ,f? vkyo
f m;jynfo@l ae@pOfxrJ mS xnfv
h u
kd f
w,f/ ESpf&ufqufjyD;xnfhvk@d rauseyfao;bl;/ 'Dae@qv
dk dk@&Sd&if tydk pm
&Gufuav;taeeJah wmifrS xnfv
h u
dk af o;w,f/ 'g[m usrwd@k tay:rSm
apwem&Sdvdk 0g'jzef@csda&; vkyfay;csifwmvm;qdkwm tcsKd@uawmh xif
NLD

102

oef;0if;vIi
d f

rSmayghav/ a&;xm;wm=unfhvdkufvdkh&d&S ifawmh apwemeJ@vkyfwm r
[kwyf gbl;qdkwm xif&Sm;ygw,f?
'Dawmh vkyfom;jynfol@aehpOfowif;pmeJ@ jrefrmhtoHudk wzuf
owf usrwdk@udk wdkufcdkufzdk@oHk;pGJae&if usrwdk@rSm vGwfvyfpGmyHkESdyf
xkwaf 0ydik fciG hv
f akd ew,fqw
kd m xif&mS ;ygw,f? ‘e0w’ taeeJ@ wu,f
yJ rSefrSefuefuefvkyfcsifw,fqdk&if usr tck owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJrSm
ajymoGm;wJhtcsufawGudk rSefrSefuefuef jynfjh ynfhpHkpHk owif;pmxJrSm
ygvmr,f? jrefrmhtoHrSm ygvmr,fqdkvdk@&Sd&ifawmh usrwdk@taeeJh
a=omf usrwdk@uawmh rSm;jyDyJ/ ‘e0w’[m wu,fyJ apwemrSefrSefeJ@
vkyf aewmyJvk@d ajymzdk@ usrtqifoifyh gyJ? 'Dawmh 'DrmS vkyo
f m;jynfo@l
ae@pOfu vl}uD;rsm;vnf;&Syd gw,f/ usrajymwJt
h csut
f vufrsm;udk rSef
rSefuefuef jynfhjynfhppHk Hk xnfhay;vdk@&dS&if usr e0wudk xyfjyD;awmh
awmifrS awmif;yefvdkuOf D;r,f/ usrtxifrSm;oGm;ygjyD/ txifvGJomG ;
ygjy/D e0w[m apwemrSerf eS ef J@ vkyo
f mG ;ygvm;qdjk yD; usrajym&Jygw,f”
[lI tzG@J csKyf±;kH Y 1989 ckEpS /f ZGev
f twGi;f jyKvkycf ahJ om owif;pm&Si;f
vif;yGJY ajym=um;oGm;onf?
,if;aemuf r=umrDrmS yif e0wtpd;k &u a=unmcsuf (2§89)
jzifh tmZmenfae@ usif;yrnfu
h dpPEiS fh ywfoufI xkwjf yefa=unmvm
cJhonf?
a=unmcsuftjynfhtpHkrSm (1) Edkiif aH wmfjird f0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@u ygwpD k'H rD u
kd a&pD
taxGaxG a&G;aumufyJGrsm;jzpfajrmufatmifjrifa&;udk rjzpfrae &nf
rSe;f csuf csrw
S af qmif&u
G af eygonf? xd@k tjyif Edik if aH wmftpd;k &onf Edik f
iHawmfESihyf wfoufonfh ae@}uD;&uf}uD;rsm;udk tcrf;tem;jzifh usif;y
vsuf&d&S m 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 19 &ufae@wGif usa&mufrnfh (42)
ESpaf jrmuf tmZmenfae@tcrf;tem;udv
k nf; ,cifEpS rf sm;uJo
h @kd Edik if H
awmfrS }uD;rSL;usif;yrnfjzpfygonf?
(2) EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@rS pI EdkifiHawmf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

103

tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ e,fcsJŒvufyg;apwdk@. vkyf=uHcH&ojzifh usqHk;cJhaom
tmZmenfacgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;.r o
d m;pkrsm;/ oHwreftzG@J tpnf;rsm;
ESihf ygwDpk'H rD ku
d a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJu
G si;f ya&;aumfr&Siw
f Gif rSwf
yHkwifcJhonfh EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;u ,if;tcrf;tem;odk@ wufa&muft
av;jyK=urnf jzpfygonf?
(3) (42) ESpaf jrmuf tmZmenfae@ tcrf;tem;od@k wuf
a&muf&ef tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;.rdom;pk ud;k pktm; usi;f ya&;
aumfrwDu zdwf=um;cJh&m atmufyg tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;.
rdom;pk&pS pf u
k tcrf;tem;odk@wufa&muf&ef pmjzifh jyef=um;cJhjy;D jzpfyg
onf?
(u) 0ef}uD;ocifjr. rdom;pk
(c) 0ef}uD; OD;bcsKd. rdom;pk
(*) 0ef}uD; OD;&mZwf .rdom;pk
(C) 0ef}uD; OD;b0if; .rdom;pk
(i) 0ef}uD; ref;bcdkif .rdom;pk
(p) 0ef}uD; rdkif;yGefapmfbGm; p0fpHxGef;. rdom;pk
(q) twGif;0ef OD;tkef;armif. rdom;pk
(Z) &JabmfudkaxG;. rdom;pk
(4) 1989 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f 16 &ufae@wiG f usi;f yonfh (42) eSpf
ajrmuf tmZmenfae@ 0wfpHkjynfh tcrf;tem;avhusifhonfh tcrf; t
em;odhk tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;. txufazmfjyyg rdom;pk&Sppf u
k
wufa&mufcJh=uaomfvnf; Adkvcf sKyfatmifqef;. rdom;pkonf 0wfpHk
jynfhavhusifhrt
_ crf;tem;odk@ wufa&mufcjJh cif;r&Sdonft
h jyif (42) eSpf
ajrmuftmZmenfae@tcrf;tem;odk@wufa&mufrnf[v
k nf; ,ckcsdef
txd ta=umif;jyef=um;jcif;rjyKao;a=umif; awG@&Sd&ygonf?
(5) ygwDpHk'Drku
d a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ usif;ya&;aumfr&Sif
wGif rSwfyHkwifxm;aomEdkifiHa&;ygwrD sm;tm; usif;ya&;aumfrwDu
zdw=f um;cJ&h m/ Edik if aH &;ygwD (70) u 42 ESpaf jrmuf tmZmenfae@tcrf;

104

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tem;od@k wufa&muf&ef pm&if;ay;xm;jyD;jzpfygonf? tcrf;tem;od@k
wufa&mufrnfEh ikd if Ha&;ygwrD sm;. trnfpm&if;udk ae@pOfxw
k f owif;
pmrsm;wGif azmfjyxm;jyD;jzpfygonf?
(6) EdkifiHawmfrS }uD;rSL;usi;f yonfh tcrf;tem;jyD;pD;aomtcg t
pOftvm&SdonfEiS fhtnD jynfolvlxkrSvnf; rdrdqENtavsmuf tm
ZmenfArd mefwiG f tmZmenfacgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;tm; tav;jyKEdik &f ef
pDpOfxm;&SdjyD;jzpfygonf? od@k ygI at;csrf;pGm*g&0jyKvkad om jynfov
l lxk
taejzifh rdrdwdk@qENt& wOD;csi;f aomfvnf;aumif;/ trsm;qHk; ig;OD; pk
aygi;f Iaomfvnf;aumif; tmZmenfArd mefo@kd vma&mufI *g&0jyKEdik yf g
onf?
(7) tmZmenfacgi;f aqmif}u;D rsm;tm; jynfov
l x
l rk S at;csr;f pGm
*g&0jyKEdkif&ef vdktyfygonf? xdk@a=umifh EdkifiHa&; tjrwfxkwfvdkaom
ta=umif;jzifh pDwef;vSnv
hf nfcsDwufjcif;/ aºuG;a=umfatmf[pfjcif;/ ql
yl&efvH@_ aqmfjcif;/ qlylv_yf&Sm;jcif;/ jynfov
l x
l t
k m; t"rRpnf;±Hk; ac:iif
jcif;/ pk±Hk;jcif;rsm;rjyKvkyf&ef wm;jrpfvdkufonf? Twm;jrpfcsufudk
azmuf zsuu
f sL;vGeyf gu w&m;Oya't& xda&mufpmG ta&;,lrnfjzpf
a=umif; a=unmvdkufonf?
trde@f t&
(armifudk)
twGif;a&;rSL;
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftpdk;&tzJG@
xdk@tjyif (19-7-89) &ufaehwGif vkyfom;jynfol@ae@pOf owif;
pmYvnf; “AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. tm%mzDqefa&;vrf;pOfrSm e,fcsJŒ
t*Fvyd facwfu csay;cJah omvrf;pOfjzpf/ wyfrawmfonf e,fcsŒJ udk qefh
usifjyD; vGwfvyfa&;udkumuG,faeaomtzGJŒjzpf/ tmZmenfAdrmefodk@
jynfolrsm; vma&muftav;jyK&mwGif rdrdwdk@.vHkjcHKa&;tpDtpOf t

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

105

wGi;f rSjzpf&rnf” [laom acgi;f pOfjzifh azmfjyxm;a=umif; awG@&S&d jyef
onf?
xdk@aemuf 1989 Zlvikd f 19 &ufae@ eHeufwiG f a':atmifqef;pk=unf
u jynfolvlxk rvdktyfaom xdcdkufepfemr_rsm; ray:ap&eftwGuf
tmZmenfae@ csw
D ufrnft
h pDtpOfukd zsuo
f rd ;f vdu
k o
f nf? tmZmenf
ae@tcrf;tem;udk tzGJ@csKyf±Hk;Yom usif;yjyKvkyfoGm;&ef nGef=um;cJh
onf?
ÙÙÙ

106

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tcef; (4)
yxrqk;H aetdrt
f us,fcsKyfumv
xdk@aemuf ae@wae@ 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvkid f 20 &ufae@wGif a':atmif
qef;pk=unfESifh OD;wifOD;wdk@tm; EdkifiHawmftm; aESmifh,SufzsufqD;vdk
olrsm;. ab;teœ&m,frS umuG,fapmifha&SmufonfhOya'yk'fr 10 (c)
t& aetdrfwGif wm;qD;rdef@xkwfI wm;qD;xm;jcif; cHcJh&onf?
xdo
k k@d ta&;,ljcif;ESifhywfoufI Zlvidk fv 21 &ufae@wGif e0w.
t}udrf 50 ajrmuf owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJY “ 1989 ckESp/f Zlvidk f 20 &ufae@ eHeufrSpI a':atmifqef;pk=unf
ESifh ol&OD;wifO;D wdk@tm; Edik fiHawmftm; aESmuf,Suzf sufq;D vdkorl sm;.
ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,fapmifha&Smufonfh Oya't& ta&;,lvdkuf
&a=umif;/ TOya'onf EdkifiaH wmf. tcsKyftjcmtm%mESifh Edkiif aH wmf
vHjk cHKa&;udkjzpfap/ trsm;jynfolw@dk . at;csrf;om,ma&;udjk zpfap xd
yg;rnfhteœ&m,frS }udKwifumuG,fEdkif&efvnf;aumif;/ Edkifio
H m;rsm;.
rlvtcGit
fh a&;rsm;udk rxdcu
dk fapbJ Edik fiHawmftm; aESmifh,u
S zf sufqD;
vdo
k rl sm;.ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,&f efvnf;aumif;/ jyÏmef;xm;aom
Oya'jzpfa=umif;?
,if;yk*Kd~ vfEpS Of ;D tm; tqdyk g Oya'yk'rf 10 (c) t& vkyyf ikd cf iG hfrsm;
udk usio
fh ;kH jyD; wm;qD;r_jyKvyk x
f m;a=umif;/ Tyk'rf 10 (c) t& ta&;,l
jcif;cH&oltm; wESpftxd wm;qD;r_jyKvkyfEdik fonf[k jyÏmef;xm;
a=umif;” Todk@wm;qD;r_rsm; jyKvkyfjcif;qdk&mY (u) rnfonfhae&ma'owGif raexdki&f [k owfrSwjf cif;/
(c) rnfonfhae&ma'owGifom aexdkif&rnf[k owfrSwfjcif;/
(*) oGm;vmr_udk vdktyfovdk wm;qD;jcif;/
(C) owfrSwfonfht&m0wˆKrsm;udk vuf0,fxm;&Sdjcif; (odk@r
[kwf) toHk;jyKjcif;udk ydwfyifwm;qD;jcif;wd@k udk jyKvkyfEdkifa=umif;?
azmfjyygOya't& ‚if;wd@k tm; ta&;,l&mwGif um,uH&iS frsm;
onf vuf&aSd exdkifvsu&f Sdaom tdrftoD;oD;wGifom aexdkifI tdrfjcH

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

107

jyifyodk@xu
G cf mG oGm;vmcGirfh jyKyga=umif;/ ‚if;. tdrfaxmifpx
k w
J iG f yg&Sd
aom w&m;0ifrdom;pkrsm;om jyifyodk@ tapmifhta&Smufjzihf oGm;
a&mufEdkifa=umif;/ odk@aomfvnf; ,if;wdk@tm; EdkifiHjcm;oH±;Hk rsm;/ EdkifiH
a&;ygwDrsm;/ Edik fiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifh qufoG,folrsm;xHok@d oGm;a&mufcGifh
rjyKyga=umif;/ jyifyyk*~dKvfrsm;udkvnf; vludk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/
w,fvzD ek f;jzifah omfvnf;aumif; vma&mufqufo,
G jf cif;rjyK&ef uef@
owfwm;jrpfxm;a=umif;/ um,uH&Sifrsm;tm; vdt
k yfonfh aq;0g;
ukor_ESifh usef;rma&;udpPrsm;udk aqmuf&Gufay;&ef EdkifiHawmfu wm
0ef,lxm;a=umif;?
TuJhodk@ ta&;,laqmif&Gucf Jh&jcif;onf azmfjyygyk*K~d vfEpS fOD;. O
ya'csKd;azgufvyk f&yfrsm;a=umifjh zpfa=umif;/ txl;tm;jzifh EdkifiHawmfudk
tE W&m,fjzpfaprnfhtajctaersm;jzpfay:atmif aqmif&GufcJhjcif;
a=umifhjzpfa=umif;/ ‚if;tjyif wdik f;&if;om;jynfolrsm;ESifh wyfrawmf
udk aoG;cGjJ yD; wdik ;f &if;om;jynfolrsm;u wyfrawmftay: rke;f wD;atmif
aqmif&GufcJhjcif;rsm;a=umifh jzpfa=umif;/
1989 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f 19 &ufae@ nae 6 em&DwiG f VOA jrefrm
ydki;f tpDtpOfY a':atmifqef;pk=unf.a=unmcsufY “'ga=umifhrdk@vdk@ jynfolvlxk toufaysmufatmifvdk@ usrwdk@
b,fawmhrS rvkyyf gbl;/ jynfov
l lx&k ŒJ toufudk trsm;}u;D wefz;dk xm;
ygw,f? e0wvdk wefzk;d rxm;wJh tkyfpkr[kwyf gbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk@v@dk usr
wdk@Ekid fiHrSmqdkvdk@&Sd&if ppftpdk;&tkycf sKyfr_qdkjyD; a=unmcsuf[m zufqpf
0g'awGp;dk rdk;aejyDqkw
d m tifrwefrS xif&Sm;ygw,f? usrwdk@ jynfol jynf
om;awG[m zufqpf0g'atmufrmS ±ke;f uef&rSmyJ? 'Dru
kd a&pD&zdk@twGuf
'Dzufqpf0g'atmufrSmowœ&d d&S eSd @J qufjy;D ±kef;uefoGm;zd@k jzpfygw,f” [k
yg&Sda=umif;/
Todk@ r[kwfrrSefpGyfpGJcsufrSm jynfol@wyfrawmfudk zufqpfESifh
Edi_ ;f ,SOfxm;ojzifh tvGefem=unf;p&maumif;a=umif;/ jynfoEl iS hw
f yfr
awmfonf zufqpfudk rsm;pGm&GH&Sm rkef;wD;a=umif;/ xdk@a=umifh jynfol

108

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ESifhwyfrawmf vufwjGJ yD; zufqpfuq
dk ef@usifwku
d fcu
dk cf Jh=ua=umif;/ ‚if;
.ajymqdkr_rsm;onf zufqpfe,fcsJŒudk aoG;pnf;nDnGwfpGm wdkufcdkucf Jh
=uaom jynfolESifh wyfrawmfudk aoG;uGJatmif wrifzefwD;ajymqdkr_
rsm;jzpfa=umif;?
Todk@aom wyfrawmfudk zufqpfwyfrawmf[k ac:a0:orkwf
vdkujf cif;onf wyfrawmfEiS fhjynfoltm; &efwu
dk fay;jcif;/ rormaom
&nf&G,cf sufjzifh vdrfnmpGyfpGJykwfcwfjcif;yifjzpfajumif;/ EdkifiaH wmftm;
tEœ&m,fodk@usa&mufap&ef =uHaqmifzefwD;jcif;jzpfa=umif;?
a':atmifqef;pkjunfonf 1989 Zlvkid f 10 &ufae@wiG f yef;bJwef;
jrdKŒe,f trSwf 163/ taemf&xmvrf;&Sd vl@abmifopf'Dru
dk &ufwpf yg
wD±Hk;cef;wGif rdef@cGef;ajym=um;&mYvnf; “EdkifiHolEidk fiHom;rsm;udk aemufxyfvufeufESihf ESdrfESif;r,fqdk&if
awmh usrwdk@u zufqpftpd;k &vdk@ a=unm&rSmyJ” [k ajymqdkchaJ =umif;/
Todk@ajymqdkjcif;onf e0wtzG@J tpd;k &onf wyfrawmftpdk;&yifjzpfI
wyfrawmftm; jynfolu trkef;yGm;ap&ef ajymqdkjcif;jzpfonfrSm xif
&Sm;yga=umif;?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu “ 'Dwyfrawmf[m vlwa,muftwGufr[kwb
f l;/ tzGJ@tpnf;
twGuf r[kwfbl;qdkwmvJ xyfwvJvJajymcJhw,f/ wyfrawmf vrf;
rSm;oGm;rSmudkvJ azaztifrwefrS pdk;&drfoGm;w,f/ 'DavmufawmifrS
pd;k &draf e&ufeJ@ bmjzpfv@kd vrf;rSm;oGm;&wmvJ? OD;ae0if;[m wyfrawmf
udk vrf;rSm;ay:rSm wifay;vdkufw,f? tJ'Dawmh ,ck wyfrawmfxJrSm
&Sw
d hJ wyfrawmfom;rsm;/ t&m&Sdrsm; pOf;pm;yg? wyfrawmf&JŒzcifqkw
d m
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;qdkjyD;awmh twdtvif;a=unmxm;jyD;/ AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;[m wyfrawmfukd b,fvt
kd aetxm;rSm b,fvjkd zpfapcsif
ovJqkw
d m jyefjyD;oHk;oyfyg? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wyfrawmfvm;/ Adkvf
ae0if;wyfrawmfvm;qdkwm qHk;jzwf&awmhr,f” [kvnf; txufyg
rde@f cGef;wGif ajymqdkcJha=umif;/

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

109

a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 1989 ck/ Zlvkid v
f 8 &ufae@ wGif ‚if;.
aetdrfY xdik f;EdkifiHrS ae;&Si;f (Nation) owif;pm owif;axmuf uGeef m
a*gpuD;ESihf awG@qakH qG;aEG;&mYvnf; OD;ae0if;onf wyfrawmftm; }udK;
udkifvsuf&Sdonf? AkdvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifonf OD;ae0if;. vdkvm;csuf
twdkif; vdkuI
f vkyfudkifae&onfrSm xif&Sm;aeonf? wyfrawmfonf
vlru
dk ftvkyfuk d vkyfudkifae&onf? vltdkwpk tm%mwnfjrJa&; t
wGuf vkyfuidk fae&onf[k ajymqdkcJha=umif;/ ‚if;ajymqdck sut
f m; 1989
Zlvdkif 15 &ufxw
k f ae;&Sif;owif;pmwGif azmfjyxm;onf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf wyfrawmf. *k%o
f u
d mQ usqif;atmif
ESifh wyfrawmfudk jynfolrsm;u qef@usifv_yf&Sm;um v_H@aqmfaoG;xdk;
ajymqdkcJhonfrsm; tajrmuftjrm;&SdcJha=umif;/ TuJhodk@ wdkif;jynf z±dk
z&Jjzpfap&ef =uHaqmifr_rsm;ESifhywfoufI wyfrawmfu t}udrf}udrf
onf;nnf;cHcsKyfwnf;cJha=umif;/ OD;wifOD;ESifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfwk@d
OD;aqmifaomtzGJ@u Zlvkid fv 19 &ufae@wGif jynfolrsm;tm; tmZm
enfrsm;tm; *k%fjyKrnft
h pDtpOfudk ppf0g'Dwk@d u vufeuftm;udk;jzifh
acsre_ ;f &ef}uKd ;yrf;aea=umif;/ tmZmenfae@ukd xyfraH oG;pGe;f ap&ef ywf
pufpmG =uHaeonf[kv_H@aqmfjyD; wyfrawmfudk jynfolESifh &efwu
dk fay;
cJha=umif;?
“ OD;wifOD;onf ucsifjynfe,fok@d vSnhv
f nfpOfu awG@&SdcJh&aom
udpPrsm;ESifh ywfoufI wyfrawmfESifh wdkif;&if;om;jynforl sm; aoG;uGJ
atmifEiS hf wyfrawmftay:wGif jynfov
l x
l u
k em=unf;rke;f wD;atmif
‚if; wd@k tzGJ@. 5 }urd af jrmufowif;pm&Si;f vif;yGJY ajymqdkoGm;cJhonfukd
awG@&yga=umif;/ xdkowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh
OD;wifO;D wd@k onf a&SŒwef;vkyt
f m;&Sirf sm;toHk;jyKaomudpEP iS hf ywfouf
I wyfrawmftm; vlrqefaom/ &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfaom/ pD;yGm;a&;
aomif;use;f aomtzGJ@tpnf;wckozG,±f yk v
f ;kH ay:aygufap&ef ajymqdkcJh
a=umif;/ xdk@tjyif OD;wifOD;onf r_cif;wyfz@GJ rS w&m;pGJqdkxm;aom
pdk;odrf;yg ajcmufO;D tr_ukd ppfaq;aeonfh tif;pdet
f usO;f axmifteD;&Sd

110

oef;0if;vIi
d f

txl;w&m;&H;k od@k 1989 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f 4 &ufae@wiG f vma&mufjyD; OD;
aiGvid_ t
f m; csucf sif;tmrcHray;r_EiS hf ywfoufI “vufeuftm;ud;k jzifh
tEdkifusifhaejcif;jzpfonf” [k wyfrawmfESifh jynfolukd aoG;uGJatmif
ajymqdkchaJ =umif;/ OD;wifOD;onf wdkif;jynftwGif; wnfjidrrf _ysujf ym;ap
&ef/ qlylr_rsm;jzpfyGm;ap&ef ajymqdkcJhonfrsm; trsm;tjym;&SdcJha=umif;/
xd@k a=umifh Edik fiaH wmfESihf jynfow
l @kd .tusK;d pD;yGm;/ touftk;d tdrpf nf;pdrf
vHkjcHkwnfwHha&;twGuf ,ckuJhodk@ ‚if;wdk@ESpfOD;tm; wm;qD;ta&;,l
vdu
k f&jcif;jzpfa=umif;” ajym=um;oGm;onf?
aetdrt
f us,cf sKyjf zifh xde;f odr;f jcif;cHae&pOf a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf 1989 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (22) &ufae@wiG f ygwDpk'H Drdkua&pD taxG
axGa&G;aumufyGJwGif yg0if,SOf jydKifrnfjzpfa=umif; a=unmcJhonf?
a=unmcsuftjynfhtpHkrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf?
“Edik if aH &;}udK;yrf;r_rsm;a=umifh 1989 Zlvikd f 20 &ufae@rpS I xde;f
odrf;cHcJh&ygonf? txdef;odrf;cHae&vsufESifhyif rdrdtzGJ@csKyf. 'Drdku
a&pDenf;vrf;t& qHk;jzwfcsufudk av;pm;aomtm;jzihv
f nf;aumif;?
wdkif;oljynfom;wdk@. trSew
f &m;ESifh udkufnDaomvdktyfcsufrsm;udk
wwfpGr;f oa&GŒulnDjznfhpGufvdkaoma=umifhvnf;aumif;/ 'Drdkua&pD
udv
k v
k d m;aom jynfov
l x
l .
k ZGo
J wœu
d kd *k%jf yKaomtm;jzifv
h nf;aumif;/
1989 ck 'DZifbmvwGif A[ef;jrKd Œe,f trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf jynf
ol@vw
$ fawmfudk,fpm;vS,favmif; pdppfa&G;cs,fa&;tzGJ@.qH;k jzwfcsuf
udkvku
d femI a&G;aumufyGJwGif yg0if ,SOfjydKifvo
dk lwOD;tjzpf trnfpm
&if; wifoGif;vdkufygonf?” [lI xkwfjyefcJhonf?
od@k aomf wdik f;&if;om;pnf;vH;k nDnw
G af &; (wpn) ygwDtm; ud,
k f
pm;jyKI &efukefwidk f;/ A[ef;jrdKŒe,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) wGif a':atmif
qef;pk=unfESifh ,SOjf ydKi&f eftqdkjyKxm;jcif;cH&ol OD;vbef*a&mifrS uef@
uGuv
f m$ wifoiG f;cJ&h m/ yef;qd;k wef;trSwf (1) wGif zGihv
f pS pf pfaq;cJo
h nfh
&efukefwidk f; a&G;cs,w
f ifajrm‡ ufyu
GJ sif;ya&;aumfr&SifrS vufcHppfaq;I
a&G;aumufyGJOya'yk'fr 10(i) jzifhjidpGef;onf[kqdkum a':atmifqef;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

111

pk=unf. trnfpm&if;wifoGi;f v$mudk y,fcsco
Jh jzifh 0ifa&muf,OS fjydKif
cGifhr&&SdbJ jzpfcJh&onf?
aemufqHk;rSwfykw
H ifcGifhjyK&ufjzpfonfh 1989 azazmf0g&D 28 txd
(5)v cef@twGif; rSwyf w
kH ifciG hjf yKcJo
h nfh Edik if Ha&;ygwDtzG@J tpnf;aygif;rSm
236 zG@J jzpfonf? xdk@aemuf rSwfyw
Hk ifxm;onfh Edik if Ha&;ygwt
D zGJ@tpnf;
rsm;onf ygwDwGif pnf;±H;k a&;wdk@udk aqmif&u
G fc=Jh u&mY ygwDtcsKŒd onf
ygwDwGif;tajctaet&vnf;aumif;/ tjcm; EdkifiaH &;ygwDtzGJ@tpnf;
rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;zG@J pnf;vdI
k rdrdwdk@ EdkifiaH &;ygwrD SwfyHkwifxm;jcif;udk y,f
zsufcGifhjyK&ef aumfr&Sifodk@av#mufxm;ojzifh Edik fiHa&;ygwD tzG@J tpnf;
aygi;f (102) zGJ@udk y,fzsufay;cJhonf?
xdk@jyif v$wfawmfrJqENe,f 3 e,f txd 0ifa&muf,SO f+ ydKif
Edik jf cif;r&So
d nfh (6) ygwED Sihf Edkiif Hawmftm; vufeufpGu
J kid I
f awmfvSeyf kef
uefaeaom ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD tzG@J tpnf;. ajray:tzG@J tpnf;
rsm;jzpfonf[x
k w
k jf yefI trsK;d om;EdkifiHa&;wyfaygif;pk (rew) rEœav;
jrdKŒ/ jynfol@wk;d wufa&;ygwD &efukejf rdKŒ/ tjrJprd f;vli,frsm;tzGJ@ rHk&mG jrdKŒ
ponfh (3) ygwDtm;vnf; e0wtzGJ@u y,fzsufcJhonf?
,if;aemuf ygwDpHk'Dru
dk a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJu
G dk 1990 jynfh
eSpf arv 27 &uf we*FaEGae@Y wjynfv;Hk wGif w+ydKifeuf eHeuf 6 em
&DrS nae 4 em&DtwGif; usif;ycJhonf?
e0wppftpdk;&onf 1990 jynfhESpf ygwDpHk'Drku
d a&pD taxGaxG
a&G;aumufy}JG uD;udk usif;yjyKvyk fonftxd Edik if Ha&;ygwt
D zGJ@tpnf;rsm;
wifjyawmif;qdkcho
J nfh rw&m;csKyfcs,fuef@owfrde@f rsm;jzpfaom (2§
88)/ (8§88) wd@k udk vHk;0±kwo
f rd f;ay;jcif;r&Sb
d J usi;f ycJo
h vdk wpnygwD
udk bufvku
d frsuEf mS omay;cJ&h ef trsKo
d m;'Drku
d a&pDtzGJ@. pnf;±Hk;v_yf
&Sm;r_rsm;udk trsK;d rsKd;tzHkzHk uef@owfcsKyfcs,fxm;jy;D rS (t"dujydKifjrif;udk
}udK;wkyx
f m;jyD; wjcm;+ydKifjrif;awGudk v$waf y;jy;D t+yKd ifckid ;f ovd)k wzuf
owfprD Hcef@cJG usi;f ycJjh cif;jzpfonf? od@k aomf jynfov
l lx}k uD;w&yfvk;H u
rJrsm;ruGo
J mG ;apa&;twGuf tzrf;qD;cHxm;&onfh a':atmifqef;pk

112

oef;0if;vIi
d f

=unfacgif;aqmifonfh NLD tzGJ@rS wpn tay: pD;csif;xdk;tEdkif,l
atmifyGJcHedkifa&;twGuf rdrdwdk@. tonf;=um;u rJwjym;udk rSefrSef
uefueftoHk;csjyD; toHwdwfqENjyyGJ}uD;w&yfyrm jywfjywfom;om;
azmfjycJ=h uonf? od@k uvdk jynfolvx
l }k uD;. wcJeuf axmufct
H m;ay;
r_a=umifh trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf jrefrmEdkiif H a&G;aumufyJG
aumfr&Sifordki;f Y rnfonft
h cgrS &&Scd Jhzl;aom atmifjrifr_rsKd;jzifh a&G;
aumufyGJ}uD;wGif tjywftowf atmifycGJ HEdkifcJhayonf?
ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJYG 0ifa&muf,SOfjydKifonfh
Edik if aH &;ygwD tzG@J tpnf; 93 zGJ@teuf trsK;d om;'Drku
d a&pDtzJ@G csKyo
f nf
0ifa&muf,SO+f yKd ifco
hJ nfh 447 rJqENe,fY 392 OD; tEdik &f &Scd ho
J nf? wjynf
vk;H wGif rJqENe,f 485 ae&m&So
d nft
h euf NLD ygwDonf 392 OD; tEdkif
&&SdonfhtwGuf wjynfvHk;wGif 82 &mcdkifE_e;f tEdkif&&Sdum armfuGef;
xlEdkifcJhonf?
1990 jynfEh Spfa&G;aumufyGJwGif v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f t
enf;qH;k wOD;ESit
fh xufa&G;aumufwifajr‡mufc&H onfh Edik fiaH &;ygwD tzGhJ
tpnf;aygif; (27) zG@J a&G;aumufwifajrm‡ ufc&H onf? a&G;aumufyJG wif
ajrm‡ ufc&H onfh v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,Of ;D a&rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf?
(1) trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
- 392 OD;
(2) &Srf;wdkif;&if;om; 'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
- 23 OD;
(3) &cdkif'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf
- 11 OD;
(4) wdik f;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;ygwD
- 10 OD;
(5) rGeftrsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@
- 5 OD;
(6) trsKd;om;vl@tcGifhta&;'Drku
d &ufwpfygwD
- 4 OD;
(7) csi;f trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
- 3 OD;
(8) ucsijf ynfe,ftrsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDuGe*f &uf
- 3 OD;
(9) jynfaxmifpkytdk0fh trsK;d om;tzGJ@csKyf
- 3 OD;
(10) trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDygwD
- 3 OD;
(11) Zdrk D;trsKd;om;uGe*f &uf
- 2 OD;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

113

(12)em*awmifwef;a'owdk;wufa&;ygwD
- 2 OD;
(13) u,m;jynfe,fvlrsKd;aygif;pHk'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf - 2 OD;
(14) watmif; (yavmif) trsKd;om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf - 2 OD;
(15)u,ef;trsKd;om;rsm; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@
- 2 OD;
(16) 'Drkdua&pDygwD
- 1 OD;
(17) 'Dru
k d &ufwpfwuUov
kd b
f @JG &ESihf ausmif;om;a[mif;rsm; tzG@J
- 1 OD;
(18)rsKd;cspf&Jabmfa[mif;rsm;tzGJ@
- 1 OD;
(19)u&ifjynfe,ftrsKd;om;rsm;tzGJ@csKyf
- 1 OD;
(20)&Sr;f jynfu;kd uef@'rD du
k &ufwpfygwD
- 1 OD;
(21) jynfaxmifpk"EktrsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf
- 1 OD;
(22)ureftrsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
- 1 OD;
(23) r&mjynfol@ygwD (ryy)
- 1 OD;
(24) jynfaxmifpt
k rsK;d om;rsm;'Dru
kd a&pDygwD
- 1 OD;
(25)jrdK (ac: ) crDtrsKd;om;nDnw
G af &;tzG@J (rcrnz) - 1 OD;
(26)vm;[ltrsKd;om;zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufa&;ygwD
- 1 OD;
(27)jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf
- 1 OD;
xdk@aemuf a&G;aumufyw
GJ Gif 0ifa&muf,SOf+ydKifjyD; v$wfawmf ud,
k f
pm;vS,fwOD;r# a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcsif;rcH&aom EdkifiHa&;ygwD (63)
ygwDtm; e0wrS 1992 Zefe0g &D 22 &ufae@&ufpJyG g trde@f trSwf 2§92
jzifh zsuo
f drf;cJhonf? xdk@jyif a&G;aumufyw
GJ Gif v$waf wmfuk,
d fpm;vS,f
tenf;qHk;wOD;ESifhtxuf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH&onfh EdkifiaH &;ygwD
(20) tm; e0wtzG@J rS 1992 rwf11 &ufae@ &ufpyJG g trde@f trSwf
7§92 jzifh zsuo
f drf;cJhjyefonf?
od@k aomf a&G;aumufyw
GJ iG f wOD;r#ta&G;rcH&aomfvnf; e0wtpd;k
&u w&m;0if &yfwnfcGihaf y;cJhaomygwD (3) ckrmS udk;uef@'Dru
dk a&pDESifh

114

oef;0if;vIi
d f

nDnGwfa&;ygwD (Kokang Democracy and Unity Party)/ ‘0’ trsKd;om; zGH@
+zdK;wdk;wufa&;ygwD (Wa National Development Party)/ jynfaxmifpk u&if
trsKd;om;rsm;tzGJ@csKyf (Union Karen League) wdk@jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh w
&m;0if&yfwnfvsu&f daS om Edik if aH &;ygwD (10) ygwrD mS atmufygtwdkif;
jzpfonf?
(1) trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
(2) wdik f;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;ygwD
(3) &Sr;f wdkif;&if;om;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf
(4) jynfaxmifpkytdk0ht
f rsKd;om;rsm;tzGJ@csKyf
(5) &Sr;f jynfu;kd uef@'rD du
k &ufwpfygwD
(6) +rdK (ac: ) crDtrsKd;om;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ@
(7) vm;[ltrsKd;om;zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;ygwD
(8) jynfaxmifpk u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;tzGJ@csKyf
(9) udk;uef@'Drdkua&pDESifh nDnGwfa&;ygwD
(10)‘0’ trsKd;om;zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;ygwD
ponfwdk@ jzpfonf?
1990 jynfEh pS af &G;aumufyw
JG iG f woD;yk*~vtrwfavmif; ajcmufO;D
ta&G;cH&onf? ,if;wdk@rSm (1) a'gufwmr_xef / xef;wvef+rdKŒe,f jynfol@v$waf wmfrq
J EN
e,f/ csif;jynfe,f?
(2) OD;0if;&Sed f / ajrmif+rdKŒe,f/ jynfo@l vw
$ fawmf rJqENe,f trSwf
(1) ppfudkif;wdkif;?
(3) OD;yDwmvif;yif/ jyifOD;vGif+rdKŒe,f jynfo@l v$wfawmfrJqENe,f
trSwf(2) rEœav;wdkif;?
(4) a'gufwmpef;atmif/ t*Fyl+rdKŒe,f jynfol@v$wfawmfrJqEN
e,ftrSwf (2) {&m0wDwkid f;?
(5) OD;vseftkyf/ [m;cg;+rdKŒe,f rJqENe,f/ csif;jynfe,f?
(6) OD;odef;az/ uef@bvl+rdKŒe,f rJqENe,ftrSwf(1) ppfudkif;wdkif;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

115

wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
e0wppftpdk;&onf rnfo@dk rS ar#mfvifhrxm;rdonfh &v'frsKd;
jzifh trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfu tjywftowftEdik &f &So
d mG ;r_tay:
tHh=owkefv_yfoGm;cJh&jyD;aemuf tzG@J csKyftay: enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh zdESdyfa&;udk
apmif;ay;vkyfaqmifvmcJhayonf?
e0wppftpdk;&u a&G;aumufyGJtjyD;Y a&G;aumufyGJwGif tEdki f&
&SdchaJ om EdkifiHa&; tiftm;pkrsm;onf (1) aiGa=u;tiftm;jzifh trwfae&mrsm; 0,f,x
l m;Edik o
f nfh bm
oma&;tpGe;f a&mufrsm;u bmoma&;e,fajr cGx
J u
G af &;udk jyifqifvm
=uonf? ratmifjrifv#if vufeufudkifwdkufrnf?
(2) vlrsKd;a&;tjrifusOf;ajrmif;onfhygwDrsm;uvnf; e,fajrrsm;
udk cGJxGuf&efjyifqifvm=uonf? cGifhrjyKv#if aomif;usef;olrsm;ESifh
aygi;f rnf/ vufeufudkifwdkufrnf?
(3) tm%m&vmrnf[k ar#mfvifhaeaomEkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf
taemuftkyfpko±H kH;rsm;/ jynfyrS taemuftkypf k udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh
&if;&if;ESD;ESD;qufqHvm=ujyD; taemuftkyfpu
k dk tvGet
f u|H rSDcdktm;
udk;&ef jyifqifvm=uonf?
(4) taemuftkyfpkt}udKuf vdkufvkyfaeaomfvnf; vuf0J0g'D
rsm; v$rf;rdk;aeaomfygwrD sm;onf tm%m&Sifpepfudk xlaxmif&ef }udK;
pm;ae=uonf?
(5) wyfrawmfu tm%mrodr;f Edkif&eftwGuf ppf±;Hk udk &efuek +f rdKŒ
tjyifbuf tif;wdik fo@kd a&$Œ&ef =unf;/ a&/ av/ wyfrawmfukd =unf;wyf/
a&wyf/ avwyf oD;jcm;pD cGJxw
k zf @JG pnf;&ef/ 'kw,
d Adv
k frLS ;}uD;ESihf txuf
tqifrh sm;udk wyfrawmfrSxw
k yf ,fypfjyD; tcsKdŒudk cH±k ;Hk wifI ta&;,l&ef
wdk@udk aqG;aEG;=uum wyfrawmfudk +zdKcGJypf&ef/ zsufodrf;ypf&eftxd
=uHpnfvm=uonf[I
l tajctjrpfr&Sd pGyfpJGjyD; zGwv
f #mo¿mef
ESpcf OG m%fjzifh uvdraf phjirf;pifum tEdik &f trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
tm; tm%mv$aJ jymif;ay;a&;udk cg;cg;wl;wl; jiif;qefco
Jh nf? xd@k aemuf

116

oef;0if;vIi
d f

“,ckusif;ycJhaom a&G;aumufyGJonf tm%m (3) &yfpvHk;udk &&Sdrnfh
v$wfawmfrsK;d r[kw/f zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qG&J efomjzpfonf? ta&G;
aumufcH v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya'udk a&;qGzJ @kd omwm0ef&o
dS nf? tm%mudk tvdktavsmuf &&Srd nf
r[kw”f [kqdkjyD; yxrqH;k t}udrf ajymifvdrfajymifpm; ajymqdkcho
J nf?
tu,fI wpn ac: wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;ygwDom
tEdkif&&Sdrnfqdk v#if 1947 ckESpf zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya' od@k r[kwf 1974
zG@J pnf;yHkOya'udv
k t
kd yfovdk ,m,Djyifqifr_jyKvkyjf y;D tm%mudk jrefjref
qefqefvG,v
f G,u
f lul v$Jajymif;tyfvdkuI
f ay:aygufvmonfh v$wf
awmfopfrSzGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'opfudk a&;qGJaprnfjzpfaomf
vnf; trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfygwu
D ,ckuho
J @dk tjywftowf t
Edik &f &So
d nfonft
h ay: e0w ppftpd;k &onf ay:ay:xifxif npfywf
vmjcif; jzpfonf?
ppftpdk;&. tm%mv$Jajymif;a&;jiif;qefaer_ukd a':atmifqef;
pk=unfu “a&G;aumufyGJusif;jyD;&ef a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudk taumiftxnf
azmfay;zdk@vnf; vdkao;w,fqdkwJhtcsufygyJ? a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fukd t
aumiftxnfrazmfwm[m xrif;pm;zdwf/ xrif;yGJjyif/ pm;yGJrmS xdkicf kid f
jyD;rS rpm;&bl;qdkjyD; xrif;[if;awGjyefodrf;oGm;ovdkygyJ? {nfo
h nfawG
udk apmfum;wJv
h yk &f yfyg? 1990 a&G;aumufy&GJ v'fukd t aumiftxnf
razmfay;wm[m jynfolw&yfvHk;udk vdrfvnfvSnhjf zm; apmfum;&m
a&mufygw,f?”
“tm%mydkiaf wG[m rdrw
d @dk oabmruswhJ a&G;aumufy&JG v'fqk&d if
vspfv#L±_vku
d /f vdkcsifw&Jh v'fjzpfvmEd;k Edk; a&G;aumufyt
JG opfawG usi;f
yvdkuef @J vkyaf er,fq&dk ifawmh wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ tem*wfe@J upm;&m a&muf
ygvdrrfh ,f? wdik f;jynf&JŒtem*wfqdkwm[m upm;&r,ht
f &m r[kwfyg
bl;? wav;wpm;eJ@ apmifha&SmufoGm;&r,hft&momjzpfygw,f? 'g
a=umifh 1990 a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudk taumiftxnfrazmfbJ aemuf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

117

a&G;aumufyGJtopfusif;ya&;udk trsKd;om;'Drku
d a&pDtzGJ@csKyfu vHk;0
vufcrH Smr[kwb
f ;l vd@k qHk;jzwfxm;wmjzpfygw,f” [lI wdwv
d if;vif;
ajym=um;cJhonf?
NLD tm; rJxnfa
h y;cJhaomjynfov
l x
l t
k m;vnf; a':atmifqef;
pk=unfu “1990 jynfEh pS af &G;aumufyrJG mS vlx[
k m wm0efauscyhJ gw,f? usr
wd@k Eikd if eH J@ Edik if Hujynfov
l x
l ke@J wjcm; 'Dru
dk a&pDtwGuf v_y&f Sm;±ke;f uef
ae&wJhEdkifiHu jynfolvx
l keJ@pmvdk@&d&S if usrwd@k &ŒJ vlx[
k m EdkifiHa&;t&
tifrwefrS &ifhusufw,fvdk@ usrwdk@ owfrSwf&rSmyg? bmjzpfvk@d usr
wdk@ 'Dvadk jym&vJqkad wmh usrwdk@&JŒEdik fiH 'Drku
d a&pDvkcd sifwJh jynfolvx
l k
[m 'Dru
dk a&pDudk &,lay;Edkifwt
Jh zGJ@wckudk axmufcHr,f/ yHhyk;d r,f/ 'Dvdk
vkyfrS usrwdk@&JŒ'Drdkua&pD[m wdk;wufEdkifr,fqdkwmudk jrifw,f/ [kd
tzGJ@uadk y;/ 'DtzGJ@udkay;/ usrwd@k &ŒJ EdkifiHa&;ygwDawG trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f?
tJ'Dawmh Edik fiHa&;ygwDawG trsm;}uD;&Sdwt
Jh xJrSm tJ'DEkid fiHa&;ygwDawG
rSmvnf; rdrw
d @dk &ŒJ wefb;k d eJ@ rdrw
d @kd &jSd y;D om;yg? odk@aomfvnf; jynfov
l lxk
[m 'DvdkrJawGjyef@oGm;vdk@&Sd&if 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf epfemEdkifw,fqdkwm
em;vnfvdk@ rJawGudk rjyef@apbJ usrwdk@ trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
twGuf rJay;cJw
h ,fqw
kd m 'gjynfolvx
l t
k aeeJ@ xdkux
f u
kd w
f efwefvkyf
cJhw,fqdkwm usr 'Dvdkajym&rSmyJ? 'g EdkifiHa&;&ifhusurf _udk jyw,fvdk@
usruawmh,Hk=unfw,f? bmjzpfvdk@vJqdkawmh usrwdk@ 'D (82) &mcdkif
E_ef;&wmudkawmifrS tm%mrv$Jay;wm/ usrwdk@rsm;om (50) &mcdkif
E_e;f wnf;wnf;av;&w,fqkv
d h&dk &Sd if b,favmufyjdk yD;awmh tcuftcJ
jzpf&rvJqw
dk m pOf;pm;=unfh? usrwdk@&JŒtzG@J [m 'Dvw
dk cgwnf; 80 &m
cdkifEe_ ;f ausmfe@J Edik fcv
Jh @dk vnf; wurBmvHk;u todtrSwjf yK&w,f? b,f
vdkrS urBmudkrsufvn
S fhjyjyD;awmh tzGJ@csKyfudk jynfolvlxak &G;aumufyGJ
wke;f u tm;ay;wmr[kwyf gb;l ? wnf;wnf;uav;Edik w
f mygv@kd rajym
Edkib
f l;? tJvadk wmifrS rJ 60 &mcdkifE_e;f yJ&Sdygw,f/ nmw,fqdkjyD;awmh
trsKd;rsKd;ajymzdk@}udK;pm;wmawG tck&Sdaewm od=uwmyJ/ 'Davmuf

118

oef;0if;vIi
d f

awmifrS jywfjywfom;om;Edkix
f m;vk@d 'Davmufolw@kd ajymEdik fwm? tJvkd
om usrwdk@om jywfjywfowfowfrEdik fcJhvdk@&d&S if trsKd;rsKd; wcgwnf;
rsufvSnfh uGuaf wGeJ@vkyt
f Hk;r,f? urBmudkvnf; vSnfhpm;zdk@/ usrwdk@
jynfov
l x
l t
k aeeJ@ 1990 a&G;aumufyrJG mS 'Dru
kd a&pDukd &,lay;Edkiw
f ,f
vd@k jynfolvlxu
k ,Hk=unfwht
J zG@J tpnff;udk Edik if aH &;&ifu
h sufwt
Jh jrife@J
rJay;cJhwm[mawmh wm0efausygw,f? xdu
k x
f u
dk w
f efwefeJ@ vkycf w
hJ myJ
vdk@ usrajymcsifygw,f” [lI ajym=um;cJhonf?
e0wppftpdk;&onf a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifru
D yif ol&OD;wifOD;ESifh a':
atmifqef;pk=unfwdkhudk rw&m;ojzifh zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif; cHxm;&
onhftwGuf ,m,DOuUXtjzpf wm0ef,x
l m;aom OD;=unfarmif OD;
aqmifonfh NLD A[dt
k vkyfr_aqmiftzGJ@0ifrsm;u 90 jynfhESpf a&G;
aumufyt
JG Edik &f aom NLD tm; e0wtpd;k &xH v$waf wmfac:,lay;a&;
udk Oya'ESifhtnD wifjyawmif;qdkcJhonf?
a&G;aumufyGJtjyD; &ufaygif; (60) twGif; ac:ay;&±d;k xHk;pH&do
S nfh
v$wfawmfudk ac:,lray;onft
h wGuf tzGJ@csKyfonf a&G;aumufyJG usi;f
ycJo
h nfh ar27 &ufrS &ufaygi;f 60 t=um; 1990 jynfEh pS f Zlvikd 2f 8/
29 &ufae@rsm;wGif NLD A[kdOD;pD;tzG@J ESifh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;
yxrt}udrf nd‡E_dif;tpnf;ta0;udk usif;y&ef ac:,lcJhonf?
ppftpd;k &onf NLD . tpnf;ta0;rwdkifcif w&uftvdk (Zlvkid f
v 27 &uf) wGif e0wtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf Adv
k fcsKyfcifnGe@f (aemifAv
dk cf sKyf
}uD;/ tus,fcsKyfzrf;qD;cHxm;&ol) vufrSwfjzifh a=unmcsut
f rSwf
(1§90) udk uref;uwef;xkwjf yefjyD; tzGJ@csKyf.tpnf;ta0;}u;D udk }uKd
wifuef@owfcsKyfcs,[
f ef@wm;r_udk jyKvkyfco
Jh nf?
e0wtpd;k &. a=unmcsuftrSwf 1§90 tjynft
h pHkrSm atmufyg
twdik f;jzpfonf?
(1) jrefrmEdik if o
H nf 1948 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&D (4) &ufae@wiG f vH;k 0
vGwv
f yfaom tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEidk fiHjzpfonf?
(2) 1988 ckEpS ftwGif; ta&;tcif;rsm;jzpfay:cJhojzifh Edkifiw
H 0Srf;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

119

vHk;wGif tajctaet&yf&yf,,
dk Gif;ysufjym;cJhonf? xdkodk@ ,kd,Gif;ysuf
jym;cJo
h nfh tajctaet&yf&yfukd tcsderf Dxed f;odr;f Edik &f eftwGuf jynfol
jynfom;tm;vHk;tusKd;iSm wyfrawmfu Edik if aH wmftm%mt&yf&yfudk
vH;k 0wm0ef,lcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmftygt0if EdkifiHawmf tm%m
ydik t
f zG@J tpnf;rsm;udk zsuo
f rd ;f vsuf Edik if aH wmfjidrf0yfrw
_ nfaqmufa&;
tzGJ@ukd zGpJh nf;um wm0ef}uD; (4) &yfukd aqmif&Gufrnfjzpfa=umif; a=u
nmjyD; EdkfifiHawmf. ta&;udpPt00udk wm0ef,laqmif&Gufcho
J nf?
(3) Edik fiHawmfjird 0f yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J onf Edik if HawmftwGi;f
jird 0f yfydjym;a&;/ w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k a&;ESihf e,fajrat;csr;f om,ma&;wd@k ukd
xda&mufpGmxdef;odr;f Edkif&ef vdt
k yfaomOya'/ trdef@/ a=unmcsu/f Oy
a'uJhodk@tm%mwnfaomtrdef@rsm;udk xkwfjyefco
Jh nf?
(4) jynfolrsm;. pm;0wfaea&;acsmifvnfap&ef yk*v
~ u
d / or0g
,r/ zufpyfvkyfief;rsm; vkyu
f dkifEdkifap&eftwGuf t[ef@twm;jzpfap
aom Oya'rsm;udyk ,fzsufjyD; vkdtyfaomOya'/ trdef@nGef=um;csuf/
Oya'uJho@dk tm%mwnfaomtrdef@rsm;udkvnf; xkwfjyefvsuf vuf
awG@ taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&u
G fvsuf&do
S nf? xdk@jyif Edkiif Hawmf.
a&&SnftusKd;pD;yGm;udk ar#mfrSef;I vkyaf qmifoifhonfrsm;udkvnf; vkyf
aqmifvsuf&Sdonf?
(5) Edkiif Hawmfjidr0f yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J onf Edkiif w
H 0ef;vH;k wGif
vrf;yef;qufoG,rf _vkjH cHKacsmarG@ap&efESifh wdk;wufaumif;rGeaf p&ef t
wGuf aqmif&Gufoifhonfrsm;udkvnf; aqmif&Gufvsuf&do
S nf?
(6) Edik fiHawmfjidr0f yfrw
_ nfaqmufa&;tzGJ@onf rnfonfhzGJ@pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'udkr# vdu
k ef musio
fh ;Hk aomtzGJ@tpnf;r[kwb
f J EdkifiaH wmf
udk rm&S,af vm (Martial Law) jzifh tkycf sKyaf eaom tzG@J tpnf;jzpfa=umif;/
EdkifiHawmfjidr0f yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J tpdk;&onf ppftpdk;&tjzpf
tkyfcsKyfvsuf&aSd =umif;ESihf ukvor*~tygt0if urBmhedkifiHtoD;oD;rS
vufcHxm;onfh tpdk;&jzpfa=umif; tm;vHk;todyifjzpfonf?
(7) Edik if w
H umqufqaH &;eSifh ywfoufI Edik if aH wmfjidrf0yfr_ wnf

120

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aqmufa&;tzGJ@onf vGwfvyfI wufºuGaom EdkifiHjcm;a&;0g'udk usifh
oHk;rnfjzpfa=umif; a=unmcJhjyD; EdkifiHtoD;oD;ESifh cspf=unfpGm qufqH
vsu&f do
S nf? Edik if t
H csi;f csif; oHwrefqufqHa&; wdk;wufaumif;rGeaf p
&ef jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd rnfonfhoH±Hk;udkr# ,cktcsdeftxd ydwfyifjcif;r&SdbJ
qufvufxm;&SdcGijfh yKjyD; yHrk SefqufqaH eonfeh nf;wl EdkifijH cm;wdki;f jynf
rsm;wGif jrefrmoH±Hk;rsm;udkvnf; ±kyfodrf;jcif;rjyKbJ qufvufzGihv
f Spf
xm;&Su
d m yHrk eS q
f ufvuf vnfywfvsu&f o
Sd nft
h jyif ,cifu oH±;kH r&Scd hJ
aom EdkifiHwEdkifiHwGif oH±Hk;topfw±Hk; wdk;csJŒzGifhvSpfcJhonf?
(8) jrefrmEdik if Honf ukvor*~tzG@J 0ifEidk fiHjzpfonfeiS t
fh nD urBmh
Edik if Ha&;udp&P yfrsm;ESihf ukvor*~qikd &f m vkyif ef;wm0efrsm; aqmif&u
G f
&mwGif ukvor*~qidk &f m jrefrmoH±;Hk onf jrefrmEdkifi.
H EdkifiHjcm;a&;0g'
udk wduspGm vdu
k femaqmif&Gufvsuf&o
Sd nf? EdkifiHwumESifh qufqH
&mwGif jrefrmEdkifiHonf jidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJaexdkifa&;rlEiS fhtnD
vdu
k ef musiho
f k;H vsuf&do
S nf? xdk@tjyif jrefrmEdkiif o
H nf rdr.
d vGwv
f yfr_
udk xde;f odr;f umuG,v
f suf rdrd.jynfwiG af &;wGif 0ifa&mufpu
G fzufjcif;
rsm;udv
k nf; ukvor*~ yÉdnmOfpmwrf;ESit
fh nD vdkufemusiho
f Hk;vsuf
&So
d nf?
(9) Edkiif Htcsif;csif; qufqHa&;ysufjym;apr_udk a&Smif&Sm;&ef oH
wrefwcsKdŒ. oHwrefusi0fh wfazmufzsufr_rsm;udkvnf; oabmxm;
}uD;pGmjzifh oHwreftrnfESifh EdkifiHtrnfrsm;udk xkwfazmfjcif;rjyKbJ rdrd
wd@k jynfwiG ;f a&;wGif 0ifa&mufpGuzf ufjcif;rjyK&ef t}urd }f urd f ajym=um;
cJhonf? xdk@jyif oHwrefenf;vrf;rsm;ESifhtnD oufqdkif&moH±Hk;rsm;odk@
vnf; ta=umif;=um;cJhonf? ,if;odk@aqmif&Gujf cif;jzifh Edik fit
H csi;f csif;/
tpdk;&tcsi;f csif; qufqHa&;ysujf ym;aprnfhudpP&yfrsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;Edik cf hJ
aoma=umifh ,ae@txd rnfonfhjy\emrS ay:aygufcJhjcif;r&Sdyg? oH
wrefwcsKŒd . vky&f yfa=umifh rdrdw@dk tpd;k &tay: txiftjrifvrGJ Sm;r_rsm;
udkvnf; oabmxm;}uD;pGmxm;I oHwrefenf;jzifhom ajz&Sif;aqmif
&GufcJhonf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

121

(10)Edik fiaH wmfjidrf0yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J onf EdkifiHawmf. wm
0efudk ,lco
Jh nft
h csed rf SpI jynfaxmifprk +ydKuGJa&;/ wdik ;f &if;om; pnf;vH;k
nDnGwfrr_ +ydKuGJa&;/ tcsKyftjcm tm%mwnfwcHh dkifjrJa&;wdk@udk pGJjrJpGm
udkifpGJaqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf? wzufwGifvnf; vufeufpGJudkif qlyl
aomif;use;f olrsK;d pHkukd wyfrawmfom;rsm;. touf/ aoG;/ ac|; ajrmuf
rsm;pGmay;vSLvsuf xdk;ppf}uD;rsm;jzifh acsr_ef;cJhonfrSm tm;vHk;tod
yifjzpfonf? wyfrawmfonf Edkifi Ha&;tzGJ@tpnf;r[kwfojzif h qlyl
aomif;use;f olrsm;ESifh Edik fiaH &;enf;t& aphpyfaqG;aEG;jcif; jyKvkyfchjJ cif;
r&Sdyg? odk@&mwGif vufeufudkifvrf;pOfudk pGef@v$wI
f tvif;0ifvmol
rsm;udkrl aumif;rGefpmG vufcH}udKqdkI jyefvnfae&mcsxm;ay;a&; vkyf
ief;rsm;udk tzGJ@tpnf;jzifh aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf? EdkifiHawmfjidr0f yfr_
wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@onf EdkifiHa&;tpdk;&r[kwfojzifh rnfonfh vuf
eufukid faomif;usefoltzGt
Jh pnf;ESifhr# EdkifiHa&;enf;t& aphpyfaqG;aEG;
jcif;jyKvky&f ef ta=umif;r&Sad y?
(11) EdkifiaH wmfjidr0f yfrw
_ nfaqmufa&;tzG@J onf ygwpD Hk 'Drdkua&pD
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJu
G kd usif;yEdkif&ef ygwpD 'Hk rD u
dk a&pD taxGaxG a&G;
aumufyGJusif;ya&;aumfr&SiOf ya'udk jyÏmef;vsuf ygwDp'Hk Drdkua&pD t
axG xGa&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifudk zG@J pnf;ay;cJhonf? a&G;aumufyJ0G ifvdk
aom EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; rSwfyHkwifEdkif&ef EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; rSwfyHkwifjcif;
Oya'udk jyÏmef;cJhonf? xdk@jyif vGwfvyfI w&m;r#waom ygwDp'Hk Drdk
ua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGu
J sif;yEdik f&ef jynfol@v$wfawmfa&G;
aumufyGJOya'udkvnf; jyÏmef;ay;cJhonf?
(12)jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'yk'fr (3)wGif “v$waf wmf
udkrq
J ENe,frsm;rS TOya'ESifhtnD a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufvdkufaom
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;&rnf” [lI jyÏmef;yg&do
S nf?
,if;jyÏmef;csuEf iS t
hf nD v$wfawmfac:,lz@GJ pnf;jcif;udk Edik if Hawmf jird 0f yf
r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@u aqmif&Gufay;rnf? xdkodk@ v$wfawmfac: ,l
Edkifa&;twGuf ygwpD k'H Drdkua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG usif;ya&;aumf

122

oef;0if;vIi
d f

r&Sifu aqmif&Guf&efupd P&yfrsm;/ a&G;aumufyJw
G iG f ta&G;cH&onfh ygwD
rsm;ESihf a&G;aumufyw
JG iG f ta&G;cH&onfh yk*K~d vfrsm;u aqmif&u
G &f ef udpP
&yfrsm;udk Oya'/ enf;Oya'rsm;ESit
hf nD aqmif&u
G x
f m;=u&ef tcgtm;
avsmfpGm owif;xkwfjyefa&;tzGJ@u &Sif;vif;cJhjyD;jzpfonf?
(13) ,ae@ ygwpD kH 'Dru
kd a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG usi;f yjy;D pD;onfh
aemufykdif;wGif v$wfawmfac:,la&;/ tm%mv$aJ jymif;a&;udpPrsm;ESifh
pyfvsO;f I pmapmifrsm;xkwaf 0aejcif;/aqG;aEG;jiif;cHjk cif;/ jynfytoHvi$ hf
Xmersm;rS a&SŒaqmifvrf;jyvkyjf cif;/ aoG;xd;k v_H@aqmfjcif;/ w&m;r0if
pm&Gufpmwrf;xkwfa0jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfae=uonf?
(14) v$waf wmfac:,la&;eSifh ywfoufI txufwiG f &Sif;vif;azmf
jycJhjy;D jzpfonf? tm%mv$Jajymif;a&;udpEP iS hf pyfvsO;f I Edik if aH wmfjidrf0yf
ydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J OuUX u wdik ;f rSL;rsm;/ wyfrrSL;/ jynfe,fEiS hf
wdik ;f jidr0f yfyjd ym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@OuUXrsm;tm; tcgtm;avsmpf mG
ajym=um;cJhonhfrdef@cGef;rsm;wGif nGefjycJhjyD;jzpfonf? EdkifiHawmf jidrf0yfyd
jym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ twGi;f a&;rSL; (1) taejzifhvnf; 1990 jynfh
ESifh Zlvdkif13 &ufae@wGif usif;yonfh (100) }udraf jrmuf owif;pm&Sif;
vif;yGJY wdwdvif;vif;ajymqdkcJhjyD; jzpfonf?
(15)Edkiif Ha&;tzGJ@tpnf;w&yfonf jynfol@v$wfawmfw&yf ay:
ayguv
f m±Hkjzifh Oya'jyKr_tm%m/ pDrHcef@crJG t
_ m%mESihf w&m;pD&ifr_ tm
%m[laom tcsKyftjcmtm%m (3) &yfudk tvdktavsmufr&&SdbJ
zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'w&yftay: tajcjyKIom &,lEdkifa=umif; txl;
&Sif;vif;&ef vdkrnfr[kwfyg/ 1947 ckESpfzGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'
onf 1947 ckESp/f pufwifbmv 24 &ufae@wGif wdkif;jynfjyKvw
$ af wmf
uvufcHI Oya'tjzpf twnfjyKcJhonf? odk@aomf xdktajccHOya'
tm%mwnfjyD; trSefwu,f tusKd;oufa&mufonfrSm jrefrmEdkifiH
vHk;0vGwfvyfaom tcssyftjcmtm%mydkifEdkifi Hawmfjzpfa=umif;
a=unmonfh 1948 ckESp/f Zefe0g&v
D (4) &ufae@wGifrjS zpfonfukd Oya'
a=umif;t& txift&Sm;awG@Eikd o
f nf? Edik if w
H ck. zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

123

w&yfonf vGwv
f yfa&;r&rD a&;om;xm;onfh Oya'ESifh vGwfvyfa&;
&&SdonfhaemufrS a&;om;xm;onfh Oya'[lI ESpfrsKd;&So
d nf? vGwfvyf
a&;&&Scd Jh=uonfh urBm@Ekid fiHtoD;oD;wGif tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk vuf
qkyv
f ufuikd f&jy;D rSom wdik ;f jynfjyKvw
$ af wmfuadk c:,lI zG@J pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'udk a&;qGJ=uonfh tpOftvm&So
d nf? jrefrmEdkifiw
H Gifrl wdkif;jynf
jyKv$wfawmfwGif zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk a&;qGJjyD;rS vGwfvyfa&; a=u
nmcJh&onf? xdko@dk aqmif&GufcJhjcif;onf xdktcsdeu
f edkifiHacgif;aqmif
rsm;taejzifh jAdwo
d #w@kd xrH S jird f;csr;f aomenf;jzifh vGwv
f yfa&;udk tjref
&,lvkad omqENa=umifh aqmif&Gufjcif;jzpfa=umif; rSm xif&Sm;onf?
(16)1974 ckESpf tajccHOya'udk avhvmygu vGwfvyfa&;&jyD;
aemufa&;qGjJ cif;jzpfjyD; jynfol@qENc,
H yl jGJ zifh jyÏmef;cJah omOya'jzpfonf
udk rnfolr#jiif;qdkjcif;jyKEdik frnfr[kwfyg?
(17)1947 ckEpS f zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'onf vGwv
f yfa&;r&rD a&;qGJ
onfh Oya'jzpfjyD; 1974 ckEpS zf @JG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'onf vGwv
f yfa&;&jyD;
rS a&;qGo
J nfOh ya'jzpfa=umif; uGmjcm;csufukd txl;owdjyK&efvo
kd nf?
(18)ygwDpk'H Drku
d a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyw
GJ iG f 0ifa&muf,OS +f yKd if
cJ=h uonfh Edkiif aH &;ygwDtrsm;pk.qENrmS zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'opf a&;qGJ
a&;jzpfa=umif; ,if;wdk@. oabmxm;a=unmcsufrsm;t& od&SdEdkif
onf? 1974 ckESpf zGJ@pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;qGJpOfu wdik f;&if;om;rsm;t
a&;ESiyfh wfoufI yifvHknDvmcHwGif &Srf;/ ucsif/ csif;vlrsKd;pkrsm;ESiho
f m
aqG;aEG;nd‡Ei_d f;cJhjyD; rGef/ &cdkifpaomvlrsKd;pkrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;n‡dE_dif;r_ r&Sd
a=umif; awG@=u&rnfjzpfonf? ,ae@jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f Edik if aH &;Edk;=um;vm
aom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; trsm;tjym;&S&d m ‚if;wdkif;.qEN oabm
xm;rsm;udk nd‡Eid_ ;f &,ljy;D cdik rf monfhz@GJ pnf;yHktajccHOya'opfw&yf a&;
qGJjyÏmef;&ef txl;vdktyfaea=umif; xif&Sm;aeonf?
(19)Edkiif Hawmfjidrf0yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@onf ppftpdk;&w&yf
jzpfonfESifhtnD rm&S,favm (Martial Law) Oya'udk udkifpGJoHk;aeonfh
tpd;k &jzpfonf? xdko@kd jzpfonfESit
hf nD jrefrmEdkiif Htm; atmufygtwdik ;f

124

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tm%moHk;&yfjzifh usifhoHk;vsuf&o
Sd nf?
(u)
Oya'jyKrt
_ m%m? ? Edik if aH wmfjird 0f yfrw
_ nfaqmuf
a&;tzGJ@uom usifhoHk;ydkicf Gifh&Sdonf?
(c)
pDrcH ef@crJG t
_ m%m? ? Edik if aH wmfjird 0f yfr_ wnfaqmuf
a&;tzGJ@u usifhoHk;ydik fcGi&fh o
Sd nf? odk@&mwGif ,if;tm%mudk tpdk;&tzGJ@
ESifhwuG jynfe,f/ wdkif;/ +rdKŒe,fpk/ +rdKŒe,f/ &yfuGufaus;&Gmtkypf k jidr0f yf
ydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@tqifhqifhtm; cGJa0ay;vsuf pDrHcef@caGJ &;
udpP&yfrsm;udk pkaygif;acgif;aqmifrj_ zifh wm0efay; aqmif&Gufapvsuf&Sd
onf? ,if;odk@ aqmif&Gufapjcif;rSm zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifh ay:ayguf
vmrnft
h pd;k &vufxufwiG f 0efxrf;rsm;onf Xmeqdik f&mvkyif ef;rsm;udk
EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifhuif;&Si;f pGm aqmif&GuEf dkifap&ef avhusifhaqmif&u
G f
ay;aejcif;jzpfonf?
(*) w&m;pD&ifrt
_ m%m?
?Edik if aH wmf+ird 0f yfrw
_ nf aqmuf
a&;tzG@J u usio
fh k;H ydik cf iG h&f o
dS nf? odk@&mwGif zG@J pnf;yHktjccHOya' ay:ayguf
vmonft
h csdew
f iG f tavhtusi&hf ap&ef omref&mZ0wfrE_ iS hf w&m;
rr_ponfrsm;udk w&m;±Hk;tqifhqifhzGJ@pnf;jyD; ppfaq;pD&ifapvsuf&Sd
onf?
(20)xdk@a=umifh ,ae@tajctaewGif jynfolrsm;u a&G;aumuf
wifajr‡mufvu
dk af om ud,
k fpm;vS,rf sm;onf tem*wf'Dru
dk a&pD Edik if H
awmf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk a&;qGJ=u&ef wm0ef&do
S nfhyk*K~d vfrsm; jzpf
onf?
(21)Edkiif aH wmftm%m&,la&;twGuf ,m,Dz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccH Oy
a'a&;qGJI tpdk;&zGpJh nf;jcif;udk rnfonhfenf;ESirfh # vufcHEidk frnf r[kwf
onfhtjyif xdkokhad qmif&Gufygu Oya'ESihftnD xda&mufpGm ta&;,l
rnfjzpfa=umif;ESihf jynfo@l qENEiS t
hf nD cdik rf maomzG@J pnf;yHk tajccHOya'
opft& ay:aygufvmrnfh tpdk;&w&yfrzGJ@pnf;rD =um;umvwGif EdkifiH
awmfjidrf0yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@taejzifh
(u) jynfaxmifpkr+ydKuGJa&;/ wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_ r+ydK

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

125

uGJa&;/ tcsKyftjcmtm%m wnfwHhcdkifjrJa&;[lonfh ta&;(3) yg;?
(c) EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfr_ wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ a=unmcsuftrSwf
(1§88)wGif yg&aSd om w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;ESifh e,fajrat;csrf;om,m
a&;/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G rf v
_ jkH cHKacsmarG@apa&;/ jynforl sm;. pm;0wfaea&;
acsmifvnfapa&;ESihf ygwpD 'kH rD u
k d a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyu
JG si;f ya&;
ponfh vkyfief;wm0ef}uD; (4) &yfteuf ygwpD k'H Drku
d a&pDtaxGaxG a&G;
aumufyJu
G sif;ya&;wm0efrSty jzpfaom vkyfief;wm0ef}uD; (3) &yfESifh
(*) jrefrmEdik if t
H wGif;&Sd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d tm;vH;k . zG@H +zKd ;wdk;wuf
a&;twGufaqmif&u
G f&ef vkyfief;wm0efrsm;udk tav;*±kjyK umuG,f
apmifha&SmufoGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; a=unmvdkufonf?
trde@f t&
(yHk) cifneG @f
Adv
k cf sKyf
twGi;f a&;rSL; (1)
Edik if aH wmfjidr0f yfrw
_ nfaqmufa&;tzG@J
1990 jynfhESpf/ Zlvdkif 28 &ufae@wGif ,m,DOuUX OD;=unfarmif
OD;pD;usif;yonfh “*E<Dcef;rtpnf;ta0;}uD;” udk usi;f ycJhonf? ta&G;
cs,cf t
H zG@J csKyf v$waf wmfuk,
d fpm;vS,ftm;vHk;eD;yg; tygt0if tzG@J csKyf
tzG0Jh ifaygi;f (500) ausmw
f ufa&muf=uonfh *E<cD ef;rtpnf;ta0;}u;D
udk jynfov
l x
l w
k pfaomif;cef@u vlxt
k if;tm;jzifh 0dik ;f &Hapmifh =unfhae
cJh=ujyD; jynfwGif;jynfyae&maygif;pHkrS tav;xm; ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf?
od@k aomf xGuaf y:vmcJo
h nfh *E<Dcef;rqHk;jzwfcsuo
f nf trsm;ar#mf
vifh awmifhwcJhonfhtwdkif;r[kwfbJ aemufxyf&ufaygif; 60 twGif;
(pufwifbmv aemufqHk;xm;jyD;) v$wfawmfac:ay;a&;/ taxGaxG
o[Zmwjzpfa&;/ tmCmwuif;pifa&;rlrsm;ESihf acsmarG@pmG tm%m
v$Jajymif;ay;a&;wdk@twGuf e0wtpdk;&ESifh NLD awG@qkaH qG;aEG;a&;udk
om awmif;qdka=unmEdik fcJhonf?

126

oef;0if;vIi
d f

trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfrS Zlvdkiv
f 29 &ufae@wGif xkwfjyefcJh
aom *E<cD ef;ra=unmpmwrf;tjynft
h pHkrmS atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf?
1? trsKd;om;'Drku
d a&pDtzG@J csKyfrS jynfol@v$waf wmfu,
dk fpm;vS,f
rsm;jzpf=uukef aom u|Ekfyfwk@d onf jrefrmouU&mZf 1352 ckESpf/ 0gacgif
vqef; (7) &ufEiS hf (8) &uf (1990jynfEh pS /f Zlvikd f 28 &ufEiS hf 29 &uf)
ae@rsm;wGif &efukef+rdKŒ/ ausmufwHwm;+rdKŒe,f&Sd *E<dcef;raqmifY pka0;
a&muf&Sd=u+yD; wdki;f &if;om;jynfolw&yfvHk;. tusKd;iSm EdkifiHawmfa&;
&mtjzmjzmESifh jynfol@v$wfawmfac:qdkzGJ@pnf;a&;udpPt00wdk@ukd aqG;
aEG;nd‡E_dif;wdkifyif=ujyD; oumv wnDwnGwfwnf;qHk;jzwfum T
‘*E<cD ef;ra=unmpmwrf;’ukd xkwjf yefa=unmvdkuf=uayonf?
2? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ESpfaygif;(30) twGif; yxrqHk;t}udrftjzpf
1990 jynfEh pS f arv 27 &ufae@Y usi;f ycJah om ygwpD 'kH rD u
kd a&pD taxG
axGa&G;aumufyJ}G uD;wGif jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,pf m;vS,af e&m (485)
ae&mtwGuf usi;f ycJ&h mY trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfonf trsm;jynf
olvlxk}uD;. wcJeufaom axmufcHr_wjdkh zifh jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,f
pm;vS,af e&m (392) ae&mwGif tEdki&f &Scd ahJ yonf? od@k &mwGif trsK;d om;
'Dru
dk a&pDzGJ@csKyfonf urBmh'Dru
dk a&pDEdkifiHrsm;. usihfxHk;rsm;twdkif; zGJ@
pnf;&rnfh tpdk;&w&yfudk cdkifrmpGmzGJ@pnf;edkifavmufonfh xuf0uf
ausmf jynfol@v$wfawmfu,
dk fpm;vS,ftiftm;xuf ausmfvGe±f krH #ru
v$waf wmfuk,
d fpm;vS,t
f a&wGu.
f &mcdik fEe_ ;f (80) ausmt
f xd vHk;vH;k
vsm;vsm;tEdik f&&Scd Jhojzifh jynfo@l v$waf wmftm; OD;aqmifEidk faom t
aetxm; tcdkiftrm&&Sdxm;jyD; jzpfayonf?
3? ,cktcg ygwpD 'kH Dru
kd a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufy}JG uD; atmifjrif
pGm usi;f yjy;D cJjh y;D jzpfavonf? taxGaxGa&G;aumufy}GJ u;D jyD;v#if jynfo@l
v$waf wmfudk ra&S;raESmif;umvY tjrefqHk;zGJ@pnf;ay;&rnfrmS "rRwm
yifjzpfavonf? jynfolvlxkuvnf; Ttwdkif; ar#mfvifhae=uay
onf? od@k aomf a&G;aumufy}JG uD;jyD;I &ufaygi;f (60) =umvmonfw
h ikd f
atmif jynfol@vw
$ fawmfudk rzGJ@pnf;&ao;ay?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

127

a&G;aumufyw
JG iG f vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm;trsm;pktEdik &f &Sx
d m;aom trsK;d
om;'Drdkua&pDtzG@J csKyfonf Edkiif HawmftwGuf avmavmq,f tusKd;
pD;yGm;ESihf a&&Snt
f em*wfumvtusK;d pD;yGm;rsm;udk tajccHxm;I/ wrsK;d
om;vHk; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;pdwf"gwfjzifh yGif;vif;aom/ ±dk;om;aom/
apwemtjynfyh gaom ESpOf D;ESpfzufnEd‡ id_ ;f aqG;aEG;aqmif&u
G rf r_ sm; jyKvyk f
oGm;&ef EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@o@dk trsK;d om;'Drdkua&pD
tzGJ@csKyfA[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzG@J rS tqdjk yKcsufudkvnf; Edik fiHawmfjidrf
0yfrw
_ nfaqmufa&;tzG@J u wpHw
k &m ta=umif;jyef=um;jcif;r&Scd Jah y?
4? &[ef;&Sijf ynfolrsm;/ v,form;rsm;/ tvkyo
f rm;rsm;/ ausmif;
om;vli,frsm;/ 0efxrf;rsm;tygt0ifjzpfaom wdik f;&if;om;jynfol vl
xk}uD;onf Edik if Hawmf'rD ku
d a&pDtcGit
fh a&;rsm; uef@owfcHxm;r_a=umifh
vuf&SdrsufarSmufjyKae&aom pm;0wfaea&;=uyfwnf;r_/ pdk;&drfxdwf
vef@ae&r_EiS fh aomuAsmyg'ab;rS uif;vGwaf &;wd@k twGuf 'Dru
kd a&pD
tkycf sKyfa&;pepfukd tjrefqH;k ul;ajymif;a&muf&&dS ef qENjyif;jyvsuf &Sad e
ayonf?
5? 'Drku
d a&pDpepfuku
d sifhoHk;onfh ,Ofaus;aom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;/
wdki;f Edkiif w
H dkif;wGif jynfo@l vw
$ fawmfudk tjrifhqk;H aom r¾kKd if}uD;w&yf
tjzpf jynfolvlxw
k &yfv;Hk u tav;tjrwfjyKxm;jcif;tm;jzifh EdkifiH
awmf*k%u
f suo
f a&udk jr‡ifhwif=upjrJjzpfavonf? u|Eykf fw@dk jrefrmEdkifiH
wGifvnf; 'Drku
d a&pDjynfol@vw
$ af wmfjuD;w&yf iGm;iGm;pGihpf Gifh wnf&daS e
rSom usufoa&r*Fvm xnf0gjynfhpHkjyD; urBmhtv,fwGif av;pm;cH
xdu
k af om *k%t
f *F gtaygi;f jzifh wifhw,fayrnf[k u|Efyk fw@dk u tav;
teuf ,Hk=unf=uayonf?
6? ,ae@ jynfow
l dk@ &ifqdkifae&aom EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;
paom t=uyftwnf;rsm;onf jynfolwdk@u ,Hk=unfudk;pm;pGm a&G;
cs,fwifajr‡mufvdkufonfh jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zGJ@
pnf;aom jynfol@vw
$ af wmfuom OD;aqmifI jynfol@qENEiS t
hf nD ajz
&Si;f tyfayonf?

128

oef;0if;vIi
d f

odk@jzpf&m jynfol@v$wfawmf a&G;aumufyGJOya' tcef; (2) yk'fr
(3) Y jyÏmef;xm;aom “v$wfawmfudk rJqENe,frsm;rS TOya'ESifh
tnD a&G;aumufwifajrm‡ ufvu
kd af om v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,rf sm;jzifh
zGJ@pnf;&rnf” [laom jyÏmef;csufESihftnD jynfo@l vw
$ fawmfudk tjref
qHk; ac:,lzGJ@pnf;ay;&ef ta&;w}uD; vdktyfaeayonf?
7? jynfol@v$waf wmfzGJ@pnf;a&;onf wm0ef&d=S uukefaom ouf
qdkif&mrsm;tzdk@ w&m;Oya't&vnf;aumif;/ usifh0wft&vnf;
aumif; ysuu
f Gujf cif;iSm vHk;0rjzpfEikd o
f nft
h jyif jzpfay:aeaom jynfol
wdk@. qENeSifh wdkif;jynf. tusyftwnf; tajctae t&yf&yfwk@d udk
axmufxm;ygv#iv
f nf; jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfac:,lz@JG pnf;a&;udk ysuu
f u
G f
jcif;iSm vH;k 0roifah vsmf/ ysuu
f u
G jf cif;iSm vHk;0rxku
d [
f k u|Eykf fw@kd cH,al y
onf?
8? od@k jzpf&um; jynfol@v$wfawmfudk tjrefqHk; rjzpfrae arG;zGm;
oef@pifay;&ayawmhrnf? jynfol@v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJOya' tcef;
(1) / yk'fr 2 (u) wGif “v$wfawmfqdkonfrSm jynfol@v$wfawmfudkqdk
onf” [k jyÏmef;xm;csut
f & ,ck ay:ayguv
f mrnfh jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf
onf wdkif;jyKjynfjyKvw
$ af wmfr[kwaf =umif;udkvnf; u|Eykf fw@dk tav;
teuf cH,lxm;ayonf?
Oya'ESifhtnD jzpftyfaomtm%m (odk@wnf;r[kwf) Oya'ESifh
tnD jzpftyfaomtm%mv$Jajymif;a&;udpw
P dk@ESifhywfoufI zG@J pnf;
tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccHOya'w&yfukd trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyfrS toifha&;
qGJxm;&SdjyD;jzpfa=umif;od&Sd&I u|Ekfyfwdk@u }udKqdkayonf?
tqdkyg 1990 jynfEh Spf ,m,Dz@GJ pnf;tkyfcsKyfyt
Hk ajccHOya' (rl=urf;)
udk trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyt
f aejzifh tjcm;tzG@J tpnf; toD;oD;ESihf
nd‡Ei_d f;aqG;aEG;rnfh tpDtpOfudkvnf; u|Efkyfw@dk u axmufcaH yonf?
T,m,Dz@GJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykt
H ajccHOya'tm;jzifh Oya'ESit
fh nD tm
%mv$aJ jymif;a&;udk jzpfajrmuftyfonf[k u|Ekfyfwdk@u wnDwnGwf
wnf; ,lq=uayonf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

129

9? xdk@aemuf 'Drdkua&pDjynfaxmifpkopftwGuf &nfoefaom zGJ@
pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya'opfukd u|Eyfk fw@kd yg0ifaom jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf
uomv#if a&;qGJjyÏmef;twnfjyK&ef wm0ef&Sdayonf? u|Ekfyw
f dk@u
vnf; xdkwm0efudk xrf;aqmifaomtcgY us,fjyef@pGm nd‡E_dif; aqmif
&GufoGm;=urnfjzpfayonf?
od@k aomf jynfol@vw
$ af wmf. tm%mtyfEiS f;r_r&Sb
d J jynfo@l v$wf
awmf. tm%mpufr&SdbJ/ jynfol@v$wfawmf. taqmifta,mif t
&Sed ft0gr&SdbJ/ jynfol@v$waf wmfu twnfjyKjyÏmef;jcif;r&Sb
d J/ jynfol@
v$waf wmfrS tjcm;rnfonfah e&m/ rnfonft
h csdefYrqdk/ zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsyk f
yHk tajccHOya'udk a&;qGJcGifhvnf;r&S/d jyÏmef;twnfjyKcGifhvnf;r&Sd/ odk@
a&;qG=J urnfqkv
d #if v$wfawmftm%mpufr&So
d jzifh Oya'tm%mpuf
vnf; &Sdvdrfhrnfr[kwfay? Tvrf;a=umif;twdkif; aqmif&Gurf _onf
oduQmyif &Sdvrd fhrnfr[kwf[k u|Efyk fwdk@,q
l onf?
xdk@a=umifh jynfolvlxk vdkvm;awmifhwaeaom 'Drdkua&pDjynf
axmifpkopf}uD; xlaxmif&eftwGuf &nfoefaom zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk t
ajccHOya'opfa&;qGJ&eftvdk@iSmyif jynfol@v$wfawmfudk aqmv#ifpGm
ac:,lzGJ@pnf;&ef txl;vdktyfa=umif;rSm xif&Sm;ayonf?
10? Tae&mwGif 'Dru
kd a&pDtpd;k & ray:aygurf D umvwav#muf
rvGJraoG/ ra&Smifrv$Jomay:aygufrnfh 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm; jy
\emudv
k nf; acsmarmpGm udkiw
f ,
G af jz&Si;f =uvdrhrf nf[k u|Efyk w
f k@d o
abm&&Sdayonf?
'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& ay:xGef;onft
h cgusrSom 'Drku
d a&pDtcGifhta&;
awG&&Sdap/ Todk@ray:xGef;rDumvYrl 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm; qdwf
okOf;aeqdkonft
h jzpfrsKd;um; vHk;0rvdkvm;tyfay?
'Dru
kd a&pDtpd;k &ray:aygurf u
D mvwGif 'Dru
kd a&pD tajctaersm;
zefw;D ay;r_[m 'Dru
dk a&pDjynfaxmifpkopfxlaxmifa&;txd/ at;csrf;
om,mpGm nifomaomtoGijf zifh taxmuftuljyK jzpfxeG ;f oGm;vdrhf
rnf[k u|Efyk w
f dk@,Hk=unfayonf? 'Dru
dk a&pDtajctaersm; &SdygrSvnf;

130

oef;0if;vIi
d f

jynfolvlxkonf wxdwfxdwfwvef@vef@ESifh usD;vef@pmpm;ae&aom
Asmyg'ab;wdk@rS uif;a0;=uonfjzpfI udk,fpdwfESpfyg;csrf;omum 'Drdk
ua&pDjynfaxmifpo
k pf xlaxmifa&;udk wufnDvufnD udk,pf Dtod
pdw"f gwfjzifh aqmif&GufoGm;Edkif=uygrnf?
Tumvrsm;twGi;f trsm;jynfov
l x
l t
k wGuf tedrhq
f ;Hk tm;jzifh
cHpm;xdu
k af om vGwv
f yfpGm a&;om;yHkEySd x
f w
k af 0cGih/f vGwfvyfpmG ,lq
wifjycGifhwk@d onf pnfyifae&ygrnf? jynfo@l v$waf wmfwGif tpdk;&w&yf
udk vGwfvw
G fu|wfu|wf zGJ@pnf;Edkifavmufatmif v$wfawmfudk,pf m;
vS,f vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm;trsm;pk&&Sx
d m;aom trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
udk,w
f dkifu tedrfhqHk; 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;wdk@udkyif qHk;±_H;tepfemcH
ae&onf[kqdkv#if jzpf±k;d jzpfpOfEdkifiaH &;obm0,kwrœd sm;ESifh vH;k 0 zDvm
jzpfaeayrnf? jynfolvlxktjyif urBmhtjrifw@dk Y tvGefw&mrS t
usnf;wefaernfrSm aocsmayonf?
u|Eyfk w
f k@d onf ygwDpk'H Dru
dk a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufy}JG uD;rSwqifh
rJqeN&Sif jynfolvlxk. qENtqHk;tjzwfudk &,lxm;olrsm;jzpfI xdk
obm0ESihf vdu
k af vsmnDaxGpmG oifw
h ifah vsmufywfaom tqift
h wef;
udk &&Sd=u&ayrnf? ,kwpf GtqHk; u|Eykf fw@dk tm; taESmift
h ,Su/f t[ef@
twm; jcdrf;ajcmufr_wdk@rS uif;a0;ap&rnf?
11? avmavmq,f tajctaet& u|Efyk w
f k@d Eikd if HwiG f wygwDpepf
rS ygwDp'Hk rD u
dk a&pDpepfo@dk ul;ajymif;&rnfjzpfojzifh ajz&Si;f aqmif&Guf=u
&rnft
h usyftwnf;/ tcuftcJjy\emrsm;&Srd nfudk u|Efkyf tusyf
wnf;rsm;udv
k nf; 'Drku
d a&pDtajccHw&m;rsm;udk rxdyg;rysu,
f iG ;f apbJ/
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzG@J csKyfESifh EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfr_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@
onf wrsK;d om;vH;k jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;OD;wnfcsufjzifh ±dk;om;r_/ yGiv
hf if;
r_/ tjyeftvSeaf v;pm;r_w@dk udk tajccHum awG@qkaH qG;aEG; tajz&Smjcif;
tm;jzifh rkcsajz&Sif;Edki&f rnf[k u|Ekfyfwdk@ ar#mfvifh=uayonf?
,ae@ urBmwGif tvGe±f y_ af xG;eufeaJ om/ vlom;tm;vH;k udk ysuf
jyKef;aprnfh t%kjrLppfy}JG uD;tEœ&m,fukyd if awG@qakH qG;aEG; tajz&Smjcif;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

131

enf;jzifh ,ae@tcsdeftxd [ef@wm;xm;EdkifchjJ yD;jzpf&m u|Eykf fw@dk Ekid fiw
H iG f
tcsif;csif;jzpfyGm;ae&aom jy\em[lor#onfvnf; rsufESmcsi f;
qdkifawG@qaHk qG;aEG;jcif;jzifh acsmarmajywnf&rnf[k u|Ekyf w
f k@d ,H=k unf
ayonf? ,if;odk@ awG@qHk&mwGif (u) yGifhvif;±dk;om;r_EiS fh tjyeftvSef av;pm;vdkufema&;rl/
(c) wrsKd;om;vHk; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;rl/
(*) jidrf;csr;f acsmarG@aomenf;udk toHk;csa&;rl/
(C) tmCmwuif;pifaom taxGaxGo[Zmwjzpfr_udk a&Sα_
a&;rl ponfwdk@udk udkifpG&J rnf[kvnf; u|Ekfyfwdk@cH,lxm;ayonf?
12? jynfol@udk,pf m;vS,frsm;jzifh yg0ifzGJ@pnf;onfh jynfo@l v$wf
awmfudk ac:,lzJ@G pnf;&ef awmif;qdyk dkifcGifhrSm jynfolvlxk. tajccHrl
tusqHk;aom w&m;0ifydkifcGiw
fh &yf jzpfayonf? ,if; ydkifcGifhawmif;qdk
&ef jynfol@u,
dk fpm;vS,rf sm;jzpf=uukefaom u|Efkyfwk@d Y wm0ef&Sday
onf?
13? od@k jzpf&um; jynfov
l x
l }k uD;. qENEiS t
hf nD jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf
a&G;aumufyGJ Oya' tcef; (2)/ yk'rf (3) t&vnf;aumif;/ 'Drku
d a&pD.
tESpfom&rsm;t&vnf;aumif;/ Edkifi HwumusifhxHk;usifhenf;rsm;ESifh
avsmn
f pD mG vnf;aumif;/ 1990 jynfhEpS f/ pufwifbmvtwGif; jynfo@l
v$waf wmfukd ac:,lz@GJ pnf;ay;&ef trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyfu jynfo@l
v$wfawmfu,
kd pf m;vS,rf sm;jzpf=uukeo
f m u|Efyk w
f k@d u Edik fiHawmfjidr0f yf
r_wnfaqmufa&;tzJ@G tm; Tae@T&ufrSpI wnDwnGwfwnf;
awmif;qdkvku
d fjyDjzpfa=umif; a=unmtyfayonf?
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
jynfol@v$waf wmfudk,pf m;vS,frsm;
r[wœr*E<Dcef;raqmif
Adkfvaf tmifausmfvrf;/ &efukef+rdKŒ

132

oef;0if;vIi
d f

odk@uvdk *E<Dtpnf;ta0;}uD;udk v$wfawmftjzpf ajymif;vJ a=u
nmEdik fcJhjcif;r&Sdonft
h wGuf tm;rvdktm;r&jzpfolrsm; &SdcJhavonf?
*E<Dtpnf;a0;}uD;aemufydkif;Y tzGJ@csKyfonf v$waf wmfac:ay;a&;/ tm
%mv$aJ jymif;a&;udk t}urd }f udraf wmif;qdk ajym=um;oHreS o
f r#ukd e0w
ppftpdk;&u ‘olck;d vljyef[pf’ qdkovdk ‘tm%m±l;rsm;’ / ‘1§90 udk
csK;d azmufqef@usiaf er_rsm;’tjzpf wke@f jyef&efapmif&if; NLD ukt
d "du
OD;wnf&efol}uD;tjzpf owfrSwjf yD; zufaygi;f pHkrS csKd;ESdrfEdyS u
f Gyfrr_ sm; wdk;
jr‡ifhvmcJhonf?
xdk@aemuf e0wppftpdk;&onf ,m,DOuUX OD;=unfarmiftygt
0if tzGJ@csKyfacgif;aqmifrsm;/ t+rdKŒ+rdKŒte,fe,fu v$waf wmfudk,fpm;
vS,frsm; zrf;qD;cJh&ovdk/ ac:,lppfaq;ar;cHr_rsm;/ xdef;odrf;uef@owf
ta&;,lcH&r_rsm;udk qufwdkufjyKvkyfvmcJhonf?
e0wppftpdk;&. v$wfawmfac:,lay;a&; jiif;qefaer_ajumifh
wufºuGaom v$waf wmfuk,
d fpm;vS,t
f csKdŒu 1990 jynfEh pS /f pufwif
bm/ atmufwkb
d mtwGi;f tr&yl&ESihf rEœav;+rdKŒrsm;Y v#KdŒ0Suaf wG@qkH
aqG;aEG;r_rsm; vkyfaqmifcJh=ujyD; pif+ydKiftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;Edkifa&;udk }udK;yrf;
v_yf&Sm;cJhr_rsm; ay:aygufvmcJhonf? ppftpdk;&axmufvSrf;a&;u azmf
xkwfzrf;qD;jyD; jyif;jyif;xefxef ta&;,lcJhonfhtwGuf tzGJ@csKyf v$wf
awmfudk,fpm;vS,ftcsKdΠaxmif'%fcsrSwfcH&onfhtjyif v$wfawmf
ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f jzpfrS y,fzsuaf =umif; a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sirf S rw&m;
ojzifha=unmjcif;udk cHcJh&onf? v$wfawmfudk,pf m;vS,fwcsKŒd zrf;qD;
cH&mrS axmifxJYyifaoqHk;cJh&onf? (Oyrm c&rf;v$wfawmf udk,fpm;
vS,f OD;wifarmif0if;onf tif;pdeaf xmifwGif;Y e0w ppfaxmufvSrf;
a&;rsm;. n‡O;f yef;ESyd pf ufra_ =umifh 1991 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D (18) &ufae@
wGif axmifwGi;f Y aoqH;k oGm;cJh&onf? OD;wifarmif0if;. ZeD;rSm pma&;
q&mr,k0wDcifv_dif=uLjzpfjyD; om;orD; (2) OD;usef&pfcJhonf?) wcsKdŒ
e,fpyfa'o awmfvSefa&;e,fajrrsm;twGif; xGufajy;wdrf;a&SmifcJh&
onf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

133

,m,DOuUXOD=unfarmifzrf;qD;axmifcscv
H u
kd &f jyD;aemuf tzG@J csKyf
. ,m,DOuUXtjzpf Adv
k frSL;a[mif;OD;atmifa&$ jzpfvmcJo
h nf? tjidrf;
pm; AdkvfrSL;csKyfatmifa&$onf r&rf;ukef;+rdKŒe,f/ rJqENe,ftrSwf (1)
wGif trsKd;om;'Drku
d a&pDtzG@J csKyt
f m; ud,
k pf m;jyKI 0ifa&muf ,SO+f ydKicf hJ
&m a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;cH&onf? OD;atmifa&$udk 1918 ckESp/f arv
19 &ufae@wiG f tzOD;zd;k uGe;f / trda':ode;f wifw@dk rS zGm;jrifco
Jh nf? 1940
jynfEh pS w
f iG f &efuek w
f uUov
dk f bDat (0dZm… ) bG@J &&Scd jhJ y;D 1942 rS 1945
txd Adv
k fcsKyfatmifqef;OD;aqmifaom Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmf (bD
tdkifat)/ ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf(bD'Dat) ESifh ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfr
awmf (yDbt
D ufz)f wd@k wGif yg0ifco
Jh nf? 1945 rSpI wyfrawmf (=unf;)
wGif ud,
k yf idk ftrSwf 3505 jzifh Adkvf}uD;tqifhrSpI wm0efxrf;&Gucf Jh&m
1950 wGif Adv
k frLS ;}uD;tqifhjzifh ppfaxmufcsKyf/ 1955 wGif ajrmufydkif;
wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfwdkif;rSL;tjzpf wdk;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&onf? 1955 ckESpf/ azazmf
0g&v
D 25 &ufae@rS 1961 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&v
D 15 &ufae@twGi;f awmif
ydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyfwGif Adv
k frSL;csKyftqifhjzifh wdkif;rSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf;
aqmifaepOf a&G;aumufyYGJ bufvku
d v
f kycf Jha=umif; pdppfawG@&Sd&ojzifh
qdu
k m 1961 ckEpS f/ azazmf0g&v
D (13) &ufae@wiG f &mxl;cef@xm;a&;tzG@J
tpnf;ta0;rS wyfrawmfwiG f ppfrx
_ rf;jcif;rS tjidr;f pm;,lciG fhjyKcJhonf?
1961 rS 1975 txd jrefrmEdkifiq
H kid f&moHtrwf}uD;tjzpf =opaw;vs/
(e,l;ZDvef) ygy;l wGJI tD*spf/ jyifopf/ (pydefEiS hf ,leufpudk) tzGJ@wdk@yg
yl;wGw
J m0ef,I
l 1975 wGif tjidr;f pm;,lco
hJ nf? 1980 jynfEh pS /f ZGev
f
7 &ufae@wGif EdkifiHh*k%f&nfbGJ@ (yxrqifh) csD;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&onf? rsKd;cspf&J
abmfa[mif;rsm;tzG@J ESifh trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyw
f k@d wiG f A[dktvkyf
tr_aqmifESifh OuUX wm0ef,lcJhonf?
,m,DOuUXOD;atmifa&$ukd e0wppftpd;k & jypfru
_ six
hf ;kH yk'rf (165)
t& qifhac: jyD; (1§90) udk vdkufem&ef qifhac:ta=umif;=um;cJh&m OD;
atmifa&$u 1990 jynfEh pS /f Ed0k if bm 12 &ufwiG f trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD
tzG@J csKyf A[dOk ;D pD;tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESihf awG@qkaH qG;aEG;um NLD . a=unmcsuf

134

oef;0if;vIi
d f

trSwf (30§90) xkwfjyefay;cJhonf? a=unmcsuf tjynfhtpHrk Sm 1? e0wtzG@J . (27 ² 7 ² 90) ae@pJGyg a=unmcsuftrSwf (1§90)
tay: trsKd;om;axmufvrS ;f a&;tzG@J u ygwDp'kH rD ku
d a&pD taxGaxGa&G;
aumufyJw
G Gif yg0if,OS f+ydKicf Jh =uonfh EdkifiaH &;ygwDrsm;. oabmxm;ukd
awG@qakH r;jref;um atmufygtcsufrsm;udk wm0efcv
H ufrw
S fa&;xd;k apcJh
ygonf?
(u) a=unmcsuf (1§90) udk aocsmpGmzwf±a_ vhvm od&jSd y;D
jzpfygonf?
(c) a=unmcsuf (1§90) udk vdkufemrnf§ rvdkufemrnf?
(*) a=unmcsu(f 1§90)udk rvdu
k ef mygu Oya't& ta&;,l
cH&rnfudk od&ySd gonf?
(C) a=unmcsuf (1§90) udk rvdu
k ef mygu ygwDtzG@J tpnf;
rsm; zsufodr;f cH&rnfukd od&Sdygonf?
2? ,if;ar;jref;csufrsm;udk usifhxHk;yk'fr (160) t& ac:,lar;jref;
Edik fciG &hf o
dS nfjzpfI ygwt
D zG@J tpnf;rsm;rS ‚if;wd@k wm0efay;tyfvu
kd o
f nfh
udk,fpm;vS,fyk*dK~ vfrsm;udk ac:,lar;jref;onf[k qdkif&mu qdkygonf?
Ttcsuu
f kd oufqidk f&mygwu
D vufrSwaf &;xd;k &rnfph m&Guw
f iG f twd
tvif; a&;om;azmfjywm;ygonf? xdk@tjyif ‚if;vufrw
S fa&;xdk;&rnfh
pm&Guw
f iG f oufqidk f&mtzG@J tpnf;ygwD. A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzG@J 0if
rsm;. trnfpm&if;udkvnf; yl;wGJxm;ygonf?
3? jypfrq
_ kid f&musix
fh ;Hk Oya'yk'fr (160) rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfyg
onf?
Police Officer Power of Require Attendance of Witnesses
Any police officer making an investigation under this chapter, by order
in writing, require the attendance before himself of any person being within
the limit of his own or any adjoining station who, from the information given
or other wise, appear to be acquainted with the circumstances of the case, and
such person shall attend as so required.

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

135

oufaorsm;a&muf&daS p&ef &Jt&m&Sdu qifq
h Edk ikd o
f nfhtm%m
Ttrdef@t& pHpk rf;axmufvSrf;jcif;jyKaom rnfonfh&Jt&m&Sdrqdk/
ay;xm;aomowif;t&jzpfap/ tjcm;enf;t&jzpfap/ tr_tjzpftysuf
ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk odu|rf;yHkay:aom rdr.
d pcef;e,fajrtwGif; (odk@
r[kw)f qufpyfaeaom &Jpcef;ajrtwGif;&Sd rnfol@udkrqdk rdrda&SŒodk@
a&muf&Sdap&ef trdef@pmjzifh qifhqdkEdkifonf?
4? xdk@tjyif EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@u xkwf
jyefcsufrSefor#w@dk onf (Martial Law) t& xkwfjyefjcif;jzpfa=umif;/
Edik if aH wmfjird 0f yfyjd ym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@onf Oya'jyKtm%m/ tkyf
csKyfr_tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifr_tm%moHk;&yfukd oHk;pGJaeonfjzpfa=umif;/
odk@jzpfI ‚if;wdk@xkwfjyefonfh a=unmcsufrsm;udk trsm;uvdkuf em&ef
jzpfa=umif; oufqkid f&mu ajym=um;ygonf?
5? tu,fI a=unmcsuf (1§90) udk rvdkufemygu (u) vufrSwfa&;xdk;&rnfph mwGif yl;wGJxm;onfhyk*~dKvfrsm;
tm; yk'rf (160) t& ta&;,ltjypfay;Edik fonf?
(c) xdk@tjyif txufygtyd'k fcGJ (C) t& oufqdkif&mygwDudk
vnf; zsufodrf;jcif;cH&Edkifygonf?
6? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyfonf rdrdtzGŒJ csKyfwGif yg0ifaqmif
&Guaf e=uolrsm;tm; yk*Kd~ vft& ta&;,ltjypfay;cH&jcif;xuf 1988
ck =o*kwfv 8 &ufae@ 'Drdkua&pDawmif;cHr_rsm;t& wnfaqmufcJhjyD;
jynfow
l k@d ,H=k unfuk;d pm;onft
h zG@J csKyf ysufjyKef;oGm;rnft
h jzpfudk vH;k 0
(vHk;0) vufrcHEkid fay?
7? rdrdwdk@tzG@J csKyfudk pwifwnfaxmifcJhonfhae@rSpI ,ae@xuf
wdik af tmif }uD;pGmaomt=uyftwnf;/ tvSnt
hf ajymif;rsm; t=um;rS
yif &yfwnfrr_ ysufjym;atmif w&m;Oya't& ±ke;f uefvy_ f&mS ;cJ&h yg
onf? yxrtm;jzifh Edkiif aH &;tzG@J tpnf;w&yftjzpf v_yf&mS ;edik f&ef rSwyf kH
wifco
Jh nf? 'kwd,tm;jzifh (e²o) udk ,lcJhonf? wwd,tm;jzifh a&G;
aumufyGJwGif yg0if,SOf+ydKif ta&G;cHcJhonf?

136

oef;0if;vIi
d f

8? tu,fI tzG@J csKyftm; zsuo
f rd ;f jcif;cH&ygu jynfow
l k@d uk,
d w
f idk f
ay;tyfxm;onfh 'Dru
dk a&pDa&;wm0efrsm;udk rxrf;aqmifEdkifawmhbJ
rdrdwdk@tzGJ@csKyf. vkyfief;udpt
P 00udv
k nf; rnfo@dk r# qufvufaqmif
&GufEidk fawmhrnfr[kwaf y? Todk@tm;jzifh tzGJ@csKyt
f aejzifh w&m;0ifEkid f
a&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;rnfom jzpfayonf?
9? tzG@J csKyfonf qufvufI &Sifoeftouf0ifaerSomv#if EdkifiH
a&;t& qufvufI pnf;±Hk;v_yf&Sm;Edik fcGifh&do
S nfjzpfayonf? odk@jzpfI
tzGJ@csKyf &Sio
f efaejcif;u tusKd;&Sdrnfudk tav;teufxm;ygonf?
10? wu,fhyuwdjzpf&yfudk "rR"Xd mefusus qifjcifoHk;oyfcJh=uyg
onf? urBmhordkif;wGif rnfonhfEdkifiHrS t=uyftwnf; tcuftcJrsm;
&Sdaeygu 'Dru
dk a&pDukd vG,v
f ifhwuljzifh &&SdEdkifcho
J nfhom"uudk rawG@
&S&d yg?
11? tu,fI tzG@J csKyf ysuo
f Ok ;f oGm;v#if tzG@J csKyfukd ud,
k pf m;jyKjyD;
0ifa&mufta&G;cHcJh=uonfh jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf
vnf; w&m;0if&yfwnfcGifh&awmhrnfr[kwf[k ,lqygonf?
12? tzGJ@csKyfonf trsK;d om;w&yfvHk;u vdv
k m;awmifw
h ae=u
aom 'Dru
dk a&pDa&;ukd pnf;urf;enf;vrf;wus jidr;f csr;f aomenf;vrf;
rsm;jzifh &&Sda&;twGuf }udK;yrf;vkyfaqmif=urnf[al om oEMdXmefjzifyh if
trsK;d om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf[lI trnfay; v_yf&Sm;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf?
13? rnfodk@aom tcuftcJt=uyftwnf;rsm; &Sdaeapumrl 'Drdk
ua&pDa&;udk OD;xdyfyefqifvsuf tajctaeESifhtcsdeftcgt& ,Hk=unf
csuEf iS fh trSefw&m;udk odjrifjcif;[laomrl/ rSeu
f efpGm =uHpnfawG;qjcif;
ESihf vH@k v/ 0d&,
d / owdpku
d x
f w
k fonfrh w
l @dk EiS ,
hf OS fI v_y&f Sm;pnf;±H;k =urnf
om jzpfayonf?
14? Tudpu
P kd +rdKŒe,frsm;ESifh tajccHtzG@J tpnf;rsm;wd@k o@dk }udKwif
csjy&ef &nf&G,fygaomfvnf; tcsdet
f uef@towf&rSd _ESifh yk'rf 160 t&
aqmif&GufEdkifpGrf; r&SdcJhyg?
15? xd@k a=umifh txufwGifazmfjycJhonfhta=umif;rsm;udk aocsm

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

137

pGm avhvmaqG;aEG;=ujy;D TtzG@J csKyf A[dOk ;D pD;tzG@J u tzG@J csKyf. &yfwnf
Edik af &;ESihf a&&SnftusKd;twGuf (9 ² 11 ² 90) ae@ A[dOk ;D pD;tzG@J tpnf;
ta0; (7§90) wGif t"du tav;xm;I qH;k jzwfcsucf srSwfcJhayonf?
A[dkOD;pD;tzGJ@
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzGJ@csKyf
1990 jynfhESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (12) &uf?
od@k uvdk a&G;aumufyw
JG iG f ta&G;cH&aom v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,f
rsm;tm; jynfwGif;Yaexdik f&yfwnfv_yf&mS ;r_r&Sdatmif ppfaxmufvSrf;
a&;tzG@J u enf;rsK;d pHjk zifh qef@usifwu
kd fcu
kd f rw&m;zrf;qD;I axmifcsaer_
a=umifh NLD ygwD0iftcsKdŒESifh a&G;cs,fcHv$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;
awmwGif;odk@a&muf&Sdum 1991 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&D 14 &ufae@wGif u
&ifjynfe,f&Sd KNU XmecsKyf rme,fyavma'oY trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD
tzGJ@ csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) (NLD – LA) pwifzGJ@pnf; ay:aygufvmcJh
onf?
yxrqHk;pwifzGJ@pnf;vdkuo
f nfh A[dkpnf;±Hk;a&;aumfrwDOuUXrSm
a'gufwmpde0f if;jzpfonf? ‚if;onf tmZmenfO;D b0if;.om; jzpfaom
a=umifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf tpfu0dk rf;uGaJ wmfpyfonf? twGi;f a&;
rSL;rSm OD;0if;cufjzpfjyD; A[dpk nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD0ifrsm;tjzpf rEœav;wdik ;f
rS OD;armifarmifat;/ OD;odef;OD;/ OD;jrifhatmifwdk@jzpfonf?
trsK;d om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf.tvHawmfudk jrifhjrifhrm;rm; quf
vufvi$ hfxl&ef/ ppftm%m&Sifpepfuk d tjyD;wkdif wdkufzsufz,f&Sm;&ef/
ppfreS faom/ cdkifjrJaomjynfwGifjidrf;csrf;a&;udk wnfaxmif&ef[lonfh
OD;wnfcsufrsm;jzifh pwifzGJ@pnf;cJhonf? 1991 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv 16
&ufae@wGif yJcl;wdkif; OD;atmifapmOD;/ OD;&efatmif/ OD;oef;xGÉf/ {&m0wD
wdkif; t*Fyl+rdKŒe,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (2) rS woD;yk*~v v$wfawmfudk,f
pm;vS,fa'gufwmpef;atmifwdk@jzifh xyfrHxdk;csJŒzGJ@pnf;cJo
h nf?

138

oef;0if;vIi
d f

r=umrDrmS yif tdE,
dN -jrefrme,fpyfa&muf trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD t
zGJ@csKyf v$wfawmfu,
dk fpm;vS,af 'gufwmwifah qG/ rEœav;wdkif;rS OD;jrndK
wdk@OD;aqmifonfh ‘trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzG@J csKyf’ (vGwfajrmufe,fajr)
taemufbufa'o±Hk;cGu
J dk zGiv
hf pS Ef idk fco
Jh nf? xd@k aemuf 1991 ckEpS f/ 'DZif
bm 23 &ufae@wGif tzGJ@csKyf ucsifjynfe,f pnf;±Hk;a&;aumfrwDOuUX
OD;wifatmif/ jynfe,fpnf;±H;k a&;aumfrwDtzG@J 0if OD;&efaemifjrifh/ v$wf
awmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpf=uonfh OD;ausmfarmif/ OD;=umjr/ OD;a&mpD/
OD;rzef;qif/ OD;tifeef;*rfESifh +rdKŒe,fpnf;±Hk;a&;aumfrwD0if (3) OD; tyg
t0if pkpak ygif; 10 OD;onf KIA a'o yga*smifok@d a&muf&dv
S mcJhjy;D aemuf
trsK;d om;'Drku
d a&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) ajrmufykid f;a'o ±Hk;cGJ
udkvnf; zGifhvSpfEdkifcJhonf?
1992 ckESpf/ arvtwGif;Y NLD – LA (ajrmufydkif;) tzGJ@rS OD;wif
atmifEiS hf v$waf wmfuk,
d pf m;vS,f OD;tifeef;*rfw@kd rme,fyavm&Sd NLD
– LA A[dk±Hk;ukd a&muf&SdvmjyD;aemuf 1992 ckESpf/ arv 18&ufae@wGif
trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzG@J csKyf(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) A[dkpnf;±H;k a&; aumfr
wDudk xyfrHjyifqifwdk;csJŒzGJ@pnf;onf? NLD-LA . A[kdpnf;±Hk;a&; aumfr
wDtvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@0ifrsm;rSm (1) a'gufwmpde0f if;
- OuUX
(2) OD;0if;cuf
- 'kOuUX
(3) OD;wifatmif
- twGi;f a&;rSL;
(4) OD;armifarmifat;
- tzG@J 0if
(5) OD;odef;OD;
- tzG@J 0if
(6) a'gufwmpef;atmif
- tzG@J 0if
(7) OD;0if;udk (ppfudkif;wdik f;)
- tzG@J 0if
(8) OD;jrifhatmif
- tzG@J 0if
(9) OD;atmifapmOD;
- tzG@J 0if
(10)OD;oef;xGÉf
- tzG@J 0if
(11) OD;&efatmif
- tzG@J 0if

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

139

wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
1995 ckESpfwGif ppfwyf. xdk;ppfqifwu
dk fcdkufr_rsm;a=umifh rme,f
yavmusqHk;oGm;jyD;aemufydkif;wGif NLD-LA XmecsKyfonf xdkif;Edkiif Ht
wGif;odk@ajymif;a&$ŒcJo
h nf? xd@k aemuf trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwf
ajrmufe,fajr) onf rsm;r=umrDrmS yif NLD-LA *syefXmecG/J awmifu&dk ;D
,m;XmecGJ/ tar&duefXmecGJ/ =opa=w;vsXmecGJ/ rav;&Sm;XmecGJ/ aemf
a0;XmecG/J jAdwdefXmecGJrsm;udk zGifhvSpfEidk fcJhonf? 1996 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 7
&ufae@wGif trsKd;om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf vGwfajrmufe,fajr (vli,f)
tzG@J ukd zG@J pnf;Edik cf jhJ yD; 1998 Zefe0g&v
D wGif vli,f txl;tpnf;ta0;
udkac:,lI A[dv
k li,fvkyfief;tzG@J udk jyifqifwdk;csJŒzGJ@pnf;EdkifcJhonf?
trsK;d om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) . A[dkOuUX
t jzpf a'gufwmpdef0if;/ OD;0if;cuf/ OD;wifatmifw@dk u toD;oD;wm0ef
,lcJhovdk twGif;a&;rSL;wm0efudkvnf; OD;oef;xGÉf/ OD;at;oef;/ OD;jrifh
od%f;/ a':pef;pef;ESifh OD;jrifhp;dk wdk@u ,lcJhonf?
NLD-LA . aemufq;kH nDvmcHukd 2009 pufwifbm 15 rS 17 t
xd usif;yjyKvkyfI vuf&dOS uUXwm0efudk OD;Adkvfaomif;/ 'kOuUXtjzpf
a'guw
f mat;ausmEf iS hf twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf OD;jrifhp;kd wdk@u wm0ef,x
l m;
onf? NLD – LA udk A[dkaumfrwD0if (15) OD;/ t&efA[dkaumfrwD0if
(2) OD; pkpkaygif; (17) OD;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;onf?
NLD-LA ay:aygufjy;D r=umrDrSmyif tmZmenfacgi;f aqmifwOD; jzpf
ol OD;b0if;. om; a'guw
f mpdef0if;OD;aqmifaom ‘jynfaxmifpkjrefrm
Edkiif H trsKd;om;nGef@aygif;tpd;k &’ (National Coalition Government Union
of Burma- NCGUB) ac:pif+ydKiftpkd;& ay:aygufvmcJhonf?
NCGUB udk e,fpyfa'oodk@ xGuf ajy;wdrf;a&Smif vmaom a&G;
aumufcH jynfo@l v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,ftcsKdŒESifh KNU XmecsKyf rm
e,fyavma'owGif 1990 jynfEh Sp/f 'DZifbm 18 &ufae@Y pwifz@JG pnf;cJh
onf? tzGJ@udktrsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDygwDrS a'gufwmpdef0if;/ trsKd;om;
'Drkd ua&pDtzG@J csKyfrS OD;bdkvSwifh/ OD;oef;ºuG,f/ OD;jrifhatmif/ OD;0if;udk/

140

oef;0if;vIi
d f

OD;armifarmifat;/ OD;odef;OD;/ OD;vSaz/ woD;yk*~vv$wfawmfudk,fpm;
vS,f OD;yDwmvif;yif/ a'guw
f mpef;atmifwdk@jzifh zGJ@pnf;cJhonf?
NCGUB onf tpdk;&tzGJ@jzpfonfhtwGuf 0ef}uD;csKyfwm0efudk
a'guw
f mpde0f if;/ 0ef}uD;rsm;tjzpf OD;yDwmvif;yif/ OD;0if;ud/k OD;bdkvw
S if/h
OD;ode;f OD;/ OD;vSaz/ OD;oef;ºuG,f / OD;jrifah tmif/ OD;armifarmifat;/ a'guf
wmpef;atmifwdk@u wm0ef,lcJh=uonf?
NCGUB udk
(1) ppftm%m&Siftkyfpk etztpdk;& tjrefqHk;csKyfjidrf;a&;/
(2) 1990 jynfhESpfa&G;aumufyGJrS a&G;aumufcHjynfol@v$wfawmf
udk,pf m;vS,rf sm;/ r'rctzG@J csKyfrS ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;/ 'Drku
d a&pDtiftm;
pkrsm;yg0ifaom trsK;d om;nDvmcHw&yfac:,la&;
(3) ppfreS af om'Drdk ua&pDtpd;k &w&yfay:xGe;f a&;
wm0ef}uD; (3) &yfudk taumiftxnfazmf&ef zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpf
onf[k qdkonf?
1992 ck/ Zlvidk fv 31 &ufae@ NLD-LA, DAB ac: r'rc tzGJ@csKyf/
NDF ac: trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pkwdk@ESifhtwl yl;wGJI rme,fy
avmXmecsKyfwGif ‘rme,fyavmpmcsKyf’ udk csKyfq&kd mY NCGUB onf
ta&;ygonfhtzG@J }uD;tjzpf yg0ifvufrSwaf &;xdk;cJhonf? rme,fyavm
pmcsKyfonf ‘zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHawmfwnfaqmufa&;’
twGuf oabmwlco
Jh nfhpmcsKyfjzpfonf? wenf;qdk&aomf wdkif;&if;
om;vlrsK;d tm;vHk; trsKd;om;wef;wla&;ESifh ud,
k yf kid fjyÏmef;cGi&fh do
S nfh 'Drkd
ua&pDEiS hf tajccHvl@tcGit
fh a&;tjynft
h 0&So
d nfh zuf'&,fjynfaxmif
pkudk wnfaqmufoGm;rnfh oabmwlpmcsKyfyifjzpfonf?
rme,fyavmpmcsyk cf syk q
f t
kd jyD;Y jrefrmjynf'rD u
kd &ufwpftzG@J csKyf
(DAB)/ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pk (NDF)/ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@
csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr)/ trsKd;om;nGeafh ygif;tpdk;& (NCGUB) tzG@J t
pnf; (4) ckudk tquftpyfrdrd v_yf&Sm;Edkifap&eftwGuf jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEdkifiH trsKd;om;aumfpD (NCUB) ukd 1992 pufwifbmv 22 &uf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

141

ae@wiG f pwifz@GJ pnf;cJo
h nf? ,if;tzGJ@tpnf;}u;D ay:ayguaf p&mYvnf;
NCGUB onf t"du r¾dKif}uD;tjzpf yg0ifv_yf&m
S ;cJhonf? NCGUB ay:
aygufvmjyD;aemuf trsKd;om;nGef@aygif;tpdk;&. tmabmftjzpf ‘'Drdk
u&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH’ (DVB) udk 1992 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 19 &ufae@rS p
wifI toHv$ifhcho
J nf?
xdpk OftwGi;f 1991 ckEpS /f atmufwkb
d mv 14 &ufae@wGif tjynf
jynfqkid f&m vl@tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG@}uD;rS a':atmifqef;pk=unftm;
“vltcGit
fh a&;qmcga&mhAq
f ”k udk ay;tyfcs;D jri‡ haf =umif; a=unmcJhav
onf?

om;BuD;jrifhqef;atmif rdcifuk,
d pf m; qmcga&mhAq
f k vufcH,al epOf

tqdkyg tjynfjynfqidk f&mvl@tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG@rS csD;jr‡ifhcJhaom
qkukd a':atmifqef;pk=unfuk,
d fpm; om;}uD; jrifhqef;atmif (tvuf
ZENm;) u a':atmifqef;pk=unfa&;om;ay;yd@k cahJ ompmudk 1992 ckEpS /f
arv 14 &ufae@wiG f 0g&Siw
f ef+rdKŒawmf Y zwf=um;cJyh gonf? tjynft
h pkH
rSm “tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG@rS ESpfpOfcsD;jr‡ifhaom
vl@tcGit
fh a&;qkuk d orRw yufx&D±dt
_ ,f0if (Patricio Aydwin) ESiht
f wl
wcsdefwcgu vufcH&,l&onfudk rsm;pGm*k%f,lrdygonf? Tqkonf
,cktcgY jrefrmEdkifiHwGif tvGefta&;}uD;vSaomudpP&yfrsm;udk tm;
±kpH ;l pdu
k af p&ef rD;armif;xd;k ouJhok@d jzpf&ygonf? csv
D ED kid if o
H rRw}uD;onf

142

oef;0if;vIi
d f

trSefw&m;ESifh jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;w&m;wdk@t=um; ckdif+rJaom
qufpyfr_&Sd aeykHudk wae@wjcm; vltrsm;ydrk dkod&Sd oabmaygufap&ef
aqmif&Guf&mwGif us,fjyef@pGm ±dkaoav;pm;jcif;cH&aom xl;jcm;vS
onfh acgi;f aqmifwOD;yifjzpfygonf?
vSnhjf zm;r_/ rw&m;r_/ vl@*k%fodumQ udk rav;pm;r_wk@d rS jzpfay:vm
aom a=umuf&HŒG r_EiS hf oHo,jzpfrw
_ @dk onf vl@tcGit
fh a&; azmufzsurf _
a=umifh uJt
G ufaeaom vl@tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;tay: Y avmif;&dyx
f ;kd vsuf
&Sdygonf? Todk@aom vl@tzJG@tpnf;rsm;wGif jzpfay:aeaom emusnf;
csuf'%f&mrsm;udk aysmufuif;atmifuo
k &mwGif jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;
onf t"duyifjzpfygonf? Todk@jyKvkyEf kid f&ef wjynfvH;k . csrf;ajr@om
,ma&;udk yk*~vu
d ESifh tkypf w
k @dk . usO;f ajrmif;aomtusK;d pD;yGm;wdk@xuf
a&SŒwef;rSxm;vdak om jzLpifaomapwem&S&d rnfjzpfygonf? wOD;ESihf
wOD; ydkI tjyeftvSef,kH=unfpdwfcs&aom tajctaevnf;&Sd&ef vdk
tyfygonf?
cg;oD;vSaom &ef+idK;zJG@rr_ sm; tcsdef=umjrifhpGmjzpfymG ;+yD;aemuf wOD;
ESihw
f OD; jyefvnf,=kH unfpw
d cf svmEdkiaf tmif jyefvnfjyKvky&f mwGif pdwf
oabmuJGvJGr_ESifh aomu'kuQtaygif;udk ay:aygufapaom tjyKtrl
rsm;/ pdwo
f abmxm;rsm;/ cHpm;csufrsm;udk "rR"dÏmefusus trSefudk t
rSeftwdik f; okH;oyfqifjcif&ygvdrhrf nf? trSefw&m;udk &ifqidk f&aom t
vkyrf mS rvG,u
f v
l yS g? owW&d &dS ef vdt
k yfygonf? oef@pifaomapwemESihf
±kd;ajzmifah ompdwx
f m;rsm;arG;jrLjcif;jzifh aemufqkH;wGif rvkrd ke;f wD;r_ESifh
vdrfvnfrw
_ dk@rS jzpfay:vmaom aysmufcJvSaomtusKd;qufrsm;udk
atmifjrifpmG ausmv
f $m;Edik rf nf[k ,k=H unfaomo'Ngpdwu
f v
dk nf; arG;&ef
vdkygonf?
trSew
f &m;udk OD;wnfI vkyu
f idk &f efvt
dk yfa=umif; vufcv
H ku
d jf cif;
onf ac|;odyjf cif;r#omjzpfaom tay:,Ha=umoufouf vkyfaqmif
csurf sm;udk ausmv
f eG fI ud,
k pf dwEf v
S H;k ygnn
D w
G fpmG jzifh bkjH y\emrsm;udk
ajz&Si;f Edik af prnfh ppfreS af om jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;vrf;udk yGiahf pEdik yf gonf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

143

jrefrmEdik fiw
H Gif jynfoljynfom;rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;pOft&yf
&yfwiG f jynfh0pGm yg0ifqifE$JydkifcGifhr&Sd? vGwfvyfIw&m;r#waom a&G;
aumufyrJG Swqifh jyocJhaom vlxkqENudk wu,fav;pm;r_&Sd/ r&S?d w
&m;Oya'pd;k rdk;a&;udk jr‡ifhwifjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ vGwfvyfaom w&m;
pD&ifa&;r¾dKifwnfaxmifjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ vl@tcGifhta&;udk xd
a&mufpmG tumtuG,fay;jcif;&S/d r&Sd ponfwk@d ukd urBmu ,ae@ apmifh
=unfhavhvmaeygonf?
trsKd;om;jyefvnfaygif;pnf;nDnw
G faomtcgY jrefrmEdkifolEidk fiH
om;wdk@onf vdkvm;tyfaom tajymif;tvJrsm;udk taumiftxnf
azmfEdkiv
f drfhrnf[k usrtpOft+rJ,kH=unfxm;ygonf? umv=um&Snf
pGm cHpm;cJh=u&aom udk,fydkiftusKd;pD;yGm;udk cdkif+rJatmifumuG,f&ef
enf;y&d,m,frsm;xufydkI trSefw&m;ESifh em;vnfr_&&Sad &;udk wefzdk;
xm;jcif;jzifh vdkvm;tyfaom tajymif;tvJrsm; vsifjrefpGm jzpfajrmuf
Edkifvdrfhrnf[k usrar#mfvifhygonf?
vl@tcGifhta&; odk@r[kwf 'Drdu
k a&pDta&;ESifh oufqidk faom qkcsD;
jr‡ifhjcif;cH&onf[k od&Sd&onft
h cgwdkif;Y csucf si;f qdkovdyk if usr. t
awG;rsm;onf rdrw
d k@d ,=kH unfcsufrsm;twGuf trsK;d rsK;d tepfemcH=u/ pGef@
v$wfcaJh om &J&ifhwnf=unfvo
S nfh vkyaf zmfuidk zf ufrsm;xHok@d a&muf&dS
oGm;wwfygonf? rdrdwdk@Edkiif H. uH=urRmudk rdrdw@dk qkH;jzwfydkifcGifh &&Sda&;
twGu}f udK;yrf;aeaom jynfolvx
l kudkvnf; tpOfrjywf owd&vsuf
&Sdygonf? ,ae@csD;jr‡ifhaomqkudk jrefrmjynfojl ynfom;rsm;ESifh vkyaf zmf
udkifzufrsm;udk,fpm; aus;Zl;wifpGm vufcHygonf?
usr. wdik ;f jynfEiS hf usrudk TuJho@dk *k%fjyKvdu
k af om tjynfjynf
qdki&f m vl@tcGit
hf a&;Oya'tzJ@G . aqmif&Gucf sufrsm;udk vGefpmG av;pm;
csD;rGrf;rdyga=umif; ajym=um;I ed*kH;csKyfvdkuyf gonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf
&efuek f
12/ arv/ 1992

144

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tcef; (5)
Edb
k ,fqck sD;jr§ichf &H
xdk@aemuf aemfa0EdkifiH atmfpvdk+rdKŒ&Sd Edkb,fqkcsD;jr‡ifha&; aumfr
wDu 1991 ckEpS t
f wGuf jidrf;csr;f a&;Edkb,fqu
k kd a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tm; csD;jr‡ifha=umif; 1991 atmufwdkbm 14 wGif xkwfjyefa=unmcJh
onf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf &&Sdco
Jh nfhqkrsm;teuf +ird ;f csr;f a&; Edb
k ,f
qkonf tjrifhqkH;qkjzpfonf? qkcsD;jr‡ifha&;aumfrwD0ifrsm;u “a':
atmifqef;pk=unf. owWo
d nf tm&SEikd if Hrsm;. txl;tHh=ozG,f/ cs;D usL;
zG,Of yrmrsm;xJrS wckjzpfygonf? olronf zdEydS cf sKyfcs,jf cif;rS vGwf
ajrmufa&;twGuf wdkuyf G0J ifaeaom t"du ta&;ygonfh ykH&yd w
f ckjzpf
ygonf? ,ck 1991 ckESpftwGuf +idrf;csr;f a&; Edkb,fqktm; a':atmif
qef;pk=unfudk csD;jr‡ifh&if;/ urBmw0Srf;wGif 'Drdkua&pDESifh vl@tcGifhta&;
rsm;twGuf +idrf;csr;f pGmwdkuyf 0JG ifae=uonfh jynfolrsm;tm; axmufcH
tm;ay;&efESihf olr. tvHrvSJ+idr;f csr;f a&; wdu
k yf 0JG ifr_rsm;udk *k%jf yKonfh
taejzifh Tqkukd cs;D jr‡ihv
f ku
d yf gonf” [lI qkH;jzwfcho
J nf? 1991 ckESpf/
'DZifbmv 10 &ufae@Y atmfpvdk+rdKŒawmfwGif usif;ycJhaom 1991
jidrf;csrf;a&; Edkb,fqkcsD;jr‡ifhyo
GJ dk@ a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf udk,fwkdif
rwufa&mufEkid fojzifh om;}uD;jzpfol jrifh qef;atmifu rdcifudk,pf m;
wufa&mufqk,cl Jh&onf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

145

1991 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv 10 &ufae@wiG f qkcs;D jr‡iyhf t
JG crf;tem;Y
aemfa0;Edik if H Edb
k ,faumfrwD. OuUX ygarmuQ z&efppfp*D smpuwf
(Francis Sejersted) u a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd TuJhodk@ csD;rGr;f pum;
qdck Jhonf?

Nidrf;csrf;a&;Edkb,fqkwHqdyf

“bk&ifrif;jrwf/ rdbk&m;}uD;/ tpk;d &tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ oHwrefrsm;ESifh t
rsK;d orD;/ trsK;d om;rsm;cifAsm;?
,ae@ ae&mwGif usaemfwdk@pak 0;=uonfrSm atmifqef;pk=unf
onf xif&mS ;aomvltcGiht
f a&;ESihf 'Dru
dk a&pDaqmif&u
G frr_ sm;udk *k%fjyK
&efEiS hf ol@tm; 1991 ckEpS t
f wGujf zpfaom Edkb,fjidr;f csr;f a&;qkudk cs;D jri‡ hf
&efyifjzpfygonf? cHpm;csuf trsK;d rsK;d tzHzk jkH zpfay:ae&onfh tcgor,
vnf;jzpfygonf? jidr;f csrf;a&;qk&Sifuk,
d w
f idk f rvma&mufEdkifbJ jzpfae&
ygonf? usaemfw@dk olr. ,Hk=unfcsuftwdik f; jzpfajrmuf&ef wkdufyGJ0if
aeqJyifjzpfygonf? olr.pGr;f &nfowWEd iS fh wm0ef,l aqmif&u
G rf r_ sm;
a=umifh olronf jrefrmjynfY,H=k unfcsu.
f tusO;f om;b0Y a&muf&Sd
aeygonf? ol rvma&mufEdkifonft
h wGuf usaemfwdk@pdk;&drf a=umifh=u
pdwrf sm;jzpfay:vmaomfvnf; ol.rdom;pk cHpm;ae&aom pd;k &dryf yl efr_
ESipfh mv#if ajymyavmufrnfr[kwfyg? ol. rdom;pkjzpfaom cifyGef;

146

oef;0if;vIi
d f

onf rdkufu,ftJ&pfEiS fh om;rsm;jzpf=uaom tvufZENm;ESifh uifrfwk@d
tm; tvGefyif udk,cf si;f pmemrda=umif; Ttcrf;tem;wGif ajymvdkyg
onf? usaemfw@kd onf oifw@kdEiS t
hf wlcpH m;=u&jy;D oifw@k d. ZeD;ESihf rdcif
jzpfolu,
dk pf m; atmfpvkd+rKd Œod@k vma&mufI Edb
k v
J q
f k vufcH,lonfukd
usaemfwdk@rsm;pGm aus;Zl;wif&dSygonf?

Nidrf;csrf;a&;Edkb,f *kPfjyKrSwfwrf;vTm

“²²²² usaemfw@dk . pdk;&drfa=umifh=ur_rsm;onf ,Hk=unftm;xm;r_/
ar#mfvifhr_wk@d jzifhvnf; a&maxG;I ay:aeygonf? jidrf;csrf;a&;ESihf aphpyf
zsefajza&;ud&k ,l&ef wdu
k yf 0JG if}udK;yrf;&mwGif usaemfw@kd pHerlemtjzpf
xm;&rnfyh *k dK~ vrf sm;onf usaemfwk@d &,l&ef }uKd ;yrf;aeonft
h &mrsm;.
oauFwtjzpf&yfwnfjyD; usaemfw@dk wiG f &So
d r# t&aumif;qHk;pGrf;tif
udk v_y&f mS ;wufºuaG paom yk*Kd~ vrf sK;d wdk@ukd tm;xm;=u&ygonf? atmif
qef;pk=unfonf Todk@aom yk*~dKvyf ifjzpfygonf? olonf av;eufpGm
wm0ef,lr_ESifh ZGJowœdckdifjrJr_wdk@udk OD;wnfcsufESifh enf;vrf;wdk@wom;
wnf;jzpfaom pdwfu;l tjrifjzifh aygif;pyfay;xm;ygonf? ,if;tjrif.
ta&;}uD;qHk;aom t*F gtpdwftydkif;rsm;rSm 'Drdkua&pDEiS fh vl@tcGifht

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

147

a&;rsm;udk ±dak oav;pm;r_ tkypf rk sm;t=um; aphpyfzseaf jzr_/ t=urf;rzuf
r_ESifh wOD;csif;taejzifhvnf;aumif;/ pkaygif;Ivnf;aumif; pnf;urf;
user_ponfwdk@yif jzpfygonf”
olrtm;pwif pdwf"gww
f ufºuGv_yf&mS ;apaom txifu& yk*dK~ vf
rsm;rSm r[wœr*ENDESifholr.zcif jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;Adokum AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;yifjzpfa=umif; olrud,
k w
f ikd x
f kwfazmfajym=um;cJyh gonf? t
=urf;rzufa&; tawG;tjrif&dSolESifh ppftm%m&SifAdkvfcsKyf}uD;wd@k =um;
uGjJ ym;jcm;em;csurf sm; trsm;tjym;&daS omfvnf; tajccHw±l cl surf sm;udk
awG@&&dS ygonf? 4if;wdk@EpS fOD;pvH;k wGif ppfrSeaf omvGwfvyfa&;pdwfxm;/
ppfreS faomed0gww&m;ESifh atmifqef;pk=unfu ol@zcifESifh ywfowf
Ia&;om;&mwGif toHk;jyKcJhaom pum;twdik f;ajym&v#if “euf±_id f;vS
aom ±d;k om;jzLpifr”_ wd@k udk awG@&&Sd ygonf? Adv
k fcsKyaf tmifqef;tzd@k acgi;f
aqmifr_onf wm0efjzpfI rdrdacgif;aqmifrnfh jynfov
l lx.
k ,Hk=unf
udk;pm;r_ESifh ±dkaoav;pm;r_wk@d ukd t&,lI xrf;&Guf&mwGif ed0gww&m;
&drS S wm0efausyeG rf nf jzpfygonf?
*ENDESifh zcifjzpfow
l @dk xrH S tm;userlem,lp&m pdwf"gwcf Geftm;rsm;

148

oef;0if;vIi
d f

udk &,lcJhaomfvnf; atmifqef;pk=unfwGif vGwfvyfaom tawG;t
jrifrsm;&dSjyD; ,if;wdk@onf olr.EdkifiHa&;0g'rsm; jzpfvmygawmhonf?
t"dutajccHrSm olr.zcifY oljrifawG@cJh&aom tEd_if;rJh±dk;om;r_yif
jzpfygonf? ol.tawG;tjrifwiG f vl@tcGit
hf a&;udk tv,fA[dYk ae&m
ay;xm;onfrmS vl@*%
k o
f dumQ udk umuG,f&ef wu,fwrf; vkt
d yfonhf
oabmudk a&mifjyef[yfcJhyk&H ygonf? vlom;wdkif;onf vGwfvyfaom
vl@tzGJ@pnf;wGif aexdkifcGifh&dSonfomru ±dak oav;pm;cHydkifcGifhvnf;
&dS&rnfjzpfygonf? Tt,ltqay:wGif tjrifhqHk;ar#mrf Se;f csuf pdwful;
tjrifESifh wnfjidraf omvufawG@0g'wdk@ukd xl;jcm;pGmaygif;pyfxm;aom
vrf;pOfw&yfudk olru csrSwf wnfaqmufxm;ygonf? olrtzdk@ T
onfrSm trSew
f &m; t,ltqr#om r[kwyf g? Tod@k aom t,ltq
udk vufawG@EdkifiHa&;Y usiho
f ;Hk Edkifonfudk jyo&mwGif olronfrsm;pGm
taxmuftuljyKol jzpfaeygonf?
jidr;f csr;f a&;ESihf aphpyfjzefajza&;rl0g'udk vufawG@taumiftxnf
azmf&mwGif vHk;0r&dSrjzpfaom vdktyfcsufw&yfrSm “a=umuf&HŒG jcif; uif;
rJrh ”_ yifjzpfygonf? Ttcsuu
f kd atmifqef;pk=unf odem;vnfygonf?
olra&;aom;cJhaom Freedom from Fear (a=umuf&GHŒjcif;rS uif;a0;jcif;)
pmtkyfY olw@dk onf tm%ma=umifhr[kwfbJ a=umuf&HŒG r_a=umifhom
vlom;wdkif; azmufjyef=ujcif;jzpfonf[k a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf?
olr.wdik f;jynfrS tm%m&Sipf epftm;&nf&,
G I
f a0zefxm;jcif;yif jzpf
ygonf? ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;onf jynfolvlxkudk OD;aqmifOD;&Guf vrf;jy&
rnft
h pm; ,if;wd@k u jynfov
l x
l kukd ajumuf&ŒHG aeojzifh azmufjyefapcJh
jcif;jzpfonf? TtwGuf 4if;wd@k onf raumif;r_oo
H &m vnfae=u&yg
onf? odk@aomfvnf; olr. tawG;tjrifwiG f a=umuf&HrG _uif;rJh&ef v_H@
aqmfxm;csuo
f nf OD;pGmyxrtaejzihf trsm;ESio
hf ufqikd af om Ed;_ aqmf
csuyf ifjzpfygonf? usaemfw@dk tm;vH;k a=umuf&ŒGH jcif;uif;rJ=h u&ef awmif;
qdjk cif;jzpfygonf? oluk,
d w
f kid fvn;f a=umuf&HŒG r_uif;rJah =umif;udkvn;f
vufawG@jyocJhygonf? olronf aoewfrsm;jzifhcsdefxm;onfudk w

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

149

ud,
k w
f nf; qef@usifco
Jh jl zpfygonf? Todk@aomowœu
d kd rnfonft
h &m
u cHEdkifygrnfenf;? olrtm; rypf&ef aemufqHk;trdef@ay;vkdufol Adkvf
rSL;.pdwfxw
J Gif rnfok@d &dSygoenf;? olr.owœdukd av;pm;Ivn;f jzpf
Edkiyf gonf? =urf;wrf;aomtiftm;jzifh rnfonft
h &mudrk # atmifjrifEidk f
rnfr[kwfonfudk ,if;yk*~dKvfu oabmaygufIvnf; jzpfEdkifygonf?
t=urf;zufr_. tqk;d 0g;qH;k aom &efoo
l nf t=urf;zufr_yifjzpfI
,if;wkd@udk wdkuzf suf&mwGif a=umuf&HŒG r_uif;rJhjcif;onf txufjrufq;Hk
vufeufjzpfygonf? olr.tm;usz,
G &f m &JprG ;f owœad =umifh atmifqef;
pk=unfonf *ENDESifh zcifjzpfol AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uJhodk@ =oZmwduUr
}u;D rm;vSaomoauFw. trSwt
f om;tjzpfo@kd a&muf&v
Sd mjcif; jzpf
ygonf? Adv
k fcsKyaf tmifqef;onf 4if;. vGwv
f yfa&; }uKd ;yrf;aqmif&u
G f
r_rsm; rjyD;jywfao;rD vkyf=uHowfjzwfjcif;cH&ygonf? Todk@ ol&Jabm
a=umifpGmvkyfaqmifjcif;/ AdkvfcsKyaf tmifqef;tm; jrefrmhEkid if aH &; jzpfpOf
xJrS z,f&mS ;Edik frnf[k vkyf=uHowfjzwfolrsm;u ,lqcJhygv#if wuf
wufpifvrJG mS ;r_omjzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf vGwv
f yfaom
jrefrmjynfoltwGuf pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr.
_ oabmjzpfvmjyD; vGwv
f yf
aom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk aqmif&GuEf ikd &f ef ,ckwku
d yf 0JG if}udK;yrf;aeolrsm;
tm; pdwf"gwfwufºuGaponfh yk*~dKvfrsm;jzpfvmygawmhonf? Todk@
erlemxm;p&m/ pdw"f gwfwufp&mtjyif jynfolvlxpk dwfEv
S ;Hk wGif Adv
k f
csKyfatmifqef; &,lxm;onfhae&ma=umifh 4if;aoqHk;jyD; ESpfaygif; 40
ausmft=umwGif atmifqef;pk=unfonf EdkifiHa&; pwifvyk fudkif&ef vdk
tyfaomtajccHukd &&dSEidk fchyJ gonf? olronf zcif.tarGtESpfukd quf
cHcjhJ yD; ,cktcg olrudk,w
f idk f jrefrmjynfwiG o
f mrubJ tm&Swu
dk f wcGif
vHk;ESifh tjcm;urBmhae&m tESH@tjym;wGif t=urf;zufr_udk awmfvSefI
vGwfvyfaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf; wnfaxmif&ef oauFwjzpfaeygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf. &JpGrf;owœdESifh jrifhrm;aomar#mfrSef;csufwdk@
onf us aemfw@dk wiG f&aSd om taumif;qH;k pGr;f &nfudk ay:xGuv
f mrnf[k
usaemfw@kd uo
Jh @kd aom omrefy*k dK~ vfw@kd cpH m;=uonf[k usaemf,=kH unfyg

150

oef;0if;vIi
d f

onf? tem*wfwiG f ,H=k unfr_&aSd eao;&eftwGuf olruJo
h @kd aom yk*K~d vf
rsKd;udk usaemfwdk@vdktyfonf[k cHpm;rdygonf? ,if;tcsufonf olr
}udK;yrf;r_. pGr;f tm;}uD;aom oauFww&yfjzpfjyD; olrudk rw&m;vkyf
wdik f; usaemfwdk@ESvHk;om;wGif tjrwfwEdk;xdef;odrf; xm;onhft&mudk
csKd;azmufcH&ouJho@dk yif cHpm;=u&ygonf? aetdrfwiG f zrf;qD;jcif;cH&ol
atmifqef;pk=unfonf ar#mfvifhcsufa&mifjcnfjzpfygonf? olr xdkae
&mY&dSaejcif; jzifh aumif;r_ukodkvf. tiftm;udk usaemfwkdh ydkI
,Hk=unfu;dk pm;vm=uygonf?
jynfwiG ;f Y Edik if aH &;tzdEdyS cf Hae&ojzifh Edb
k ,fjird ;f csr;f a&;qk&iS f udk,f
wdkif rvma&mufEidk fonfrmS Tt}udro
f nf yxrqHk;t}udrf r[kwfo
vdk aemufq;Hk t}udrjf zpfrnf rxifyg? [pfwvm. wckaom tusO;f p
cef;wGif zsm;emaeol um;vfzeG af tmfpt
D ufpuD (Carl von Ossietzky) onf
vnf; 1936 ckEpS fu rvma&mufEdkifcJhyg? tm'a&qmcga&mhAf (Andrei
Sakharov) ESifh vufbdk0ifpm (Lech Walesa) wdk@onfvnf; xdkenf;wlyif
jzpfcJh&ygonf? atmfpDtufpuDonfvnf; emZDtpd;k &rjyKwfusrD ao
qHk;oGm;&jy;D qmcga&mhAfEiS hf bd0k ifpmwd@k rSmrl 4if;wd@k .}udK;yrf;r_rsm; atmif
yGJco
H nfudk awG@jrif=u&ygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfonfvnf; olr.
}udK;yrf;r_ atmifyGJcHcJhonfudk jrif&rnf[k usaemfwdk@ ar#mfvifhygonf?
odk@aomfvnf; jidrf;csrf;a&;qk&iS fudk,fwdkif a&mufrvmEdkifonfrSm
Tt}urd o
f nf aemufq;kH jzpfcsirf jS zpfrnf[al om tvm;tvmudv
k nf;
usaemfwdk@ od&Sx
d m;&rnf jzpfygonf? usaemfwdk@aexdik f&m urBmrsK;d wGif
jidr;f csr;f a&;ESifh aphpyfjzefajza&;udk wcgwnf;ESifh r&Edkifonfudkvnf; o
wdjyK=u&rnf jzpfygonf?
usaemfw@dk . pHowfrw
S fcsufrsm;ukv
d nf; edru
fh soGm;atmif jyKvyk f
Edik rf nfr[kwyf g? xdo
k @kd rvkyb
f J ydrk akd umif;rGeaf omavmuudk vdktyfygu
usaemf ydkI Ek;d =um;zswfvwf&ef/ a=umuf&GHŒr_rS ydkIuif;a0;&ef ,ckESpf
qk&SifajymouJhok@d “euf±d_if;aom±dk;om;r_”&dS=u&ef usaemfwk@d }udK;pm;
=u&rnfjzpfygonf? TonfrmS usaemfw@kd tm;vH;k wpfO;D pDjyKvky&f rnfh

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

151

udpjP zpfaomfvnf; tm%m&mxl;tqifh&o
dS lrsm; usifhoHk;&ef txl; vdk
tyfygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfuo
Jh k@d yif ±dk;om;EdrS hcf sr_ESifh a=umuf&ŒGH jcif;
uif;a0;r_udk jy=uyg? ydkIaecsifz,
G faumif;aom urBmavmu}uD; ay:
aygufvmrnfrmS rvG{J uefjzpfygonf?
tm;vHk;udk aus;Zl;wifygonf?
qkcsD; jr‡ifhyGJY a':atmifqef;pk=unf rwufa&mufEdkifojzifh a':
atmifqef;pk=unfuk,
d pf m; om;}u;D jzpfoljrifq
h ef;atmif (tvufZENm;
tJ&pf) u atmufygtwdkif; ajym=um;cJhonf?
bk&ifrif;jrwf/ rdbk&m;}uD;/ tpdk;&tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ oHwrefrsm;ESifh
trsKd;orD;/ trsKd;om;rsm;cifAsm;?
qkrsm;xJwGift}uD;us,fq;Hk aom TEdkb,fjidrf;csrf;a&;qkudk us
aemfhrdcif a':atmifqef;pk=unf.ud,
k fpm;vufcH&ef vl}uD;rif;rsm; a&SŒ
arSmufwGif usaemf ,ae@a&muf&dSaejcif;jzpfygonf? usaemfhrcd ifonf
tajctae ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh udk,fwdkifrvma&mufEdkifojzifh
olrtaejzifh xkwfazmfajymqdkrnfhcHpm;csuf[k usaemf,Hk=unf,lq
aom cHpm;r_rsm;udk azmfjyEdkif&ef usaemf tpGrf;uke}f udK;pm;ygrnf?
yxrOD;pGm olronf Edkb,fjidr;f csrf;a&;qkudk olrtaejzifh r[kwf
bJ jrefrmjynfoljynfom;tm;vHk;udk ukd,fpm;vufcHa=umif;ajymqdkI
pwifvrd hrf nf[k usaemfo&d eSd m;vnfygonf? Tqkonf olreSifh rouf
qdik b
f J usaemf ,ckpum;ajymqdak epOfYyif jrefrmjynf'rD u
kd a&pD&&Sad &;
twGuf 4if;wd@k . ud,
k fusKd;aumif;pm;r_/ ud,
k yf kid fvw
G v
f yfr_EiS fh touf
wdk@udk qufvuftepfemcHae=uaom trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;/ uav;
oli,frsm;ESifhom oufqdkifaomqkjzpfa=umif; olru ajymrnfjzpfyg
onf? Tqkonf 4if;wdk@. qkjzpfouJo
h @dk jrefrmjynfjidrf;csrf;a&;/ vGwf
vyfa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDtwGufjzpfaom a&&Snfwku
d fyGJwGif aemufq;Hk &&dS
rnfhatmifyGJrSmvnf; 4if;wdk@. atmifyGJyifjzpfygonf?

152

oef;0if;vIi
d f

od@k aomfvnf; olr.om;taeESifh usaemfjznfhpu
G af jymvdkonfrmS
olrud,
k fwdkifpdwfa&mud,
k fygjr‡yfEHv
S yk fukid fjcif;/ udk,fwikd f tepfemcHjcif;
ponfw@dk a=umifh olronf jrefrmjynfojl ynfom;tm;vH;k . qd;k 0g;aom
tajctaeudk trsm;u todtrSwfjyKvmap&ef tm;vHk;udk,fpm; &yf
wnfxku
d faom oauFwjzpfvm&ygonf?
,if;tajctaeqd;k rsm;udk rnfolr#av#mrh wGuo
f ifhyg? +rKd Œ&Gm/ aus;
vufwiG f qif;&JrGJawcsKdŒwJhEGrf;yg;ae=ujcif;/ tusO;f axmifxJwGif t
±dkut
f ESucf /H tEdyS pf ufcaH e=u&jcif;/ jrefrmjynf. ar#mv
f ifch sujf zpf aom
vli,fvl&,
G frsm;/ 4if;wdk@ xGufajy;&mawmxJY iSufzsm;rdjyD; 'kuQ
a&mufae=ujcif;/ Ak'<bmombke;f awmf}uD;rsm; t±dkucf H/ odumQ cscHae&
jcif; ponfhtajctaeqdk;rsm;yif jzpfygonf? usaemfhrdciftjyif txl;
±dak oav;pm;cJh&aom 0g&ifhacgif;aqmifrsm;onfvnf; tusOf;cscHae
&onfudk usaemfwdk@ rarhoifhyg?
Todk@ tjrifhqHk;*k%fjyKcH&onfudku 4if;wdk@udk,fpm; usaemfu
vd_ufvd_ufvSJvSJ aus;Zl;wifa=umif;ajymtyfygonf? TuJhokd@ tvGef
a0;vHaomwdik f;jynfwGif rdrdw@dk . 'kuQa0'emcHpm;ae&r_rsm;udk em;pdu
k f
*±kjyKaeaoma=umifh jrefrmjynfolw@dk taejzifh ,ae@ tenf;i,f acgif;
armhEdkifrnfjzpfygonf?
tapmifhxlxyfpGmcsxm;aom &efukef+rdKŒaetdrfwGif wOD;wnf;
qifE$JaeaomwdkufyGJonf pdwf"mwfa&;&mEdSyu
f Gyfr_EiS fh EdkifiHa&; t"rRt
Edkifusihrf w
_ @dk rS vlom;wdk@ vGwfajrmufatmif urBmESifh csDI us,fjyef@pGm
}udK;yrf;aeaom wdkufyGJ}uD;. wpdwfwydkif;yifjzpfa=umif; usaemfwdk@
owd&=u&rnfjzpfygonf? Tqkonf Twdu
k fyGJ}uD;xJwGif rnfonfh
t&yfrrS qdk yg0ifaeolrsm;udv
k nf; *k%jf yK&ef &nf&,
G fonf[k usaemf
,H=k unfryd gonf? ,ae@ atmfpvd+k rKd ŒwGif jyKvyk af om Ttcrf;tem;udk
wurBmvH;k wGiu
f sif;yaeaom urBm@vt
l cGit
fh a&;ae@Y usi;f y&onfrmS
vnf; ta=umif;&dyS gonf?
OuUX}uD;cifAsm;/ vl}uD;rif;wdk@aumfrwD. a&G;cs,fcsufudk urBmhrd

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

153

om;pkwckvHk;u aumif;csD;=obmay;ae=uygonf? vGefcJhaom &uft
enf;i,fcef@u ukvor*~onf wnDwnGww
f nf; ordik f;0ifqHk;jzwf
csuw
f &yfcsrw
S u
f m Tqk.ta&;ygykEH Sifh ywfowfaom taxGaxG t
wGif;a&;rSL;csKyfyJ&pf'DauG;vsm; (Perez de cyellar) .xkwjf yefcsufukd }udK
qdkus+yD; usaemfhrdcifvGwfajrmufa&;twGuf 4if;u xyfwvJvJ yef
=um;xm;onfrsm;udv
k nf; axmufcHvu
dk fygonf? jrefrmjynf. vl@t
cGifhta&; tajctae tvGepf ;dk &drfz,
G f&mrsm;jzpfaeonfudk wurBmvHk;
u od&edS m;vnfxm;=uonfudkvnf; uif;uGmI txD;usefaecJah om
&efuek ftpd;k &xHrSom wckwnf;aom oabmxm;uGJvGJou
H dk =um;&yg
onf? aemufus usef&pfjyD; tm;enf;aeaomtoHyifjzpf.?
vuf&pSd pftpd;k &onf ESpfaygif; (30) eD;yg; rw&m;ojzifh tkycf sKyf
vmcJhonfhtwGuf wcsdefu}uD;yGm;csrf;omwdk;wufvmcJhaom jrefrmh
a&$0gajronf pD;yGm;a&;wGif urBm@tqif;&Jq;kH Edik if w
H pfEikd if b
H 0odk@ a&muf
&dSomG ;&ygonf? =oZmtm%mudk xda&mufap&ef jcdr;f ajcmufr/_ a=umuf
&GHŒzdEdSyfr_/ rkef;wD;r_w@dk ukd toHk;jyKcJah om tjcm;tm%m&Sifpepfrsm;. uH
=urRmuJo
h @kd aemufq;kH wGif 4if;wd@k .uH=urRmonfvnf; jzpfay:vmrnf
udk &efuke&f t
dS m%mydkiw
f dk@. twGif;pdwfxJY od&dS=u&rnf jzpfygonf?
vuf&Sd jrefrmh'Dru
kd a&pD}udK;yrf;r_wkdufyJG 1988 ckESpu
f vrf;rrsm;ay: Y
aygufux
GJ u
G af y:vmjcif;onf ta&SŒOa&my/ tm&SESifh tmz&duwdk@wiG f
ay:aygufvmrnfh tjynfjynfqdkif&m 'Drdkua&pDa&vd_if;}uD;. yxrqHk;
aomv_yf&mS ;r_w&yfyifjzpfygonf? ,ae@ 1991 ckEpS fwiG f jrefrmEdkiif Honf
zdEydS fcsKyfcs,faom/ acgif;rmaom EdkifiaH wmfjidr0f yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmuf
a&;tzGJ@ vufatmufwGif qufvuf'kuQcHae&ojzifh jrefrmEdkifiHonf
odom xif&mS ;aeygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tjcm;Edik fiHrsm;wGif 'Dru
dk a&pD
atmifyGJcHoGm;aom om"uonf jrefrmjynfolwdk@twGuf ta&;}uD;
aom owif;yg;csufyifjzpfonf? tm%m&Sifpepf pD;yGm;a&;onf vHk;0
pGrf;aqmifEkid fjcif;r&dSonfhtwGuf vuf&St
d pdk;&onfvnf; usqHk;&rnf
[laom ta=umif;=um;csufjzpfygonf? ,cktcgwiG f jrifhwufaeaom

154

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_/ tvGv
J GJtrSm;rSm;jzpfaeaom pD;yGm;a&;ESihf wefzdk;r&dS
aomusyfaiGwdk@ESifh &ifqdkifae&aom jrefrmtpd;k &onf rdrw
d dk@ jyKvkyfcJh
onfhtwdkif; cHpm;ae&onfrSm oHo,jzpfp&mrvdkyg?
od@k aomfvnf; vuf&dStm%m& tpdk;&usqHk;oGm;jcif;onf pD;yGm;
a&; vHk;0+ydKus ysufjym;oGm;&aoma=umifh rjzpfygapESifh[k usaemf av;
eufpGm ar#mfvifyh gonf? ,ckESpt
f wGuf qka=ujimpOf Edkb,faumfrwD
u azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; vl@tajccH*±k%mw&m;t& yef=um;xm;
onfudk tm%m&tpd;k &u *±kjyKaumif; jyKrdygvrd rhf nf? zdEydS cf sKyfcs,fI
a=umuf&HŒG xdwfvef@atmifjyKvkyfaeaom vuf&dSvrf;pOfrsm;onf jref
rmh Ak'<bmomtpOftvm. rGejf rwfaomudk,fusifhw&m;rsm;udk csKd;
azmufaejcif;jzpfonf[k,lqum &GHrkef;aeolrsm;vnf; ppftpdk;&tzGJ@
wGif yg&dSa=umif; usaemfoyd gonf? TonfrSm tcsnf;ESD; ud,
k fvdk&m
ud,
k q
f jJG yD; awG;ac: jcif;r[kwb
f J usaemfrh cd ifuk,
d fwidk f tm%mtqih&f Sd
yk*dK~ vrf sm;ESihf xdawG@qufqH&if; &&dv
S maom,H=k unfry_ ifjzpfygonf? ppf
r_xrf;rsm;ESifh 4if;wd@k rdom;pkrsm;om t"dutm;jzifh aexdkifaom rJqEN
e,fajrrsm;wGif olr.ygwD tEdik f&&do
S nfrSmvnf; Ttcsufudk xif&Sm;
pGm om"ujyjcif;yifjzpfygonf? tm%mydkirf sm;xJrS ,if;wd@k r#wvdkaom/
oifjh rwfvakd om yk*Kd~ vfrsm;u jrefrmjynf. tvdt
k yfq;kH aom tcsed u
f m
vY 4if;wdk@.cHpm;csurf sm;udk xdxda&mufa&muf tusKd;oufa&mufr_
&dSEkid f&ef vkyfEdkifygap[k usaemfav;eufpmG qENjyKygonf?
usaemfh rdcifom ,ae@ vGwfvyfaeygu vl}uD;rif;rsm;ukd aus;Zl;
wif&adS =umif; ajymqdk&if; zdESyd o
f El Sifh zdEydS cf Hae&olwk@d onf 4if;wd@k . vuf
eufrsm;udk pGe@f vw
$ I
f twlwuGy;l aygi;f um jird ;f csrf;a&;pdw"f gwef iS hf u±k
%mw&m;wd@k tay:wGif tajccHaom wdik ;f jynfukd wnfaqmufapEdik &f ef
twGufyg qkawmif;ay;yg&ef vl}uD;rif;wd@k tm; yef=um;rnf[k usaemf
odygonf?
usaemhfrcd iftm; 'Drku
d a&pDtajymif;tvJrsm;udk jird ;f csr;f aomenf;
vrf;jzifh&,lvadk om EdkifiHa&;twdkut
f cH[k r=umc% xkwfazmfajym

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

155

qdka&;om;=uaomfvnf; olr}udK;pm;&SmazGaeonfrSm tajccHtm;jzifh
pdw"f gwaf &;&m ajymif;vJrj_ zpfonfukd usaemfw@kd owd&oifyh gonf/ “t
ppfrSeq
f Hk;aom awmfvSeaf &;onf pdwf"gwfawmfvSefa&;jzpfjyD;j ,if;odk@
}udK;yrf;tm;xkw&f mwGif vdt
k yfaom pdw"f gwaf &;&m t"du&nfreS ;f csuf
rsm;ESiyfh wfowfIvnf; olra&;om;xm;csufrsm; &dSygonf/ ,if; pdwf
"gwfawmfvSefa&; atmifjrif&efrSm vl@wm0ef0wW&m;ay:wGif vHk;0 rl
wnfaeygonf? vl@wm0ef0wW&m;todpdw.
f rlvt&if;jrpfrSm vHk;0
tjypfuif;pifjcif;[laom oabmw&m;udkem;vnfI tjypfuif;pif
vkdaom pdwfqEN/ tjypfuif;pif&efenf;vrf;&SmEdkifaom tod^m%fESifh
,if;enf;vrf;rsm;udk vdkuef mvdkaompdwf"gwf/ ,if;enf;vrf;udk tqHk;
wdkif rvdkufEkid fonfhwdkifatmif rdrd. csKdŒ,Gif;csuf tuef@towfudk
ausmv
f eG f&ef vdktyfaomtwdik f;twmtxd tenf;qHk;a&muf&adS tmif
B}udK;pm;vdkjcif;wdk@yifjzpfygonf? b0wGif ra=umifhrus uHkvHkjynfph HkpGm
aexdik fEdkif&eftwGuf olwyg;.vdt
k yfcsufwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifvdk
aom owWd&dSrnf jzpfayonf? Twm0efudk xrf;aqmifcsipf dwf &dS&rnf
[k olruqdck Jhygonf? Ttcsufudk olr. ,Hk=unfr_ESifh qufpyf,l&m
wGif owW0gtaygif;wdk@teuf vlom;pifppfomv#if tqifhtjrifhqHk;
tajctaejzpfaom bk&m;tjzpfudk &&dSEdkifojzifh vlom;tm; tvGef
wefz;kd xm;onfh jrefrmh±;kd &m ,Ofaus;r_tajccHjzpfaom Ak'0< g't& vl
wdkif;onf rdrpd dwfqEN}udK;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;jzifh opPmw&m;udk odEkid fpGrf;
&dSjyD; olwyg;udk odap&eftwGufvn;f ulnDEdkifaom tvm;tvm&dS
onf[k a&;om;xm;ygonf?
aemufq;Hk wGif olru jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f 'Dru
kd a&pD&mS yHak wmfonf jynf
olw@dk u urBmhtzGJ@tpnf;twGif; vGwv
f yfaom wef;wlnDwltzGJ@0if
rsm;tjzpf jynfh0pGm t"dym,f&S&d adS exdkiEf kid f&ef ±kef;uefjcif;yifjzpfygonf?
TonfrSm rdrdw@kd .pdwf"gwo
f nf rdrd.obm0 csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm;tm;
ausmfvm$ ;Ekdifa=umif;udk xif&Sm;ap&ef vlom;wdk@u tqufrjywf }udK;
yrf;tm;xkwaf er_. tpdwt
f ydik ;f wckyif jzpfygonf[k a&;om;xm;ygonf?

156

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aemfa0;EdkifiHwGif rdciftwGuf usaemfESifh usaemfhnDwdk@ *k%fou
d Qm
}uD;rm;vSonfh urBmausmq
f x
k l;}u;D udk vufc&H onfrmS Tt}urd o
f nf
'kw,
d t}udrfyif jzpfygonf? ,refESpfuvnf; odka&mzf&h mzfwdk (Thorolf
Rafto) vl@tcGifhta&;qkudk vufcH&ef bm*if (Bergen) +rdKŒod@k usaemfwk@d
oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf? ,ckEpS f tcrf;tem;. yrm%yifjzpfygonf? ,ck
tcg usaemfwdk@wiG f aemfa0;jynfolrsm;twGuf txl;cHpm;csufrsm; &dS
ae=ujyDjzpfygonf? r=umrDtwGif; usaemfw@dk rdcifonfvnf; T cHpm;
csufrsm;udk r#a0cHpm;EdkifjyD; usaemfwdk@rSwqifh odk@r[kwf rdrdudk,fwkdif
wdkuf±dkupf um;ajymEdik fvdrfhrnf[k usaemfar#mfvifhygonf? Ttawm
twGif; olrESifh Armjynfoljynfom;wdk@tm; Todk@ }uD;rm;xl;jcm;pGm
axmufcHjcif;onf urBmhtpGeq
f Hk; qef@usifbufae&mrsm;wGif aexdkif
ae=uaom jynfolESpf&yftm; ydrk edk D;uyfatmif pkaygif;ay;&musjyD; ,ck
uJhod@k jzpfay:vmaom qufoG,fr_rS ajrmufjrm;pGmaom tusKd;quf
rsm; ay:xGufvmrnf[k usaemf,Hk=unfygonf?
vl}uD;rif;tm;vH;k udk usaemft
h aejzifh pdwfxJESv;Hk om;xJrS aus;Zl;
wif&Sad =umif; ajym=um;vdkygonf? ,ae@rSpI em=unf;csufrsm;/ tm
Cmww&m;rsm;/ pwifys,faysmufI jrefrmjynf jidrf;csrf;a&;&&d&S mwGif
1991 Edkb,fjidr;f csrf;a&;qkonf ordik ;f wGif ajcwvSrf;jzpfap&ef usaemf
wd@k qkawmif;&/ ar#mfvifh&rnfjzpfygonf? twdwf. oifcef;pmrsm;udk
arhavsmhrnfr[kwfaomfvnf; tem*wfar#mfvifhcsuftwGuf usaemf
wd@k onf ,ae@tcrf;tem;pD&ifusif;yjcif;jzpfonf[k xifjrifrdygonf/
tm;vH;k udak us;Zl;wifvsuf
1992 ckESp/f arv 14 &uf &ufpjGJ zifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf;
aetdrfrSwqifh Edkb,faumfrwDodk@ ay;pmwpfapmifay;ydkcho
J nf?
tqdkygpmYygarmuQvGe'f Dpwuf&Sifh

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

157

1991 ckESpt
f wGuf Edkb,fvfjidrf;csrf;a&;qk usrudkay;tyf&ef qHk;
jzwfvu
kd af =umif; usr yxr=um;od&aomtcgwGif csufcsi;f jzpfay:vm
aomcHpm;csufrsm;rSm av;eufaomed0gwpdwfESifh txl;aus;Zl;wifr_
wd@k yifjzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkiif HwiG f 'Dru
kd a&pD&&d&S ef }uKd ;yrf;tm;xkwf wdkuf
yGJ0ifae=uolrsm;. tepfemcHr_ESihf qif;&J'kuQcHpm;&r_rsm;a=umifhom
usrudk Todk@*k%fjyKjcif;jzpfonfukd od&dS&ojzifh rk'dwmw&m; yGm;rsm;
&jcif; jzpfygonf? Todk@ }udK;yrf;tm;xkwf wdkufyGJ0ifae=uonfudk vl
}u;D rif;rsm;u todtrSwjf yKjcif;jzifh 'Dru
dk a&pDwu
dk yf u
JG kd tvGet
f zdk;wef
vSaom taxmuftyHhay;vdu
k o
f nft
h wGuf vGefpmG rSyif aus;Zl;wifrd
ygonf?
usrwd@k . pkaygif;}udK;yrf;r_wGif yg0ifolrsm;tm;vH;k udk,fpm; Tqk
}uD;udk vufcH&,la=umif; usrom;}uD; tvufZENm;(jrifhqef;atmif)
u ajym=um;cJo
h nfrmS usr.cHpm;csufukd wdwu
d susazmfjyjcif;yif jzpfyg
onf? usrwd@k jrefrmjynfojl ynfom;rsm;. ta&;udk *±kjyKa=umif; jyo
onft
h wGuf usr vdu
_ v
f u
_d v
f JS vSJ aus;Zl;wifa=umif; ajymvdyk gonf?
usr&&dSaomqkaiGrsm;jzifh jrefrmjynfynma&;ESifh usef;rma&;
b¾mwnfaxmif&efvnf; usrcifyGef; rdkufu,ftJ&pftm; ajym=um;
xm;ygonf? usrudk,w
f dik f ,if;b¾mxdef;tzG@J udk tjynft
h 0 }uD;=uyf
Edkirf nfh tcsed u
f mvrwdkirf D Tb¾mxde;f vkyif ef;ESiq
hf ikd faom Oya'a&;
&mudpP&yfrsm;tm;vH;k udk usrcifyeG f; tm; usrud,
k pf m; aqmif&u
G fyidk cf iG hf
ay;xm;ygonf?
usrtaeESiahf jym&rnfqydk gu usrom;}u;D u aemfa0;jynfojl ynf
om;rsm;ta=umif;/ cspfcif&if;ESD;pGm aEG;axG;aomarwœmpdwfjzifh ajym
=um;oGm;onfudk =um;odvdkuf&onfhtwGufvnf; usr rsm;pGm ESpf
ouf=unfE;l rdygonf? qkay;yGt
J crf;tem;udk =unfE;l zG,f&m/ rarhEikd f
zG,&f mjzpf&yftaejzifh txl;ojzifh wufa&muf=uaom jrefrmrsm; t
wGuf jyKvyk af y;&ef }uKd ;pm;aqmif&u
G fay;=uonfrsm;udk =um;od&aom
tcgwGif usrpdwv
f _yf&Sm;&onftxd =unfEl;rdcJhygonf?

158

oef;0if;vIi
d f

aemfa0;EdkifiH&dS awmifapmufawmif=um;twGif;rS yifv ,furf;
ajr‡mifrsm;ta=umif;udk usruav;b0wGif zwf±_ch&J pOfuwnf;urSpI
aemfa0;EdkifiHonf usrpdwt
f m±kHudk txl;qJGaqmifapcJhygonf? usr
ud,
k fwkid f wae@ae@wcsdecf sdew
f Gif ud,
k fwkid fvma&mufI Edkb,fjidrf;csrf;
a&;a[majymyGu
J dk jyKvyk Ef kid rf nft
h csed ftcgukd pdwt
f m;xufoefpmG apmifh
ar#mfaeygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

159

tcef; (6)
trsKd;om;nDvmcH
1990 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyJw
G Gif tjywftowftEdkif&&Scd Jhaom t
rsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf ppftpdk;&tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;&ef
t}udrf}udrfawmif;qdkcJhaomfvnf; vHk;0vufrcHbJ y,fcscho
J nf?
xd@k aemuf ppftpd;k &onf 1993 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D 9 &ufae@wiG f zG@J
pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;qGEJ ikd af &;twGuf twkta,mif trsK;d om;nDvm
cHudk pwifusif;ycJo
h nf?
,if;nDvmcHodk@ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@OuUX OD;atmifa&$onf
e0w pDpOfxm;onft
h wdkif; cGJwrf;usOD;a&jzifh twkta,miftrsKd;om;
nDvmcHudk yg0ifwufa&muf&ef qHk;jzwfcJhonf? Todk@jzifh OD;atmifa&$
OD;aqmifaom NLD rS jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f (86) OD;onf
e0w. trsK;d om;nDvmcHo@kd wufa&mufch=J uonf? ppftpd;k &tm; jyef
vnf wkef@jyefwu
dk fy0GJ ifEkid pf rG ;f tajctaer&So
d nfhtwGuf ar#mvdu
k af e
ovdk jzpfc&Jh onf?
e0wppftpdk;&onf trsK;d om;nDvmcH. OD;wnfcsuf (6) &yf/ t
cef;vdkufacgi;f pOf (15) ck/ tajccH&rnfrh l (104) csuu
f kd nDvmcHu,
kd pf m;
vS,frsm;tm; twif;csrw
S fcdkif;cJhonf?
pifppf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'qdkonfrSm wdkif;jynf. toufjzpfo
vd/k tajccHtkwjf rpfvnf;jzpfonf? zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf jynfwiG ;f
ppfr;D udk ydkjyD;awmufavmufoGm;apEdkifouJo
h dk@ ESpfaygif; 60 awmuf
avmifaeaom jynfwGif;ppfrD;udkvnf; tuket
f pifjidrf;owfay;Edik fpGrf;
&Syd gonf? zGJ@pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'onf Edik fio
H m;wOD;pD wOD;pDwidk f;. udk,f
a&;vHjk cHKr/_ 'Dru
dk a&pDEiS fh vl@tcGit
fh a&;wkd@udk tjynfht0tmrcHEidk fonfh
taetxm;udk zefwD;ay;EdkifouJhokd@ EdkifiHom;wOD;pD/ wOD;pDwdkif;.
uH=urRmudk v_yfvdk@r&atmif wkyfaESmifcsKyfwnf;xm;EdkifpGrf;vnf; &Sdyg
onf?
xd@k a=umifh TzGJ@pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'twGuf tajccHrlrsm;csrw
S fjcif;/

160

oef;0if;vIi
d f

xdktajccHrrl sm;ay: rlwnfI zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya' (rl=urf;) udk a&;qGjJ cif;/
xdka&;qGJxm;aom (rl=urf;) tm; vlxx
k HcsjyjyD; jyifqifjcif;/ jznfhpGuf
jcif;wdk@udk t}udrf}udrftvDvjD yKvkyfjcif; ponfhudpP&yfwkid f;wGif jynfol
w&yfv;Hk u vGwfvyfpGmyg0ifjyD; aqmif&u
G =f u&ayvdrhrf ,f? wenf;qk&d
v#if xdkjzpfpOfwkdif;wGif jynfolrsm;u wdkuf±kdufyg0ifIaomfvnf;
aumif;/ jynfolwdk@rS wm0eftyfESif;xm;aom jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,f
pm;vS,frsm;u yg0ifIaomfvnf;aumif; wduspmG aqmif&u
G =f u&rnf
jzpf onf?
xdkod@k aqmif&u
G f&mwGifvnf; jynfov
l lxk}uD;. qEN/ EdkifiHom;
wOD;pDwkid ;f . qENEiS fh Edik if o
H m;wOD;pDw/ OD;pDwkid ;f . t=ujH yKcsu/f jznfph u
G f
wifjycsuw
f ikd ;f ukd tav;teufxm; jznfq
h nf;aygi;f pyfay;=u&rnf jzpf
onf? rnfolwOD;wa,mufur# tm%mjzifh xdef;csKyf umqD;xm;ydik f
cGifhr&Syd g?
rdrw
d @kd . uH=urRmudk yJu
h ikd x
f ed f;ausmif;ay;rnfh zGJ@pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'
udk a&;qGJ&mwGifvnf;aumif;/ a&;qGJEdkif&ef tajccHrlrsm;csrSwf&mwGif
vnf;aumif;/ a&;qGjJ yD; zG@J pnf;yHktm; jyefvnfo;Hk oyfjyD; rlacsmjyK&mwGif
vnf;aumif; jrefrmEdik if HtwGi;f rSw
D if;aexdik f=uaom vlrsK;d aygi;f pHk jynf
olw&yfvHk;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk wnfhrwfpGm rsufEmS rlI aqmif&Guf=u
&rnfjzpfygonf?
od@k aomf e0wpdwf}uKd uf a&G;cs,x
f m;onfh nDvmcHu,
kd pf m;vS,f
rsm;u trsm;pkjzpfjyD; a&G;aumufcHv$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u 14
&mcdkifE_e;f r#om wufa&mufcGifh&cJhonf? ,if;twkta,mif trsK;d om;
nDvmcHwiG f e0wppftpd;k &u ‘ tem*wfEikd if Hawmf. trsK;d om;Edik if aH &;
OD;aqmifru
_ ¾Y wyfrawmfu yg0ifxrf;aqmifEkid af &;’ qdo
k nfh tcsuf
udk twif;tusyo
f GwfoGif;vmjyD; jynfolvlxku a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf
&efrvdkbJ ppfwyfudk 25 &mcdkifE_ef; tvdktavsmufay;&rnfqo
kd nfh r
zG,fr&mawmif;qdkr_}uD;udk rlw&yftjzpf wifoGif;vmonfhtwGuf
tzG@J csKyfu rjzpfoifhrjzpfxdkufa=umif; wkef@jyefaqG;aEG;cJhonf? odk@uvdk

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

161

'Dru
dk a&pDtajccHrlrsm;ESifh rudu
k fnDr_rsm;tay: nDvmcHtwGif; wifjy
aqG;aEG;cJhaomfvnf; e0wtpdk;&onf av;pm;vdkufemjcif;r&Sdacs?
xkpd OftwGif; 1995 ckEpS /f Zlvidk fv 10 &ufae@wiG f a':atmifqef;pk
=unftm; Oya'rJhtus,fcsKyfjzifh xdef;odrf;zrf;qD;xm;&mrS jyefvnf
v$wfay;cJhonf? a':atmif qef;pk=unfonf vGwfajrmufvmvmcsif;
,m,DOuUXtjzpfaqmif&u
G af eonfh OD;atmifa&$/ ygwrD v
l OuUX OD;wif
OD;/ OD;=unfarmifwdk@tygt0if tzJ@G csKyf tr_aqmifvl}uD;rsm;ESifh nd‡E_id f;
aqG;aEG;r_rsm;vkyfaqmifovd/k z±dzk &Jjzpfaeonfh ygwpD nf;±Hk;a&;ESifh wnf
aqmufa&;udpPrsm;udk pepfwus jyefvnfwGef;wifEdkifa&;/ tzGJ@csKyf t
wGif; pdwf"gwf=uH@cdkifjrifhrm;a&;rsm;udk +rdKŒe,ftzGJ@csKyf±k;H rsm;txd tESH@
oGm;I tm;ay;pnf;±H;k v_@H aqmfru
_ dk qufwu
kd v
f yk af qmifcho
J nft
h wGuf
tzGJ@csKyftwGif; jyefvnfv_yf&Sm; Edk;=um;tm;opfvmcJhonf? tzGJ@csKyf
qufvuf&yfwnf wnf&aSd &;udkyJ aZmif;ay;vkyaf qmifvmcJh&ovdk &yf
wnfvkyfaqmifvmcJhonfh OD;atmifa&$ukyd if tzGJ@csKyfOuUXtjzpf quf
vufae&may;xm;onf?
xdk@aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf ‚if;. jcHa&SŒw&m;yGJrsm;udk
tywfpOfrysuf azmfaqmifEkid fcJhonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. xuf
jrufonhft&nftaoG;/ wnf=unfckid frmonfh t&Sde=f oZmrsm;a=umifh
a':atmifqef;pk=unfjcHa&SŒw&m;a[majymyGrJ sm;onf vlx=k um; a&yef;
pm;cJhovkd/ vlxk}uD;. ,Hk=unfcspfcifr_udkvnf; &,leidk fcJhonf[k qdk&
ayrnf?
Tod@k jzifh tzG@J csKyfonf vlx=k um;Y/ jynfwiG ;f jynfyY a&yef;tpm;
qH;k / vlxkaxmufcHrt
_ &qH;k tzGJ@}uD;tjzpf qufvufay:vGif xif&Sm;cJh
onf? tzGJ@csKyfonf awG@qkaH qG;aEG;a&;/ 90 jynfhEpS fa&G;aumufy&JG v'fukd
av;pm;vdkufema&;/ trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;twGuf nd‡ed_if;
aqmif&GufoGm;a&;rsm;udk e0wppftpdk;&xH awmufavsmufwifjy
awmif;qdck aJh omfvnf; ppftpdk;&. qef@usifzufwek @f jyefrr_ sm;udo
k m &&Sd
cJhonf?

162

oef;0if;vIi
d f

a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf trsK;d om;nDvmcHY wzufowf csrw
S f
xm;aomOD;wnfcsuf (6) csuEf iS fh tajccHrl (104) csuu
f kd vHk;0 r}uKd uf
ESpo
f ufay?
xd@k a=umifh 1995ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmv 28 &ufae@Y usi;f yaom trsK;d
om;nDvmcH pHknDtpnf;ta0;wGif (27-11-95) &ufpJw
G yfvsuf tzGJh
csKyf OuUX OD;atmifa&$vufrSwf xdk;xm;aom trsKd;om;'Drdu
k a&pDtzGJ@
csKy.
f oabmxm;rl0g'pmwapmifudk trsK;d om;nDvmcHusi;f ya&; vkyf
ief;aumfrwDOuUXOD;atmifw;dk xH vdyfrjl yD;ay;yd@k co
hJ nf? xd@k jyif trsK;d om;
nDvmcHusif;ya&; vkyfief;aumfrwDodk@vnf; oabmxm;jyef=um;&ef
pmjzifh xyfrHta=umif;=um;cJhonf? ta=umif;jyef=um;pmr&&So
d jzifh
trsKd;om;'Drku
d a&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf trsKd;om;nDvmcHusif;ya&;OuUXxH
ay;pmwapmif xyfrHay;ydk@cJhjyefonf?
tzG@J csKyfay;ydk@aompmY(1) trsK;d om;nDvmcHu csrSwfxm;aomtajccHrrl sm;udk jyefvnf
oHk;oyf&ef?
(2) a&G;aumufyJw
G Gif tjywftowftEdik f&&SdcaJh om tzGJ@csKyf.
v$wfawmf udk,pf m;vS,ftrsm;pkjzifh trsKd;om;nDvmcHu,
dk fpm;vS,f
rsm;udk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;ay;&ef?
(3) nDvmcHwGif csrSwfusifhoHk;aeaomenf;vrf;rsm;/ vkyfxk;H vkyf
enf;rsm;udk jyefvnfoHk;oyfI jyifqifay;&ef?
(4) txufygupd P&yfrsm;udk aqmif&GuEf dkifa&;twGuf awG@qHkaqG;
aEG;r_jyKvkyfa&;twGuf tav;xm;aqmif&Guf&ef ponfhtcsufrsm;udk
azmfjyxm;onf?
odk@aomf trsKd;om;nDvmcHpn
Hk Dtpnf;ta0;Y trsK;d om;nDvmcH
usifya&;aumfr&SifOuUX. rde@f cGef;ygtcsufrsm;udk avhvmjcif;jzifh
tzG@J csKyf. vdkvm;aom awG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;udpP vHk;0ryg&Sda=umif; od&Sd
&ojzifh ,if;ae@ (28-11-95) rSmyif trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfonf
ppftpd;k & jyKvkyu
f si;f yonfh twkta,miftrsKd;om;nDvmcHukd ,if;yHpk H

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

163

twdki;f yif qufvufusif;yaernfqdkygu
(1) trsKd;om;jyefvnf&if=um;apha&;/
(2) ppfrSefaomygwDpHk'Drdu
k a&pDEdkifiHawmfjzpfay:vmEdkifa&;/
(3) trsm;jynfolwdk@. ,Hk=unfvufcHEidk faom zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'w&yf ay:xGef;a&;rsm;udk taxmuftuljyKEdkifvdrhrf nf r
[kwf[k oabmxm;a=unmcsufukd xkwfjyefcJhjyD; trsKd;om;'Drdkua&
pDtzGJ@csKyf. nDvmcHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u nDvmcHwufa&mufaer_udk
&yfqkid f;vdkufonf? wqufwnf;rSmyif awG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;ESifh nd‡E_dif;
tajz&Sma&;udkvnf; awmif;qdkcJhygonf? e0wppftpdk;&u tzGJ@csKyf.
qHk;jzwfcsuftay: wl;wl;cg;cg;wkef@jyefcJhonf?
“OD;atmifa&$acgif;aqmifonfh tzGJ@csKyfonf nDvmcHudk wuf
a&mufae&mu a': atmifqef;pk=unf tus,cf sKyfu vGwaf jrmufvm
rS tckvkd jzpfay:vm&onfjzpfonft
h a=umif;/ ,if;onf wiful;=uHpnf
r_omjzpfa=umif;” [lI ajymqdkjyD; a':atmifqef;pk=unftay: cg;cg;
onf;onf; tjypfzdk@cJh=uonf?
xdk@aemuf ppftpdk;&onf tzGJ@csKyftay: enf;rsKd;pHjk zifh &ef&Smydwfyif
uef@owfr_rsm;udk qufwkdufjyKvkyfvmcJhonf?

trsKd;orD;xl;cRefq&k &Sd
xdkpOftwGif; e,l;a,muftajcpdkuf ‘rpf’ (Ms) r*~Zif;rS 1995 ck
ESpt
f wGuf trsKd;orD;xl;c|eq
f k (12) qka&G;cs,fc&Jh wGif a':atmifqef;pk
=unfyg0ifcJhonf?

acgif;jzwfjyD;ud,
k ,
f l
e0wppftpd;k &onf trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzG@J csKyfukd ‘acgi;f jzwfjyD;
ud,
k ,
f ’l qdo
k nfh enf;AsL[mrsK;d udk wd;k jri‡ u
hf sio
hf ;kH um OD;aqmifol xdyyf ik d ;f
tqifhESifh atmufajcpnf;±Hk;a&; tqifhqifht=um; tquftpyfrJh
atmif v_y&f Sm;r_r&&Sdatmif tpDtpOf&d&S dw
S k;d jr‡ifh vkyfaqmifvmcJhonf?

164

oef;0if;vIi
d f

om"utm;jzifh ygwq
D ikd f;bkwrf sm;jzKwcf sjcif;/ qdki;f bkwv
f ufcw
H ifxm;
onfhtrd f&Sifrsm;udk qufvufrwif0Hhap&ef enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh [ef@wm;/ +cdrf;
ajcmuf/ zdtm;ay;jzKwfcscdkif;jcif;/ tzGJ@csKyf0ifa&SŒaersm;/ q&m0efrsm;udk
a&SŒaevdu
k cf iG hEf Sifh aq;ukocGirfh &&Sdap&eftwGuf vdkifpif±yk o
f rd ;f jcif;/ t
zG@J 0ifrsm;.rdom;pk0ifrsm; Xmeqdik &f m0efxrf;rsm;jzpfaeygu rdom;pk0if
rsm;udk jcdr;f ajcmufzdtm;ay;I tzG@J csKyf0iftjzpfrS Ekwfxu
G cf ikd ;f jcif;/ tzG@J
csKyf0ifrsm;udk trsKd;pHt
k a=umif;&SmI rw&m;zrf;qD;ta&;,ljcif;/ yk'fxD;
yk'frrsKd;pHkwyfI ESpf &Snfaxmifrsm;csrSwfjcif; ponfwdk@udk ,kwfrm
aumufuspfpGm jyKvkyfvmcJhonf?

twdu
k t
f cdu
k cf &H
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. ygwpD nf;±H;k a&;c&D;pOfrsm;tay: Yvnf;
ay:ay:xifxif taESmifht,SufjyK [ef@wm; wm;jrpfcJhjyD; ppftpdk;&zGJ@
pnf;xm;onfh vufuidk fwkwf cg;ydkufaqmiftzGJ@tpnf;jzpfonfh =uHŒcdkif
a&;toif;0ifrsm;udt
k oH;k jyKum touftEœ&m,fjyKonftxd ajymif
ajymifwif;wif; zdESdyaf pmfum;vmcJo
h nf?
Edkiif Ha&;ygwDonf jynfolvlxk.vkdvm;csufESifhqENudk nDnw
G f pk
pnf;r_jyKEdkiaf &;twGuf EdkifiHa&;t& pepfwus zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh tzGJ@
tpnf;wckjzpf&m EdkifiHa&;ygwDw&yfonf 'Drdkua&pDuk d rSefuefpGm usifh
oHk;EdkifcGifhESifh jynfolvlxkudk ppfrSefpmG udk,fpm;jyKcGifh&&Sd&ef vdt
k yfay
onf? xdk@jyif EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf t&Snfojzifh wnfwnfjidrfjidrf cdkif
rmpGm &yfwnfEdkifa&;twGuf pnf;±Hk;a&;pGrf;&nfrsm;tay: wnfrSDae
aoma=umifh EdkifiaH wmftwGif; vGwv
f yfpGm pnf;±Hk;v_y&f Sm;cGifh &&Sd&rnf
jzpfonf?
1996 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmv 9 &ufae@wGif ygwDpnf;±H;k a&;c&D;pOftjzpf
c&D;xGufpOf a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh 'kOuUX ol&OD;wifOD;/ 'kOuUX OD;
=unfarmifwdk@ pD;eif;vdu
k fygcJhonfhum;udk =uHŒzG@H v&l rf;um; 200 ausmf
u wkwf/ "m;/ ausmufcJvufeufrsm;pGmudkifjyD; &efukef+rdKŒv,facgif A

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

165

[ef;+rdKŒe,f&Sd q&mpHESifh *Gwfwvdwfvrf;qHYk 0dkif;0ef;t=urf;zuf wdu
k f
cdu
k o
f nftxd ajymifususjyKvyk v
f mcJ=h uonf? tqdyk gae&monf jynf
xJa&;0ef}uD;XmeESifh jrefrmEdkifiH&cJ sKyf±kH;wnf&Sd&mae&mteD;wGif ae@cif;
a=umifawmif vlpnfum;&mY wdkufcdkufcH&jcif;jzpfonf?
1997 ckESpf/ Ed0k ifbmv 15 &ufaewGif EdkifiHawmfjidrf0yfyjd ym;r_
wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ (e0w)onf EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;oma&;@Sifh zGH@+zdK;
a&;aumifpD (etz) tjzpf trnfajymif;vJvu
kd jf y;D aemufyikd ;f wav#muf
vHk;Yvnf; tzGJ@csKyfonf etz.enf;aygi;f pHkjzifh qufvufzdEySd fapmf
um;r_ukd cHc&hJ ±Ho
k mru etz. t"du OD;wnf&efot
l jzpfyg owfrw
S cf H
cJh&onf?
1998 ckEpS /f ZGev
f 23 &ufae@wiG f trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
OD;atmifa&$onf enf;rsKd;pHjk zifh zdEySd fcHae&onf=h um;rS &ufaygif;(60) t
wGif; v$wfawmfac:,lay;a&;udk xyfrHawmif;qdkcJhonf? odk@aomf ppf
tpdk;& vHk;0y,fcsvdkufonf?
xdk@a=umifh 1996 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 16 &ufae@wGif ‘ jynfol@
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;jyKaumfrwD’ (Committee Representing The People’s
Parliament-CRPP) udk pwifzGJ@pnf;cJhonf? 1990 jynfhESpf ygwDpk H taxG
axGa&G;aumufyJ}G uD; usif;yjyKvkyfjyD;aemuf rvGJraoGac:,lay;&rnfh
jynfol@v$wfawmfudk e0w wjzpfvJ etzppftpdk;&u vHk;0ac:,lay;
jcif;r&So
d nft
h wGuf jynfo@l v$waf wmfac:,la&;onf etztwGufom
wm0ef&Sdonfr[kwf/ jynfou
l a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufxm;onfh jynfol@
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;Yvnf; wm0ef&o
Sd nf[k oH;k oyfI ‘ jynf
ol@v$wfawmf ac:,la&;&nf&G,fcsufjzifh jynfol@vw
$ fawmf udk,pf m;jyK
aumfrwDudk zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf ud,
k fpm;jyK aumf
rwDukd zG@J pnf;cJjh y;D aemuf 1998 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv 16 &ufae@wiG f yxr
t}udrftpnf;ta0;udk w&m;0ifusif;ycJhonf?
1990 jynfhESpf ygwDpHktaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwiG f a&G;aumufwif
ajr‡mufcHcJh&onfh jynfo@l v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 485 OD;&SdcJhjyD; uG,f

166

oef;0if;vIi
d f

vGefoGm;ol (26) OD;udkz,fvdkufygu usef&Sdol 459 OD;&Sd&m trsKd;om;
'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh r[mrdwfEidk fiHa&;ygwDrsm;rS tEdkif&jynfol@v$wf
awmf ud,
k fpm;vS,af ygif; 251 OD;. ‚if;wdk@.vkyfykid fcGifhukd tzG@J csKyf A[dk
tvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@odk@ tm%mtyfESif;xm;onfhvkyfydkifcGifhrsm;t&
(a&G;aumufcHv$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fpkpkaygif;. 52 µudk udk,pf m;jyK

0J rS ,m (yxrwef;) - OD;vGif? OD;at;omatmif? OD;atmifa&T? OD;oef;xGe;f ? OD;wif O;D
0J rS ,m ('kw,
d wef;) - OD;vSaz? OD;pd;k jrif?h OD;vGe;f wif ? OD;nGeYfa0? a':atmifqef;pkMunf

vsu)f trsKd;om;'Drku
d a&pDtzG@J csKyu
f uruxjyK OD;aqmifum jynfo@l
v$wfawmfu,
dk pf m;jyKaumfrwDudk atmifjrifpmG zGJ@pnf;Edik cf jJh cif; jzpfonf?
pwifzJ@G pnf;pOfu jynfol@v$waf wmfu,
dk fpm;jyKaumfrwD0ifrsm;rSm
(1) OD;atmifa&$
- OuUX
(2) OD;oef;xGef;
- twGif;a&;rSL; (1)
(3) OD;at;omatmif
- twGif;a&;rSL; (2)
(4) ol&OD;wifOD;
- tzG@J 0if
(5) a':atmifqef;pk=unf
- tzG@J 0if
(6) OD;vGif
- tzG@J 0if
(7) OD;vSaz
- tzG@J 0if
(8) OD;pdk;jrifh
- tzG@J 0if

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

167

(9) OD;vGe;f wif
- tzG@J 0if
(10)OD;nGe@f a0
- tzG@J 0if
ponfwdk@ jzpfonf?
pwifzGJ@pnf;pOfu twGif;a&;rSL;OD;at;omatmifonf (1) &cdkif
'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKy/f (2) &Sr;f trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf (3) rGeftrsKd;om;
'Dru
dk a&pDtzGJ@csKyf (4) ZdkrD;trsK;d om;uGe*f &uf ponfhtzG@J (4) zG@J . udk,f
pm;vS,jf zpfonf?
CRPP yxr t}ur
d ftpnf;ta0; yxrae@rmS yif jynfov
hl w
$ af wmf
OuUX tjzpf a'guw
f mOD;apmjratmifudk a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcJh=uonf?
a'gufwmOD;apmjratmifonf &cdkif'Drkdua&pDtzG@J csKyfrSjzpfjyD; &cdkifjynf
e,f ajrmufOD;rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) rS a&G;aumufcH jynfol@vw
$ fawmf
ud,
k fpm;vS,jf zpfonf?
CRPP tpnf;ta0;Y aumfrwD. a=unmcsuftrSw(f 1) xkwjf yef
cJo
h nf? a=unmcsuYf TaumfrwDonf 1990 jynfhEpS f ygwpD kH 'Dru
kd a&pD
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG Oya'ESit
fh nD v$waf wmfac:ay;a&;rlt& v$wf
awmfac:,lay;a&;jzpfajrmufonftxd v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m; aqmif&u
G f
oGm;rnf[k twdtvif;azmfjya=unmcJhonf?
jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;jyKaumfrwD zJG@pnf;vdkufonfhtay:
awmfvSefa&;e,fajrESifh jynfya&muf ta&G;cs,fcH jynfol@vw
$ fawmf
ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;uvnf; tm;wufoa&m axmufcHvu
dk =f ujy;D jynfy
a&mufv$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpf=uonfh a'gufwmpdef0if;/ OD;bdk
vSwifh/ OD;vseftky/f OD;armifarmifat;/ OD;vSOD;/ OD;odef;OD;/ a'gufwmwifh
aqG/ a'gufwmZvyfxef/ OD;u,f'Dbl;&D;/ OD;cGefrwf&fub
dk ef/ OD;',feD&,f
atmif/ OD;wifxw
G f/ OD;xefvsef;aygif/ OD;oef;pdef/ OD;omEdk;/ a'gufwm
pef;atmif/ OD;Adkvfaomif;/ OD;xGef;OD; ponfh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f
(19) OD;u ,if;wdk@udk,pf m; aqmif&GufydkifcGifhtm%mudk CRPP od@k tyf
ESi;f vdkufa=umif; vufrSwfa&;xd;k a=unmcsufxkwjf yef axmufcHcJh=u
onf?

168

oef;0if;vIi
d f

ppftpd;k &onf CRPP zGJ@pnf;r_ukd vHk;0vufrcHbJ enf;rsKd;pHjk zifh 'kuQ
ay;vkyaf qmifco
Jh nfukd awG@&ayonf? v$waf wmfac:,la&;udk axmuf
cHc=Jh uonfh typf&yf jidr;f csr;f a&;tzGJ@jzpfonfh &Srf;jynfvlrsK;d aygif;pHk vGwf
ajrmufa&;tzGJ@(&vvz)/ u,ef;jynfopfygwDESifh u&ifejD ynf vlrsKd;
aygi;f pHk jynfol@vGwfajrmufa&;wyfOD; (uvvw) tzGJ@wk@d udk ac:,l zd
tm;ay;±Hrk u raxmufcHa=umif;a=unmcsuf jyefvnfxw
k cf idk f;cJo
h nf?
xdk@jyif jynfwiG f;&Sd a&G;aumufcH v$waf wmfu,
dk pf m;vS,rf sm;udk ac:,lppf
aq;jcif;/ ajccsKyfc0H eftufOya'rsm;ESifh aeapjcif;/ tcsKŒd udk zrf;qD;csKyf
aESmifjcif; ponfw@dk ukd ay:ay:xifxifvkyfaqmifvmcJhonf? ppftpd;k &
onf v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk ac:,lppfaq; zrf;qD;csKyfaESmif
xm;r_rsm;udyk if “ zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;r[kw/f ac:,laqG;aEG;aejcif;
omjzpfonf” [k 0g'jzef@co
hJ nf? wqufwnf;rSm etzppftpk;d &. vuf
udik w
f w
k t
f zG@J tpnf;jzpfonfh =uŒH cdik af &;tzG@J ukd toH;k csum jynfe,f/ wdik ;f
toD;oD;&Sd +rdKŒ}uD;rsm;wGif jynfol@qENazmfxkwfyGJrsm;udk twif;t"rR
vkyfaqmifvmcJhonf? ,if;vlxktpnf;ta0;}uD;rsm;rS NLD . v$wf
awmf ac:,la&;a=unmcsufukd qefu
h sif&w
_ fcsa&;/ NLD udk rw&m;oif;
tjzpfa=unmzsuo
f rd ;f a&;/ CRPP, NLD (10) OD;*dk%f;udk ta&;,l &Sif;
vif;ypfa&;ponfhawmif;qdkcsurf sm;udk atmf[pf tiftm;jyapcJhonf?
wzufrv
S nf; CRPP zsufodr;f ay;v#if zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;onfh EdkifiH
a&;tusOf;om;rsm;ESifh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,rf sm;udk jyefvnf v$wf
ay;rnf[k rD;pwzuf a&r_wfwzuf urf;vSrf;vmcJhonf?
CRPP ESifhywfoufI 1998 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv 23 &ufae@wi
G f a':
atmifqef;pk=unfu owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJw&yfjyKvyk &f if; “ 90 jynfhESpf
a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudk oabmrusvdk@ a&G;aumufyGJ todtrSwfrjyK
awmhjcif;[m vufrcHEkid f/ rjzpfoifh/ v$wfawmfac:,la&;udk qufvuf
}udK;yrf;oGm;r,f? CRPP udk v$waf wmfay: Yomzsuo
f drf;oGm;r,f” [k
&Sif;vif;ajym=um;cJhonf?
1998 ckEpS f/ 'DZifbmv 8 &ufae@wiG f jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfu,
kd fpm;jyK

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

169

aumfrwD tpnf;ta0;udk usi;f ycJjh yD; ‘jynfo@l v$waf wmfa&;&m aumfr
wD’ udk xyfrHz@JG pnf;vdu
k o
f nf? jynfol@vw
$ fawmfa&;&maumfrwDrsm;rSm
(u) wdkif;&if;om;a&;&maumfrwD / OuUX - OD;at;omatmif
twGif;a&;rSL; - a':atmifqef;pk=unf
(c) b¾ma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ ukeo
f G,fa&;&maumfrwD / OuUX OD;nGe@f a0
(*) Oya'a&;&maumfrwD
/ OuUX - ol&OD;wifOD;
(C) ynma&;&maumfrwD / OuUX - a':atmifqef;pk=unf
(i) usef;rma&;/ vlr_a&;aumfrwD / OuUX - OD;vGif
(p) EdkifiHwumqufqHa&;aumfrwD / OuUX - OD;atmifa&$
(q) awmifolv,form;a&;&maumfrwD / OuUX - OD;pdk;jrihf
(Z) tvkyo
f rm;a&;&maumfrwD / OuUX - OD;oef;xGe;f
twGi;f a&;rSSL; - OD;vGef;wif
(ps) v$wfawmfa&;&maumfrwD / OuUX - OD;vSaz
(n) umuG,fa&;&maumfrwD / OuUX - ol&OD;wifOD;
ponfwdk@jzpfonf?

vGwv
f yfa&;qk
2000 jynfhESp/f rwfv 18 &ufae@wGif tdki,
f mvefEdkiif H 'AŠvif+rdKŒ
wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; 'AŠvif+rdKŒawmf. ‘vGwfvyfa&;qk’
udk *k%fjyKcsD;jr‡ifhcJhonf? qkudk ol@udk,fpm; om;i,fxdefvif; ac: uif
tJ&pfu qkvufc,
H cl ho
J nf? *k%jf yKrSww
f rf;v$m;tm; a':atmifqef;pk
=unf udk,fwdkifwufa&mufvufrSwfa&;xd;k Edkifonht
f csdeftxd apmifh
qdkif;xm;rnfjzpfonf? awmiftmz&duorRwa[mif; ref'Jvm;tm;
qkcs;D jr‡ifhcpJh Ofuvnf; tvm;wl udk,fwidk fvufrSwfa&;xdk;Edkifonftxd
rSwfwrf;v$mwGif csefvSyfxm;cJhzl;onf? tqdkygqkudk tar&dueforRw
a[mif;rsm;jzpf=uonfh *|eftufzu
f ae'D/ bDvu
f vifwef/ 'kw&d ajrmuf
ykw&f [ef;rif;}uD; *|efaygvfESifh rmomx&Dqmwdk@tm; qkcsD;jr‡ifhcJhjyD;jzpf

170

oef;0if;vIi
d f

onf?

*kPjf yKaw;
c&pf 2000 jynfEh SpftwGuf tdik f,mvefEdkifi/H +rdKŒawmf 'AŠvif tkyf
csKyfa&;tzGJŒrSay;tyfonfh +rdKŒawmf*k%fx;l aqmifqk a':atmifqef;pk
=unfESifh yl;wGJ&&SdcJhol a&mcfhaw;oH&Sif bdkEdkESifhtzGJ@rS a':atmifqef;pk
=unftm; *k%fjyKpyfqdkxm;onfh “Walk On” aw;oDcsif;udk 2002 ckESpf/
azazmf0g&Dv (27) &ufae@Y tar&duefjynfaxmifpk *&rfraD w;*Dw
qkay;yGJwiG f taumif;qH;k qkcsD;jr‡ifhcHcJh&onf?

'kw,
d tBudrf aetdrt
f us,fcsKyf
2000 jynfhESp/f =o*kwv
f (24) &ufae@wiG f 'kwd,OuUX ol&OD;wif
OD;/ &efukew
f idk f; pnf;±H;k aumfrwDOuUX ocifp;kd jrif/h &efuek w
f ikd f; pnf;±H;k a&;
tzGJŒ0if a'gufwmrsKd;atmif/ tzGJŒcsKyfvli,f(16) OD; ¡,mOfarmif; ESpfOD;
tygt0if¢ wdk@ESifhtwl &efukew
f zufurf; 'v+rdKŒrSwqifh &efukew
f dkif;/
uGrf;jcHukef;+rdKŒESifh aumhrSL;+rdKŒrsm;od@k pnf;±H;k a&;udpPrsm; aqmif&u
G f&ef
&efuek f+rdKŒyef;qd;k wef;qdyfurf;rSwqifh c&D;xGu&f ef pDpOfch&J m yef;qd;k wef;
qdyu
f rf;wGif wem&DcJcG ef@ tm%mydik rf sm;rS ydwq
f @kd xm;cJhjyD;rS wzufurf;
okdhul;cGifh&cJhonf? 'v+rdKŒodk@ a&muf&Sdonft
h cg }udKwifapmifhqdkif;ae
onfh tzGJ@csKyfum;ESpfpD;jzifh uGrf;jcHukef;odk@ c&D;xGufvmpOf 'v+rdKŒrS
txGuf (3) rdkifcefhta&muf usefppfom;&yfuu
G fwGif tm%mydik frsm;rS
a&SŒc&D;rqufEidk f&ef twif;t"rRyw
d fqdk@wm;jrpfxm;ojzifh tqdkyg ae
&mYyif c&D;qufxGufEkid fonftxd tajccsapmifhqdkif;aecJh&m (9) &uf
ajrmufae@jzpfonfh pufwifbmv (1) &ufn 11;15 em&DwiG f &Jwyfz@JG ESihf
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;tiftm; 300 ausmfu a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh
tzGJ@tm; 0ifa&mufp;D eif;jyD; twif;t=uyfzrf;qD;csKyfaESmifac:aqmifjy;D
&efuek +f rdKŒod@k jyefy@kd I 2000 jynfEh pS /f pufwifbmv 1 &ufae@rS 14 &uf
ae@txd 'kwd,aetdrftus,fcsKyfjzifh zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;xm;jcif; cHcJh&

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

171

onf?

wwd,tBudrf aetdrt
f us,fcsKyf
xdk@aemuf 2000 jynfhESpf/ pufwifbm 20 &ufae@wiG f 'kwd,OuUX
OD;wifO;D ESiht
f wl tzG@J 0ifrsm;vdu
k fygvsuf tzG@J csKyv
f _yf&Sm;r_r&Sdeidk &f ef ydwf
yifwm;qD;r_rsm;/ tzG@J csKy±f ;kH rsm;ydwfapjcif;/ qdik ;f bkwfrsm;csapjcif;rsm;udk
pHpk rf;avhvm&ef yxrc&D;pOftjzpf naerD;&xm;jzifh rEœav;od@k oGm;
a&muf&ef pDpOfcJh&m rD;&xm;vufrSwfukefaeonf[k ta=umif;jyI
vufrw
S fa&mif;ray;bJ aemufwae@ eHeufapmapm 2000 jynfEh pS /f puf
wifbm 22 &ufae@wiG f &efuek fbw
l m}u;D rS t"rRaetdrjf yefy@kd jyD; wwd,
t}udrf aetdrftus,fcsKyfjzifh zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;jcif; cHcJh&jyefonf?

rdwzf ufEikd if rH sm; aygif;pnf;a&;qdik &f mqk
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 2001 ckESpt
f wGuf *smreDEdkifiH tajc
pdkuf EdkifiHwum EdkifiHa&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_rsm; vGwfvyfpGm aygif;pnf;a&;
qdkif&m qkay;a&;tzGJ@}uD;. rdwfzufEdkifiHrsm; aygif;pnf;a&;qdkif&mqk
(Collegue United Nations) qkudk &&SdcJhonf? tqdkygqk&&Sdolrsm;teuf
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf yxrqHk;trsK;d orD;jzpfonf? 1999 ckEpS w
f Gif
ydkvefEidk fio
H rRw/ 2000 jynfhEpS fwiG f [efa*&DEdkifiH0ef}uD;csyEf Sihf Edkiif Hjcm;
a&;0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD; rpPwm[Gef;wdk@&&Scd JhjyD; a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
wwd,ajrmuf qk&&SdcJholjzpfonf?

jyefvnfvGwaf jrmuf
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrftus,fcsKyftjzpf 1 ESpf 5 v
14 &ufuscHcJh&jyD;aemuf 2002 ckESpf/ arv 6 &ufae@wGif aetdrf t
us,cf sKyfrS jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJo
h nf?
vGwaf jrmufvmjy;D aemuf 0g&Sifwefy@dk po
f wif;pmwGif yl;wGx
J w
k af 0
onfh Parade owif;pHrk *~Zif;wGif jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDrcd if}uD; a':atmifqef;

172

oef;0if;vIi
d f

pk=unfu “All We Want is Our Freedom” (vGwfvyfa&;udkyJ usrwdk@ vdkcsif
w,f) acgif;pOfjzifh aqmif;yg;wyk'fa&;om;cJhonf?
tqdkygaqmif;yg;Y“ jrefrmEdkifiHw0ef; c&D;oGm;vm&if; usru vl
awGukd bmvd@k 'Dru
kd a&pDukd vdck siw
f mvJv@kd ar;=unfrh yd gw,f? r=umc%
qdo
k vdk t=um;&qH;k tajzuawmh usaemfw@kd usrwd@k vGwaf jrmufcsiv
f @kd
qdw
k m usrem;vnfygw,f? olw@dk &JŒuH=urRmudk olwdk@u,
dk fwdkif yHkazmf
qHk;jzwfcGifhr&SdbJ zdESdyfcHae&wmu vGwfajrmufvdkcsif=uygw,f? vuf
euftiftm;/ tajccHwJhtrdef@awGe@J xif&mpdkif;r_awGatmufrmS a&muf
ae&wJh olw@dk &JŒedpP"l0=uHKawG@ae&wJt
h jzpfawGudk &Sw
d ht
J wdik f; &ifzGiafh jym
jycsifwmvdkhqkyd gw,f? olwdk@todOm%fynm&JŒpdeaf c:r_udk jznfhqnf;r
ay;EdkifwyJh nma&;pepftay: rauseyfcsufawGudk olwdk@ xkwfazmf ajym
vd=k uygw,f? a0zef/ aqG;aEG;/ jiif;ckHEidk o
f lawGjzpfjy;D pk±;Hk oDq/dk atmf[pf/
=obmay;ydik fz@dk axmifaomif;ode;f ru pka0;EdkifolawGjzpfv=dk uygw,f?
jrefrmEdkiif Hu vli,fawG[m us,fjyef@vGef;wJhar#mfvifhcsufawGeJ@
tHhrcef;r_awGjynfhapwJh vli,fb0&JŒ Edk;=um;wufºuGwJht&G,af wGudk
tjynfht0ydkiq
f kid fcsiw
f ,f? ra&&mr_awG/ }uD;us,fra_ wGeJ@ pdwu
f l;,Ofr_
awG/ awmufycrf;em;r_e@J zDvmqef@usirf a_ wG/ =urf;wrf;cufwefre_ J@ odrf
arG@r_awG wef;pDjynfhaewJhvli,fb0udk tjynfht0&,lvdk=uygw,f?
jrefrmtrsK;d orD;awGtaeeJ@a&m bmawGvkt
d yfygovJ? ukeaf ps;E_e;f
}uD;jrifhr_&JŒzdpD;r_'%fa=umifh tm;ysufjiD;aiG@avmufatmif tdrfrx
_ def;
odr;f ae&wJb
h 0u vGwaf jrmufcsi=f uygw,f? vGwv
f yfpmG awG;awm=uH
qrdv@kd cifyeG ;f jzpfol tjypfay;ta&;,lc&H rvm;/ 'grrS [kwf uav;awG
rsm; b0&JŒtcGiftvrf;awGq;Hk yg;oGm;rvm;qdw
k hJ pd;k &draf =umif=h ur_awG
u uif;vGwcf si=f uygw,f? rdom;pkudk axmufyEHh kid fatmif cE<mudk,fudk
&if;ae&wJb
h 0u vGwaf jrmufzk@d awmifw
h ae=uwJt
h rsKd;orD;awGvnf;
awmfawmfrsm;rsm; trsm;}uD;udk &Sdygw,f?
usrawG@qHkcw
Jh hJ v,form;/ ,morm;awGq&dk if olw@dk qENtwdkif;
pdkuyf sKd;xGe,
f ufcsif=uw,f? rawmfrw&m;aps;ESdrfcH&jyD; tpdk;&udk r

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

173

a&mif;rae&jcdrf;ajcmufcH&wmrsKd;awGu uif;vGwfjyD; olwdk@xGufukef
awGukd udk,fhqENeJ@udk,f aps;uGuw
f if a&mif;csvdk=uygw,f?
olwdk@[m edpP"l0 ajreJ@zufjyD; b0udk ±kef;uef&yfwnfolawGyg? 'D
vdk =urf;wrf;wJb
h 0awGtay:rS usKd;a=umif;rqDavsmfwt
hJ rde@f awGeJ@ em;
vnf&cufwt
hJ m%mydik af wGa=umifh aemufxyf 0efxyk f0efyk;d jyefrjzpfcsif
=uawmhygb;l ?
'ge@J trsK;d om;'Drku
d a&pDtzG@J csKyt
f zG@J 0ifawG usrwd@k a&mvd@k ar;p&m
&Syd gw,f? usrwdk@wawG wdik ;f jynfvw
G af jrmufzk@d cufcufcJcJ vkyu
f kid fae
ygw,f? 'Dvkv
d kyfuidk faewm[m 'Drku
d a&pDtay: ra&r&meJ@ taumif;
jrifar#mv
f ifhjy;D xif&mvkyu
f ikd af ewm r[kwfygb;l ? 'Dru
kd a&pDqkw
d m ol&ŒJ
awmufyr_udk =um&Snfxdef;Edkifatmif tjrJwap ta&mifwifay;&wJh
&wemwyg; jzpfw,fqkw
d m usrwdk@ odygw,f? ysupf ;D qHk;&_H;wm/ tcdk;cH
&wmawGrjzpfatmif umuG,zf @kd 'Dru
kd a&pDukd rsufjcnfrjywf apmif=h uyf
=unfh±_ae&ygvdrrfh ,f? vGwv
f yfwhJ jrefrmjynfuom vl@*k%o
f duQmudk
wefz;kd xm; av;pm;wJEh ikd if H wnfaxmifEikd rf mS rd@k vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf
u usrwdk@wawG yifyifyef;yef; }udK;pm;ae=uwm jzpfygw,f?
wdkif;jynfw0ef; vSnfhvnfomG ;wJhtcg vlawGu usraetdrf t
us,fcsKyfeJ@ ae&wJhtcsdefawGrSm b,fvkcd Hpm;&ovJvdk@ ar;=uygw,f?
yxrt}urd f (6) ESpef @J 'kwd,t}urd f (19) v usr aecJ&h ygw,f? rdom;
pk rdwaf qGtaygif;toif;awGe@J cGJcGmjyD; usr b,fvkad ecJo
h vJaygh? ar;rS
ar;=uygavw,f? 'Dtm%m&SifEidk fiHrmS ,Hk=unfcsuftwGuf tusOf;cs
cH&oluom trSefwu,f vGwfvyfoljzpfw,fvdk@usru jyefajzyg
w,f? rSefygw,f? usrwdk@[m usrwdk@&JΠomrefb0vGwv
f yfcGifhawGudk
ay;qyfxm;&w,f? 'gayrJh vlom;b0&JŒwefzkd;t&Sdq;Hk jzpfwJh ,Hk=unf
csuf trSefw&m;tay: usrwdk@=uHŒ=uHŒcH&yfaecJh=uygw,f? 'Dae&mrSm
jynfov
l lxktwGuf usrtvdkcsifqHk;uawmh ppfrSefwhv
J GwfvyfciG fhudk
tmrcHumuG,af y;Edik zf k@d e@J trSefwu,f vHkvjHk cHKjcHKumuG,af y;Edik zf k@d t
wGuf vGwfvyfcGifhygyJ?

174

oef;0if;vIi
d f

*kPjf yKcsD;jr§iyhf JG
aetdrftus,fcsKyfrS vGwfajrmufjyD; &ufydkif;twGif;rSmyif 2002
ckEpS /f arv 23 &ufae@Y Akdvrf LS ;atmif (&Jabmfo;kH usyd )f OD;aqmifaeonfh
0g&ifEh idk if aH &;orm;}u;D rsm;u aetdrt
f us,cf sKyrf S vGwaf jrmufvmaom
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; 0g&ifhEidk fiHa&;orm;}uD;ocifodef;az (0g;c,f
r) aetdrfwGif *k%fjyKyGu
J sif;yI yef;uHk;pGyf*k%fjyKum a&SŒquf aqmif
&Guf&rnfh 'Drkdua&pDa&;wdkufyGJtwGuf vGwfvyfa&;}udK;yrf;umv
twGif; t*Fvdyef ,fcsJŒwd@k tm; wdu
k cf u
dk &f mwGif Adv
k fcsKyfatmifqef; udkif
pGcJ Jhaom oHk;a&mifjc,fa'gif;tvHESihf zufqpf*syefwdk@tm; wdu
k fcdkuf&m
wGif udik pf cGJ ho
J nfh teDa&mifatmufcHaxmifhwiG f =u,fjzLwyfxm;aom
tvHwk@d udk trSwfw&ay;tyfcJhonf?

*kPx
f ;l aqmifyg&*lbUJG csD;jr§ichf &H
2002 ckEpS f/ arv 25 &ufae@wiG f usi;f yonfh tar&duefjynf
axmifp/k e,l;a,muf+rdKŒ&Sd bmhofaumvdyf. (142) }urd fajrmuf bGJŒESi;f
obiftcrf;tem;Y a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; *k%fxm;aqmif yg&*l
bGJ@udk csD;jr‡ifhtyfESi;f cJhonf? tvm;wl 0g&iS fwef'DpD&Sd tar&duef wuU
odkv.
f 1996 ckESpf aqmif;&moDbGJ@EiS f;obif tcrf;tem;Yvnf; a':
atmifqef;pk=unftm; *k%fxl;aqmifyg&*lbGJ@ csD;jr‡ifhcJhz;l onf?

a':vmwpfoef;wef vGwv
f yfaompdw"f gwfqk
tar&duefjynfaxmifp&k Sd z&D;'rf;zd&k rftzG@J }uD; (Freedom Forum
Foundation) uvnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ‘vGwfvyfaom pdwf
"gwfqk’ csD;jr‡ifhay;cJhonf? av[kefpD;ysHºuGae[ef tawmifyHESpfckyg
±kyfwkESifh qkaiGtar&duefa':vmwpfoef;udk cs;D jr‡ifhcjJh cif;jzpfonf? t
qdkygqkonf jynfolvlxk.ESvHk;om;wGif pGJrufavmufatmif owœd
ajymifajrmufpmG v_yf&mS ;aqmif&u
G folrsm;tm; a&G;cs,af y;tyfonfq
h k
jzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unftm;vnf; 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

175

a&;ESifh vl@tcGit
fh a&;&&S&d eftwGuf vGwv
f yfonfhpw
d "f mwfjzifh t=urf;
rzufbJ }udK;pm;v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufonfrsm;udk *k%fjyKonft
h aejzifh
qkcsD;jr‡ifhcJhjcif;jzpfonf[k qka&G;cs,faumfrwDu a=unmcJh onf?

atoif Edik if w
H um 'Dru
kd a&pDqk
2002 ckESpfonf a':aqmifqef;pk=unftwGuf qktrsm;qHk;&&Sd
aomESp[
f k qd&k ayrnf? 2002 ckEpS f/ pufwifbmv 20 &ufae@wGif
*&dEkid fiH atoif+rdKŒawmfrS ‘atoifEdkifiHwum'Drdkua&pDqk’ (Athens
International Prize for Democracy) &&SdcJhonf? qktjzpf 'Drkdua&pDzcifjuD;
Pedicles . udk,fwydki;f yHk±kyw
f kwpfckEiS fh Honorary Citizen of Athens [k
pmwrf;a&;xd;k xm;onfh a&$wq
H dyfwckjzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf tqdkygqk&&Sdonfh urBmhyxrqHk;yk*~dKvfjzpfygonf?
2002 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv 16 &ufae@wGifvnf; jyifopfeidk fiHyg&D+rdKŒY
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ,leufpudktzGJ@}uD;. onf;cHpdwf&Snfr_ESifh
t=urf;rzufr_jr‡ifhwifa&;qdkif&m Madanjeel Singh qk csD;jr‡ihfcH&onf?
tqdkygonf qkaiGa':vmwpfodef;yg&do
S nf?
2002 ckEpS ftwGuf pDteftef (CNN) EdkifiHwumowif;Xme.
tm&Sa'o owif;ta&;}uD;qH;k xdyw
f ef;owif; 10 yk'fwGif a':atmif
qef;pk=unfaetdrftus,fcsKyfrS vGwfajrmufvmonfh owif;yg&SdcJh
onf? tjcm;owif;rsm;rSm tif'ekd D;&Sm;Edik fiH bmvDu|ef;wGif AH;k cGcJ &H onfh
owif;/ ta&SŒwDarmEdkifio
H pf ay:xGef;vmonfhowif;/ ygupPwefwiG f
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;rS t&yfom;tkyfcsKyfa&;odk@ ajymif;vJvmonfhowif;/
w±kwjf ynfY acgif;aqmiftajymif;tvJowif;/ ud&k D;,m;u|e;f qG,f
wif;rmr_owif;rsm;yif jzpfygonf?
jAdwed fEdkifiHrS xkwv
f $ifhaeonfh BBC rsuaf rSmufa&;&mtpDtpOfrS
jAdwdefEdkifiH aomw&Sifrsm;. qENrJay;onfh tpDtpOfwGif “ *k%fxl;
aqmif jAdwdefEkid fiHom;tjzpf Edkiif HwumrS yk*~dKvfrsm;xJrS rnfol@tm;
ay;rnfenf;” [lonfh qENrpJ pfwrf;wGif aomw&Sif (51) &mcdkifE_ef;u

176

oef;0if;vIi
d f

a':atmifq ef;pk=unftm; qENrJay;cJh=uonf? tar&duef orRw
a[mif; bDvfuvifweftm; qENrJay;ol 18 &mcdkifE_ef;om &Sdcho
J nf?

&cdik jf ynfe,f pnf;½H;k a&;c&D;pOf
2002 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv 25 &ufae@wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS fh
tzGo
Jh nf &cdkifjynfe,fpnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOfxGufcJhonf? oufqdkif&mtm
%mydkifrsm;u a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@. ,mOfwef;udk oGm;vmI r&
atmif enf;rsK;d pHk aESmuf,u
S f[ef@wm;cJo
h nfhtjyif oHql;}udK;rsm;/ x&yf
um;rsm;/ ajrwl;um;rsm;jzifh ydwfq@dk xm;cJhonf? &yfuGufaevlxktm;
vnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unf. w&m;yGJodk@ rwuf&ef jcdrf;ajcmuf [ef@
wm;cJhonf?
ÙÙÙ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

177

tcef; (7)
'Dy,
J if; vkyMf uHowfjzwfrI
2003 ckESp/f arvwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ OD;wifOD;ESifh NLD t
zGJ@0ifrsm; ppfudkif;wdik f;odk@ pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D; oGm;a&mufcJhonf? xdkc&D;pOf
twGif; arv 30 &ufae@wGif a&$bkdc±dkif/ 'DyJ,if;+rdKŒteD; us&D GmY etz
Y ppftpdk;&apcdkif;csut
f & ,if;wd@k vufyg;aprsm;u acsmif;ajrmif; wdkuf
cdkucf Jh=uonf? 'DyJ,if;vky=f uHowfjzwfr_Y t=urf;zufcHc&Jh ol a':nGef@
nGe@f u xdpk Ofu tjzpftysuu
f kd atmufygtwdik ;f tao;pdwf rSwrf o
d r#
jyefvnfajymjycJhavonf?
“arv 30 &ufae@reuf 9 em&D rH&k Gm+rdKŒ NLD ±H;k a&SŒrSm a':atmif
qef;pk=unfu wufa&mufvmcJw
h hJ vlxyk &dwo
f wfudk rdef@cGe;f ajym=um;
ygw,f? rdef@cGe;f ajymjyD; jyeftxGufrSm vlxku a':pke@J vdkujf yD; ol@&JŒrdef@
cGef;awGudk vdkufem;axmifcsifw,fvdk@ ajymw,f? tJ'DrSmyJ =uHŒzGH@eJ@prG f;
tm;&SifawG aemufu xyfvdkufwmawG@&ygw,f? tJ'Dwke;f u rHk&Gm+rdKŒ
xJrSm yHrk SefomG ;vmaewJhum;awGvnf; rawG@&awmhbl;? usrwdk@tkypf k
awG&JŒum;eJ@ =uHŒzGH@&JŒum;awGyJ &Sdygw,f?”
“ae@v,f 1 em&DavmufrSm a':pku bkwvif+rdKŒu vlxkeJ@ awG@
qHkjyD; E_wfceG f;qufpum;ajymcJhygw,f? jyD;awmh NLD vli,ftzGJ@udk zGJ@
pnf;ay;cJhygw,f? usrwdk@ pdkif;jyifuaexGufvmawmh n 7 em&D xdk;
aeygjyD? tJ'u
D aexGuv
f mjyD; rdepf 20avmufrmS yJ usrwd@k us&D mG a&muf
vmw,f? tJ'D&GmrSm a':pku tJ'&D Gmem;w0du
k frSmae=uwJh &Gmom;awG
udk E_wfcGe;f qufpum; tenf;i,fajymygw,f? tcsdefuvnf; aemuf
usaejyDjzpfv@kd a':pku rde@f cGe;f rajymawmhb;l vdk@ awmif;yefpum; ajym
cJhygw,f? 'DyJ,if;+rdKŒudkvnf; tcsderf Da&mufz@dk ukad wmh usrwdk@awG tJ'D
&Gmuae jyefxGufvmcJh=uygw,f?”
“xGufvmjyD;odyfr=umbl; usrwdk@&JŒum;wef;udk armfawmfqdkif
u,fwpD; a&mufvmjyD; &Gmom;awGudk ±du
k af ewJhta=umif; vmajymyg
w,f? a':pkudk}udKqdkz@dk apmifhae=uwJh uav;/ rdef;rtygt0if &Gmom;

178

oef;0if;vIi
d f

awGudk pGrf;tm;&Sif 'dkif,memum;wpD;u twif;0ifwdkufjyD; um;udk
xdk;&yfvku
d fygw,f? jyD;awmh um;ay:u vlawGqif;vmjyD; &Gmom;awG
udk qif;±dkufaewmudk vSr;f jrifae&ygw,f? a':pkudk xGufjyD;r}udKqdkzdk@
tpdk;&u }udKwiftrdef@xkwfxm;w,fvdk@ od&ygw,f?
usrtaemufvSrf;=unfhvku
d fawmh um;awGtukev
f Hk; &yfaewm
udk awG@&ygw,f? acgi;f rSmvufukid fy0gawGpD;xm;wJh bke;f }u;D twkEpS yf g;
eJ@ wjcm;vlo;Hk a,muf a':pkum;em;udo
k mG ;jyD;awmh a':pkudk wckcak jym
wm awG@vdkufygw,f? aemufydkif;rS usrwdk@o&d wmu tJ'DvlawGu
a':pkudk um;ay:uqif;jyD; olwdk@udk rdef@cGef;ajymzdk@ ajymwmjzpfygw,f?
jyD;awmh olwdk@awGu a':pkudkawG@zdk@apmifhaewm awmfawm=umjyDvdk@
ajymw,f? 'gu usrwd@k um;wef;udk qufroGm;Edkiaf tmif tcsed q
f x
GJ m;
wmjzpfygw,f? tJ't
D cdserf SmyJ a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf; &Gmom;
awGudk ±dkufESufaewJhtwGuf 'Dtwdkif;xGufroGm;&ufbl;vdk@ ajymyg
w,f?
odr=umygbl;/ =uHŒzGH@eJ@pGrf;tm;&SifawG tjynfhwifxm;wJh bwfpf
um; 10 pD; avmuf usrwdk@qDudk a&mufvmygw,f? tJ'DrSm usrwdk@
a':pk&JŒum;udk &efukefuygvmwJv
h luw0dkif;/ rEœav;uw0dkif;qdjk yD; oHk;
qifh0ef;&HjyD; umxm;=uw,f? olwdk@&ŒJ bwfpfum;awGxJu (5) pD;u
oifwef;ay;xm;ovdkyJ wnDwnf;&yfjyD; usrwdk@&JŒum;wef;udk rD;
qvdkuaf wGe@J xd;k xm;w,f? tJ'rD SmyJ bwfpu
f m; 10 pD;ay:rS vufywf
jzLrsm;wyfqifxm;wJh vl 5000 cef@ opfom;wkwfawG/ oHc|efawG/ oH
wkwaf wG/ av;cGawGu,
kd pf eD @J qif;vm=ujyD; a0omvD+rKd ŒxJ bDv;l 0ifo
vdk usrwdk@udk ±du
k f=u/ ESu=f u/ owf=uawmhwmygy?J olwk@d awG@or#vl
udk ±dkufjyD; awG@or#qJ}G udK;/ vufaumuf/ em&DawG twif;qGJc|wf,ljyD;
um;awG/ qdkifu,fawGudk zsufqD;=uygw,f?
usrwd@k um;xJrmS &Sad ewJo
h al wGtm;vH;k um;xJrmS a=umufjy;D 0yfae
=uw,f? um;ay:rSmygvmwJh tbOD;cspfwifu usrwdk@ trsKd;orD; oHk;
a,mufudk,fay:rSm uef@vef@cHjyD; umxm;ay;w,f? tJ'Dvdk vufrSm

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

179

ydwfjzLywfxm;wJh =uHŒzG@H e@J prG ;f tm;&Siaf wGu wa,mufcsi;f pDukd qGx
J w
k f
jyD; ±dkuf=uw,f? olwdk@u usrwdk@&JŒyifeDtuôsawGudk twif; qGJjzJ=u
w,f? qG}J udK;/ vufaumuf/ vufqt
GJ w
d fawGukd vk,=l uw,f? usrwd@k
&JŒxrDudkvnf; qGJc|wf=uw,f? 'gayr,fh usrwdk@wudk,fvHk;u aoG;
awGe@J &$Jaeawmh olwdk@usr&JŒt0wftpm;awGudk qGJc|wfvdk@r&bl;?
usreJ@ cyfvrS ;f vSrf;rSm&Sad ewJh trdk;rygwu
hJ m;ay:u vlawGuv
dk nf;
wuf±ku
d =f ujyD; vlESpaf ,muf yGcJ sif;jyD;aoqHk;oGm;wmudkvnf; awG@&yg
w,f? usrteD;rSmvnf; qdik fu,fe@J vdu
k v
f mwJu
h av;awGuv
kd nf; vl
4/ 5 a,mufu 0dkif;±dkufaewmudk awG@&ygw,f?
=uHŒzGH@eJ@pGrf;tm;&SifawGu usrudk ±dkufv±J dkufw,f? ±dkif;vnf; ±dkif;
pdkif;w,f? “eifw@dk u EdkifiHjcm;om;rdef;rudk axmufcH=uw,faygh/ eifwdk@
vnf; olw@kd vykd J ukvm;r,m;jzpfcsifwmvm;/ rod&ifrw
S x
f m;/ igw@kd u
pGrf;tm;”vdk@ajymjyD;awmh usrwdk@ukd 0g;vHk;eJ@ ±dkuf=uygw,f? qHyifudk
qGx
J m;jy;D awmh ajr}uD;eJ@ acgi;f udak qmifw
h ,f? wkwef J@ acgi;f udk ±du
k w
f t
Jh
wGuf usracgif;uGJoGm;jyD; owdvpfomG ;ygw,f? usrwdk@uk±d u
dk w
f Jh vlESpf
a,muf[m bkef;}uD;vdk ouFef;0wfxm;wJholyg? aemufESpfa,mufu
awmh OD;xkyfaqmif;xm;jyD; abmif;bDudk 0wfxm;ygw,f? a':atmif
qef;pk=unf&JŒum;armif;orm;u twif;um;armif;ajy;awmh a':
atmifqef;pk=unf vGufoGm;cJhygw,f?
usr owdrvpfcifav;rSm usrwdk@udk (2) em&Davmuf wdu
k cf u
kd w
f hJ
vlawGu rD;/ a&qdkwJh tcsufay;oauFweJ@ jyefqkwfoGm;=uygw,f?
usrowdjyefvnfvmawmh t&rf;udk arSmifrnf;aew,f? atmf[pf t
ultnDawmif;oHawG =um;ae&w,f? usr um;qDudkomG ;zdk@ }udK;pm;
awmh usr&JŒab;ywfywfvnfrSm toufr&SdawmhwJhvlawGeJ@ jynfhae
wmyJ? usr um;ay:rSm c%em;wJhtcsdefrSm bkef;}uD;eJ@ &Gmom; av;
a,mufu u,fzdk@a&mufvmwJhtwGuf olwdk@rSmygvmwJh "gwfrD;eJ@
av#mufxk;d =unfhawmh usrwd@k pD;vmwJhum;udkarmif;wJh um;armif; o
rm;uawmh rsufvHk;tjyifxGuf aoqHk;aeygw,f? aowJhtxd t}uD;

180

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tus,f t±dkufcHxm;&wJyh HkygyJ? tjcm;vlawG vJaewmvnf; awG@&yg
w,f? wcsKdŒvnf; toufr&Sdawmhygb;l ? usrwdk@udk tumtuG,af y;cJh
wJh tbOD;cspw
f if[mvnf; acgi;f [ufwuf}uD;uGJaewmudk awG@vu
kd &f
w,f? qdik fu,fe@J vdu
k v
f mwJu
h av;awGvnf; aoukejf yDv@dk awmh xif
wmyJ? bmjzpfv@dk vJqdkawmh olwdk@ bmv_yf&Sm;r_rS r&S=d uawmhvdk@ygyJ?
wcsKdŒvlawGqdk&if olwdk@&ŒJ cE<mudk,fxJuaejyD; aoG;awG tqufrjywf
yef;xGufaewmudkvnf; awG@&ygw,f? t&rf;a=umufp&maumif;wJh
toHawGvnf; =um;ae&ygw,f?
bkef;}uD;eJ@&Gmom;awGu usreJ@tzGJ@0ifESpfa,muf/ ausmif;om;
wpfa,muf aygif; (4) a,mufwk@d ukd tJ'DteD;ywf0ef;usifrSm&SdwhJ bkef;
}uD;ausmif;udk ydk@ay;vdkuf=uygw,f? usrwd@k tm;vHk; vHkjcHKa&;twGuf
bkef;}uD;ausmif;&JŒtjyifbufrmS ykef;ae=u&ygw,f? bkef;}uD;ausmif;u
vlowfrj_ zpfwaJh e&meJ@ odyrf a0;ygbl;? n 12 em&DavmufrmS ppfum;
awGa&mufvmjyD; um;rD;xdk;jyD;awmh '%f&m&aewJo
h lawGukd um;wpD;F /
aoaewJo
h lawGudk um;wpD; (2) pD;cGJjyD; um;ay:ypfwifjyD; ac:oGm;wm
udk awG@&ygw,f? usefum;awGu owfuGi f;udk vlawGrjrifatmif
azsmufzsuaf eygw,f? arv 31 &ufae@rSm q&mawmfwyg; usrwdk@udk
ydkufqHay;jyD; xGufajy;cdkif;ygw,f? aemufae@reuf 5 em&DcJaG vmuf
a&mufawmh q&mawmfu usrwdk@av;a,mufudk bke;f }uD;ausmif;eJ@
5 rdkifavmufa0;wJh &xm;blwmudk vdkufy@dk ay;ygw,f? usrwdk@ &xm;eJ@
rHk&mG jyefygw,f? rH&k mG wpf+rKd ŒvH;k udv
k nf; ppfwyfu odr;f xm;ygw,f? usr
&xm;ay:u qif;awmh vH;k 0vrf;rav#mufEkid fbl;? usrwd@k av;a,muf
qdu
k u
f m;iSm;jyD;awmh rH&k mG xJrSm&Sw
d hJ bkef;}uD;ausmif;udo
k mG ;w,f? bke;f
}uD;u usrwdk@udk 0Sufxm;ay;w,f? nae 5 em&DavmufrSm usrwdk@&JŒ
'%f&mawGudkaq;ukzdk@ q&m0efac:ay;w,f? usr&JŒacgif;u 2 vufr
avmufuGJaejyD;awmh tcsdev
f GefoGm;vdk@ temudkcsKyfvdk@ r&awmhbl;?
q&m0efu usrudk cifAsm; t&rf;toufjyif;w,f? 'Davmuf'%f&meJ@
'Davmuf=um=umaeEdkifwmudk awmfawmftHh=ow,fvdk@ ajymygw,f?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

181

tJ'Daemuf q&m0efu usrudkaq;xdk;ay;jyD; aq;wdkuyf gw,f? wywf
avmufaejyD;awmh usrwd@k rEœav;udk jyefomG ;w,f? 'gayrJh ppfwyfu
tJ'D 'Dy,
J if;rSmygwo
hJ al wGudk vdu
k &f mS aew,f=um;vd@k usr wjcm;&GmrSm
wpfvavmuf oGm;ykef;ae&ao;w,f?
aemufawmh 'Dy,
J if;vlowfr_tjzpftysufudk pHkprf;ppfaq;wJh
ta&;ay:aumfr&Sifu vlwa,mufuaejyD; usrudk usrwdk@ =uHKawG@cJh
&wJhta=umif;awGajymjyzdk@ qufoG,fawmif;qdkvmygw,f? 'ge@J usr
vnf; xkwfazmfajymqdkzk@d qH;k jzwfvu
kd jf yD; 2004 ckEpS /f =o*kwfvrSm xdik ;f
Edkiif H rJaqmuf+rdKŒudk xGufvmcJhygw,f”
(vuf&dt
S csdew
f iG f a':nGef@nGef@onf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk zd@k 0def;
+rdKŒwGif aexdkifvsuf&SdjyD; e,l;a,muf+rdKŒwGif usif;yjyKvkyfcJhonfh Edik fiH
wum=um;emyGJwGif 'DyJ,if;vlowfyGJta=umif; oufaoxGufqdkcJh
onf? pma&;ol)
taemufajrmufwidk ;f ppfXmecsKyf xde;f csKyx
f m;onfh e,fajrtwGi;f
&Sd 'DyJ,if;+rdKŒteD; usD&Gmvrf;ray:wGif jzpfyGm;cJhaom 'DyJ,if; vkyf=uH
owfjzwfru
_ dk jrefrmtm%mydik rf sm;u vl (4) OD;aoqH;k jy;D 50 OD; '%f&m
&&SdcJhonf[kqdkaomfvnf; rsufjrifoufaorsm;. tqdkt& aoqHk;ol
aygi;f 282 OD; &Sdonf[k qdkonf?
tcif;jzpfymG ;&mod@k (2) &uft=um ZGev
f 1 &ufae@wiG f a&muf&pdS kH
prf;cJhaom &efukef+rdKŒtar&duefoH±k;H rS t&m&Sdrsm;u 'DyJ,if; wdkucf dkuf
r_onf tpDtpOf&d&S =Sd uHpnfcyJh k&H aom t"du±k%;f udk ppftpdk;&vdv
k m;ol
vl&rf;um;rsm;u usL;vGefcJhjcif;jzpfa=umif;/ aoqH;k olrsm;onf tpd;k &
xkwfjyefonfxuf ydkIrsm;jym;Edkifa=umif; qdkygonf?
'Dy,
J if;vky=f uo
H wfjzwfrw
_ iG f a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf touf
raobJ vGwaf jrmufchjJ yD; a&OD;+rdKŒt0if*w
d t
f a&mufwiG f tm%mydik frsm;
rS zrf;qD;cJjh yD; a&OD; &Jpcef;wGif ,m,Dxed ;f odrf;xm;cJo
h nf? a&OD;&Jpcef;rS
aemufwpfae@ (31-5-2003) eHeuf 1 em&DwiG f &Jarrsm;rS um;wpfp;D ay:
od@k twif;t=uyfwifaqmifI ac:aqmifvmcJh&m trSwf (6) wifu
h m;

182

oef;0if;vIi
d f

wyf&if; {nfh&dyo
f mwGifwpf}udrf/ rif;bl;+rdKŒ&Sd ppfwyf{nfh&dyfomwGif wpf
}urd &f yfem;jyD;aemuf ZGev
f (2) &ufae@ eHeuf 8 em&D 20 rdepfwiG f tif;pdef
axmifodk@ ydk@aqmifxde;f odrf;jcif; cHcJh&onf? ZGefv 24 &ufae@txd
tif;pdeaf xmiftwGi;f &Sd tdrif ,fwpfvk;H wGif xde;f odrf;xm;cJhonf? ZGev
f
24 &ufae@wiG f tif;pdefaxmifrS &JreG w
f yfpcef;&Sd &Jacgi&f yd fomod@k ajymif;
a&$Œxm;cJ&h mrS pufwifbmv 16 &ufae@wiG f a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
trsK;d orD;a&m*gjzpfyGm;cJh&m aq;±Hkwufa&mufcGJpdwu
f ko&ef vdktyfI
&efukef+rdKŒ tm&Sawmif0ifaq;±Hkodk@ wifydk@cJhonf? aq;±Hw
k Gif rD;,yfESifh
om;zGm;qdkif&ma&m*gukd cGpJ w
d fukor_cH,ljyD;aemuf Edik fiHwum. zdtm;
ay;r_a=umifh ppftpdk;&onf a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; pufwifbm
v23 &ufae@wiG f oufqikd &f mq&m0ef}uD;rsm;u aq;±Hrk q
S if;cGihjf yKaom
tcg aetdrfodk@jyefydk@I pwkwÎt}udrfaetdrftus,fcsKyfjzifh xdef;odrf;
xm;cJhonf? 2004 ckESpf/ arv 20 &ufae@wGif ukvor*~ txl; udk,f
pm;vS,f tDb&m*rfbm&Donf aetdrftus,fcsKyfcsxm;jcif;cH&aom
a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS fh oGm;a&mufawG@qkcH Jhonf? owif;pm&Sif;vif;
yGJY ppftpkd;&u owif;axmufrsm;tm; ‚if;.vHkjcHKa&;t& aetdrfwiG f
acwœaexdkif&ef uef@owfxm;jcif;omjzpfygonf[k ajym=um;cJhaomf
vnf; 2004 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbm 27 &ufae@wGif 1975 ckEpS w
f Gif jyÏmef;I/
1991 wGif jyifqifxkwfjyefcJhonfh ‘EdkifiHawmftm; aESmifh,Suf zsuf
qD;vdkorl sm;. ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,af pmifha&SmufonfhOya'’ yk'fr
10 (c) jzifh jypf'%fcsrSwfcJhonf?
rnfonfh&mZ0wfr_ukrd # usL;vGejf cif;r&Syd gbv
J suf zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f
jcif;cHvku
d f&I jzpfay:vmaom epfemqHk;±_;H r_onf vlwa,muftzd@k T
r#xuf}u;D rm;aom epfemqH;k ±_;H r_[I
l r&SEd idk af y? xdk@jyif ,if;od@k xde;f odr;f
cHvdkuf&onfhtwGuf xdky*k ~dKvf. yk*~vdu vGwfvyfrv
_ nf; qHk;±_;H oGm;
awmhonf? txl;ojzifh ESpf&n
S fvrsm; xdef;odrf;cHvdkuf&ygu xdkol.
±kyf0wˆKydkif;qdkif&mempfemqHk;±_H;r_ESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&mxdcu
dk fqHk;±_H;r_vnf;
jzpfch&J ayonf? trSepf ifppf Edik fiHawmftm; aESmuf,u
S zf sufq;D vdo
k lrsm;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

183

ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,faomOya' (Edik fiHawmfumuG,fonfhOya')
onf ta&;ay:umvtwGufom jzpfoifhayonf? ta&;ay:umv
onfvnf; tcsdeftuef@towfom &Sdoifhonf? xdk@jyif ,ckjzpfpOfudk
avhvm=unh±f y_ gu Oya'rJh vufeufjzifh owfjzwf/ ±du
k Ef u
S cf cH &hJ aomol
rsm;udo
k m zrf;qD;tjypfay;jcif;onf Oya'ESit
fh nD jzpfygovm;qdo
k nf
rSm ar;p&mjzpfaeygawmhonf? vuf&u
dS mv jrefrmEdik fiw
H iG f Edik if Ha&;wGif
yg0ifowfoufolrSefor#udk tqdkygOya'jzifh zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;vsuf&Sd
onf? Oya'u rnfo@kd yifqakd p/ rnforl sm; rnfo@kd yif ysupf ;D ygap/ rnfr#
yifxcd du
k ef pfemygap/ etzppftpd;k &onf ‚if;wdk@tm%mwnfjrJa&; t
wGuf EdkifiHawmfvjHk cHKa&;udkta=umif;jyum a&;qGJxm;aom tqdyk g Oy
a'udk 'dkif;tjzpf aumif;pGmtoHk;csaeonfrSm xif&Sm;vSayonf?
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@ 'kwd,
OuUXol&OD;wifO;D onf 'DyJ,if;aoG;acsmif;pD; vkyf=uo
H wfjzwfr_twGi;f
toufraobJ xdak e@rmS yif zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f cHc&hJ jy;D ppfukid ;f wdik ;f uav;
axmifwGif xde;f odrf;xm;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf OD;wifOD;tm; 2004 ckeSpf/
azazmf0g&Dv 14 &ufae@ nykid f;wGif &efukef+rdKŒaetdrfo@dk tus,fcsKyjf zifh
qufvufxed ;f odr;f jcif;cHc&hJ onf? 2005 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&D 14 &ufae@wiG f
1975 ckESpfwGijf yÏmef;I 1991 ckESpw
f Gif jyifqifxkwfjyefcJhonfh“ edkifiH
awmftm; aESmifh,SufzsufqD;vdkolrsm;. tEœ&m,frS umuG,fapmifh
a&SmufonfOh ya'” yk'rf 10 (c) jzifh 2006 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&v
D 13 &uf
ae@txd aetdrftus,fcsKyf oufwrf; (1) ESpf xyfwdk;cJhonf? jypf'%f
jynfah jrmufonfh 2006 ckEpS f/ azazmf0g&Dv 13 &ufae@wiG f aemufxyf
jypf'%foufwrf; (1) ESpf xyfrHwdk;cJhjyefonf?

*Gr*f sL; vlt
U cGit
hf a&;qk
2004 ckEpS /f {jyDv 27 &ufae@Y ud&k ;D ,m;orRwEdik if H (awmifu;kd &D;
,m;) EdkifiH/ qdk;vf+rdKŒwGif ‘ar 18 atmufarhzG,f azmifa';&Sif;tzG@J ’ rS
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; 2004 ckESpftwGuf ‘*Grf;*sL;vl@tcGifhta&;

184

oef;0if;vIi
d f

qk’ udk csD;jr‡ifhcJhavonf? udk&D;,m;orRw c|ef'l;0Srfvufxuf 1980
jynfEh Spf/ arv 18 &ufae@u qdk;vf+rdKŒawmfawmifbuf *Grf*sL;+rdKŒwGif
'Drdkua&pDESifh vl@tcGifhta&;twGuf awmif;qdkqENjy=uonfh ausmif;
om;rsm;ESifh jynforl sm;tm; ppfwyfrS ypfcwfowfjzwfco
hJ jzifh tjypfrhJ
jynfol axmifEiS chf sI
D aoqH;k cJh&onft
h a&;tcif;tm; trSww
f &jzpfap
&ef ‘*Gr*f sL; ar 18 azmifa';&Si;f ’ udk zG@J pnf;cJjh cif;jzpfjyD; tqdyk g azmifa';
&Sif;rS a':atmifqef;pk=unfuo
Jh @kd yif ,cifu tqdyk gqu
k kd ta&SŒwDarm
orRw Zmemem*wfprf mtd/k a[mifaumifv@l tcGit
hf a&;tzG@J rS zmpDzm
emwdk@tm; csD;jr‡ifhcJhbl;onf?

'Dy,
J if;vkyMf uHowfjzwfrt
I a&;,laqmif&u
G af &;
aumfr&Sif
'DyJ,if;vkyf=uHowfjzwfr_ ta&;,laqmif&Gufa&;aumfr&Sifonf
'DyJ,if;owfjzwfr_twGuf trSefw&m;azmfxw
k fa&;/ 'DyJ,if;owfjzwf
r_ESifhqufpyfI jynfwGif;jynfyESifh tjynfjynfqdkif&mtokdif;t0dkif;wGif
Oya'a&;&mtajccHI vlxkwdkuyf GJESifhaygif;pyfvkyaf qmifoGm;&ef &nf
&G,fcsufjzifh zGJ@pnf;cJhjyD; tzGJ@0ifav;OD;yg0ifonf? aumfr&Siftm; jrefrm
EdkifiHa&SŒaersm;aumfpDESifh jrefrmEdkifiHtrsKd;om;aumifpDwdk@ yl;aygif;I
2004 ckEpS f/ ZGev
f 25 &ufae@wiG f xdik ;f jrefrme,fpyfwae&mY zG@J pnf;cJjh y;D
Zlvdkifv 4 &ufae@wGif }udKwif (ueOD;t=urf;zsOf;) tpD&ifcHpm wpf
apmifudk xkwjf yefcJhygonf?
'Dy,
J if;vky=f uHowfjzwfr_ ta&;,laqmif&u
G af &;aumfr&Sif tygt
0if EdkifiHwumrS vltrsm;u xdkvkyf=uHowfjzwfr_onf tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd
usL;vGeaf om &mZ0wfrj_ zpfa=umif; tcsut
f vufrsm;jzifh tcdik t
f rm
pGypf GJxm;onf?
vkyf=uHowfjzwfr_ESifh ywfoufI vkyaf qmifr_rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;
oufoufr[kwb
f J epfemcJholrsm;twGuf w&m;r#wr_&mS azGay;&ef jzpf
a=umif;/ xdkvky=f uHowfjzwfro
_ nf a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf trsKd;om;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

185

'Dru
dk a&pDtzJ@G csKyftzGJ@0ifrsm;ESifhom t"du oufqdkifonf r[kwfbJ
jrefrmjynfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;ESifh oufqdkifaea=umif; aumfr&Sif.
}udKwiftpD&ifcHpmwGif azmfjyxm;onf?
xdk@jyif 'DyJ,if;vky=f uHowfjzwfrw
_ Gif jypfr_usL;vGefolrsm;udk pkHprf;
azmfxkw+f yD; toufao'%f&m&&Scd o
hJ nfh epfemqk;H ±_H;cJhorl sm;udk auseyf
r_&o
Sd nftxd awmif;yefr_rsm;jyKvyk f&rnf[k 'Dy,
J if;jzpfpOfwiG f touf
raousef&pfcJholrsm;u xkwfazmfajym=um;cJhygonf?

*kPx
f ;l aqmif yg&DNrdKo
U q
l k
2004 ckEpS f/ 'DZifbmv 10 &ufae@ eHeuf 10 em&DwiG f yg&D+rdKŒY
tcrf;tem;w&yfusif;yI a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; jyifopfEidk fiH.
‘*k%fx;l aqmifyg&+D rKd Œolq’k (The Honorary Citizen of Paris) udk csD;jr‡ihcf haJ v
onf? tqdyk gqt
k m; 2004 ckESpf/ ZGefv 8 &ufae@wiG f a&G;cs,cf hjJ cif; jzpf
jyD; 2004 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv 10 &ufae@Y a':atmifqef;pk=unf Edb
k ,f
jidrf;csrf;a&;qk&&Sdcho
J nfh (14) ESpaf jrmufESpfwGif qkay;yGJusif;ycJhjcif;jzpf
onf? tcrf;tem;od@k a':atmifqef;pk=unfu,
dk pf m; 0ef}uD;csKyf a'guf
wmpdef0if;u qkvufcH&,lcho
J nf?

&efppfwuúov
kd rf S *kPx
f ;l aqmifyg&*lbUJG
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. 'Dru
dk a&pDESifh vl@tcGit
fh a&; wdkuyf GJ0if
aeolrsm;tm; av;pm;todtrSwjf yKonfhtaejzifh xdkif;EdkifiH &efppf
wuUodkvf (Rang sit University) rS *k%fxl;aqmifyg&*lbGJ@ (Honorary
Doctorate in Politics, Philosophy and Economics) udk ay;tyfcsD;jr‡ifhcJhonf?
EdkifiHa&;ody`H/ '\eaA'ESifh pD;yGm;a&;bmomwdk@wGif *k%fx;l aqmifbGJ@
&&Scd jhJ cif;jzpfonf? bG@J cs;D jr‡iyhf u
JG kd 2004 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm 26 &ufae@wiG f
&efppfwuUodkvq
f kESif;obifyGJESiht
f wl jyKvkyfcJhonf? a':atmifqef;
pk=unf. jrefrmjynftem*wfta&;udk jidr;f csrf;pGmwdu
k yf 0JG ifaer_twGuf
ay;tyfchjJ cif;jzpfa=umif; &efppfwuUokv
d f. xkwfjyefcsufY azmfjyxm;

186

oef;0if;vIi
d f

onf? “olr[m w&m;r#wwJh urBmavmu}uD;jzpf&eftwGuf 'Drkdu
a&pDta&;ESiv
fh @l tcGit
fh a&; r&Sdrjzpfvt
dk yfonfukd n$ef;qdkaom oauF
wwckjzpfonf” [kvnf; tqdkygwuUodkvf. t"dywdu a':atmif
qef;pk=unfxH ay;ydk@aompmwGif azmfjyxm;ayonf?
&efppfwuUov
dk ft"dywda'guw
f mtmopfrS a':atmifqef;pk=unf
xH 'DZifbmv 13 &ufae@pGJjzifh ay;ydk@onfhta=umif;=um;pmwGif olr
tm; *k%fxl;aqmifqkay;rnf[k azmfjyxm;aomfvnf; olrudk,w
f dkif
vma&mufEkid frnf r[kwfonfuv
kd nf; }udKwif em;vnfxm;ygonf[k
ay;pmY a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf?
&efppfwuUodkvfonf befaumuf+rdKŒteD; yokHXmeDt&yfwGif&djS yD;
&efppfwuUokv
d fESifhvufatmufcHaumvdyftoD;oD;wGif ausmif;om;
aygi;f (14˜000) cef@ ESppf Of wufa&mufavhvmoif=um;vsuf&do
S nf?
tqdkygwuUov
dk frS Oya'bGJ@/ aq;/ AdokumbGJ@/ tEkynmbGJ@rsm;/ *Dwy
nmbG@J rsm;/ uGefjyLwmodyb
H` @J G / tdik fwD ac: owif;enf;ynmbG@J / tif*sifeD
,mbGJ@ESihf {nf}h udKvkyif ef;qdik &f m pDrHcef@crGJ _ynm&yfrsm;twGuf oif=um;
ay;vsuf&Sdonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ay;tyfcs;D jr‡ihcf o
Jh nfh *k%f
xl;aqmifyg&*lb@JG ukd ,cifu xdik ;f Edik if 0H ef}u;D csKyaf [mif; c|ev
f yd kid fESifh xdik f
0rfEkid fiH0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; rpPwmAifqifhwdk@tm; ay;tyfcJhb;l onf?
xd@k jyif xdik ;f Edik if H ormqwfwuUov
kd f (Thammasat University) uvnf;
2005 ckEpS /f ZGev
f 19 &ufae@wiG u
f sa&mufaom a':atmifqef;pk=unf
touf 60 q,fjynfh arG;ae@yGJtcrf;tem;Y *k%fx;l aqmifyg&*lbJG@
(Honorary Degree in Political Science) udk xyfrHay;tyfcJhavonf?

vGwv
f yfaomvlom;qk
2005 ckEpS /f ZGev
f 16 &ufae@nydik ;f wGif tdik ,
f mvefEidk if H. 'kw,
d
+rdKŒawmf *dka0;+rdKŒwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ‘vGwfvyfaom vl
om;qk’ udk ay;tyfcho
J nf? *dak 0;+rdKŒawmf0efu,
dk fwikd af y;tyfonfh tqdk

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

187

ygqkudk a':atmifqef;pk=unf. cifyGe;f jzpfol rdkufu,ftJ&pf.nDu
wufa&mufvufcH,lcJhonf?
+rdKŒawmf0efrpPuufovif;udkE&dk Du “jrefrmEdik fiHwiG f 'Dru
dk a&pD &&Sd
&ef a':atmifqef;pk=unfrS t=urf;rzuf jidrf;csr;f onfhenf;jzifh wdkuyf GJ
0ifaeolwa,mufjzpfouJho@kd jrefrmjynforl sm;omru urBmw0Srf;u
yg av;pm;,H=k unfr_&&So
d lwa,mufjzpfonft
h wGuf ,ckuo
hJ k@d *dak 0;+rdKŒ
awmf. tqifhtjrifhqHk;qkjzpfonf *dka0;+rdKŒawmf0ef. vGwfvyfaom
vlom;qk csD;jr‡ifh&jcif;jzpfonf” [k &Sif;jycJhavonf?

tdak vmhzyf rf;qk
2006 ckEpS /f rwfv (1) &ufae@wiG f qG'D ifEkid if pH awmh[rk ;f +rdKŒY jrefrmh
'Drdu
k a&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; vkyf=uHowfjzwfjcif;
cH&aom qGD'ifEkid fiH0ef}uD;csKyf tdkavmhzfyrf;txdr;f trSwq
f k (Olof Palm
Prize-2005) udk ay;tyfcs;D jri
‡ chf aJh vonf? tqdyk gqkukd tdak vmhzyf rf; trSwf
w&tzGJ@u *k%fjyKcsD;jr‡ifhcJhjcif;jzpfjyD; vGefcJhonfhESpf 20 cef@u vl@tcGifh
ta&;ESifh 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;twGuf wufºupG mG v_y&f mS ;cJah om qD'G if0ef}u;D csKyf
tdkavmhzfyrf; vkyf=uHcH&jcif;tm; atmufarhowd&aeap&ef tdak vmhzf
yrf; rdom;pkrsm;ESifh ‚if;.qd&k ,
S 'f rD u
dk &ufwpfygww
D @kd yl;aygi;f I tdak vmhzf
yrf;txdrf;trSwftzGJ@tm; wnfaxmifcJhjcif;jzpfonf? tqdkygqkudk
tdkavmhzfyrf;.ZeD; t,fvpPbwfyrf;udk,fwdkif csD;jr‡ifhcJhjcif;jzpfonf?
,if;qkudk a':atmifqef;pk=unfu,
dk pf m; 0ef}uD;csKyf a'guw
f mpdef0if;rS
vufcH&,lay;cJo
h nf? qGD'if0ef}uD;csKyftdkavmhzfyrf; vkyf=uHowfjzwf
cH&jyD; wESpft=um 1987 ckEpS frpS I ESpfpOf tdkavmhzyf rf;qkukd ay;tyfcJh
jcif;jzpfjyD; 2005 ckEpS ftwGuf jrefrmEdkiif HwGif vl@tcGifhta&;/ wdkif;&if;
om;pnf;vH;k nDnw
G fa&;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDa&;twGuf jidrf;csrf;onfhenf;jzifh
wdkuyf GJ0ifaeonfh a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; &nf&G,fI ay;tyfcJhjcif;
jzpfjyD; *k%fjyKv$mrSww
f rf;ESit
fh wl qkaiGtjzpf tar&duefa':vm ig;
aomif;csD;jr‡ifhcJhonf?

188

oef;0if;vIi
d f

od@k uvkd jrefrmEdkiif v
H @l tcGit
fh a&;ESihf 'Dru
dk a&pDa&;wdk@twGuf jynf
olvx
l t
k m; OD;aqmifwu
kd yf 0JG ifaeaom a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; Edik if H
toD;oD;rS yg&*lbGJ@rsm;/ *k%fx;l aqmifqkwHqyd frsm; ay;aeaomfvnf;
etzppftpd;k &onf ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf udkzDtmeef
u ppftpdk;&acgif;aqmifAkv
d foef;a&$tm; c|i;f csufr&Sd jyefvnfvw
$ fay;
&ef wdku±f ku
d af rwœm&yfcaH eonfh=um;rS aetdrt
f us,fcsKyfukd 2006 ckESp/f
arv 27 &ufae@wiG f xyfrHwdk;jr‡ifhvdkufavonf? Tonfudk =unfh
jcif;jzifh &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfazmufjyefum t&nftcsi;f r&Sad om etz
ppftpk;d &acgi;f aqmif Adv
k o
f ef;a&$onf rdrt
d m%mwnfjrrJ r_ v
S I
JG rnfonfh
acgi;f aqmif/ rnfonfhEidk fiH/ rnfonfhtzG@J tpnf;.pum;udkr# av;pm;
wefzdk;xm; wkef@jyefrnfr[kwfbJ trke;f w&m;udkom &if0,fyku
d I
f tm
Cmww&m;udo
k m wGe;f tm;ozG,fjyKrlaeonfrmS odomxif&mS ;vSay
onf?
rqvygwDtm%m&SifpepfatmufY 26 ESpfvHk;vkH; rsufpyd dwf/ em;
ydwf/ vufyu
kd f/ acgif;ndwv
f yk cf &hJ aomvlxo
k nf a':atmifqef;pk=unf
a=umifh 'Dru
kd a&pDEiS hf vl@tcGit
hf a&;udk em;vnfoabmayguu
f m jrefrmh
'Dru
dk a&pDta&;twGuf jynfolvlxkESifhtwl qif;&J'kuQcHI &J&J0Hh0hH OD;
aqmifwkdufy0GJ ifvsu&f daS eaom a':atmifqef;pk=unfvGwfajrmufa&;/
a':atmifqef;pk=unfcsKyfaESmifc&H jcif;onf rdrd.vGwfvyfykid fciG fhESifh 'Drdk
ua&pDa&;udk csKyfaESmifxm;onf[k rSw,
f u
l m jynfwGif;jynfy awmif;
qdkwdkufyJ0G ifvsuf&Sdayonf?
rSeaf vonf? EdkifiaH &;qdkonfrSm vlwidk f;ESiq
fh idk fonfhupd Pjzpfonf?
Edik fiw
H pfEidk fiw
H ;kd wuf&efEiS fh wnfwchH ikd jf rzJ k@d qo
dk nfrSm tm;vH;k nDnD nGwf
nGw}f udK;pm;=urSom jzpfEkid fayonf? rdrdtzGJ@tpnf;tusKd;/ rdrd todkif;
t0dik f;tusKd;udkom uGufIvkyfuidk faev#if ppftpd;k &onf oufqk;d &Snf
aernfrSm ajr}uD;vufcwfrvGJyifjzpfonf?
xdk@aemuf 2007 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv 25 &ufae@wGif urBmESifh
jrefrmjynfov
l x
l ktm; vSnhpf m;&eftwGuf etzppftpdk;&onf tvkyf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

189

orm;0ef}uD;csKyfatmif=unftm; ppftpd;k &. qufqaH &;0ef}u;D cef@tyf
um a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS t
fh pkd;&{nfah *[mwGif yxrqH;k awG@qakH qG;
aEG;apcJo
h nf?
‘'dkif,mavmh’ (Dialogue) qdo
k nfrmS ta=umif;t&mwpfck/ jy\
emw&yfukd csp=f unfjidrf ;f csrf;pGm tajz&SmEdik &f eftwGuf wzufESiw
fh zuf
tawG;tac:/ t,ltq/ oabmxm;tjrifrsm;udk zvS,fjyD; aqG;aEG;
onfah e&mjzpfygonf? 'dkif,mavmhvkyo
f nfh &nf&,
G fcsuo
f nf uGJvJr_/
oabmwlnrD r_ &So
d nft
h csurf sm;udk yGiyfh Giv
hf if;vif;aqG;aEG;jyD; tajz&Sm
&efjzpfonf? Webster’s New World t*Fvdyftbd"geft& Dialogue udk
interchange of ideas by open discussion [k teufzi
Gx
hf m;aoma=umifh jrefrm
bmomjzifh “tjyeftvSefem;vnfr_ESifh tqifajyvdkuzf ufnrD _rsm;udk
yGifhyGifhvif;vif; &SmazG zvS,f&efjzpfonf” [k oHk;E_ef;xm;onf?
wenf;qdak omf ‘'dkif,mavmh’ qdkonfrmS atmifjrifonfhqufqH
a&;wnfaqmufr_. vrf;a=umif;yifjzpfonf? xdk@jyif 'dkif,mavmhqdk
onfrmS vltrsm;wefz;dk xm;onft
h a=umif;w&m;teuf wckjzpfonf?
'dkif,mavmhqdkonfrSm vltenf;i,fom/ em;vnfEdkifjyKvkyfEidk fonfh
v#KdŒ0SufeufeJonfh udpPw&yfvnf;r[kwfay? xdk@jyif omrefpum;0dkif;
od@k r[kwf aqG;aEG;yJGw&yfvnf;r[kwo
f uJhodk@ pum;&nfvky/GJ usbef;
pum;ajym+ydKifyv
JG nf; r[kwaf y? 'dki,
f mavmhwGiyf g0ifolwikd ;f onf om
wlnrD #jzpf&rnfhtjyif jcdrf;ajcmufr/_ tusyu
f idk fr_uif;&rnfjzpfonfh t
jyif vGwfvyfyiG fhvif;jrifomr_&&Sd efvnf; vdkayonf? 'dkif,mavmhwGif
wOD;wa,mufuEdkifonf/ ±_H;onfqdkonfrSm r&Sdacs? yg0ifoltm;vHk;
±_;H vnf;±_H od@k r[kwf Edik &f ifvnf;Edik f jzpf&ygonf? ,ae@vlxak cgi;f aqmif
a':atmifqef;pk=unfppftpd;k &ESifh pum;ajymaqG;aEG;&ef awmif;qdak e
onfrSm 'dki,
f mavmh'rf w
S qifh wdik ;f jynfY =uHKawG@&ifqkid af e&aom Edik fiH
a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;jy\emtzHkzHkukd jidr;f csrf;onfhenf;jzifh tajz&Sm
&ef wckwnf;omr[kwaf y? vuf&Sd tm%mqkyu
f dkifxm;onfh ppftm
%m&Sit
f ygt0if ESpOf ;D ESpzf ufpvH;k tEdik &f apcsio
f nfh tajctaew&yf

190

oef;0if;vIi
d f

udk zefwD;csiI
f jzpfonf? od@k aomf ppftpdk;&acgif;aqmifrsm;onf t}uD;
tus,pf k;d &draf eaoma=umifh 'dik ,
f mavmh od@k r[kwf awG@qaHk qG;aEG;a&;
udk rdrad owGi;f rdrw
d ;l &onft
h vky/f rdrv
d nfyif;}udK;uGif;pGyf&rnf}h udK;pif
[k oabmxm;um olwdk@twGuf qHk;±H_;r_w&yf[k ±_jrifae=uygonf?
ppftm%m&Sirf sm;onf vl@tcGit
hf a&; csK;d azmufrr_ sm;ESihf qufwu
dk rf Sm;
cJah omtrSm;rsm;/ usL;vGecf ahJ om&mZ0wfrr_ sm;/ vmbfpm;r_rsm;/ tm
%mtvGJo;Hk pm;jyKr_rsm;tay: tjypfay;ta&;,lcH&rnfudk a=umuf&GHŒ
ae=uayonf? xd@k tjyif ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;onf ,if;wd@k . t&nftcsif;/
vkyfief;wm0efxrf;aqmifrr_ sm;ESifh Ed_if;pmvdkufv#if tqaygif; ajrmuf
rsm;pGm ydkrk&d &Sdaeonfh vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;/ pnf;pdrOf pPmrsm;udk bdef;pGJ
ovdk wyfrufpJv
G ef;ae=ujyD; ,if;wdk@udkpGef@v$w&f eftwGuf tdyfruf
xJrmS yif rpOf;pm;Edik f jzpfaeayonf? 'Dru
dk a&pDEidk if rH sm; umuG,af &;OD;pD;
csKyf&mxl;onf tm%mwef;pDZ,m;wGif eHygwf 10 tjyifbufwiG o
f m
&Sdaom &mxl;wckjzpfonf? xd@k a=umifh rnfhonfhtcgrS wdki;f jynftusKd;
“emp&m&Sv
d #if vGr;f p&m ESihaf jz” qdkovdk twdw.
f emusn;f r_/ rke;f wD;r_/
udk a&Sα_rnfh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;udk jyKvkyrf nfrxifay? [efjy awG@qHk
aqG;aEG;r_rsm;udkom jyKvkyfrnfjzpfygonf?
xdhak =umifh jy\emrsm;udk twlwuGtajz&Si;f &efEiS fh rwluGJjym;r_
rsm;udk o[Zmwjzpfap&eftwGuf 'dkif,mavmh'fudk vlwdkif; tjyeft
vSef av;pm;wefzdk;xm;&rnf jzpfayonf?
wzufESifhwzuf tjyeftvSefav;pm;em;vnfr_/ ,Hk=unfr_&SdrS
vnf; tay;t,l vkyI
f &ayrnf? wOD;ESiw
hf OD; oHo,rsm;udk acszsuf
I tem*wfudk a&S;±_O;D wnfum yGiv
hf if;±dk;om;pGm tajz&Smcsifonfph dwf
aumif;/ apwemaumif;&Sda=umif;udkvnf; jyo&ayrnf? ta&;}u;D qHk;
tcsufonf vuf&SdEdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk pkaygif;aqG;aEG; tajz&SmI
'dki,
f mavmh'fyg0ifolrsm;tm;vHk; tEdkif&Edik frnfhtajctae (Win Win
Situation) udk zefwD;Edi
k fonfudk vufcH&efyif jzpfayonf?
xd@k a=umifv
h nf; a':atmifqef;pk=unfu 'dik ,
f mavmhEiS hf ywfouf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

191

I “usrwd@k uawmh wdik f;jynftwGut
f usK;d jyKapr,f&h v'fwckv@kd yJ ar#mf
vifx
h m;ygw,f? bmyJajymajym/ bmyJvyk v
f yk f usrwdk@&JŒ&nf&,
G cf suu
f
Edkiif HESifh tusKd;twGuf tusKd;&Sdzdk@udkyJ ar#mfvifhygw,f” [k ajym=um;
cJhzl;onf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf qufqHa&;0ef}u;D OD;atmif=unfw@dk awG@
qHkcJhr_rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf?
(1) 2007 ckEpS /f atmufwb
dk mv 25 &uf
(2) 2007 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmv 9 &uf
(3) 2007 ckEpS f/ Ed0k ifbmv 19 &uf
(4) 2008 ckESp/f Zefe0g&v
D 11 &uf
(5) 2008 ckEpS f/ Zefe0g&Dv 30 &uf
(6) 2009 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv 3 &uf
(7) 2009 ckEpS /f atmufwb
dk mv 7 &uf
(8) 2009 ckEpS f/ 'DZifbmv 9 &uf
(9) 2010 ckESp/f Zefe0g&v
D 15 &uf
(10) 2011 ckESp/f Zlvkdiv
f 25 &uf
xd@k aemuf 2007 ckESp/f Ed0k ifbmv 8 &ufae@wGif a':atmifqef;pk
=unfonf (3) ESpftwGif; yxrqHk; olr.ygwD A[dktvkyftr_aqmif
tzGJ@ESifh awG@qHkcGih&f &SdcJhayonf?

trSefw&m;pdw"f gwf EI;d aqmfoq
l k
2009 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D 19 &ufae@wiG f jrefrmvlxu
k kd OD;aqmifI
ppftm%m&Siftpd;k &jyKwfusa&;ukd wdkufyGJ0ifaeaom a':atmifqef;
pk=unftm; vl@tcGit
hf a&;acgif;aqmif rmwifvo
l muif;. orD;rsm;ESihf
rdwfaqGrsm; yl;aygi;f zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh tar&duefjynfaxmifp&k dS Realizing
the Dream tzG@J u ‘trS efw &m;pd w"
f gwfEd_;aqmfoq
l k’ (Trumpet of
Conscience Award) udk csD;jr‡ifhcJhavonf?
trSew
f &m;pdwf"gwfEd_;aqmfolqkqdkonfrSm uG,fvGefol vlrnf;

192

oef;0if;vIi
d f

acgif;aqmif a'guw
f mrmwifvlomuif;. 1967 ckESpf/ Ed0k ifbmvESifh
'DZifbmvwGiaf [majymcJo
h nfh emrnfausmf vl@tcGit
fh a&;qdik &f m rde@f
cGef;aygif;csKyfudk ac:qdkonfhtrnfhjzpfonf? 1986 ckESpfwGif a'gufwm
rmwifvo
l muif;vky=f uHc&H jyD;aemufyikd f; ol.rde@f ceG ;f aygi;f csKyu
f dk ‘ trSef
w&m;pdw"f gwfE_;d aqmfol’ Trumpet of Conscience trnfjzifh pmtkyx
f w
k f
a0EdkifcJhonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS t
hf wl tar&duefq;D edwf v$waf wmftrwf
wufuae'D (Ted Kennedy)/ atmufv$wfawmftrwf*|ef;vl;0pf (John
Lewis) ESifh bkef;awmf}uD; uavm'Dbvuf (Claude Black) wdk@udkvnf;
,Hk=unfcsuftwGuf tdyfrufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfolrsm;qk
(Realizing the Dream) udkcsD;jr‡ifhcJhonf?

,kMH unfcsufow
H refqk
jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk 2009 ckEpS f
twGuf ,H=k unfcsuo
f w
H ref (Ambassador of Conscience) qkukd ay;tyfcsD;jr‡ifh
vdu
k af =umif;/ 2009 ckEpS /f Zlvidk v
f 27 &ufae@wGif Edik if w
H um vGwfjird ;f
csrf;omcGifhtzGJ@ (AI) u xkwfjyefa=unmcJhonf?
vlwOD;wa,muf. xl;c|efonfhacgif;aqmift&nftaoG;eSihf t
cGifhta&;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&mwGif urBmay:&Sd vltrsm;. pdwf
"gwu
f kd wufºuGaponfhpGrf;aqmifcsurf sm;a=umifh tqdkygqu
k kd ay;tyf
jcif;jzpfonf[k qdkonf?
,if;qkudk tdkif,mvefEdkiif H'rfbvif+rdKŒwGif AI tzGJ@u ay;tyfcsD;
jr‡ijhf cif;jzpfjy;D 2008 ckEpS u
f tdik ,
f mvefEikd if &H dS U 2 aw;*DwtzG@J uv
kd nf;
ay;tyfcsD;jr‡ifhchzJ l;onf?
qkay;yGJtcrf;tem;Y AI tzG@J . taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; Irene Khan
u “&Snfvsm;cufcJwhv
J l@tcGit
fh a&;wdkufyaGJ wGrSm jrefrmEdik fiu
H vlrsm;
twGuo
f mru urBmw0Srf;vH;k u vlrsm;twGufyg a':atmifqef;pk
=unf[m ar#mfvifhcsufeJ@ owœ&d JŒoauFw trSwftom;wckyg” [lI

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

193

ajym=um;oGm;onf?

ppftpd;k &udk ta&;,l&ef Edb
k ,fq&k iS rf sm;
vHjk cHKa&;aumifpo
D Ukd pmydUk
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ,Hk=unfcsufoHwrefqkay;tyfjyD; r
=umrDrSmyif 2009 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv 11 &ufae@wGif Ak'<bmom bkef;
awmf}uD; 'vkdif;vm;rmESifh c&pf,mefbkef;awmf}uD ; 'ufprGefwlwl;/
*sKd;'D0v
D s/H rDac;vfa*:bmacsmh/ uifa';*sKw
H k@d yg0if onfh Edb
k ,fq&k iS f (14)
OD;u ukvor*~vjkH cHKa&;aumifpo
D @kd jrefrmppftpk;d &. ppf&mZ0wfrr_ sm;/
vlom;tjzpfudk qef@usifonf&h mZ0wfr_rsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;jyD; jyif;jyif;
xefxefta&;,l&eftwGuf tdwfzGifhay;pmwapmif ay;ydk@cJhonf?
Edkb,fqk&Sif *sKd;'D0DvsHu a':atmifqef;pk=unftay: rw&m;cs
rSwx
f m;aomjypf'%frsm;onf jrefrmjynforl sm;. w&m;r#wa&;/ vHjk cHK
a&;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDudk rxDrJhjrif jyKvdu
k fwmyJjzpfa=umif;/ ppftpd;k &. &uf
puf=urf;=uKwfr_rsm;/ Oya'rJhxifovdkjyKrlaer_rsm;udk vspfv#L±_aeI r
jzpfawmha=umif;/ jrefrmjynforl sm;tay: usL;vGeaf eonf&h mZ0wfrr_ sm;
udk udik fw,
G &f ef vHkjcKH a&;aumifpYD wm0ef&adS =umif;/ udik w
f ,
G &f rnft
h csed f
onf ,cktcgusaemufusjyD;jzpfa=umif; ajym=um;oGm;onf?
xdek nf;wlpmG a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; pD&ifcsufcscJhonfh w&m;
ol}uD; 2 OD;ESihf w&m;vdak &SŒaewd@k tm; 2009 ckEpS f/ =o*kwf 14 &ufae@wiG f
Oa&myor*~u ta&;,l/ '%fcwfvdkufonfhtwGuf ppftm%m&Sif
bufawmfom; (Black List) 0ifomG ;ayonf? ‚if;wd@k rmS &efuek af jrmufykid ;f
c±dik fw&m;±H;k . ±Hk;xdkifw&m;ol}uD;rsm;jzpf=uaom OD;aomif;nGef@/ OD;nD
nDpdk;/ c±dkifOya't&m&Sd OD;jrifh}udKifwdk@jzpf=uonf?
w&mol}uD;ESpfOD;onf a':atmifqef;pk=unftjyif rpkpkaEG;udk
vnf;aumif;/ 88 ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udv
k nf;aumif; axmif
'%f trsm;tjym;csrw
S cf o
hJ rl sm;jzpfonf? c±dik Of ya't&m&Sd (tpd;k &a&SŒae
odk@r[kwf qGJcs) OD;jrifh}udKifonf EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh ,Hk=unfcsuf

194

oef;0if;vIi
d f

Freedom from fear

pmtkyrf suEf mS zk;H
a=umifh 'Drkdua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;udk tif;pdefaxmifw&m;±Hk;twGif;
w&m;pD&if&mwGif tpd;k &bufrS vdu
k fygaqmif&GufcJholjzpfonf? w&m;
a&;0efxrf;3 OD; tygt0if vuf&w
Sd m0efxrf;aqmifaeonfh ppftpdk;&
xdyfyidk f;ESihf Xmeqdik f&mtqifah cgif;aqmifrsm;/ ‚if;wdk@. tdrfaxmifbuf
rsm;/ om;orD;rsm;/ ‚if;wd@k EiS efh D;pyfonfv
h yk fief;&Sirf sm;onf Oa&myor*~
u ppftpd;k &tay: csrw
S fxm;onfh wm;qD;r_rsm;t& Oa&my (27) Edik if H
odk@ 0ifa&mufcGifh&rnfr[kwfay? xdkpm&if;wGif w&m;a&;XmerS 15 OD;
yg0ifjyD; xdyq
f Hk;yk*K~d vfrSm w&m;ol}uD;csKyfOD;atmifwdk;jzpfonf?
'%fcwfydwfq@dk cH&ol 500 ausmfpm&if;. xdyfq;Hk yk*K~d vfrsm;wGif ppf
tm%m&Sif AdkvfcsKyfrSL;}uD;oef;a&$/ ‚if;.ZeD;a': }udKif}udKif/ om;orD;/
ajr;wdk@.trnfrsm;udk awG@&onf?
ÙÙÙ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

195

tcef; (8)
a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ pmayvuf&mrsm;
vlxak cgi;f aqmifa':atmifqef;pk=unfonf pma&;0goemygol w
OD;jzpfonfhtavsmuf ola&;cJhonfh pmayvuf&mrsm;&Sdygonf? ol.
pmayvuf&mrsm;udk zwf&y_ gu olr. pmaya&;om;[efEiS hf tawG;t
ac:rsm;udk od&&dS rnft
h jyif pmayA[kow
k vdu
k pf m;=uaom wdik ;f &if;om;
jynfov
l x
l t
k wGufvnf; tusKd;&Sdayonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
jrefrm/ t*FvdyfESpfbmompvHk;wGif ta&;a&m tajymyg u|rf;usif Edkif
eif;onf? pma&;pmzwfvnf; tawmf0goem}u;D yH&k ygonf? pmzwf0go
em}uD;±Hkomru pmtkyftawmfrsm;rsm;udkvnf; 0,f,lpkaqmif;wwf
onf[k =um;od&ygonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf.EdkifiHa&;pmayrsm;onf &ooabm ouf
0ifaom pmayvuf&mrsm;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; ol@pmayrsm;u

Letters from Burma

pmtkyrf suEf mS zk;H

196

oef;0if;vIi
d f

pmzwfolrsm;. ESvHk;tdrfudk qGJ,lodrf;ydkufEdkifonf[k qdkEdkifayonf?
,if;rSm bmompum;ydkiEf kid fr_a=umifhjzpfonf? tcsKŒd yk*dK~ vrf sm;onf jref
rmpum;ajym&mY t*Fvyd pf um;rsm; n‡yo
f ;Hk E_e;f avh&do
S nf? a':atmif
qef;pk=unfonf t*Fvdyfpum;udk u|r;f usifpGmajymwwfaomfvnf;
jrefrmvdkajymaomtcg rnfonfhtcgrS t*Fvdyfpum;udk a&maESm oHk;
avhr&Sdacs?
xd@k jyif ol. tjcm;t&nftcsi;f wckrmS ±d;k om;jcif;yifjzpfonf? a':
atmifqef;pk=unfonf ol rodonft
h a=umif;t&mwckudk rnfonhf
tcgrS odovdk/ wwfovdk jzD;jzef;avhr&Sdacs? rodbl;[kyif yGifhyGihv
f if;
vif;ajymavh&o
dS nf[k qdkonf? ol@tm; ar;jref;cJh onft
h a=umif;t&m
ESiyhf wfoufI tvGwrf &ygu usr rSww
f rf;rSwf&mjyef=unfjh yD;rS ajzyg&
ap[k ±dk;om;pGm 0efcaH vh&o
Sd nf? ajymonft
h wdki;f vnf; tcsut
f vuf
rsm;udk tao;pdwfavhvmjyD;rS jyefvnfajz=um;onf? olonf ajym
onfhtwdkif;vkyjf yD; vkyfonfhtwdkif;vnf; ajymavh&Sdoljzpfonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. Edik if aH &;pmayrsm;onf ol.,H=k unfcsu/f
cH,lcsuf/ jrefrmjynfolrsm;. vkdvm;csufeSifh acwfpepf. yHk&dyfrsm;udk
xif[yfaeayonf? Edik if aH &;t,ltqESijhf zpfap/ tawG;tjrif t,ltq
ESihf ywfoufonfjzpfap ol.avhvmtm;xkwrf _ rnfonhf twdik ;f twm
&Sdonfudk ol.ta&;tom;udk avhvmygu awG@jrif&ayrnf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfa&; om;cJo
h nfph mayrsm;teuf Freedom from
Fear (a=umuf&GH Œr_rS vGwfuif;a&;) 1993 ckESp fu La Haule Books
pmtkyfwku
d rf S yxrt}udrf xkwfa0I yif*Gif;pmtkyfwdkuu
f 'kwd, t
}udrf xkwfa0jzef@csdcJhonf? tqdkygpmtkyfY 1984 ckESpfrS 1993 ckESpf
twGif; a':atmifqef;pk=unfa&;om;cJhaompmwrf;rsm;ESifh taxGaxG
rde@f cGe;f rsm;udk pkpnf;azmfjyxm;&m tydik ;f (u) Y usrzcif/ usr wdki;f jynf
ESifh jynfol/ jrefrmESifh tdENd,ynmwwfrsm;ta=umif;/ jrefrmjynf.
pmayESifh trsKd;om;a&;ta=umif;/ tydkif; (c) Y 'Drdkua&pD &SmyHak wmf/
a=umuf&GHŒjcif;rSvGwfuif;a&;/ ‘Adkvf’. t"dy`g,ftppftrSef/ a&$wd*Hk

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

197

apwDawmftaemufzufrkcf vlxpk nf;a0;yGrJ ed @f ceG ;f &nfreS ;f csurf sm;/ awmf
vSeaf &;. tv,fA[dw
k iG /f vl@tcGifhta&;tzGJ@o@dk ay;pm;ESpfapmif/ 'Drdk
ua&pDESifh jynfolrsm;. tcef;u¾/ ukvor*~vl@tcGifhta&;tzGJ@odk@
tdwfzGifhay;pm/ wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwaf &;/ jynfolvlxku vGwf
ajrmufa&;udv
k cdk sio
f nf/ a&G;aumufyt
JG wGuf oabmwlncD su/f 1991
jird ;f csr;f a&;Edkb,fqk/ Edb
k ,fq&k iS u
f ,
dk pf m;ajymaomrde@f cGef;/ ppfreS af om
vHkjcHK&mod@k / awG@qaHk qG;aEG;a&;/ tydkif; (*) Y a':oef;at;a&;om;aom
‘pk’ ESifh rdwq
f ufjcif;/ tef;ygpwmeufpvmwm (Ann Pasternak Silverstein)
. ArmjynfrpS /k *sK;d ZufqAD m;pwde;f (Josef Silverstein) . atmifqef;pk=unf
od@k r[kwf =urRmqd;k =uHKawG@aeaom jrefrmtrsK;d orD;wOD;/ atmifqef;pk
=unfESifh jrefrmhv@l tcGit
fh a&;udk jidr;f csr;f pGm wdkuyf J0G ifaeol/ trsK;d om;
&if=um;apha&; ponfwdk@yg0ifonf?
tqdkygpmtkyfudk jidrf;csrf;a&; Edkb,fqk&Sifrsm;jzpf=uaom Am;u
vAf[mAJvEf iS fh bkef;awmf}uD; 'ufprGefww
l ;l wd@k u trSmpm a&;ay;xm;
onf? pmtkyfrSm 10 csKd;qdk'f&SdI pmrsufESm 374 &Sdonf? a&mif;aps;rSm
pwmvifaygif 9 '\r 99 (tar&duefa':vm 14 '\r 95) owf
rSwfxm;onf? a'gufwmatmifcif (vef'ef).
‘a=umuf&GHŒjcif;rSvGwfuif;a&;’ jrefrmjyefpmtkyfwGif a':atmif
qef;pk=unfu atmufygtwdik f; trSmpma&;ay;xm;onf?
“pma&;jcif;/ rde@f ceG ;f ajym=um;jcif;/ pum;ajymjcif;paom vky&f yfrsm;
. t"du &nf&G,cf suw
f ckum; vltcsif;csi;f em;vnfr_ wd;k yGm;ap&efjzpf
onf[k usr,lqygonf?jrefrmhvlr_a&;/ EdkifiaH &;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDta&;
wdu
hk dk urBmuydkrkI
d od&deS m;vnfap&ef &nf&G,I
f Tpmtkyfyg aqmif;yg;
rsm;udk a&;om;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf?
Edik if HwEdik if u
H dk trSefwu,ftusK;d jyKEdkifrnfph ;D yGm;a&;/ Edik if Ha&;/ vkyf
ief;pOfrsm; taumiftxnfazmfEidk f&ef jynfoljynfom;taygif;wGif yGifh
vif;jywfom;pGm oHk;oyfa0zefyidk fciG hEf iS hf todtjrif/ tawG;tac:rsm;udk
vGwfvyfpGm aqG;aEG;zvS,yf dkifcGifhrsm;&Sd&rnf[kvnf; usr,Hk=unfyg

198

oef;0if;vIi
d f

onf? 1988-89 ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f usrajym=um;cJah om rde@f ceG ;f rsm;ESifh
owif; pm&Si;f vif;yGrJ sm;.OD;wnfcsufonf 'Dru
kd a&pDoabmw&m;rsm;
ESifh 'Drdkua&pDepfudkwnfaqmufvdkolwdk@. tawG;tac:/ tjrifwdk@udk
trsm;jynfol a0zefoHk;oyfEdkifa&;yifjzpfygonf?
aqmif;yg;rsm;/ rdef@cGef;rsm;/
owif ;pm&Si f; vif ;yGJrsm;ud k pk
aygi;f I pmtkyfxkwfa0vkdujf cif;
jzifh jrefrmhEkid fiHa&;ESifh 'Dru
dk a&pD
a&;rsm;udk em;vnfoHk;oyfvdkol
rsm;twGuf taxmuftuljzpf
Edkirf nf[k ar#mfvifhygonf?”
,if ; aemuf Letters from
Burma (jrefrmjynfrS ay;pmrsm;)
[k acgi;f pOfwyfxm;onfh pmtkyf
onf 1995 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvrS
1996 ckESpf 'DZifbmvtxd *syef
EdkifiHxw
k f Mainichi owif;pmY azmfjycJo
h nfh aqmif;yg; 52 yk'u
f kd pkpnf;
xm;onfph mtkyjf zpfonf? tqdkygpmtkyfudk 1995 ckESpw
f Gif pwifxw
k f
a0cJhjy;D 1996 ckESpftwGuf ‘*syefowif;pmtoif;. pmayqk (Japanese
Newspaper Association’s Award) udk &&SdcJhonf? ,if;pmtkyfY Fergal Keane
(O. B. E) u rdwq
f uftrSmpma&;om;ay;xm;jyD;/ jrefrmyef;csaD usmf
[def;xufu cJjzifh o±kyfazmfyHkrsm; a&;qGJay;cJhonf? pmtkyfwefzk;d rSm
pwmvifaygif 8²99 (tar&duef 16 a':vm) jzpfonf?
pmtkyfY jrefrmjynf. vlr_b0rsm;/ yGJvrf;obifESifhqufpyfae
aom "avhxk;H wrf;rsm;/ trsKd;om;'Drdu
k a&pDtzGJ@csKyf jzwfoef;cJ&h onfh
tajctae/ pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOftwGif; [ef@wm;aESmifh,Sufc&H r_/ aetdrf
tus,fcsKyf/ ppftpd;k &.Oya'rJv
h yk f&yfrsm;/ Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;
ponfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk xnhfoGif;a&;om;xm;avonf? odk@

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

199

aomf ta=umif;t&mrsm;rSm rnfo@l urkd S tjypfz@kd a&;om;xm;jcif; r[kwf
bJ taumif;jrifpw
d x
f m;jzifh a0zefaxmufjyxm;onfukd awG&ayonf?
om"utm;jzifh “tusOf;axmifxJY aoqHk;cJh&onfh EdkifiHa&; t
usOf;om;rsm;ta=umif; a&;om;&mYyif ol@a=umifh rnforl nf0g aoqH;k
&onf[k pGyfpGJa&;om;xm;jcif;rsKd;r[kwfbJ tusOf;axmifxJY aoqHk;
cJh&onfh tusOf;om;ta&twGufudk twdtus &&Sdz@dk &ef rvG,u
f lyg?
odk@aomf tqdkygta&twGufonf renf;vSovdk tcsed fESifhtr# wdk;
aeygonf? vGwv
f yfrt
_ wGuf ay;qyf&onft
h zd;k tconf enf;yg;onf
[k b,faomtcgrS r&Scd ahJ cs? jrefrmjynfY txl;yif jrifrh m;vSayonf” [k
a&;om;xm;avonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. tjcm;xif&mS ;aompmtkyrf mS The Random
House Group Limited rS 1997 ckEp
S fu xkwfaom The Voice of Hope (ar#mf
vifhcsuftoH) pmtkyfjzpfjyD; tar&duefpma&;q&m tvefuvD;rifhpf
(Alan Clement) ESifh awG@qa
Hk jymqdkcsufrsm;udk pkpnf;azmfjyxm;onfh pm
tkyfjzpfonf? tcef; (13)yg0ifI pmrsufESm 336 &Sdonf? tqdkyg
pmtkyu
f dk jrefrmjyefqdkxm;jcif; r&Sdao;acs?
xd@k jyif urBmph me,fZif;toD;oD;Y a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aqmif;
yg;rsm;udkvnf; ajrmufrsm;pGm awG@&&Sd ayonf? ,if;wdk@teuf tar&d
uefjynfaxmifprk S xkwaf 0aom Parade owif;pHkr*~Zif;Y a':atmifqef;
pk=unf. “vGwv
f yfru
_ ykd J usrwd@k vckd siw
f ,f” (All We want is our Freedom)
aqmif;yg;onf xif&Sm;ayonf? tqdyk gaqmif;yg;Y jrefrmjynforl sm;
rnfr#txd vGwfvyfr_udk vdkvm;=uonfudk a&;om;xm;avonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfta=umif;udk jynfyEdik if rH sm;rS pma&;q&m
rsm; bmomaygif;pHkjzifh a&;om;cJh=uonfhpmtkyfrsm;rSmvnf; renf;vS
ay? tqdkygpmtkyrf sm;teuf 1998 ckEpS u
f ‘bmb&mApfwm’ (Barbara
Victor) a&;om;cJhonfh The Lady (*k%foa&&SdtrsKd;orD;}uD;) pmtkyE
f Sifh
2007 ckEpS u
f xkwaf 0aom *syfpwif0ifw,f Justin Wintle . Perfect
Hostage : A Life of Aung San Suu Kyi ("g;pm;cHtppf) pmtkyfESpftkyfonf

200

oef;0if;vIi
d f

xif&Sm;ayonf?

IF
If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you.
If you can trust yourself when oll men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies.

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

201

Or being heard, don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor walk too wise:
If you can dream- and make dreams your master;
If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build’em up with worn-our tools;
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one trun of pitch-and-toss,
And loose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and never and sinew
To serre your turn long ofter they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the will which says to them: "Hold on !"
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings-nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And-which is more-you’ll be a Man, my son!

Rudyard Kipling

202

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tu,fí
tu,fI
rif;todkif;t0dkif;u wkev
f _yfajcmufjcm;jyD;
'gawG[m rif;a=umifhvdk@ 0dkif;0ef;tjypfwif=uwJhtcg
rif;[m acgif;at;at;eJ@ &ifqdkifEdkifr,fqk&d if?
tu,fI
tm;vk;H u rif;udkr,kHouFmjzpfvmwJhtcg
olw@dk udkem;vnfpGm cGifhv$wf&if;eJ@
rif;udkrif; ,k=H unfr_tjynfh&Sdr,fqk&d if ?
tu,fI
apmifhoifhwht
J csdeu
f dk apmifhEdkifjyD;
tJh't
D wGufvnf; rarmryef;aeEdkifr,fqdk&if?
'grSr[kwf
rif;&J@ta=umif; r[kwfw&m; rkom;pum;=um;&wJhtcg
rif;uvnf; tvdrftnmawGeJ@ rwkef@jyefbl;qdk&if?
'grSr[kwf
rif;udkvlwumu 0dkif;0ef;rkef;wD;wJhtcg
rif;uvnf; trke;f awG jyefryGm;bl;qdk&if?
tu,fI
pdwfu;l ,Of tdyfrufawG[m
rif;tay:rSm rv$rf;rdk;apbJ pdwful;Edkifr,fqk&d if?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

jyD;awmh
tawG;tac: pdwfu;l awG[m
ar#mrf Sef;csufoufoufom rjzpfapbJ awG;ac:Edkifr,fqk&d if?
tu,fI
atmifjrifr_okceJ@ qkH;±_H;rSK'kuQawGudk =uKHawG@&wJhtcg
wlnaD om avmu"Hw&m;awGygvm;&,fvdk@
cH,lxm;Edkifr,fqdk&if?
tu,fI
rif;&JŒtrSefpum;awGudk
vlvdrfvlnpfawGu vSnfhpm;ajymif;vJjyD;
rkom;tjzpf axmifacsmufqif npfwJhtcg
rif;[m wnfjidrfpGmeJ@ em=um;Edkifr,fqdk&if?
tu,fI
rif;b0wckvk;H ay;jyD;
t&dyw
f =unfh=unfheJ@ jznfhqnf;cJh&wJh t&m&mudk
zsufqD;cHvdkuf&jyD;wJhaemufrSm
tifrwefrS ao;i,fwhJ wefqmyvm t&m&meJ@
jyefvnfwnfaqmufEdkifr,fqk&d if ?
tu,fI
rif;Edik fcJhor#awGtm;vk;H [m
aºuGwvSnfh =uufwckefyrm
wvSnfhwcgwnf;eJ@ qkH;&_H;oGm;cJ&h if?
jyD;awmh

203

204

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tpuae jyefpEdik fr,fq&kd if?
jyD;awmh wcg
qd;k vSwhu
J H=urRmudk&,fvdk@
b,faomtcgrS nD;nLraebl;qdk&if ?
tu,fI
olrsm;wumawG vkyfjyD;oGm;=uvdk@
tcsdeftawmf=umrS rif;tvSnafh &mufvmwJhtcg
rif;wa,mufwnf;eJ@yJ
tm;eJ@rmefe@J ZGo
J wW&d &dS dS quf=udK;pm;Edik rf ,fq&kd if?
tJh'DvdkyJ
rif;rSm pdwftiftm;uvGJvdk@ bmqdkbmrSr&SdawmhwJhtcg
tJh'Dpdwftiftm;udk cdkifrmpGmeJ@yJ
vufqkyv
f ufukid fxm;Edik fr,fqdk&if?
tu,fI
vlawGeJ@xdawG@qufqH ajymqkd&wJhtcg
udk,fusifhoduQmudk apmifhxdef;Edik fr,fq&dk if?
'grSr[kwf
rif;{u&mZfawGe@J twlvrf;av#mufae&ayr,fh
rmefrme aoG;rºuGbl;qd&k if ?
tu,fI
&efou
l jzpfap rdwfaqGujzpfap
rif;ukdodyfjyD; em=unf;atmif rvkyfEdkifap&if?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

205

tu,fI
vlwidk f;udkwefzdk;xm; av;pm;&ayr,fh
pGJvrf;r_ oHa,mZOfawG xm;raebl;qdk&if?
tu,fI
wdkawmif;vSwJh rypfy,fEdkifwJh wrdepftwGif;rSm
t"dyg` ,f&SdvSwJh puUef@ajcmufq,ftjzpf
tokH;csEdkifr,fqdk&if?
ighom;a&
rif;[mt&m&m&SdwJh t&m&mjzpfwJh
urBm=uD;udk qkyu
f kid fvdk@
t&m&m bmrqdk rif;pGrf;EdkifjyDaygh?
tJ'Dawmhrif;[mvnf;
a,mufusm;aumif;wa,mufaygh?

atmifqef;pk=unf
ÙÙÙ

206

oef;0if;vIi
d f

tcef; (9)
tuGuq
f if xyfrzH rf;qD;cH&rI
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrt
f us,cf sKyo
f ufwrf;jynfch ge;D Y
2009 ckEpS /f arv 6 &ufae@wiG f ppftpk;d &.pDpOfay;r_jzifh tar&duefEkid if H
om; *|ef0DvsH,ufawmonf a':atmif;qef;pk=unf.aetdrftcsKyfok@d
wdww
f qdw0f ifa&mufEkid cf ho
J nf? *|e0f v
D s,
H ufawm0ifa&mufcrJh _udk t
a=umif;jyKI a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; tr_qifum Oya'csKd; azmuf
onf[k wzufowfpGyfpGJI aetdrftus,cf sKyfpnf;urf;azmufzsufr_
Oya'yk'rf (22) jzifh w&m;qdik &f ef ppftpd;k &u a': atmifqef;pk=unfukd
arv 13 &ufae@wiG f tif;pdefaxmifwGif;odk@ ajymif;a&$ŒcsKyfaESmifvdkuf
onf? arv 18 &ufae@wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk aetdrt
f us,f
csKyf pnf;urf;azmufzsurf _ yk'rf (22) jzifh tif;pdeaf xmifwiG ;f &Sd ajrmuf
ydkif;c±dik f txl;w&m;u ±H;k wifw&m;pGJqcdk hJ onf? ,if;aemuf =o*kwfv
11 &ufae@wGif tvkyf=urf;ESifhaxmif'%f (3) ESpf'%fcsrw
S fcJhonf? a':
atmifqef;pk=unftm; jypf'%fcsrSwfonfhae@Y ppftpdk;&. rw&m;
tr_ q if u m jypf ' %f c sr_ u d k
ta=umif;jyKI vlxktkHºuGr_w&yf
ay:ayguf
vmrnf u d k
}udKwifod&Sdxm;onfh tpkd;&onf
tpdk;&drfvGefum ppftm %m&Sif
Adkvfc sKyfrSL;}uD;oef;a&$ trdef@ jzifh
jypf'%fxuf0ufudk qdkif;iHhxm; jyD;
usefjypf'%f 18 vudk aetdrfwGif
qufvufxed f;odr;f &ef ajymif;vJ t
rdef@csrSwfvdkufonf? Todk@ a':
atmifqef;pk=unfonf vGwf&uf a':pktm; aetdro
f ufwrf;wdk;ap&ef
N*Kd [farTcaJh om ],ufawm}
aphcgeD;Y ppftpd;k &. rw&m;tr_

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

207

qifrj_ zifh aetdrftus,fcsKyf xyfrH wm;qD;cH&jyefonf?
jrefrmEdkifiw
H Gif w&m;Oya'
pd;k rdk;a&;r&Sdoma=umifh vlxktzdk@ vGwfvyfcGiEfh Sifh vHkjcHKcGifhrsm; uif;rJhae
onfrmS q,fpEk Spfaygif; tawmf=umcJhjyD;jzpfonf? EdkifiHom;aygif;
ajrmufrsm;pGmonf vGwfvyfcGifh tcGit
fh a&;rsm; ydwfyifcHch&J um t
usOf;axmifrsm;Y pHjref;ae&&Smonf? pifppf ,if;wd@k wiG f rnfonfh &mZ
0wfr_udkr# usL;vGefjcif;r&SdygbJvsuf Oya'rJhzrf;qD;cH&um tusOf;uscH
aeol&rsm;jzpfonf? jrefrmEdkiif w
H Gif Edik if Hom;rsm;. vGwv
f yfr_EiS fh vHjk cHKr_
udk tumtuG,af y;aomOya'rsm; r&SI
d avm? yGiv
hf if;pGmqd&k ygrl ppf
tpdk;& tkycf sKyfaeaomumvrsm;wGif xdOk ya'rsm; r&Sad y?
1947 ckESpf tajccHOya'wGif vGwfvyfcGiEfh SifhvkjH cHKcGifhudk tumt
uG,fay;aomjyÏmef;csuu
f kd vGwfvyfcGiht
f a&;atmufwiG f jyÏmef;xm;
ayonf? tajccHOya'yk'rf 16 wGif “w&m;Oya't&r[kwfv#if rnf
onhfEkid fiHom;r# rdrdvw
G fvyfr_udk ±kyford f;jcif;rcH&ap&” [k jyÏmef;um
vGwfvyfr_eiS hv
f kjH cKH rt
_ wGuf tumtuG,fay;xm;onf? xdek nf; wlpmG
yif 1974 ckESpf tajccHOya' yk'fr 159 wGifvnf; Edkiif Hom;wdkif;onf
yk*dK~ vfqdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifhESifh vHkjcHKr_twGu ftmrcHcsuf&Sdap&rnf[lI
jyÏmef;xm;ayonf? TjyÏmef;csuf&djS cif;onf Edik if o
H m;rsm;. vGwv
f yf
r_ESifhvHkjcHKr_udk tumtuG,fay;&ef jyÏmef;csuf&Sdonf[k qdkEkid f.?
txufwiG q
f ckd o
hJ nft
h wdkif; vlw@kd onf tpkta0;ESiafh exdik fae=u
aoma=umifh vlwOD;/ tzG@J tpnf;wcktwGuf tumtuG,fjyKjyD; t
rsm;tusKd;/ trsm;.vGwfvyfr_udk xdcdkufapaom Oya'onfum; w
&m;r#waom Oya'rsKd;r[kwfay? Oya'onf vlt rsm;udk tumt
uG,fay;aom Oya'om jzpfoifhonf? vltrsm;udkESdyfuGyfaomOya'
rjzpfapoifyh g?
jrefrmEdik fiw
H iG f ausmf=um;vSaom ta&;ay:pDrHr_ tufOya'onf
1950 jynfEh Spf ygvrD ef'rD kdua&pDtpd;k &vufxufwiG f jyÏmef;cJjh cif;jzpf
onf? vGwv
f yfa&;&ump ±_yaf xG;aeaom Edik if Ha&;tajctae atmuf

208

oef;0if;vIi
d f

wGif Edik if aH &;ygw}D uD;wck. =oZmvGr;f rd;k r_jzifh jyÏmef;cJo
h nf[k ,lqEdik f
onf? zqyvtpd;k &vufxufjyÏmef;cJah om xdkta&;ay:pDrHr_ tufOy
a' (1950 jynfEh pS )f yg yk'rf 5 tm; jrefrmjynfot
l rsm;pku tjrifuyf
yk'fr[lI uifyeG f;wyf=uonf? tm%m&ygwDtpdk;&ESifh oabmxm;
csif;uGJvGJum twdkuftcHjyK=uaom EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;tm; [ef@
wm;zdESdyfEdkifrnfhtcsufaygif;pHkudk xdkyk'fratmufwGif xnfhoGif;jyÏmef;
xm;ayonf? xdk@a=umifh twdu
k t
f cHrsm;taeESifh Edik fiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ vkyf
vdkuo
f nfESifh yk'fr 5 ESifh ndawmhonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; xdkyk'frudk t
jrifuyfyk'fr[k uifyGef;wyfac:qdk=ujcif;jzpfonf? xdkOya'udk y,fzsuf
jyifqifaeqJ/ Adkvfae0if;acgif;aqmifaom ppftm%m&Siftkyfpku ygvD
ref'rD ku
d a&pDtpdk;&udjk zKwfcsum tm%modrf;ydkufvku
d faoma=umifh xdk
Oya'udk y,fzsu&f ef tcGifhtvrf;uif;rJhomG ;±Hkru tm%modr;f awmf
vSeaf &;aumifpDtwGuf twdkut
f cHEkid if aH &;orm;rsm;udk ESdyfuyG &f ef t
aumif;qHk;Oya'jzpfcJhonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; awmfvSefa&;aumifpD ppf
tpdk;&onf 1947 ckESpftajccHOya'tm; y,fzsufcJhaomfvnf; xdkt
a&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya'udk ry,fzsufbJ ,ae@wdkif qufvufusifhoHk;cJh
onf?
1974 tajccHOya'jyÏmef;jyD; wESpcf ef@t=umwGif 1975 ckEpS f
EdkifiaH wmftm; aESmif,
h Sufzsuq
f ;D vdkolrsm;.ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,f
[ef@wm;onfhOya' (EdkifiHawmfumuG,o
f nhfOya') udk jynfol@v$wf
awmfrS jyÏmef;cJjh cif;jzpfonf? xdkOya'rSm ta&;ay:pDrHrt
_ ufOya'xuf
ydq
k dk;&Gm;aomOya'jzpfonf? rnfol@udkrqdk EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;twGuf
tEœ&m,f&o
Sd nf[k oHo,&Sd±rHk #jzifh TOya't& zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;Edik cf iG hf
&Sdayonf? TOya't&rl ±Hk;wifw&m;pGJqdk&efrvdkbJ pGyfpGJcH&olwOD;
tm; &ufaygif; 180 txd xdef;odr;f xm;EdkifjyD; oufqidk f&mbkwftzG@J .
cGifhjyKcsufjzifh trsm;qHk; 3 ESpftxd xdef;odrfxm;vsuf&Sdonf? xdk@jyif
1991 ckESpfwGif ppfpdk;&onf jyifqifcsufjzifh EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;Oya'yg
zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;xm;Edkifaomoufwrf;udk 5 ESpfodk@ wdk;jr‡ifhxm;onf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

209

ppfp;kd &onf 'Dy,
J if;Edik if aH &;vky=f uHc&H jyD;aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tm; vHjk cHKa&;t& aetdrYf acwœaexdik af pcJjh cif;omjzpfonf[k xkwjf yef
cJjh yD;aemuf rsm;r=umrDrmS yif Edik if aH wmftm; aESmif,
h u
S zf suq
f ;D vdo
k rl sm;
. ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,[
f ef@wm;onfOh ya'jzifh aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf
xde;f odr;f jcif;cHvu
kd &f onf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf tqdyk gOya'jzifh
(4) }urd w
f ikd w
f ikd f tus,cf sKyfjzifh aetdrw
f iG f 10 ESpaf usmf xde;f odr;f jcif;
cHc&hJ onf? xd@k aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf ouf
wrf;udk ppftpk;d &u wESpf xyfrw
H ;kd vdu
k jf yefonf? xdOk ya'jzifh aetdrt
f
us,cf sKyfoufwrf;jynfch geD;Yyif *|ef0v
D s,
H ufawm0ifa&mufru
_ kd t
a=umif;jyKI ppftpd;k &onf tr_qifum a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ae
tdrt
f us,cf sKyfoufwrf;udk xyfrcH srw
S cf o
hJ nf?
aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf (18) v csrw
S cf jH yD;aemuf 2009 pufwifbm
4 &ufwiG f a':atmifqef;pk=unftr_twGuf olr. a&SŒaersm;u &ef
ukew
f ikd ;f w&m;±H;k od@k t,lcaH v#mufvm$ udk wifoiG ;f cJ=h uonf? t,lcH
av#mufxm;r_Y a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf Oya'a=umif;t& tjypf
r&Sad =umif; tcsuf (11) csuu
f kd tcdik t
f vHak zmfjyxm;jyD; 1988 ckEpS f
uwnf;u csKyfjidrf;oGm;cJjh yD;jzpfonfh 1947 ckEpS t
f ajccHOya'ESihf a':
atmifqef;pk=unfukd xde;f odr;f xm;r_ukd ±kyo
f rd ;f ay;&ef wifjyawmif;qdk
xm;onf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf.a&SŒae OD;=unf0if;u “uGi;f vHk;u|wf v$wf
udv
k w
$ af y;&r,f? v$waf y;wJt
h cgusawmh b,ftwdik ;f twmxdatmif
jzpfomG ;vJqakd wmh ol@ukd 1989 ckEpS u
f wnf;u 6 ESpef ;D yg;xde;f odr;f
1995 usrS jyefvw
$ cf w
h J ,f? tJ't
D us,cf sKyu
f eHygww
f pf/ aemufwpfcg
2000 jynfEh pS rf mS &efuek b
f w
l m}uD;rSjzpfww
hJ ESpef @J 2 v tus,cf sKyf
vkyv
f u
kd w
f mu eHygwEf pS /f aemuf tck 2003 ckEpS 'f yD ,
J if;upjyD; tckxd
atmif tus,cf sKyfxed ;f odr;f xm;wmu eHygw3f / tJ'gawGtm;vH;k [m
Unlawful Illegal Detention (Oya'rJz
h rf;qD;r_) awGygy”J [lI ajymqdck o
hJ nf?
aetdrt
f us,cf sKyfoufwrf;twGif; a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf

210

oef;0if;vIid f

2009 ckESpf/ Edk 0ifbmv (4) &ufaeh wGif tar&d uefjynfaxmifpk
ta&SŒtm&SEiS hf ypdzw
d af &;&mvufaxmuf Edik if jH cm;a&;&m0ef}uD; rpPwm
umhurfbv
J Ef iS hf awG@qckH o
hJ nf?
xd@k aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf pdr;f vJu
h efom{nf&h yd o
f m
wGif usef;rma&;raumif;aom NLD acgi;f aqmifrsm;jzpf=uonfh tzG@J csKyf
OuUX OD;atmifa&$/ A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmiftwGi;f a&;rSL; OD;vGi/f A[dk t
vkyt
f r_aqmiftzG@J O;D vGe;f wifw@kd ukd *g&0jyKawG@qakH qG;aEG;cGi&hf &Scd o
hJ nf?
awG@qckH phJ OftwGi;f a':atmifqef;pk=unfu NLD A[dt
k vkyf tr_aqmif
tzG@J ukd wd;k csŒJ zG@J pnf;cGijhf yK&ef arwœm&yfccH &hJ m cGijhf yKcsu&f &Scd o
hJ jzifh tusK;d
aqmifa&SŒaerSwqifh 2010 Zefe0g&v
D 14 &ufae@wiG f A[dt
k vkyt
f r_
aqmiftzG@J ukd wd;k csŒJ jyefvnfz@JG pnf;apcJo
h nf? wd;k csŒJ jyefvnfz@JG pnf;cJh
aom A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifrsm;rSm (1) OD;atmifa&$
- OuUX
(2) OD;wifO;D
- 'kOuUX
(3) a':atmifqef;pk=unf
- taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
(4) OD;vGif
- twGi;f a&;rSL;
(5) OD;0if;wif
- tzG@J 0if
(6) OD;cifarmifaqG
- tzG@J 0if
(7) OD;oef;xGe;f
- tzG@J 0if
(8) OD;pdk;jrifh
- tzG@J 0if
(9) OD;vSaz
- tzG@J 0if
(10)OD;xGef;wif
- tzG@J 0if
(11)OD;nGe@f a0
- tzG@J 0if
(12)a'gufwmoef;jidr;f
- tzG@J 0if
(13)OD;tkef;}udKif
- tzG@J 0if
(14)OD;0if;jrifh
- tzG@J 0if
(15)OD;xGe;f xGe;f [def
- tzG@J 0if
(16)a'guw
f m0if;Edik f
- tzG@J 0if

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

211

tzJGUcsKyf½kH;ü vlxktm; rdefYcGef;ajymMum;aepOf/

(17)OD;Om%f0if;
- tzG@J 0if
(18)OD;[Homjrifh
- tzG@J 0if
(19)OD;ode;f nGe@f
- tzG@J 0if
(20)a'gufwma':ar0if;jrifh
- tzG@J 0if
ponfw@kd jzpfonf?
xd@k aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unf.t,lcw
H ifoiG ;f r_ukd &efuek w
f ikd ;f
w&m;±H;k u y,fcsco
h J nft
h wGuf jypfrq
_ ikd &f m jyifqifra_ v#mufvcJ suu
f kd
A[dw
k &m;±H;k od@k 2010 jynfEh pS f Zefe0g&v
D 18 &ufae@wiG f xyfrw
H ifoiG ;f
cJo
h nf?
od@k aomf 2010 jynfhEpS /f arv 10 &ufae@wiG f etz jynfxaJ &;
0ef}uD;Adv
k cf sKyfarmifO;D u a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; vmrnfh Ed0k ifbm
vwGif jyefvw
$ af y;rnf[k ajym=um;cJ&h m a':atmifqef;pk=unfu a&SŒ
ae}uD;OD;Om%f0if;ESihf aetdrw
f iG af wG@qpkH Of “'g rw&m;wJh ajymqdck suyf g
yJ” [k jyefvnfw@kH jyefco
hJ nf[q
k o
kd nf? OD;Om%f0if;u “ed0k ifbmrSm
a':pkukd v$waf y;r,fv@kd jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;u ajym=um;wmeJ@ywfoufjyD;
a':pku 'grw&m;wJah jym=um;csuyf w
J ?hJ bmvd@k vnf;qdak wmh ol@ukd t
jypfcsxm;wJjh ypfre_ @J ywfoufjyD;awmh Ekid if aH wmfw&m;±H;k csKyu
f trde@f rcs

212

oef;0if;vIid f

&ao;bl;? rjyD;jywfao;bl;? rjyD;jywfciftwGi;f rSm 'Dvakd jymwm[m w
&m;±H;k &JŒvkyif ef;udk v$r;f rd;k pGuzf uf&ma&mufygw,fv@kd tJ'v
D akd jymygw,f?
jyD;awmh a':pkukd Ed0k ifbmvrSmv$waf y;r,fqw
kd m Edik if aH &; jyufv;kH wpfck
yJ? tpd;k &u wm0ef&o
dS 0l ef}uD;wa,mufuaejyD;awmh ajymvdu
k w
f m
[m [mojyufv;kH vdjk zpfaew,f? ol@vw
G &f ufu Ed0k ifbmvrSm jynfrh mS
qdw
k m tm;vH;k uodaewJu
h pd rP @kd bmrSrxl;jcm;bl;? 'gt
h jyif 'DE0kd ifbmv
14 rSvw
G rf ,hf a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m a&G;aumufy0GJ ifEikd w
f ,f qdk
wmuvnf; a&G;aumufyu
JG Ed0k ifbmv (7) &ufrmS usi;f yjyD; jzpfae
awmh 'Dpum;rsK;d ajymwm[m tawmhu
f &kd pD &maumif;wJh Edik if aH &;jyuf
vH;k vdk jzpfygw,f” [lI ajym=um;oGm;onf?

tJet
f ,fv'f D\ txl;aMunmcsuf
2010 jynfEh Sp/f rwfv 23 &ufae@wiG f NLD tzG@J csKyfonf txl;
a=unmcsuf trSwf 2§03§10 udk xkwjf yefc&hJ m a=unmcsuf tjynfh
tpHrk mS atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfygonf?
Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;aumifpo
D nf 2010 jynfh
ESp/f rwfv 8 &ufae@wiG f jynfaxmifpak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&SifOya'/
Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;rSwyf w
kH ifjcif; Oya'/ jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyJG Oy
a'/ trsK;d om;v$waf wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'/ wdik ;f a'o}uD;v$waf wmf
odk@r[kwf jynfe,fv$waf wmfa&G;aumufyGJOya'wdk@ukd jyÏmef;vdu
k f
onf?
txufygOya'rsm;udk zwf±a_ vhvmoH;k oyf=unfv
h #if 'Dru
kd a&pD
usipfh Ofrsm;/ vGwv
f yfrr_ sm;/ w&m;r#wr_rsm;/ r&Sad =umif;wd@k ukd txif
t&Sm; awG@jrifae&ygonf? t"duusaom om"utcsKŒd rSm
(1) jynfaxmifpak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&SiOf ya'. yk'rf (É)wGif “Edik if H
a&;ygwrD sm;udk Oya'ESit
hf nD aqmif&u
G af p&ef }uD;=uyfjcif;/ }uD;=uyf
apjcif;ESihf vrf;n$ejf cif;” [k aumfr&Sit
f m; wm0efEiS hf vkyyf ikd cf iG rhf sm; ay;
tyfxm;ygonf? TonfrmS 'Dru
kd a&pDusiphf OfEiS t
hf nD vGwv
f yfpmG pnf;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

213

±k;H cGi/hf zG@J pnf;cGi/hf pka0;cGiphf onfv
h yk if ef;pOfrsm;wGif Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;udk
aumfr&Siu
f uef@owfcsKyfcs,x
f m;jcif;jzpfygonf?
(2) Edik if Ha&;ygwDrsm;rSwyf w
kH ifjcif;Oya'.yk'rf 4 (i) wGif ygwD
wnfaqmufvo
kd rl sm;onf “axmif'%fuscaH e&olrsm;r[kwjf cif;” [k
owfrSwx
f m;ygonf? TonfrmS Edik if aH &;ygww
D ck. tcGit
hf a&;udk
jief;qefjcif;jzpfovdk 'Dru
kd a&pDusiphf Ofukd csK;d azmufjcif;vnf;jzpfygonf?
jynfaxmifpo
k rRwjrefrmEdik if aH wmf zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'. tcef; (10)
wGif “Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;zG@J pnf;jcif;” ESihf “Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; qufvuf
&yfwnfciG rhf &Sjd cif;” jyÏmef;csurf sm;ESihf uGv
J q
JG ef@usiaf eygonf? zG@J pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'yk'rf 449 wGif TzG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'onf Edik if aH wmft
wGi;f &Sd Oya'tm;vH;k . tajccHOya'jzpfonf[k jyÏmef;xm;ygonf? xd@k
a=umifh Oya'w&yfukd jyÏmef;&mwGif zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'ESihf qef@usijf yD;
jyÏmef;xm;ygonf? xd@k tjyif aemufa=umif;jyef tm%moufa&muf
jcif;jzpfaeygonf? Oya'w&yf&yfonf jyÏmef;jyD;onfah e@rpS I tm%m
oufa&mufae&rnfjzpfygonf? zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'yg pum;&yfrsm;
teuft"d y`g,fzGif hqdk a&;Oya'yk 'fr -3(i) Y “Oya'w&yf&yfw Gif
aemufa=umif;jyefI tm%moufa&mufrr_ &Sad p&” [kvnf;aumif;
&Si;f vif;pGmjyÏmef;xm;ygonf? wzefjypf'%fuscaH e&olukd aemufxyf
jypf'%fay;ovdv
k nf; jzpfaeygonf?
(3) Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;rSwyf w
kH ifjcif;Oya'. yk'rf 10 Y ygw0D ifrsm;udk
pnf;±H;k &mwGi&f &dS rnfh t&nftcsi;f rsm;udk owfrw
S jf cif;/ yk'rf -23wGif
“aumfr&Sio
f nf ygwrD sm;udw
k nfqOJ ya'/ enf;Oya'rsm;/ vkyx
f ;kH vkyf
enf;rsm;/ trdeahf =umfjimpm/ trde@f / nGe=f um;csurf sm;ESit
hf nD aqmif&u
G f
ap&ef }uD;=uyfEikd o
f nf? aumfr&Sit
f zG@J ct
JG qifq
h iht
f m; aumfr&Siu
f ,
kd f
pm; }u;D =uyf&ef wm0efay;tyfeikd o
f nf” [k owfrw
S x
f m;jcif;/ yk'rf
24 (c) wGif “ygww
D ck. ygww
D iG ;f udp&P yfrsm;ESihf pyfvsO;f I wOD;OD;u
aumfr&Sio
f kd@ wifjywdik =f um;vmygu aumfr&Sio
f nf pHpk rf;ppfaq;I
vdt
k yfv#if Edik if aH wmf.tusK;d iSm xdyk gwrD sm;vdu
k ef maqmif&u
G &f rnfh

214

oef;0if;vIid f

tcsurf sm;udk tcsed u
f mvowfrw
S I
f n$e=f um;Edik o
f nf” [k owfrw
S f
xm;jcif;wd@k onf edik if aH &;ygww
D ck. vkyyf ikd cf iG rhf sm;udk aumfr&Siu
f vGef
uJpmG 0ifa&mufpu
G zf ufaejcif;jzpfygonf?
(4) jynfol@vw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'. yk'rf 11 (C) wGif
“v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,t
f jzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;onf rJqEN
&Sif jynfov
l x
l .
k qENoabmxm;udk rsuu
f ,
G jf yK&m a&mufygonf?
(trsK;d om;v$waf wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'ESihf wdik ;f a'o}uD;v$waf wmf)
odrhk [kwf jynfe,fvw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyJG Oya'wd@k wiG f xdek nf;wljzpfyg
onf?
(5) jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'. yk'rf 82 wGif “aumfr
&Sit
f zG@J cJG tqifq
h ift
h ygt0if a&G;aumufyEJG iS o
hf ufqikd o
f nfh wm0ef
0wœ&m;rsm;udk xrf;aqmifaomyk*d~Kvfonf atmufygtcsufrsm;udk
vdu
k ef maqmif&u
G &f rnf” [k a,bk,som jyÏmef;xm;ygonf? rvdu
k f
emygu rnfonfjh ypf'%fr# owfrw
S jf yÏmef;xm;jcif;r&Syd g? xd@k jyif yk'rf
87 wGif “aumfr&SiEf iS ahf umfr&Sit
f zG0hJ ifrsm;/ rJ±rkH LS ;tygt0if rJ±t
kH zG@J 0if
rsm;. vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;twGuf w&m;ra=umif;t&jzpfap/ jypfr_
a=umif;t&jzpfap w&m;pGjJ cif;rcHxu
kd af p&” [kvnf; jyÏmef;xm;ygonf?
TonfrmS a&G;aumufyu
JG kd vGwv
f yfjyD;w&m;r#wr_r&Sad tmif/ tm%m
ydik w
f @kd pw
d }f udKufvyk af qmifEikd af tmif tm%mydik w
f @kd u a&G;cs,cf ef@xm;
rnfyh *k Kd~ vfrsm;tm; tumtuG,af y;ovdjk zpfaeygonf? (trsK;d om;
v$waf wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'ESihf wdik ;f a'o}uD;v$waf wmf od@k r[kwf jynf
e,fvw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'wdk@wiG v
f nf; xdek nf;wljzpfygonf?
(6) jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'. yk'rf -91 (u) wGif
“jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya' (Edik if jH idr0f yfyjd ym;r_ wnfaqmuf
a&;tzG@J Oya'trSwf 14§89) udk TOya'jzifh ±kyo
f rd ;f vdu
k o
f nf” ESihf
yk'rf -91 (c) wGif “TOya'jzifh ±kyo
f rd ;f vdu
k o
f nf” Oya't& usi;f ycJh
aom ygwpD 'kH rD u
kd a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyo
JG nf zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccH Oy
a'ESifh vdu
k af vsmnDaxGr&Sad wmhonft
h wGuf ,if;a&G;aumufy&JG v'f

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

215

rsm;onf tvdt
k avsmufysujf y,fonf[rk w
S ,
f &l rnf” qdo
k nfjh yÏmef;
csuw
f @kd rmS vH;k 0 w&m;enf;vnf;rusyg? jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if /H Edik if H
awmfz@JG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'yk'rf 446 wGif “wnfqJOya'rsm;onf jynf
axmifpv
k w
$ af wmfu y,fzsujf cif;/ jyifqifjcif;rjyKao;rD TzG@J pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'ESihf rqef@usio
f r# twnfjzpfonf” [k twdtvif; jy
Ïmef;xm;ygonf? Tyk'rf 446 eSit
hf nD zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya't& ay:
aygufvmonfh jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfu jynfol@ v$wfawmf a&G;
aumufyOJG ya' (Oya'trSwf 4§89) wk@d ukd y,fzsujf cif;r[kwb
f J Oya'
jyKolu Oya'udck sK;d azmufjyD; y,fzsujf cif;onf vH;k 0w&m;enf;vrf;
rusyg? 1990 jynfEh pS f ygwpD Hk 'Dru
kd a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufy&JG v'ftm;
vGwv
f yfIw&m;r#waom a&G;aumufy[
JG k owif;xkwjf yefI jrefrm
Edik if jH yefwrf;wGif jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,rf sm; v$waf wmfac:,l
zG@J pnf;ay;jcif;r&Sdao;onft
h wGuf ,if;a&G;aumufyJ&G v'fonf tvdt
k
avsmuf ysujf y,fjcif;r&Syd g?
(7) jynfaxmifpak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&SiOf ya'/ Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; rSwf
yHw
k ifjcif;Oya'/ jynfo@l vw
$ af wmfa&$;aumufyOJG ya'/ trsK;d om;v$wf
awmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'/ wdik ;f a'o}uD;v$waf wmf od@k r[kwf jynfe,f
v$waf wmfa&G;aumufyOJG ya'rsm;udk jyÏmef;Edik &f eftwGuf jynfolvl
xkxH Oya'rl=urf;rsm; csjy&Si;f vif;jcif;r&Sb
d J jynfov
l x
l x
k rJ S t=uHjyK
csurf sm; oabmxm;qENrsm;udk awmif;cHjcif;r&Sb
d J tm%mydik w
f @kd pdwf
}udKuf wpfzufowfa&;qGcJ jhJ cif;jzpfygI w&m;r#wr_v;kH 0r&Syd g?
ok@d ygI trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzG@J csKyf A[kt
d vkyt
f r_aqmiftzG@J t
pnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsut
f & trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfOuUXu Edik if H
awmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESih f zGH@+zdK;a&;aumifpOD uUXtay: 2010 jynfh
ESpw
f &m;pD&ifa&;Oya'yk'rf 5(u)(Z)(n) ESihf 1887 ckEpS f oD;jcm; ouf
omcGihf tufOya'yk'rf 45 ESifh 54 t& &efuek +f rdKŒw&m;±H;k csKyw
f iG f 2010
jynfEh pS /f rwfv 23 &ufae@Y w&m;pGq
J dyk gonf? w&m;±H;k w&m;rXmerS
wm0ef&o
dS u
l “usrwd@k Y pD&ifyikd cf iG rhf &Sv
d @kd ” [k ajymjyD; tr_wu
JG kd ae@v,f

216

oef;0if;vIid f

12;30 em&Dcef@wiG f jyefay;vdu
k af =umif; a=unmvdkuyf gonf?
22 -3-2010 ae@wiG f usi;f yaom A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmiftzG@J t
pnf;ta0;qH;k jzwfcsut
f &?
A[dktvkyt
f r_aqmiftzGJ@
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf; 2010 jynfEh pS /f rwfv 29 &ufae@
wGif trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzG@J csKyf A[dak umfrwDtpnf;ta0;od@k tcsuf
(6) csuyf g ‚if;.oabmxm;w&yfukd ay;yd@k vu
kd o
f nf? ay;yd@k cahJ om
oabmxm; (6) csurf mS (1) 2008 zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udk vH;k 0vufrcHEikd /f tzG@J csKyf. a&$*kH
wdik af =unmcsuu
f kd pGu
J ikd &f rnf?
(2) w&m;r#wr_r&Sdaom wzufowfa&;qGx
J m;onfh Oya't&
rSwyf w
kH ifjcif;udk vH;k 0vufrcHEikd yf g? Oya'yg pnf;urf;csurf sm;rSm 'Drkd
ua&pDenf;rus?
(3) tzG@J csKyfonf usr. ud,
k fydik yf pPn;f r[kw/f rnfow
l OD;w
a,muf. ud,
k yf ikd yf pPn;f vnf;r[kw?f
(4) tzGŒJ csKyftwGi;f vlarG;onft
h vky/f vlarG;onf[k ,lqEdik o
f nfh
tvkyrf sm;udk vH;k 0r}udKuf/ vufrcH?
(5) jynfov
l x
l u
k kd ajym=um;vdo
k nfrmS rdrw
d wfEikd o
f avmuf 'Drkd
ua&pD&&Sad &; }udK;yrf;r_ukd qufvufaqmif&u
G o
f mG ;rnf?
(6) tzG@J csKyfzsuo
f rd ;f cH&v#if tzG@J csKyyf supf ;D onf[k r,lq/ ysupf ;D
jcif;r[kwf [lI jzpfonf?

umhwu
f rfbv
J x
f yfraH wGUqcHk Gi&fh
2010 jynfEh pS /f arv 10 &ufae@wiG f a':atmifqef;pk=unftm;
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk ta&SŒtm&SEiS yhf pdzw
d af &;&m vufaxmufEikd if H
jcm;a&;&m0ef}uD; umhwu
f rfbv
J f onf xyfraH wG@qHak qG;aEG;cGi&hf &Scd hJ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

217

onf? rpPwmurfbv
J u
f a':atmif
qef;pk=unfEiS hf NLD A[dt
k vkyt
f zG@J
0ifrsm;tm; “ol@taeeJ@ vuf&dS t
wkdut
f cHtiftm;pkjzpfonfh NLD
onf rnfonfyh pkH jH zifh wnf&adS eonf
jzpfap/ rSwyf w
kH ifonfjzpfap/ rwif
onfjzpfap/ w&m;0ifygwD jzpfonf
rpöwmuumhwfurfbJvf
jzpfap/ rjzpfonfjzpfap NLD udk tar a':atmifqef;pkMunftm;awGq
U pHk Of/
&duefjynfaxmifpkonf qufvuf tm;ay;axmufcu
H n
l D yl;aygi;f aqmif
&Guo
f mG ;rnf” [k ajym=um;oGm;onf?

twkta,mifa&G;aumufyJG
xd@k aemuf 2010 jynfEh pS /f rwfv 29 &ufae@wiG f NLD A[dk tvkyf
tr_aqmiftzG@J u etzppftpd;k & xkwjf yefcahJ om a&G;aumufyq
JG ikd &f m
Oya'rsm;onf qdwaf cgi;f udck sw
d I
f acG;om;a&mif;rnf'h rD u
kd a&pD (0g)
w&m;r#wr_v;kH 0gr&So
d jzifh Edik if aH &;ygwt
D jzpf xyfrH rSwyf w
kH ifrnfr[kwf
a=umif; NLD ud,
k pf m;vS,f (113) OD;wd@k u uef@uu
G o
f rl &Sd qH;k jzwfvu
kd f
=uonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 2010 jynfEh pS /f Ed0k ifbm 13 &ufae@wiG f
aetdrt
f us,cf sKyo
f ufwrf;aphawmhrnfjzpfaoma=umifh etz ppft
pd;k &onf a&G;aumufyu
JG kd olr rvGwrf D wywftvdk Ed0k ifbmv 7 &ufae@
wGiu
f si;f y&ef wufow
k ±f u
kd pf pD Ofvu
kd af wmhonf? aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf
uscaH e&onfh a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf jrefrmjynfov
l x
l t
k m; a&SŒ
ae OD;Om%f0if;rSwqif“h rJqEN&iS rf sm;taejzifh rJay;cGi&hf o
dS vd/k rJray;bJ
aeEdik cf iG &hf o
dS nf” [lI rSm=um;vdu
k af vonf?
ÙÙÙ

218

oef;0if;vIid f

tcef; (10)
a':atmifqef;pkMunf vGwfjyD
a':tmifqef;pk=unfonf 2010 jynfEh pS /f Ed0k ifbmv 13 &ufae@
us,cf sKyfusc&H aom a':cifcif0if;ESihf r0if;rr (c) ri,fw@kd vnf; jyef
nae 5;15 em&DwiG f aetdrftus,cf sKyfrS jyefvnfvw
G af jrmufvmcJh
onf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS t
hf wl a':atmifqef;pk=unfaetdrYf t
vnfvw
G fajrmufch=J uonf?
jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;Xme jrefrmEdik if &H w
J yfz@JG / &JcsKyfAv
kd rf LS ;csKyfcif&o
D nf
Ed0k ifbmv 13 &uf nae 5 em&DwiG f A[ef;+rdKŒe,f a&$awmif=um; (1)
&yfuu
G /f wuUov
kd &f yd o
f mvrf;/ jcHtrSw(f 54§56) &Sd a':atmifqef;pk
=unf. aetdro
f @kd omG ;a&mufI a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; av#mah ygh
ajymif;vJvu
kd af om jypf'%fumvjynfo
h nfh 2010 jynfEh pS /f Ek0d ifbm
13 &ufae@wiG f jypf'%ftm;vH;k udk vGwjf idr;f csr;f omcGijhf yKvdu
k af =umif;
jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;Xme.trde@f ukd &Si;f vif;zwf=um;onf?
,if;aemuf jrefrmEdik if &H w
J yfz@JG &JcsKyfAv
kd rf LS ;csKyfcif&o
D nf &efuek f
ajrmufyikd ;f c±dik f w&m;±H;k u jypfrq
_ ikd &f mtr_}uD;trSwf 47§2009 jzifh
Edik if aH wmftm; aESmif,
h u
S zf suq
f ;D olrsm;. ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,f
apmifah &SmufonfOh ya'yk'rf 22 t& rw&m;tjypfay;jcif;cH&aom ac:
cifcif0if; (b) OD;wiftek ;f ESihf r0if;rr (c) ri,fav; (b) OD;Om%fvif;
wd@k EpS Of ;D tm;vnf; qdik ;f iHx
h m;onfh av#mah ygah jymif;vJvu
kd af om jypf
'%fumvjynfhonfh 2010 jynfEh pS /f Ed0k ifbmv 13 &ufwiG f jypf'%f
tm;vH;k udk vGwjf idr;f csr;f omcGihf jyKvdu
k o
f nht
f rde@f ukd zwf=um;onf?
,if;od@k &Si;f vif;zwf=um;&mwGif jrefrmEdik if &H w
J yfz@JG &JcsKyAf v
kd rf LS ;csKyfcif&D
ESit
hf wl &efuek w
f ikd ;f a'o}u;D &Jwyfz@JG &cJ sKyf}uD;atmif'ikd ;f / owif;wyfz@JG
'kw,
d owif;wyfzG@J rSL; &JrLS ;}uD;0if;Edik fxeG ;f / wdki;f w&m;ol}uD; OD;jrifh
atmif/ wdik ;f Oya't&m&SOd ;D atmifoef;jrifEh iS hf wm0ef&o
dS rl sm; vdu
k yf gvm
cJh=uonf?
vGwjf ird ;f csr;f omcGit
hf rde@f rsm;udk zwf=um;jyD;aemuf &JcsKyf Adv
k rf LS ;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

219

csKyfcif&o
D nf a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; use;f use;f rmrmawG@&ojzifh
0rf;omyga=umif;/ rdrw
d @kd . t"duvkyif ef;wm0efrmS w&m;Oya' pd;k rd;k a&;
ESihf &yf&mG at;csr;f om,ma&;jzpfyga=umif;/ Edik if aH wmf. a&SŒc&D;wGif at;
at;csrf;csr;f / wnfwnfjidrjf idr&f Sad pvdak =umif;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tm;ajym=um;&m a':atmifqef;pk=unfu Adv
k rf LS ;csKyfcif&.
D rsuEf mS udk
aphaph=unfI
h tjyKH ;jzifh wk@H jyefco
hJ nf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfvw
G af jrmufvmonfukd }udKwifapmifq
h ikd ;f
ae=uaomvlx}k uD;u uef@owf{&d,mudk oufqikd &f mrS z,f&mS ;ay;
tjyD;wGif uef@owf{&d,mxdyrf S jcH0od@k tajym;tv$m;oGm;a&mufum
a':atmifqef;pk=unfuse;f rmygap[k tm;ay;atmf[pfqak wmif;cJ=h u
onfu d k awG @ &ayonf ? a':atmif q ef ;pk = unfo nf aetd r f jcH 0
od@k xu
G I
f vlxt
k m; E_wcf eG ;f qufpum; ajym=um;cJo
h nf? od@k aomf
toHcsJŒpufrsm;wyfqifxm;jcif;r&Sad oma=umifh apmifh}udKae&aom
vlxo
k nf toHuakd umif;pGmr=um;Edik af oma=umifh a':atmifqef;pk
=unfu eufjzef 12 em&DwiG f a&$*w
kH ikd v
f rf;&Sd tzG@J csKyf±;kH Y vlx}k uD;udk
rde@f ceG ;f ajymp&m&So
d nf[I
l rSm=um;cJo
h nf? ,if;aemuf aetdrt
f wGi;f Y
NLD tzG@J csKyfacgi;f aqmifrsm;ESifh awG@qa
kH qG;aEG;cJo
h nf?
xd@k aemuf Ek0d ifbmv 14 &ufae@wiG f trSwf 97§c/ taemufa&$*kH
wdik v
f rf;/ A[ef;+rdKŒe,f&dS trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf±;kH a&SŒY ae@v,f
12 em&DwiG f vlxyk &dowf 1 ode;f ausmu
f kd rde@f ceG ;f ajym=um;&mwGif
“jynfoal wGrygbeJ @J bmudprP S ratmifjrifb;l / bmrSvyk v
f @kd r&bl;?
usrwd@k tvkyu
f v
kd yk =f u&r,f? usrwd@k u uH²²² uHv@kd ajymw,f? usrwdhk
tvkyu
f v
kd yk =f u&r,fw
h m0efawGukd ra=umufb;l ? wm0efrausrmS udb
k J
a=umufygw,f? usr jynfoal wGukd arwœm&yfcyH g&ap? usrwd@k e@J quf
qHwt
hJ cgrmS yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif; owœ&d &dS dS ajymqdq
k ufq=H uyg? 'g[m 'Drkd
ua&pDtajccHygy?J vGwv
f yfpmG ajymqdyk ikd cf iG /hf vGwv
f yfpmG ajymqdyk ikd cf iG hf
qdw
k m vGwv
f yfpmG qJqykd ikd cf iG eh f @J rwlb;l ? usr jynfoal wGukd arwœm&yfcH
csiw
f muawmh apmapmu usrajymovdyk gy/J ud,
k phf w
d x
f rJ mS &Sw
d mawG

220

oef;0if;vIid f

udk usrwd@k ut
kd oday;yg? pma&;jyD;awmhy@k d v@kd vnf;&ygw,f? pmwdu
k u
f kd
pdwrf cs&&if 'DrmS yJ vmay;yg? jynfoal wGpw
d x
f rJ mS bm&So
d vJqw
kd m
usr odcsiw
f ,f?
tvkypf vkyw
f chJ grmS 0D&,
d xkw&f r,f/ tvkyt
f v,fyikd ;f a&mufwhJ
tcgrmS 0D&,
d xkw&f r,f/ tvkyaf emufq;kH ydik ;f a&mufcge;D rSm 0D&,
d xkwf
&r,f? tvkyq
f w
kd m +yD;w,f&,fv@kd r&Sb
d ;l ? tvkyw
f ckjyD;vnf; aemuf
tvkyu
f ay:vmrSmyJ? avmu}u;D rSm auseyfp&m/ auseyfp&mtcsed f
awGqkw
d m b,fawmhrSr&Sdb;l ? 'gayr,fh r}udK;pm;yJe@J r&bl;? usrtaeeJ@
awmh usruawmh vkyaf y;r,fv@kd usr rajymEdik b
f ;l ? jynfo&l ŒJ ,H=k unf
r_&&dS if/ jynfo&l ŒJ tm;ud;k r_&&dS if/ jynfo&l ŒJ axmufcHr&_ v
dS @kd &&dS if usrwd@k
vkyt
f m;awG trsm;}uD;wufvmr,f? usrwa,mufxJ vkyv
f @kd r&bl;?
usrwa,mufxv
J J rvkycf sib
f ;l ? wa,mufxv
J yk w
f ,fqw
kd m 'Dru
dk
a&pDr[kwb
f ;l ? usrwd@k bmyJvyk zf @kd q;kH jzwf/ qH;k jzwf jynfou
l kd today;
ygrh ,f?
usr trsK;d om;&if=um;apha&;twGuf qufvufvyk o
f mG ;ygrh ,f?
&if=um;apha&;twGuf jynfoal wGtenf;qH;k emr,feh nf;eJ@ vkyo
f mG ;
r,f/ vH;k vH;k rembl;vd@k vnf; usr rajymEdik b
f ;l ? onf;cHaewm =umjyDqkd
wm r[kww
f J[
h mawGukd onf;cHaewmvm;? onf; cHoifhwmawGukd
onf;cHaewmvm;/ trSm;eJ@trSeu
f kd cGjJ cm;jyD;awmh od&r,f? trSeb
f uf
uae &yfwnf&w
J Jo
h wœ&d &dS r,f? azazajymcJw
h phJ um;wcGe;f &Syd gw,f?
ol@vyd jf ym&JŒcH±k ;kH a&SŒrSm olrm;rm;rwf&yfjyD;awmh tppfc&H w
J ,fw?hJ usr
&JŒ vdyjf ymcH±k ;kH a&SŒrSmvnf; ae@wikd ;f rwfwyf&yf&yJ gw,f? jynfoal wGvJ
'Dvykd J ud,
k &hf ŒJ vdyjf ymcH±k ;kH a&SŒrSm ae@wikd ;f rwfwyf&yfjyD;awmh rm;rm;rwf
rwf tppfc&H =J uyg?
usr,H=k unfwm[m vl@tcGit
fh a&;udk,k=H unfw,f/ w&m;Oya'
pd;k rk;d a&;udk ,H=k unfw,f/ tJ'gawGtwGuf usrwd@k tjrJwrf; vkyaf qmif
oGm;&r,f/ yk*Kd~ vfa&;t& b,fo@l urk d ek ;f vd@k / b,f0gu
h rkd ek ;f vd@k qjkd yD;awmh
vkyaf ewmr[kwfb;l ?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

221

usrajymaewmvJ Edik if aH &;yJ/ tm;vH;k Edik if aH &;yJ/ usrwd@k jynfoal wG
tm;vH;k Edik if aH &;udk em;vnfatmif vky=f uyg? ta&SŒuvkyaf ewJo
h al wG
udk taemufuvlawGu xde;f Edik &f r,f? 'g[m 'Dru
kd a&pDy?J usruawmh
jynfoal wG usrudk xde;f odr;f wmudck yH grh ,f?h tjcm;olawG xde;f odr;f
wmudk rcHEikd b
f ;l ” [lI ajym=um;oGm;onf?
,cktcg trsKd;om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfukd etzppftpd;k &. jynf
axmifpak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Siu
f 2010 jynfEh pS /f pufwifbmv 14
&ufae@wiG f zsuo
f rd ;f vdu
k jf yD;aemuf NLD qufvuf&yfwnfciG hf t,lcrH _
udk aejynfawmfw&m;±H;k csKyfo@kd OD;wku
d af v#mufxm;cJ&h m y,fcsc&H onf?
xd@k aemuf Oya'a=umif;t& aemufq;kH txl;t,lcrH u
_ v
kd nf; quf
vufav#mufxm;cJh&mwGif y,fcscH&jyefonf?
'Dru
kd a&pDonf rnfonfv
h rl sK;d od@k r[kwf rnfonh,
f Ofaus;r_EiS hf
om oufqikd o
f nfr[kw?f tm;enf;olEiS hf tm;aumif;olrsm;tm;vH;k .
tcGit
hf a&;rsm;udk umuG,zf @kd &ef 'Dru
kd a&pDpepfu tmrcHcsuaf y;xm;
ayonf? 'Dru
dk a&pDonf jyD;jynfph akH ompepf r[kwaf omfvnf; vGwf
vyfrE_ iS hf vHjk cHKr_ukd taumif;qH;k / tjrwfq;kH jzpfatmif vufawG@vyk f
aqmifxm;onfph epfwckjzpf&m vlwkid ;f vlwikd ;f onf rdrw
d d@k &oif&h xdu
k f
onfh tcGit
hf a&;twGuf wdu
k yf 0JG if&rnfjzpfayonf? wcsed w
f nf;rSmyif
,if;wdu
k yf o
JG nf vlom;tm;vH;k . w&m;aomwdu
k yf /JG trSew
f &m;udk
jrwfe;kd olrsm;tm;vH;k . wdu
k yf v
JG nf; jzpfayonf?
ÙÙÙ

222

oef;0if;vIid f

tcef; (11)
vGwaf jrmufjyD;umv EdkifiaH &;aqmif&u
G cf sufrsm;
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrt
f us,cf sKyfrS vGwaf jrmufvm
jyD;aemuf 2010 jynfEh pS /f Ed0k ifbm 14 &uf naeydik ;f wGif bDbpD D jrefrm
ydik ;f oD;oef@qufo,
G af r;jref;r_ukd TuJo
h @kd ajz=um;oGm;cJo
h nf?
“usr tjrJajymcJyh gw,f/ ar#mv
f ifch suq
f w
kd m tvkyef @J wrJG S ar#mf
vifch suv
f @kd ac:vd@k &r,f/ tvkyef @J wGrJ xm;wJah r#mv
f ifch suu
f awmh pdwf
ul;,Oftyd rf ufawGy/J usrtaeeJ@uawmh 'Dar#mv
f ifch suaf wGukd tvkyf
jzpfatmif vky&f rSmjzpfygw,f/ usrwd@k uvnf; tvkyv
f yk &f r,f/ 'Dar#mf
vifch suaf wG taumiftxnfazmfz@kd twGuf jynfov
l x
l u
k ,
kd w
f ikd u
f
yg0ifjyD;vky&f r,fqw
kd m em;vnfatmif usrwwfEikd o
f r# jynfov
l x
l k
udk ajymcsiyf gw,f/ jynfo@l tiftm;udk usrwd@k tm;ud;k w,f/ jynfoal wG
uvnf; usrwd@k ukd tm;udw
k ,fq&kd if wzufe@J wzuf tm;ay;&r,f/
tm;jznhaf y;&r,f/ ,H=k unfpw
d cf srw
_ nfaqmufomG ;&r,f/ tJ'v
D kd vkyf
oGm;&if &r,fv@kd usr,H=k unfygw,f?
ppfp;kd &[m 22 ESprf uvd@k ESp2f 20 yJjzpfjzpf jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ ,H=k unfr_
udk r&,lEikd v
f @kd &&dS if a&&Snrf mS bmrSratmifjrifEikd b
f ;l vd@k ,H=k unfw,f/
jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ ,H=k unfre_ @J ppfreS w
f ahJ pwemtiftm;yg&r,f/ tJ'grygv@kd
uawmh b,ft&mudrk S a&&Snw
f nfaxmifv@kd &rSmr[kwb
f ;l ?
NLD &JΠ&yfwnfyi
kd cf iG rhf &Sad wmhb;l qdw
k m usrwd@k 'Dtcsed rf mS ajymvdhk
r&ygb;l / tJ'gu wydik ;f yg/ aemufwydik ;f u usrwd@k &ŒJ t"duvkyif ef;[m
NLD &Sio
f ef tm;oefa&;twGurf [kwb
f ;l / jynfov
l x
l &k iS o
f efa&; t
wGuf usrwd@k tjrJqufvyk af erSmyJ”
ukvr*~taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf befurD eG ;f uvnf; a':atmif
qef;pk=unf jyefvnfvw
G v
f mr_ukd }udKqdak =umif;ESihf useEf ikd if aH &; t
usO;f om;rsm;tm;vH;k udk jyefvw
$ af y;&ef ppftpk;d &xH awmif;qdck o
hJ nf?
tar&dueforRw bm;&uftdb
k m;rm;u a':atmifqef;pk=unf
vGwaf jrmufvmr_ukd 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpf&a=umif;ESihf a':atmifqef;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

223

pk=unfonf ol.ol&aJ umif;[kajymjyD; vGwo
f ifw
h m=umvSjy[
D k qdo
k nf?
jAdwo
d #0ef}uD;csKyfa';Apfuifr&Ge;f uvnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf 'Dru
kd a&pD/ vl@tcGit
hf a&;ESifh vGwv
f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG rhf sm;
udk ,H=k unfo/l wurBmvHk;. vlom;tm;vH;k tm;ustwk,pl &myk*Kd~ vf
[k ‚if;ud,
k w
f ikd f w,fvzD ek ;f jzihf 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omajym=um;oGm;onf?
ygupPwef0ef}uD;csKyf ,lqw
G &f mu*DvmeD/ xdik 0f rforRw r&ifusK;d /
tmqD,OH uUX pl&ifypfp0k rf/ Oa&myaumfr&SiOf uUX [kad q;ref0,fbm±dpk /kd
The Elders tzGŒJ OuUX bke;f awmf}uD;'ufprGew
f ;l wl;/ tdE,
dN Edik if jH cm;a&;
0ef}u;D tufpt
f rfu&pf&eS m;/ =opa=w;vs0ef}uD;csKyf Julis Gilland tar&d
uefEikd if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; [Dvm&Duvifwef/ wdAufbek ;f awmf}uD; 'vdik ;f
vm;rm;/ jypfopforRwuawmf umvmb±leq
D mudZk ED iS hf Edik if aH ygi;f 155
Edik if rH S ygvrD eftrwftzGŒJ (IPU) wd@k uvnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unf vGwf
ajrmufvmr_twGuf 0rf;ompum;rsm; toD;oD;ajym=um;cJ=h uonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf vGwfajrmufvmr_udk wkdif;&if;om;acgi;f
aqmifrsm;uvnf; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om}udKqdck =hJ uonf? wdk;wufaom
Ak'<bmom u&iftrsK;d om;wyfawmf (DKBA) wyfr[m (5) wyfrLS ;
Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf apmvm;bG,f (Adv
k Ef w
_ cf rf;ar$;) u a':atmifqef;pk=unf
vGwaf jrmufvmr_EiS yhf wfoufI “a':atmifqef;pk=unfvw
G af jrmufvmwmudk 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om
}uKd qdv
k ufcyH gw,f/ a':pktaejzifh 'Dru
dk a&pD&&Sad &;twGuf jynfov
l x
l /k
wkid ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;/ vufeufuikd t
f zG@J tpnf;rsm;tay:wGif Ekid if aH &;
enf;vrf;jzifh trsK;d om;&if=um;apha&;/ jidr;f csr;f pGmajz&Si;f Edik af &;twGuf
rSeu
f efaom ,H=k unfcsuf csrw
S v
f yk af qmifEikd v
f rd rfh nf[k 'DaubDat
tzG@J tpnf;taeeJ@ ,H=k unfa=umif; axmufcyH gw,f” [lI ajymcJo
h nf?
ppftpd;k &tm; vufeufuikd af wmfveS af eaom u&ifet
D rsKd;om;
wd;k wufa&;ygwD (KNPP) . OuUX cl;xJb;l zJuvnf; “a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m axmif'%ftESpEf pS t
f vv usccH &hJ wJh
'Dru
kd a&pDacgi;f aqmifwOD;jzpfygw,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd v@kd olvw
G af jrmufvm

224

oef;0if;vIid f

wmudk v_u
d v
f }JS udKqykd gw,f/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m 'Dru
dk a&pDacgi;f
aqmifwOD;vnf;jzpfw,f/ wurBmvHk;uvnf; av;pm;wJyh k*~Kd vfjzpf
w,f/ vGwv
f mjyDqakd wmh ArmjynfrmS 'Dru
kd a&pD&atmif ol wenf;
wzHek @J }udK;pm;ay;r,fv@kd ar#mv
f ifyh gw,f? wkid ;f &if;om;awGtay:rSm
vnf; olu yHrk eS q
f ufqrH &_ ydS gw,f? ol@taeeJ@ ppfreS w
f hJ zuf'&,f jynf
axmifpu
k v
kd nf; wnfaqmufz@kd ydik ;f jzwfc,
H x
l m;oljzpfygw,f? tm;
vnf;ay;w,f? vkyaf qmifvrd rhf ,fv@kd vnf; ar#mv
f ifyh gw,f?” [lI
ajym=um;oGm;onf?
u&iftrsK;d om;tpnf;t±H;k (KNU) . 'kOuUX z'dak ';Apfomuayg
uvnf;“ a':pktaeeJ@ jyefjyD;awmh Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_rmS csucf si;f ryg0ifbJ
jyefo;kH oyfz@kd vdv
k rd rhf ,fv@kd xifygw,f/ bmvd@k vq
J akd wmh ESp&f n
S v
f rsm;
tcsKyfccH &hJ wJt
h cgrmS pdwaf &m/ vla&m yifyrf;cJw
h 'hJ %fawG&ydS gw,f? tJ'D
'%fawGuaejyD; jyefjyD;awmh aumif;vmatmif jyefjyD;awmh em;oifh
w,fvkd@ xifygw,f? tcka&G;aumufyJGjyD;jyD/ tajymif;tvJuawmh
tjyifyef;tm;jzifah wmh t&yfom;tpd;k &yHpk rH sK;d jzpfayr,fv@kd wu,fh t
ESpo
f m&uawmh zdEydS w
f phJ pftpd;k & qufvufwnf&dSaerSmjzpfygw,f?
tJ'v
D dk vlxq
k ENuv
kd nf; *±krpdu
k /f Edik if w
H umoabmxm;udv
k nf; t
av;rxm;/ tJ'h v
D kd tpd;k &atmufrmS a&SŒudk b,fvEkd ikd if aH &;v_y&f mS ;&
r,f/ 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;/ jynfaxmifpt
k a&;twGuf b,fvv
kd y_ &f mS ;&r,f
qdw
k m jyefjyD;awmh tcsed ,
f o
l ;kH oyfz@kd vw
kd ,f? tem;,lz@kd vnf; vdw
k ,f
vd@k jrifygw,f” [lI ajym=um;cJo
h nf?
rGejf ynfopfygwD taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; Edik [
f o
H muvnf; “yxrOD;qH;k a':atmifqef;pk=unfvw
G v
f mwJt
h wGuf usaemfw@kd
0rf;omw,f/ }udKqw
kd ,f/ 'kw,
d taeeJ@ ol&ŒJ &yfwnfcsuf trsK;d om;
jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;udk aZmif;ay;jyD;awmh/ t"duxm;jyD;awmh vkyf
aqmifcsiw
f ,fqw
kd u
hJ pd t
P ay:rSm usaemfw@kd taeeJ@ odyu
f 0kd rf;omtm;
& jzpfryd gw,f” [lI ajym=um;oGm;onf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

225

&Sr;f jynfwyfrawmf (awmifyikd ;f ). ajyma&;qdck iG &hf o
dS l pkid ;f avmif0f
pdik ;f uvnf; “usaemfw@kd Eikd if &H ŒJ rajyvnfao;wJh Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk vnf;
aumif;/ trsm;awmifw
h aewJ'h rD u
kd a&pDa&;/ aemufjyD; wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;
&JΠwef;wltcGiahf &; ponft
h a&;rsm;udk olru usaemfw@kd vuf&adS cgi;f
aqmifrsm;eJ@}udK;yrf;jyD; ajz&Si;f ay;oGm;Edik rf ,fv@kd usaemfw@kd ar#mv
f ifyh g
w,f? 'Dtrsm;awmif;qdak ewJh oH;k yGihf qdik af qG;aEG;yGjJ zpfajrmufa&; t
wGuf olr&JŒtcef;u¾u ta&;}uD;ygw,f? olr&JŒpGr;f &nfe@J owœad wG
udv
k nf; usaemfw@kd av;pm;ygw,f? ol&ŒJ OD;aqmifre_ @J ndE‡ id_ ;f tajz&Sm
a&;awGrmS usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;tm;vH;k u vufwjJG yD;
aqmif&u
G yf g0ifz@kd &w
dS ,fqw
kd m ajym=um;vdyk gw,f” [lI ajym=um;
oGm;onf?
ucsifEkdiif Ha&;orm;}uD;a'gufwmwl;*smuvnf; “a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmifwOD;taeeJ@ wdik ;f
jynfjy\emawGukd ajz&Si;f wmudk vdv
k m;ygw,f/ a':pkvw
G af jrmufvm
jyD;aemufyikd ;f ndE‡ id_ ;f aqG;aEG;a&;udk Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;eJ@a&m/ vuf&t
dS pk;d &
taeeJ@a&m/ jynfox
l u
J wm0ef&w
dS yhJ *k Kd~ vfrsm;tm;vH;k eJ@a&m nDtpfukd
pdw"f mwfe@J jynfaxmifpo
k m;pdw"f mwfe@J vyk u
f ikd af qmif&u
G Ef ikd rf ,fq&kd if
tajzwck&&Sv
d rd rhf ,f usaemfw@kd ar#mv
f ifyh gw,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd v@kd ygwD wck
&JŒtaetxm;rsK;d xuf jynfaxmifpw
k ckv;kH qdik &f m/ Edik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m tae
eJ@ vkyu
f ikd af qmif&u
G Ef ikd rf ,fq&kd if ydjk yD;awmhxad &muf atmifjrifEikd rf ,f
vd@k usaemfjrifygw,f” [lI ajym=um;oGm;onf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf Ed0k ifbmv 19 &ufae@wiG f 2010 jynfEh pS f
a&G;aumufyw
JG iG f yg0if,OS +f ydKifta&G;cHcI
hJ ±_;H edrchf =hJ uaom woD;yk*v
~
ud,
k pf m;vS,f 12 OD;udv
k nf; oD;jcm;awG@qI
kH wkid ;f jynfaumif;usK;d t
wGuf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u
G af &;udp&P yfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;cJo
h nf?
jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDacgi;f aqmifa':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 10 ESpf
wmr# uGu
J mG ae&aom om;i,fuifrt
f &J pfac: udx
k ed v
f if;udk Ed0k ifbm

226

oef;0if;vIid f

v 23 &ufae@wiG f jyefvnfawG@qHck iG &hf cJo
h nf?
jAdwed Ef ikd if YH aexdik v
f su&f adS om uifro
f nf rdcifaetdrt
f us,f
csKyfrS vGwaf jrmufEidk o
f nf[,
k q
l jyD; Ed0k ifbmvqef;uwnf;u xdik ;f
Edik if /H befaumuf&dS jrefrmoH±;kH wGif jynf0ifciG Ahf ZD mav#mufxm;cJ&h m 3
ywft=um Ed0k ifbmv 22 &ufae@wiG f ADZm&&S&d jdS cif; rdcifxH vma&muf
vnfywfcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf.om;}uD; tvufZENm;
ac: udjk rifq
h ef;atmifonf tar&duefjynfaxmifpYk aexdik v
f su&f o
dS nf?
2010 jynhEf pS /f 'DZifbmv 28 &ufae@wiG f &efuek w
f ikd ;f A[ef;+rdKŒ
e,f/ a&$*w
kH ikd v
f rf;&Sd trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf±;kH Y a':atmifqef;pk
=unfonf vli,frsm;ESiahf wG@qHu
k m =o0g'pum;ajym=um;jyD;aemuf vl
i,fueG ,
f ufwckukd zG@J pnf;vdu
k o
f nf? jynfov
l x
l .
k ynma&;/ pD;yGm;
a&;/ use;f rma&;/ vlra_ &;udprP sm; us,u
f s,jf yef@jyef@ uspu
f spv
f pfvpf
aqG;aEG;vkyaf qmifEikd af &;ESihf NLD .aqG;aEG;vkyaf qmifrw
_ ikd ;f Y vli,f
rsm;od&ydS g0ifaqmif&u
G Ef ikd af &;twGuf vli,fueG ,
f uf zG@J pnf;cJjh cif; jzpf
onf[k qdo
k nf?
vli,frsm;ESihf awG@q&kH mY a':atmifqef;pk=unfu “'DEidk if rH mS vky&f r,fh vlra_ &;/ Edik if aH &;udpaP wG[m tm;vH;k eJ@ ouf
qdik af ew,fqw
kd mudk usrwd@k em;vnfz@kd vykd gw,f/ tJ'ga=umifh 'Dvkd aqG;
aEG;yGv
J yk w
f myg/ t"dutm;jzifh usrwd@k &ŒJ tajctaeawG/ usr&JŒ tawG;
tac:awGukd ajymjyzd@k r[kwyf gb;l / usrwd@k vil ,fawG&ŒJ pdwx
f rJ mS bm&Sd
w,f/ b,fvekd nf;awGe@J usrwd@k Eikd if H wd;k wufatmifvyk Ef ikd rf ,fv@kd vl
i,fawGu xifovJ/ usrwd@k Ekdiif HtwGuf tm;enf;csufawG[m bm
awGv/J 'Dtm;enf;csuaf wGukd b,fvu
kd srwd@k u jyKjyifEikd rf vJqw
kd hJ vl
i,fawG&ŒJ tawG;tjrifawGukd usrwd@k ocd siv
f @k d yg?
usr Ed0k ifbmv 13 &ufae@tus,cf sKyu
f xGuv
f mwJt
h csed u
f pjyD;
jynfoal wG&ŒJ toHukd usr=um;csiw
f ,fqjkd yD; ajymcJyh gw,f/ tJ'x
D u
G f
vmwJah e@uyJ usrowdxm;rdwmuawmh usrwd@k &JŒv_y&f mS ;r_xrJ mS
axmufcaH ewJh yk*Kd~ vftrsm;pk[m awmfawmfi,fwhJ vli,fawGjzpfyg

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

227

w,f/ tJ'gukd usrtifrwefrS oabmusygw,f/ 'Dvv
kd il ,fawG&ŒJ tif
tm;&Srd o
S mv#if usrwd@k &ŒJ tem*wftwGuf usrwd@k vHjk cHKr&_ Edik rf mS yg?

vli,fawG[m wu,fyJ 'Dwikd ;f jynf&ŒJ Edik if aH &;jzpfpOf/ vlra_ &;jzpfpOf
awGrmS pdwyf g0ifpm;w,f? 'Dwidk ;f jynfukd ajymif;vJz@kd [m vli,fawGu
rdrw
d @kd &ŒJ wm0efjzpfw,fqw
kd hJ tpG&J jdS yDq&kd if usrwd@k widk ;f jynftwGuf pdwf
cs&ygjyD/ 'Dvt
kd ajctaer&S&d ifawmh reufjzef 'Dru
kd a&pD&vd@k &&dS ifawmifrS
pdwcf s&OD;rSmr[kwyf gb;l / tem*wfux
kd ed ;f odr;f oGm;&rSmu vli,fawG&ŒJ
wm0efjzpfygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh vli,fawGtaeeJh 'Dwm0efukd b,fvjkd rif
ovJ/ 'Dwm0efuk d b,fvx
kd rf;aqmifr,fv@kd pdwu
f ;l xm;ovJqw
kd m
usrwd@k ozd @kd trsm;}uD;vdyk gw,f/ 'Dawmh usrwd@k twlwv
l ufwjJG yD; vkyf
vd@k &r,f/ usrwd@k taeeJ@ yHyh ;kd oifw
h ahJ e&mu yHyh ;kd ay;vd@k &rSmjzpfygw,f?”
[lI ajym=um;oGm;onf?
2011 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D 1 &ufae@wiG f jynfov
l x
l }k uD;tm; trsK;d
om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; a':atmifqef;pk=unf
u ESpo
f pfu;l E_wcf eG ;f qufo0%fvm$ ay;yd@k co
hJ nf? E_wcf eG ;f quf o0%f
v$mY “ESpaf [mif;vGeaf jrmufepS o
f pfa&mufcsed w
f iG f usr. Edik if aH &;b0

228

oef;0if;vIid f

jzwfoef;r_ukd jyefvnfo;kH oyf=unhaf omtcg jynfov
l x
l .
k 'Dru
kd a&pD
ESihf vl@tcGit
hf a&;twGuf }udK;yrf;onfu
h mv/ aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf uscH
onfhumv/ jyefvnfvw
G fajrmufvmonfhumv[lI umvoHk;yg;udk
awG@jrif&ygonf?
,if;umvoH;k yg;pvH;k wGif usrtwGuv
f nf;aumif; usr.&nfreS ;f
csut
f wGuv
f nf;aumif;/ usr.}udK;yrf;aqmif&u
G rf r_ sm;twGuf vnf;
aumif;/ axmufco
H /l tm; ay;ol/ ulno
D l tajrmuftjrm;&Syd gonf?
Edik if aH cgi;f aqmifrsm;/ bmoma&;acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;/ jidr;f csr;f a&; Edb
k ,f
qk&iS rf sm;tygt0ify*k Kd~ vrf sm;/ ukvor*~/ Oa&myor*~/ tjynfjynf qdik f
&mvGwjf ird ;f csr;f omcGit
hf zG@J ponfyg0ifaomtzG@J tpnf;rsm;/ tar&duef
jynfaxmifpEk iS hf Oya&myEdik if t
H rsm;tjym;rS Edik if o
H El ikd if o
H m;rsm;/ jynf
wGi;f jynfyrS usrwd@k wikd ;f &if;om;jynforl sm; yg0if=uygonf?
xdo
k rl sm;onf um,uHtm;jzif/h 0pDut
H m;jzif/h raemuHtm;jzifh
±dik ;f yif;ulncD o
Jh rl sm;twGuf usru txl;wvnf aus;Zl;Oyum& wif
&Syd ga=umif; txl;wvnfazmfjytyfygonf?
txl;ojzifh ,ckw}udrjf yefvw
G &f mwGif ydrk w
kd ufºuGaeaom vli,f
rsm;tygt0if jynfolrsm;rS tifwdu
k ftm;wdu
k f axmufcHtm;ay;r_
a=umifh usrtvGe0f rf;ajrmuf=unfE;l &ygonf? trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifh
jrwfr&_ &Sad &;/ ppfreS af omjynfaxmifppk w
d "f gww
f zef Ek;d x&Sio
f efvma&;
wd@k twGuf jynfo@l Eikd if aH &; vlru
_ eG ,
f uf}uD;w&yf xlaxmifjcif;jzifh usr
wd@k rjzpfrae}udK;yrf;&ygO;D rnf? r*FvmESpo
f pfwiG f cGeo
f pf tm;opf vkyf
ief;yHpk o
H pfjzifh wdik ;f &if;om;jynfot
l m;vH;k vufw}JG udK;yrf;=uygp@kd [k E_;d
aqmf&if; E_wcf eG ;f qufovdu
k yf gonf?”
atmifqef;pk=unf
&ufpJG 1 - 1 - 2011
2011 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&v
D 12 &ufae@wiG f trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzG@J
csKyf±;kH Y usi;f y aom (64) ESpaf jrmuf jynfaxmifpak e@tcrf;tem;wGif

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

229

a':atmifqef;pk=unfwufa&mufI trSmpum;ajym=um;cJ&h m “(64) ESpaf jrmuf jynfaxmifpak e@rmS tm;vH;k [m ydjk yD;nDnw
G zf @kd e@J
wOD;tay:wOD;em;vnfr&_ jdS y;D pnf;vH;k r_&=dS uzd@k tcktcsed rf mS ta&;t
}uD;qH;k yJv@kd usrxifygw,f? usrwd@k Eikd if [
H m wu,fjh ynfaxmifpk ppf
ppfjzpfzhkd vlwikd ;f rSmwm0ef&ydS gw,f? 'gah =umifh 'kw,
d yifvn
kH v
D mcH rvGJ
raoG vdt
k yfygw,f” [lI ajym=um;oGm;cJo
h nf?
xdak e@rmS yif trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfonf a=unmcsut
f rSwf
2§02§11 udk xkwjf yefco
hJ nf? a=unmcsut
f jynft
h pHrk mS rdrw
d @kd jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ucsi/f u,m;/ csi;f / rGe/f Arm/ &cdik /f &Sr;f
paom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;/ vlrsK;d pkrsm;onf umv&Sn=f umpGmuyif
wajrwnf;ae/ wa&wnf;aomuf twlwuG qd;k wlaumif;buf ae
xdik v
f mcJ=h uygonf? wdik ;f wyg;.aus;u|eb
f 0odhk twlwuG usqif;cJh
=u&ouJo
h @kd u|eb
f 0rS vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuv
f nf; twlwuG ±ke;f
uef} udK;yrf;cJh=u&onf?
,if;uJo
h @kd Edik if .
H vGwv
f yfa&;twGuf }udK;yrf;cJ&h mwGif trsK;d om;
acgi;f aqmif}uD;Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;
onf tajrmfjrif}uD;rm;r_/ tjyeftvSeaf v;pm;,H=k unfr/_ rdom;pkpw
d f
"gw&f rdS w
_ @kd jzifh tajytvnfaqG;aEG;n‡Ed id_ ;f =uum jynfaxmifpo
k m;tm;
vH;k wd@k . pnf;vH;k nDnw
G rf u
_ kd &,lcyhJ gonf? xd@k a=umifh rdrw
d @kd Eikd if H vGwf
vyfa&; jyefvnf&&Sad &;twGuf 1947 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&v
D (12) &ufae@
wGif &Sr;f jynfawmifyikd ;f / yifv+kH rdKŒY ordik ;f armfueG ;f 0if ‘yifvpkH mcsKy’f udk
vufrw
S af &;xdk;csKyfqEkd ikd cf o
hJ nf?
,if;yifvpkH mcsKyfwiG f “²²²e,fpyfa'orsm;twGuf e,fwiG ;f tkycf sKyfa&;wGif ud,
k yf ikd t
f yk f
csKyfa&; &mcdik Ef e_ ;f tjynf&h adS p&rnf[al omrlukd oabmwln=D uonf?”
(pmcsKyftyd'k f - 5)
“e,fpyfa'orsm;. e,foel ,fom;rsm;wd@k onf 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if rH sm;
wGif tajccHrrl sm;tjzpf todtrSwjf yKxm;aom tcGit
fh a&;wd@k ukd cHpm;

230

oef;0if;vIid f

Edik cf iG &hf adS p&rnf” (pmcsKyftyd'k f - 7) [laom rdrw
d @kd widk ;f jynftwGuf
t"duta&;}uD;onfh oabmwlncD surf sm;yg&cdS o
hJ nf?
od@k aomf wdik ;f jynf. tajctaeESihf wdik ;f &if;om;aoG;pnf; nDnw
G f
r_wd@k onf wyfrawmfzcif}uD;/ vGwv
f yfa&;Adou
k m}uD; Adv
k cf sKyfatmif
qef;ESifh wdkif;&if;om;acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm; ar#mfreS f;cJhonft
h csufrsm;/
wdik ;f &if;om;wd@k .vdt
k ifqENrsm;ESihf a0;uGmvsu&f adS eao;onfukd awG@
jrifae&onf? yifvpkH mcsKyfyg&nf&,
G cf surf sm; qdwo
f kO;f aeovd/k 'Drkd
ua&pDtcGit
hf a&;rsm;qH;k ±_;H jyD; wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;. tcGit
hf a&;rsm;
vnf; uif;rJah eygonf? xd@k a=umifh jynfaxmifppk w
d "f gwf od@k r[kwf yifvkH
pdw"f gwfvnf; aysmufu,
G fvsu&f Syd gonf? yifvkHpw
d "f gwfqo
kd nfrmS
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;tm;vH;k / wef;wlnw
D al &;ESifh ,if;wef;wlnw
D al &;
tay: tajccHaom pnf;vH;k nDnw
G rf u
_ kd a&S;±_onfh pdw"f gwjf zpfygonf?
rdrw
d @kd Eikd if u
H kd wnfjird af t;csr;f jyD; om,m0ajymonfh ppfreS af om
'Dru
kd a&pDjynfaxmifpEk ikd if t
H jzpf trSew
f u,f wnfaqmufrnfqykd g
v#if wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d tm;vH;k . aoG;pnf;nDnw
G rf o
_ nf r&Srd jzpf vdk
tyfygonf?
,if;nDnw
G frr_ sKd;&&Sd&ef vlra_ &; w&m;r#wr_/ pD;yGm;a&; w&m;r#wr_/
Edik if aH &; w&m;r#wr_/ ynma&; w&m;r#wr_/ use;f rma&; w&m;r#wr_/
vGwv
f yfpmG awG;ac:=uHqEdik rf /_ vGwv
f yfpmG zGi[
hf a&;om;xkwaf zmfEikd rf /_
vGwv
f yfpmG ,H=k unfu;kd uG,Ef idk rf /_ vGwv
f yfpmG y&da,oe &SmrS;D Edik rf /_
tqift
h wef;nDr#r/_ tcGit
hf vrf;nDr#r/_ w&m;Oya't&mwGif nDr#r_
wd@k ukd jynfaxmifpzk mG ;wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;tm;vH;k cHpm;Edik =f uap&ef
tcdik t
f rm oEMÏd mefjyK=u&rnfjzpfygonf? od@k ro
S m wnfjidraf t;csr;f jyD;
zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufI 'Dru
kd a&pDEiS v
hf @l tcGit
hf a&;rsm;udk tmrcHEikd frnfh ppf
rSefonfh 'Dru
kd a&pDjynfaxmifpkEkdiif o
H pfukd wnfaxmifEdik frnfjzpfyg
onf?
trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif}uD; Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u wdik ;f &if;om; aoG;
pnf;nDnw
G af &; ydrk ckd ikd jf rJap&efEiS hf wdik ;f jynfz@HG +zdK;wd;k wufa&;udk &nf&,
G f

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

231

vsuf “wwdik ;f jynfv;kH }uD;yGm;apcsi&f if ²²² ArmuwrsK;d / u&ifwzH/k &Sr;f /
ucsi/f csi;f wd@k u wjcm; tuGu
J Gt
J jym;jym;vkyaf e=u&if tusKd;&Srd mS r
[kwb
f ;l / pkaygi;f vky=f urSmom tusK;d &SEd ikd rf ,f?”[k rde@f =um;cJyh gonf?
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfacgi;f aqmif taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf; trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;ESihf pyf
vsO;f I usrwd@k taeeJ@ tjrJwrf;yJ trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;udk
,H=k unfyga=umif;/ usrwdk@jrefrmppftpk;d &ESit
hf wlwl ajymif;vJra_ wG vkyf
csiyf ga=umif;[kvnf;aumif;/ wdik ;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nDnw
G rf E_ iS hf pyfvsO;f
I wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;&JΠjyif;jywJq
h EN/ ar#mv
f ifjh cif;awGehJ OD;wnfcsuw
f pfck
udo
k mG ;jyD; tJ'jD yif;jywJq
h ENukd tajccHwhJ jynfaxmifppk w
d "f mwfwpfcu
k kd
wnfaqmuf&rSmjzpfa=umif;[k vnf;aumif;/ wdik ;f jynfEiS hf jynfov
l x
l k
. ypPKy`eEf iS hf tem*wftrsK;d om; tusK;d pD;yGm;rsm;udk ar#mu
f ;kd I ajym
=um;cJjh yD; jzpfygonf?
xd@k tjyif (1989)ckEpS /f azazmf0g&v
D (12)&ufae@wiG f yifv+kH rKd ŒY usi;f
yaom jynfaxmifpak e@tcrf;tem;Y wdki;f &if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vH;k vuf
wGrJ jzKwfpwrf; aoG;pnf;nDnw
G rf j_ zifh jynfaxmifp}k uD; wnfwchH ikd jf rJa&;/
jynfaxmifp}k uD; zG+hH zdK;wd;k wufa&;ESihf jynfaxmifp}k uD; jird ;f csr;f om,m
a&;udk OD;wnfa&S;±_a=umif;udk trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfu a=unm
csut
f rSwf - (9) jzifh twdtvif;zwf=um; ajujimcJjh y;D vnf; jzpfyg
onf?
od@k ygI Edik if zH @HG +zdK;wd;k wufa&;/ trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;/ wdik ;f
&if;om;vlrsK;d rsm; aoG;pnf;nDnw
G af &;/ jynfaxmifppk w
d "f mwf od@k r
[kwf yifvpkH w
d "f mwf &Sio
f efxufjrufa&;wd@k twGu-f
(u)trsKd ;om;&if =um;aph a&;ud k taumift xnfa zmf Ed ki f& ef
Edik if aH &;t"dyg` ,f jynf0h aom awG@qakH qG;aEG;jcif;udk tjrefq;kH usi;f y&ef?
(c) rdrw
d @kd . Edik if aH &;,H=k unfcsuaf =umifh jypf'%fusjcif; cHae=u&
aom q&mawmf/ oHCmawmft&Sifoljrwfrsm;/ wkdif;&if;om;acgif;

232

oef;0if;vIid f

aqmifrsm;tygt0if Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;tm;vH;k udk c|i;f csurf &Sd tjref
qH;k jyefvw
$ af y;&ef” ponfw@kd ukd tm%mydik w
f @kd u tjrefq;kH aqmif&u
G f
ay;yg&ef Tjynfaxmifpak e@jrwf}uD;wGif awmif;qdv
k u
kd o
f nf?
24 - 1 - 11 ae@wiG f usi;f yaom A[dt
k vkyrf a_ qmiftzG@J
tpnf; ta0;qH;k jzwfcsut
f &?
&efuek +f rdKŒ
A[dktvkyt
f r_aqmiftzGJ@
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
2011 ckEpS /f arv 19 &uf naeydik ;f wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk 'kw,
d vufaxmuf Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; *sK;d Zuf
,Ge;f ESihf olraetdrYf t&ifq;kH oD;jcm;awG@qakH qG;aEG;cJo
h nf? xd@k aemuf
*sK;d Zuf,eG ;f onf NLD A[dak umfrwD0ifrsm;/ CRPP ac: jynfo@l vw
$ af wmf
ud,
k pf m;jyKaumfrwD0ifrsm;udk oD;jcm;awG@qckH o
hJ nf?
2011 ckEpS f/ arv 20 &ufae@wiG f jrefrmEdik if q
H ikd &f m ukvor*~
tcsed jf ynft
h xl;ud,
k pf m;vS,w
f OD;xm;&Szd @kd jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDacgi;f aqmif
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu vdv
k m;a=umif; ukvor*~twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf.
txl;ud,
k pf m;vS,f rpPwmADa*s;erfb;D ,m;u vHjk cHKa&;aumifpD aqG;aEG;
yGYJ vHjk cHKa&;aumifpu
D fkd tpD&ifccH ahJ =umif; ajym=um;cJo
h nf? xd@k tjyif
jrefrmtpd;k &opfonf jrefrmEdik if q
H ikd &f m ukvor*~ vl@tcGit
hf a&; ud,
k f
pm;vS,f rpPwm aomrwfpu
f ifwm;em;udk a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf
awG@qckH iG jhf yK&ef awmif;qdrk u
_ kd jiif;y,fcjhJ cif;ESiyhf wfoufIvnf; jrefrm
Edik if w
H iG f vl@tcGit
hf a&;csK;d azmufrr_ sm;ESiyhf wfoufjyD; pHpk rf;a&;aumfr&Sif
w&yf zG@J pnf;ay;&ef ukvor*~v@l tcGit
hf a&;aumifpo
D @kd wifjyawmif;
qdak eolvnf;jzpfonf?
jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDacgi;f aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfarG;ae@ukd jrefrm
Edik if t
H rsK;d orD;rsm;ae@[I
l jrefrmEdik if EH iS hf urBmw0Sr;f Y ESppf Ofusi;f y vm
cJo
h nfrmS ,cktcg (15) ESpf wdik cf jhJ y;D jzpfonf? 2011 ck ZGev
f wGif jrefrm

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

233

Ekid if t
H rsK;d orD;rsm;ae@txdr;f trSwf ±k;d &m,Ofaus;r_*w
D yGaJ wmfukd 2011
ck ZGev
f 10 &ufrS 19 &ufae@txd 10 &ufwidk w
f ikd f pnfum;odu
k +f rKd uf
pGm usi;f ycJ=h uonf?
,ae@ ZGev
f 19 &uf we*FaEGae@onf a':atmifqef;pk=unf.
(66) ESpfajrmufarG;ae@jzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 1988
ckEpS rf pS I jrefrmhEikd if aH &;avmuod@k ajcpkeyf pf0ifa&mufum jrefrmEdik if H
wGif ppftm%m&Sit
f pd;k &tm; jzKwfcsI 'Dru
kd a&pD&&Sad &;twGuf vl
xk}uD;ESit
hf wl OD;aqmifwu
kd yf 0JG ifaeonfrmS (23) ESpw
f ikd cf jhJ yDjzpfonf?
od@k aomf 23 ESpu
f mvtwGi;f ppftpd;k &. aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf t}urd }f udrf
csxm;jcif;cH&onft
h wGuf olr.arG;ae@yrJG sm;udk ESppf Of rusi;f yEkid cf ahJ cs?
,ckEpS f a':atmifqef;pk=unfarG;ae@yYJG jynfe,fEiS w
hf ikd ;f toD;oD;rS
wkid ;f &if;om;rsm;. ±d;k &mtursm;/ ±k;d &m"avhrsm;/ pmaytEkynm/ ,Of
aus;r_jyyGrJ sm;/ aps;a&mif;yGaJ wmfEiS hf *Dw+ydKiyf rJG sm;/ ajzazsmyf rJG sm;udv
k nf;
pnfum;odu
k +f rdKufpmG usif;ycJ=h uonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. 66
ESpjf ynfah rG;ae@yo
JG @kd trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)
rSvnf; o0%fvm$ wapmifay;yd@k cJo
h nf? ,if;o0%fvm$ Y 2011 ckESpf/ ZGefv (19) &ufae@/ Tae@wGif usa&mufaom
trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif 1991 ckEpS f urBmjh idr;f csr;f a&;Edb
k ,fq&k iS f a':
atmifqef;pk=unf. (66) ESpjf ynfah rG;ae@tcgor,wGif a':atmifqef;
pk=unf use;f rm&$iv
f ef;ygapa=umif;ESihf pdwcf sr;f omud,
k rf muse;f pGmjzifh
touf&mausm&f n
S yf gapa=umif; OD;pGmyxr qkreG af umif;awmif; arwœm
yd@k otyfygonf?
ppfreS af om 'Dru
kd a&pD&&Sad &;/ vl@tcGit
hf a&;rsm;udk tmrcHr&_ &Sd ap
a&; ponfh jynfov
l x
l .
k ppfreS v
f jkH cKH onfb
h 0rsm; cHpm;pHpm;Edik &f eft
wGuf ESpaf ygi;f 20 ausm=f um rarmryrf; tifwu
kd t
f m;wdu
k f aqmif&u
G v
f suf
&Sad om u|Eyf k w
f @kd .acgi;f aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aqmif&u
G cf suf
rsm;udk rdrw
d @kd trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) rS OD;
nGwf*%
k jf yKvdu
k yf gonf?

234

oef;0if;vIid f

tcsed af ygi;f rsm;pGm rw&m;tusO;f csxm;r_/ t}urd af ygi;f rsm;pGm uef@
owfaESmif,
h u
S rf r_ sm;t=um;rS arwœmw&m;udk &if0,fxm;jyD; jidr;f csr;f
aomenf;vrf;udk tcdik t
f rmpGu
J ikd jf y;D ra=umufr&GŒH aemufrqkwb
f J a&SŒ
wef;rS OD;aqmifav#mufvrf;aeonfh a':atmifqef;pk=unf. &yfwnf
csuo
f abmxm;rsm;onf rdrw
d @kd twGuf cGet
f m;w&yfukd jzpfapygonf?
rdrw
d @kd twGuf twk,l pHerlemxm;p&mvnf; jzpfayonf?
rjyD;qH;k ao;aom jynfov
l x
l .
k ar#mv
f ifch surf sm;/ ra&muf&adS o;
aom 'Dru
kd a&pDyef;wdik t
f wGuf atmifjrifacsmarG@pmG taumiftxnf
azmfaqmif&u
G Ef idk &f ef u|Eyfk w
f @kd . acgi;f aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf
twl rdrw
d @kd trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) taejzifh
ud,
k pf rG ;f &So
d r#/ Om%fprG ;f &So
d avmuf tpGr;f uke0f ef;&H}uKd ;yrf; aqmif&u
G f
oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; av;eufwnf=unfpmG uwdopPmjyK&if; TarG;ae@
o0%fvm$ udk ay;yd@k vu
kd yf gonf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfuse;f rmygap?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf oufawmf&mausmf &Snyf gap?
A[dak umfrwD
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)
&ufpJG 2011 ckEpS /f ZGev
f 19 &uf
15 }udraf jrmuf jrefrmEdik if H trsK;d orD;rsm;ae@EiS hf a':atmifqef;
pk=unf. (66) ESpaf jrmufarG;ae@txdr;f trSwu
f kd jrefrmedik if H trsK;d orD;
xkvy_ &f mS ;r_aumfrwDu trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr)/ vl@abmifopf'rD u
kd &ufwpfygwD (tvkyo
f rm;Xme) wd@k u yl;aygi;f
I xdik ;f Edik if /H rJaqmuf+rKd ŒY usi;f ycJjh yD; arG;ae@txdr;f trSwf a=unm
csuw
f &yfudk xkwjf yefcyhJ gonf? tqdyk ga=unmcsuYf vlxak cgi;f aqmifa':aqmifqef;pk=unf/ trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

235

csKyfEiS jhf ynfo@l vw
$ af wmfu,
kd pf m;jyKaumfrwDw@kd tay: ,ckvuf&dS t&yf
om;ta,mifaqmif ppftpdk;&. tav;rxm;ajymqdw
k @Hk jyefrr_ sm;udk
jyif;xefpmG uef@uu
G ±f w
_ cf sjyD; vuf&OdS ;D ode;f pdet
f pd;k &taejzifh Ù trsK;d orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufrr_ sm;tygt0if vl@tcGit
hf a&;
csK;d azmufaer_rsm;udk csucf si;f &yfwef@ay;&ef?
Ù trsK;d orD;Edik if aH &;tusO;f ol (143) OD;tygt0if Edik if aH &; t
usO;f om;rsm;tm;vk;H udk c|i;f csurf &Sd tjrefq;kH v$waf y;&ef?
Ù wdik ;f &if;om;a'orsm;od@k xk;d ppfqifwu
kd cf u
k d &f ef jyifqifaejcif;
rsm;ESihf vufawG@x;kd ppfqifwu
kd cf u
kd af ejcif;rsm;udk csucf si;f &yfwef@ay;
&ef?
Ù Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk Edik if aH &;enf;vrf;t& tiftm;pktoD;
oD;yg0ifjyD; awG@qakH qG;aEG;tajz&Smjcif;jzifh trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwf
a&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk csucf si;f taumiftxnfazmf&ef?
rdrw
d kd@jrefrmEdik fit
H rsKd;orD;xkvy_ f&Sm;r_aumfrwDu awmif;qdv
k u
kd fyg
onf” [lI azmfjyxm;ayonf?

(64) ESpfajrmuf tmZmenfaeY
wyfrawmfzcif}uD;ESihf vGwv
f yfa&;Adou
k mAdv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESihf
tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;tm; aemifvmaemifom;rsm;ESifh vli,f
rsm; trSww
f &&Sad pjcif;iSm ESppf Of Zlvikd v
f 19 &ufwikd ;f wGif ‘tmZmenf
ae@’ tjzpf usi;f yvmcJo
h nfrmS ,ckEpS f 2011 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f 19 &ufae@
wGif 64 ESpaf jrmuf jynfch jhJ yD;jzpfonf? od@k aomf ppftm%m&Siw
f @kd onf
tmZmenfae@ukd wjznf;jznf; arS;rSed af ysmufu,
G o
f mG ;&ef &nf&,
G I
f
Edik if aH wmftqifu
h si;f ycJ&h mrS ,cktcg wdik ;f a'o}uD;pnfyifom,ma&;
aumfrwDtpDtpOfjzifo
h m usi;f yvmcJyh gonf? xd@k tjyif jrefrmEdik if &H dS
Edik if jH cm;oHwrefrsm;/ ukvor*~Xmaeud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;ESihf tjcm;tpd;k &
r[kwaf om vlrt
_ zG@J tpnf;rsm;rS wm0ef&o
dS rl sm;udk tmZmenfae@Y
oGm;a&mufvrG ;f olyef;acGcsjcif;ESihf tav;jyKr_ tpDtpOfrsm;tm;vH;k udk

236

oef;0if;vIid f

ydwo
f rd ;f ypfco
hJ nf? tpk;d &Xmersm;Yvnf; Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;. "mwf
yHrk sm;udk csw
d q
f jJG cif;rjyKawmhbJ vuf&x
dS w
k af 0oH;k pGaJ eaomaiGpuULrsm;Y
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;. "mwfy/kH ±kyyf rkH sm;udk z,f&mS ;ypfco
hJ nf? tmZmenf
ae@ta=umif; pmoifausmif;rsm;Y a[majymyGJ rsm;jyKvkyjf cif;/ pmpDpm
uH;k +yKd ifyu
JG si;f yjcif;/ jyKvkyjf cif;wd@k uv
kd nf; ydwyf ifwm;qD;cJo
h nf? xd@k t
jyif jrefrmEdik if o
H @kd vma&mufvnfywfaom tpd;k &{nfo
h nfawmfrsm;udk
tmZmenfuek ;f Y vGr;f ol@yef;acGcsI *g&0jyKr_ tpDtpOfrsm;tm;vH;k udk
ydwyf ifcho
J nf? Adkvcf sKyaf tmifqef;jywdu
k u
f kv
d nf; tmZmenfae@ w&uf
rSvI
JG use&f ufrsm;wGif rzGiv
hf pS af wmhay?
jrefrmppftm%m&Sirf sm;onf tmZmenfae@udk arS;rSdefatmif
jyKvkyaf eonfh &nf&,
G cf surf mS (1) tmZmenfacgi;f aqmif}uD;Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;onf vlxw
k &yf
vH;k tm; pkpnf;IvGwv
f yfa&;t&,lay;onfh trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif}uD;
jzpfouJo
h @kd ‚if;.orD;jzpfol a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf; vlxt
k m;
OD;aqmifO;D &Gujf yKum 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if aH wmf wnfaxmifaeonfudk rvdk
vm;jcif;?
(2) jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f 'Dru
kd a&pDpepf tajcwnfomG ;ygu ppfreS af om
tkycf sKyaf &;/ Oya'jyKa&;/ w&m;pD&ifa&;ponfh r¾dKk if}u;D (3) &yf ay:xGe;f
vmygu ppftm%m&Siftqufquf usL;vGecf Jhaom/ usL;vGeq
f Jjzpf
aomtjypfrsm;udk wefjyefta&;,lrnfukd pd;k &draf e=ujcif;?
(3) vlxw
k &yfv;k H udk pkpnf;Edik rf nfh NLD ESihf a':atmifqef;pk=unf
udk z,f&mS ;Edik yf gu jrefrmEdik if u
H kd ppftm%m&Siaf cgi;f aqmifrsm; pdwf
}udKuf qufvuf}udK;udik Ef ikd rf nf[k xifjrif,q
l aejcif;?
(4) tmZmenfacgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;. &ifaoG;rsm;ESihf vli,frsm;
onf vuf&pdS pftm%m&Sit
f pd;k &. ppftjrif/ ppf&yfwnfr/_ ppftm%m
&Sipf epfwnfwchH ikd jf raJ &;udk qef@usiw
f u
kd yf 0JG ifaeonfh vlxak cgi;f aqmif
rsm; jzpfaejcif;? ponft
h csurf sm;a=umifh jzpfayonf?
od@k aomf ,ckEpS f 2011 ck/ Zlvikd v
f 19 &ufae@wiG f usa&mufcahJ om

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

237

(64) ESpaf jrmuf tmZmenfae@tcrf;tem;od@k a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf eHeuf (8) em&DwiG f &efuek w
f ikd ;f a'o}u;D tpDtpOfjzifh yxrt}urd /f
ae@v,f 1 em&Dcef@wiG f NLD .tpDtpOfjzifh 'kw,
d t}udrf pkpak ygi;f
(2) }urd w
f ufa&mufI vGr;f ol@yef;acGcsum *g&0jyKcJo
h nf?

64 ESpaf jrmuf tmZmenfaeY tcrf;tem;wGif a':atmifqef;pkMunf
vGr;f olyU ef;acGcs&ef a&muf&v
dS mpOf

a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 1947 ckEpS f / Zlvkdiv
f 19 &uf eHeuf
10 ; 35 em&D wGif usq;kH oGm;aom wyfrawmfzcif}uD;ESihf trsK;d om;
acgi;f aqmif}uD; Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;tm; &nfp;l I oHCmawmfrsm;tm;
tm±Hq
k rG ;f qufuyfvLS 'ge;f jyD; ae@v,f 11 em&DwiG f NLD tzG@J csKyf±;kH Y
usi;f yonfh tmZmenfae@tcrf;tem;udk CRPP acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ tzG@J
csKyfacgi;f aqmifrsm;/ 0g&ifEh ikd if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ Edik if jH cm;oHwrefrsm;
ESift
h wl wufa&mufchJavonf?
2011 Zlvikd v
f 25 &ufae@wiG f tpd;k &opftzG@J rS jynfaxmifp0k ef}u;D
OD;atmif=unf (tvkyo
f rm;0ef}uD;ESihf vlr0_ efxrf;/ u,fq,fa&;ESihf
jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;0ef}uD;) ESifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkd@onf
ae@v,f 1 em&DrS 2 ; 10 em&Dtxd &efuek +f rdKŒ/ A[ef;+rdKŒe,f&fdS tpd;k &{nfh

238

oef;0if;vIid f

a*[m pdr;f vJu
h efomY awG@qjkH y;D ,ae@jrefrmEdik if .
H Edik if aH &;tajctae
rsm;tay:tajccHI awG@qakH qG;aEG;cJo
h nf? ,cif etztpd;k &vufxuf
wGif tvkyo
f rm;0ef}uD;ESihf qufo,
G af &;0ef}uD;jzpfco
hJ l OD;atmif=unf
ESihf a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@kd onf 9 }udrw
f ikd w
f ikd f awG@qakH qG;aEG;cJah omf
vnf; xifomjrifom&So
d nfw
h ;kd wufr_ wpHw
k &mr&Scd ahJ cs? ,cktpk;d &opf
vufxufYvnf; tvkyo
f rm;0ef}uD;tjzpf qufvufxrf;&Gufaeaom
jynfaxmifp0k ef}uD; OD;atmif=unfEiS hf a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@kd . (10)
}udrfajrmufawG@qakH qG;aEG;r_tay: Yvnf; Edik if aH &;avhvmoH;k oyfol
rsm;ESihf urBmah cgi;f aqmifrsm;u owdxm;apmifh=unfah e=uayonf?
tpd;k &opfonf oufwrf;umv 4 veD;yg;&Sjd yDjzpfaomfvnf; jrefrmEdik if H
Y &ifqikd af wG@=uHKae&aom Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ use;f rma&;/
ynma&;jy\emrsm;tjyif uav;ppfom;ta&;/ vufeufudik t
f zG@J t
pnf;rsm;tm; e,fjcm;apmifw
h yftoGiaf jymif;vJa&;/ wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;
ta&;/ uav;oli,frsm;ESihf trsK;d orD;rsm; vluek u
f ;l cH&r_/ ay:wmqJcG &H
r_/ ucsijf ynfe,f/ &Sr;f jynfe,f/ u&ifjynfe,fw@kd Y jzpfymG ;aeaom jynf
wGi;f ppfwu
kd yf rJG sm;ta&; ponfw@kd ukd ,ae@wikd f rajz&Si;f Edik af o;ay?
jrefrmEdik if o
H nf tjcm;tmqD,EH ikd if rH sm;xuf edru
hf saeayonf? xd@k jyif
Edik if w
H um. pD;yGm;a&;/ Edik if aH &; zdtm;ay;tusyu
f ikd rf r_ sm;ESihf 2014
ckEpS w
f iG f tmqD,t
H vSnu
fh sacgi;f aqmiftjzpf wm0ef,El ikd af &;wd@k t
wGuf Edik if w
H um. zdtm;rsm;av#mch sa&;ESihf vlxt
k m; vSnpfh m;&ef t
wGuf awG@qakH qG;aEG;r_rsm;jyKvyk cf o
hJ nf[k avhvmoH;k oyforl sm;&So
d vd/k
tcsKdŒuvnf; od@k avm ²²²odk@avmESifh pdw0f ifwpm; apmif=h unfv
h suf
&Sad eayonf?
awG@qakH qG;aEG;yGt
J jyD;Y owif;axmufrsm;.tar;udk 0ef}uD; OD;
atmif=unfu “tckawG@qrkH u
_ awmh tJ'h &D v'frsm;xuf ydrk akd umif;rGef
wJh &v'fjzpfvmvdrrhf ,fv@kd u|eaf wmftaeeJ@ar#mv
f ifyh gw,f”[lI ajz
=um;cJo
h nf?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfurl -

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

239

“usrwd@k uawmh wdik ;f jynftwGut
f usK;d jzpfapr,fh &v'fawGyv
J @kd
ar#mv
f ifyh gw,f? bmyJvyk v
f yk af ygah emf/ bmpum;yJajymajym/ b,foel @J
yJawG@awG@/ usrwdk@&JŒ&nf&,
G fcsufuawmh Edkiif HESihfwkdi;f jynftwGuf
jynfojl ynfom;rsm;udk tusK;d jyKz@kd ygy?J tJ'h v
D ykd J usrwd@k ar#mv
f ifyh gw,f”
[lI ajym=um;oGm;onf?

1994 ckEpS ?f pufwifbm 1 &ufaeYu a':atmifqef;pkMunf
Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;Bu;D oef;a&T? ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;csKyf 'kw,
d Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D cifnGew
Yf EYkd iS hf awGq
U pHk Of

a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ tdwzf iG haf y;pm
xd@k aemuf vlxak cgi;f aqmifa':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 2011 ckepS f
Zlvikd v
f 28 &ufae@wiG t
f pd;k &opf (jynfaxmifpo
k rRwjrefrmEdik if aH wmf)
orRwOD;ode;f pdeEf iS hf ucsiv
f w
G af jrmufa&;tzGhJ (KIO)/ u&iftrsK;d om;
tpnf;t±H;k (KNU)/ rGejf ynfopfygwD (NMSP)/ &Sr;f jynfwyfrawmf (SSA)
wd@k ukd vdyrf I
l tdwzf iG ahf y;pmwpfapmifukd ay;yd@k co
hJ nf? ,if;tdwzf iG hf
ay;pmY jynfaxmifpo
k rRwjrefrmEdik if aH wmfonf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d pkrsm;
ESihf aygi;f pyfz@JG pnf;xm;aom Edik if jH zpfygonf? ,if;wkid ;f &if;om;tm;vH;k
onf ESpyf &dap'>rsm;pGmuyif wajrwnf;ae/ wa&wnf;aomuf twl

240

oef;0if;vIid f

aexdik cf =h J uaom nDtudak rmifErS rsm;jzpf=uygonf? xd@k a=umifh wdik ;f &if;
om;vlrsK;d pkrsm;tm;vH;k csp=f unf&if;ES;D aoG;pnf;nDnw
G af &;onf t
vGet
f a&;}uD;ygonf?
,cktcg ucsi/f &Sr;f / u&ifEiS hf rGepf onfjh ynfe,frsm;wGif wyfr
awmfEiS hf wdik ;f &if;om;vufeufuikd t
f zG@J tpnf;rsm;t=um;/ yÉdyuQrsm;
jzpfymG ;vsu&f adS =umif; =um;odae&ygonf? ,if;yÉdyuQrsm;a=umifh ao
a=uqH;k ±_;H ysupf ;D r_rsm;/ 0rf;enf;zG,&f mrsm; jzpfymG ;vsu&f o
dS nft
h jyif wef
zd;k }u;D rm;onfh Edik if yH ikd t
f aqmuftODrsm;/ pDru
H ed ;f vkyif ef;rsm;/ ,d,
k iG ;f
ysupf ;D r_rsm; =uHKawG@ae&ygonf? a'ocHwikd ;f &if;om;jynforl sm;vnf;
twd'u
k rQ sm;pGm usa&mufae=uonft
h jyif tdref ;D csi;f Edik if rH sm;udyk g ul;
pufysŒH ES@H rnfh tEœ&m,f&adS eygonf?
,if;yÉdyuQrsm;ESihf jy\emrsm;udk tiftm;oH;k I ajz&Si;f =urnf
qdv
k #if ESpOf ;D ESpzf uf tusK;d qkw,
f w
k rf r_ sm;om jzpfay:ygrnf? trsK;d om;
&if=um;apha&;udk ppfa&;enf;rsm;jzifh wnfaqmufIr&Edik yf g? Edik if aH &;
enf;vrf;jzpfaom aqG;aEG;n‡Ed id_ ;f ajz&Si;f jcif;jzifo
h m wnfaqmufomG ;=u
&rnfjzpfygonf? Edik if aH &;t&/ ndE‡ i_d ;f a&;t& ndE‡ id_ ;f ajz&Si;f Edik =f urSom
v#if jynfaxmifp}k uD;tem*wfukd tmrcHEikd rf nfh ppfreS af om wdik ;f &if;
om; aoG;pnf;nDnw
G rf u
_ kd &&Srd nfjzpfygonf? ppfreS af om jidr;f csr;f ajy
vnfrr_ &&Sv
d #if jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D [lonf us,jf yef@omG ;Edik o
f nfh tEœ&m,f
&Sdwwfygonf?
jynfaxmifpo
k m;tcsi;f csi;f t=um; jzpfay:aeaomjy\emrsm;udk
wOD;ESiw
hf OD;/ wzG@J EiS w
hf zG@J tjyeftvSef em;vnfr/_ tjyeftvSef ,H=k unf
av;pm;r_w@kd jzifh ajz&Si;f =urnfqv
kd #if ajyvnfr&_ &S=d ujyD; jynfaxmif
pk}uD; jidr;f csr;f wnfjidrrf nfjzpfygonf? jynfaxmifp}k uD; jidr;f csr;f wnfjidrf
rSom wdik ;f jynfz@HG +zdK;wd;k wufa&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk atmifjrifpmG aqmif&u
G f
Edik rf nfjzpfygonf?
od@k ygI jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if aH wmftwGi;f rSw
D if;aexdik =f uaom
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d tm;vH;k . tusK;d pD;yGm;udk a&S;±_I ,ckjzpfymG ;aeaom

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

241

yÉdyuQrsm;udk jidr;f csrpf mG ajz&Si;f =uyg&efEiS hf tjrefq;kH typftcwf &yfpJ
=uyg&ef av;eufpmG yef=um;tyfygonf?
typfcwf&yfpaJ &;ESifh jidr;f csr;f a&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk yHyh ;kd &eftwGuf
usrtaejzifh ud,
k pf rG ;f &So
d r# yg0if}udK;yrf;ay;&ef toif&h ydS gonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf
rnfo@dk qakd p²²²vlxak cgi;f aqmif 'Dru
kd a&pDrcd if}u;D a':atmifqef;
pk=unfonf trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif}uD;Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;. orD;yDyD
jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ppfreS af om 'Dru
kd a&pD&&Sad &;twGuf wdik ;f jynfEiS hf jynfol
vlxt
k ay:wGif opPm&S&d /dS Om%ftajrmftjrif&&dS dS &J&0J 0Hh o
hH wœ&d pdS mG jzifh wdu
k f
yG0J ifae&m jynfov
l x
l w
k &yfv;kH uvnf; trSew
f &m;onf aemufq;kH
atmify[
JG k rSw,
f u
l m a':atmifqef;pk=unf. OD;aqmifra_ tmufY pk
pnf;nDnw
G pf mG wm0efoo
d /d Om%ftajrmftjrif&&dS dS yl;aygi;f yg0ifaqmif
&GuI
f 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;twGuf rdru
d s&mtcef;u¾rS wdu
k yf 0JG ifygu ‘t
a&SŒu ae0ef;xGuo
f nfyh rm’ 'Dru
kd a&pDacwfukd u|Eyfk w
f @kd a&mufrnfrmS
rvG{J uef[k ±d;k om;pGm ,H=k unfaerdygawmhonf?
oef;0if;v_id f
31 - 7 - 2011

242

oef;0if;vIid f

tcef; (12)
a':atmifqef;pkMunf\ rdefYrSmcsufrsm;
Ù wdik ;f jynfrmS vGwv
f yfry_ jkd yD;awmh&csi&f if/ vl@tcGit
hf a&;rsm;
jynfjh ynfhppkH kHcpH m;csiv
f @kd &S&d if vlwikd ;f vlwikd ;f [m Edik if aH &;udk 0goemyg
&r,f? Edik if aH &;udk vky&f &J r,f? vkycf si&f r,f?
Ù wcsKŒd u Edik if aH &;qdw
k m[m Edik if aH &;ygwaD wGvyk w
f hJ tvkyv
f @dk
xifw,f? r[kwyf gb;l ? wcgwek ;f u azazu ajymygw,f? Edik if aH &;[m
ud,
k ef @J rqdik b
f ;l xifayr,fh Edik if aH &;[m ud,
k q
hf aD &mufvmvdrrhf ,f? 'gukd
a&Smifv@kd r&bl;? 'g bmjzpfv@kd vq
J akd wmh 'DEikd if w
H iG ;f rSm jzpfaewJu
h pd rP eS f
or#[m Edik if aH &;yJ? a&Smifv@kd r&bl;aemf? pD;yGm;a&;qdw
k mvJ Edik if aH &;yJ?
vlra_ &;qdw
k mvJ Edik if aH &;yJ? bmrqdk Edik if aH &;yJ? 'ga=umifrh @kd v@kd jynfov
l l
xk[m Edik if aH &;u|r;f usiEf ikd rf S Edik if [
H m wd;k wufrmS yg? jynfov
l x
l [
k m
Edik if aH &;ru|r;f usib
f ;l ? Edik if aH &;todr&Sb
d ;l qdv
k @kd &&dS if Edik if w
H Edik if H wd;k
wufz@kd qw
kd m b,fvrk d rS jzpfEikd yf gb;l ? tJ'aD wmh ud,
k &hf ŒJ rdom;pk/ ud,
k w
f OD;
wa,mufe@J ywfoufwu
hJ pd aP wGuykd J pdw0f ifpm;r,fqv
kd @kd &&dS if usrwd@k Eikd f
iHukd tusK;d jyKEdik rf ,fh jynfojl ynfom;awGqw
kd mawmh b,fawmhrS jzpf
vmrSmvJ r[kwyf gb;l ? tJ'aD wmh ud,
k &hf ŒJ rdom;pke@J ud,
k w
hf OD;wa,muf
aumif;usK;d twGuyf J rpOf;pm;=uyge@J ? tJ'v
D pkd Of;pm;vd@k &&dS if a&&Snrf mS
ud,
k t
hf usK;d vJ rjzpfvmEdik yf gb;l ?
Ù vl@tcGit
hf a&;qdw
k m vlwikd ;f vlwikd ;f ydik q
f ikd cf iG &hf w
dS ,f? ud,
k w
f if
r[kwb
f ;l ? ud,
k &fh eforl sm;yifv#if vl@tcGit
hf a&;&S&d r,f? tJ'h aD wmh wae@
usrwd@k &ŒJ 'Dru
kd a&pDvy_ &f mS ;r_}uD; atmifjrifomG ;wJt
h cgus&if &_;H wJo
h l
awG[m olw@kd tcGit
hf a&;awGuk d jynfjh ynf0h 0cHpm;Edik &f r,f? 'g[m usr
wd@k &ŒJ 'Dru
kd a&pDwm0ef jzpfw,f?
Ù 'Dru
kd a&pDrwd;k wufww
hJ ikd ;f jynf[m pD;yGm;a&;t&vnf; rwd;k
wufEikd yf gb;l ? Edik if aH &;a&m/ pD;yGm;a&;a&m rwd;k wufww
hJ kid ;f jynf[m tif
rwefrS qif;&JErG ;f yg;jyD; 'kurQ sm;wJw
h ikd ;f jynf jzpfomG ;rSmyJ? tck usrwd@k
wdik ;f jynfvnf; 'Dtwdik ;f yJ jzpfcyhJ gjyD? tJ'aD wmh Edik if aH &;t& pjyD; wnf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

243

axmifjyD;rS pD;yGm;a&;t& jyefjyD; wnfaxmif&rSm jzpfygw,f?
Ù pD;yGm;a&;udk Edik if aH &;eJ@ cJx
G m;vd@k rjzpfygb;l ? aemufq;Hk pD;yGm;a&;
pepfwckatmifjrifz@kd qw
kd m[m Edik if aH &;pepfcikd rf mrS jzpfygvrd rhf ,f? Edik if H
a&;pepfu rrSeu
f efb;l qd&k if/ rcdik rf mbl;qd&k if b,forl S pD;yGm;a&;t&
}uD;yGm;Edik rf mS r[kwyf gb;l ?
Ù Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGqw
kd m olw@kd &ŒJ Edik if aH &;,H=k unfcsuaf wG
udk pum;vH;k awGe@J jzpfap/ v_y&f mS ;r_awGe@J jzpfap azmfxw
k w
f muvGv
J @kd
&mZ0wfrw
_ ckcu
k kd usL;vGew
f mrsK;d b,fwek ;f urS r&Scd yhJ gb;l ? 'gayrJv
h nf;
usrwd@k &ŒJ Edik if aH &;vkyaf zmfuikd zf uftcsKŒd [m &mZ0wfjypfrr_ sm;eJ@ etz
tzG@J &ŒJ pGypf zJG rf;qD;xde;f odr;f wmudk cHae=u&ygw,f? wu,fawmh 'D
yk*Kd~ vfawG[m olw@kd &ŒJ Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_awGa=umifo
h m zrf;qD;cH=u&
w,fqw
kd mudk usrwd@k tm;vH;k od=uygw,f? tJ't
D wGuaf =umifh ppfreS f
wJh trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;vrf;a=umif;qDukd wu,fav#mufvrS ;f
csiw
f ,fq&kd if Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGtm;vH;k udk c|i;f csurf &Sd v$waf y;
zd@k vw
dk ,fv@kd usrwd@k ajymqdak e=uwmyg?
Ù ppfreS w
f hJ trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;vkyfief;pOf jzpfrvm
ao;oa&GΠusrwd@k b,fvrdk S vufcEH ikd rf mS r[kwyf gb;l ? jyD;awmh Edik if aH &;
tusOf;om;awGtm;vH;k jyefvnfvGwaf jrmufrvmao;oa&GΠusrwd@k
EdkifirH Sm ppfrSefwhJ'rD dkua&pDvrf;a=umif;qDukd OD;wnfoGm;aeygjyDvkd@
b,fvrkd S ajymvd@k r&Edik yf gb;l ?
Ù rSeu
f efwhJ Edik if aH &;pepfrmS / usrwd@k vckd siw
f ahJ cgi;f aqmifawGukd
usrwdk@azmfxkw&f r,f? vdck siw
f Jyh o
Hk iG ;f &r,f? ud,
k v
f kdcsiw
f hJ ykH udk,f
roGi;f vd@k &&dS if acgi;f aqmifvyk w
f o
hJ rl sm;u wdik ;f jynfukd olw@kd vckd siw
f yhJ kH
olw@kd oiG ;f oGm;vdrrhf ,f? t"dyg` ,u
f bmjzpfrvJqakd wmh tm%m&Sipf epf
}uD; jzpfomG ;rSmyJ?
Ù EdkifiHa&;qdkwm vlwkdif;vlwkdif;eJ@ qdik w
f hJudpPyg? Edik if w
H Edik if H
wk;d wufz@kd / wnfwHch ikd jf rJz@kd qdw
k m tm;vH;k 0dik ;f jyD; }udK;pm;zd@k vykd gw,f?
vlwikd ;f vlwikd ;f [m wdik ;f jynftay:rSm ppfreS w
f ahJ pwemxm;&ygvrd rhf ,f?

244

oef;0if;vIid f

ud,
k t
hf zG@J tpnf;tusK;d udyk J vkyaf er,f? ud,
k t
fh odik ;f t0dik ;f tusK;d yJ
vkyaf er,fqv
kd @kd &&dS ifawmh ppfreS w
f ahJ pwemvd@k rac:Edik yf gb;l ?
Ù wygwt
D m%m&Sipf epf pd;k rd;k oGm;&w,fqw
kd m jynfov
l x
l [
k m
rSeu
f efwhJ Edik if aH &; todtjrifawG r&Sv
d @kd bJ jzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh aemuf
wcg xyfjyD;awmh tm%m&Sirf jzpfapcsib
f ;l ? usrwd@k Eikd if u
H kd 'Dru
dk a&pD
pepft& tm;vH;k pdwcf sr;f oma&;twGuf xlaxmifapcsiw
f ,fqv
kd @kd &&dS if
Edik if o
H El ikd if o
H m;tm;vH;k [m ud,
k rhf mS &Sw
d hJ Edik if aH &;wm0efawGukd xrf;
aqmifz@dk vykd gw,f?
Ù 'Dwikd ;f jynf/ 'Dajr}u;D [m tifrwefrS csr;f omw,f? jynfov
l x
l k
awG[m tifrwefrS qif;&Jaew,f? 'grjzpfoifw
h u
hJ dpyP ?J 'Dwikd ;f jynf
'Dajr}uD;[m 'DavmufawmifrS csr;f omae&if rSerf eS u
f efuefvrf;pOfe@J
jynfov
l x
l t
k wGuf tusK;d aqmifomG ;r,fh tpd;k &rsm;[m jynfov
l x
l k
udv
k nf; csr;f omatmif vkyaf y;Edik &f r,f?
Ù usrwd@k [m t=urf;zufwEhJ ikd if aH &;tqd;k ausmo
h o
H &m}uD;udk
csK;d zsuyf pf&awmhr,f? vGecf w
hJ hJ q,fpEk pS f wcsKŒd udjk yef=unfrh ,fq&kd if
jrefrmjynf&ŒJ tpd;k &tajymif;tvJ[m t=urf;zufenf;awGuae ay:
ayguv
f mwmcsn;f yJ? 1958 rSm yxrt}urd f ppfwyftm%modr;f wm/
1962 ckEpS rf mS 'kw,
d t}udr/f 1988 ckEpS rf mS wwd,t}udr/f Edik if aH &;
tajymif;tvJrmS t=urf;zufenf;udo
k ;kH wm jrefrmjynfrmS raumif;wJh
tpOftvmwckjzpfaejyD?
t=urf;zufr_ ²²jyD;awmh ²²² tajymif;tvJ
t=urf;zufr_ ²²² jyD;awmh ²²² tajymif;tvJqw
kd hJ tqd;k oHo&mudk
usrwdk@tqHk;owfvkdcsifjyD? t=urf;rzufenf;uae xGufay:vmwJh
ppfreS w
f hJ tajccHuswhJ Edik if aH &;tajymif;tvJqw
kd mrsK;d udk topfujyefp
csiw
f ,f? 'Denf;u t=urf;zufenf;xuf trsm;}uD;ydck ufw,fqakd yr,fh
a&&Snt
f wGuaf wmh yifyef;&usK;d eyfygw,f?
Ù wdu
k yf q
JG v
kd @kd t=urf;zufwo
hJ abmrsK;d eJ@ ajymwmr[kwb
f ;l ?
&J&&J if&h if/h ZGo
J wœed @J vky&f r,fo
h abmrsK;d eJ@ajymwmyg? ppfwu
kd yf q
JG &kd if

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

245

vufeuftiftm;eJ@ ppfajrjyifuq
kd ifjyD;awmh &efou
l kd wdu
k cf u
kd w
f myg?
tck[mu ESvkH;&nfwu
kd fy?JG ESvH;k &nfwu
kd yf JGqw
kd m[m ppfajrjyifukd
qif;rS &efou
l kd &ifqikd jf y;D wku
d &f rS r[kwb
f ;l ? wcsed v
f ;kH wdu
k af e&wm?
ESv;kH &nfwkduyf q
JG w
kd m ud,
k Efh v
S ;kH om;xJrmS tjrJyw
J u
kd fcu
kd af e&r,f?
ud,
k fEh v
S kH;om;xJrmS ud,
k v
f ckd siw
f hJatmifjrifrr_ &rcsif;/ ±ke;f uefr,f/
}udK;pm;r,fqw
kd t
hJ od[m &S&d ygr,f?
Ù wu,fqd&k if owœd&dSw,fqw
kd m ra=umufwm[m wu,fh
owœdr[kwb
f l;? a=umufvsufe@J udk,v
f kyo
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f mudk
vkyfwm [m wu,fo
h wœyd ?J tJ'aD wmh 'l;wkefwek ef @J vkyw
f o
hJ [
l m
awmfawmfowœd &Sw
d ,fv@kd ac:&rSmyJ?
Ù usrwd@k [m yef;wdik rf a&mufao;ygb;l ? yef;wdik u
f akd &mufz@kd u
Om%fe@J 0d&,
d eJ@ vH@k veJ@ vdyk gw,f? 'Dwu
kd yf }JG uD;[m ESv;kH &nfwu
kd yf }JG u;D
rd@k vkd Om%fynmudo
k ;kH zd@k trsm;}uD;vdyk gw,f? usrwd@k jynfov
l x
l [
k m
vkyw
f t
hJ &mwdik ;f ukd qifqifjcifjcif pOf;pOf;pm;pm;vky&f ygr,f? trsm;
tusK;d udk OD;wnf&ygr,f?
Ù usrwd@k Edik if [
H m wu,fjh ynfaxmifppk pfppfjzpfz@kd vlwikd ;f rSm
wm0ef&ydS gw,f?
Ù usrwd@k wOD;csi;f &yfwnfv@kd b,fvrkd S rjzpfb;l ? Armcsn;f yJvnf;
&yfwnfv@kd rjzpfb;l ? rGecf sn;f yJvnf; &yfwnfv@kd rjzpfb;l ? &Sr;f csn;f yJ
vnf; &yfwnfv@kd rjzpfb;l ? usrwd@k jynfaxmifp}k uD; wnfwchH ikd jf raJ &;
qdw
k m tm;vH;k uae wpnf;w±H;k wnf;aerS jzpfr,fqw
kd m usr,Hk =unf
w,f?
Ù ArmvlrsK;d [m vlrsm;pk}uD;jzpfaevd@k wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;udk av;pm;
yg? wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;&JΠ,Ofaus;r_ukd av;pm;yg? pdw0f ifpm;=uyg? avh
vm=uyg? tJ'v
D kd wa,mufe@J wa,muf&ŒJ ,Ofaus;r_/ wa,mufe@J
wa,muf&hJ ,H=k unfcsurf sm;udk avhvmem;vnfrS usrwd@k tcsi;f csi;f
wu,ho
f abmwlawGtjzpfe@J &Edik rf mS yg?
Ù igu ucsi/f iguArm/ igu&Sr;f qdw
k hJ pdw"f gwaf wG tckxm;vd@k

246

oef;0if;vIid f

rjzpfygb;l ? igw@kd tm;vH;k [m 'Dru
dk a&pDv@l tcGit
hf a&;awGuv
kd ckd siv
f @kd
±ke;f uefaewJ&h aJ bmfawGqw
kd hJ pdw"f gwrf sK;d xm;zd@k yv
J ykd gw,f? tm;vH;k [m
nD&if;tudv
k kd wpdwx
f /J woabmxJvyk &f r,f? 'grv
S nf; usrwd@k atmif
jrifeikd rf mS yg?
Ù jynfaxmifp}k u;D wckv;kH wnfwchH ikd jf rJz@kd / wd;k wufz@kd / om,m0
ajymzd@k qw
kd m[m jynfwiG ;f jidr;f csr;f a&;vdyk gw,f? jynfwiG ;f jird ;f csr;f a&;udk
Edik if aH &;enf;vrf;eJ@&mS &r,fqw
kd m usrwd@k trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf&ŒJ
,Hk=unfcsufjzpfygw,f?
Ù 'Dru
kd a&pDtpk;d &wckwufvmwJt
h cgus&if usrwd@k yifvv
kH kd nD
vmcH}uD;udk xyfjy;D awmhac:&r,fv@kd usrwd@k ,=kH unfygw,f? 'Dvkd yifvkH
uJo
h @kd aom nDvmcH}uD;xyfac: jyD;awmh usrwd@k jynfaxmifpo
k pfukd
b,fy/kH b,fenf;eJ@xal xmifr,fqw
kd m usrwd@k wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d pkawG
tm;vH;k eJ@ aqG;aEG;jyD;awmh usrwd@k qH;k jzwf&rSmjzpfygw,f?
Ù yifvn
kH v
D mcHrsK;d qdw
k m jynfov
l x
l u
k wifajr‡mufwhJ tpd;k &rsK;d
urSom ac:,lyikd cf iG &hf ydS gw,f? 'Dnv
D mcHuaejyD;awmh 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if H
jynfaxmifpo
k pfazmfxw
k af &;twGuf aqG;aEG;&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvu
kd pd P
rsm;[m trsm;jynfov
l x
l u
k aejyD;awmh/ vGwv
f yfjyD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;
aumufyrJG sm;rSwqifh wifajrm‡ ufvu
kd w
f t
hJ pd;k &rsm;uom vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf dS
w,fv@kd usrwd@k ,=kH unfygw,f? trsm;jynfou
l rwifajr‡mufxm;wJh
tzG@J tpnf;rsm;u 'Dvn
kd v
D mcHrsK;d udk bmrSxx
d ad &mufa&muf vkyEf ikd rf mS
r[kwyf gb;l ?
Ù ppfreS w
f 'hJ rD u
kd a&pDqw
kd m ud,
k jhf ynfov
l x
l u
k kd vGwv
f yfre_ @J vHjk cKH
r_ay;Edik w
f phJ epfjzpfygw,f?
Ù 'Dru
kd a&pDqw
kd m uk,
d &f ifqikd af e&wJjh y\em/ ud,
k &f ifqikd af e&
wJh udprP sK;d awGukd ud,
k w
f ikd u
f ikd w
f ,
G af jz&Si;f Edik w
f hJ tcGit
hf a&;awG jzpfyg
w,f?
Ù wdik ;f jynfut
kd yk cf sKyw
f ahJ cgi;f aqmifrsm;[m jynfov
l x
l k axmufcH
r_ tiftm;eJ@yJ tkycf sKyfwm jzpf&r,f? vufeuftiftm;eJ@ tkycf sKyfwm

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

247

rjzpf&bl;?
Ù wud,
k af umif;r=uH=uyge?hJ trsm;twGuv
f yk =f uyg? trsm;t
usK;d aqmifwv
hJ rl sm;[m vlomaooGm;r,f? b,fawmhrS emrnfrao
bl;?
Ù usrwd@k tck'rD u
kd a&pDvy_ &f mS ;r_xJ yg0ifvmwm[m tm%mvdk
csiv
f @kd yg0ifvm=uwmr[kwb
f ;l ? wm0efux
kd rf;aqmifcsiv
f @kd yg0ifvm
=uwmyg?
Ù rw&m;wJu
h pd u
P v
kd kyzf @kd a=umuf&r,f? rrSew
f u
hJ pd u
P kd vkyzf @kd
a=umuf&r,f? avmurSm a=umufz@kd qw
kd m 'DEpS cf yk &J w
dS ,f?
Ù w&m;r#wwJhOya'awGukd usiho
f ;kH rSom vlom;awG[m wu,fh
udk ,Ofaus;wJv
h uQ%m ay:vmrSmyg?
Ùvdyjf ymoef@&if tm%mrJo
h rl mS vnf; pGr;f tm;&Sw
d ,f?
Ù Edik fiaH &;t&/ vlra_ &;t& tajymif;tvJwckuv
kd ckd si&f if nD
nGw=f uzd@k vw
kd ,f?
Ù ra=umufatmifqdkwm udk,fhrmS cH,lcsufwck&Sd&r,f? udk,f
a=umufwphJ w
d x
f uf ydjk yD;jyif;xefwphJ w
d w
f ckuakd rG;&r,f? ud,
k af =umuf
wJph w
d x
f uf ydjk y;D awmh vkycf siw
f phJ w
d u
f rsm;&r,f? 'Dvpkd w
d "f gwaf wGarG;rS
&rSmyJ?
Ù trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfukd ygww
D cktaeeJ@&yfwnfz@kd wnf
aqmufcw
hJ mr[kwyf gb;l ? 'Dru
kd a&pD&atmif v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u
G rf ,hf
tzG@J wcktaeeJ@ wnfaxmifcw
hJ myg? jrefrmEdik if rH mS jynfoal wG[m 'Drkd
ua&pDukd vdv
k m;aeoa&GŒ/ tm%mydik af wGu w&m;0ifw,fyaJ jymajym/
w&m;r0ifbl;bJajymajym trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfuawmh quf
vuf&adS eOD;rSmyJ?
Ù usrwd@k trsK;d orD;awG[m t&nftcsi;f &Sw
d ,fv@kd usr,H=k unf
ygw,f? b0rSm ±ke;f uefEikd w
f h J t&nftcsi;f qdw
k m enf;wJt
h &nftcsi;f
r[kw?f 'Dvkd b0rSm ±ke;f uefEikd w
f t
hJ &nf;tcsi;f &Sv
d @kd vnf; pGe@f peG @f pm;pm;
eJ@ jynfyudo
k mG ;jyD;awmh b0opfxal xmifz@kd }udK;pm;=uwmyg? 'Dv}kd udK;

248

oef;0if;vIid f

pm;wJah e&mrSm wcsed v
f ;kH a&&Snt
f usK;d twGuu
f kd pGe@f pm;apcsiyf gw,f?
a&&Sn&f nfreS ;f csuu
f kd rsuaf jcrjywf&adS pcsiyf gw,f? a&&Sn&f nfreS ;f csuf
qdw
k muawmh usrwd@k Eikd if u
H jkd yefvmjyD;awmh usrwd@k Eikd if t
H usK;d twGuf
wifr[kwb
f eJ J@ urBmjh ynforl sm;tusK;d twGuyf g xrf;aqmifEikd fr,fh
trsK;d orD;rsm;jzpfatmif vkyzf @kd yjJ zpfygw,f?
Ù azazajymcJw
h phJ um;wcGe;f &Syd gw,f? ol@vyd jf ym&JŒcH±k ;kH a&SŒrSm ol
rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfjy;D awmh tppfc&H w
J ,fw?hJ usr&JŒ vdyjf ymcH±k ;kH a&SŒrSmvnf;
aewdik ;f rwfwyf&yfjyD;awmh usrwd@k jynfoal wGvJ 'Dvykd J ud,
k &hf ŒJ vdyjf ym
cH±k ;kH a&SŒrSm aewdik ;f rwfwyf&yfygw,f? rm;rm;rwfrwf tppfc=H unf=h uyg?
tJ'v
D kd tppfc=H unfw
h t
hJ cgh ud,
k [
f m vkyo
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f mawGukd vkyf
aeovm;qdkwJt
h ajzu ay:vmygvdrfhr,f? tJ'Dvdk ay:vmvkd@&Sd&if
usrwd@k &ŒJ tiftm;awGu t&rf;wefz;kd wufvmrSm? tiftm;qdw
k m rSef
rSeu
f efuefo;kH rS wu,fu
h t
kd zd;k wefwm? rSerf eS u
f efuefo;kH wJt
h iftm;&JŒ
tmedoifukd b,forl +S zdKvd@k r&bl;?
Ù trsK;d om;&if=um;apha&;qdw
k m r&Srd jzpf wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ aumif;usK;d
twGuf vdt
k yfwu
hJ pd yP ?J
Ù tajymif;tvJvckd si&f if tajymif;tvJ&atmifv@kd vky&f rSmyJ?
Ù 'Dru
kd a&pDwu
kd yf q
JG w
kd m yHo
k ¿meftrsK;d rsK;d &Syd gw,f? qENjyrS 'Drkd
ua&pDwu
kd yf rJG [kwyf gb;l ? usrwd@k [m ud,
k v
f yk o
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f u
hJ pd u
P kd
wd;k wd;k wdww
f w
d f vlrodatmifvyk jf cif;[mvnf; wku
d yf 0JG ifjcif;yHpk w
H rsK;d
ygy?J
Ù rqvpepfq;kd a=umifrh @kd v@kd usrwd@k wikd ;f jynf[m trsm;}uD;qkwf
,kwo
f mG ;&wm? 'gayr,fh ²²² bmjzpfv@kd rqvpepfq;kd [m usrwd@k wdik ;f
jynfrmS 'Davmuf=um=umwnfwchH ikd jf rJomG ;ovJqw
kd m usrwd@k jyefjyD;
awmh ar;&ygr,f? usrwd@k Eikd if o
H /l Edik if o
H m;rsm;[m &yf=unfah evd@k om
'Drqvpepf[m 'Davmuftxd wnfwchH ikd fjrJomG ;wm?
Ù wyfrawmfxrJ mS tm;vH;k qd;k wm r[kwb
f ;l ? qd;k wJv
h al wG&o
dS vdk
aumif;wJv
h al wGvnf;&Sw
d ,f? wu,fqv
dk k@d &d&S if 'Dvkd wyfrawmf emrnf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

249

ysuaf pwmu ud,
k &fh ŒJ tm%mwnfwchH ikd jf raJ &;twGuv
f yk af ewJh vlenf;
pkvw
l pka=umifo
h mjzpfygw,f?
Ù jrefrmjynfrmS 'Dru
dk a&pD&atmif vky&f r,fv@kd usrwd@k q;kH jzwf&
wm[m u|eb
f 0rSm vHjk cHKat;csr;f pGm rv_yrf ,Suaf exdik rf ,ft
h pm; t
ajccHv@l tcGit
hf a&;twGuf wdu
k yf 0JG if&if; zdEydS w
f t
hJ Eœ&m,fukd &ifqikd &f
r,fv@kd ,H=k unfv@kd ygy?J
Ù vuf&dStajctaeudk vufcHwmyJaumif;w,fvk@d ,H=k unfae
ao;wJh vlawG&adS eao;wm tH=h op&mygy?J ajymif;vJzd@k vw
kd mawGukd
ajymif;ypfEikd &f r,fqw
kd hJ pGr;f tm;udk usrwd@k ,=kH unfygw,f?
Ù ppftm%m&Sipf epfuae 'Drkdua&pDukd toGiaf jymif;wm[m
vG,rf ,fv@kd r,lqygb;l ? 'Dru
kd a&pDtpdk;&wufvmvd@k jy\emawGtm;
vH;k jyD;oGm;r,fv@kd vnf; r,lqygb;l ? cdik rf mwJh 'Dru
kd a&pDv@l abmifukd
wnfaqmuf&mrSm usrwd@k oufwrf;ukeq
f ;kH oGm;wmawmif rsK;d quf
opfawG[m qufvuf}udK;yrf;ae&tH;k rSmyg?•
Ù vGwv
f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG rfh ay;wJh vl@tzG@J tpnf;rSm &Sd
ae=uayr,fh usrwd@k &,l&r,ft
h &mudk qH;k jzwfEikd yf gw,f?
Ù jynfov
l x
l ek @J wyfrawmf=um;rSmvnf; pdw0f rf;uGaJ tmif vkyf
aew,f? 'Dvdk pdw0f rf;uGaJ tmifvyk af ewm[m jynfov
l x
l u
k vkyaf e
wmr[kwb
f ;l ? usrwd@k Edik if aH &;vkyaf ewJh vlawGuvnf; vkyaf ewm
r[kwb
f ;l ? wyfrawmfukd ud,
k u
f sK;d twGuf oH;k csiw
f v
hJ rl sm;u vkyaf e
wmyJjzpfw,f? tJ'aD wmh 'Dvpdk epfrsK;d udk usrwd@k tm;vH;k uaejyD;awmh
twdu
k t
f cHvyk &f r,f?
Ù 'Dacwfvil ,fawG[m aemifwacwf&ŒJ acgi;f aqmifjzpf&r,f/
acgi;f aqmifjzpfr,fv
h al wG[m t&nftcsi;f &Szd @kd / vl}uD;eJ@vil ,f tjyef
tvSef av;pm;zd@k vw
kd ,f? vli,fawGu acwfreD nf;ynmawG ydjk yD;awmh
em;vnfu|r;f usirf ,f/ tJ'v
D kd u|r;f usirf e_ @J v}l uD;awG&ŒJ tawG@t}uHK
awG qufpyfjyD;awmh aumif;rGefatmif aqmif&u
G o
f mG ;zdk@ wdu
k w
f eG ;f yg
w,f?

250

oef;0if;vIid f

Ù vli,frsm;&JŒb0udk om,mygap? vli,frsm;&JŒb0 om,mrS
usrwd@k &ŒJ wdik ;f jynf[m wd;k wufEikd rf mS yg? vli,frsm;&JŒb0 om,matmif
zefw;D ray;Edik &f if aemifacwftqufquf usrwd@k vrl sK;d rsm; om,mr_
&Edik rf mS r[kwyf gb;l ?
Ù vl}uD;awG/ vlvwfyikd ;f awGu jrefrmEdik if rH mS vli,frsm; aemifrsK;d
qufukd ysK;d axmifz@kd vw
kd ,f? tJ'v
D kd ysK;d axmifr,ft
h vkyu
f tpd;k &a&m/
Edik if aH &;ygwaD &m/ jynfov
l x
l t
k m;vH;k rSmvnf; wm0ef&w
dS ,f? ysK;d axmif
r,hyf *k Kd~ vf[m oabmxm;}uD;&r,f/ &Jabmf&b
J ufpw
d ef @J ysK;d axmif&
r,f?
Ù etztaeeJ@ trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;udk t&ifrvkyb
f J
2010 a&G;aumufyu
JG kd vkyrf ,fq&kd if 'D 2010 a&G;aumufy[
JG m r#wr_
vnf; &Srd mS r[kwb
f ;l ? w&m;vnf;0ifrmS r[kwb
f ;l vd@k urBm@uv
k or*~
taeeJ@ a=unmcsux
f w
k jf yD; ajymoifw
h ,f?
Ù rJay;zd@k tcGit
hf a&;&So
d vdk rJray;zd@k vnf; tcGit
hf a&;&Sw
d hJ Oya'
jyÏmef;csu&f w
dS ,f? vlxt
k aeeJ@ rJray;wmuvnf; Oya't& tcGihf
ta&;yJ?
ÙÙÙ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

251

tcef; (13)
a':atmifqef;pkMunf 'dik ,
f m&D
1942/ pufwifbmv 6 Ù ae@v,f 2 em&DwiG f *syefacwfaq;±Hk
}uD; (,ckEikd if aH wmfumuG,af &;wuUoo
kd )f ta&SŒbuf tpGeq
f ;kH cef;r
aqmifwiG f olejyKq&mr rcif=unfEiS hf ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf Adv
k f
csKyfAv
kd af wZwd@k vufxyfr*FvmyGjJ yKvkyo
f nf?

pufwifbmv 7 Ù nae 5 em&Dtcsed w
f iG f &efuek +f rdKΠNippon
Military Club (rifwr
kd pf&iS [
f w
kd ,f) Y ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf Adv
k f
csKyfAv
kd fawZESihf ZeD;a':cif=unfw@kd r*Fvmxrif; wnfcif;{nfch aH u|;
arG;onf?
1943/ ZGef 13 Ù Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESihf a':cif=unfw@kd . om;OD;
atmifqef;OD;udk zGm;jrifonf?
1944 ar 10 Ù Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf a':cif=unfw@kd . 'kw,
d
om; atmifqef;vif;udk zGm;jrifonf?
1945 ZGef 19 Ù Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESihf a':cif=unfw@kd . wwd,
ajrmuforD; atmifqef;pk=unfukd eHeuf 3; 35 em&DwiG f zGm;jrifonf?

252

oef;0if;vIid f

1946 pufwifbm 22 Ù Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESih f a':cif=unfw@kd
.pwkwo
Î rD;udk zGm;jrifonf? (zGm;jrifjyD; 5 &uft=umwGif uG,v
f eG f
onf?)
1947 Zlvkdif 19 Ù eHeuf 10 em&D 35 rdepfY &efuek +f rdKŒ&Sd twGi;f
0efrsm;±H;k (,ck0ef}uD;rsm;±H;k ) Y tpnf;ta0;usi;f yaepOf *VKefO;D apm.
vufyg;apvlowform;wd@k . vky=f uHowfjzwfr_a=umifh zcifAkdvfcsKyf
atmifqef;usq;kH cJ&h onf? vky=f uHc&H pOfu atmifqef;pk=unfonf
2 ESpo
f rD;t&G,o
f m &Sad o;onf?

Adv
k cf sKyf vkyMf ucH &H onfh twGi;f 0efrsm;½k;H

1949 Ù &efuek +f rdKŒpde@f z&efppfueG Af ifah usmif;wGif a':atmifqef;pk
=unf pwifynmoif=um;onf?
1953 Zefe0g&Dv 16 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf. tpfuv
kd wf
atmifqef;vif;onf trSw2f 5/ wm0gved ;f vrf; (,ckAv
kd cf sKyfatmif
qef;jywdu
k v
f rf;) &Sad etdrYf a&epfaoqH;k onf?
arv Ù trSwf 25 / wm0gved ;f vrf;aetdrrf S A[ef;+rdKŒe,f trSwf
54/ wuUov
kd &f yd o
f mvrf;aetdro
f @kd a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@kd ro
d m;pk
ajymif;a&$Œonf?
1957 rS 1960 Ù &efuek +f rdKŒ t*Fvyd rf ufo'pf uGeAf ifah usmif;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

253

trSwf 54 wuúodkvf&dyfomvrf;? a':atmifqef;pkMunfaetdrf

(txu - 1 '*H)k wGif a': atmifqef;pk=unf qufvufynmoif=um;
cJo
h nf?
1960 Ù rdcifjzpfoal ':cif=unf tdE,
dN Edik if q
H ikd &f m jrefrmEdik if H oH
trwf}u;D tjzpf cef@tyfjcif;cH&I rdcifEiS t
hf wl tdE,
dN Edik if H e,l;a'vD+rdKŒ
od@k vdu
k yf gaexdik cf o
hJ nf?
1960 rS 1961 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonfa,±lEiS hf ar&DueG Af ifh
ausmif; (Convent of Jesus and Mary) ESihf av'D&,
S &f &D rfaumvdyf (Lady
Sheri Ram College) wd@k Y qufvufynmoif=um;onf?
1962 rS 1963 Ù a'vDwuUov
kd Yf Edik if aH &;odyb
H` mom&yfukd
avhvmqnf;yl;cJo
h nf?
1964 rS 1967 Ù atmufpzd@k wuUov
kd f [l@paf umvdyYf '\eaA
'/ Edik if aH &;odyEH` iS hf pD;yGm;a&;ynm&yfrsm;udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJjh yD; 0dZm… *k%f
xl;bG@J ukd &&Scd o
hJ nf?
1968 Ù vef'efwuUov
kd t
f a&SŒwdik ;f ESihf tmz&duavhvma&;Xm
e/ Edik if aH &;odyH`XmeY okawoevufaxmuftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif
onf?

254

oef;0if;vIid f

1969 rS 1971 Ù e,l;a,muf ukvor*~taxGaxG twGi;f a&;
rSL;csKyf±;kH / tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf b¾ma&;qdik &f mudp&P yfrsm;t=uHay;aumfrwD
(Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions United
Nations Secretariat, New York)

wGif vufaxmuftwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf wm

0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf?
1971 Ed0k ifbm 31 Ù ajrmufyikd ;f Ak'<bmomr[m,e. vlra_ &;ESihf
,Ofaus;r_qikd &f mordik ;f a=umif; okawoDa'guw
f mrdu
k u
f ,ft&J pf (Dr.
Michael Viallancourt Aris) ESihf a':atmifqef;pk=unfw@kd xdr;f jrm;vuf
xyfonf?

1972 rS 1973 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf blwefEikd if H Edik if jH cm;
a&;0ef}uD;±H;k ESihf ukvor*~rsm;qdik &f m t=uHay;t&m&St
d jzpf wm0efxrf;
aqmifco
hJ nf?
1973 {jyD 12 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf a'guw
f mrdu
k u
f ,f
tJ&pfw@kd . om;}u;D jrifq
h ef;atmif ac: tvufZef'g; (Ale»ander John
Christopher Aris) udk zGm;jrifco
hJ nf?
1975 rS 1977 Ù atmufpzd@k wuUokdvf abmh'vD,ef pm=unfh
wdu
k f (Bodleian Library) Y jrefrmpmESihf ay/ yk&yd'k f uwfwavmuf jyKpkol

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

255

ynm&Sit
f jzpf aqmif&u
G o
f nf?
1977 pufwifbm 24 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf rdu
k u
f ,ft&J pf
wd@k . om;i,f xdef vif;ac: uifrf (Dannian Kim Arundel Aris) udk zGm;jrif
onf?
1995 rS 1986 Ù *syefEikd if /H wdu
k sKw
d uUov
kd f ta&SŒawmiftm&S
qdik &f mavhvma&;XmewGif okawoeynm&Sit
f jzpf oGm;a&muf okaw
oejyKcJo
h nf?
1987 Ù tdE,
dN Edik if /H qif;rvm;+rdK@&dS txl;avhvma&; tdE,
dN
odyXH` mewGif okawoDtjzpfvyk u
f ikd o
f nf?
Ù vef'efwuUov
kd t
f a&SŒwdik ;f ESihf tmz&duavhvma&;XmewGif yg&
*lb@JG twGuf “1920-1945 twGi;f xkwaf 0cJah om pme,fZif;rsm;onf
jrefrmhvw
G v
f yfa&;udk taxmuftultjyKcJyh ”kH trnf&dS bG@J veG pf mwrf;
udk wifoiG ;f onf?
1988 Ù vef'efwuUov
kd u
f a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; yg&*l
bG@J ,&l eftwGuf xdu
k w
f efot
l jzpf owfrw
S o
f nf?
1988 rwf Ù rdcif}uD;a':cif=unfemruse;f jzpfra_ =umifh rdcif}uD;
tm; jyKpkapmihaf &Smuf&ef a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf jrefrmEdkiif o
H d@k
a&muf&Sv
d monf?
=o*kwfv 8 Ù jrefrmEdik if H w0Sr;f vH;k Y 88 'Dru
kd a&pD ta&;awmf
yH}k uD; ay:aygucf o
hJ nf?
=o*kwf 26 Ù a&$wD*HkapwDawmftaemufbufrkcfwGif a':atmif
qef;pk=unfonf rqvtpd;k &. jynfov
l x
l t
k m; t=urf;zuf+zdKcGaJ er_
udk qef@usicf ahJ om rde@f ceG ;f udk vlaygi;f wpfoed ;f ausmw
f ufa&mufonfh
vlxt
k pnf;ta0;yGYJ yxrqH;k t}udrf rde@f ceG ;f ajym=um;cJo
h nf?
1988 pufwifbmv 14 Ù OD;atmif}u;D / a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf
ol&OD;wifO;D wd@k . jynfow
l &yfv;kH od@k yef=um;csupf mwapmif xkwjf yef
a=unmonf?
pufwifbm 18 Ù &Spaf v;vH;k ta&;awmfy}kH uD;udk ppfwyfrS vuf

256

oef;0if;vIid f

eufjzifh t=urf;zuf+zdKcGi;f ypfvu
kd jf yD;aemuf ppfwyfrS tm%modr;f ydu
k f
um e0w ac: Edkiif aH wmfjidr0f yfyjd ym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J ukd zG@J pnf;cJh
onf?
pufwifbm 27 Ù trsK;d om;'Dru
dk a&pDtzG@J csKyu
f kd a':atmifqef;pk
=unf/ OD;atmif}uD;/ ol&OD;wifO;D / OD;0if;wifwkd@jzifh pwifz@JG pnf;cJo
h nf?
pwifz@JG pnf;pOfu trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf (NLD) . A[dt
k vkyt
f r_
aqmiftzG@J 0ifrsm;rSm (1) OD;atmif}uD;
- OuUX
(2) ol&OD;wifO;D
- 'kOuUX
(3) a':atmifqef;pk=unf
- taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
(4) OD;=unf[ef
- twGi;f a&;rSL;tzG@J 0if
(5) OD;cspcf ikd f
- twGi;f a&;rSL;tzG@J 0if
(6) OD;0if;wif
- twGi;f a&;rSL;tzG@J 0if
(7) a': jrifjh rifch if
- vlxv
k w
l ef;pm;XmerSL;
(8) OD;vGif
- b¾ma&;XmerSL;
(9) OD;atmifviG f
- jyef=um;a&;XmerSL;
(10) OD;atmifa&$
- pnf;±H;k a&;XmerSL;
(11) OD;=unfarmif
- okawoeXmerSL;
(12) OD;ba&$
- tkycf sKyfa&;XmerSL;
wd@k jzpfonf?
pufwifbm 30 Ù trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfukd a&G;aumufyJG
aumfr&Sio
f @kd w&m;0ifrw
S yf w
kH ifco
hJ nf? tzG@J csKyfY a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efukd ,lco
hJ nf?
atmufwb
dk m 3 Ù trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfukd a&G;aumufyJG
aumfr&Siu
f a=unmcsut
f rSwf (3) jzifh Edik if aH &;ygwt
D jzpf twnfjyK
a=unmonf?
'DZifbm 10 Ù trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf OuUXtjzpf 'kw,
d
OuUXOD;wifO;D tm; a&G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufvu
kd af =umif;ESihf OD;atmif}uD;ESihf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

257

twl tjcm; A[dOk ;D pD;tzG@J 0ifrsm;jzpf=uaom(1) OD;=unf[ef (2) OD;ba&$
(3) OD;eef;EG,f (4) OD;ausmjf rifah v; (5) OD;cifarmifarmif (6) OD;omxdk
(7) OD;ode;f Edik f (8) OD;rif;'if (9) OD;cifnKd (10) OD;bd;k atmif (11) OD;
armifarmif (12) OD;aZmf0if;OD;wd@k uvnf; tzG@J csKyftzG@J 0ifrsm;tjzpf Ekwf
xGujf yD;jzpfa=umif; a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sio
f @kd ta=umif;=um;cJo
h nf?
'DZifbm 13 Ù tzG@J csKyfrS OD;atmif}uD;tygt0if yk*Kd~ vf (12) OD;udk
xkwyf ,fvu
kd af =umif; aumfr&Sio
f @kd ta=umif;=um;pm ay;yd@k onf?
'DZifbm 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfrcd if r[moD&o
d "k rR a':cif
=unfonf &efuek +f rdKŒY uG,v
f eG o
f nf? uG,v
f eG cf sed Yf om;atmifqef;OD;
ESihf orD;jzpfol a': atmifqef;pk=unfw@kd use&f pfco
hJ nf?
1989 azazmf0g&D 9 Ù trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf A[dt
k vkyt
f r_
aqmiftzG@J ukd jyifqifz@JG pnf;I a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sio
f @kd ay;yd@k onf?
,if;wd@k rmS (1) OD;wifO;D
- OuUX
(2) a':atmifqef;pk=unf
- taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
(3) OD;0if;wif
- twGi;f a&;rSL;
(4) OD;cspcf ikd f
- twGi;f a&;rSL;
(5) OD;=unfarmif
- okawoerSL;
(6) OD;atmifa&$
- pnf;±H;k a&;rSL;
(7) OD;vGif
- b¾ma&;rSL;
(8) OD;atmifviG f
- jyef=um;a&;rSL;
(9) a': jrifhjrifch if
- vlxv
k w
l ef;pm;XmerSL;
wd@k jzpfonf?
Zlvikd f 20 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; e0w tpd;k &u Edik if aH wmf
tm; aESmif,
h u
S zf suq
f ;D vdo
k rl sm;. ab;tEœ&m,frS umuG,af pmifah &Smuf
onfOh ya'yk'rf 10 (c) t& aetdrw
f iG w
f m;qD;rde@f xw
k jf yefI wm;qD;
vdu
k o
f nf?
'DZifbm 22 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrt
f us,cf sKyjf zifh

258

oef;0if;vIid f

xde;f odr;f cHaepOftwGi;f ygwpD 'kH rD u
kd a&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyw
JG iG f yg
0if,OS +f ydKifrnf[k a=unmonf? od@k aomf wdik ;f &if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnw
G f
a&;ygwt
D m; ud,
k pf m;jyKI &efuek w
f ikd ;f A[ef;+rdKŒe,f rJqENe,ftrSwf
(1) wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf ,SO+f ydKif&ef tqdjk yKxm;jcif;cH&ol OD;
vbef*a&mifrS uef@uGuv
f m$ wifoGi;f cJ&h m &efuek w
f kdif;a&G;cs,f wif
ajr‡mufyu
JG si;f ya&;aumfr&Sirf S vufcpH pfaq;I a&G;aumufyOJG ya'yk'rf
10 (i) jzifh jipd eG ;f onf[q
k u
kd m trnfpm&if; wifoiG ;f v$mudk y,fcschJ
ojzifh 0ifa&muf,OS +f ydKifciG hf r&cJah cs?
1990 rwfv 27 Ù ygwpD t
kH axGaxGa&G;aumufyu
JG kd usi;f ycJ&h m/
trsKd;om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyfonf rJqENe,f 447 e,fY 0ifa&muf ,SOf
+ydKifc&hJ m 392 e,fY tEdik &f &Scd o
hJ nf? tzG@J csKyfonf wEdik if v
H ;kH wGif rJ
qENe,f 485 ae&mY 392 ae&mtEdik &f &Sad oma=umifh 82 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f
ausmf tEdik &f &Scd o
hJ nf?
Zlvikd v
f 27 Ù e0w ppftpd;k &onf twGi;f a&;rSL; Adv
k cf sKyfcifneG @f
vufrw
S jf zifh trde@f trSwf 1§90 udk xkwjf yefI 1990 jynfEh pS /f Zlvikd v
f
28-29 wGif tzG@J csKyAf [dOk ;D pD;tzG@J rS }u;D rSL;jyKvyk rf nfh v$waf wmfu,
kd pf m;
vS,rf sm; yxrt}udrf ndE‡ id_ ;f tpnf;ta0;}uD;udk [ef@wm;uef@owf
vdu
k o
f nf?
Zlvkid f 28/ 29 Ù ,m,DOuUXOD;=unfarmifO;D pD;onfh *ENcD ef;r t
pnf;ta0;}uD;udk jyKvkycf o
hJ nf?
1991 'D Z if b m 10 Ù
1991 ckEpS t
f wGuf jidr;f csr;f a&;
Ed kb ,f qk ud k a':atmif qef; pk
=unftm; ay;tyfcs;D jri‡ chf &hJ m jird ;f
csr;f a&;Ekb
d ,fqu
k kd rdcifu,
kd pf m;
om;}uD;jzpfol jrifq
h ef;atmifu
aemfa0;Edik if /H atmfpvd+k rKd ŒY wuf
Nird ;f csr;f a&;Edb
k ,fqw
k q
H yd f
a&mufq,
k cl o
hJ nf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

259

1995 Zlvkdiv
f 10 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; aetdrt
f us,f
csKyftjzpf wm;qD;xm;onft
h rdet
f m; e0wtpk;d &rS jyefvnf±yk o
f rd ;f
ay;cJo
h nf?
Ù e,l;a,muftajcpdu
k f ‘rpf’ (Ms) r*~Zif;rS 1995 ckEpS t
f wGuf
trsK;d orD; xl;c|eq
f ak &G;cs,&f mY a':atmifqef;pk=unfyg0ifco
hJ nf?
1999 rwfv 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfcifyeG ;f jzpfol rku
d u
f ,f
tJ&pf vef'ef +rdKŒY uG,v
f eG cf o
hJ nf?
2000 rwf 18 Ù tdik ,
f mvefEikd if H 'AŠvif+rKd ŒwGif a':atmifqef;pk
=unftm; 'AŠvif+rdK@awmf vGwv
f yfa&;qkukd *k%jf yKcs;D jr‡ichf o
hJ nf?
=o*kwf 24 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 'kw,
d OuUXol&OD;wifO;D
&efuek w
f ikd ;f pnf;±H;k a&;aumfrwDOuUXocifp;kd jrif/h &efuek w
f ikd ;f pnf;±H;k a&;
tzG@J 0ifa'guw
f mrsK;d atmif/ tzG@J csKyfvil ,f 16 OD; (,mOfarmif;ESpOf ;D
tygt0if) wd@k EiS t
hf wl &efuek w
f zufurf; 'v+rdKŒrSwqifh &efuek w
f idk ;f
uGr;f jcHuek ;f ESihf aumhrLS ;+rdK@rsm;od@k pnf;±H;k a&;udprP sm;aqmif&u
G &f ef &ef
uke+f rdKŒyef;qd;k wef;qdyu
f rf;rSwqifh c&D;xGu&f ef pDpOfc&hJ m yef;qd;k wef;
qdyu
f rf;wGif 1 em&DccJG ef@ tm%mydik rf sm;rS ydwq
f @kd xm;cJjh y;D wzufurf;od@k
ul;cGi&hf cJo
h nf? 'v+rdKŒod@k a&muf&o
dS nft
h cg }udKwifapmifq
h ikd ;f aeonfh
tzG@J csKyfum;ESppf ;D jzifh uGr;f jcHuek ;f od@k c&D;xGuv
f mpOf 'v+rdKŒrS 3 rdik cf ef@
ta&muf usepf pfom;&yfuu
G w
f iG f tm%mydkirf sm;rS a&SŒc&D;rqufEikd &f ef

260

oef;0if;vIid f

twif;t"rR ydwq
f @kd wm;jrpfxm;cJo
h jzifh pufwifbmv (1) &uf ae@n
11; 15 em&Dtcsed w
f iG f &JwyfzJ@G ESihf ppfaxmufvSr;f a&;tiftm; 300 ausmf
u a':atmifqef;pk=unftzG@J tm; 0ifa&mufp;D eif;jy;D twif;t=uyfzrf;
qD;csKyfaESmifac:aqmifjyD; &efuek +f rdKŒaetdro
f @kd jyefy@kd co
hJ nf?
pufwifbm 1 rS 14 xd Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; 'kw,
d
t}udrf aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf zrf;qD;cJjh yefonf?
2000 pufwifbm 21 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 'kw,
d OuUX
OD;wifO;D ESit
hf wl tzG@J 0ifrsm;vdu
k yf gI tzG@J csKyf v_y&f mS ;r_r&SEd ikd &f ef ydwyf if
wm;qD;r_rsm;/ tzG@J csKyf±;kH rsm;ydwo
f rd ;f jcif;/ qdik ;f bkwrf sm;csapjcif;rsm;udk
pHpk rf;avhvm&ef yxrc&D;pOftjzpf naerD;&xm;jzifh rEœav;+rKd Œok@d oGm;
a&muf&efpDpOfch&J m rD;&xm;vufrw
S fuek af eonf[k ta=umif;jyI vuf
rSwaf &mif;csray;bJ aemufwae@ eHeufapmapm 2000 jynfEh pS f pufwif
bm 22 &ufae@wiG f &efuek b
f w
l m}uD;rS t"rR aetdrfo@kd jyefy@kd jy;D wwd,
t}udrf aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f cJo
h nf?
2001 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; *smreDtajcpdu
k f Edik if w
H um
Edik if aH &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_rsm; vGwv
f yfpmG aygi;f pnf;a&;qdik &f m qkay;a&;
tzG@J }uD;u Collegue United Nations qkcs;D jr‡io
hf nf?
2002 ar 6 Ù ukvor*~. v#KŒd 0Su,
f =kH unfrn
_ E‡d id_ ;f csut
f &
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; etztpk;d &u aetdrt
f us,cf sKyfrS jyefvnf
v$wfay;cJhonf?
ar 23 Ù Adv
k rf SL;atmifO;D aqmifonfh 0g&ifEh idk if aH &;orm;}uD;rsm;u
a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ocifoed ;f azaetdrw
f iG f *k%jf yKyGu
J si;f yonf?
ar 25 Ù tar&duefjynfaxmifp&k d S bmhoaf umvdy.
f 142 }urd f
ajrmuf bG@J EiS ;f obiftcrf;tem;Y a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; *k%x
f ;l
aqmifyg&*lb@JG cs;D jr‡io
hf nf?
2003 ar 30 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESit
hf wl
ppfuidk ;f wkid ;f / 'Dy,
J if;+rdKŒe,f pnf;±H;k a&;c&D;pOftwGi;f olr. ,mOfwef;
tm; ppftpk;d &. a'guw
f ikd t
f zG@J tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom =uHŒzG@H EiS phf rG ;f tm;
&Sirf sm;u 'Dy,
J if;+rdKŒe,f us&D mG teD; t=urf;zufwu
kd cf u
kd cf =hJ uonf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

261

olrtm; axmufco
H nft
h zG@J 0ifrsm; 282 OD; aoqH;k I &maygi;f rsm;pGm
xdcu
kd 'f %f&m&&Scd o
hJ nf?
ar 31 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf etzvufyg;aprsm;. acsmif;
ajrmif; wdu
k cf u
kd rf c_ cH &hJ mrS toufraovGwaf jrmufcjhJ yD;aemuf a&OD;+rdKŒ
t0if*w
d t
f a&mufY tm%mydik rf sm;. zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
ZGef 2 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; trSwf (6) wifu
h m;wyf&if;
{nh&f yd o
f mwGif zrf;qD;xm;&mrS tif;pdeaf xmifo@kd y@kd I xde;f odr;f cJo
h nf?
ZGef 24 Ù tif;pdeaf xmifrS a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; &JreG w
f yf
pcef;&Sd &Jacgi&f yd o
f mod@k ajymif;a&$Œxde;f odr;f cJo
h nf?
pufwifbm 16 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; aq;±Hw
k ufcpJG w
d u
f k
o&eftwGuf &JreG f&yd fomrS &efuek +f rdKŒtm&Sawmf0ifaq;±Ho
k d@k wify@kd chJ
onf?
2003 pufwifbm 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; tm&Sawmf
0ifaq;±Hrk S aetdro
f @kd jyefy@kd I pwkwt
Î }udrf aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf xde;f odr;f
cJo
h nf?
2004 {jyD 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; awmfu&kd ;D ,m;Edik if rH S
2004 ckEpS t
f wGuf *Gr*f sL;vl@tcGit
hf a&;qk cs;D jr‡io
hf nf?
Edk0ifbm 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; Edik if aH wmftm; aESmihf
,Suzf sufqD;vdkolrsm;. ab;tEœ&m,fru
S muG,fapmifha&Smufonfh
Oya'yk'rf 10 (c) jzifh jypf'%fwESpf xyfrw
H ;kd cJo
h nf?
2005 Ed0k ifbm 27 Ù etz ppftpd;k &u a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tm; aemufxyfjypf'%f (6) v xyfrw
H ;kd cJo
h nf?
2006 rwf 1 Ù qG'D ifEikd if pH awmh[rk ;f +rdKŒwGif jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDacgi;f
aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; 2005 ckEpS t
f wGuf tdak vmhyef;qk
cs;D jr‡ichf o
hJ nf?
arv 20 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ukvor*~eikd if aH &;XmerS
vufaxmuftaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; tDb&m[if*rfbm&Du awG@qckH hJ
onf?

262

oef;0if;vIid f

arv 27 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; etztpk;d &u tus,f
csKyfoufwrf;wESpf xyfrw
H ;kd cJo
h nf?
Ed0k ifbm 11 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ukvvufaxmuf t
axGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; *rfbm&Du oGm;a&mufawG@qckH o
hJ nf?
2007 Zefe0g&D 1 Ù ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf bef
uDreG ;f onf jrefrmEdik if &H dS ppfacgi;f aqmifrsm;udk a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tm; c|i;f csurf &Sd jyefvnf v$waf y;&ef awmif;qdck o
hJ nf?
Zefe0g&D 18 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf ol. Edb
k ,fqak =u;aiG
rsm;udk tcGeaf y;aqmifjcif;r&Sb
d J jynfywGit
f oH;k jyKcJo
h nf[k ppftpd;k &
ydik f jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmY pGypf aJG &;om;onf?
atmufwb
kd m 2 Ù pufwifbma&$0ga&mif oHCmhawmfveS af &;}u;D
tjyD; ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf. t=uHay;yk*Kd~ vf rpPwm
*rfbm&Donf a': atmifqef;pk=unftm; xyfraH wG@qckH o
hJ nf?
atmufwdb
k m 24 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrt
f us,cf sKyf
(12) ESpjf ynft
h jzpf urBm+h rdKŒ}uD; 12 +rdKŒwGif w+ydKifeufwnf; qENjyyGJ
usi;f ycJ=h uonf?
atmufwkb
d m 25 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf pum;ajymqdEk ikd &f ef
=um;cH qufo,
G af &;0ef}uD;twGuf tvkyo
f rm;0ef}uD; OD;atmif=unf
udk etztpdk;&u cef@tyfcJjh yD; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;a&;twkta,mifrsm;
zefw;D jyocJo
h nf?
Ed0k ifbm 8 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf (3) ESpt
f wGi;f yxrqH;k t
}udrf ol. ygwAD [dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmiftzG@J rsm;ESihf awG@qckH iG &hf cJo
h nf?
2009 ar 6 Ù tar&duefEikd if o
H m; *|e0f v
D s,
H ufawmonf a':
atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrjf cH0if;twGi;f od@k etzppftpd;k &tm%mydik f
rsm;. pDpOfay;r_jzifh wdww
f qdwf 0ifa&mufco
hJ nf?
ar 18 Ù ppftpd;k &u a':atmifqef;pk=unfaetdrf tus,cf sKyf
azmufzsurf y_ 'k rf (22) jzifh tif;pdet
f xl;w&m;±H;k Y w&m;pGq
J o
kd nf?
=o*kw f 11 Ù a':atmifqef;pk= unftm; aetdrftus,fcsKyf

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

263

azmufzsurf y_ 'k rf 22 jzifh tvky=f urf;ESihf axmif'%f 3 ESpf csrw
S cf o
hJ nf?
trde@f csrw
S jf y;D rdepfyikd ;f twGi;f rSmyif etzppfacgi;f aqmif Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;}uD;
oef;a&$. trde@f pmjzifh xdck srw
S x
f m;onfjh ypf'%fukd xuf0ufav#mch s
vdu
k jf yD; qdik ;f iHjh ypf'%ftjzpfxm;&Su
d m a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; ae
tdrf tus,cf sKyf (18) vod@k ajymif;vJcsrw
S af y;vdu
k o
f nf?
atmufwb
kd m 2 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftay: etzppftpd;k &u
rw&m;jypf'%fcsrw
S rf t
_ ay: &efuek w
f ikd ;f w&m;±H;k od@k a':atmifqef;pk
=unf. tusK;d aqmifa&SŒaersm;u t,lcv
H m$ wifoiG ;f r_ukd wdik ;f w&m;±H;k
u y,fcscho
J nf?
'DZifbmv 21 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unf. a&SŒaersm;u A[dk w
&m;±H;k csKyo
f @kd t,lcjH yifqifciG ahf v#mufxm;r_ukd A[dw
k &m;±H;k csKyfu vuf
cHco
hJ nf?
2010 Zefe0g&D 14 Ù trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf A[dt
k vkyt
f r_
aqmiftzG@J ukd jyefvnf wd;k csŒJ zJ@G pnf;cJo
h nf? tzG@J csKyfA[dt
k vkyf tr_
aqmiftzG@J 0ifrsm;rSm (1) OD;atmifa&$
- OuUX
(2) ol&OD;wifO;D
- 'kw,
d OuUX
(3) a':atmifqef;pk=unf
- taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
(4) OD;vGif
- twGi;f a&;rSL;
(5) OD;0if;wif
- tzG@J 0if
(6) OD;cifarmifaqG
- tzG@J 0if
(7) OD;oef;xGe;f
- tzG@J 0if
(8) OD;pdk;jrifh
- tzG@J 0if
(9) OD;vSaz
- tzG@J 0if
(10)OD;vGef;wif
- tzG@J 0if
(11)OD;nGe@f a0
- tzG@J 0if
(12)a'gufwmoef;jidr;f
- tzG@J 0if
(13)OD;tkef;}udKif
- tzG@J 0if

264

oef;0if;vIid f

(14)OD;0if;jrifh
- tzG@J 0if
(15)OD;xGe;f xGe;f [def
- tzG@J 0if
(16)a'guw
f m0if;Edik f
- tzG@J 0if
(17)OD;Om%f0if;
- tzG@J 0if
(18)OD;[Homjrifh
- tzG@J 0if
(19)OD;ode;f nGe@f
- tzG@J 0if
(20)a'gufwmar0if;jrifh
- tzG@J 0if
wd@k jzpfonf?
2010 Ed0k ifbm 13 Ù etzppftpk;d &u a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk
jrefrmpHawmfcsed f nae 5 em&D 15 rdepfwiG f aetdrt
f us,cf sKyfrS jyefvnf
v$wfay;cJhonf? xd@k aemuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf rdepfydik f;t
wGi;f rSmyif ol@jcHa&SŒod@k xu
G I
f vlxu
k kd rde@f ceG ;f wdak jym=um;cJo
h nf?
Ed0k ifbm 14 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrt
f us,cf sKyfrS
vGwaf jrmufvmjyD;aemuf A[ef;+rdKŒe,fa&$*w
kH ikd v
f rf;&Sd trsK;d om;'Dru
kd
a&pDtzG@J csKy±f ;kH a&SŒY ae@v,f 12 em&DwiG f vlxt
k m; E_wcf eG ;f qufred @fceG ;f ajym
=um;cJo
h nf?
Ed0k ifbm 23 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfaetdrt
f us,cf sKyfrS vGwf
ajrmufcjhJ yD;aemuf om;i,fuifraf c: udx
k ed v
f if;onf jynf0ifciG Ah f ZD m
&&So
d jzifh jrefrmEdik if o
H @kd vma&mufjyD; rdcifjzpfot
l m; awG@qo
kH nf?
Edk0ifbm 26 Ù vGwv
f yfonft
h m&StoH (RFA) rS pDpOfwifquf
onfh vlxEk Siafh ':atmifqef;pk=unftar;tajzu¾Y te,fe,f t
&yf&yfy&dwo
f wfrsm;. ar;jref;csurf sm;udk a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
yxrqH;k t}udrfajz=um;cJo
h nf?
'DZifbm 28 Ù vlxak cgif;aqmifa':atmifqef;pk=unfonf vl
i,frsm;tm; tzG@J csKy±f ;kH Y awG@qakH qG;aEG;I =o0g'pum;ajym=um;onf?
2011 arv 12 Ù ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;csKyf. txl;
t=uHay;yk*Kd~ vf ADa*s;erfA;D ,m;onf ‚if;. jrefrmEdik if cH &D;pOftwGi;f a':
atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf awG@qakH qG;aEG;cJo
h nf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

265

ar 19 Ù tar&duefjynfaxmifpk ta&SŒtm&SEiS hf ypdzw
d af &;&m
'kw,
d vufaxmufEikd if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;*sK;d Zuf,eG ;f onf jrefrmEdik if cH &D;
pOftwGi;f a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf olr.aetdrYf oGm;a&mufawG@qkH
aqG;aEG;cJo
h nf?
ZGev
f 10 rS 19 Ù jrefrmEdik if t
H rsK;d orD;rsm;ae@ (a':atmifqef;pk
=unfarG;ae@) txdr;f trSw±f ;kd &m,Ofaus;r_ *DwyGaJ wmfukd tzG@J csKyf±;kH Y
pnfum;pGmjyKvkycf o
hJ nf?
ZGev
f 19 Ù jynfwiG ;f jynfy+rdKŒ}uD;rsm;Y a':atmifqef;pk=unf.
66 ESpaf jrmufarG;ae@txdr;f trSwyf rJG sm;udk pnfum;odu
k +f rdKufpmG usi;f
ycJhonf?
ZGef 21 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; EU Oa&myor*~OuUXESihf
Edik if jH cm;a&;&mESihf vHjk cHKa&;&mt}uD;tuJ. t=uHay;yk*Kd~ vf rpPwma&m
bwfu;l yg;ESihf tD;,lu,
kd pf m;vS,f (11) OD;wd@k u ‚if;.aetdro
f @kd oGm;
a&mufawG@qakH qG;aEG;cJo
h nf?
ZGef 23 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; tdE,
dN Edik if jH cm;a&; 'kw,
d
0ef}u;D Ms. Narupama Rao u ol.aetdrfodk@ oGm;a&mufawG@qHkaqG;
aEG;cJo
h nf?
Zlvikd v
f 4 rS 7 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf jrefrmEdik if o
H @dk a&muf
&Sad eaom om;i,fux
kd ed v
f if;ESit
hf wl (4) &uf=um yk*zH &k m;zl; oGm;
a&mufco
hJ nf?
Zlvikd f 19 Ù (64) }udraf jrmuftmZmenfae@tcrf;tem;od@k a':
atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf tzG@J csKyftzG@J 0ifrsm;wufa&mufI tmZmenf}uD;
rsm;udk vGr;f ol@yef;acGcs tav;jyKcJo
h nf?
Zlvikd f 25 Ù a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf jynfaxmifp0k ef}uD; OD;
atmif=unfw@kd onf ae@v,fwem&DwiG f wuUov
kd &f yd o
f mvrf; pde;f vJh
uefom tpd;k &{nfah *[mY 1 em&DEiS hf 15 rdepf=um awG@qakH qG;aEG;cJjh yD;
jynfwiG ;f jynfyowif;axmuf 80 ausm.
f ar;jref;csurf sm;udk jyefvnf
ajz=um;oGm;cJhonf?

266

oef;0if;vIid f

tcef; (14)
a':atmifqef;pkMunf bGu
JU Asmrsm;

vlom;wdik ;f onf pnf;pdrcf sr;f omudk tvk&d .
dS ? qif;&J'u
k rQ S uif;
a0;vd.
k ? cs;D rGr;f ajr‡mufyifrh u
_ ckd ,
H v
l .
kd ? uJ&h ±hJ w
_ cf sjcif;cH&jcif;rS vGwu
f if;
vd.
k ? olwpfx;l tusK;d xuf rdrt
d usK;d uko
d m ydrk I
kd vdv
k m;ayonf? T
onfrmS omrefvo
l m;wkid f;wGi&f dSwwfaom oabmxm;yif jzpfonf?
omrefvt
l qifrh aS usmv
f eG I
f pnf;pdrcf sr;f omudk rrufarmol/ qif;
&J'u
k u
Q kd rr_o/l ajr‡mufIvnf;rajrmuf/ ajcmufIvnf;ra=umufo/l
ud,
k u
f sK;d udpk eG @f I trsm;tusK;d twGuf rdr,
d =kH unfcsuu
f kd &if0,fyu
kd I
f
owœ&d &dS adS qmif&u
G af eaom t=uify*k Kd~ vfw@kd onf TavmuY wu,f
&So
d nfqt
kd ?hH pHwifxu
kd o
f /l armfueG ;f wifxu
kd o
f jl zpfonf? Tod@k t
rsm;. =unfnKd av;pm;xdu
k af omyk*Kd~ vfrsm;wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unf
onfvnf; wpfO;D tygt0ifjzpfonf? xd@k a=umifh a':atmifqef;pk=unf
udk txÎKy`wadW &;olrsm;ua&;=uonf? aqmif;yg;a&;olrsm;u a&;=u
onf? Zmwfvrf;qifum ol@b0wpfpw
d w
f pfyikd ;f udk AD',
D rkd w
S w
f rf; ±du
k f
olu±ku
d I
f ±ky&f iS ±f u
dk o
f u
l ±ku
d =f uonf? xdek nf;wlpmG uAsmq&mrsm;u
vnf; uAsma&;pyfI rSww
f rf;wifc=hJ uonf?
Tod@k a':atmifqef;pk=unf tm;a&;pyfcahJ om a':atmifqef;pk
=unfb@JG uAsmrsm;udk vufvrS ;f rDa&GŒpkpnf;azmfjyvdu
k yf gonf?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

arG;aeYqrk eG f
=unf&i$ af paom/ rmapaom[k
arG;aomae@rSm/ wdk@oil gonf
arwœm=unfvif/ &$i&f i$ yf @kd ?
a'gi;f ysKt
d ;kd a0 wGeaf pzd@k
jrwfqrk eG af umif; awmif;=upd@k ? ?
rif;ok0Pf

arG;aeYo0Pf
wdik ;f usK;d jynfjyK
ud,
k pf m;jyK&Sif
r_id ;f ocifreS ;f
atmif;qef;pk=unf
pk{u&Dtm;
arG;zGm;&ufwiG f
use;f rmygap
csr;f om;ygap
qkoGio
f Gifavmif;vdkuyf gonf?
'*kefwm&m

rD;vQHxu
J Mum
&J - ZGJ - Om%f - pnf; - wm
ra=umufw&m;aw;uAsm
rD;v#x
H u
J =um? ?
OD;0if;wif

267

268

oef;0if;vIid f

&Jqdw
k m
ZGq
J w
kd m
Om%fqdkwm
pnf;qdkwm
wmqdkwm

] &J&ifjh cif;?
] pGjJ rJjcif;?
] Om%fynm}uD;rmjcif;?
] pnf;urf;&Sdjcif;?
] wm0efojd cif;/ wm0ef,jl cif;/ wm0efcjH cif;?

66 'grSr[kwf 'Drku
d a&pDtvif;yGifx
h Ju
r[mtmZmenf
“'Dru
kd a&pDpepfukd yHak zmf&mY
wOD;wa,mufxJvyk af qmifv@kd r&edik yf gb;l ?
vkyo
f m;jynfot
l m;vH;k yl;aygi;f vkyu
f ikd f
aqmif&u
G rf o
S m &&Sed ikd rf mS jzpfygw,f”
a':atmifqef;pkMunf
66 ²²² wJh
tarSmifacwftdk}uD;xJu
awmufywJt
h vif;ouU&mZf
a&$a&mifawGe@J 0if;xdef
aojcif;rJhtvif;tdrfay:uaw;
ig ²²² a[m'Dreufcif;opfxrJ mS arG;vd@k ²²²
66 ²²²wJh
'Dru
kd a&pDopftem*wfac:oH
'Drdk ²²² qdw
k m ²²² jynfol
ua&pD ²²² qdw
k m ²²² tm%m
'Drkd ²²² qdw
k m ²²² vlxk
ua&pD ²²² qdw
k m ²²² tcGit
hf a&;
vlxt
k m%m vlxt
k cGit
hf a&;
vlxu
k kdjyefay;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

igw@kd r[mjynfoal wGukd
igw@kd r[mjynfoal wGyikd w
f hJ
igw@kd yikd w
f hJ igw@kd 'rD u
kd a&pDukd
ig ²²² r[mjynfoal wGujkd yefay;
ESv;kH aoG;xJu igw@kd r[mjynfow
l &yfv;kH &JŒ
r[m'Dru
kd a&pDwkduyf GJ
=unfph rf; ²²² aumif;uif}uD;uGrJ wwf yGuyf u
G n
f v
H @kd ²²²
66 ²²² wJh
a&'D,t
kd oHvi_d ;f xJrmS ,H=k unfyiG ahf wGvid_ ;f x
vlxak A'&eH@opfawGe@J ar$;a0aewJh
tar&JΠ'Dru
kd a&pDac:oH tvif;aw;u
ordik ;f trSew
f &m;xJrmS
[öopPaH wGe@J xm0&yso
H ef;
'g ²²² igw@kd cspw
f hJ igrh [mEdik if aH wmf&ŒJ tvif;wHcg;ayg²h ²
66 ²²² wJh
ESi;f qD±ikd ;f opfawG yGiahf 0v_id ;f x
tm%awmfveS w
f ahJ cwf+ydKifxu
J r[maEGO;D
ZGef 19 &JΠ,H=k unfcsurf ;kd yGiOhf ;D udk cl;qGwzf @kd
0dnmOftvif;vrf;udkazmuf
ud,
k u
f sK;d pGe@f pw
d ef @J tem*wftyd rf ufuw
kd ;l azmf
oHr%da&mifawmufaewJh ±d;k r}uD;awGu
,H=k unfyiG t
hf vHukd &ifurJG wwfvi$ x
hf v
l @kd ²²²
66 ²²²wJh
urBmxJu r[mtvif;oauFw
ESv;kH om;r[m 'Dru
kd a&pDtvif;wdu
k u
f zkd iG jhf y

269

270

nom;tarSmiftdq
k ;dk }uD;xJu
EkysKpd rd ;f vef;vmr,fh reufcif;ppfppfuakd r#mf
'Dru
kd a&pDtvif;wdu
k yf aJG c:oH tawmif,u
S f
vGwaf jrmufa&;wku
d yf t
JG wGu,
f =kH unfcsuf
toufe@J ZGJcwf
p=u0ÏmurBmxJrmS &J&rJ ufv@kd ²²²
66 ²²² wJh
tmZmenfr[mol&aJ umif;wd@k vrf;
,H=k unfrt
_ ouf0n
d mOfe@J jzwfoef;
r[mjynfolawGvmaomvrf;rSm
ESvH;k om;udkcif;
=unfph rf; ²²² 'Dru
kd a&pDyef;awGu
vif;xde0f if;vufaumif;uifopf}uD;ay:wufvkd@ ²²²
66 ²²² wJh
oHr%d,=kH unfcsu[
f m
vGwaf jrmufa&;wdu
k yf t
JG wGuf ²²² "g;
acwfq;kd acwfysu}f uD;&JΠtarSmiftx
kd rJ mS
&J&yJ iG jhf yL 'Dru
dk a&pDacwfO;D tvHrmS
ESvH;k om;eJ@ v$ihfxl
jynfoal wGtwGuf xm0&,H=k unfcsuef @J
jidr;f csr;f a&;csKd;jzLiSuu
f av;yso
H ef;zd@k
A[k0g'opf&ŒJ tvif;+rdKŒudw
k nfvmjyD; ²²²
66 ²²² wJh
twkrrhJ [mtmZmenfocifatmifqef;&JŒ
vGwfvyfa&;wdu
k fyJGro
S nf

oef;0if;vIid f

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

ck ²²² acwf+ydKix
f u
J r[m'Dru
kd a&pDopfwu
kd yf &JG ŒJ
r[mtmZmenf
igwkd@r[mjynfoal wGcspw
f hJ
atmifqef;pk=unf
urBmwnfrnfh tvif;vrf;udak zguf
a[m ²²² 66 ²²²wJh jyuQ'ed x
f u
J tvif;ouU&mZf
tarh&iftakH jroif;cJxJu zGm;jrifvmawmhr,f
r[m'Dru
kd a&pDtvif;vrf;udkazguf
wd@k acwfuakd &muf&rnfrmS rvGyJ g
wd@k Arm r[moDcsi;f xJu r[muAsmpmom;
r[m'Drdu
k a&pDtvif;vrf;ay:rSm
=unf=h uprf;a[h
r[m'Dru
dk a&pDyef;opfawG
a0vdk@ ²²²? ?
armifaEGxuf

jynfou
l kcd spfaom …jynfolucspfaom …ol
tJ'rD suf0ef;&JŒ
El;nHjh ywfom;aom t=unfah wGatmufrmS
pd;k &GŒH tm;i,fpw
d af wG ajyavsmu
h ,
G af ysuo
f mG ;
tJ'ED w
_ cf rf;u
0Hph m;csKjd rdeaf omtjyHK;awGz;l tyGirhf mS
ar#mv
f ifch sut
f aoawG jyef&iS o
f efvef;pGiv
hf m ²²²
tJ'DEv
S ;kH om;u
ajyjypfnifomaom &ifcek o
f pH nf;csurf S
toG,o
f G,af omvm;&mawGaygif;qHak &SŒquf=u²²
ol@rsu0f ef;awGu igw@kd twGuf pGr;f tm;

271

272

ol@Ew
_ cf rf;u igwkd@vkdtyfwt
hJ vif;a&mif
ol@Ev
S ;kH om;u igw@kd azG&mS aewJt
h vSw&m;
ol[m ²²² ydwx
f m;cH&wJh wHcg;txyfxyfukd
&ife@J &if;jyD; wd;k zGiw
hf ;kd xGuo
f l
ol[m ²²² &J&ifjh cif;jy,k*u
f kd xkqpfzefqif;
pdwf0n
d mOfawGukd a=umuf&HGŒjcif;rS vGwu
f if;apol
ol[m ²²²arwœmvufeufukd tjyHK;rysuu
f ikd pf JG
trke;f wHwm;awGukd jidr;f csr;f jcif;ESihf +ydKvJapol
ol ²²²
tbd;k tbGm;wd@k &ŒJ ²²² orD;pk
OD;OD;a':a':wd@k &ŒJ ²²² rpk
armifw@kd r,fw@kd &ŒJ ²²² tefwpD k
om;wd@k orD;wd@k &ŒJ ²²² tarpk
wdik ;f jynfe@J vrl sK;d &JŒ ²²² atmifqef;pk=unf
ol[m ²²² rdom;pkwikd ;f &JŒ rdom;pk0if
tay;t,lrhJ jrwfE;kd cspcf ifjcif;awGe@J
tjyeftvSeaf rwœmouf0ifcJ=h u ²²²
jynfou
l ckd spaf om ²²² jynfou
l cspaf omol@ukd
jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ ESv;kH om;awGxu
J ae
b,fvrdk S z,fxw
k v
f @kd r&aybl;? ?
aebkef;vwf

u½kPm
tar
olronf
Adv
k cf sKyf.orD;

oef;0if;vIid f

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

wdik ;f jynf. rD;±_;wefaqmif
'Dru
kd a&pD. tvSz&k m;
vGwv
f yfjcif;. zD;epfiu
S f
±d;k om;jcif;. oHwref
nDnw
G jf cif;. rsKd;aphcsol
tar
olronf
ppftm%m}uD;pd;k a&;udw
k eG f;vSef
jynfot
l m;vH;k . tonf;ESv;kH
n‡Kd ;csK;H csed @J aewJh trdjynfp;D yGm;a&;udk
xm0pOfawG;tav;ay;ol
wdik ;f &if;om;tm;vHk;. rdcif
trsK;d om;&if=um;apha&;
xm0pOfawG; tav;ay;ol
tdkarar
wdik ;f jynfw;kd wuf/ ud,
k u
f sK;d rzuf
rsK;d jrwfZmenf/ Zmr%Dr@kd
xm0pOftjyHK;jynf&mG u
xm0pOfESv;kH =unfomap?
?
jra'gif;EG,f

armifacG;zdYu
k Asm
ajcvufrJah yr,fh
ypfcsi&f mudyk pfvu
kd w
f hJ
ypfwikd ;f axmifw,fu@JG ? ?

273

274

oef;0if;vIid f

armifoif;cdkif

rskd;qufZmwdaoG;
Adv
k frif;a&mifaoG;
atmifqef;aoG;wd@k pak 0;cJ&h m
igch E<"monf igw
h ikd ;f jynfEiS hf
igjh ynfow
l u
G jf zpf&rnf? ?
armifMuL;&ifh

2010 Ed0k ifbm 13
tara& ²²²
ae&mifr0if va&mifrvif;
arSmifrkdut
f cef;usO;f av;&JŒt=um;
tarhowif;rsm; 0ifa&mufvmawmh
usaemfav ²²²
rsu&f nfrsm;awmif0rJ yd g&ŒJ ?
?
rJarSmifre_ u
f yk v
f kd@aewJh
tvsm;&Sn&f n
S f teHarsmarsm
ausmwcif;pm ae&muav;rSm
usaemf[m
'Dae@uakd pmifah r#mfwrf;waecJw
h myg?
ae&mifjcnfurkd & vtvif;urjzm
usaemfr±_±u
d_ &f vJ&ydS gap ²²²
jynfoal wGtwGuf tvif;a&mif
jynfoal wGtwGuf rD;±_;wefaqmif

?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

[d;k tarSmifwu
kd af wGuq
kd w
k jf zJv@kd
xGe;f yaevdu
k yf rkH sm;
usaemft
h cef;av;xJ=um;
jzmvif;oGm;avovm; ²²² ?
?
aZ,smaomf
(aumhaomif;tusOf;axmifwGif;ü a&;zGJUygonf?)

arG;aeYordik ;f
arG;ae@wikd ;f rSm
trSwfw&mawG&Sw
d ,f
trSww
f &mwdik ;f rSm
'%f&mawG&w
dS ,f
'%f&mwdik f;rSm
ordik ;f &Sw
d ,f? ?
opfjidrf;

wdAkY dkvfcsKyf&UJ orD;
usKyfw@kd jynfot
l us;dk
a&SŒwef;wifxrf;yd;k ayr,fh
jynfoal wG&ŒJ ±_rnD;wJh
usKyfw@kd Av
kd fcsKyf&ŒJ orD;?
jidrf;csrf;csp=f unf
olrxlaxmifrnfjh ynf
igw@kd awG ra&mufa&mufatmif csw
D ufrnf?
csp=f unfjidr;f csr;f

275

276

olr wnfaqmufrnhv
f rf;
igw@kd awG ra&mufa&mufatmifvrS ;f ?

oef;0if;vIid f

?

ausm&f ifarmif (a&OD;)

tarhaus;Zl;
uGe,
f ufavvm; ²²²
uGi;f qufavvm; ²²²
'Da&tvm; jznf;jznf;wufomG ;?
pnf;vH;k r_tm; nDnw
G rf t
_ m;
vufcsi;f wGx
J m; cdik jf rJrt
_ m;
aoG;ruGw
J hJ 'd@k jynfaxmifpt
k m;
tjyma&mifEEk k jird ;f csr;f r_tm;
&mZ0ifwiG rf ,fh *Eœ0ifyef;csu
D m;
tjzLay:tjymEk ‘tarpk’ qGw
J hJ arSmif0iftEkynmum;
‘om;qufjyD;qG’J wJh vufqifu
h rf;ay;r_vm;
om;qufjyD; rqG&J ufb;l tar
tarh&ŒJ vuf&m om;rzsu0f b
hH ;l tar
tarh&ŒJ cHpm;r_ om;rarS;rSed af pcsib
f ;l tar
tarh&ŒJ wifjyr_ om;tusn;f wefatmif rvkyyf g&apeJ@ tar
tarhxuf om; wpfvr}uD;0Hyh gtar
om;tmacgif vSrH pl;0Hyh g tar
om; t&Siv
f wfvwf r[majr}uD;xJ rqif;0Hyh gtar?
tar[m ²²² taryg tar&,f?
tarhaemufrmS om;wd@k &w
dS ,f?
tarhab;rSm om;wd@k aer,f?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

277

tarhajcvSr;f aemufukd om;wd@k xyf=uyfruGmvdu
k rf ,f?
tararm&if om;wd@k wGaJ c:ay;r,f
tarqm&if om;wd@k c;l cyfau|;r,f
tar ²²² av#mufvrS ;f aewJjh idr;f csr;f r_ukd om;wd@k 0ikd ;f &Hay;r,f
tar ²²² ,ufaewJrsK;d qufopfueG ,
f ufukd
om;wd@k csnaf ESmifay;r,f
om;wd@k tarhukd 'Dvykd J aus;Zl;qyfciG jhf yKyg tar
uJ a[h tarhom;awG
nDapaemf ²²² nDap
vufcsi;f wGx
J m; r[mtiftm;
pdwcf si;f qufxm; r[mtiftm;
&JaoG;eDxm; r[mtiftm;
tarhaus;Zl;udk qyf=uygp@kd vm;?
ausmfol

jrwfrdcifa'gif;
tarSmifroef;/
ta&mifrEGr;f ygw/hJ
atmifqef;a[h pk=unf?
jrefjynfx&k ŒJ
tefwpD k Zmenf?
auG@rajy;ygb;l /
zathaoG;[m eDe&D yJ gv@kd /
jynft
h a&;rSm nDnZD eJG @J /

278

wnf=unfqaJ [h bmrxD/
Armjynf&ŒJ acgi;f aqmifaumif;?
wu,f,kwrf m jydwœmrsm;&,fu/
tus,cf sKyfrmS ydwu
f mxm;±Hrk u/
rdpm> w&m; tarSmifOm%fqifv
h @kd /
axmif'%fEiS yhf if xyfzcd siv
f nf;/
AswOœd mOf rajymif;ygb;l /
owœt
d pOf aumif;ygb/d
jrwfrcd ifa'gif;?
a'gif;Munfpif

rdcif rkqdk;r
vifa,mufsm;udk oHa,mZOfrxm;
trSew
f &m;udk tm;ud;k &Smol
om;orD;awGe@J rywfouf
tem*wfe@J qufqcH sio
f l
ajr;uav;awGukd awG@csipf w
d x
f ed ;f
jidr;f csr;f a&;udk ar#mv
f ifah eol? ?
Munfarmifoef;

qHrk w
S f
tar
aeaumif;yg&ŒJ vm; tar
jcHeyH gwf 54 udk

oef;0if;vIid f

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

tarhvufe@J ud,
k w
f idk zf iG rfh ,hw
f ae@ukd
wuUov
kd &f yd o
f mu opPmawmfrysuf
apmifah eqJyg tar ²²² ?
&Sdygw,ftar
u|efawmfo
h il ,fcsif;awGvnf; &Syd gao;w,f
olw@kd vnf; aeaumif;=uyg&hJ
wcsKdŒuawmh
Edik if o
H m;ajymif;vJc,
H &l if;
jrefrmjynfukd cspaf e=uwke;f yJ tar
Zmwdajrudk tvnftywfjyefwikd ;f
‘t&iftwdik ;f yJaemf’ vd@k
0wfauswef;ausEw
_ q
f uf
aps;0,frysu=f uygb;l
wcsKdŒuawmh
'kuo
Q nfa,mifaqmif&if;
(olw@k d ta&;twGu)f 'd@k ta&; 'd@k ta&;eJ@
e,l;a,mufuae
tarhvw
G af jrmufa&; }udK;yrf;ae=uowJh ²²²?
tarhygwDvnf; &Sdygao;w,f tar
wcsKŒd u rJq,
G w
f ek ;f rSm wcsKŒd u rJray;zd@k ajym
ygwzD suo
f rd ;f cdik ;f umrS arG;ae@yv
JG yk ef @J
a=unmcsurf xkww
f mhwmuvGJ&if
t&ifvkd crf;crf;em;em;ygyJ tar
&efuek u
f awmh csLcsm&Smw,f tar
OD;aESmuf,pkd ;D r_ukd ukpm;wke;f attdikf 'f t
D ufpjf zpf
rD;pufarmif;oHawG=um;u ‘pcef;c%vdu
k cf yhJ g’ ac:vd@k ac:

279

280

oef;0if;vIid f

q,fwef;orm;awGu tESyd cf ef;rSmpmusuf
wcsKŒd u xrif;rcsuEf kid af wmh
xrif;&nf0,faomuf&w,f tar ²²² ?
bmyJajymajym tar
&efuek rf mS ausmo
f el @J axmifrLS ;
olw@kd ESpOf ;D avmufawmh
b,forl S tvkyrf rsm;bl;av
tar
tarr&Sw
d ek ;f uGseaf wmfw@kd em*pfukd odomG ;w,f
a&$0ga&mif/ tDvufxa&mepfOya'/ e,fjcm;apmifw
h yf/
a&G;aumufy/JG aejynfawmf
'gawGe@J vnf; &if;ESD;oGm;w,f
tajymif;tvJawGuawmh
trsm;}uD;aygt
h ar&,f
&efuek rf mS arG;cJw
h v
hJ al wGu
Edik if jH cm;om;vkyjf yD; jyefvm
Zmwdukd &G&H mS ovdv
k ekd @J jyef=unfh
rcsad yr,fh rajymomygb;l tar
uGseaf wmhw@kd u edryfh g;csed u
f ;kd ²²²
tar
uGseaf wmfw@kd wdu
k yf rJG mS
c%c%usqkH;ay;ae&wmu
jyuQ'ed pf m&Guaf wGyg tar
a[mwpf&u
G f a[mwpf&u
G ef @J
qkwfjzJypfaevdkuf=uwm

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

tJ'g &uf&mZmawGcsn;f yJqw
kd m
uGseaf wmhw@kd todaemufuscyJh gw,f tar
tar
ajym=unfyh g&ap
u|efawmfar#mv
f ifah ewmuav
'Dru
kd a&pDvnf; [kwcf sirf [
S w
k rf ,f
jidr;f csr;f a&;vnf; ygcsirf yS gr,f
tpnf;ta0;vnf; wufcsirf w
S uf&ygvrd rhf ,f tar
'gayrJh
Edik if o
H m;awG Edik if jH cm;om; jzpfp&mrvdak wmhwahJ e@
'kuo
Q nfawG 'kuo
Q ,fp&mrvdak wmhwahJ e@
ESpaf ,muf&&dS if oH;k zG@J ruGaJ wmhwahJ e@
ynmwwf&if xrif;riwfwhJae@
ta&mifrwlwmudk &efov
l @kd rowfrw
S w
f ahJ e@
tJ'aD e@udkyg tar
u|eaf wmfvo
J mG ;&if tarxlay;yg
tarhtm;eJ@ raerem;}udK;pm;prf;ygrh ,f
u|eaf wmfw@kd tm;vH;k &efuek rf mS jyefq=kH uzd@k av?
urÇmpdk;rif;

ol&aJ umif; tmZmenf
a':atmifqef;pk=unfw?hJ
oltrnfukd &Gwq
f =kd unf±h rkH #e@J
ol@ukd &efjyKvdo
k al wGukd uwkeu
f &ifawGjzpfapovdk
ol@jynfoal wGtwGuaf wmh tm;tifawG opfapolayg?h
ol[m

281

282

oef;0if;vIid f

Adv
k rf if;a&mif&ŒJ jrpf
trsKd;om;acgi;f aqmif
vGwv
f yfa&;rD;±S;l wefaqmif&h J orD;
tmZmenfrsK;d yDyD
rsK;d *k%af qmifonfh trsK;d aumif;orD;ayg?h
ykcH;k ay:usvmwJ0h efwm
&J&ifph mG cH,lxrf;
rsK;d qufopfawGe@J vufurf;
rsK;d cspaf [mif;awGe@J wJt
G wl
awmfveS af &;c&D;=urf;udk
&J&}J uD;v$ix
hf x
l m;wJh r[mvlom;wa,mufayg?h
rw&m;r_awGukdzq
D ef
vSpH yG f usnq
f H csed ;f ajcmufr'_ %fawGukd tHwk
&J&ifrh e_ @J tm%mzDqef&if;
&d;k om;r_e@J acgi;f aqmif/ Om%fynmeJ@ E_id ;f csihf
cdik u
f snrf e_ @J c&D;quf/ jird ;f csr;f a&;twGuf OD;wnf
wd;k wufa&;twGu&f nfne$ ;f jyD; em,u*k%ef @J xrkH e$ ;f wJo
h jl zpfw,f?
tm%m&Siftqufqufu
ppfwyf}uD;wckv;kH tvJo
$ ;kH pm;jyk
acwftysuyf sujf yKe;f vnf; *±krjyKyJ
trsK;d rsK;d ESyd pf uf/ t}udr+f udrv
f n
S yhf wf
tvDvD &ufpuf/ tcgcg owfjzwf
tzefzefx;kd ESuf ordik ;f wGiaf tmif aumufusp&f ufpufjyD;
“vrif;udk acG;a[mifwZhJ mwf”udk ucJah yr,fh
oluawmh
ywœjrm;pdeaf usmufvkd &J&aJ wmufco
hJ jl zpfw,f?

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

jidr;f csr;f a&; tvHwvlvjl r‡ijhf yD;
urBmt
h jyifzufxad wmif v$ix
hf cl o
hJ jl zpfw,f?
ol@ordik ;f arS;rSed jf yD;
ol@b0 ao;odraf tmif
tm%m&Sif Om%fwrd w
f rd ef @J
avSmiftrd pf H tusO;f cs
aoa=umif;=uH ao;odrf=uayr,fh
ol@*%
k f ol@owœd ol@ordki;f ol@tpGr;f uawmh
vSn;f aeavSatmif;ru urBmt&yf&yfxd ysŒH ES@H vsuyf gy?J
ol[m
jrefrmtm;vH;k ud,
k pf m;jyK
trsK;d orD;rsm;tm;vH;k ud,
fk pf m;jyK
tzdESyd cf t
H m;vH;k ud,
k pf m;jyK
vlom;tm;vH;k ud,
k pf m;jyK
jidr;f csr;f a&;twGuf ud,
k pf m;jyKot
l jzpf
urBmw0Sr;f u av;pm;or_e@J csp=f uw,f?
olr[m
&J&eJ pD iG hf ESi;f qDyef;wyGijhf zpfovdk
jidr;f csr;f a&;twGuf csK;d iSuv
f nf;jzpfw,f?
pdr;f vef;ar$;v$whJ a&=unfcsr;f jr vnf;jzpfovdk
+ydK;jyuf&if&h ifh jynfwef pdew
f yGiv
hf nf;jzpfw,f?
vlom;tm;vH;k &JŒpHjyjyK ouf&±dS yk x
f v
k nf;jzpfovdk
owœ&d ŒJ ud,
k yf mG ;wck vlom;tusK;d jyKolvnf;jzpfw,f?

283

284

oef;0if;vIid f

arwœm&JŒ jy,k*t
f jzpf vlx&k ŒJ tarGwck jzpfovdk
awmfveS fjcif;&JŒ"g;wvuf
avmu&JΠtm;aq;wcGufvnf;jzpfw,f?
ol[m wd@k tm;vH;k &JΠrdcif/ avmuudk tvSqifov
l nf;jzpfw,f?
ol[m tmZmenfwOD;vnf; jzpfovdk
ol&Jaumif;wOD;vnf; jzpfw,f?
ol[m tmZmenfwOD;vnf;jzpfovdk
ol&Jaumif;wOD;vnf;jzpfw,f?
ol&ed fxuf
5²8²2011
ÙÙÙ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

285

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s

International Awards, Honors & Appointments
(1990-2010)
1. Honorary Fellow St. Hugh’s College (Oxford, UK) 1990
2. Thorolf Rafto Human Rights (Norway) 1990
3. Sakharov Freedom of Thought (European Parliamnet) 1991
4. Noble Peace Oslo, Norway 1991
5. Honorary Member International EN (Norwegian Center) 1991
6. Humanities Human Rights Award (USA) 1991
7. Honorary Member International PEN (Candian Center) 1991
8. Marisa Bellisario Price Italy 1992
9. Annual Award of the International Human Rights Law Group
(USA) 1992
10. Honorary President Students’ Union London School of Economics
and Political Science (UK) 1992
11. Honorary Member International PEN (English Center) 1992
12. Honorary Life Member University of London Union (UK) 1992
13. Honorary Professional Fellowship Law and Society Trust (Sri
Lanka) 1992
14. Honorary Doctorate in Political Science Thammasat University
(Thailand) 1992

286

oef;0if;vIid f

15. International Simon Bolivar prize UNESCO 1992
16. Prix Litteraire des Droits de I’Homme Nouveaux Droits de
I’Homme, France 1992
17. Honorary Member World Commissi on on Cul ture and
Development (UNESCO) 1992
18. Member Academie Universelle des Cultures (Paris) 1993
19. Rose Prize arbejderbevaegelsens International Forum/
Internati onal Forum of the Danish Labour Movement,
Copehagen 1993
20. Victor Jara International Human Rights Center for Human Rights
and Constitutional Law, Los Angeles, USA 1993
21. Member of the Advisory Board Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center
for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University 1993
22. Honorary Doctorate of Law University of Toronto (Canada) 1993
23. The Freedom of the City Commune of Giugliano, Italy 1993
24. Bremen Solidarity City of Bremen, Germany 1993
25. Premio Mujer Progresista (Federacion Mujeres Progresistas /
Spanish Federation of Progressive Women, Madrid) 1993
26. Honorary Doctorate Philosophy & Letters, Free University of
Brussels 1994
27. Honorary Adviser Forum of Democratic Leaders in the AsiaPacific 1994
28. The Freedom of the City Aversa, Italy 1995
29. Liberal International Prize for Freedom Britain’s Liberal
Democracy Party, UK 1995
30. Honorary Doctorate of Laws Queen’s University, Canada 1995
31. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding (for
1993) India 1995
32. Gandhi Award Simon Fraser University, Canada 1995
33. Honorary Doctorate of Civil Law University of Oxford 1995
34. IRC Freedom Award International Rescue Committee 1995
35. Companion of the Order of Australia 1996

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

287

36. Liberal International Prize (UK) 1996
37. Asia Human Rights of Law (Japan) 1996
38. W. Averell Harrimen Democracy Award National Democratic
Institute U.S.A 1996
39. Rajiv Shmirti Parashka [ Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Award] India
1996
40. Empty Chair Award Women of the Year Lunch, London, UK
1996
41. Honorary Doctorate of Law Charles University in Prague, Czech
Republic 1997
42. Honorary Doctorate of Letters Sydney University of Technology,
Australia 1997
43. Honorary Doctorate of Letters California Chapman University,
U.S.A 1997
44. Honorary Doctorate of Law Natal University, South Africa 1997
45. Honorary Doctorate of Law America University, Washington
D.C, U.S.A 1997
46. Distinguished Alumni Award Central University/ Delhi University
1997
47. Honorary Citizenship of Rome (Italy) (May 23, 1997)
48. Honorary Doctorate of Letters Glasgow University (UK) 1997
49. Pearl S. Buck Woman’s Award Pearl S. Buck Foundation (USA)
1997
50. International Award St. Angela’s Peace and Justice Group,
Waterford (Eire) 1997
51. Profiles in Courage Award Kennedy Society of Denmark 1997
52. Honorary Doctorate Cambridge University (June 1998) 1998
53. Freedom of the City (Oxford, UK) 1998
54. Honorary Doctorate of Laws University of Wales, Cardiff 1998
55. Honorary Doctorate of Laws University of Bristol (UK) 1998
56. Honorary Doctorate of Laws University of Melbourne (Australia)
1998

288

oef;0if;vIid f

57. Honorary degree Universite’ catholique de Louvain, Belgium –
December 1998
58. Honorary Degree University of Bath (UK) – December 1998
59. Honorary Degree Bucknell University – May 1999
60. Freedom Award International Republican Institute, USA
(October 1999) 1999
61. The Freedom of the City of Dublin Award Ireland (November
1999)
62. 2000 CAW Nelson Mandela Human Rights Award Canada
(December 2000) 2000
63. Presidential Medal of Freedom Award U.S.A (December 2000)
2000
64. Collage United Nations Prize 2001 Germany (June 2001) 2001
65. International Social Welfare Prize University of Southern
California School of Social Work (December 8) 2001
66. AI Neuharth Free Spirit Award U.S Foundation, Washington,
USA 2003
67. MTV Humanitarian Award, “Free Your Mind” MTV Europe,
EDINBURGH,UK 2003
68. The 2004 TIME 100, The most influential people in the world
today TIME Magazine 2004
69. Kwangju Human Rights Award May 18 Memory Foundation
from South Korea 2004
70. TIME’s Asia’s Hero 2004 TIME MAGAZINE 2004
71. The Honorary Citizen of Paris France 10/ 12/ 2004
72. Honorary Doctorate in Politics, Philosophy and Economics
Rangsit University, Thailand 13/ 12/ 2004
73. Outstanding Women in Buddhism United Nations Gender and
Religious Department 8/ 03/ 2005
74. Honorary Degree in Political Science Thammasat University,
Thailand 19/ 06/ 2005
75. Freedom of the City Award The City Council of Edinburgh,

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

289

Scotland 16/ 06/ 2005
76. Freedom of Galway City Galway city, Ireland June 2005
77. UNISON Honorary Membership UNISON, Britain’s largest trade
union, June 2005
78. Olof Palme Prize Sweden, February 2006
79. Freedom Award Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, USA
March 2006
80. New Statesmen Magazine Hero New Statesmen Magazine, May
2006
81. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Deshprem Award,
India 2007, March 2007
82. An honorary doctorate (LLD) honoris causa Award from
University of Cape Town, South Africa, December 2007
83. Freedom of Glasgow (the freedom of Scotland’s largest city)
2007
84. Rome for Peace and Humanitarian Action 2007
85. Special Award for Lifetime Achievement in Politics 2007
86. “Abogados de Atocha” international prize from Spain, 22 January
2008
87. Congressional Gold Medal, United States of America, 24 April,
2008
88. Honorary Canadian Citizenship, May 6, 2008
89. The Freedom of the City, June 10, 2008
90. Catalonia International Prize 2008, MOTHERS OF COURAGE
(shard with Dr. Cynthia Maung), November, 2008
91. Honorary Member of the Club of Madrid, November 20, 2008
92. Honorary Council Member, December 20, 2008
93. Trumpet of Conscience Award, January 19, 2009
94. Freedom of the City of Glasgow, March 4, 2009
95. Mahatma Gandhi International Award for Peace and
Reconciliation – MAGI Award, May 22, 2009
96. Democracy and Peace Award of Japanese Diet Member’s League

290

oef;0if;vIid f
Japanese Diet Members’ League in support of Democracy in
Myanmar, Tokyo, Japan (2009, June 19)

97. The Honorary Doctor of Laws (LLD) at Derry’s Millennium Forum,
the University of Ulster in Derry, Ireland, UK on Tuesday, July
7, 2009. (2009, June 24)
98. The Ambassador of Conscience Award the recipient of Amnesty
International’s highest honorary (Irish band U2 is publicly
announcing Aung San Suu Kyi’s award Monday night at a
Dublin concert.) (2009, July 27)
99. Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Award for Democracy instituted. The
Pakistan People’s Party, Islamabad, Pakistan. (2010, June 21)
100. Honorary Individual Membership. Council of Asian Liberals
and Democrats (CALD) (2010, June 29)
101. Queen of Myanmar’s Democracy and Human Rights. Manav
Ekta Parishad, India (2010, November 25)

ÙÙÙ

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

291

trnf&if;OD;oef;0if;jzpfonf? 1958 ck/ Zlvkdiv
f 22 &ufae@wiG f
&efuek +f rdKŒ/ A[ef;+rdKŒe,fY trda':wifat; (uG,v
f eG )f / tzOD;pdex
f eG ;f
(aA'ifvuQ%mq&m) wd@k rS zGm;jrifonfh wOD;wnf;aomom;jzpfonf?
i,fpOfu pmayESihfyef;csD0goemxHI
k ausmif;eH&u
H yfpmapmifw@kd wGif
aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;om;I yef;csDo±kyaf zmfykHrsm; a&;qGcJ o
hJ nf? ausmif;
yef;cs+D ydKifyYJG qkt}udr}f udr&f &Scd o
hJ nf? ausmif;aepOfuyif ausmif;pm
=unfw
h u
kd rf LS ;tjzpf t}udr}f udraf qmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf?
xd@k aemuf 10 wef;atmifjrifjyD;aemuf 1980 jynfEh pS w
f iG f wyfr
awmf (avwyf) od@k 0ifa&mufI ppfrx
_ rf;&Gucf o
hJ nf? 1977 ckEpS /f Ed0k if
bmvxkwf ‘oifb
h 0’ r*~Zif;yg “tem*wftmumovGe;f yHs,mOf”
odyaH` qmif;yg;jzifh pmaye,fo@kd pwif0ifa&mufco
hJ nf? 1982 wGif wyfr
awmf (avwyf) rS Ekwx
f u
G cf o
hJ nf? 1992 ckEpS f xkwaf 0cJah om ‘ausmuf
rsu&f wemvufp’JG pmtkyo
f nf yxrqH;k vH;k csi;f pmtkyfjzpfjyD; quf
vufI ‘aer0ifao;onfb
h &k ifrsm;’(y/ 'kw)JG / ‘vlwikd ;f twGuf okw
aA'if’/ ‘±kyw
f rk aS jymaom jrefrmhordik ;f 0ify*k Kd~ vfx;l rsm;’/ ‘20 &mpk jref
rmhordik ;f udak jymjyaeaomae@&ufrsm;’/ ‘tESpcf sKyfjrefrmhordik ;f tbd
"mef’ (y/ 'kw)JG / ‘20 &mpk tausm=f um;qH;k tm&Sacgif;aqmifrsm;’/
‘toH;k cs±yl o#w&œ ynm’/ ‘tausmaf Z,spmqdak wmfrsm;’/ ‘jrefrmh o
rdik ;f Y arhaysmufIr&aom trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif}u;D Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;’/
‘O=oatmfjrnf uke;f abmifwnf’/ ‘e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &; jidr;f csr;f a&;zcif
}uD; rsK;d csppf mqdak wmf}uD; ocifu,
kd af wmfri_d ;f ’/‘eDaygeef;usb&k if’/ ‘'kwd

292

oef;0if;vIid f

,ajrmuf t,fvZD bufb&k ifr’/ ‘*syef{u&mZfb&k if’/ ‘Edik if OhH ao#mif
rif;{u&mZfrsm;’/ ‘Edik if aH wmfvyk =f uHrw
_ &m;cH *VKefO;D apm. aemufq;kH
ae@rsm;’ ponfw@kd a&;om;xkwaf 0cJo
h nf? od@k aomf ‘0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ekb0
ESihf pmayrSww
f rf;’/ ‘wd@k zcif Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; bmrSmcJo
h vJ’/ ‘ol
wd@k jrifaom Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;’/ ‘±ke;f xGucf &hJ aom Armjynf’/ ‘a'guf
wmbarmf. Edik if aH &;aqmif&u
G cf surf sm;’/ ‘19 &mpk jrefrmhordik ;f udk
ajymjyaeaomae@&ufrsm;’/ ‘teufazmf&cufaom ae@pOfo;kH jrefrm
a0g[m&rsm;tbd"ge’f / ‘Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;. b0ESihf "gwyf rkH w
S w
f rf;’/
‘jrefrmhordik ;f 0ifpmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;’/ ‘jrefrmhordik ;f wauG@rS txifu&
Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;’ ponfph mtkyrf sm;onf ,ae@widk f rxkwaf 0&
ao;ay?
,cifu okwpG,pf kH r*~Zif;wGif yifwikd af qmif;yg;&Sit
f jzpf 1986
rS 1996 ckEpS t
f xd (10) ESpw
f ikd w
f ikd af &;om;cJo
h nf? xd@k jyif ‘jrefrmhaps;
uGupf ;D yGm;a&;*sme,f’ ESifh ‘jr&dyn
f Kd ’ *sme,fw@kd wiG f yxrqH;k wm0efcH
xkwaf 0cJjh yD; ,if;*sme,fY t,f'w
D mcsKyftjzpf aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf? oef;
0if;v_id u
f avmiftrnftjyif ‘odycH` spo
f ’l / ‘a&$jG ynfatmif’/ ‘pdev
f id_ f
wif’/ ‘ae&JprG ;f ’/ ‘jynf[ed ;f atmif’/ ‘oef;a&$Eikd ’f ponfh uavmifuJG
rsm;jzifh ydawmufyiG o
hf pf/ jrefrmopf/ EG,ef /D pHy,fjzL/ cs,&f /D rkc/ ESv;kH tdr/f
ayzl;v$mr*~Zif;rsm;Y a&;om;cJo
h nf? ,cktcg rd;k rc/ acwf+ydKif/ opPm/
rd;k }udK;/ csKd;vif;jym ponft
h ifwmeufbavmufrsm;Y ordik f;qdki&f m
aqmif;yg;rsm;ESihf pmayqdik &f maqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;vsu&f o
dS nf?
2000jynfEh pS /f arvwGif etzppftpd;k &u “±kyw
f rk aS jymaom jref
rmhordik ;f 0if yk*Kd~ vfx;l rsm;” pmtkyu
f t
kd a=umif;jyKI yk'rf 17§20 jzifh
axmif'%f 7 ESpcf srw
S cf &hJ m tif;pde/f om,m0wDaxmifrsm;Y &ufaygi;f
2387 &uf (6 ESpf ESihf 8 v) wdwu
d scjH yD;aemuf 2007 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D
3 &ufae@wGif om,m0wDaxmifrS jyefvnfvw
G af jrmufvmcJo
h nf?
vGwaf jrmufcjhJ yD;aemuf ordik ;f qdik &f mpmayrsm;qufvufa&;om;cJ&h m
ordik f;qdik f&mpmtkyf pkpkaygif; (15) tkyf ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;cH&jyD;

'Dru
kd a&pDrc
d ifBuD; a':atmifqef;pkMunf

293

etztppftpd;k &u ‚if;tm; jyefvnfzrf;qD;&efppD Ofaeonfukd }udKwif
od&cdS o
hJ jzifh 2010 jynfEh pS /f Zlvikd v
f 6 &ufae@wiG f xdik ;f Edik if o
H @kd acwœ
wdr;f a&SmifvmcJo
h nf? ,cktcg wwd,Edkiif YH tajccsaexdik f&ef jyifqif
vsu&f +dS yD;/ SAW txufwef;ausmif;Y ausmif;q&mtjzpf jrefrmbmom
ESihf orkid ;f bmom&yfrsm;yd@k cs&if; ordik ;f qdik &f mpmay jyKpkvsu&f o
dS nf?
ÙÙÙ

qufoG,f&efvdyfpm
Ph
: (66) 897 -033 -128
Email : jamesparr007@gmail.com

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful