Reactors in power system

M.G.Morshad / ACM ( Elect.)
Transformer Mtce. Division / TS II

References
1. REPORT

- SYSTEM PLANNING & PROJECT APPRAISAL DIVISION – CEA

2. LOAD GENERATION BALANCE REPORT 2010-11 – CEA 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY - CEA 4. JOURNAL - TECH NEWS – AREVA 5. HV SHUNT REACTOR SECRETS FOR PROTECTION ENGINEERS Zoran Gajić , Birger Hillström, Fahrudin Mekić ABB Sweden, Västerås, Sweden 6. IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Reactors 7. APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL RELAYS FOR HV SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION – Z. Gajić, B. Hillstrőm, M. Kockott , ABB Automation Technologies ,Sweden 8. TRANSIENTS DUE TO SWITCHING OF 400 KV SHUNT REACTOR Ivo Uglešić, Sandra Hutter University of Zagreb Miroslav Krepela Siemens Božidar Filipović- Grčić Croatian National Electricity Franc Jakl University of Maribor 9. IS 5553 ( Part 2) 1990 10. IS 2026 ( Part 1 & 3) 11. Installation & commissioning of shunt reactor - BHEL

Reactors in power system
REACTORS

Series
REACTOR

Shunt
REACTOR

PURPOSE To reduce short circuit current

PURPOSE To reduce over voltage AREA OF APPLICATION Bus , Lines, Tertiary winging of ICT

AREA OF APPLICATION Tie Lines

Z Z
Acts as inductance and opposes the flow of short circuit current.

Acts as inductive load and reduce high voltage by absorbing MVAR.

5 KV & above) •Star connected with neutral grounding • Range 30 to 300 MVAR •Connected at the terminals of transmission line Air Core Core less Gapped Core Switch on / off type Permanently connected type with thyristor controlled .5 KV) • Delta connected • Range below 30 MVAR •Connected at the tertiary winding of transformer Oil immersed Type (system voltage 72.Classification of shunt reactors Shunt Reactors Dry Type (system voltage Below 72.

Back ground for installing shunt reactor .

Reason for high grid voltage in Southern grid during off peak period – As per CEA report Installed Capacity 44220 MW Peak Load demand 34224 MW Grid voltage lower than rated (Max 0.95PU or 399 KV) Availability 28450 MW Grid voltage higher than rated (Max 1.05PU or 441KV) Off Peak Load demand 13000 MW 11Hrs 15Hrs 22 Hrs 03 Hrs .

• Increase in line loss Present practice to overcome overvoltage situation • Keeping all 64 Nos Reactors (56 Nos Line &8 Nos Bus) are in service during off peak period • Switching off all lightly loaded lines .Effect of high grid voltage High over voltage cause – • Difficulty in regulating load flow through HVDC line • Difficulty in synchronization inter grid transmission line • instability in generator due to operation of generator in under excitation zone near the pole slip region.

Neyveli. the results indicate that when lightly loaded transmission lines are out of service.Extract of PGCIL report (2006) • With existing reactors and opening of the lines as per existing practice . the voltages are higher going up to 431 kV. • With 10 more reactors (making it 25 ). Vijayawada. the study reports indicate high voltage profile throughout the grid (the voltage ranges between 416 kV and 445 kV). Raichur TPS are not able to hold their voltages as these are crossing reactive power absorption limit. . As such these stations may also be considered for installation of bus reactors. • Addition of 15 numbers of reactors of 63 MVAR each is not adequate to control the voltages under acceptable limits even with some of the transmission lines switched off. • Therefore. it is concluded that provision of large number of reactors are required to control the high voltages situation in the grid. • Even large generating stations like Ramagundam. the voltages at various buses are generally controlled and are less than 420 kV and with the above lines in.

99 PU Total reactive power Sr = Scc{ ( V2 – V1)/V1} 1763 MVAR Standard capacity About 27 numbers of 63 MVAR shunt Nos of reactor required in southern grid to Sr / Sst 27 Nos reactor are required absorb reactive power for bringing down grid voltage from 441 KV to 416 KV during off peak period Sst 63 MVAR .732 X Skv X FkA 29097 MVA V1 = 441 KV or (441/420) PU V2 = 416 KV or (416/420)PU 1.05 PU 0.Calculation of grid reactive power Formula System Voltage Fault Current level Short Ckt MVA Max Bus voltage Acceptable Bus voltage Skv FkA Data 420 KV 40 KA Scc= 1.

Recommended location for additional 25 Nos reactors .

3. Reduction of switching over voltage due to initial charging of lines. Being a capital item.Advantages of installing reactor Technical 1. . Commercial 1. 4. Prevention of self excitation on generator on leading PF load. Reduction of over voltage on sound phases during a line to ground fault. investment on this equipment will be adjusted in the fixed cost portion of tariff so that entire amount ( capital + interest ) will return within the operating period of the reactors. Limited voltage rise on transmission lines at the time of light loads or after load shedding 2.

Basic operating principle .

Initial charging current (i) produces pulsating flux in the coil Induced voltage (e) = L (di / dt) is produced in opposite direction of the coil due to pulsating flux As a result of two opposite voltages current equal to (V-e) / R passes through the coil Initial charging current. 3. KW = Current X system voltage X Cos Φ cu rre nt (I) . 2. (e) Operating current (V-e) / R. Shunt Reactor acts as inductive load when it is connected to Bus/Line and draws current for active & reactive load. KVAR = Current X system voltage X SinΦ Active current (I x Cos Φ ) to active load (KW) System Voltage Reactive current (I x SinΦ ) to reactive load (KVAR) Op e Φ ra tin g The active portion of current causes I2R loss and the power loss due to heating is known as active power (KW). (V) Induced Voltage.Basic operating principle 1. The reactive portion of current creates pulsating flux in the core and the power required for this purpose is known as reactive power (KVAR). System Voltage.

Current drawn by each phase = (System voltage – Induced voltage) (Resistance per phase winding) 2. I=U/Z). no current flows through the neutral.Operating function of shunt reactors Ir Iy Ib 1. Typical total core & copper loss (KW)= rating of reactor (MVAR) x 0. For balance three phase current (Ir + Iy + Ib = 0).Only during fault when phase current becomes un balance (Ir + Iy + Ib ≠ 0). Induced voltage (e) depends upon the construction and magnetization characteristic of the core 3. During operation heat is produced as a result of copper loss ( due top I2R) and core Loss ( due to Hysteresis and eddy current) 7. 4.e. current less than 1 PU passes through the neutral. Therefore the individual phase current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage (i.2% 8.9). Typical core loss & copper loss = 75% & 25% of total loss respectively . It is due to the fact that positive sequence reactance(X1) is more or less equal to zero sequence reactance (x0) in five limbs core configuration (Normally X1/Xo = 0. Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. 6. 5.

Induced voltage and Magnetizing characteristic of the core .

• As higher concentration of pulsating flux creates higher induced voltage (e) in the coil. Air core • Rating below 30 MVAR • Directly connected to tertiary winding of transformer .5KV ) Reactor and air core is used for lower voltage (< 72. iron core is used for higher voltage (> 72.5KV ) Reactor Reactor . gapped core • Rating 30 to 300 MVAR • Directly connected to bus / transmission line Reactor .Characteristics of the induced voltage The magnitude of the inductive voltage (e) developed in the reactor coil due to pulsating flux depends upon 1.5 KV and above • Star connected with solid / reactor grounding • Oil cooled . Magnetization characteristic of the core ( Ability of the core to produce flux) 1.72.5 KV • Delta connected • Air cooled . Flux density in the core ( Concentration of flux in the core ) 2.Below 72. Flux density in the core • The coil provided with iron core always have higher flux concentration than the coil without core (Air core).

2. •In such condition impedance of the coil becomes lower with respect to the applied voltage and higher current drawn by the winding causing high I2R loss ( heat generation) or earth fault. Magnetization characteristic V–I linearity range •The flux produced by the core remains proportional to the current passes through the coil till the core gets saturated. •Because of this magnetic saturation of the core. •After saturation of core it can not produce flux further with the increase of current. reactor coil can not develop inductive voltage (e) further. .

400KV.1250 Amps OIP HV bushings (3 Nos) 145 KV . 8. 6. . 9. 2. 7. Pressure relief valve and sudden pressure valve for protection Floor mounted marshalling box for providing WTI. 4.1250 amps neutral bushing (1No) Air cell type conservator tank with silica gel breather Radiator banks (8 Nos) with ONAN type cooling Buchholtz relay. 3.Components of Reactor WTI OTI 1.OTI and required control circuit for protection Provision of line side and neutral side CT terminals in each phase Two numbers treated earth pit for earthing neutral through steel flat Two number earth grid terminals for earthing reactor tank and other metal structure. 5.

Components of reactor Five limbed core construction is adopted to achieve high zero sequence impedance. In addition to the three gapped core limbs with windings. The two unwound side limbs help in achieving zero sequence impedance approximately equal to the positive sequence impedance . there are two continuous outer return limbs.

Gapped core construction is preferred for high system voltages over coreless construction due to the high energy density that can be achieved in gapped core construction The core sections between consecutive air gaps are moulded in epoxy resin to prevent movement between individual laminations. The radial laminations prevent fringing flux from entering flat surfaces of core steel which would result in eddy current overheating and hot spots. or rubbing between individual parts. The core segments are of radial laminated configuration. The spacers forming the air gaps are blocks of ceramics with a high modules of elasticity and the whole stacking of core modules is cemented together during the assembly to form a solid column without possibility of rocking . .

For lower voltage classes a continuous disc winding or a multi layer helical winding are used.E Carlite insulating laminated core Interleaved disc winding has been used for rated voltages 220 KV and above.3.Grading of core according to loss Loss in Watt / Kg 1. Flux Density 1.57 ZDKH 23 M0H 27 M0H M4 M5 M6 Hi-B grade CRGO Steel Strip Thickness 0.74 0.5 mm .97 0. This type of winding configuration provides better impulse voltage distribution.6 Tesla Frequency 50 Hz.11 0. . Gray colour .89 0.0.66 0.

Vibration in reactor 1. Because of this double frequency pulsating force in the core sections. To reduce the vibration within the limit ( 200 micron) following measures are taken during construction – 1. high vibration and noise is observed in reactor during operation. 3. . Air gap are filled with ceramic materials 2. This force pulsates at double frequency (2 X 50 Hz = 100 Hz) due to sinusoidal flux of frequency 50 Hz. 2. a magnetic attraction force (F=107xB2)/8π N / m2) approximately equal to (107x1.62)/8π N/m2 or 104 Ton / m2 is produced in the air gap between the core sections. As a result of magnetization of core.

Tank earthing – To avoid heating of tank due to circulation of eddy current as result of voltage build up on tank due to continuous passing of fractional portion of main flux through it. the potential of the tank is made zero by connecting with earth grid.Earthing of Reactor To earthing grid LA LA LA To earthing grid Treated earth pit 1. . Neutral earthing – To provide return path for the fault / unbalance current. entire steel structure is grounded through earth grid. the neutral of the reactor is grounded to two separately treated earth pit 2. 3. Steel structure earthing – To avoid damaging of steel structure from lighting strike.

e. 0.75X120 = 90 KW The loss of 120 KW is converted to heat 50000 Litre of oil absorb the heat and rise the top oil temperature to maximum 45 Deg C 8 nos radiator banks reduces oil temperature to 15 Deg C by ONAN cooling process.e. 0.Cooling of reactor Approximate heat generation during operation of reactor due to core and copper loss = 0.25X120 = 30 KW Core loss due to hysteresis & eddy current is about 75% of total loss i.2% x MVAR rating = 120 KW Copper loss due to I2R loss is about 25% of total loss i. .

Winding resistance (R) – It is the per phase DC resistance of the winding which decides copper loss (I2R).6)} =2800 Ohms 3. Capacity (S) – As reactor is used as inductive load which only absorb reactive power.6 Amps 1. Total loss (core and copper loss) = 110KW 6.17% A KV 000 630 630000KVAR Φ 110KW .92 Amps 2.05 PU (441KV) 69. Because of high zero sequence impedance earth fault current is restricted within 1 PU 4. Impedance / Positive sequence Impedance (X1) – It is the per phase AC resistance of the winding which decides the magnitude of per phase current. the value of X0 lays between 90% and 100% of positive sequence impedance (X1). Power Factor – CosΦ = 110 / 63000 = 0. Measured winding resistance per phase = ---------------Ohms 5.45 MVAR 90. For five limbs core.732X86.9 X 2800 =2520 Ohms. Therefore X0 = 0. The value of X0 depends on the construction of core. Zero sequence Impedance (X0) – It is the AC resistance of the neutral path which decides the magnitude of earth fault current through neutral. Rated Voltage Rated Capacity Current ( MVARx100)/ (1.732xKV) 1 PU ( 420 KV) 63 MVAR 86. X1 = 0.9 . it capacity is given in MVAR . X1 = U / I = {420000/(1. Total loss – It is the total active power consumed by the reactor and converted in to heat.Significance of parameters 1.

Operation .

Position of Bus reactors in ts ii Tie Line to TS II Expn 400KV Bus Reactor II 400KV Extension Bus TS II Expansion Gen (2 X 250MW) Reactor I Power Grid Feeder Tie Line Stage II Gen (4 X 210MW) 400KV Bus Power Grid Feeder Power Grid Feeder ICT Stage I Gen (3 X 210MW) 230KV Bus Mines Feeder State Grid Feeder Tie Line to TS I .

.voltage compensation methods in power system Over excitation to deliver reactive power for increasing terminal voltage Under excitation to absorb reactive power for decreasing terminal voltage Increasing tap to deliver reactive power for increasing bus voltage Switchyard Bus 395 – 415KV Delivers reactive power to boost up voltage C A P Decreasing tap to absorb reactive power for decreasing terminal voltage R E C Absorb reactive power to reduce bus voltage Capacitive loading 105% Grid Voltage (445KV) t ren r Cu Leading MVAR Lagging MVAR 1. Switch on Capacitor 4. Increasing excitation 2. Reduce GT tap 3. SHUNT REACTOR IS TO BE KEPT IN SERVICE AND 2% TO 3% LESS THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT OUT OF SERVICE. Disconnect lines 5. Switch on reactor 4. Reduce Gen load 100% Grid Voltage (420KV) Cur ren t Inductive loading 1. Increase GT tap 3. Reduce excitation 2. Reduce gen load 95% Grid Voltage (380KV) WHENEVER THE BUS VOLTAGE RAISES TO 4%TO 5% MORE THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE.

Behavior of shunt reactor during operation .

Due to unsymmetrical current.5 times of rated current. unsymmetrical current is developed in three phases which persist for approximately 1 sec As a result of unsymmetrical current. DC off set current is produced which decrease slowly because of low loss in reactor and may cause saturation of CT . 3rd harmonic current passes through the neutral that may cause spurious tripping on earth fault.Switching on of shunt reactor Typical inrush current 3 to 5. Due to closing of breaker poles in three phases at different point of cycle. Closing point of BRK for Highest inrush current . N R Y B Closing point of BRK for Lowest inrush current .

waveform of inrush current with dc off set current during switching in DC Off set current Wave form of 3rd harmonic current through neutral during Switching in .

Typical problem during switching in One of the principal difficulties with shunt reactor protection scheme is false tripping during reactor energizing. residual flux in the CT core can increase or decrease. depending on the moment of switching. It also happens randomly and not with every reactor switching attempt Most of the time. which lose the correct information about the primary current and therefore cause false operation of protective relays. During switching in of shunt reactor relatively high and long lasting dc current component appears in one or more phases. remnant) flux. This false tripping typically occurs within some hundreds of millisecond or even 1 to 2 seconds after closing of circuit breaker. it trips on Restricted Ground Fault protection / Differential Protection / Ground fault protection during switching in Cause for tripping during switching in  It should be noted that HV shunt reactors are typically switched in and out at least once per day or even more often depending on the power system loading patterns. This current waveform moves the operating point of CT magnetic core on the hysteresis curve in one direction and when the dc component diminish it leaves the main CT with certain level of residual (i. Therefore when next switching attempt comes. Thus this mechanism will sooner or later cause CT saturation during reactor switch in operation. During normal operation reactor current is always around 1pu and therefore of a relatively low magnitude.e. This CT saturation then causes problems for protective relays. which is never big enough to move the operating point towards the origin.     .

. Frequent transients overvoltage due to switching off operation always have the impact on the dielectric life of reactor and breakers.Switching off During switching off operation of reactor high transient over voltage is developed due to breaking of inductive current. This switching transients are inversely proportional to the shunt reactor rated power Typical over voltage in 400 KV reactors * ( Sav – Steepness of voltage) Switching transients overvoltage can be reduced considerably by installing surge reactor and control switching operation i.e switching off during zero crossing.

Electrical faults in shunt reactors .

Faults in shunt reactor Internal fault Phase to ground fault at line side External fault Phase to ground fault Phase to ground fault at neutral side Phase to phase short circuit fault Inter turn short circuit fault Over load due to over voltage and harmonics .

I=U/Z). Because of unbalance phase current . During external fault voltage of the faulty phase becomes lower than other phases and a result of that unbalance is created in the phase current.out side the reactor Un balance in phase current N Zero seq current (<1 PU) R Y B •Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. current less than 1 PU passes through the neutral.Phase to earth fault . Unbalance in phase current due to external earth fault • Low zero sequence current through neutral due to unbalance in the phase current .e. Therefore the individual phase current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage (i. zero seq.

Short circuit current flow through the line side faulty phase and causes unbalance in the phase current 2.at the line side Un balance in phase current N R Y B Zero seq current 1.Phase to earth fault . Zero sequence current typically 1 PU flow through the neutral due to unbalance phase current .

Phase to earth fault – at the neutral side N R Y B Rated current in the line side Rated current passes through the line side phase High current passes through neutral side due to transformer action .

In such condition it is possible to detect turn to turn fault with the help of sensitive directional zero seq relay connected on the HV side of the reactor. Short circuit between some number of turns will cause the decrease of the winding impedance only in the faulty phase and corresponding small raise of the shunt reactor neutral point current.Turn to turn short Shunt reactor winding impedance is approximately proportional to the square of the number of active turns. . Sufficient unbalance voltage is produced only when number of turn-to-turn short is high. Currents during turn-to-turn fault are of the small magnitude and they will not produce any sufficient unbalance voltage.

protection for this fault is not phase short recommended.Summary – protection CAUSES EFFECTS RESULTS IN PROTECTION ACTUATES Switching ON •Zero sequence 3rd •Restricted Earth fault with time delay Unsymmetrical harmonic current through the neutral inrush current •Diff protection •Saturation of CT due to slow decaying of DC offset current Transient over High voltage stress on No protection is voltage the dielectric of the recommended for this reactor & circuit purpose. breaker. Lower than rated current through the faulty phase •Unbalance in three •Line side residual phase line current current protection •Low zero sequence •Differential protection current ( 1PU) passes through the neutral •Line side residual current protection • line side over current protection •Differential protection Switching OFF External phase to ground fault Internal High current at Unbalance in three phase to line side in the phase line current ground faulty phase •Low zero sequence fault at line current ( 1PU) side passes through the neutral Internal High current at •Rated current at line •Neutral side over phase to line neutral side phases current protection ground side •High current at •Differential protection fault at neutral side neutral side Internal As the chance of this fault is very remote due constructional Phase to feature of the reactor . circuit Inter turn fault Low magnitude voltage unbalance Small rise in neutral No protection is side current recommended since the magnitude of fault .

Electrical Protection& relay scheme .

( 50. a sensitive differential protection not chosen. inter turn faults and over voltage or over load. BACK-UP PROTECTION A variety of relays are available a) Over current & earth fault protection. 51. It can be of high impedance type or of a sensitive current stabilized type. High impedance differential protection relays require an equal CT turns ratio on the phase and neutral side. b) Temperature monitors for oil & winding provide good over load protection. earth faults. this is treated as main-1 protection for reactor. 67N – any combination of these) b. LINE PROTECTION – I. and as it is shunt connected. 50N. which are excellent for detecting internal faults. Under impedance / distance ( z<)(21r). for some reason. REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION It is widely used as instantaneous protection for short circuit faults with in the differential zone. Neutral displacement protection (un>) RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION If. LINE PROTECTION – II . Sensitivity is 5% of nominal reactor CT current. a restricted earth fault protection can be utilized. PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON REACTOR a) Oil immersed reactor usually have a gas detector and oil surge detector (Buchholz alarm & trip devices). c) Pressure relief device is provided to safe guard the reactor from high pressures. 67. 51N. The reactor forms certain impedance for rated frequency. as over load may be caused by over voltage or harmonics in voltage and current. c.Reactor protection PURPOSE OF SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION The purpose of the protection relaying is to disconnect the reactor and limit damage in case of internal short circuits.

60% of Reactor Impedance.3 x Rated current .CBIP Guidelines on shunt reactor Protection Reactor Differential protection I) Shall be Triple Pole Type. ii) Shall be single step Polarized ‘MHO’ or Impedance Distance relay suitable for Measuring Phase to Ground and Phase to Phase to faults. iii) Shall grounds a Characteristic angle between 60-80 deg.2 to 2. Time setting . iv) Have an operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting. vi) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type. vi) Connection of restricted earth fault protection on the neutral side shall be from residually connected Bushing CTs or from the ground side CT. iv) Shall have adjustable definite time delay with setting range of 0. Time setting . iv) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in case of high impedance type. Reactor REF Protection. Reactor Backup Protection (Impedance type) I) Shall be Triple pole type. Over Current relay with adjustable current and Time. v) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type. vi) Typical setting : Reach . v) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in case of high impedance type. iii) Typical settings of o/c relays are: Current Setting. iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency.1. ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency.1 sec OR Reactor Backup Protection (Definite Time O/L & E/F). v) Shall have a suitable range for covering 60% of Reactor impedance.0 sec. ii) Shall be connected for 2 O/C and 1 E/F connection and shall be non-directional with reset ratio and low Transient Overreach. i) Shall be single stage Definite Time 3 Pole. ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current.1 sec . I) shall be single Pole.

Protection of bus reactor for double bus & transfer bus scheme Bus I Bus II Transfer bus R E A C T O R I 51N 21 87BB1 87BB2 87U R E A C T O R II 51N 21 87BB1 87BB2 87U .

1. Class: PS 3. Ratio: 200/1A 2. Differential protection Purpose :Internal / external phase to ground fault. Magnetizing current: 40 mA 5. Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms . U1 1s1 V1 1s1 1s2 W1 1s1 1s2 N Line side CT 1 1s2 DP 87 Neutral side CT 1 1s1 1s2 U2 V2 1s1 1s2 W2 1s1 1s2 CT Specification 1. Knee point voltage: 200V 4.

.Typical Relay connection for Differential protection Type of relay : High impedance differential relay Setting : operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting.

( Unbalance phase current) N U1 V1 W1 1s1 1s2 1s1 1s2 1s1 1s2 Instantaneous Residual over Current Relay (50N) Or AC Time residual Over Current relay (51N) CT Specification 1. Residual earth fault protection Assigned Protection 1. Magnetizing current: 40 mA 5.1s. Internal phase to ground fault at line side . •Use 2nd harmonic blocking.2. Knee point voltage: 200V 4. External phase to ground fault. Circuit breaker pole discrepancy. Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms U2 V2 W2 Typical relay setting •Set low set to 20% with time delay in between0. .6s and 1s or even longer. •Set high set to 175% with time delay of 0.( Unbalance phase current) 2. Class: PS 3. Ratio: 200/1A 2.( Unbalance phase current) 3.

Back up impedance protection Assigned Protection Internal phase to ground fault at line side N U1 V1 W1 1s1 1s2 1s1 1s2 1s1 1s2 21R – 3Ph. Ratio: 200/1A 2.4. Class: PS 3. . Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms U2 V2 W2 Typical relay setting •Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.1s. Magnetizing current: 40 mA 5. Knee point voltage: 200V 4. REACTOR BACKUP IMPEDANCE RELAY OF SUITABLY SHAPED CHARECRESTICS EITHER SINGLE / DOUBLE ZONE TYPE CT Specification 1. •Set high set to 250% with time delay of 0.6s and 1s.

Typical Relay connection for back up impedance protection .

5. •Set high set to 200% with time delay of 0.1s. .6s and 1s. Line protection main & backup Assigned Protection Internal phase to ground fault at Neutral side N U1 V1 W1 Line Side 1s1 500/1A 1s2 1000/1A 1s3 2000/1A 1s4 1s1 500/1A 1s2 1000/1A 1s3 2000/1A 1s4 1s1 500/1A 1s2 1000/1A 1s3 2000/1A 1s4 Instantaneous Over Current Relay (50) Or AC time over current relay (51) Over current protection U2 V2 W2 Neutral Side Typical relay setting •Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.

Electrical Test on reactor .

4.Electrical test as per IS 5553 Routine Test ( To confirm the operating criteria) 1. 2. 3. FRA test DGA test before and after electrical test Jacking test on reactor tank Vacuum test on reactor tank Oil leak test Snap back test on HV bushing . 4. 3. 6. 2. Measurement of WR Measurement of IR & PI Measurement of impedance by bridge methods Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and ambient temperature Isolation test Type Test ( To confirm the design criteria) 1. Separate source voltage withstand test at 230 KV for one minute Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication at 364 KV AC (1. 5.5/√3 PU ) for 30 minutes during which the PD level shall not exceed 500pc Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand test at 1300 KVp on line terminal Switching impulse voltage withstand test at 1050 KVp on line terminal Special Test ( To confirm design and operating criteria ) 1. 4. 5. 4. 5. 3. Temperature rise test along with DGA before and after test Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal Measurement of zero sequence reactance Measurement of acoustic noise level Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank Dielectric Test ( To confirm the dielectric strength of the insulation) 1. 2. 6. 2. 3.

Only at the stable value of current (I). Applied current must not be higher than 15% of the rated current % error in measurement increases with increases of applied current due to increases in I2R loss at higher current. 3. The measurement also shows whether the winding joints are in order and the windings are correctly connected. and all the measured value must be equal. 4. N R Y B Voltage lead Current lead Resistance measuring Kit Measuring methods 1. Value to be measured between (R – N) .To measure DC resistance per phase of coil for calculating I2R loss in the coil. . and (B-N). which in turns decides the temperature rise. corresponding voltage (V) value is taken for measuring the value of resistance ( R = V/I). 2. (Y-N).Measurement of WR Purpose .

5 80 Deg C 30 MΩ 19 MΩ 60 MΩ 38 MΩ 75 MΩ 47 MΩ 90 MΩ 57MΩ .To ascertain minimum insulation strength (IR Value) and dryness level (PI Value) of the winding required to charge the reactor. N R Y B 5 KV IR measuring Kit (Megger) Procedure – Measure IR and PI value between (R-E).(B-E) and (R+Y+B) – (Tank + E) with 5 KV Megger and confirm the minimum IR and PI value as per the table given below. Minimum Below 6.6 .65 40 Deg C 121 MΩ 242 MΩ 303 MΩ 363 MΩ K = 2.6 70 Deg C K = 10.(Y-E).6 KV 6.00 30 Deg C 200 MΩ 400 MΩ 22 – 33 KV Above 66 KV 500 MΩ 600 MΩ K = 1.Measurement of IR Purpose .20 60 Deg C 47 MΩ 95MΩ 119 MΩ 142 MΩ K = 6.60 50 Deg C 77 MΩ 153 MΩ 192 MΩ 230MΩ K = 4.11KV IR value K = 1.

The measured IR value shall be minimum 1000 kohms ( 1 M Ohms) 5.To ascertain that the reactor core is insulated from the tank and core frame. .Connect the tank with earth 3. CL – connected to core lamination CC – Connected to core clamp G – Connected to tank ( Earth ) G CC CL Core clamp Core Bolt Core Tank Procedure : 1. Use a Megger and measure IR value between CL and CC + G by applying 3. 2.Disconnect the closing link that connects the two terminals CL-G.5 KV for 1 minute 4.Isolation test Purpose . There is no general requirement on the insulation level CC-G .

Measurement of impedance by bridge methods Purpose : To measure the per phase impedance ( AC resistance) of the winding which controls the flow of current through the windings.92 H 2800 Ohms . Impedance (Z) = √[(Resistance) 2 + ( Reactance)2] = 420KV / 86Amps Reactor windings U1 CT Ratio M3 Mutual Inductance CN standard Capacitor C4 Bridge capacitance R4 Bridge Resistance 100/5A 1.0032mH Lx Inductance (H) of (M3/U1)X(C4/CN ) the winding Z Impedance ( Ohms) of the winding 2 π fLx 8.

92 H 2800 Ohms kW kW . Reactors windings U1 M3 CN C4 R4 CT Ratio Mutual Inductance standard Capacitor Bridge capacitance Bridge Resistance 100/5A 1.Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and ambient temperature Purpose: To measure the loss ( core & copper loss) in reactor at rated operating condition.0032mH Inductance (Lx) Impedance (Z) Tan delta ( D) Loss at rated voltage (P) Loss at rated Current (M3/U1)X(C4/CN) 2 π fLX 1 / (ω C4 R4) (U2/Z) x D x 10-3 (Rated Amp / Test Amp)2 x P 8.

5 x BIL. Dielectric test confirms the capability of the insulation to withstand these transient overvoltage which is subjected to the reactor during its service life. To avoid abrupt failure of insulation due to these transients.6 11 15 33 66 1.1 3. switching impulse (due to switching off). Voltage level as per IS 2072 Operating Highest system Power frequency voltage voltage (BIL) voltage KV rms KV rms (KV rms) 0. Lighting impulse (due to lighting).5 24 36 52 72. due to system over voltage).3 6.6 7.415 3. During its operation it is exposed to various transient over voltages like power frequency over voltage (1.6 123 145 170 230 245 300 362 400 420 3 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 185/230 230/275 230/275/325 325/370/395 395/460 460/510 570/360 Switching Impulse (KV Peak ) 750/850 850/950 950/1050 Lighting impulse (KV Peak ) 20/40 40/60 60/75 75/95 95/125 145/170 250 325 450/550 550/650 550/650/750 750/850/950 950/1050 1050/1175 1300/1425 .2 12 17. insulation is designed considering all the aspect.Purpose of dielectric test Normally reactors are operated at the rated operating voltage.

( 400 KV /1. R Y B N KV 50 Hz. AC Generator Method Test voltage from a 50 Hz. .732) or 230 KV rms 60 sec Maximum test voltage Duration of test Measurement Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or of test (Reading / √2) for Peak type voltmeter voltage (KV) Confirmation The test is declared to be successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test. sinusoidal source is applied at neutral terminal through a step up transformer keeping the phase under test open and other two phases & tank grounded.Separate source voltage withstand test at 230 KV for one minute PURPOSE : To verify the operating voltage withstanding capacity of the minor insulation ( paper ) used in line terminals and windings.

sinusoidal source is applied at line terminals through a step up transformer keeping neutral terminal open and tank grounded. AC Generator Method Test voltage from a 100Hz ( to avoid saturation of core). and the PD level is observed not collapseSec within 500pC 30 Minutes 5 Minutes 420KV 364KV 364KV . ( 1.Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication at 364 KV AC (1.5 x 420KV /1.732) or 364 KV rms 30 minutes in steps at various voltages level as shown below Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or (Reading / √2) for Peak type voltmeter (V) Maximum test voltage Duration of test Measurement of test voltage Confirmation The test is declared to be successful if the test voltage does 5 during the test..5/√3 PU ) for 30 minutes during which the PD level shall not exceed 500pc ( Method 2) PURPOSE : To verify the power frequency voltage withstanding capacity of the minor insulation (Paper ) used in line terminals & windings and the maximum level of PD observed during the test. R Y B N KV 50 Hz.

The sequence for applying impulse is .2μs ± 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 μs ± 20% The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand test at 1300 KVp on line terminal PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major insulation ( pressboard) used between the windings. Test voltage Duration of test Confirmation .one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage. and three subsequent impulses at full voltage 1300 KV peak with Front time T1 = 1. N R Y B Impulse Generator + 5 0 0 Ώ Recorder Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line terminals keeping neutral grounded through 500 Ώ resister and other terminals directly grounded. line terminals caused by lighting strike.

Time above 90% Td> 200μs and Time to the first zero passage T0> 500μs ( preferably 1000 μs ) Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.line terminals caused by switching operation.Switching impulse voltage withstand test at 1050 KVp on line terminal PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major insulation (Pressboard) between the winding .one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage. The sequence for applying impulse is . and three subsequent impulses at full voltage Test voltage 1050 KV peak Duration of test Front time Tp> 100μs . N R Y B Impulse Generator + 5 0 0 Ώ Recorder Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line terminals keeping neutral grounded through 500 Ώ resister and other terminals directly grounded. .

Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank . Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal 3. Measurement of zero sequence reactance 4. Measurement of acoustic noise level 5. Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement 6.Type Test 1. Temperature rise test along with DGA before and after test 2.

Temp rise Steady state temp (T1)Hot / top oil temp Time Cold winding resistance at T deg C Hot winding resistance after switched off (to be derived from graph) Ambient temperature after switched off Calculated winding temp Average steady state hot oil temp Hot oil temp after switch off Drop in average oil temp Corrected winding temperature Winding temperature rise R1 R2 Ta Tw = {R2(235+T)R1} – 235 T1 T2 Td = (T1 .T2) Tc = (Tw + Td) (Tc – Ta) .Temperature rise test The purpose of the measurement is to check that the temperature rises of the oil and the windings do not exceed the limits agreed on or specified by the standards.

The sequence for applying impulse is .Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major and minor insulation (Pressboard and paper) used in neutral terminals and side of the winding caused by switching operation.one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage.2μs ± 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 μs ± 20% Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test. . and three subsequent impulses at full voltage Test voltage 550 KV peak Duration of test T1 = 1. R Y B N Impulse Generator + 5 0 0 Ώ Recorder Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at neutral terminals keeping other terminals grounded through 500 Ώ resister and tank directly grounded.

A N R Y B 50 Hz. •At this voltage current through the neutral is measure. AC Generator V A Method •Two phase AC supply is applied between line terminals and neutral through a step up transformer which is fed by a generator. Zero seq impedance . •Applied voltage is increased till rated current flow through the line terminals.Measurement of zero sequence reactance Purpose : To measure the AC resistance (Impedance) of neutral path which controls the earth fault current (zero sequence current) through neutral during internal or external earth fault. (3 x Applied voltage) / Neutral current.

Measurement of acoustic noise level and vibration The purpose of the sound level measurement is to check that the sound level of the reactor meets the specification requirements given in relevant standards . The sound spectrum indicates the magnitude of sound components as a function of frequency. 1 Meter Microphone for picking up noise 2 Meter A sound spectrum analyses is used for measuring sound level. Limit Sound level Vibration level Within 81db Within 200 microns . The sound pressure level is the measured at various points around at a distance (D) of 30 cm for ONAN or 2 m for ONAF cooling system spaced at an interval (X) of 1 meter.

Maximum value of decaying current Minimum value of decaying current Measured value Imax Imin I(t) .Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement Test procedure • • • • Each phase of the reactor is charged one by one with direct current. The saturation curve Flux (Ø) / Flux (Ø) nom. When the maximum test current reached. The decaying current in the circuit is registered by a computer assisted data acquisition system. supply is switched off and the reactor winding is short-circuited simultaneously by DC current breaker. versus I/Inom is then determined using the formula.

008 1. I N R Y B 10 KV Tan Delta Kit + + + Ir + - Ic δ I I = total current drawn by the capacitor formed between winding and tank and the value of capacitance is [(I/2 f V π) x Cos δ ] (pF) Ic = Capacitor charging current Ir = Current flow through the capacitor due to impurities / disintegration of the insulation between winding and tank.0 Deg 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.999 0 .002 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.5 Deg 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.5 Deg 0.5 Deg 90. it is dissipated in heat.006 0.000 (I / 3140) x 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.0 Condition of the insulation Pure capacitor Very good Good Fairly good Acceptable Not acceptable Pure resistance Φ Ir Angle δ 0.0 Deg V Capacitance (pF) [(I/2 f V π) x Cos δ ] (I / 3140) x 1.007 0.Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank Purpose : To ascertain the condition of the solid insulation of the windings. Tan δ = Sin δ =Cos Φ(PF) 0 0.004 0. As this current is in phase with applied voltage.5 Deg 0.5 Deg 0.

Special Test 1. Snap back test on HV bushing . FRA test 2. DGA test before and after electrical test 3. Vacuum test on reactor tank 4. Oil leak test 5.

It has 75 Ω output impedance. Voltage from the generator is applied to the one transformer terminal (one winding end) and response voltage is measured on another terminal (the other winding end). 4 Vrms with frequency range of 50 Hz to 1 MHz. Results of later measurements are compared with the first one in the factory. Usually the first measurement in the factory is used as a fingerprint.Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is carried out to detect displacement (or movement) of the windings. Input impedance is 75 Ω. The software controlled sine wave generator produces output voltage of max.FRA test Purpose. .

The reactor is said to be healthy if no deviation is observed between the results taken in factory and field .FRA test report Impedance value Z in kΩ versus frequency is plotted on the diagram with indication of terminals with applied and response voltage. Or attenuation A (or damping) in dB (20 log (Uoutput / Uinput ) versus frequency is plotted on the diagram with indication of terminals with applied and response voltage.

DGA test
Chemical analysis of gas : The gas analyser loaded with these solution is connected to the top pet cock. Small quantities of gas collected in the gas relay (Bucholtz relay) is allowed to pass through the two solutions.

5 gms of silver nitrate (AgNO3) dissolved in 100 ml distilled water

A week solution of ammonia in water is slowly added to 100 ml of solution 1, until a white curdled precipitate which forms first disappears in the mixture.

Vacuum test on reactor tank

Oil leak test

Snap back test on HV bushing
Purpose : Snap back test was carried out on the above bushing to determine the natural frequency and damping factor. Following equipment were used to conduct this test. 1: Piezoelectric accelerometer B & K 4371. 2: PL 202 Real Time FFT Analyzer

Y

FFT

X

Methods : Two nos. Piezoelectric accelerometer were mounted 90 degree apart at the bottom of the bushing, one in the direction of applied force (X) and other 90 degree to the applied force (Y). A force of 250 Kg was applied at the top and then it was cut-off. The resulting vibrations were recorded on the FFT. The recorded signals were analyzed on FFT Analyzer to determine the natural frequency and damping factor of the bushing.
X direction Natural From FFT reading frequency 3.25 Y direction 3.25

Damping [(100 / 2 π n) * log (Y 1 / Yn+1)] Where: n = No. 1.421% 2.03% factor of cycle Y n+1 = Amplitude of (n+1) cycle peak Y1 = Amplitude of The test is successful if no evidence of physical damage is observed on 1st after peak the bushing cycle the test

Final Observations .

LA.  As NLC is going to install two numbers 63 MVAR bus reactor for the first time in TS II and the operating and maintenance staffs are not properly exposed to its operating data. if any. since commissioning and its reasons  Maximum & minimum bus voltage for switching in and out of reactors  Reduction in leading MVAR and bus voltage after switching in of the reactor  Any abnormalities observed in generator excitation during switching in/out  Average reactor current. there are distinct differences between construction and operating characteristics of these two devices. winding and oil temperature  Any failure of parts like bushings. gaskets etc since commissioning  Remarks of the operating staff on the performance of the reactors . shunt reactor and power transformer are viewed alike.Though oil immersed. following information need to be collected from any southern grid thermal power plant ( not from substation) presently operating with similar capacity bus reactors for successful and trouble free operation of reactor in TS II –  Average number of switching operation of the reactor per day  Numbers of operating hours achieved since commissioning  Numbers of forced / planned shutdown taken after commissioning  Protection co-ordinations and its settings  Number of false/actual tripping.

Thank you .

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