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FUNDAMENTALS OF
PHYSTGS (gth),
CONDENSED
A study guide to accompany
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSIGS
Eighth Edition
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FUNDAMENTALS OF
PHYSTCS (gth),
CONDENSED
Thomas E. Barrett
Ohio State University
A study guide to accompany
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS
Eighth Edition
David Halliday
Univers ity of P itts burgh
Robert Resnick
Renss elaer
Polytechnic Institute
Jearl Walker
Cleveland State University
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posed by After a while you'll find that the questions themselves are easy to answer. and learn to ask yourself the questions. the "tutor. To do this. Many students of physics struggle because they try to learn physics by learning how to answer the questions. while sacrificing the depth and artistry of the original. the goal of this book is to get the plot.sk.Introduction Physics books are big. When the student or tutor makes a mistake in an equation." Then look for patterns in the questions. I walk through each chapter with the following approach: o Identify the most important concepts in the chapter. almost insulting to a. like it is marked with 2+25 ? Remember that you should not take equations out of examples. Styling used in this book: Key points are in bold. techniques. try to ask yourself similar questions a. because these equations apply to the particular problem. First learn to answer the questions. o Describe how they translate into problemsolving o Show how these techniques work through the use of a few detailed The examples here are organized a^s a^s a series of questions and resporrses. examples. Sometimes they can be intimidating. As you tackle other probleffis. Important terms are underlined. a question mark at the right side of the equation. Instead use the examples to understand the equatiorxi and techniques. .s you work toward an answer. The successful students learn to ask themselves the questions. Like any condensed work.
and the First Law of Thermodynamics Gases 18 Temperature. and Angular Momentum 12 7t 82 92 100 LO7 Equilibrium and Elasticity Lg Gravitation 14 Fluids 113 120 128 136 15 Oscillations 16 Waves L7 Waves  I II f{eat.Contents 1 3 5 6 Measurement 1 2 Motion Along a Straight Line Vectors o > 13 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions Force and Motion Force and Motion 22 32 44 56 65  I II 7 Kinetic Energy and Work 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy I Center of Mass and Linear Momentum 10 Rotation 11 Rolling. Torque. 19 The L43 150 Kinetic Theory of 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 2L Electric Charge 22 Electric Fields 23 Gausst Law r57 r62 169 L77 .
Magnetism of Matter 33 Electromagnetic Waves 34 Images 35 Interference 36 Diffraction 37 Relativity 38 Photons and Matter'Waves 39 More About Matter Waves 40 241 246 249 255 263 27L 279 287 292 All About Atoms zgs 302 4L Conduction of Electricity in Solids 42 Nuclear Physics 43 Energf from the Nucleus 44 Quarks.vii 24 B. LeptonSr and the Big Bang 306 314 318 .lectric Potential 25 Capacitance 26 Current and Resistance 185 196 203 208 27 Circuits 28 Magnetic Fields 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents 3O 2L7 224 233 Induction and Inductance 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 32 Maxwellts Equations.
You can make up a rmriables for things you want o Use the drawing. vlll aaa . for the direction. not the formula. .Five Things to Remember When Doing Physics o The goal is not possession of the answer. Don't skip the steps. o Be able to say what your variable means in words. Expect problems to take multiple steps. o Minus signs and units are importarrt. or need and dontt have. but mastery of the technique.
126 seconds x 1000 milliseconds 1 second  126 milliseconds : 126 ms Three things to watch out for: o If a unit is squared or to some power other than o Don't skip steps. Then find something that's equal to put in the other half of the fraction.Chapter 1 Measurement The important skills to get from this chapter are dealing with prefixes and units. with.milli 1  126 milliseconds: 126 ms or 0. make mistakes. all we want." Anything divided by the same thing is one (unless the two things are zero). Put that in the numerator or denominator so that it cancels. experienced people may do the conversions in their heads. To determine the correct "one. by multiplying by one. if I have three dozen eggs and I want to know how many eggs I have. We deal with both of these the same w&y. and vice versa. I choose 12 and 1 dozen as my two things that are equal to each other. 0." see what you have that you want to get rid of. Handle prefixes the same way.126 seconds ro matter what they are. we get the same thing we started multiply anything by one. EXAMPTE How many inches are there in 5 km? . So to turn x 1000. When we multiply something by one. there are 1000 milli in one. but that's a good way to .126 seconds into milliseconds: 0. then you'll need to convert all of them (there are three feet in a yard but nine square feet in a square yard). Check your work: If you end with a bigger unit then you should have a smaller number. For example. This means that we can The key is choosing the correct "one. one. For example.
T[rtor: Student: EXAMPLE How many square feet J are there in an acre? (ft') T\rtor: Do square feet and acres mea. 1 in. and there are 100 centi in one. (5280 teet)' \ R) 43.5.o2b m 100 2 Tbtor: What is 5 km divided by an inch? 5000. Student: How big is an acre? T\rtor: There are 640 acres in a square mile.o.000 inches in 5 kilometers.. use meters.ry x miles . . so what you've done is 1 acre 5280feet .sure the same thing? foot is an area. and an acre is an area.2.t* 1 in. 1 a( W rr€ffi . 103 x 2.5 centimeters. What are the units of your answer? Student: The meters cancelled the meters and it doesn't have any. 5280 feet u : ^ . Ttrtor: Student: I'll How many meters is 5 km equal to? Student: One kilo is one thousand.^.1 square mile. Student: A square Student: So an acre is .ozSqr x 105 There are 200. Should I use kilometers or inches? You could use either..b cm x + c . but does it make sense that the answer Student: No. b60 feet2 . without any units.nr( o. so yes. T\rtor: Then we should be able to convert between them. and a mile is 5280 feet. 5 kmxTT5000m T\rtor: Student: How many meters is one inch? One inch is 2.i. a kilometer is much longer than an inch. 640 Tutor: A square mile is 1 mile x 1 mile. T\rtor: Thtor: Student: We need to have the two lengths in the same units.560feet .g. or some other length like meters. Thtor: What units should you get when you divide a length by a length? Student: The ratio of two lengths should be a number.2b mile feet 640 Student: I need to cancel both miles. MEASUREMENT Student: I'm going to divide 5 km by one inch.acre. Thtor: Correct.43.2 T\rtor: How are you going to attack this problem? is 5? CHAPTER 7.
x(#ry) ': T'ex1o4 miIhz T[tor: Meters per second (*/r) is a speed. Student: So (1 mil1610 m) and (1610 m/l mi) are equal to one. Student: It's bigger than 9.8. e8m/s2x(#) Student: top. so mi/h2 must be a smaller unit than mls2. Meters per second (^1"') ir an acceleration. and means that each second your speed changes by that many meters per second.EXAMPTE Gravity is 9. yes. What is the distance between T\rtor: What do you need to do? mm in the denominator and make it nm in the numerator. Student: So I need to convert both of them. To end with a length in the numerator I need to start with the length in the numerator. measured in nanometers (nm)? (**). s'8nt*zx(+rr) T\rtor: That seems like a big number. spaced 1200 per millimeter lines.8 meters per second each second. &trVway? EXAMPLE A machine draws narrow parallel lines.8 m/s2 x x f 60' 60 Tilutes) f#) \1610m/ \lminute th / ? TUtor: But there are two factors of seconds. Now we need it in nanometers. Student: What is m/s2. I need to get rid of meters in the top. Student: I need to take How about 1 )_ u: 12oG. T\rtor: There are 1610 meters in a mile. so meters has to go on the bottom. T\rtor: It is. Tbtor: To do that you would need to multiply by two lengths. 9.8 m/s2 means that each second your speed changes by 9. Would that be equal to one? Student: No.8 m/s2. So. and means that each second you go so many meters. What is this in mi/h2? T\rtor: What do you have to do? Student: First I need to turn meters into miles. or 9. Seconds is on the bottom so seconds has to go on the T\rtor: Student: How many seconds are there in an hour? There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. Student: How many nanometers in a millimeter? lmm 12oo then the distance between them is 1 mm divided by 1200. And I need to change seconds into hours. T\rtor: If there are 1200 in each millimeter.8 m/s. that is. e. . two distances in the numerator and none in the denominator.
Skipping steps is a good way to make mistakes.W*( 12oo rx( \ \1or*/ x "\:83Bnm \ t^t I /toe . and m into nm.4 T\rtor: Student: CHAPTER 1. So I'll turn mm into m. MEASUREMENT There are 103 milh in one. and 10e nano in one. d.
I)s. 't). EXAMPLE If you drop a penny from the top of the Empire State Building (381 m tall). t)g. we can solve for the other two.r.n initial velocity us _ final acceleration a : time t  velocity a . If we know any three of the ftve quantities. T\rtor: Student: If we know Student: displacement A. we use the equations includes omits t displacement Ar L. a. and have a fourth that we want to find. a time t a . a. t final velocity u An . In one dimension.r . how fast will it be going when it hits the ground below? T\rtor: Tbtor: Student: What is happening here? The penny is undergoing constant acceleration.fiot the initial velocity ao. but don't care about the fifth.iot' Lr. the final velocity n. Begin by writing down the five variables. The first four are vectors. How do we solve constant acceleration problems? three of the five variables.aB :2a Ar Ar.uo: at uot u. n. so any two that are in the same direction will have the same sign.at2 Ar. the direction means positive versus negative. We start with five quantities: the displacement A. To solve constant acceleration probleffis. the acceleration o. so they have direction. u. They must all use the same axis. a. and the time t.n : L @o * u)t Ar.Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line The most important thing to learn from this chapter is how to solve constant acceleration problems.ut . then pick the equation that has the three you know and the one you want but not the one you dontt care about. Okay. us. t acceleration a Ar : aot * f. t initial velocity ao a2 .
it positive or negative 381 m? Student: Does it matter? T\rtor: Displacement is a vector. and we already have two.CHAPTER 2. so the initial velocity is zero. Do we know this velocity? Student: No. Student: The displacement is downward. We haven't chosen either direction as positive yet.8 ^1"2. As the penny falls it accelerates downward. so I choose down as the positive direction. Student: So the change in the velocity is upward. Student: It displacement Ar initial velocity us final +381 m 0 velocity time a acceleration a 9. and A. but when it hits the ground the acceleration is upward. After it hits the ground it isn't moving. because *0 . Does this mean that we can't use the constant acceleration equations? T\rtor: Not necessarily. Does this mean that the acceleration isn't constant? Tutor: It is constant until the instant that the penny hits the ground. we want to find the time. Is it positive or negative? Student: It doesn't matter.I m above the floor so that it above the floor. so it's g. Do we know the final velocity? ends on the ground. . do we know the time? Student: No. How long is the volleyball in the air? reaches a maximum height of 4.+381 m. Do we know the acceleration? Student: The acceleration is g downward. so it is important.8 m/s2 ? t Tutor: How do we find the time? use the equation Student: I don't care about the final velocity u. : uot (+sat m) : (o)t + 2(+3s1 m) (+9.0.8 m/s2. so it's +9. so the final velocity is zero. it was going downward. T\rtor: To use our equations we need a constant acceleration.8 mf s27 Student: I chose downward as positive and the acceleration is downward. Student: How is the acceleration upward? T\rtor: Just before it hits the ground. Tutor: Last. Student: Is it's 381 m. MOTIO. We need three of the five.82 s EXAMPLE A volleyball player hits a volleyball 2.0 rn T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? The volleyball is undergoing constant acceleration.r .r that doesn't contain u. T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Do we know the initial velocity? The penny is dropped. so I'll L.8 m/s2)  8.IV ALONG A STRAIGHT TI]VE Thtor: T\rtor: Do we know the displacement? Yes.8 ^lt' or 9. So the final velocity is the velocity it has as it hits the ground. T\rtor: Is it +9.
displacement Ar nitial velocity us final velocity u acceleration a timet? 2. we can solve for the other two. then it is the same initial velocity as for the whole trip. so that is the displacement.9 m finalvelocity a .r. Tutor: Student: If we know three displacement Ar initial velocity us final velocity a acceleration a time t : T\rtor: Tutor: Do we know the displacement? Student: First it goes up 1.8m/s2 T\rtor: Can we find the time? We only know two of the five.9 *). do we know the time? Student: No. so we can't solve for anything. T\rtor: Is there anything else we know? Student: We know how high it goes.8 m/s2). Student: displacement Ar initial velocity ug _ *1. Student: It ends 2. T\rtor: Begin by writing down the five variables. I know the displacement (+1. and the acceleration (9. then do the down problem to find the time down and add them. T\rtor: Student: If I find the initial velocity.1 m below where it started.1 m 9. No.1 m. Student: I'll do the way up.How do we solve constant acceleration problems? of the five variables. T\rtor: Is it positive or negative 2. but how does this help us to find the total time? . Student: Ok"y. I could find the time up.0 m.1 m? Student: I choose up as the positive direction. and the displacement is downward.0 acceleration a time t Alternatively. I\rtor: So we need a new start or finish. A. but that doesn't happen at either the start or finish. The displacement is the difference between the final position and the initial position. We know three of the five so we can solve.9 m and then it goes down 4. Student: Student: Do we know the final velocity? T\rtor: Last. we want to find the time.2. the final velocity (0). Tbtor: Tbtor: so Do we know the initial velocity? No.
8 A.85 m/s ^lt2) ^/s2) t .10 m/s 9.8 m/s2 ? 2. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT TINB a2 . The initial velocity is up.sy steps instead of one hard step. Solve first for the final velocity u t then we'll know four of the five.1 m time t: A.1 m aot + 1 )atz * tn.10 m/s)r 0 tu+t@ 2a tL (6. Student: And I can choose a different equation to solve.  Student: That number looks familiar. Student: u2 u2  u2o :2a Ar 2(9.10 m/s ^1"2)(+t.10 m/s for the whole trip.85 m/s ^ls2) (+9. so us : +6. which could be positive Student: Student: +6.9 *) T\rtor: Is it Thtor: You just took a square root.9 6.53 s T\rtor: T\rtor: There is a way to avoid the quadratic formula.9 mls2)t2 + (6.10 m/s)t + (2.1 *) (+6.z7 m2 /r'  +8. Really? How? We know three of the five so we can solve for the other two. displacement A.10 mls + 8.28 s or 1.0.CHAPTER 2.10 m/s + 8.8b m/s T\rtor: It should.u!  o3 :6.10 m/s) + 2(+4.10 m/s or 6. which is my positive directior.8 (+9. We're really doing the same math.r: 2.n (o)' .r : Ug: a: a: initial velocity final velocity acceleration +6.1  (+6.10 m/t)2 n : *)  1f za.8 6.10 m/s? Does it matter? or negative.t mf s2)t2 (+4. .8 mls2)(2. but in two ea.uB :2a 2(9.
How long will it take the policeman to catch the speeder? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? The policeman is undergoing constant acceleration.I Student: so And I have to pick the sign for the square root. displacement Ars initial velocity uso Speeder _ final velocity us : acceleration og : time ts : it come from? as opposed Policeman Arp upo up ap tp : : : Thtor: It's the displacement of the speeder. We can use all of the constant acceleration formulas on it. so we can use t for both. T\rtor: Since they start at the same place. Student: displacement initial velocity final velocity acceleration ?rso : Ug: og: + It Ar: Speeder Policeman upo : ap: ap: 1 A.28 EXAMPTE F A speeder at 80 mph (in a 35 mph zone) passes a policeman. it's negative. T\rtor: So we can use all of the same techniques for him too. . then your time would have been 0. Where do we start? Student: We write down the five symbols for each person. T\rtor: If you had chosen the positive square root. The policeman.uso : Student: Aren't the times the same for the speeder and the policeman? Thtor: Yes. accelerates at 10 mi/h/r. Student: the displacements are equal. which is constant. What about the speeder? He has a constant velocity. whatever they are. Ttrtor: What event "starts" our constant acceleration? The speeder passes the policeman. to the displacement of the policeman. which is the negative direction. like os .10 m/s) t  (9. AUO:At (8. It's going down. Student: Is a constant velocity also constant acceleration? Student: He has zero acceleration. Do we know the speeder's displacement? Student: No. initially at rest. We don't know the policeman's displacement either. and they end at the same place.85 m/s)  (+6.r : t time . .s.8 mlsz)t 1. invented Student: What's Ars and where did it. and we osf. Ttrtor: What event "ends" our constant acceleration? Student: The policeman catches the speeder.53 m/s s.
Student: And we don't have either.nT\rtor: Student: (o)r . Now we know three of the five and we can solve for the time.(10 milhls)r2 Student: But it has two variables and we can't solve it. (. Do I need to convert this into meters per second? Tutor: Not necessarily. his acceleration is 10 mi/h/r. including his displacement and time as variables.r 80 mph up 0 ap  Policeman 10 mi/h/t Tutor: We could write an equation for the policeman. T\rtor: What about the policeman? Student: His initial velocity is zero. What kind of a unit is mi/h l"? T\rtor: Each second his velocity increases by 10 miles per hour. that is not enough. let's eliminate that."et? a. and we don't know his final velocity. If the acceleration is zero and we know both velocities. We need either the time or the displacement. His acceleration is zero.r  (80 mph)r *. We could solve them. Arsusots*I1"st's A. lrrn \^" 2 milhls)r2  Student: The time cancels. Ttrtor: Unfortunately. We can keep the units with the numbers and convert them when we need to. so 10 miles per hour per second. and we don't get a quadratic after all.10 Tlrtor: Student: It's CHAPTER 2. this is the exception to the rule. We could write an equation for the speeder. MOTION ALONG A S"RAIGHT LINE Do we know the speeder's initial velocity? 80 mph.{) ':('o +) t16s . So we'd have two equations and two unknowns. but it would also have two variables. Speeder displacement initial velocity Ar uso final velocity us acceleration 0g  timet:(+>t <+> L. so it's also 80 mph.. Ar and t. Do we know the speeder's final velocity? Student: His velocity isn't changing. Arpupotp*f. ]f to milhls)tl (80 mph)l Student: ('#) ':('o#) The miles and hours cancel.(o)r' (80 mph)r T\rtor: Since we want the time and don't care about the displacement.
Whatever it is. Given that we don't care about the time. that's exactly what the equation says. so it must be the acceleration or the time. so take the square . T\rtor: Student: I still can't solve it.. r3. I don't know any of the others. and substitute.a2. Student: So I substitute those.o T\rtor: Your goal is to find uz. Student: So I don't want that one? Tutor: No. but look at what you have. Student: And it doesn't matter how fast the car was going.o:IQ". T\rtor: The acceleration for the car is the same.o .o : tl lt. The final velocity is zero j so I know that.zui.2at Lrt :2az Arz u1.o tf IT tl z.2ar Lrr solve either equation.)L'o times the initial speed the first time? Student: The initial speed the second time has to be T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes. In science we call problems like these "scaling" Student: . so the car has to be going 30% Where did you get 30%? The speed has to be 70% of the original speed. or even what the acceleration was? Tutor: As long as the acceleration is the same each time. slower to stop in half the distance. so the change is 30% of the original speed.oot and see what you have. the minus sign cancels. no matter what the initial speed.tr?.3 :2a A. except for the L. but a1 . So let's come up with a set of variables a1 and Arr and so on for one car.. and the distance Ar2 is half of Ar1. what is the equation to use? Student: That would be u2 Student: How can I solve a problem without any numbers?  . T\rtor: Then take the L out. and that is a piece of useful information. .o . yQ " about 0. Lrr) Student: Well.11 EXAMPLE How must the initial speed of a car change so that the car is able to stop in only half the distance? T\rtor: Use variables. u.o f. it is the same for both.o .o . Tlue.2ar Lrr > u?.oufoT\rtor: Student: But I can't a?.70. u2.r T\rtor: Good. and then another set a2 and Arz and so on for a second car...o) : lr?. Does it look like anything else you have? Student: It looks similar to the first equation.2at No. What equation would work here? Student: I need to identify three of the five. TUtor: Which one don't you care about? Student: Initial velocity and displacement are mentioned. This applies to any car with constant acceleration.0 ')22.o. you do. a3.
MOTIONATO]VG A STRAIGHT LINE problems. either because it stays the same or you know how it compares to before. .L2 CHAPTER 2. One way to solve these problems is to write down the equation both before and after. then substitute anything that you know. You want to know how one thing changes when another chang€s. without any values.
gl Let's see how each method works. Adding two vectors that are neither parallel nor perpendicular is more difficult. and force.sy. and are likewise easy to add. Adding two parallel vectors is ea. velocity. and the side of the triangle that is opposite to the angle is sine.Chapter 3 Vectors Many things in physics have direction and are expressed as vectors. acceleration.(3+ +1izi Adding two vectors that are perpendicular can be done with the Pythagorean theorem. Then the r component is cosine and the y component is sine. I review the two most popular here. r and y components are perpendicular to each other and can be added using the Pythagorean There is more than one way to find the components. Draw the right triangle with the vector as the hypotenuse and the other two sides parallel to the axes. and are to add. Instead. Always draw the angle from the r ucis toward the axis. we easy divide each vector into components. but this becomes unwieldy with more than two vectors. We need to be able to add and subtract vectors. then the component is negative. These include displacement. 13 . If the component is in the opposite direction as the axis. si+ 4i. The side of the triangle that is adjacent to the angle is cosine. Then the theorem. It can be done using the law of cosines. The y components of each vector are likewise parallel to each other. The fr components of each vector are parallel.
angle. The y but it is down and the y y component is y .6 sin(32"). EXAMPTE What is the sum of the four vectors? B= .$cos(32o). Then the n component is r . so the The angle given is not mea"sured from the r a)cis.6 cos(302') and the y component is y . component is the side opposite to the so the tr component is r .srued from the r ocis initially toward the y axis. VECTORS We draw the right triangle as shown. This new angle is 270o + 32o : 302o. component is the side adjacent to the The r angle.L4 CHAPTEN 3.6sin(302"). I shall use the lefthand method. We draw a new angle mea. arcis is up.
lcos 30o : 6. so it's sine. A. So how do we add them? Student: We break each one into components and add the components. Tbtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: Are the vectors all perpendicular? No. so it's cosine. but there won't always be. there's already a>(es in the problem.5 sin 30o : 3. component is the adjacent side of the triangle. : A cos 30o : 7. Thtor: What are you going to use for your ruces? Thtor: Student: Uh. What is the g component of vector A? The y component is the opposite side of the triangle.15 T\rtor: Are the vectors all parallel? No. Student: The . T\rtor: Yes. B .75 T\rtor: What is the o component of vect or B? Student: First I draw the triangle.50 T\rtor: Student: Good. A* : A sin 30o : 7 . Student: I'm going to use the a)ces provided. Good. What is the r component of vector A? Student: First I draw the triangle.
and opposite is sine. so it's cosine. if you always mea"sure the angle from the r axis. away from the T\rtor: Student: Isn't gl a>ris. The r component of D is zero. B* : Bcos 20"  4cos 20" :3. The y component is opposite the angle.37 Tlrtor: Student: First I draw What is the . but sometimes it's the other way around. it's more convenient to draw the triangle and add minus Okay. : C cos 25"  5 cos 25" : 4.76 T\rtor: In many of the things we'll use vectors for. so it's cosine. C.5 cos 25"  4. Student: By : B sin 20" .r component of vect or C? the triangle.Asin 20o  I. the component adjacent to the angle is always cosine. The y component is down. Student: And the A component is 3. VECTORS r component is the adjacent side of the triangle. so it's sine.76 Student: Doesn't the math take care of that automatically? T\rtor: Yes. because it doesn't go to the left or right at all. : B cos 160o  Acos 160o : 3.16 Student: The CHAPTER 3.76 ? it's negative.Csin25" . you don't need to draw the triangle. so it's sine.53 ? TUtor: The r component is opposite the angle this time. B. Student: And the A component of C is adjacent. so B* : B cos 20"  Acos 20"  3. . and the r anis goes to the right.II the fr component always cosine? No. so it's negative. C.53 Tlrtor: What is the tr component of vect or D? How do I draw the triangle for vector D? T\rtor: Because D is already parallel to one of the axes. More often than not these will be the r and A components. Student: . Cu : C cos 25" .5sin25" .2. Tutor: But the r component goes to the left. signs when determining components. respectively. Student: The u component is cosine.
A. because it's less m:rffi. Remember to square the negative 1l txl' + (Y)' : Tutor: m:tffi:5.4r + (.2.50+ (3. Student: The magnitude or absolute value is T\rtor: sign too.37 + (4.II+ (0) .2.41) j A Tutor: We can also express this vector using "unit vectors.3.50 3.75+L.76) + 2. @: That can't be right. but this time starting with the components.:4.76 L.85)a Student: gl T\rtor: A unit vector direction.L7 T\rtor: Good.4.42 Some people find it easier to make a table: A B C D 6.4! T\rtor: Student: Do we need to find the magnitude and direction or are the components enough? Often the components are enough.37 2. now we can add them.85 2.LI 4. Student: The fr cemponents add (A+ B +C + D).2r? than one of the components.75 3.. but let's find the magnitude and direction for practice.:6.53 03 4.85 (A+ B +C + D)y: Av* Bo*Cn* Do ." (4. .* Student: And the y components add B**C** D.53) + (3). What's a unit vector? is a vector of length 1 with no units. I points in the r direction and i points in the T\rtor: Student: How do I find the angle? Draw the triangle.
so it must be the other way.E Find the vectors A + B and A . TUtor: How do we add vectors? Student: We connect the ends. below the r arcis. and your sum points to the lefib. so repetitive? EXAMPI." meaning that we move one vector so that it starts where the previous one left off. but it's best to show the angle that you mean with a drawing. Can that be right? No. Does that mean the angle is negative? Some people are happy with that. When adding vectors. so the angle is Student: o  arctan oqrPosite : &rct : aoJacent ^n?'4t a*B &rctan o'497  26'4" Student: . Tutor: Then A and B point up. Student: The tangent of the angle is opposite over adjacent. like this: Both vectors A and B point to the right. VECTORS T\rtor: So the angle is below the r a:ris. but the sum points down. but with practice it will go faster.B graphically. . we use "tip to tail.18 CHAPTER 3. T\rtor: Student: . . Is adding vectors always T\rtor: Usually.
or a change. and it doesn't matter where it starts.4 plus negative B equals my first vector. A.19 Tlrtor: Student: Don't vectors have to start at the origin? No. ABor BA? Look for the "tip to tail" combination. Student: So I add the vectors like this: T\rtor: Tlrtor: Student: Butisit Yes. A vector seen this way is a displacement. ABA+(B) Tntor: Student: . so Drawing it the other way would give B  it was A  B. Student. The vector you drew first is the difference of the two vectors. and my vector is B+mineA I\rtor: mineAB An easier way to subtract vectors is to add the negative vector. So B plus my vector equals A. .
what would that look like? Start at the end of the first vector. and the g component of the sum is zero. sums to a horizontal vector (parallel to the r axis). 4 and a y component of 2. VECTORS EXAMPLE Find a vector of length 4 that. What is the fr component? Student: I can use the Pythagorean theorem. so how can I find the components? T\rtor: What is the y component of a horizontal vector? Student: Zero. T\rtor: Now you have a vector with a length of.46. The second vector has to end on . It doesn't go up or down. when added to the vector shown. Do you know anything about the vector you'll get when you add them? Student: It's horizontal. T\rtor: The y component of the first vector is *2. so I'll need their components.20 CHAPTER 3. the A component of the second vector is 2. . . Could your second vector be (3. Student: . . so. the one we're trying to find? Student: Don't I need an angle to find those? Tutor: You need something. T\rtor: What are the components of that vector? Student: I don't know how long it is. 2)7 Maybe. T\rtor: Student: I'm 4@ T\rtor: A square root could be positive Ttrtor: Student: this circle. . T\rtor: What are the components of the first vector? Student: The r component is *3 and the y components is +2. Where can we start? adding vectors.46 or negative. rFeD2s. Thtor: What are the components of the second vector. and draw a circle of length 4.
been T\rtor: And there wouldn't be any vector of length 4 that you could add to the first and get a horizontal vector. so the second vector would have to be at least 5 long. Student: I see. 5)? Then there wouldn't be any point where the circle intersects with the r a>cis. there . What if the first vector had (3. The y component would have to be 5.2t axe two points on the r axis where the vector could end.
22 . it is easier to describe motion as being in the r or y direction. Instead. How far above the ground does the ball hits the wall. Here we connect constant acceleration (and constant velocity) with vectors in two dimensions. T\rtor: Those will work well. we can treat the motion along each axis separately. Anythittg in the opposite direction is negative. T\rtor: For a twodimensional problem. The one Iimitation is that the axes need to be perpendicular to each other. EXAMPLE A boy throws a ball toward a wall. then we have a threedimensional problem. so I choose r horizontal toward the wall and y vertically up. If we can't find a plane in which everything happens. While it is mathematically correct to use the ? and j notation of the pre ious chapter. with a speed of 15 m/s at 42" above horizontal. then we have a twodimensional problem. but not because the acceleration is vertical. Many things in physics have directior. then we have a onedimensional problem. Student: Gravity is vertical. we choose one direction as the positive direction. When everything lines up along a single plane. T\rtor: Is this a twodimensional problem? Student: Everything can be drawn in the plane of the page. They work because the wall is Tutor: Student: vertical. with nothing going into the page or coming out of the page. Since not everything is along a single line. When everything lines up along a single line (utty line). To deal with a onedimensional problem. To demonstrate and practice vectors. so yes. With a twodimensional problem. but the acceleration of gravity is downward. we need to choose two axes. no. Ary set of axes will do.Chapter 4 Motron in Two and Three Dimensions In this chapter we learn how to use vectors. but there is often one set that works best. T\rtor: Student: How does the wall come into it? We will want to know when the ball hits the wall.4 m above the ground. we look at two basic techniques: projectile motion and relative motion. 5 m away? Is this a onedimensional problem? The ball starts going up and over. we need two axes. and it is much easier if this happens in one dimension. it is not done so much in practice. Once we have a set of perpendicular axes. By "works best" I mean that it gives us much easier equations to solve. and we use vectors to describe the directions. The ball leaves his hand 1 .
so it should be the same a"s the initial velocity in the n direction. T\rtor: Is it really what we're trying to find? Student: We want to find how high it is when the r displacement is +5 m. so it is cosine: 15 m/s cos 42o .r : *5m 'ual . What is the final velocity in the gr direction? Student: We don't know. I\rtor: What is the initial velocity in the r direction? Student: The z component is adjacent to the 42" angle. so it has no horizontal component. Now what is happening along the r a>ris? Student: Constant acceleration. Thtor: What is happening along the y uris? Student: Constant acceleration. T\rtor: Are both of them positive? Student: The r component is toward the wall. r direction? Student: Time has direction? What is the displacement in the T\rtor: No. Zero. so it is sine: 15 m/ssin42o. which is our *r direction. So the time is the same for the Do we know it? T\rtor: Student: Student: r and gr problems. T\rtor: But now we need two lists. The gt component is upward. one each for the r and y a)ces.+ (15 m/s) cos 42o Ur:Uy: an:Oag:g t:+)t: Ly uuo  + (15 m/s) sin 42o . so 9.8 Tutor: What is the time in the ^/s2. but unfortunately this is the exception to the threeoffive rule: when the acceleration is zero and it becomes a constant velocity problem.23 T\rtor: Student: So I want to line up one axis with the "finish line" ? Yes. T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the r direction? Student: The acceleration is parallel to the y axis. which is our *g direction. so both are positive. T\rtor: Yes. knowing two velocities (which are the same) only counts a^s one.4 m to it. A. T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the gr direction? Student: g downward. T\rtor: What is the final velocity in the r direction? Student: There is no horizontal acceleration. Ttrtor: How do we solve constant acceleration problems? Student: We write down the five symbols and identify what we know. so we need to find the A displacement and add +I. No. UtO : an: a0: I It Ar ugo : Ayuu: t: aa: T\rtor: r direction? m Student: *5 T\rtor: What is the displacement in the y direction? Student: We don't knowl that's what we're trying to find. Tutor: What is the initial velocity in the y direction? Student: The r component is opposite to the 42" angle.
24 CHAPTER 4. They are in the same plane. The cannonball leaves the cannon at 100 mls at 53o above horizontal. or 1. But that wasn't the question. what would that mean? Student: That the ball hit the ground before reaching the wall. iont2 m/s2)(0. T\rtor: How does that help us with the y problem? Student: The time in the r problem is the same as the time in the y problem.8 .fo!' t L.52 m.++8  ((lb m/s) sin 42o) (0.448 . so we could solve for the final velocity or the time in the fr direction. so more than one.ia*t2 (b *)  .448 s : uot + rrat2  Aa : uyot .4. Then we'll be able to solve the y problem. MOTIONIN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS Can we solve the y problem to find the y displacement? No. .r Ay  0. Student: I choose r horizontal. what would that have meant? Student: That the ball hit the wall below the ground? T\rtor: Yes.)' Ay 3. T\rtor: For a twodimensional problem.(e.92 m above the ground.# ((15 */s) cos 42o) r+ f.) *. we know three of the five. we need two axes. Tlrtor: If the g displacement had been less than I. so that the height above the ground was negative. we only know two of the five.4 m + 3. T\rtor: Student: EXAMPTE J A cannon fires a cannonball from the top of a cliff to the level ground 180 m below.52 m .4 m. T\rtor: Student: Ar:urot. How far from the base of the cliffdoes the cannonball land? T\rtor: How many dimensions are there in this problem? Student: The initial velocity and the acceleration are not along the same line.52 m above where he threw it.52 m The y displacement is 3. T\rtor: What is happening along the y axis? Student: Constant acceleration. What does the g displacement mean? Student: The ball hits 3. r. T\rtor: Can we solve the r problem? Student: Yes. Thtor: How do we solve constant acceleration problems? Student: We write down the five symbols and identify what we know. so two is enough. parallel to the ground. and g perpendicular to T\rtor: Now what is happening along the r axis? Student: Constant acceleration.
Zero. Tutor: What is the acceleration in the r direction? Student: The acceleration is parallel to the y ocis. that's what we're trying to find. so it should be the same a^s the initial velocity in the n directior. T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the y direction? Student: g downwardr so 9.+ (100 m/s) cos53o A&:Ag: ++ at:ar: Ly : uyo  180m + (100 m/s) sin53o an:Oay:g Ttrtor: Can we solve the r problem to find the r displacement? No. T\rtor: Student: Lr : ? uro . so we could solve for the time in the y problem.8 ^/"2.9 mls2)t' + (80 mls)t + (180 m) : * i(e. but it is the same for the r and y problems.oot2 : (+SO mls)t (4.n : UtO : ao: at: + L Ayuvo : ag: ay: 1 b What is the displacement in the r direction? We don't know. T\rtor: What is the displacement in the y direction? Student: 180 m. so it is cosine: +100 m/scos53o. then put that into the r problem. T\rtor: What is the time? Student: We don't know. Tbtor: What is the initial velocity in the r direction? Student: The r component is adjacent to the 53" angle. so it has no horizontal component. so it is sine: *100 m/ssin53o. we know three of the five. Thtor: What is the final velocity in the y direction? Student: We don't know. T\rtor: What is the initial velocity in the y direction? Student: The s component is opposite to the 53o angle. we only know two of the five. T\rtor: What is the final velocity in the r direction? Student: There is no horizontal acceleration. . Thtor: Can we solve the y problem? Student: Yes. t _b+rm 2a .8 mf s2)t2 0 Student: So we have to solve a quadratic equation? TUtor: We could solve the quadratic. but it doesn't help us. Student: Ar= uot + = (180 m) l2AuAy : . .at2  1 uyot + 1 .25 A.
.?o  2o.8 s)2 n1100m As an object flies through the air.) + */r) + (ee. Which is it? Student: What difference does it make? Tutor: If the final velocity is positive then the cannonball is going upward Student: No.. Tutor: Student: u2  a2o :2a Ar @)' (uu)2 ..6 m/s) (9. In the photo. The horizontal motion is constant. Ay : : o?o * 2an AY ag: ua +99. AUO:At+AUUyO:Agt +_AyUAO v t (ee. the beanbags fly in a parabolic arc after they leave the airgun. so that t is proportional to \tr. as it lands.26 CHAPTER 4.3 s or we could solve the gl problem for the final velocity. n:uilt+lrat2 n  (60 m/s)(18.8 s) + tol(18. We could solve for the time without a quadratic. .9 ^1"2) t  2.3s Student: Now we can do the r problem.6 m/s TUtor: The square root could be positive or negative.(80 */. . its path forms a parabola. The vertical motion is like Ly : aot .8 mls2) 2(4.0 s or 18.6 m/s.o (80 m/s) (9. How does that help us? We need the time. uu : 99.8 ^1"2) ^l: t18. MOTIONIN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS (80 t. Tutor: If we knew the final velocity we would have four of the five and would have our choice of equations.Lgt'.
If you have any two objects A and B. then rtnefAC*ilce where C is any third person or object. You think of the car just ahead of you as going 60 mph. ilns is read as "the velocity of A as measured by B. We carr take the derivative of this. you don't appear to be moving. For displacement. (When we get to relativity. . Likewise. We can measure the position. If you look only at yourself. This is the idea behind relative motion. We often intuitively measure everything compared to the grortnd. a car going the other way appears to be coming at you at 120 mph. but it doesn't get any further from you." Also. the tree appears to be conring at you at 60 mph. If you look out the window at the tree beside the road. It is important that everyone agree on the axes. arrd think of the ground as "stationary. These equations fail if I think north is positive and you think south is positive.27 Imagine that you are driving down the road at 60 mph.) The rnath behind relative motion is straightforward. w€ can think of each person carryirrg their axes with them. you see me doing the same thing in the other direction. or the acceleration of anything cornpared to any other thing. but they have to point in the same direction." but we don't have to approach things that way. frle_ Ttris says that whatever rgR I see you doing. so dee and  dnc * tice 6ns : den The same is true for acceleration. it's important to not approach things that way. the velocity.
The wind is blowing northwest at 30 mph. Student: So I'll start with the equation. I'll use A as the passenger and B as the guy. So when I add or subtract I'll need to do components. What is the speed of the plane compared to the ground? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It says "compared to. as determined by someone standing on the side of the road? How are you going to approach this problem? Because we're talking about relative motion. Student: I'll You need to choose an axis.e2 mph) + (+60 mph) sees  +b8 mph Student: The guy by the side of the road the passenger moving northward at 58 mph. Pick either north or south as positive and stick with your choice. or frames of reference mentioned in the problem? Student: The bus. I'm going to use the relative motion equations. He's walking toward the rear of the bus. T\rtor: The directions in the problem are south and northwest. so it's *60 mph. Student: Is T\rtor: it positive or negative? Student: It doesn't say. tTpc :6ps * dec T\rtor: Tutor: What is the velocity 6p. by two different people. T\rtor: It doesn't matter which one you make which letter. How fast is the passenger moving. B.c of the bus as measured by the guy? 60 mph." so I'm going to use relative motion. so long as you do it consistently. What are you going to use for your axes? Student: r and A. and C? What are the three people. so it's mph. or southward compared to the bus. take north as positive." T\rtor: Yes. South and northwest aren't parallel to each other. Student: All I need to do is figure out whether I add or subtract Student: the 200 and the 30. You're tryirg to skip steps. How might you identify that relative motion is involved in this problem? Student: It talks about a measurement "compared to" and "as determined by. and that's a good way to make a mistake. T\rtor: Student: dlie t7RC ldcr Ttrtor: Student: What are A. a passenger on the bus walks toward the rear at 2 mph. It involves measurements made in two different frames of reference. T\rtor: What is the velocity 6ps of the passenger as measured by the bus? Student: 2 mph. Think about how r and gr relate to the . objects. EXAMPLE J An airplane is pointed southward with an airspeed of 200 mph.28 CHAPTER 4. the passenger.IVD THREE DIMENSIONS EXAMPLE As a bus drives north at 60 mph. MOTIOAI IN TWO A. of course. T\rtor: Not all problems are labelled with the technique needed to solve them. and the guy by the side of the road. Student: Because I want the velocity of the passenger as measured by the guy. Good. Harder but not impossible. 2 dpc . compared to the bus. Darn.
Student: It's headed south at 200 mph.w  (30 mph) cos 45o  21 mPh ? T\rtor: The wind is going northwest..s : (200 mph) UPG : . or you could just use some combination of north. That way the axes are perpendicular and my results will probably be positive.w . so there must be a third thing moving. so I'll use south a^s one of my axes.s : uAG. w * uuc.s upA.C is B.q. so you can't just add them.h). and the components are the same. That's two.29 directions in the problem. T\rtor: Student: Now figure out how to add the vectors. dpC:UpA*u. Student: I need to use the Pythagorean theorem again. so the Plane is A. Student: What are the three things in the problem? The airplane and the ground.s : * uac. Ttrtor: or air. Student: First I'll add the south components. and the third T\rtor: What are the components of upn. the velocity of the air compared to the ground? Student: That's the wind. Ttrtor: What are the components of dnc. so *200 Student: Because it's 45o. oh. uac.(0 mph) + (21 mph) : 2t mph T\rtor: The south and west components are perpendicular.?c.upA.w . or even northwest. the wind I\rtor: Which is A. ?rpc.. and C? Student: I want the plane compared to the ground.. . B. so I'll use west as the other. I can use either angle. + (21 mph)2  180 mph . Using relative motion: une  6nc * uce . south.w : \@ry. + (2I mph) . the Ground thing C is the Air. west. Now you can do the vector addition. Student: The plane is going south.179 mph upc. The wind is more west than east.s * o?c. so the south component is negative (trying to skip steps again). the velocity of the plane compared to the air? mph south and 0 west. east. so I draw my triangle.
MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS EXAMPLE An airplane has an airspeed of 200 mph. and I'll use southwest for the other axis. of course. dpc 6pn*unc The directions are not all parallel. so that the plane goes southeast compared to the ground. so I'll need axes to add the vectors.S E  (30 mph) cos 45o : +21 mph T\rtor: What components do you have now? SE upr. Did you pick the strange directions just so I could practice using unusual axes? T\rtor: Yes.SW  UAG . Drawing the triangle isn't as ea"sy because the il(es seem strange. If it seems strange. you can rotate the paper. so that it flies parallel to the runway. Student: I guess not. but the goal is to get the plane flying southea^st.30 CHAPTER 4. upc equals +200 mph. In what direction should the pilot point the airplane? Student: It says compared to. Tutor: Student: UAG . and southward means the southwest and southea^st components are both positive. Student: Really? Ok y. But the southwest component of the groundspeed is zero. T\rtor: Yes. The wind is blowing south at 30 mph. so I'm going to try relative motion. Tutor: Is it clear that the plane is moving 200 mph compared to the ground? In the last problem. The math will be easier if you pick the goal (southeast) a^s one of your axes. The airplane needs to fly directly southeast compared to the ground. What are the components of the wind d11c? Student: It's a 45" angle again. UAG + dpc?o +2r ?? SW +2r . the groundspeed lrpc I and the airspeed lrpc I were different. What are you going to use for your axes? Student: How about south and west again? T\rtor: Any set of perpendicular axes will work.
(21 mph)2 it positive or negative? T\rtor: If it's negative then the plane is going northward.sn * e21 mph)2 199 mph . the angle. I can find dpn.31 Ttrtor: Student: I see. Then the angle is Student: It's a square root. J . and you know the magnitude upe. Student: Of course.ro. u?e. so you can find the other component. so is arctan . opposite adjacent 2I 199 Student: That's 6o mea"sured eastward from southea.st. But I still don't know Student: Using the Pythagorean theorem backwards.sw : 2I.\/(200 mph)2 . You have one of the components of up4..sp : a?n.s1*o?n.sw (200 mph)2 u".1.
there is no friction until the next chapter. Every object has a ma"ss m. and g is neaer negative. One common mistake is to a.ssume that you know the normal force. Anything that touches an object can apply a force to it. This force is always perpendicular to the surfaces. o gravity o normal forces o tension forces Gravity is easy. g is the magnitude of the gravity force. Also. For the moment. The only time that you know the normal force is when 32 . so we only need to deal with gravity and things in contact with our object. So the normal force is the perpendicular to the surface force. and is just hard enough to keep the objects apart and no harder." and that word is normal. Forces are things that push or pull on an object. o Choose axes. get Every problem involving forces starts with the same basic steps: o Draw a freebody diagram. second law equations along each ancis. there are two types of forces that can occur without touching: gravity and electromagnetic forces. g 9. but you don't know it. and a weight (force) of ffig. Any time two objects are in contact. There is a word in mathematics that means "perpendicular to the surface. and does not contain direction information. You dontt know the magnitude of the normal force.Chapter 5 Force and help. there could be a force where they meet. If you don't get this. we need to worry about three forces. This force is to keep the objects from occupying the same place at the same time. Also. where g is the same acceleration of gravity as in the earlier chapters.8 m/s2 on the surface of the Earth. We won't have any electromagnetic forces for a while. o Use the diagram to write Newton's o Solve for the unknown. Motion I In this chapter we cover the single most important technique to learn in physics.
Draw a freebody diagram for the box. The box is pulled to the right by u rope that is 35o above horizontal. but you don't know it. Then that's all of the forces. so if the normal force is the same as the weight. You dontt know the magnitude of the tension force. the box will lift off of the floor. so it has weight mg downward. and attach a name or label to each force. The last important point about forces is dealittg with paired forces. The purpose of the scale is to measure the normal force. Ttrtor: Not necessarily. T\rtor: FN and n are also common choices. T\rtor: What is the size of the normal force? Student: The normal force is the same as the weight. We pull on an object with a string or rope. so there is a normal force. T\rtor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: The box is in contact with the floor. EXAMPLE A 3 kg box sits on the floor. we need a symbol to represent the magnitude of the tension force. If you don't have a scale. Student: I choose . So pick a variable name or symbol to represent the magnitude of the normal force.33 someone is standing on a scale. Student: It so T\rtor: Student: I choose ?. Student: So the normal force isn't the same as the weight? T\rtor: Sometimes it is. then B puts a force on A. Are there any other forces acting on the box? Tutor: Student: Student: Fliction. T\rtor: Thtor: Student: Student: So how big is the normal force? Do you know? No. you don't know the normal force. We're going to save friction until the next chapter. One common mistake is to assume that you know the tension force. Usually in physics problems we use massless ropes (purchased at the theoretical physics store). Student: Good. What is the direction of the tension force? 35" from horizontal right toward upward. How do you know? T\rtor: . so upward. The only time that you know the tension force is when the tension force is applied by a spring scale.ss. The purpose of the freebody diagram is to get a complete list of the forces. T\rtor: What is the direction of the normal force? Student: Perpendicularly out of the floor. these forces never occur on the same object. and that the two forces are equal in magnitude and have opposite direction. get the direction right. Tension forces are away from the object in the direction of the rope. but a normal force is only as big as it needs to be to keep the objects from moving into each other. Thtor: Are there any forces on the box? has ma.A/. so if it says 200 pounds. T\rtor: Do we know how big the tension force is? Student: Uh. The tension will pull upward on the box. Note that because one of these forces is on A and the other on B. no? Tutor: Correct. Tutor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: There is a rope pulling on it. Newton's third law says that if A puts a force on B. then the normal force is 200 pounds. Later we're going to want to put the magnitude of the tension force into an equation. so there is a tension force.
because those are the only forces on the book. . Draw a freebody diagram for the book and one for the table. Student: So there is a normal force perpendicularly out of the book acting on the table. so I'll give it a symbol ^Af. and the only thing touching the book is the table. and Newton's third law says that the gravity force of the book pulling up on the Earth is equal and opposite.I Student: Because we did the weight and we did everything in contact with the box. T\rtor: The weight of the book doesn't act on the table.34 CHAPTER 5. FORCE AND MOTION . The table doesn't come into the gravity force on the book. Student: Then how does the book affect the table? T\rtor: They are in contact with each other. T\rtor: What forces are there on the table? Student: There is the weight of the table and the weight of the book and a normal force up from the floor. Student: Surely the book affects the table. T\rtor: How big is the normal force? Student: It is the same as the weight. but the gravity force of the book is the Earth pulling it down. so those are the only forces on the book. T\rtor: Student: I don't know. ) 350 . T\rtor: What if the table is in an elevator that is accelerating upward? Student: Who would put a book on a table in an elevator? T\rtor: The point is that just having two forces on an object doesn't make them equal. Thtor: Yes. so it has weight mg downward. T\rtor: Are there any forces on the book? has mass.J EXAMPLE A 2 kg book sits on a 7 kS table. Tutor: Are there any other forces acting on the book? Student: It is in contact with the table. pushing the table downward. so there is a normal force upward. How big is the normal force that the table puts on the book? Student: It Are there any other forces acting on the book? Student: I did the weight.
and it is in contact with two things so there are two normal forces. so it has weight What forces are there on the 6 N box? mg downward. T\rtor: Newtons is a unit of force. Student: So the mass is 6 N/9. . masslesspulley. and likewise for the 12 N box. so I need to use a different symbol for the floortable force.ss. so I choose l{floor. Drawafreebodydiagram for each box. so N. What forces are there on the 12 N box? downward. There is a tension force ? upward. Newton's third law says that the force that the table puts on the book is equal to and in the opposite direction as the force that the book puts on the table. How big is this normal force? Equal to the weight of the book? T\rtor: Not necessarily.l/.8 mf s2? T\rtor: Yes. Thtor: Are there any more forces acting on the table? Student: We did the weight of the table. so I'll use mog for the 6 N box and mng for the 12 N box. How big is the force that the table puts on the book? Student: It was . There is a also tension force upward. T\rtor: Student: J /b EXAMPLE A 6 N boxand a 12 N boxhangfromaropeoverafrictionless. so the normal force of the book pushing down on the table is also l/. T\rtor: How big is the normal force that the floor puts on the table? Student: It's a normal force. We're done. not mass.35 Yes. Ttrtor: Are the two weights the same? Student: No. so 6 N is mg for the lighter box. T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It has ma^ss. so I'll use rng for the weight of the book and M g for the weight of the table. Ttrtor: Is the normal force that the floor puts on the table the same size as the normal force that the book puts on the table? Student: Not necessarily. Student: It also has ma. so it has weight Are the two masses the same? Student: No.
What forces are there on the 4 kg box? Tutor: Are the tension forces the same? Student: If they were. then we . T\rtor: They could be the same. so the box would fall. T\rtor: Is the tension pulling up on the 4 kS box equal to Tr or Tz? Student: It is the same rope as the one that pulls down on the 3 kg. If it is massless. but the net force on the heavy box is downward and it does accelerate. Isn't the tension equal to the weight of Tntor: If it is. So I don't know the size of the tension force. so it is ?2. so it has weight downward. Student: And then the rope would have to become longer. and a 4 kg box hangs from the 3 kg box from another rope. then the tensions are the same. rz9 EXAMPLE A 3 kg box hangs from the ceiling by u rope.I Tutor: Student: Are the tensions the same or different? As long as it is the same massless rope. would remain. Draw a freebody diagram for each box. they would add to zero and only the weight Tutor: Student: It also has mass. so ?1 up and ?z down. T\rtor: Student: What if it had mass? We would need to draw an additional freebody diagram for the rope. and the pulley is massless and frictionless. T\rtor: As long as the rope is massless.36 CHAPTER 5. FORCE AND MOTION . Student: So I use the same symbol the lighter box? T in each freebody diagram. so I'll use msg for the 3 kS box and mzg for the 4 kg box. so it has weight downward. They must be different. There is a tension force upward and a tension force Student: It has mass. if the boxes were falling with acceleration g. then the light box has zero net force on it and doesn't accelerate. 0 T\rtor: What forces are there on the 3 kg box? rng downward. There is also a tension force upward. Are the two masses the same? Student: No.
If you choose one of the axes to be parallel to the acceleration. Find the component of that force along the axis. and go through the forces one at a time. The box is pulled to the right by r rope that is 35o above horizontal and has a force of 26 N. the normal force l/ upward. T Newton says that if we add all of the forces on an object we get the ma. you can add the force vectors. zero. Once you have your axes. EXAMPLE A 3 kg box sits on the floor. so long as they are perpendicular to each other. then think about solving the equations. Do each axis. Take one axis. It is common to be missing two or more. then the math will be much easier to do. Add all of the components and set that total equal to the mass times the acceleration along that axis. and the tension force ? up and to the right. or we would have nothing to solve for. Student: Which is zero no matter what the acceleration is. The forces are vectors. To do this we need axes (usually two. sometimes three). so the tension is the same everywhere on the rope. so we need to divide them into components to add them. We've got to be missing one variable. If the acceleration is zero. so we'll need additional equations in order to get a solution. with the weight rng downward. Student: . times the acceleration of the rope. Don't worry if you don't know values for all of the symbols in the equation. Find the acceleration of the box. We already did that for this problem.ss times the acceleration of that object. Aty set of axes will work. Find the normal force that the floor exerts on the box. and ofrben the forces are not colinear (along a single line). then choose any a)ces you like.37 have the tension at top and bottom and they add to the mass. Tutor: How do we begin? We draw a freebody diagram for the box.
38 CHAPTER 5. so the weight is negative. FORCB A. so the . Student: I don't know the normal force so I can't find ^l12 ar. so horizontal and to the right. ar Ttrtor :7. Tutor: What is the r component of the normal force? Student: The normal force is also perpendicular to the r axis. the weight would be positive. Student: I choose / to the right and y upward. so the r component is zero. mg + lf +T sin35o : rno. we need to divide the vectors into components. so it's positive.I  (3 kg)o. T\rtor: But the weight is negative because it is opposite to the y axis. or vertical. We chose the axes so that all of the acceleration . It's down. so I can solve the first equation (26 N) cos 35o and find ar.a T\rtor: Student: Can we solve these? The tension ? is 26 N. It's in the same direction a. T\rtor: Newton says that if we add the force vectors together. Tutor: Student: EF" : TTLar and EFo T\rtor: What is the r component of the weight? The weight is perpendicular to the r axis.r component is zero. Student: To add the forces. so all of it. T\rtor: Yes. What is the A component of the weight? The weight is parallel to the y axis.  rrlao Student: ? cos 35o  TTLar Let's do the A components.I 'J What is the direction of the acceleration? The box will slide along the floor. the result will be equal to the mass of the box times its acceleration.r component is adjacent to the 35o angle. T\rtor: What is the r component of the tension? Student: The . Student: Yes.s the y T\rtor: Student: axis. so the A component is +lf. so it's cosine. so it's sine. then we can apply Newton's second law for each axis. Tutor: Choose one axis parallel to the acceleration and the second axis perpendicular to the first. ? aa is the acceleration in the g direction. so it's negative. and the normal force is also parallel to the A axis. Had you chosen the y axis downward. T\rtor: What is the y component of the tension? Student: The r component is opposite to the 35o angle.IVD MOTIO]V .
Student: So a. ^l/ be negative? No. then the A component of the normal force would have been . this would be negative. Ttrtor: Student: . so it must be positive no matter what direction the normal T\rtor: Student: That force is. We use the drawing to get the direction right.39 would be in the r direction. the man is pushing on the box. like Flv.4 N) + ^^r + (14. so some people try to choose other symbols for the normal force.Af on the left is in italics.e N) 0 .Ar  14. T\rtor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: The only things touching it are the man and the ramp surface.5 N looks strange.  0. The box has a mass of 24 kg and the ramp is 28" compared to the horizontal. 10o above horizontal. It can be confusing. so it is a unit.4f . which indicates that it's a variable. the normal force is perpendicular to the surface. Student: So to see if the normal force is up or dowtr. (3 Student: Now ks)(e. with .l/ on each side. The . so there is a force that I'll call P. but we still don't know how big it is. (2e. n) or q. The weight is mg downward. T\rtor: N is the magnitude of the normal force. Student: Right. The N on the right is in plaintype. Also. so we have them all.8 ^l12) + lr + Q6 N) sin35o : (3 kg)(0) I can solve for the normal force l/. then shouldn't EXAMPLE A man pushes on a box that is on a ramp. and because l[ is positive. T\rtor: Is the normal force really upward? The surface isn't horizontal. I have to look back at the drawing. 1lrtor: Student: If I had chosen down as the g axis. What is the acceleration of the box? How do we begin? We draw a freebody diagram for the box. and the symbol is equal to the magnitude. What is the direction of the normal force? Student: It's positive so it's upward. There is a normal force N upward. and we did those and gravity. He pushes with a force of 100 N at 10o above horizontal.
up and to the left. T\rtor: What is the A component of the weight? Student: The y component of the weight is adjacent to the 28" angle. Because the box slides along the ramp. so it's negative. T\rtor: What is the r component of the weight? Student: Part of the weight is parallel to the r axis. We have to do it in both the r and y direction. but then you'd have a" and as. . and Student: Why is that? Why can't I use r right y vp? You could. so it's cosine. so it's 90o . T\rtor: Student: . Tutor: What is the r component of the push force? Student: Ttre push is 18o from the r axis. Student: So the r component of the weight is opposite to the 28" angle. The angle at the top is 900 . It goes in the opposite direction as the y axis. then you have two only equations and often you can solve each one by itself. Tutor: Student: Now we can write Newton's second law. and you wouldn't know either.40 CHAPTER 5. but how do we find the angle? Tutor: Consider the triangle formed by the ramp and the weight force. T\rtor: mg sin28o + P cos 18o : rrlar What is the y component of the normal force? The normal force is parallel to the y axis.I NI .28o. so to add the vectors we need to have two axes.tan 28". FORCE A]VD MOTION. so the gr component is +lf. Student: Ok y. If aa :0.to T\rtor: T\rtor: much easier rn9 The vectors are not all colinear.29" right angle. so the r component is zero. The math will be if one axis is parallel to the acceleration. you'd have a third equation aalo. so it's negative. It goes in the opposite direction as the r axis. much easier. EF" : Trlar and EFo  TTLao What is the tr component of the normal force? Student: The normal force is perpendicular to the r axis. r is up the ramp and g is perpendicular to it. so it's sine.62" . and you'd have to solve simultaneous equations.
Does the accel eration tell us which way something is moving? Student: The acceleration tells us how the velocity is changing.4L o a o 6 t I T\rtor: Student: What is the y component of the push force? The y component is opposite to the 18". It's opposite to the y a. can we solve for the acceleration? We want the acceleration up the ramp at) and we know everything else in the (24 kg)(9. have to be positive? T\rtor2 ar is a component. What does a negative a. The box could be moving up the ramp but slowing. not a magnitude. so we Trrtor: can solve.s pushing harder earlier.cis. J . so it could be negative. so it's negative.. because he wa. How can we tell? T\rtor: We can't. Student: Now that we've applied Newton's second law. mean? Student: A negative a.Af  mgcos 28o  Psin 18o : *gdj r equation. as: 15 N o'64mfs2 (24 ks)o. Perhaps the box was moving up the ramp. He isn't pushing hard enough to move the box up the ramp. not from the information we have. so it's sine. means that the acceleration is down the ramp. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Which way is the box moving? The acceleration is down the ramp. .8 ^1"') sin 28" + (100 N) cos 18" (110 N) + (e5 N) : (24 ks)o. ffi: Student: Doesn't o. so the box is moving down the ramp.
I'lladdtheforcesonthe 12Nbox. How big is the tension force? mOg rnng  . each object can have its own set of axes. That would be a problem. Student: So the tension is between mag and mng. Student: We can do that? T\rtor: Yes. upward? I choose g upward. pulley. a 6 N box and a 12 N box hang from a rope over a frictionless. How do we add Tutor: Will both boxes accelerate Tutor: Student: Student: They're vectors. Student: We start by drawing the freebody diagram. we get the mass times the acceleration. the tension must be more than its weight. To do this. But you still need to be consistent in using the correct axes for each object. This will come in handy when the accelerations aren't parallel. we use separate axes for the two objects. so I only need one axis. so down is positive for the 12 N box and up is positive for the 6 N box. Student: Of course. T\rtor: Yes. . Tutor: For the lighter box to accelerate up. massless Find the acceleration of the boxes. Student: Okay. then the total force on the lighter box is zero and it doesn't move but the heavier one does. We already did this one. FORCE A]VD MOTIOJV .Ttt L2a ? T\rtor: If the tension is equal to the weight of the lighter box. T\rtor: You mean that the heavier box will accelerate down. the tension must be less than its weight. One will move up when the other moves down. Thetensionisequaltotheweightof thelighterbox. How will their accelerations compare? Student: They will be the same. except one will be positive and the other will be negative. For the heavier box to accelerate down. I think that the heavier box will move down. since we could apply an additional force so that the lighter one moves down. Student: You mean doesn't accelerate. T\rtor: forces? Newton says that if we add the forces.I EXAMPLE In an Atwood's machine. T\rtor: It would be handy if they were the same.42 CHAPTER 5. like if one of the boxes was on a ramp. but they are all up and down.
The result is positive. so you have two equations and two variables. so I'll add the two equatiorrs. mngmog:rrtrL2a*rraoa (*rr*u)g(*rr*m6)a (L2 N  6 N)(e. So apply Newtonts second law to each box. accelerating .rrr6a Ttrtor: But they have the sarne two variables. and you can solve them together. What does that mean?  ro. that's why we made it a variable.B ^ls2 in the directions I chose as positive.8 (I2 ^ls2)  N + 6 N)a (!: Tutor: Student: That the boxes a.re moving (oXt(g='g=in/s'z) (1820 : B. rnngTffttza T . Student: Each equation has two variables. Student: I want the acceleration and not the tension.43 T\rtor: Student: We don't know. so I can't solve either of them.mag .
friction pushes the car forward. Eriction will even cause motion in order to prevent sliding. You may think that friction opposes motion. What are the forces acting on the bottle? There is gravity mg down. Kinetic friction tries to stop the sliding. As he does so. and static friction is when they aren't sliding yet. what would happen to the bottle? Student: There would be no horizontal forces. the bottle slides with the tablecloth. Of all of the things that you think you intuitively know. He doesn't exert a force on the bottle. so I guess it wouldn't move. What force could be to the left? Student: Gravity is down and the normal force is up. The only force remaining is friction. The same thing works when walking. There is also a friction force /1 against the motion. Student: It just moves because the tablecloth is moving. To prevent this slipping. the tires would rotate but the car wouldn't move. A physics teacher slowly pulls the tablecloth to the left. and static friction tries to prevent sliding EXAMPLE Consider a tablecloth on a table. static and kinetic. and many physics books say so. where friction pushes your shoe forward. so it can't be those. and a bottle sitting on the tablecloth. Fbiction comes in two types. What force causes it to move to the left? Student: The teacher is pulling on it.Chapter 6 Force and Motion II second In this chapter we add two things to what we did last chapter. but he isn't touching the bottle. If there was no friction. but friction opposes sliding of surfaces. of course. or up. so the bottle and tablecloth would be slidittg against each other. causing motion. If you push on the accelerator. the engine turns the tires. and a normal force l/r perpendicular to the surface. and the is things moving in a circle. This first is friction forces. Imagine that you are driving a car that is currently at rest. Kinetic friction is when the surfaces are already sliding against each other. T\rtor: Newton says that the bottle can't accelerate to the left without a force to the left. Fbiction tries to prevent sliding. T\rtor: The teacher is pulling on the tablecloth. the one you are most likely to get backwards is friction. and how can that be to the left? T\rtor: If there was no friction. Thtor: Student: 44 . T\rtor: Correct. Draw freebody diagrams for the bottle and the tablecloth. so the tires would slip on the ground. but the tablecloth would move to the left. or right. Ttrtor: The bottle accelerates to the left.
T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: Which way does the friction force from the table act? Student: The tablecloth is sliding to the left. What are the Student: It has gravity tablecloth right. it would cause the book to move. What type of friction is it? Student: I was going to say "kinetic" because the bottle is movirg. so it's kinetic friction and it pushes the tablecloth right. If there was a friction force. Imagine a book sittirg on a table. Since there doesn't need to be any friction to prevent sliding. so the bottle exerts a normal force l/r down. There are no horizontal forces on the book. Student: The tablecloth pushes the bottle up. so it sits motionless on the table. The bottle isn't sliding on the tablecloth. there is no friction force. so it's static friction. even though there isn't any sliding between the bottle and the tablecloth? Thtor: One way to prevent sliding is to push the bottle to the left. friction moves the bottle to keep it from sliding on the tablecloth. but I'll think again.45 T\rtor: Yes. . and a normal force Ir{z from the table upward. Just because two surfaces are in contact does not mean that there is a friction force. Because there is a normal force. Student: So friction pushes the bottle to the left so that it doesn't slide? I T\rtor: fcrrces acting on the tablecloth? fuIg downward. T\rtor: The tablecloth also exerts a friction force on the bottle. Student: So the bottle pustres the tablecloth to the right with an equal and opposite force ft. but the other way is to push the Correct. there could be a friction force f2 from the table. so the bottle exerts one on the tablecloth. There are also forces from the bottle.
always put the static friction forces in last. max : pkN. up to a maximum of F". where Fu is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force between the surfaces. How do you know that the box is sliding? Because someone pushes it. then ask.45 N. Because there is a normal f . EXAMPLE A box sits on a table. how do I check? Student: it didn't move? Frl/. Do all other forces first. This is because the static friction can be in any direction needed to keep sliding from happening. Someone is pushing to the right with a force . I need to know the normal force. The magnitude of the kinetic friction force is ^F'k . The magnitude of the static friction force is anything it needs to be to prevent sliding. T\rtor: Student: How big could the static friction force be? Static friction could be as big as f. but we'll do that last. because the box is sliding. I still make mistakes if I skip the diagram with only two forces. What is the friction force on the box? Tutor: Where do we start? diagram? T\rtor: If you have more than one force. there could be a friction force Okay. FORCE A]VD MOTIOIV .l[. The box has a mass of 8 kg and the coefficients of friction between the box and the table are Fs :0.rrax : . is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force between the surfaces. and a normal force lf pushes up. A horizontal force of 45 N pushes the box to the right. Gravity mg goes down.4. Tutor: Have you ever pushed something and then Student: Okay. T\rtor: What would happen if there were no friction force? Student: The box would accelerate to the right.il When drawing your freebody diagram. sliding across the floor. then you need a freebody diagram. "in which direction would it slide if there was no friction?" Add the static friction in to prevent this sliding.46 CHAPTER 6. FYiction point to the left to oppose the sliding. Student: Can't we skip the freebody Student: P force. rurg T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. you don't know which way the static friction will be. Is it static or kinetic friction? Student: Kinetic.7 and pu : 0.pr. Until you know in which direction something would slide if there was no friction. where p.
and the box doesn't move.47 . Thtor: What if the box were already moving? Student: Then it would be sliding.8 ^ls2)  55 N The static friction force can be as big as 55 N. and there is a friction force the freebody diagram. F"mg  (0. The coefficients of friction between the box and the floor are Fs :0.47 T\rtor: To get the normal force. Gravity mg is down. : p"l/ : T\rtor: Tutor: How big is the friction force? 55 N. Student: It's if Fu: /r"l/ : F.8 mls2) : 3t N EXAMPLE A boy pulls on a box with a rope that is 23" above horizontal to the right. l[ is up.0. T\rtor: Yes. What happens the friction force is 55 N? Student: The total force is to the left. He pulls with a force of 50 N and the mass of the box is 8 kg. There . What is the acceleration of the box? Student: First we draw is a tension T  50 N up and to the right. but it doesn't have to be 55 N. he pushes to the right and the box accelerates to the left. and the normal force F to the lefb. so the friction force will only be 45 N.ffis  (0.4)(8 kS)(9.A/ mg*ilO rng .56 and ltrk .Af Student: Static friction could be as big as F^. Does that make sense? Student: No.7)(8 kg)(9. and the friction would be kinetic friction. add the vertical forces: .
If it isn't enough. we need to write down the Newton's second law equations.II T\rtor: Ttrtor: Tutor: Is it static friction or kinetic friction? Student: That depends on whether the box is sliding across the floor.9 N) : (8 kg)a" (18. (50 N) cos 23"  (0. If it is. Student: So the normal force is still 58. (50 N) cos 23" (46. then the box slides and there is kinetic friction. Now I can find the accelera T\rtor: Since the box moves.9N (0.ax ?sin23o +N 0 : prN..rnar and f  EFn : TTLay Student: If the box accelerates. becaus€ frr. so the box does move. is the friction still static. then the acceleration is zero. I'll ?cos 23" v7lar. Student: Does that help you? Yes. To do that.0 N)  (33.5 : N .(8 ks)(9. use that as the r uris and up a. What is the acceleration of the box? . The total r force is positive.0 N) : (8 kg)o.Jmls2 A 6 kg box is sliding up a 34o ramp at L4 mf s. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the ramp it /ru : 0. it will do so to the right. How do we check? Student: We see if the static friction would be enough to keep it from sliding. Good. (50 N) sin 23" + (19.4 N) : 0 N58.47) (58.36.(78. rngrngl(" Student: au is zero because all of the acceleration is in the r direction.s the y ucis. That means I have to start over with kinetic friction.9 N. EF* .9 N) 0 fr.56)(58. Student: tion. T\rtor: You only need to go back to the r equation. Nothing about the y equation has changed.48 CHAPTER 6.3 N) : (8 kg)o" ar:(1:lP (8 ks) EXAMPTE :2."* : prN   33. Student: The friction is really kinetic. because the box is sliding.8 ^1"2) N) + N .0 N T\rtor: Student: I'll put it in the r What are you going to do with the maximum static friction force? equation and see if the box moves. FORCE AND MOTION. T\rtor: Can you do anything with these equations? T\rtor: Student: I can solve the second one to find N. or to the right.0 N) : (8 kg)a"  (33.
Will it point up or down the ramp? Student: Won't friction always be down the ramp? T\rtor: Fliction opposes sliding. then use that to solve the r equation for the acceleration. Just to be different. Student: With the freebody Student: Of course. mg sin 34o f : TTLar + lf . There is no pushing force.7 N . the friction force will be down the ramp. Also there is a force P pushing the box up the ramp.mgcos 34o . Because there is a normal force. T\rtor: Something did push the box to get it going up the ramp. And since it's already sliding. of course. Which way should I pick as the axis? Tutor: It really doesn't matter whether up or down the ramp is positive.8 ^ls2) cos 34"  48. but that something is done pushing now. Can something be moving up without an upward force on it? Student: Yes. it will be kinetic friction.^r  nxgcos 34"  (6 kg)(9. Thtor: Now you can choose axes and apply Newton's second law. Student: I choose r up the ramp. I need to know F. I see. and the normal force N is perpendicular to the surface. so f . if there was a force in the past. Student: The box is going up the ramp. It's kinetic friction.49 T\rtor: Where do we begin? diagram. there could be a friction force F. Tutor: How will you get the normal force? Student: I can solve the gt equation to find the normal force l[.*ilO T\rtor: Can you solve these equations to find the acceleration? Student: To find o. Gravity mg is down. T\rtor: The problem doesn't mention a force pushing the box up the ramp. Remember to pick one axis parallel to the acceleration. but if you choose r horizontal the math will get messy. I'll take y down into the ramp. so if the box is sliding up the ramp. but friction and gravity are both pushing it down the ramp. T\rtor: The friction force has to be parallel to the ramp surface.FuN . Where did that come from? Student: Something had to push the box or it wouldn't go up the ramp. in the direction of the initial velocity. .
treat the problem like you would any other. You need to go through the steps. choose axes.4 ^lsz always lf . It is important to realize that centripetal force is not a real force and never  If something is going in a circle. The centripetal force F" is going down. toward the middle of the circle. Even if it travels at a constant speed. Is the normal force When somethirg goes in a circle. T\rtor: Good. Draw the freebody diagram. EXAMPLE t A roller coaster goes over a hill of radius 30 m. and apply Newton's second law. T\rtor: There is no centripetal force. goes in the freebody diagram. The real force on you is friction with the seat pushing you to the left. The name "centripetal force" refers to the total force when the object is going in a circle. in the negative direction. so that's all of them. A stationary observer sees that you are continuing straight while the car turns underneath you. FORCE AAID MOTIO]V  U  mg sin 34o sin 34o . The acceleration of something going in a circle is toward the middle and is ac u2 where u is the speed and r is the radius of the circle. its velocity is always changing. You might think that you feel a force pushing you to the right. so the acceleration is downward. as always.36)(48. There will be forces that you already know that add up to equal the centripetal force muz f r.prl/ :  ma. The perceived force to the right is similar to a perceived force backwards when the car accelerates forward if the seat didn't push you forward you would stay there while the car moved out from under you. . What speed is needed to achieve weightlessness? Student: As the coaster goes over the hill.8 ^l12) (0.50 CHAPTER 6. Gravity mg is going down and the normal force l/ is going up. Student: Then how can the coaster accelerate downward? T\rtor: The forces that do exist must add up to go downward. the acceleration is down the ramp.mg cos 0? T\rtor: Not always. the velocity is changing because the direction is changing. it is going in a circle. Is the normal force equal to the weight? T\rtor: Student: Not necessarily. and the only thing in contact with the coaster is the track. and it never goes in the freebody diagram. Student: As we expected.r  (6 ks)(e. The only difference is that the total force will be toward the middle of the circular path. Student: Are there any other forces besides weight and normal force? We did the weight. toward the middle of the circle. Where do we begin? Student: With the freebody diagram. and the acceleration will be u2 f r. Imagine that you are in a car when the car turns to the left. toward the right of the car.7 N)  (6 kg)o" ar: 8.
we someti. and the weight provides the force to accelerate it downward. The rider feels the normal force from the seat momentarily disappear. but you don't "feel" a force. But to go over the hill. What happens as the coaster goes faster? Student: As u increases. so the left side gets larger too. Student: And all of this happens when T\rtor: U _ lrFg : m)(e. then the total force will be down.8 T\rtor: Right. then the acceleration will be down to be positive so that the acceleration will be positive. T\rtor: Yes. I choose EF ma mg 'Af . so that the normal force can pull downward too. Perhaps we should call it normalforcelessness. it's the sum of the two. it does fall. the total force is equal to the centripetal force. The coaster "falls" at exactly the same curvature that the track has. so the normal force must get smaller. like on the Magnum at Cedar Point in Ohio. Student: But how can there be no normal force? Won't the coaster fall? T\rtor: Yes. call the total force mu2 f r the "centripetal force. When the coaster goes too fast you feel yourself being jerked downward.".Af was a magnitude and couldn't be ^1"') 17mfs . If up is positive. Choose an axis and add the forces. and the coaster comes off of the track. negative. The weight hasn't changed. in an arc. What happens if the coaster goes even faster? Student: Then the curvature of the track is greater than the path of the coaster. T\rtor: We call it "weightlessness" when l/ : 0.*t When something is going in a circle. Remember that the acceleration is downward." Which of the forces in the problem is the centripetal force? Student: Neither. the right side gets larger. Student: I choose Apply Newton's second law. Student: So would I put in a negative value for lf? I thought . it needs to accelerate downward. up to be positive. and restraints for the riders. That would be dangerous.51 tN P ng T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Is it possible for the forces to add to a total that points downward? Student: If the weight is greater than the normal force. Student: Ol*y. T\rtor: Does the weight increase as the coaster goes faster? Student: No. T\rtor: Modern coasters have wheels under the track.
T\rtor: Correct on all counts. But when the coin has gone halfway around. Ttrtor: A negative that the force goes in the opposite direction a"s drawn in the diagram.0. Tutor: Correct. FORCE AND MOTION .0. and y is up. T\rtor: We can move the axes with the coin. Which way is the coin accelerating? Student: It's going in a circle. wait. there is no such thing. so that r is always pointing from the coin into the center of the circle. Because there is a normal force. Do we always want the maximum friction force? When we want a limit. 14 cm from the center. r is in toward the center and parallel to the acceleration. we want the maximum static friction T\rtor: force. it has to be parallel to the surface. No. then we want the maximum friction Student: Okay. that the coin can go.52 CHAPTER value for . there could be a friction force . T\rtor: What force is pushing it that way? Student: Centripetal force. and a normal force how big l[ is. like when does the coin start to slip. The coefficients of friction between the coin and the turntable are F" . We don't know T\rtor: force. in what direction will it go? We start with the freebody diagram. The coin isn't sliding yet.48. How big can friction be? Student: N upward. so it's static friction. EXAMPLE A small coin is placed on a turntable (like an old record player). Or you could draw a new diagram with the normal force down.62 and Fk . How fast can the coin go before it slips? If it slips.Af indicates 6. I pick axes. so in toward the middle. r will be away from the center. and it doesn't need to be opposite to the motion. The coin has weight rng downward. FYiction must be toward the middle of the turntable. T\rtor: In which direction is the friction force? Student: Well. Student: Now I apply Newton's second law.II negative. There isn't any force in that direction. Student: Student: Since the problem asks for the fastest Up to Frl/. F TTLar .F.
Because there is a normal force there could also be a friction force /. so it needs even more force in toward the middle. Once the coin is off of the turntable.la m)  . Nothing else is in contact with the car. The curve is banked at 11" and the coefficient of static friction between the car and the road is 0. away from the center. There is a normal force . Our car is going even faster.53 +lr msgdj Student: I can solve the second equation for l/. . Tutor: Does it go directly away from the center? It was moving around the center. Student: So friction points in toward the middle? Doesn't it have to be parallel to the road surface? .8 m/s2)(0. maybe it'll cancel. Student: I need to know then find f.@r)(e. Student: There is a gravity force mg pulling it down..nf perpendicular to the surface of the road. and then find ar. T\rtor: What is the direction of the friction force? Student: It isn't necessarily opposite to the motion. without which all hope is lost. there will be no friction. T\rtor: Keep going. What is the maximum speed of the car around the curve? T\rtor: We start by drawing the freebody diagram. Which way would the car slide without friction? T\rtor: Very good. so the coin will move in a straight line.8 m/s2) a :rtffi o . the friction will be kinetic.48. There is a speed at which the horizontal component of the normal force is just enough force so that the car goes around the curve. What are the forces after it slips? Student: Once it slips.62)fr(s.Arr  mg the mass m.e2 mls T\rtor: What if the coin goes faster than this? Student: It flies off of the turntable. prl{  *tTt (0. which is smaller. EXAMPTE A 1500 kg car goes around a curve of radius 200 m. so there are no other forces.
T\rtor: Student: I know everything to find u.nf. f p. we couldn't do this. so the acceleration is horizontal.rng . Is the circle that the car is traveling completely horizontal or parallel to the ramp? Student: It is horizontal. If the speed was some arbitrary value. and u. I can find l/ Ncos 11o ^A/ + lf sin 11o + lt and use it in the top equation (cos 11o  psin 11") : rng . so the static friction force is as big as it can be. You need the relation between the friction force / and the normal force .*t + lf cos 11o . Student: Why is it static friction? Isn't the car moving compared to the road? Thtor: The tires are rolling.54 T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: zHAPTER 6. or f < p. goes straight.fsin 11o .rngl O in the second equation except l/. . it's static friction.Alr. The acceleration is also down the ramp. and the y axis needs to be perpendicular to that. l[ sin 11o + fcos 11o : TTLer . rather than slipping.N.I want to find u. The r axis needs to be horizontal. toward the middle of the circle. FzRCE AlvD MoTIoN Yes. There isn't enough friction and the car turn enough. Student: Ohy. . Student: Is / : FN.N this time? T\rtor: We want the fastest speed.  rr Yes. but of the choices up and down the ramp. Imagine trying to go around a turn on an icy day.*!' + lf cos 11o . T\rtor: Yes. I need another piece of information. Since there is no slipping. So friction points down the ramp. which is in toward the middle of the turn? Down the ramp. f . or doesn't student: Now I can apply Newton's second law. Can you do anything with these equations? Student: I have three unknowns. now I need axes. T\rtor: The acceleration is toward the middle of the circle. Fbiction pushes the car in toward the turn.1tl{sin 11o .*ilO Good. so up.
\ rrro 11o I \e*r r'r * '"vl'rr' 11') : *t r ttcos rr ."o ' unn l): n . .ttsin 11o) = .55 /[: ( \(cos 11" .2 mls: 85 mph What if we were going slower than the magrc speed where no friction is needed? Then the horizontal component of the normal force would be too much.: ffi9 .psin f ft)/ . . and friction would have to point the other way. *9 t): (cos 11o .38. . Tlrtor: Student: .
add the number made and subtract the number shipped.Chapter 7 Kinetic Energy and Work Energy is the power to make something move. and the speed stays the same but the direction of motion may change.J = Fd cos 1> If the force F is in the same direction as the motion J. The equation for energy is Ki+W=Kj or. What it does mean is that we can account for the change. we can solve for the one we don't know. If we take the number of chairs at the beginning of the day. but are made and shipped. By this we mean that chairs do not suddenly appear or disappear. We could count how many chairs were still in the factory. then the work is zero. Lots of things use energy. If the force is in the opposite direction as the motion. For example. If we know all of the terms in the equation except one. but it includes a lot of stuff. Just because something is "conserved" does not mean it doesn't change. the work is negative. then some must have been loaded onto a truck and sent to the customer. we get the number of chairs in the factory now. and is the important technique of this chapter. The kinetic energy of a moving object is Note that the kinetic energy is positive even if the velocity is in the negative direction. the energy increases. so energy is the power to make tunes. the initial kinetic energy plus the work is the final kinetic energy. but only turned from one form of energy into another. the energy decreases. Conservation of energy is one of those laws. and use the equation from the last paragraph to determine how many chairs had been loaded. That might not sound terribly interesting. and the speed decreases. If the force is perpendicular to the motion. How do we use conservation? What if the truck left the factory and no one counted how many chairs were on board. then someone made some more. It is a principle of physics that energy is conserved. If there are more chairs now than there were an hour ago. and the speed increases. This means that energy is neither created nor destroyed. Doing work is how we change the energy. Objects have kinetic energy when they are moving. the work is positive. chairs in a chair factory are conserved. Sound is moving air molecules. The work done on an object is W = F . the energy doesn't change. If there are fewer chairs. 56 . Conservation laws are a very powerful technique for solving problems.
15. because there is a normal force there could be a friction force /. Student: Gravity mg is down. T\rtor: Yes. A newton times 1Nx1m1J EXAMPLE A 3 kg box is pulled 6 m across the floor. Wc  Fdcos O . T\rtor: Is it kinetic or static friction? Student: to the left.J( The units of work and energy are the same meter is a joule. and the box moves sideways. gaining kinetic energy? Student: Not on a level floor. Wr  Fdcos O (26 N)(6  ) cos35o  128 J T\rtor: Good. To find the work done by each force we need to know what they are. As the box slides to the right. Ary force that is perpendicular to . even though we're using energy? rr3 Tutor: Student: What is the work that the tension does on the box? The tension is 26 N and at a 35o angle. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is 0. normal force . So if gravity doesn't change the kinetic energy.((S x)(9.Af is up. The box is sliding. it does no work. the friction on the box will be Student: Do we still start with a freebody diagram. and tension ? is up and to the right. and find the speed of the box after it has been pulled 6 m.8 mf s2)) (6 m) cos90o :0 J T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Does that make sense? Gravity really does no work? Does gravity cause the box to speed up as it moves. How much work is done by gravity? Student: Gravity is up.  they need to be so that we can add them. the nrotion does zero work. so it's kinetic. The box is pulled to the right by a rope that is 35o above horizontal and has a force of 26 N. Find the work that each force does on the box.
Tty using conservation of energy. T\rtor: Student: And I didn't even need to figure out what +lf +Tsin35o mg *6 0 (26 N) sin35o . Wx  Fdcos 0 . The work needed to compress or stretch a spring a distance r from its normal length is lv"pri. even if a newer technique works better.mg T sin35o .lf(6 m) cos90o :0 J the normal force is.8 ^lsz) T\rtor: Student: I just I4.5 N thought of something. . You could do that.kr The minus sign generally does not go into an equation. What if 7 was so big that the normal force was negative? Could the floor be pulling the box down? What would happen if you pulled really hard? Student: No. the acceleration will not be constant. The force from a spring is 4rprirrg . is that work and energy is the easiest way to deal with springs. T\rtor: Fliction could cause the box to slow down. Student: Negative work? Then I need the friction force p.so . Because the force from a spring will change if it is compressed. The work done by friction is Wy  Fdcos 0  [(0.Kf Kr:0. which would be taking energy out.^r .15)(14. But the more you compress it the greater the force you need.8 m/s I a 2(115 J) 3ks At this point we introduce springs. so I need the normal force after all.58 CHAPTER 7.so o Kt*W . Wedo I28 J+0+0+(13J) 115Jof + (115 J) work.s : !rf"' When first compressing a spring. when talking about work and energy. so it does no work. Conservation of energy works well when the acceleration is not constant.!*r' 2 8. KI]VETIC EJVERGY AND WORK The normal force is also perpendicular to the motionr so Student: That's a good thing to remember. so os wouldn't be zero. k is the "spring constart. and each cm takes more work than the previous one. The units of k are newtons of force for each meter that the spring is compressed (newtons/meter). Many physics students try to use the first thing they learned for everything. Tutor: Student: Student: Theboxisn'tmovingtostart. How much work does friction do? Student: Fliction doesn't cause the box to speed up. The box would lift off of the floor. the force is zero so no work is needed. or doing negative work.(3 kg)(9.5 N)] (6 m) cos180". The work is equal to the average force *tr" times the distan ce r. It is there to remind us that the force of the spring is opposite to fr) where r is how much the spring is stretched or compressed." a constant for any particular spring (though a different spring will have a different k). The reason to introduce springs here.I{.13 J Now I can apply Newton's second law in the r direction and find the acceleration.
Let's assume that this is the case. T\rtor: So you can use any pair of perpendicular axes. but you still have three unknowns. to keep the block from sliding down the wall. and friction is equal to the weight. Can we say that the static friction force is equal to . .g.. and f. yes.Af * 4prins  mgsin 15o : mg4. and.61 and Fk ... Student: It's static friction because it isn't sliding. there could be a friction force.s : kr? Student: No. exactly. The weight mg is down.i. and a 2 kg block is placed against the wall. F*nring is the magnitude of the spring force. Not all of the weight is parallel to the friction force. Student: I choose parallel to the spring force as r. opposite the normal force? Tutor: Probably. TUtor: Doing well.59 EXAMPLE A wall is tilted in by 15". Three unknowns T\rtort I can use Frpri.kr. T\rtor: But then you introduce the unknown k. since you want to solve for k eventually. Because there is a normal force. I want {rpri.49. Student: Ah. and you have the direction in your equation already. and parallel to friction as y.0 +Finformation. Do you really want {"pri. The friction force pushes up the wall. The normal force N is perpendicularly out of the surface. Student: I' I I I ft3' t a I I t Tutor: Student: So the spring force is equal to the normal force.0.g and only two equations.. but there is no acceleration. Pushing in toward the wall. The coefficients of friction between the block and the wall are ltrs :0. What is the spring constant of the spring? We start with the freebody diagram. Holding the block in place requires that the spring be compressed by 12 cm. I choose axes. There is also a spring force. What is the direction of the spring force? Student: It doesn't s&y. mgcos15o *ilO I need one more piece of T\rtor: How many unknowns do you have? Student: I have l/.g ..  . {sp. This is fine. The block is held in place with a spring.
the spring force will decrease.12  rng (rir. use energy? There was a spring in the last problem. whenever a spring . A 2 kg block is placed on the spring. How far above its initial position does the block go? A spring with spring constant k  T\rtor: Student: Gravity mg points down. and the spring is released.r\ and solve for k. as the spring force changes. then we are at the limit and we can say that. and a normal force l[ is upward. but we didn't use energy. r ^" * ' \"^^^ 1bo 15'\ lt" /  (2 ks)(9'8 m/s2) m /rir \"'^ lbo . What forces act on the block? force. it's almost always easier to use a conservation law. then put it in the top equation .60 CHAPTER 7. T\rtor: It really is a normal force. T\rtor: When the acceleration is not constant. like conservation of energy. a spring force F"p points upward. as the spring uncompresses. lf*krrngsinl5o:0 * lt"'Af . 15o \ + to:]5" p \ ) tIt rns (rir. the total force changes. First we draw the freebody diagram. since it is a force between surfaces. #) : 801 N/m EXAMPLE 1600 N/* is placed on the ground and pressed down 6 cm. so the acceleration changes. but we call it a spring Student: Okuy.0 Student: I can solve the bottom equation for lf. ilr nxg cos 15o kr  mgsin 1bo cos + mg cosLl" F" 0. Student: T\rtor: Student: So whenever a spring is involved.mg cos 15o . KINETIC BNERGY AND WORK the maximum static friction force? T\rtor: If L2 cm is the smallest compression of the spring that will hold the block. T\rtor: Is the acceleration constant? Student: No. Tutor: Is the spring force constant? No. More precisely.
T\rtor: How much is it compressed after the block flies up? Student: Zero. Then the work is zero and everything is zero and we can't solve for anything. T\rtor: Because the equation for the work of a spring is nonlinear. T\rtor: Is the initial compression of the spring equal to the distance that the block moves up? Tutor: Student: I guess not. the spring compression changes by 6 cm. Kt*W . Does the spring do positive or negative work? Student: The spring pushes up. that's a tipoff to try energy first. we don't know d.ffi*t) .r')2  *)' N/)(0.o6 ]11o.o I . We need to do both the initial and final compression. How much is the spring initially compressed? Student: By 6 cm. and since the directions are the same it's positive work. and the block moved more than that.Kf Student: The block starts at rest . but not one that we're really familiar ^lr2)  2(2 ke)(e. so Ki is zero. TUtor: How fast is the block moving when it reaches its maximum height? Student: It's at rest then too. Ah. and the block moves up.8 T\rtor: It's still a unit of length.s ^lr2)d: d iO600  0. . so this is how our equation. * (W*.06 (2 ks)(e. we can't just use the change in compression. irro. Student: What if we hadn't converted the 6 cm to meters. since it moves up and gravity points down. Ttrtor: Good. Is that consistent with The spring needed to uncompress by 6 cm. but that's what we're trying to find. How much work does the spring do on the block? Student: The work of a spring is +kd'. That means we need another it gets into variable. How much work does gravity do on the block? Student: The force rng times the distance d times the cosine of 180o. *Wgr) : Kt m) o+ (*sar'#r + msd. so K y is also zero.7 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The block moves up I4. K. Of course..7 cm.8 ^lsz)  with. but Then we would have had it as 6 cm? r d 2(2 kg)(9. As part of our solution.o6 2.147 rrl  I4. so we're okay.61 is changing its length. we assumed that the spring fully uncompressed. had left our answer? T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: Don't panic.
KII{ETIC EI{ERGY AI{D WORK is An important distinction in science is the difference between the total amount and the rate at which it done. about energy but exactly the same as the previous conversation.62 CHAPTER 7. there is l/ perpendicular to the surface. you can jog furthe doing more work .than you can jog is much longer. Student: I drove from New York to Boston yesterd. Power measures how fast you do work. Sprinting. Consider the following conversation: I\rtor: How fast did you go? Student: 2I7 miles. will tire a person much quicker than jogging. In each case the amount of work done is still 5000 joules. We need to know the forces. How much power did you exert? 5000 joules. that the correct response would be somethittg like "65 miles per hour. To determine how fast the work was done. Humans tire quickly if they try to exert more than about 70% of their maximum power. Gravity mg points down. Tutor: Which way is the friction force acting? a normal force Student: . Nothing else is in contact with the car. not the amount done. How much power does this take? Student: The only way for the car to go up the hill is if friction pushes it up the hill. so 5000 joules is the amount of work done. we divide the work by the time. T\rtor: As the engine turns the tires. so that's all of the forces. Tutor: Student: I carried Student: a heavy box up the stairs yesterday. so static friction pushes the car forward and up the hill to prevent slipping. Such a power would be quite a feat for a human (1 horsepower fast.y. To do 5000 joules of work slowly requires a small power. To do 5000 joules of work quickly requires a large power. and because there is a normal force there could be a friction force /. Most of us would immediately recognize that the response answered a different question. The sprint. so we start where we always do. what would happen without friction? Student: The tires would slip on the road. To do 5000 joules of work in 10 seconds requires 500 joules per second or 500 watts or 500 W. time EXAMPTE A 1600 kg car drives 1 mile up a 5To grade at a constant 60 mph. for example. Since you can jog much longer (time) than you can you can sprint." Now consider another conversation. so one watt is one joule per second. D_EorW rt Power is rleasured in watts. Joules measure energy or work. If the tires are rolling without slippirg. even though you sprint faster. then it's static friction.
Since the force is in the same direction as the motion. T\rtor: I Wrns  F dcos 0 . rnotiorr.05 0  2. The normal force doesn't do any work.960 Student: One rnile is 1610 meters.n find the work done by gravity instead of the work done by friction. Does the normal force ever do any work? T\rtor: Yes. except negative. Since gravity is opposite to the guess it has to do negative work. so gravity must do the same amount of work as friction. so it doesn't do any work. or when tan 0 . Okay.05. and the motion is up the hill. Also. For a 5% grade the difference is about oneeighth of IYo. Student: If the final speed of the car is the same as the initial speed. so there is not much error in pretending that they are the same.63 T\rtor: work? We want to find the power of the friction force. If you push on an object and the object moves. so I'll find the work done by gravity. Student: But thc road surface doesn't move. so the normal force doesn't do any work. the angle of the roadway rs tan 0  0. your hand moves so the normal force of your hand does work. That's when the rise over the run ts 5To. but try applying conservation of energy anyway. then the road would be longer than a mile. Does the friction force do positive or negative Student: Friction points up the hill. then the total work is zero. T\rtor: Tlue. T\rtor: Excellent. Does it make sense that gravity does negative work? Student: Gravity is down. friction does positive work.26 x 106 J ? .14o : I. so l[1/mE  (mg)dcos O (1600 kS)(9. so long as you keep track of the signs.(*g)d cos Q Tntor: Tntor: Student: What is a 5To grade? Student: But if the "run" is a mile.S  ^l12)(1610 m) cos87. T\rtor: Yes. Which is easier? Student: I already know the force of gravity. reducing the kinetic energy. How much work does the normal force do? Student: The normal force is always perpendicular to the motion.0. T\rtor: That would work. if the surface moves. but not by much. TYue. So I ca. and the motion of the car is up and over. Student: That's tricky. Or the floor in an elevator does work because the floor surface moves. Yes. T\rtor: How much work does gravity do? Student: We don't need to know that to do the problem. gravity by itself would tend to slow the car down. so it is doing negative work. Student: That makes sense.
Yes. . Student: Ok y. so it's not quite that simple.86o instead. and Tbtor: is L. it tl:#ffixffix#:6os P :Y t r'26 x 106 60s I 2r x los Jlror w T\rtor: T[y converting it into horsepower. (zrxlosw) x (##) 28hp Student: Any car should be able to do that easily. Student: Oh yeah. TUtor: Of course we left out air resistance and friction in the engine. they still do the same amount of work but with less power. now what is the power? Student: I divide the work by the time. KINETIC ENERGY AND WOHK T\rtor: Remember that the work of gravity is negative. Student: And by doing it slower. L horsepower Student: Is that a lot?  746 W. But the work by friction is the same but positive. Student: Why do trucks go uphill so slowly? T\rtor: A truck can have 40 times the mass of the car.64 CHAPTER 7. I should have used 92.26 x 106 J. so to go up the hill at 60 mph would take over 1100 hp. TUtor: Yep.
the rock has potential that could be turned into work again. There are three forces that we comrnonly treat with potential energy: gravity. the potential energy before and the potential energy after both show up. This makes potential energy easier to calculate than work. Therefore we treat gravity with potential energy. and not how it got there.s : *f*' 2 Here r is not the length of the spring. a distance h high. Every time we use conservation of energy in an equation.Chapter 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Some types of work can be expressed as potential energy. from which all heights are measured. Therefore. The potential energy from gravity is Ugravity : fngh What is the height? We can choose anywhere to be zero height. What makes potential energy useful is that the potential energy only depends on where something is. we can choose any spot to be zero height. PEU:lTwedid : lF*' applied While this may appear intimidating. but we don't treat friction this way. so Ir^ @g) dn . so that only the change in potential energy matters. This means that it takes mgh amount of work to move a ma^ss n'L from wherever is "zero" to the spot (hn. in practice it is easy. Then the work of a spring from the last chapter becomes the potential energy stored in the spring. springs. and by dropping the rock I can turn the potential energy into kinetic energy.i.l*g*li3 . If I have lifted energy. then the work I do goes into heating the floor and the box (through friction). The potential energy from a spring is [ p. Consider gravity. If I push a box across a floor. but the change in length from the unstretched. and it is very difficult to turn this energy into some other useful form of energy. The force of gravity is a constant mg. 65 . uncompressed length. Zero potential energy occurs when the spring is neither stretched nor compressed. pushing to keep the box moving despite friction. Potential energ:f is work done in the past a rock above my head.rnsh  nxs(0) : rnsh This says that the difference in potential energy between "zero" and Kh)) is mgh. and forces from electric fields (to be covered later). but once we choose we must stick with that spot for the whole problem (like a coordinate uis).
the force of the spring changes.nt. because the spring is uncompressed.46. + PEi +W . T\rtor: What is the kinetic energy of the block just as it stops? Student: Wait. Tutor: What is the potential energy when the block stops / Student: Then the potential energy of gravity is still zero. Student: I'll pick the starting spot as height equals zero. What other forces are there? There is a normal force upward. Student: Ok y. The potential energy of the spring is zero. The kinetic energy when the block stops is zero. Ttrtor: It's not unusual for two or three of the terms in the energy equation to be zero.54+ !rc*' +w . Then the potential energy of gravity is zero. find the acceleration. Tutor: Student: On the other hand. It is possible to include Eth and E. T\rtor: Tutor: tions. We use an expanded conservation of energy equation K&+ PEi+W . Student: As the spring decompresses. How far does the block slide across the floor? Thtor: How would you like to attack the problem? Student: I want to draw a freebody diagram. Shouldn't I do the kinetic energy just as the block leaves the spring? Tutor: We could use that instant as the final time. To do gravity you have to pick a spot as height equals zero. then we dontt include the work by this force when we calculate the work. But we can also do the whole thing in one step. technique to find how far it and use the constant acceleration goes. When the spring is released the block slides across the floor. What is the potential energy when the block is released? Student: Do you want the potential energy of gravity or the spring? T\rtor: Both. T\rtor: How much work does the normal force do? Student: The normal force is perpendicular to the motion.KEy * PEt where W is the work done by forces not already treated with conservation of energy. so the acceleration changes. Does that mean that I can't use Newton's laws? Newton's laws are still true. KEr. POTEI{TIAL EAIERGY AATD COI\ISERVATIOAI OF EATERGY If we use potential energy to express the work done by a force. but these are dealt with by W (heat generated by friction is the same as work done by friction). and then use constant acceleration to see how far the block slides.61 and Fk . EXAMPLE A spring (k :900 N/) is compressed by 31 cm and a 6 kg block is placed in front of it.KEr t PEt Tutor: What is the kinetic energy of the block just as the spring is released? Student: It isn't moving yet.66 CHAPTER 8. so the speed is zero and the kinetic energy is zero. T\rtor: How much work does the friction force do? z W is the work done by all forces other than gravity Student: .0. if we use energy techniques. and a friction force against the sliding. there is a different acceleration when the spring is pushing on the block. and I'll use potential energy for gravity and the spring. Fq+ PEi+w . but to use the acceleration would mean setting up differential equaYuck.o 2 T\rtor PEr and the spring. so it doesn't do any work. The poterrtial energy of the spring is Lrtt*'. The coefficients of friction between the block and the floor are Fs:0. because the block is at the same height. Of course. I'll try energy. we won't need any differential equations. Student: Sounds good.
60 m EXAMPLE A 2 kg block slides without friction down a track. and cosine of the angle is 1. how far up does the block fly? \ \ \ T\rtor: How will you attack this problem? so T\rtor: If you weren't reading the problem you use energy? Student: It's the energy chapter. I'll use y. If friction were really strong. Student: Ok^y. The displacement is what I'm looking for. The distance the block slid is way past where the spring uncompresses. and the vertical acceleration is zero. forces. We should have checked first that the spring force was greater than the maximum static friction force. K&+ PE. and we don't care about the time. so I can look for the special case of two forces and zero acceleration. What is the friction force. in a book.31 )2 2(0. so I add vertical Student: Isn't it just pmg? t=r*'*r*d@)(1) 2 :o s2) aT\rtor: T\rtor: Student: How do we check? krz 2pmg (9oo N/)(0. so the normal force is equal to the weight.g.46)(6 kg) (e. so we're safe.8 By setting the final spring energy to zero. The angle is 180'. We've seen before that the normal force is not always mg. The normal force is up and gravity is down.67 Student: The work is the force times the displacement times the cosine of the angle. T\rtor: Is the displacement of the block the same as the initial compression of the spring? Student: Not necessarily. why would Student: Because the acceleration isn't constant. so it's a variable r. After leaving the track. How do you find it? Student: I need the norrnal force. I'll use energy.3 m below its starting point. you assumed that the spring would fully uncompress. T\rtor: This is the special case where there are exactly two forces and they need to add to zero. Tutor: Don't skip steps now. It leaves the track at a 35o angle above horizontal at a point 1. then the spring wouldn't get the block moving. I guess I need a different variable for the displacement. T\rtor: Good. because the friction force is in the opposite direction as the sliding. and the friction force is p. ^l  1.+W  KEy * PEr .nr. but instead on a test or somewhere else.
so it doesn't do any work.3 m).0.05 m/s.68 CHAPTER 8. so ?)r height it is going 4.05 m/s T\rtor: Student: When the block leaves the track it is moving at 5. it isn't movirg. How much of that is in the horizontal direction? Student: The horizontal is adjacent to the angle. calling that the new height equals zero) and the finish when it reaches maximum height T\rtor: How fast is the block going when it reaches maximum height? Student: You rnentioned that it would still be moving horizontally. What is the kinetic energy when the block starts? doesn't appear to be moving yet. The potential energy there is mg(1. A negative potential energy means that the object will go there on its own. The block leaves the ramp at an angle. so we don't need to use energy.8 . Student: Okay.0. T\rtor: But we can use energy. we can use energy to see how high it goes. Tutor: What is the potential energy when the block starts? Student: I need to pick somewhere as height equals zero. and how you are going to get to the answer. T\rtor: We have two issues here. so KEy . The block will slide down the ramp on its own. so mgh . and it will still have that horizontal velocity when it reaches maximum height.05 mls) sin 35o  4. Student: But the acceleration is constant. T\rtor: What is the final kinetic energy? Student: L*r?.13 m/s 2.rtg(1. even if we have a constant acceleration. T\rtor: What is the potential energy at the "final" position? Student: At the maximum height. to Wt + P4 + W :'r*r' i ms(1.{TIAL EAIERGY AAID COI{SERUATIOAT OF EATERGY Good. T[y using the top.8 m) (1.90 m/s KEt.KEy *ms(1.3 ^ls2)  5. Ttrtor: And because we donit care about the time. It's possible to extract that energy later.3 m) Because we already took care of gravity by using potential energy.3 rn) . Trrtor: What is the work done by all forces other than gravity? T\rtor: Student: Why not gravity? f4+I4+w . Can potential Tutor: Student: It energy be negative? T\rtor: Potential energy is how much work you need to do to move the object from "zero" to that spot. We don't know u. with some horizontal velocity. that you could even get work out of the process. gaining speed. so zero. The other forces are the normal force and friction. Student: Ok y. If the acceleration isn't constant. Therefore KEt + 0. Taking the start when it leaves the track.0. Where's the bottonr of the ramp? T\rtor: You don't need to use the lowest point as height equals zero.rr' (2)(e. You need to rethink what your "final" position is. then use projectile motion and constant acceleration to see how high it goes. the block starts at h .+ PEi+W : KEy * PEt . T\rtor: And where is your "final" position? Student: Where the block leaves the ramp.13 m/s horizontally and it's not moving vertically. then we may need to use energy. The normal force is perpendicular the motion. POTEI. Student: So what I need to do is find the speed of the block as it leaves the ramp.05 mls) cos35o (5 . And there's no fricticln on the track. Student: Right. At maximum aa  (5. but we hope to solve for it.
69
fotA.o5
m/r)'+ rtg(o) + (o) o.05
m/s)2+
 r^.rr mls)2 + sh
(4.n m/s)2) 0.48m
h
#(rr.05m/r)'
EXAMPLE
A 65 kg man bungeejumps off of a platform. The bungee cord is 20 m long and has a spring constant of 60 N/m. What is the greatest distance below the platform that he reaches after leaping from the platform?
Student: The bungee cord acts like a spring, so the acceleration won't be constant and we'll use conservation of energy. T\rtor: Good. First you need to pick "initial" and "final" positions. Student: The start should be at the top, when he first jumps. The end is where he reaches his lowest point. Thtor: If we want to know where his lowest point is, then it helps if that is one of the points. What are
you going to use as height equals zero? Student: I'm going to use the top, where he jumps from. That means that his potential energy at the end will be negative, but that's okay. T\rtor: You mean the potential energy from gravity; there's also the spring involved. What is the kinetic energy at the start? Student: He isn't moving yet, so it's zero. T\rtor: What is his kinetic energy at the end? Student: The lowest point is when he isn't moving, so that's also zero.
W+PE.+W Y4+PEf
T\rtor:
Correct.
he would be past
If he were still going down, he wouldn't be at the lowest point yet. If he were going up, it. What is the potential energy at the top?
Student:
The spring hasn't been stretched yet, and he is at height equals zero, so both types of potential
energy are zero.
P4+w T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student:
PEr
What is the work done by forces other than gravity and the bungee cord? There aren't any other forces, because he's not in contact with anything, right? Right, so the work is zero.
VPEr
There are two types of potential energy, and at the end they must add up to zero. What is the potential energy at the end? Student: We don't know how far he's fallen, so let's call it r. The height at the end is negative, so the gravity potential energy is mg("). The spring potential energy is Lrtt*'. Thtor: Does the bungee cord stretch the same distance that he falls? Does it begin stretching immediately? Student: No, he falls 20 m before it starts stretching. The bungee cord stretches r  (20 m).
Tntor:
Student: That
means
that PEt is zero. How can that be?
o t*g(")l + l;r(" eo''))']
70
CHAPTER
8. POTENTIAL
ENERGY AND CONSERUAflON OF ENERGY
(20
mg(r):rr(.
*))
'#:
12
n2 2(2om)r+ (20 m)2 eom)
+
l,
 '#ln*(20 *)'
o
12+l,Qom),4
]"*
(400
Qom)zo
0
_brrm
2"
12
+ (61.2 *) u *
*2)

fi
2(1)
:
7.4
ot 53.8 m
How can there be two answers? Which one do you want? Student: The bungee cord is 20 m long, so it has to be 53.8 m. Tlrtor: The other answer would occur if the bungee cord could be compressed. Student: So if he bounced back up, and the bungee cord compressed instead of going slack, then he would reach a spot 7.4 meters high.
Tbtor:
Student:
Chapter 9
Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
This chapter is about a second conservation law, conservation of momentum. In order to explain momentum, we begin by explaining center of mass.
So far, all objects have been "point" particles. They act as if all of their ma^ss is at a single point. Most real mass is spread out. For many purposes it is possible to treat objects a^s point objects are not like this  their particl as if all of their ma^ss is at a single point. When this happens, that point is the center of mass.
To calculate the location of the center of mass, we do a "weighted average." Divide the object into pieces, and for each piece, multiple the mass of that piece by its coordinate. Sum the product for all of the pieces, and divide by the total ma"ss. ffcM :
E6rimi Etmt
Some things to keep in mind:
o You get to decide how to divide the
pieces.
.
For each piece, you use the coordinate of the center of mass of that piece.
o You get to choose the coordinate axes, but as always you have to keep the same axes for the whole
calculation.
.
Wise use of symmetry can simplify the calculation considerably.
How do you use symmetry? Consider a uniform square. "Uniform" means that the ma^ss of the square is spread evenly across the square, the same everywhere. Pick a point, not the center, and let's use symmetry to check to see if that point is the center of mass. Draw an imaginary line vertically down the center of the square, and rotate the square 180o around this line. The square looks the same, so the center of mass must be in the same place as it wa"s before. If the center of mass had moved, then we would have two centers of mass for the same object. If the point you picked was on the vertical line, then it is in the same place as it wa,s and it could be the center of mass. If the point you picked was not on the vertical line, then it is not in the same place as it wa^s, and it could not be the center of mass. By using symmetry, w€ have determined that the r coordinate of the center of mass is in the middle, without doing a calculation.
7I
72
CHAPTER
9.
I
CENTE,R OF MASS AND LINEAR MOMENTUM
EXAMPTE
Find the center of mass of the four objects.
y (cm)
x (cm)
Student:
So I take each object and add
it up?
1+3
+4+2: L0 ?
that. In the numerator you multiply each mass,by its coordinate. Where are the arces? Tbtor: You get to pick them. What would you like? Student: I'll pick the biggest mass to be the origin, with s to the right and y up. T\rtor: Because you have two axes, you have to do them separately. First do the r anis and then do the
Flor the denominator, you do
T\rtor:
Student:
gr
a>rig.
T\rtor:
Student:
Yes.
So I multiply the mass of 3 by the o coordinate of 0, and I get zero? If that was the only mass, then the numerator would be zero, so the center of mass would be
.
at zeto.
73
Student:
Which is where the object is. But
I
have to do
that for all of them.
scM:
Tutor: Tutor: If the object were at (0,+1),
Student:
Yes, so
:
I use *1 or 1
m?
ff:O.gcm
Student:
Now do the y coordinate. For the 1 kg object, do
would the location of the center of mass be different?
I
need the negative.
ucM


nll
u*
10 kg
: o.g cm
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student:
Which object is located at the center of mass? None of them. The center of mass doesn't have to correspond to one of the objects.
EXAMPLE
Find the center of mass of the uniform triangle.
Tbtor: Can you use symmetry to find the center of mass? Student: If I flip it toptobottom, it looks the same, so the center of mass has to be on the horizontal
a)cis.
Student: It's just one piece! How do I do the equation
for each piece when there's only one piece?
thtor:
a>ris.
Student: It doesn't
What if you flip it leftteright? look the same. That means that the center of mass isn't halfway along the horizontal
Tntor: It means that the center of mass doesn't haae to be there. It could be there but there's no rea.son to think that it is. Student: So the gt component of the center of mass is at y  0, but we don't know where the r component is, and it's only one piece. TUtor: You need to divide it into pieces yourself, where you carr determine the ma.ss and location of each
piece.
74
CHAPTER
9.
CEI,{TER OF MASS AAID LII]EAR MOMENTUM
*
T\rtor:
Divide it into a lot of pieces, and then each piece is small enough that we can call Then we add up all of the pieces. Student: That sounds like an integral! Tutor: Yep. What is the width of each piece'/
it
a rectangle.
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student: Student:
Each piece is dr wide. Yes. What is the height of each piece?
They aren't all the same height. That's right, they aren't. Given that a piece is located at r, how high is it? Student: Well, the bigger r is, the greater the height of the piece. T\rtor: Yes, also it's linear, so that the height is proportional to r. At r _ 0, the height is zero) and at r  B' the height is 2. Student: If it'slinear, then hCr, whereCisaconstant. If theheightis2 atr 8,thenthatconstant needs to be i, so the height of each piece is Ir. Ttrtor: Good. To find the mass of a piece, we multiply the area times the density. That is, we multiply the square meters by the kilograms per square meters, and get kilograms. Student: What is this density? It isn't given. T\rtor: True. Hopefully it will cancel, or we won't be able to do the problem. Make up a variable for it. Physicists tend to use d or p for densities. Student: Okay, the density is d. Then the mass of a piece is the area times the densityr or (i* * d*)(d).
rCM
Ln* * d*)(d) ,ff f
ff T\rtor:
Student:
f
d,r ff *2 a* i* * d,r)(d) i6 t: r d,r [f r d,r
.
,
i d ,ff
12
l+rr]t,
Does the result make sense? How should I know? T\rtor: Well, could the answer be more than 8? Student: No, all of the mass is to the left of 8. Tutor: Could the answer be less than 4? Student: No, more of the mass is on the right side, and further to the right. Ttrtor: Is the answer between 4 and 8? Student: Yes, it's about 5. So it works. T\rtor: At least it passes the sanity test.
Just as energy is conserved, so is momentum. When a large truck collides headon with a small car, we expect to see the car bounce backwards while the truck continues on. This is not because the force of the the forces are the same. Instead, this is truck on the car is larger than the force of the car on the truck because the tnrck has more mornentum than the car.
) The result of this logic is that conservation of momentum works particularly well for collisions. Student: Cool. of course. The basic equation is a"s momentum Fn+jFr jFt where i ir the "impulse. It hits and couples to a second (stationary) train car of 3500 kg. what are the directions of gravity and the normal force? Student: They are both vertical. The truck has more momentum. What is the speed of the train cars afterward. So the impulses that they exert on each other are equal and opposite. so the total momentum is in the direction that the truck is going. the impulse of A on B plus the impulse of B on A add to zero. T\rtor: Correct. After the collision. so it has direction. then the forces are equal and opposite. Tutor: We could try to figure out if they're equal. These might be equal. If they create a force on each other. the total momentum is also in the direction that the truck was going. often called a "system. T\rtor: Good. so they add to zero." Consider a system of two objects. Instead. So I want to do them together.* Pzt* @Affif E ffiA  Ptf a PzI Prr*PztPtfaPzf . Pu. All we need is the forces they create on each other. one of the vehicles has a positive momentum and the other has a negative. which is a tipoff to try conservation of momentum. (The center of mass of the system keeps moving with the same velocity. T\rtor: So if we only consider the horizontal component of the momentum. In the car truck headon collision. which thus has the same units ( kg m/s or N t). we can either calculate it for one object or for a group of objects. Tntor: What forces act on the train cars? Student: They push on each other. Whatever that impulse is. then we don't have to worry about them at all. The equations have the same general form and the techniques are the same. So any forces between the two bodies of our system don't change the momentum of the system.  One difference between momentum and energy is that momentum is a vector. EXAMPTE A 2500 kg train car moves down the track at 5 m/s. these forces will cancel if we do them together. T\rtor: Student: Fe+JFf Also. Are you going to use the momentum of one of the train cars or of the two together? Student: What's the advantage of doing the two together? T\rtor: If the train cars exert forces on each other. When we find the momentum. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. and what was the impulse that the second car gave to the first one? How are you going to solve this problem? There's a collision. Fmd Impulse is the name given to the change in the momentum. and those forces are equal." or change in momentum.75 Conservation of momentum looks very similar to conservation of energy. Do they exert forces on each other? Student: They certainly do. there is gravity and a normal force on each.
Student: EXAMPLE A 72 Ib boy on a skateboard throws a 16 lb bowling ball to the right at a speed of 8 mls compared to him. Student: Then the train cars rnove in that same direction. Tutor: What is the momentum of the first car after the collision? Student: Momentum is ma.(2500 kg)rr + (3500 kg)u1 (12500 ks /s) : (6000 kg)rt (12500 kq m/s) (6000 kg) u1  2." Why do I want to use momentum for this? Do you know the force that the boy applies to the bowling ball? . (2500 kg)(5 m/s) + 0 . if the first car is originally moving to the right. so (2500 kS)(5 m/s). * J2 on 1  Prf (2500 kg)(2. What is the boy's velocity after he throws the ball? Tutor: Student: This doesn't sound like a "collision. How do I find the impulse? T\rtor: Repeat the conservation of momentum equation. CENTER OF MASS AI{D LII{EAR MOMENTUM Tutor: What is the momentum of the first car before the collision? The momentum is mu. but we don't know the velocity. so it should be negative. and there is no impulse from outside forces. (2500 ks)(5 m/s) . so its momentum is zero. . so that the final momentum of the second car is positive. Do your numbers say the same thing? Keep in mind that you used an axis but you didn't explicitly say what you were using.08 m/s T\rtor: Can you tell from your result which way the train cars go? Well. I'll use u1 for the velocity of the train car Student: afterward. Tutor: The two train cars couple together. Student: So using the first car Student: Pu.08 m/s) (2500 ks)(5 m/s) + J2 on 1  Jz on 1 : 7292 kg m/s T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Why is it negative? Which way is the force that the second car exerts on the first? Against the initial velocity. . shouldn't they move off to the right? T\rtor: Yes. And Jt on z is positive. but for just one car.(2500 kg) ut * Pzf Tutor: What is the momentum of the second car after the collision? We don't know its velocity either.76 CHAPTER 9. Student: So u2  u1. I picked that as the positive direction? I\rtor: Yep. and I only have one variable. so I'll us€ u2 for that. Does that mean anything? Student: They have to have the same velocity afterward? Student: T\rtor: Yes. using the word "momentum?" Student: If the initial momentum is to the right. Can you express that same thought. And when the final velocity was positive. So when I said the velocity of the first car beforehand was positive. then the final momentum is to the right. Tutor: What is the momentum of the second car before the collision? Student: It wasn't moving. Student: Oops. Tutor: Very good.
do I need to know it? By using conservation of momentum. There is gravity and a normal force on the boy. and see how they work out.gt uball.boy * Ub. If the bowling ball goes to the right. I'll use to the right as the positive direction.Ugall. then the boy needs to go to the left.i:::iub'v (72 lb)uboy "'/'))  + (16 lb)uboy * (16 lb)(8 m/s) (88 lb)?rboy uboy . Tutor: Student: It .g.gr .ll. . or a^s mea^sured by the boy. so it's zero. Ttrtor: Student: Fn+jFr T\rtor: Correct. These forces are opposite and equal. u^q.boy uboy.tt uboy. We don't know his velocity.(8 m/s) + ubau uboy + (8 r.ball * uball.(16 lb)(S m/s) (8slb) What does the negative result mean? means that the boy goes in the negative direction. T\rtor: The 8 m/s is with respect to the boy. so they cancel. you can eliminate forces that two objects put on each other.g:UAC*uCg . These are vertical.u6oy. but that's because using momentum gets the forces between colliding objects to cancel. Student: Pu*Pzr:PrfaPzf T\rtor: What is the momentum of the boy beforehand? He isn't movirg. What is the velocity of the bowling ball after he throws it? Student: 8 m/s to the right. 0 :l l]l. so I'll use a variable. and the bowling ball pushes back.rtor: Student: Now we have an equati: So we can solve it. so it's *8 m/s. so I need to find the velocity compared to the ground. Student: Ah. Student: So I want to use the combined momentum of the two objects. T\rtor: What is the momentum of the boy afberward? Student: Momentum is mu. Student: 0 +0 mboyuboy * ?Tuballubau 0+0TUtor: Student: (72 lb)uboy+(16 lb)u6"11 Do I need to convert pounds into kilograms? You can keep them as they are for now. The bowling ball isn't moving either. Ttrtor: Does that make sense? Remember that the initial momentum was zero. It's true that momentum works well for collisions.ball . What are the forces acting on them? The boy pushes on the bowling ball. You won't need to find the force.t. so we do only horizontal momentum and they disappear. boy and bowling ball. Student: And the impulse was zero) so the final momentum needs to be zero.o". so he goes to the left.77 No.
ku{r. so I'm going to use momentum. All of the other forces are vertical. EXAMPLE A 4000 kg truck is coming straight at Joe at 14 r..r"k (0. Pu*Pzt:PtfaPzf Trlbattuball I TTltruckutruck  Trlballufu. and it bounces off of the truck elastically. When two billiard balls strike.3 kg)uf. How do you tell if a collision is elastic or not? says o If the problem that the collision is elastic. ? o T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Before the collision. the positive direction for each object must be the same. and by looking at the horizontal component.3 kg)(10 */s) + (4000 kg)(14 m/s)  (0.r'ls.rt * TTltru."r. Because elastic collisions are somewhat common. If you can solve the problem using only conservation of momentum. the kinetic energy is conserved. but if I use the momentum of them together those forces cancel out. some of the kinetic energy goes into other forms of energy.1 * (4000 ks)u.78 CHAPTER 9. ul mt*mz and uL : 2mL ar mt*mz To use these equations. If object 1 collides elastically with object 2. such as heat or denting the cars. then there is no need to worry whether the collision is elastic. if object 2 is stationary before the collision.TTLz I l 2mZ u4 u:tryaoz*W. CEIr{TER OF MASS AATD LII\IEAR MOMEI{TUM In some collisions. Tutor: How are you going to attack this problem? Student: There's a collision. how fast is the ball going? The ball and the truck put forces on each other.work out the result and reuse it the next time. z mt*mz . the total kinetic energy before the collision is the same as after the collision... they go away. physicists do something they don't often do . then the collision is not elastic. . An elastic collision is one where the kinetic energy is conserved. then the collision is elastic (really). He throws a 0. When two cars strike.3 kg rubber ball at the truck with a speed of 10 m/s. o If the two objects stick together.T\*mz or. then their velocities afterward will be I mt . An inelastic collision is one where some of the kinetic energy is turned into other forms of energy. o If one object passes through the other. After the ball bounces off of the truck.. then the collision is not elastic. . and because of the unpleasantness of solving simultaneous equations (especially with squares in them). are the ball and the truck going the same direction? No. So one of them has to have a negative initial velocity. use your experience with the objects in question: are they likely to bounce off of each other (elastic) or is some of the energy likely to be turned into heat (not elastic)? o After that. they have a headon collision.
If he's coming at you at 14 mls and he thinks the ball is coming at you at 24 m/s.3 ks)uf. Student: That means that I can write down the kinetic energy before and afber.(tooo.. T\rtor: Yes. Look at the problem from the truck's point of view.n ffi ffi (1 a mls) What does the minus sign mean? means that the ball bounces in the direction that the truck was originally going.. Tutor: Can you solve the equation? and two variables. * aLu. then what do you see? Student: I see the ball coming at me at 38 m/s.. . T\rtor: Correct. . TrLt . but not very much. Student: I guess not. uf.3 kg)(10 m/s) the direction that the ball is thrown a^s positive. . \ rzrl + : (4ooo^3 ulu.u' (10 rrr/s) + erum/s) : (sggg'z Eq) kg) (10 m/s) t' (10 m/s) + (4ooo.ltl. that would be easier. I have one equation another equation. Why is the speed so much faster than before? Tutor: Ah. The idea here is the same one used to "slingshot" space probes around planets to gain speed.. oh.u : uf.r. set them equal. The truck's momentum must change. 24 mls.79 Student: I forgot to choose an axis! I'll take (0. T\rtor: Student: It . . The ball accelerates more because it has less mass. piece of information.: '*' . + (4000 ks) ?14 /s)  (0.'. Tutor: If the truck puts a force on the ball. and get it means. you could just use the elastic collision Student: Yes.. then the. T\rtor: Yes. The truck's frame is almost the center of mass frame here. . that is what equations. it's dangerous to throw a rubber ball at an oncoming truck.3kg) (1 amls) . ball puts a force on the truck. + (4000 kg)u. mt*mz * mttmZ 2*y'Iu+ ?T}ball ?truck uba. To avoid all of that work.. I need another Tutor: The piece you are missing is that the collision is elastic.TTLzt'l tl. What does the truck driver see? Student: He sees a ball coming at him at. and how much does the ball change the truck's momentum? Student: None at all.ITL6all * ?7)truck Tflball * ?T}truck utruck uf.. So he sees the ball bounce off at about 24 mls. Student: . T\rtor: Mathematically what we do is switch everything to the "center of mass" frame of reference. equal but opposite.
tt * ?'rlp. .0." * W . so uputty .u.all+putry T\rtor: What is the velocity of the ball before the collision? Student: The problem doesn't say. Just because it's the momentum chapter doesn't mearr that we can only use momentum.rttv) uf." . T\rtor: What do you know about the ball? Student: It starts 35 cm high and falls in an arc until it hits the putty. I assume? T\rtor: What are the forces on the ball? Student: Gravity and tension.85 kg ball on the end of a 35cmlong string falls and hits a 0. T\rtor: How can we find the speed of the ball after it falls? Student: Conservation of momentum. The block sticks to the ball. CEI. T\rtor: It was. What is the speed of the putty after it is hit by the ball? There's a collision.. The putty and ball stick together.80 CHAPTER 9. so it's not an elastic collision.(u"tt * ?7zp. so we need conservation of momentum. both in magnitude and direction. but we can still use it. Other than the forces that the ball and the putty put on each other. We're allowed to use all of the techniques we've learned. the work from the tension is zero because the tension is perpendicular to the motion. * mpttty'upaff . so I'm going to use horizontal momentum.K Eutter * P Earte. How much work does the tension do? Student: Work? I thought work was in the last chapter. Student: Okay. all other forces are vertical. That means I have one equation but two unknowns.ll+putty T\rtor: All well and good.{TER OF MASS AATD LII{EAR MOMEI]TUM EXAMPLE A 0.rttv) 'uf. Tutor: The tension force changes as the ball falls. What is the velocity of the putty before the collision? Student: It isn't moving. Tutor: It is hard. Student: That looks hard.) (0)' I ma^1gh : t*o^r(r)' * rftaulg(0) i^r^t K Euurc. 1 1 . and we need to know the time it takes to fall. Tftbuttubalt * P Ea"to. Student: Pu*PzrPry*Pzf Tttbatluball * ITlputtyuputty : (u.56 kg block of putty.
41 kg) _ 1.41 kg)u' u.2.85 ks) Q.all+putty (0.56 kg)) uf"u+putty /s) : (I. : (2.8 ^ls2)(0.85 ks) + (0.81 sR: {ro^r)' tlz(g.23 ks ((0.  : (urtt * ??zputtv) uf.62 /s) (2. stick this in the momentum equatior.mJ/s) (1. Student: I'll choose the direction of the ball as positive.b8 m/s .62 mls T\rtor: Now you have the speed of the ball just before the collision. ubau ITlbanuball : \m.35 m) .?g\e. and solve for the final velocity.
An object can have a velocity. which is how fast the velocity is changing. Roll a basketball or other round object up a ramp. U 'UO A. so angular force equals angular ma"ss times angular acceleration (. so that there is an acceleration. and at the instant that it is at its peak the angular velocity is zero but changing: it was rotating one w&y. in its angular If the acceleration wa. . It can have an angular acceleration. if we know any three of the five rotational variables. It's all true for rotation as well. using the same equations. and at the instant that it is at its peak height the velocity is zero but changing. force equals ma.*(ro*w)t . but sometimes things rotate (and talented objects can do both at the same time).ss times acceleration (F: rna). which is how fast the angular velocity is changing is the rotation speeding up or slowing down? It can have an angular acceleration even if the angular velocity is zero. but with different variables.uot + iolt2 A0 . There is an angular acceleration.r. All of the equations we just replace the variable with used for constant acceleration work for constant angular acceleration as well the angular equivalent. We could solve problems where the acceleration wasn't constant. but that was harder. fr+ a+ a rTL 0 (Greek "theta" u (Greek a (Greek ttomegatt ) ) F> P> I r "alpha" ) (Greek ttau" ) L angular angular angular angular angular angular displacement velocity acceleration mass force torque momentum  rrrorrrent of inertia Every equation we've had will also have an angular equivalent. is not rotating now. which is the change position or angular displacement.(uo*u)t + + a2r3:2crA0 u2 .s constant then we could solve a number of problems with a few short equations. For example. or how fast it is spinning. We've done all this before. which is the change in its position. then we can solve for the other two.Io). It can have an acceleration. It can have an acceleration even if the velocity is zero: throw something (other than this book) straight up.u3 :2a Ar 82 Aruot*Lrat2  At + ) UUO:At A0 .l. Just like constant acceleration. and is about to rotate the other way. An object can have an angular velocity. Everything we've done so far also applies for rotation.Chapter 10 Rotation Sometimes things move.
so zero. radians.83 We could mea"sure lengths in many different units. T\rtor: More precisely. of course Do we know the time? Student: No. Once around is one cycle.r is positive. EXAMPLE A turntable starting from rest rotates 5 times while accelerating to 48 rpm (rotations per minute). or cycles. What is the angular acceleration of the turntable. Start by writing down the five variables. Student: It has to be in the same direction. With angles. or miles. T\rtor: Is it positive 48 or negative 48? Student: Uhoh. We know three. With lengths. in radians/s ec2? T\rtor: Trrtor: T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? Constant angular acceleration. We have to do that even in rotation? Tutor: Yes. The problem doesn't s&y. so we choose the equation that doesn't include the time. How do we solve constant acceleration problems? of the five variables. We don't care about the time. inches. and has the same sign. so long as we keep track of the units. Do I need to convert that to radians? T\rtor: Not necessarily.r ) A0 ug ug a+uaa: t+t: What is the angular displacement A0? 5 rotations. Student: If we know three L. but that's okay. Sometimes it became necessary to use meters. Typically we use clockwise or counterclockwise as positive. Sometimes. it becomes necessary to use radians (more on this later). such as meters. it has the same sign as A0.2 r3:2a A0 . so c. because a newton is a kilogram meter per second2. it didn't matter what unit we used. Let's keep it and see what happens. it doesn't matter which unit we use. I\rtor: Student: Ar L0 : ug+ug a + u a+a:? t)t 5rotations 48rotfmin T\rtor: We want to find the angular acceleration. so we can solve. What is the initial angular velocity? Student: It starts at rest. or cycles. so long a. lhtor: What is the final angular velocity? Student: 48 cycles per minute.r ) . 360 degrees. u2 r3:2a A.s we kept track of the units. with the most common being degrees. or 2r radians. though. w€ didn't choose an axis. We can also mea^sure angles in many different units. we can solve for the other two. so the question here is whether the final angular velocity is in the same direction as the angular displacement.
Then the acceleration is zero._r3 2L0 rctf min)'. for example. but if the angular velocity is constant then the speed of the paint drop is also constant. The further out from the pivot point (or axle) the paint is. This means that we must use radians whenever we use one of the formulas above. Imagine. min\2  0. and the faster we expect it to move. Since the distance covered is 2rR for each rotation. This acceleration is in the direction T\rtor: . EXAMPLE A 2cmdiameter wheel is rotating with an angular speed of 120 rpm. then point on the edge has to move faster. because its direction is changing. even though the velocity is changing? Student: That can't be right. in a minute. We might then ask the question "how fast is the drop of paint moving?" Note that the velocity of the paint is constantly changing. the further it must move in each rotation. a is zero. Student: Yes. there is an acceleration uz lr. When something moves in a circle. a point on the edge moves.84 CHAPTER 10. What's going on? Tutor: As the wheel turns.*/ /I o Student: We wanted the angular acceleration in radians/sec2. so the general rule is that we use radians whenever there is a length in the proble any length. the point accelerates. ROTATIOI{ a (48 .(0)' 2(5 rot) 230 rotf minz a  T\rtor: So now we have to convert. this becomes: Lr:RL0 uRw a. simple formulas. It is slowing with an angular deceleration of 52 radf s2. If the wheel turns faster. then the above formulas would need to include an extra constant.re.(230ffi)(t*/(. and 60 seconds / rot \ /2r rad\ a.Ra If we had chosen some other unit for measuring angles. As the rotation accelerates. that must mean that the two are equal. Sometimes we need to connect the angular motion with the linear motion. What is the (linear) acceleration of a point on the edge of the wheel? What is happening in this problem? Student: The point is moving in a circle.re. . so u2 l. . by using radians we get beautiful. T\rtor: But above we saw that o. Student: Okay. the speed is u  2r R x (rotations per second) By choosing the unit for angles to be 2r radians per rotation.. Sometimes we use one of them without knowing it. so it should have the same sign. right? Tutor: But if something moves in a circle at a constant speed. There are 2r radians in a rotation.40 radf s2 T\rtor: Student: It Should the angular acceleration be positive? should be in the same direction as the angular displacement.. that we put a small drop of paint on the wheel before it rotates.
The acceleration a : u2 f r was toward the center and made the point go in a circle. Student: I see you've draw the coordinate axes.II ^ls2 . and it is traditional to point it outward. VT are perpendicular to each other. The "radial" acceleration is inward. The acceleration a . so that the wheel spins faster or slower.If the rotation rate is changing. Student: And to find the total acceleration we have to add them. always.ra makes the point go in a circle faster. Why not r and y. because we have u. Student: Ok y. Whenever the wheel is turnirg. how can they cancel out? They don't. and why can't the one be in so that the acceleration is positive? T\rtor: Because the point is movirg.21 m) (52 radls2) ar . 0R: ?')':ru)2 Student: That's easier. then the point on the edge has rCI a"s well.ih)) aR (ttoo rotlmin) : 33 ^ls2 aT: Ra Now we can do the "tangential" acceleration. in the radial direction. We call this the "radial" directior. Student: So the two are perpendicular to each other? T\rtor: Yes. the point on the edge has u2 lr. The other axis is tangent to the circle.85 of the motion of the point. ar : (0. 0R:_(. and is traditionally called 0 or sometimes 0. so it's negative. or tangent to the circle. we rotate the axes so that one of them points along the radius.r1 Student: cm) (. Tntor: Student: If they oR: T\rtor: We can substitute u u2 r  ru. T\rtor: Remember to add them as vectors.
{ e3B m/"')2 + (rr ml"')2 ldl : 35 ^ls2 t The angular equivalent of force is angular force. it does not cause the object to spin and the torque is zero. T\rtor: d. ROTATION We can express the acceleration vector using unit vectors.ani*atd d  (33 Student: vector ^ls2)i+ (11 ^1"\6 I The radial and tangential parts are perpendicular to each other. but it's not necessary to do that.MRz Slab about perpendicular axis *rrotrgh Solid sphere about any diameter center Solid cylinder (or disk) about central axis I =+rM(az + b2'1 i I I t =lMRz . You will find that the door does not open as easily or quickly. called torque. T[y opening a door by pushing near the hinge rather than at the handle. If the force is parallel or antiparallel to the moment arm. w€ get to pick the positive direction and a negative torque is one in the other direction. and we'll explore them in the example below.86 CHAPTER 70. ldl . There are variations on this method. Torques can be positive or negative. Thin rod about Hoop about central axis axis through center perpendicular to length 1= ]2ML2 7= f. Like velocities and accelerations. Physicists usually choose counterclockwise as the positive direction. Once we choose the positive direction we need to stick with that direction for the whole problem. The further a\May from the pivot point the force is applied the greater the torque. or perhaps even at all. To find the magnitude of the use the Pythagorean theorem. The torque a force creates is equal to the force times the moment arm times the sine of the angle between them: r FBsin@ The "moment arm" is the line from the pivot point to the spot where the force is applied.
m Student: If I start in the direction of the 7 N force arrow and go around it's a negative 12 N torque. is a force of g N. so  FRsin@  (4 N)(2 ) sin0o  0 N. rso FRsin@  (7 N)(3 ) sin35o  12 N. it is applied 5 m from the pivot point. Tlrtor: In advanced r\rtor: rs that torque in the . Student: Does that mean we need to find the components of each torque? problems that is needed. Student: Student: The angle is 0o.s positive. but for most problems we just have clockwise and counterclockwise.. I'll pick counterclockwise a.t.: :.11]. Student: How do we do torques? TUtor: We find each torque. and add them like we would forces.ll . I go clockwise. T\rtor: And is it a positive or a negative torque? Student: I need to choose a positive direction.: How do I tell? T\rtor: Start at the force arrow and trace a circle that goes around the pivot point.87 EXAMPLE F Find the total torque applied to the shape around the pivot point.m is positive. would it rotate around the pivot point? .m How can a force create no torque? T\rtor: If the 4 N force was the only force on the object. What is the torque that the I N force creates around the pivot point? Student: th. and there is a right angle between them. Tutor: Good. What is the torque created by the 7 N force? Student: There is a 35o angle between the 3 m "moment arm" and the force.:TIHfi . Do you trace in the clockwise or counterclockwise direction? Student: Counterclockwise. so the 45 N. T\rtor: What is the torque created bythe4Nforce? the pivot point. so Student: .
. The angular mass is called moment a combination of moment arm and inertia.MR'.m  20 N. so (5 N)(a fflilf . Fortunately. .m * 0 N..88 T\rtor: Right.it doesn't rotate.:ff student: And it goes crockw. many common shapes have simple moments of inertia. Look T\rtor: atthe5mline.J:L1r:J:l: T\rtor: What is the total torque about the pivot point? Student: We ) 20 N m just add the torques.m  40 N. The moment of inertia of a circle (or disk) about its center is I . What is the torque from the force that is 4 m away from the pivot? Student: We need the part of the force that is perpendicular to the moment arm. then add all of those together.H:. We need to use lots of tiny pieces so that each piece is all the same distance from the pivot point. the torque is the force times the part of the moment arm that is perpendicular to the force.]. or do we have student: And it goes .:".tmr? We divide the object into tiny little pieces. ROTATIOII Student: I guess it wouldn't. What about the 8 N The moment arm is 6 m.ma) so the same equation holds with the angular equivalents: T angular force equals angular mass times angular acceleration. Student: . The moment of inertia is equal to Ia or I./cvr + Mdz: LrUn'+ MR2 .o.iU n'.m  12 N. So a disk rotated about a point on its edge would have a moment of inertia of I . Sometimes you might want to rotate one of these objects about a point other than the center. to use N. but there is no angle.m I Just as Newton's second law says F .m _ 27 N. It's like pulling a door outward from the hinges force? CHAPTER 70. Student: So the 5 m line is the part of the 6 m line that T\rtor: Yes. and it's much easier to look them up than to figure them out every time.. See the table for common shapes.li.m for Newtonmeters? Tutor: The problem with mN is that it could mean a force of a millinewton. so r 45 N.ro"r. meternewtons. The torque is the moment arm times the part of the force that is perpendicular to the moment arm. then for each piece multiply its mass times the square of how far from the pivot point it is. the line from the pivot point Student: So the torque is is perpendicular to the 8 N force? that is perpendicular to the line of the force. Or. but what if it rotates about a point on its edge rather than its center? The parallel axis theorem tells us that Ilcu+Md2 or the moment of inertia about any point on an object is equal to the moment of inertia about its center of rnass plus its mass times the distance the pivot point is from the center of mass.
rkg)(0. Good. : iM L2  $fT.T]'l.78 m) 2 . Gravity doesn't cause the door to open or close.59 rad/s2 . To T\rtor: T\rtor: I need the force and the mass.Tl. 14 N. Do I need a positive direction? T\rtor: Since everything is happening in the same direction. I need the angular force (torque) and the angular mass (moment Student: What is the torque? There is only one force. Student: So I need the parallel axis thingee.468 ks *' ? T\rtor: That would be the moment of inertia if the door was being rotated about the center of the door.li. so the moment arm is zero.78 m wide and has mass of 7..2 kgx0. then we would have to be careful about direction.#ut'+ M (Ll2)' :lut' rr.1l. The door is 0.0.)2 iut' in. find the acceleration. so from the pivot occurs at rhere are the pivot point. but it is being rotated about the edge.Ia m' 1. *rtor: other.89 EXAMPLE A boy leaving a store pushes on the door handle with a force of 18 N. How long does a it take for the door to open (rotate to 90')? T\rtor: If this were linear motion instead of rotation. Student: So the other forces don't create any torque. The boy pushes perpendicular to the surface of the door.Tl1. .. like friction at the pivot..m r . To find the angular acceleration. If there was another torque.46 kg  9. so the moment of inertia is /doo. I can do a constant acceleration problem to find the velocity.28  1.:l"?rce Student: From above the door looks like a rod. Student: of inertia).j:.2 kS. I /crrn + Md2 I /doo. but with rotation. how would you approach it? Student: If I can find the acceleration.46 kg m2 Student: Now I can find the angular acceleration.". we can call that positive and not worry about it any more. .: . and it is applied at a right angle at the edge.
The pulley equation rzlr1R. T\rtor: You could do that.ro rad. The difficulty is that we don't know the tensions. and that the seconds squared came from the newtons. That's why we use the word even though it isn't a unit.(i*^.57s EXAMPTE In an Atwood's machine..ua)  (o). We could do the same thing. T\rtor: Write down the five variables and identify the ones you know. Student: 90o is onefourth of a revolution. Energy techniques work well when the acceleration is not constant and when we don't care about the time. so it's r radians. find the moment of inertia. Af. We can't do this with degrees or revolutions. Student: Okay. It's really just a word used to remind us but not really a unit. Now I have the angular acceleration and I can do the constant angular velocity problem. find the angular acceleration. 4 kg and 7 kg hang over a 6 kg pulley.r > L0 ug+ug a)u a)a t>t r12 0 9.. we did energy. not like other units. The radius of the pulley 0. because radians are assumed so that u . and we'd need to write a Newton's second law equation for each mass. What is its speed as it hits the ground? is How are you going to attack this? Find the torque. We can insert them and remove them at will. and had two equations. so you'll want the angular displacement in radians. initial angular velocity c.4 m. Thtor: Student: That sounds like a lot of work. two masses of.(t) Student: It sounds like you think there's an easier way.'s is zero. is something like We could do it. A.(o.a* .90 CHAPTER 10. ROTATIOIV Student: I see that the kg and the m2 cancelled the same units in the numerator. we did forces. but where did radians come from? T\rtor: Radians aren't really a unit. but now the tensions aren't the same and we need a third equation for the T\rtor: Student: rotation of the pulley. Student: Angular displacement is 90o. and we have the angular acceleration... We .ru works. T\rtor: The angular acceleration is in radians.f s2)t' radf s2 t0. .) . Remember that we did this before. The 7 kS mass starts 2 m above the ground. and solve the constant velocity problem.59 radf ? s2 Lfi : uot .
and gravity on the pulley. For each mass.)) It takes energy to rotate What is the kinetic energy? Both of the masses are moving.. The 4 kg ma"ss moves up 2 m. KEt.*r) \ '2 (*+  ) + (*n  IrLT)sQ ^) Tutor: There are the tensions in the rope.(t*^. Student: Student: So i*r' becomes itr'. so zero. . T\rtor: What is the initial potential energy? Student: I'll take the starting point as height equals zero. so I need L*r' for each of them. the total work is zero. over the pulley. w . so you need the kinetic energy of rotation.rr') * (^n . then the speed of a point on the edge of the pulley is the W . )f2. Student: Consider the tension in the rope attached to the 7 kg mass.2 +I*. so you have a different h .+ PEi+W: KEy * PEr Tutor: What is the initial kinetic energy? Nothing is moving.9 m/s . If they weren't. holding the pulley up. but the moment arm for these forces is zero.(l*^r2 +!r*rr'*I*or') t / 1 w_' . I measure compared to it started.8 rn) ^) :^ 2(3 o) kg (++T+*^lr')(z *)  2. somethirg.91 don't care about the time here. doing negative work. Student: There's also a force at the pivot. It holds back on the mass. are the two masses going the same speed? Student: Yes.TrLT)g(2 ) T\rtor: When the 7 kg mass hits the ground.1 (n * mz + . TUtor: Good.(i*.rrlT)g(2 ^) rrlT)g(2 Student: Look.Rti? T\rtor: If the rope is not slipping same as the speed of the rope. T\rtor: The two masses might not start at the same height.(i^^rz +!r*rr' . doing positive work.(*^imz 1/ 1 +  TrLT)g(2 ^) t(n*mz+ m 2 2(^n rrlT)g(z *z)g(2 kg)(e. just like it takes energy to move it. Student: Now we need to find the work done by forces other than gravity. where Student: I can handle that. Ttrtor: Fq: ?df w .0 spot for the two Student: InASSES. and pulls on the pulley. the rope length would change.R') w (:^) ') i (*n. How fast is the pulley rotating? Student: Can I use u . so no potential energy. the radius cancels.u' . Thtor: And since the forces are the same. T\rtor: The pulley is also rotating. and the distances are the same.. and the 7 kg mass moves down 2 m.K E r * (^as(+2m) + mz sezrr. when I find the final potential energy. so let's try energy.
4 m high and 9. rngh*W 'r*r'*. choose the bottom as Ttrtor: y.0 kg bowling ball rolls without slippittg down a ramp.6 m long. so the final potential energy is zero.Chapter 11 Rollingr Torqu€r and Angular Momentum This chapter is about angular momentum. we had this in the last chapter.Iw2 92 . I'll h . The initial potential energy is mgh. But first an example of rolling motion. T\rtor: Student: K4+ PEi+W : KEy * PEt Student: The ball isn't moving at the top. Energy looks especially promisittg because we want the speed at the end of the ramp. EXAMPLE A 7.timsh+w . How fast is the bowling ball moving when it reaches the bottom of the ramp? * We don't care about the time. so the initial kinetic energy is zero.0. It **r' but it also has LIr'. so I'll try energy.KEy *I4o What is the final kinetic energy? has Student: Ah. The ramp is 1 . and speed connects directly to kinetic enerry.
so the friction force doesn't do any work. We would need to find all of the forces. How large is the friction force? Student: Is it the limiting case where F . and the bowling ball wouldn't roll. the 215 would have been something else. not because the PingPong ball is smaller or lighter. does the bowling ball heat up a. Student: rnsh*w *o'.. Or.?*R'. and we would have gotten a different result. Thtor: It may seem strange. so it must be static friction.4 m/s Did you notice how both rn and . so we don't know how large the friction force is. But if we used a hollow sphere or a tube instead of a solid sphere.R cancel from the equation? It doesn't matter what the size or of the ball is. Then we would have to write the Newton's second law equation. rngh*W Student: 'r*r' * l mu2 Now we need to find the work done by forces other than gravity. Student: So a bowling ball and a PingPong ball have different speeds at the bottom.Ru to connect the two. T\rtor: Yes. then we can solve the equation. Is it static or kinetic friction? Student: The ball isn't sliding.Ia). this is true. If there's a normal force. air resistance would also play a part. Student: If the work is zero. so we look in the table and I . Ttrtor: What is the angular velocity w? Student: Is this where we use u .8 T\rtor: ma^ss m/s')(1.4 tn) :4. so no mechanical energy is being turned into thermal energy by friction.Ru? The point on the edge is moving around the center of the bowling ball at the same speed that the bowling ball is moving down the ramp? Ttrtor: As long as the bowling ball rolls without slippirg. but we've conveniently ignored it.pN? T\rtor: No. but because there is no sliding. and we'd need to use u . Student: Again. I'm not sure about the friction force.s it rolls.) Sfrr' sh: fr* .1. T\rtor: If there was no friction force. Of course. fdshrfrr'+ 1". ro. T\rtor: What other forces are there? Student: The bowling ball is in contact with the ramp. Then we would need the Newton's second law equation for rotation (r .(n. it will have the same speed when it gets to the bottom. there would be no torque. there is no displacement at the friction force. but because it is hollow? T\rtor: Correct. Could we do this problem using forces? I\rtor: Yes. so there is a normal force from the surface. there could be a friction force. only if it slides.93 Thtor: What is the moment of inertia /? The bowling ball is a solid sphere. . Does the friction force do any work? Student: The normal force doesn't do any work because it is perpendicular to the motion.
AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM nI So we'd need to find the normal force and the friction force.rt Pe. Angular impulse is the name given to the change in the angular momentum.Pf + Lr. what must she do to her moment of inertia? . they wouldn't create any torque. where the bowling ball contacts the ramp. Then we could find o and find a. T\rtor: Student: Everything we did with momentum works with angular quantities.sier. Student: It sounds like energy is easier. EXAMPTE An ice skater doing an urel pulls her arrrur in to spin faster.94 CHAPTER 77. but for a point object moving around a point we use Pnsin.* AL ./. it usually is ea. Angular momentum is traditionally designated L. we could find the torque about the bottom. T\rtor: If you can use energy. Alternatively. which thus has the same units as angular momentum (kS *2/r).L1 Flor a rotating object. PTrra LIwPRsinl AP : Ft + AL . In order to triple her rotational speed.* AP . Since the normal force and friction force go through that point. w€ use Iw. ROLLING. TORQUE.
Unless we know just how much work she does. T\rtor: Are they all the same as they were before? Student: No. we can't use energy to solve the problem. . . so it's not surprising that somethitrg cancels. Lr. Thtor: It wouldn't. What is the angular momentum afterward? Student: Angular momentum ^L equals moment of inertia / times angular velocity w. All of those forces are on that line.kf : I' (3r) IJl: Student: c.L equals moment of inertia / times angular velocity w. so afterward the angular momentum . What is the angular momentum beforehand? Student: Angular momentum . Just pulling her arms in does this? Her arms are a small part of her mass. Student: So why couldn't we use energy for this? She does T\rtor: Student: Student: She must reduce her moment of inertia by u factor of three. but because they are so much further out than the rest of her. her arms are most of her rotational inertia.l cancels! I'(3J/) Tutor: This is a "scaling" problem. Ttrtor: Tbue.(it) (3u)2 rr' Tutor: Student: They aren't the same! She does work when she pulls her arms in. but we'll see why later. the normal force from the ice. and distance is squared in the formula for moment of inertia." Student: Well. T[rtor: So we leave them as variables.95 Shouldn't that be an "axle. Tutor: What forces are acting on her? Student: Gravity. so we must need to use that. Thtor: Are there any other indications? Student: We don't know the angular acceleration.L/ equals moment of inertia It times angular velocity wt I\rtor: Student: No. We need to find all of the torques. I' :]l this by pulling her arms in. Student: Iw *. Tutor: Student: Find her energy before and after.Ir'. Student: So the moment arms are zero and the torques are all zero. We still don't know any of them. What about the angular impulse A^L? Student: That's equal to the torque times the time.*ALLy Iw*ALf'u)' I\rtor: What do we know about the angular velocities? We know that u)' :3 x cr'. Tutor: The axis of rotation is vertically through her center." a^s in the thing a wheel turns around? it was invented by someone named "Axel. We don't know any of them. I 31. we just heard about angular momentum. K+aurcre : irr' and KE^rter : )t'(r')'. and maybe friction from the ice. but maybe energy would work. Thtor: Correct. Energy is i.
What can you do? Student: I can probably use energy to find the speed of the rod after it falls. Tutor: Student: I don't even know Mir4:w . Student: I'll use the moment of inertia about the end. ROLLTNG. TORQUE. If you use the moment of inertia about the center of the rod. How far down does that Student: The center of mass is at the middle.96 CHAPTER 11. The pivot exerts a force. Student: Now we need the work done by forces other than gravity. We found earlier that it's *m n' . We did this for objects falling. If you use the moment of inertia about the end of the rod. What is the speed of the putty after it is hit by the rod? where to begin. forces. so do I need **o'too? Tutor: Very insightful. 35cmlong uniform rod falls from vertical to horizontal.85 kg. What you mean by that is that you can't see the end from where you are now. Instead focus on what you can do. and I'll use the initial positionas h:0. momentum. go? w t(!*t'). What is the final kinetic energy? Student: The rod is rotating. then you need the motion of the center of the rod. T\rtor: You need to use the center of mass of the rod. so it's negative. then you don't need the Lr*r'. and rolling. . w:t(!*"). A]VD AIVGULAR MOMENTUM EXAMPLE A 0. but that force is at the pivot. then strikes a 0. sliding. so it should work here. and rotation. energy. so Lrtr'. We've learned about constant acceleration.56 kg block of putty.'* Mgrlt. The block sticks to the end of the rod. The initial kinetic energy is zero. But the center of mass of the rod is also moving.KEr+PEr Tutor: All very good. which is larger by m(Ll2)2.'+ T\rtor: Student: PEr What is the final potential energy? The rod goes down. so it doesn't exert any torque. pivoting about its end. so it goes down by Ll2.
T\rtor: During the collision. so I need to use momentum. We need to keep that force out of the equation. And the work is r L0.35 m) ] (o. uf: ufLrM'oo (tMr"a * mputtv) lw \z 3(9. and use mr2 .Sb kg) + (o.8 (0. Can't I just pretend that it's small. what can you do? Student: The rod hits the putty. so no torque means no work. And the forces that the rod and putty put on each other will cancel. the larger the force from the pivot will be. Do you know how big that force will be? Student: No.bo t g)) (r)f ^l12) :3. tut" I 3g L Student: Now we can plug in numbers and find the rotation rate. Once you know how fast the rod is rotating. (l* T\rtor: "or') E: (i*od *o'..) Lr. the pivot at the top of the rod will exert a force to keep the top of the rod in place. Just treat it as a single point./rod * Lpfity: Ifuf after Student: The angular speed of the rod before the collision is the same as the angular speed of the rod it falls. momentum of the putty beforehand has to be zero.. because it isn't moving. Lt*af2 t. Tbtor: Correct. then it doesn't exert any torque.97 T\rtor: Correct. T\rtor: There's no hurry.08 /s . but that's not the right way. /rodt'. What about angular momentum? Student: If the force occurs at the pivot point. just like with momentum. That sounds like a collision.(l*od * Tnputtv)*. so no angular impulse. but the table doesn't have an entry for putty..ar ks) (*to.. . 3g L * trputty : Ifwf T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What is the moment of inertia of the combined rod and putty? The rod is tMroaL' . (l* Student: And the angular oaL2 * ?rlpu *vL2) . and when I multiply it by the small collision time. f Right. the impulse will be really small? T\rtor: The shorter the collision time. Now it's just algebra.
the work is zero. Student: And I want the speed of the point on the end. Not so fast! What is the direction of the force that the tracks put on the roller coaster? Student: It's not toward the middle of the circle? T\rtor: No.74 m/s) (17 cm) (5. It's not toward the center. If the coaster enters the spiral at a speed of 7 . what is its speed at the end of the spiral? l*l /\ f\ . so the torque doesn't cancel. or momentum.98 cHAprER 11.4 m/s. AAID AI\IGULAR MOMENTUM T\rtor: Student: Shouldn't it be in meters per second? We found the rotation rate of the rod and putty. energy is supposed to be easiest. So the speed of the roller coaster doesn't change. Student: So it's perpendicular to the motion of the roller coaster. The string is then pulled through a hole in the center of the table.(0. Student: Well. but by using angular moment. I need the force and direction. Tntor: Because it is a single point.mntRl (0.5 m/s Now I can do the same thing to part b. Lr*tf! r. Thtor: Student: . try forces. ROLLTVG.0 cm)  2. u . the force disappears. and that's ..0 m while staying horizontal. how fast is the object moving? (b) A roller coaster enters a spiral in which the radius of the track decreases from 17 m to 5. energy.7arrrls at the end of a 17 cm string. If angular momentum won't work. P' R' sin S' 90o Student: The angle d is the angle between the momentum and the moment arm. T\rtor: T[y a different way.35 m)(3.08 m/s EXAMPLE F (u) A small object moves in a circle on the end of a string on a horizontal frictionless table. When the string remainitrg is only 5.0 cm. it's a normal force so it's perpendicular to the track. we can use L P Rsin / : muR PRsin@ for the angular momentum. We don't know the force of the string.  Rln . TORQUE. Initially the object moves at 0.3o  \ Student: Part a sounds a lot like the previous example.08 lr)  1. If the force is perpendicular to the motion.
or "pivot point. Student: Tlue. In part D it was not tonrard the center. but it was easy. Ilrtor: Ttrtor: Student: So I have to use energy for Yes. Student: Why couldn't I use momentum? The force is perpendicular to the motion so it doesn't create an impulse. part b. go the momentum is changing.99 I\rtor: The difference between part a and part D is the direction of the force. Momentum is a vector and the direction of the roller coaster is changing.ngular momentum could change. Zerc equatiorur." so the a. It does create an impulse. .
so that doesn't help. but you can't get it from forces. T\rtor: There are no r forces. so I'll call them l/r and N2.6. up as positive.Chapter L2 Equilibrium and Elasticity The equilibrium point is where something can sit without moving. one at the left end and the other 1. What else has to be zero besides the force? Student: Ah. That means that the total force is zero. I choose +lfl T\rtor: Student: +Af2 mg*ilO Can you solve this equation? No. Student: I only need one. EXAMPLE /^z. so that there is no acceleration. Student: But I need another equation. The forces might not be equal. and that there is no angular acceleration. choose axes. the torque needs to be zero. I draw the freebody diagram. T\rtor: Time to choose axes. I add the torques about the center of mass and set them equal 100 . There's also gravity acting at the center of mass. I need to do the r forces. What are the forces on the board? There is a normal force from the first scale and a normal force from the second scale. there are two unknowns and only one equation. T\rtor: Indeed you do. It also means that the total torque is zero. and write Newton's second law equations. add the forces.2 m from the left end. since all of the forces are colinear. Tutor: It is good that you remember. What is the reading on each scale? Student: Student: Back to forces.Omlong.0 kg board is supported by two scales.
you might not be able to eliminate more than one. DrIdo t Fratsin/6 2 o +(ms)(O)sin(?) Nl(1.8 . then you can eliminate two or more by choosing a pivot point where forces "intersect.8 mlsz) : 0 Nl :10N You can always eliminate at least one torque by your choice of pivot point. I can solve this one immediately. but if they are in two dimensions. T\rtor: point. like does You can always eliminate at least one torque by your choice of pivot point.101 to zero. The nearly massless board is 3. but you could also go back to your y forces equation to find Nl. What is the force from each support on the diving board? Tutor: It's a massless Student: Student: There are two normal forces and gravity.0 m)(1) + *. The gravity force of the diver.0.7 m long and has two supports 0.0) 0 ^ls2) Student: H"y. Student: But Student: it still work? Yes.x" +N2(1.g0 Nr + (49 N) .0 ks)(9. board. Nz: (^g)(1. ^)1$ sin 90o : o Nl(1. I can solve that.90 m apart.0 ks)(e. To make the math Nr. Nr+Nzrzl. You could have used some other point as the pivot point. T F:P'isin/6  Ia  o Nl(0) sin(?) + N2(1. If the forces are all colinear.2) o Student: Now I have two equations and two unknowns.(6. The torque has to be zero around anA point. T\rtor: Student: That's easier. . EXAMPTE A 75 kg diver (165 lb) stands at the end of a diving board. T\rtor: Yes you can. with one at the far end from the diver." To make the math easier.2) (*g)(1. it helps to eliminate the torque from an unknown force.2 m) (1) (*s)(1.2): +j(6. or the board would start to rotate about that Then I do another torque equation where Nz is applied so that I can solve for Nr? You could.0)+N2(0.0 m)(1) : o . it helps to eliminate the torque from an unknown force rather than the torque from a known force.4e N T\rtor: easier. Try using the left end. rather than the torque from a known force like rtg.0) l$.
Nz(0. I sin : o 90o . Student: Ok y.8020 N I can use the g forces equation to find ltrl. so I need a torque equation. EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY T\rtor: The gravity force on the diver acts on the diver. I add the vertical forces.7 mX1)  Nzlo. D Fu: *gdo Flfl+N2 rng 0 T\rtor: Student: I can't solve the equation. so we really do need to check. we might just call it his weight sometimes. The normal force that he puts on the board is the same as the force the board puts on him. using up as positive. he pushes down on the diving board with a normal force. The forces on the diver are his weight and the normal force from the board. Newton's third law says that the equal and opposite force is the diver pulling up on the Earth. T\rtor: Student: Then why did we go through all that? Because sometimes they aren't the same. so they are equal.7) : 0 Nz: @!^)!?^:z) : yosks)(e. T\rtor: Student: N N1 + 1 1 1 2T\rtor: 3. so they must have the same magnitude but be in opposite directions. Having said that it's really a normal force acting on the board and not his weight.no *. so I'll use the left end.t02 CHAPTER 72.go (mg)(3.  D Yes.8 t' " (o. and having figured out that they're the same. Is this force the same as his weight? Add up the forces on the diver.90) * o. t N1(0) sin(?) Ft&sin/a . What are you going to use as the pivot point? Student: It wouldn't help to use the center of mass of the board. Student: Ok y.?r. lfr+Nzrng0 . it's our "special case" where there are only two forces and no acceleration. not the board.go) Student: Now ^lsz) . They add to zero.Ido +@g)(3.
The left end of the board needs to be attached to the support.103 l/r * (3020 N)  (75 kg)(9. but it's the same as the weight of the sign. There is also a tension up and a normal force out from the wall. T\rtor: All true. What is the tension in the wire? Student: First we draw the freebody diagram. So the wall could be pulling the beam in? Yes. it can be divided into components. so that the support pulls it down. We just use the components.8 mf s2) : 0 lr1 A normal force has to be out from the surface. Tutor: Yes the board would have to rotate. There is the weight of the beam and the weight of the sign. Tutor: Student: . The beam is attached to the wall. The negative means that the force is in the opposite direction that you drew it.0mlong. The end of the beam is supported by a wire that with the beam. T\rtor: Student: I thought that a normal force couldn't be negative?  EXAMPTE makes a 39o angle A 25 kg sign is hanging from a 3. like the diving board was attached to the left side support. Student: But a normal force can't do that! Tutor: Correct. 14 kg beam. Tty adding the torques around the center of the board what do you find? Student: All of the torques are clockwise. so that the left support must pull the left end of the board down. How do we handle that? T\rtor: Whatever the force is. Student: So we don't even know the direction of the force from the wall. and it could also be pushing the end of the beam up or down. It's really a tension.
urng . but the choice of Paris doesn't make the equations easier to solve. * Tlrtor: Student: Student: B as the pivot point.2)/sinBeo T . I use . Frna * W. I'll use Trrtor: You could Can also use A or C. When an object is in contact with a surface. EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY I choose axes and add up the r and y forces.(l*rea e a Msie e) / sin 3eo rTutor: for. The elasticity is a measure of how much a material deforms under force. . or wood.4 even though it's not in the object? T\rtor: You could use Paris as your pivot point and it would work. the Young's modulus E lets us determine how much the material will stretch AL The stretching is expressed as a fraction of the total length LLIL. By choosing the pivot point wisely. Wo Tcos 39o : Trlbeuor6  Mv"am  Mrisn + Tsin 39o : Trtbeurnil] We don't know W*. This idea applies for all solid materials. The normal force keeps the object from going into the surface. there can be a normal force. the material will fail.(0) sin(?) Frarsin@6 . The normal force is really a spring force. the total length.104 Student: Now CHAPTER 12.14 kg) + (25ks)) (e.o . and the surface bends or deforms as it applies a force.t AL Ar' L u' Given that a force F applies to a material with an area A.s ^1. For rigid materials like steel. glass. this bending is so small that we don't see it. t W. F A Su or S. The strength is a measure of when the material fails completely and breaks. Materials stretch and compress like springs whenever they experience a force. Either it will snap or it will deform so much that it won't return to its "normal" length.498 N because the unknown force remaining was the one you wanted 6 is a good choice to solve The other topic here is elasticity.Mb. Using "4 eliminates the torques from Wy and T. I can eliminate two of the torques from the equation. L% of.Ia . once the stretching has reached about 0.Wo. Student: I'll still use B as the pivot point.M"ieng + Tsin 39o  r . Using (1. so we can't solve either of these yet. F . We need to add up the torques. or ?. For many common surfaces.M"iens(L)(l) 0 + Wa(0) sin (?)  Mueamsfir>(1) + r@)sin39o  0 .
105 EXAMPLE The sign in the previous example is to be supported by a steel wire (E : 200 x 10e N/*'. and how close will the wire be to its ultimate strength? To find the amount of stretching. The force is the tension in the wire.15 mm)' area. What is the length of the wire? Student: We could use the Pythagorean theorem. What safety factor would you be comfortable with. 498 N. Wouldn't it break? Tlrtor: You can check.136 m \r'rrr\J The wire stretches 13." which is how much you could increase the force and it still wouldn't break. I\rtor: No. T\rtor: Perhaps you would like to be a little safer than that. w€ need to know F. . what is the force F? Student: We did that in the last example. and the area of the circle is less than one square meter. Thtor: The area we need is the "crosssection" area of the wire. .07 aL# 10e (498 NX3. so : hvp + "dj.cos 39o 3. How big would the wire have to be to avoid breaking? Student: So I need to find the area so that the stress is less than the ultimate strength. so you need to do some trigonometry. or Thtor: Student: in half and A.86 m) x 108 *2)(200 x : N/*')  Q. really.7. if you were walking underneath the sign? Student: How about a million? No. S.rr2: T\rtor: zr(0.07 x 10E m2 Student: That seems like a very small Stretch out your arms to make a big circle.5 x 104 *)2 7. Engineers use a "safety factor. IE+ Ar : T\rtor: Student: (7. (2rr)L. If a 0. E. and L. Imagine cutting the wire looking at the circle that you exposed. much less than that. What is the area of that circle? Student: That area is zr times the radius of the wire squared. Is that a lot? Student: It seems like a lot for a steel wire to stretch. So I want the area of the wire so that the stress is onetenth of the ultimate strength. Look at the right triangle formed by the wire. how much will the wire stretch under load. The wire has an area much. T\rtor: What is the area? Student: The outside area of the wire is the circumference times the length.g6m cos Bgo T\rtor: The Young's modulus ^B is given. but we don't know how high above the beam the wire is attached. A.400 x 106 N/*').L 3a L. How does the stress F lA compare to the ultimate strength Su? i T\rtor: Student: F (ffi (4e8 N) . the wire is the hypotenuse and the beam is the adjacent side. Student: Ok"y. : zr(1.0 x loe N/*' Tooo x 1oo N/*' Wow! That's more than 10 times the stress needed to break the wire.3mmdiameter wire is used. so you can find the stretching AL.6 cm. Good.
. .oo3g8 rrr .IVD ELASTICITY d2r 2 rry z v TfDu .o. . to(nnt=T] . EQUILIBRIUM A.3. J .106 CHAPTER 12.g8 mm zr(400 x 106 N/*') Student: I'd be okay walking under the sign if they used a 4mmdiameter steel wire.
. gravity is about 0. Because this force is so much smaller than the other forces acting on you or the book. IUS\ and the ma^sses. and the book pulls back on you with the same force.Chapter 13 Gravitation Newton said that any two ma^sses pull on each other with a force of . or 0.98 x I02a kg and the ma.. we don't bother to include it in our freebody diagrams. u GMtMz 12 where G is the universal gravitational constant (G : 6.r92/kg2)(60 (0. not to know one number. but the goal is to understand gravity.ss of the Moon is 7. What are the forces on the Moon? Student: Gravity from the Earth attracts the Moon. F *aT GM6^netTrtr \. There is a gravitational force between you and this book ^' about of r is the distance between F_ GM\Mz: 12 (6.0001% weaker. Are there any other forces on the Moon? Student: It is not in contact with anything. Because the force depends on the distance.3 m)2 ks)(l ks) _ 4 x10_8 N You pull on the book with a force this big. r07 . The mass of the Earth is 5. The acceleration of gravity is the force of gravity divided by the mass of the object.85 x 108 m. Tutor: Good. Because the Moon is not at the surface of the Earth. When we move up 3 m (about 10 ft) the gravity force becomes weaker by about one millionth. a:T 1 GMptanet At the height at which airplanes fly. EXAMPLE The Moon goes around the Earth in a circular path of radius 3. We usually ignore this effect because it is small. the force is not mg.35 x 1022 kg. How long does it take for the Moon to orbit the Earth? T\rtor: Student: Couldn't we just look this up in the appendix? We could. so just gravity.67 x 10u ry.67 x 1011 N.370 weaker than on the surface of the Earth. does the acceleration of gravity change as we move up and down? Yes.
so the acceleration is u2 f r inward. We don't have an equation for the period of an orbit. On the left side of the equation. Use d . Anything orbiting the Earth at the height of the Moon has the same orbit. so they're the same. On the right side. GMgu1tr6M14sen 12 ma^ss times  Mrvroont r Ttrtor: Tutor: Student: r represent? Student: It's The ma^ss of the Moon cancels. GRAVITATION a a I a I I I I I t T\rtor: Newton says that when you add up all of the forces. all one of them. from center to center.ut. Student: But the Earth is at the center of the orbit. Tutor: Now you can use the speed to find the time. What does the variable the height of the Moon above the Earth. Student: The circumference of an orbit equals the speed times the period. Student: . it's the radius of the Moon's orbit. it's equal to the the acceleration.108 CHAPTER 73. Student: The Moon is going in a circle. it's the distance between the Earth and the Moon. T\rtor: Not everything needs a new equation.
it's the distance between the two stars. T\rtor: Student: It's GM M wtvt7 GM.109 EXAMPTE A "binary star" consists of two stars of equal mass rotating about the point midway of each star is I. Student: But those aren't equal. we said that the potential energy of gravity was rngh./ at/ \ t   cor) ' Student: This is just like the last example! GMM 12 _Mt r ? What does the variable r represent? the distance between the two stars. tott *)t Earlier. Student: Ok y.u IGM 4n " GM t _ atr. How is it that we use r for both when they aren't always equal? Ttrtor: That's why it's important to know what each variable means. uStudent: Now nnr' tGM u_rrl * I can repeat the d  ut process like before.V[ u=t. Now that we know that the force of gravity is not constant. Then the distance between stars is 2r. 4. I'll let r be the radius of the orbit.. T\rtor: On the left side of the equation. This came from using a constant force of gravity rng. the potential energy is no longer . How long does it take for \ . it's the radius of each star's orbit.7 x 1030 kg and the distance between them is 9 x the stars to make an orbit? ma^ss i L 1010 between them. from center to center. t d a 2rr 13 vT (n. The m. On the right side.
Leaving the proof to more detailed texts. T\rtor: Student: .m(. EXAMPLE How much energy does it take to lift an 875 kg communications satellite from Cape Canaveral (latitude 28. then we can still use mgh as an approximation. The Earth is rotating. so we'll obviously be doing conservation of energy. Student: So r is just Rn. we don't have to move the satellite an infinite distance away. but where do we get Rn and Mn? We look them up in a reference. To determine the potential energy. What matters is the change in the potential energy. We'll have to use the new formula for the potential energy.I d. In many textbooks they are in the inside front or back cover of the book. We can fudge this.(24 ht).y . Not this time. We must add energy to lift something to energy equals zero) so the potential energy of gravity is always negative. T\rtor: Almost. and the rocket moves with the Earth.6o) into geosynchronous orbit? T\rtor: Student: We want the energy.110 CHAPTER 13. KEt+PEi+W:KEy*PEr The initial kinetic energy is zero. we choose zero potential energy to be when two masses are an infinite distance from each other. T\rtor: Yes. the same point on Earth is not facing the Sun. Since the force of gravity weakens as we move further away from the planet. where T . Remember GMM MtlO mare the two masses.360o + 360'1365. the potential energy of gravity is UPE where G is the same universal gravitational constant .25. The Earth rotates 360o in a "sidereal" day of 23 hours and 56 minutes. What is the final potential energy? No. Student: That's why they gave us the latitude. For simplicity. The Earth rotates a little more than 360o in a solar dry of 24 hours . Since the force is not constant. Student: So the initial velocity is (2rR1cos28. so that afber it has rotated 360o. we use K4+ PEi+W . Cape Canaveral sits on a circle of radius R6 cos latitude. If the gravity force between the initial and final points is close to constant. but we can do that later. and r is the distance that to use conservation of energy. Very astute. T\rtor: The distance r is the distance from the rocket to the center of the Earth. GRAVITATION rngh. r. . the work we must do to raise somethitrg is less than mgh would say. not the center of the circle in which it rotates.6o)lT. To move somethitrg from the surface of a planet to an infinite distance takes work. The initial distance is equal to R6coslatitude. What is the initial potential energy? Student: The satellite is probably high enough that we can't use mgh. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: Isn't that zero? 1 ( 2rLncos 28. finding this work involves an integral.KEy * PEt and that the potential energy appears on both sides of the equation. between them. we must find out how much work we need to do. +t+t'\'KEv*PEr / rn is the mass of the satellite.6" \ 2 r GM nm . This is because the Earth also rotates around the Sun.
Symbols are easier to write than numbers. Student: All of that still works.mGMn GMnm 2rRn cos 29. r: Tbtor: Student: Whew! Now I can put the numbers in. Thtor: Yes.6 :) T w. T\rtor: Student: Now I can solve for r. The only force is gravity. I don't have r or u.ryiGMnm Tbtor: I'm happy Student: r Do we really have to put in all those numbers? to skip it if you are we've already done the physics. KE:I*r' t*W 2nRn cos 29. Student: Cool.' t_ f Vr d IM 2trr . Earth also rotates once in24 hours. The final potential energy is PEv  GMnm  GMnm 2nRB cos 28. The result is that the satellite is always above the same point on the Earth. Let's hold off on that. Student: Okay. I'll substitute u into the last equation. How far away from Earth is it? Student: This sounds like the first example in the chapter. and that's why we want to put a corirmunications satellite there. . That must be where the TV satellites go.6" :.6o )'.' T\rtor: Student: What is geosynchronous 111 orbit? That's when the satellite orbits the Earth in exactly 24 hours. Go through the first example and see how close it is. Look what happened in the second example in this chapter. Student: Ok"y.ry+w KErGMnm Tutor: lhtor: What is the final kinetic energy? Student: Can we get the velocity from the equation above? Sure. but I have t : T. Can we reuse the result? Tbtor: Taking an equation out of an example is a good way to screw up.u lt  a2 r. Good. It's in synchro with the geo. Remember that everything  else . We have a planet and something is orbiting the planet. so GMnm Ttr . It only works over the equator.
Student: Ah. GRAVITATIOI{ I . CHAPTER 13. so the time ? needs to be in seconds.TI2 is in newtons and seconds. yes . T is 24 hours times 60 minutes times 60 seconds.
We usually ignore this complication.ses. We want to know where and how much.V TTI MA. so that their densities do not change. F A fluid exerts its pressure in every direction. We treat fluids as being incompressible. Air at ground level has a pressure of The pressure in a fluid increases so the change in pressure is with depth. Rv . At high altitude. this pressure is exerted on every square inch of you. This is equivalent to saying that fluid can't build up anywhere. and by being in air. but a. One result of this is that the volume flow rate Rv is a constant as the fluid moves. and airplanes need to be pressurized so the occupants can breathe. or ma^ss of the fluid that would be where the object is if the object wasn't there. The difference in the forces is the buoyancy force or buoyant force FB . so that the air doesn't push you over (wind pushing you over is different pressures on your two sides).mfg where rn1 is the mass of fluid displaced.Chapter L4 Fluids Fluids are liquids and gases. Fluids exert forces and have energy. then the fluid above it pushes down and the fluid beneath it pushes up. is exerted on each side of you. appsay where p is the density of the fluid. The fluid beneath it has a greater pressure and exerts a greater force. The air exerts a buoyant force on you that is equal to your volume times the density of air times g. This is because the lower fluid has to hold the upper fluid up.Au: corlstant What the constant is we can't say now. Fluids exert a pressure. Y A .SS volume When something is in the fluid. often its density does as well. just a"s we ignored air resistance. and force. When the pressure of air increa. the density of air is less.s a fluid moves the volume flow rate will stay the same. so that we can use fluids. 113 . PA 15 pounds per square inch. because the calculations would be difficult and we can get most of the important information without it. The same pressure.
so it must be zero. This is Bernoulli's equatior. n'Lg : *tg planet with a different gravity. T\rtor: An interesting conclusion. T\rtor: Yes. with a ma^ss of 6.oouJu*J.[. What is the total force on the submarine? Student: It doesn't s&y. P+ ior'* 1 PgY  a constant Again. the constant is the same. we can't say what the constant is. what is the buoya "''"):5'e x 107 N Student: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Good. To keep a constant depth. .ss of the submarine. Something is wrong. Find the volume of the submarine and multiply by the density of water to find the mass of the fluid. Student: And if it was downward then it would accelerate down. Not really. FLUIDS As a fluid moves. like conservation of energy. Yes. Come at the buoyant force from the other direction. The buoyant force is Fe "fil.0 x 105 N/*' all at 20"C and 1 atm EXAMPTE A submarine is approximately a cylinder 10 m in diameter and 88 m long. What's my? The mass of the fluid that isn't there because the submarine is there. its pressure changes because of its motion. So the buoyant force is equal to the weight. What is the weight of the submarine? Tutor: Student: The weight is mg. but for two points in the same fluid. Student: g cancels.2L kg/*t density of air density of water 998 kg/*t 9I7 kg/*t density of ice pressure at sea level 1. If the total force wa"s upward. and it's also equal to Fg :'trlf g.^yr"" : mf g. It mI: pV : prr2L  (998 isn't. then the submarine would accelerate up.0 x 106 kg. Some Useful Numbers I. What does that mean? Interesting. or Student: rrrtor: ^. but it's not what I meant. Student: So it's the mass of water that would fit in the volume of the submarine. T\rtor: Student: kg/t)"(5 *)2(88 m) :6. so that we can calculate one missing piece.II4 CHAPTER 14.9 x t06 kg Student: That's the mass of the fluid displaced. the force must be zero. in an ocean on a different have to take on the same amount of water. and it has to be equal to the ma. T\rtor: That's true. How much water (ir *3) must the submarine take on as ballast so that it keeps a constant depth while submerged? This looks complicated. would T\rtor: It means that the same submarine.
we have to do that separately for the oil and water. Student: The wood cube is not accelerating. The connection between volume and mass is density. so the total force on it is zero. they must be equal. increasing the mass of the submarine.9 x 106 kg  6. Ibtor: AII problems are different. The forces are the buclyancy force and the weight. How much of the wood cube sticks out above the oil? The buoyancy force is equal to the weight. That's the difference in the two masses. Student: The buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. But we reuse techrriques. Student: The question was to find the volume of the water. Tutor: Much better. Student: So I need to find out how much they increase the mass by taking on water. To stay submerged under water. the submarine takes on water in ballast tanks. Could the oil by itself hold up the wood . so the submarine would normally float to the surface. so they have to cancel. That's why it is dangerous to take any equation out of an example.0 x 106 kg  9 x 105 kg T\rtor: Student: That's a lot of water. No. Tutor: Student: Fsmfg T\rtor: cube? Student: But the densities of oil and water are different. rflwater . because it applies to the example and not necessarily to any other situation. How do you know? Student: It was last time. pT vm: p 9x105kg 998 kg/t  900 m3 EXAMPLE A 6 cm cube of wood with density 650 ke/*t is placed into a pail of oil and water. We can't just multiply the volume by the density. The lcmthick layer of oil has a density of 850 kg/*t.mf  ?7}sub  6.115 T\rtor: The buoyancy force on the submarine is greater than its weight.
it easier? Student: A force equal to the weight of the cube. The air would push it down.1 cm .94 cm.he T\rtor: Correct.116 CHAPTER 14.8 g Is there a reason for keeping more significant figures than usual? When we subtract two numbers. we get the pressure at the bottom of the wood cube. is less than the pressure of the air. . Gauge pressure is the difference between the pressure and atmospheric pressure. If we think we might subtract later. So if we can find the pressure.3. Student: I'll let r be the amount of the cube in the water. Student: Okay. Student: Now that I have the mass of the water. the wood would 3#.01 *)) m)) Student: The mass of the block is rest on the bottom.06 )(0.i:f:::1i:j::::::::"0 06 .4 g)  (30. The absolute pressure of the air at the surface is 1. because gauges can record only the difference..0306 rI . Student: Okry. The wood cube extends down into the water.*. The water pushes up that much harder than the air pushes down. I can find the volume.2 N/m2 is the increase in pressure due to the liquid. The mass of that much oil is 30.06 crr There's another way to do the problem. What is the force that the liquid has to exert on the wood cube? T\rtor: And if we divide that force by the area of the bottom of the wood Student: .0. T\rtor: Student: Tflwater .3. Student: Where does the oil come into this? T\rtor: It causes a pressure difference between the top and bottom of the oil.140 4 g rrlwater: Trlwood  Trloir  (140.6 g)  109.pV 10e. If there was 1 cm of oil and nothing else.::T:l$::lT]. F 1. . but the gauge pressure is zero. Is  I.06 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The height of wood sticking out is 6 cm . T\rtor: And that volume depends on how much of the wood cube is submerged. s. You are confusing absolute pressure and gauge pressure. The pressure change due to .8 s  (ooa r<g/*') (to.376 Pi: ffi N :382'2N/m2 T\rtor: A newton Ttrtor: Student: But this pressure per meter squared (N/') ir sometimes called a pascal. then we keep more digits. we often lose significant figures. The weight is 1376 N student: Divide by the area.oo m)(0. using pressure. which just balances the weight of the wood cube. then we can determine the depth at which that pressure occurs. FLUIDS The most oil that could be displaced would be 6 cm by 6 cm by rrloit 1 Student: cm.: N. So the difference must be the mass of the water displaced. Your 382. The air is above the oil because the density of air is less than the density of oil. Tutor: Correct.0 x 105 N/'.. T\rtor: I'll let you decide.6 s  pv  (sro kg/t) (to. Student: How do you know that the oil is on top? T\rtor: Because it has a lower density.06 m)(")) r .uden.ou rn)(0.
8 ^ls2)(0. pressure be negative? Student: It's the same thing.8 Student: So if I take the pressure at the surface to be zero. Student: So I need a pressure change from water of ap. T\rtor: Student: As you would say.ps av 382.3 N/m2 Tutor: Yes.(I.0306 rI . Can Tntor: An absolute pressure cannot be negative.3 N/*' . Student: But the top of the wood cube is above the surface of the oil.3. using gauge pressure.0I94 N/*' pressure of Toercor:ryx 0oo%)Hx true Student: I can live with that. A gauge pressure can be negative. so it's at a lower pressure.23 N/*' T\rtor: We should have subtracted that. Since you're using gauge pressure.06 cm Thtor: As it should be. then the pressure at the bottom of the oil is 83. the pressure at the top of the wood is negative. which means a lower pressure than atmospheric pressure.01 *) : 83.21 kg/m3)(9. Okay.TL7 the oil is Ap  ps Ay  (850 t g/t)(9. or something close to that. goo%) .2 N/m2.(998 t g/*t)(9.oilTo . let's check.2 water. T\rtor: Student: But I need a pressure of 382. The pressure at the top of the wood is m) : 0.o..83.2 N/*' . The rest of the increase must be due to the water.3 N/m2? ^ls2)(0. from the 382.pg Ay.8 ^ls2X") fi :0. so the error we made by ignoring it wa^s p . But the density of air is so much lower than the density of water or oil that we typically ignore it.
Pretend that the car is stationary and the air is moving across it at 90 mls.118 CHAPTER 74. ^1"2X0. so p doesn't change. h*PqUt:Pt*Pga. So area 2 is the same as area 1. pt:pt* pg Ay:pt + (1. except the air is moving faster? . the air in area 1 is going the same speed as the air on the top. but in the last example we saw that the change in air is fairly small. FLUIDS EXAMPLE One way to create ttdownforce" on a race car is with a narrowing channel on the underside. What is the force on the top of the car? Student: The force is Ft : PtA What's the pressure in area 1 of the bottom? The bottom is lower than the top.4 m T\rtor: Downforce is created when the pressure under the car is less than the pressure above it. T\rtor: tue. The net force from pressure is downward. Assume that the car is traveling at 90 m/s and is 0. 1.1r) Pt + . What about the p's? We treat the air as an incompressible fluid.21 kgl^t)(9. T\rtor: Also. Calculate the downforce.PUf * PgAt  a constant Student: What is the constant? The same as it was on top.6 *) :pt+7 N/*' Now do area 2.pu? * psyt The speeds are the same. Student: And speed changes the pressure. Pressure also changes as the speed of the fluid changes.6 m high. so the pressure is greater. Tutor: Student: h* T\rtor: 1r) . Student: How can the pressure be less below the car than above it? Pressure increases as you go down.8 T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Yes. h * irr? * psw : T\rtor: Student: 1. whatever that was. So we're using Bernoulli's equation.
(0.4. but the acceleration wa. but only as long a^s they were driving fast. Student: So now I'm ready to find the downforce.(prx0.r : (p. Here. but would have to get going fast before turning upside down.119 How much faster? Use the volumerate equatioD. * etsst pz 1.21 : pt l^t) ((90 ^lr)' pt (315 m/s)2) *7 N/m'2 55131 N/m 2  551 24 N lm2 I\rtor: Student: That's a big change.ff315m/s T\rtor: Student: The air in the channel is moving at 315 m/s.Mwzuz wtut (I..4 mX2 m)) . .4 m)(3 m) . The height of the crosssectional area is into the page.@.X3. There.s what was needed to go in a circle. So a race car could drive upside down? TUtor: Some of them.3) kg pz: pt pz *7 N/m2 +iO. Yes.4 x 104 N/*' of the race car.8 *2) F . What's the pressure ps? Thtor: There is air there.4 m)(3 m) .2 2) .1.)(3.o @? .(7 N/*.55124 N/*'. Really it's a couple of F .@. the coaster accelerated down. so it's the same ffi inches lower. The area in that equation is the crosssectional area. so the pressure is maybe 1 kg/m3 higher.8 ttt2) F .)(0. the race car could drive in a straight line upside down. .4 m2) + (55124 N/*r)(0. Now you can find p2.4 *2) . Tutor: It's about 9000 pounds. Student: So the area of area 1 times the speed is the same as the area of volume 2 times the speed there. Ttrtor: Assume it's the same along the whole length of the car. h * i*? t pssr: Pz + .(pt) ((1.(pr)(1. +7 N/*'. This isn't the same as a roller coaster doing a loop.. T\rtor: Careful about what you mean by area. Student: pr.4 m)(90 m/s) u2:.pu'z. T\rtor: Student: Student: So Mrtr. it's about half of atmospheric pressure. +z N/m') + f.(pr)(4. more than the weight Student: Student: Is that a lot? . Student: So we can't see it. that the rate of flow is the same. which is the width times the height.4 m)(2 m) F . and it's also moving at 90 m/s.
is called a simple harmonic oscillator. When we do this we find that the solution is r(t) : nrrrcos (wt + 0) where A.nmc^r sin (rt + il. Anything that behaves in this fashion. u . or a(t) is o(t)  (k l*)r(t). u. where the acceleration is minus a constant times the displacement. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity. We want something that oscillates back and forth like a sine wave. We do this using the standard method for solving all differential equations: guess. It coasts through equilibrium. trTLw2 cos (rt + O). we can find the velocity and acceleration as well. Fkr:TrLa When the spring is neither stretched nor compressed the force is zero.. and $ are constants. Earlier we said that &s it had to be. so let's try a sine or cosine function. but the angular frequency c. and we call this the equilibrium point. and they add to zero since there is no vertical acceleration. Once the box reaches the right side the spring slows it. The only horizontal force is the spring. This process continues until the cows come home. and vice versa. Once we know the displacement as a function of time. At the acceleration is zero (not the equilibrium the force is zero.E.so we find that the acceleration r20 . then pulls it back to the left.TrL#" dt2* . trrn and Q can be anything. which is the change in the displacement from equilibrium. but that doesn't mean that the box stops velocity).l must be equal to k m' Since the biggest that cosine gets is 1.Chapter 15 Oscillations Imagine a box attached to a spring and sliding on a frictionless horizontal surface. We could also use sine instead of cosine. The acceleration is the change in the velocity. or a(t) . The vertical forces are the weight and the normal force. the biggest that rt gets is nrnt and it is called the amplitude.i TTL &k To find out how the box behaves we need to solve this differential equation. It gains speed until it reaches equilibrium. The velocity is the derivative of the displacement. If the box starts on the left then it accelerates to the right. When the box is to the left of the equilibrium point the force is toward the right. stops it. kr .
and all of its energy is potential energy. When the oscillator is at manimum displacement.40 ms. the potential energy is zero and all of its energy is kinetic energy.cos (rt + il. and again at t: 35 ms. u. The displacement is not always biggest at t: O. that's what they mean. It says so above. so the velocity can only be as large as frrnu). the maximum speed occurs when the displacement is zero. Instead. so the displacement goes from as high as *rrn to as low ffi frm.0 is 4? Tlrtor2 n. Or is it 5 cm.15 ms. The frequency is 40. It is often useful to convert between the angular frequency cd (rad/s). a"s the oscillator coasts through equilibrium. Should the period be 20 ms? T\rtor: The displacement is the same but the velocity is not in the same direction. and phase constant 0. while the maximum displacement of an oscillator is t the macimum speed is frrrrU This comes from the equation for the velocity. because the motion repeats after 40. Is r* equal to 4 because the displacement at t . where the greatest that sine can be is 1. Student: So r.n is the biggest that the displacement ever gets. and S? Student: Oh.f (cycles l").. and the period (r). The maximum speed does not occur at the same time as the maximum displacement. T\rtor: The period is the time before the motion repeats.$ cm. the frequency . it is momentarily stationary.T2T The motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is char acterized by its frequency. So the period T . or 10 cm? Tlrtor: Cosine goes from *1 to 1. 4A Student: 50 t(ms) The equation is n(t) : nnt. Write an equation for the displacement of the mass as a function of time. ELrr"r. amplitude. so that isn't " repeating Tntor: . Student: The displacement is zero at t . " 2"l U* : u1 I r frrn Also.imu2 EXAMPTE A 56 g mass attached to a spring oscillates a"s shown. Student: Then frrn :5 cm. When the oscillator is at equilibrium. But what are the values for ror.
Or is it 5 cm. and Q? Student: Oh. E _ Lrr". Student: Then frrn :5 cm.15 ms. When the oscillator is at equilibrium. Is rn. I\rtor: The period is the time before the motion repeats.nmcos (rt + il. and phase constant 0. (rad/s). *.mu2 EXAMPTE A 56 g ma^ss attached to a spring oscillates a"s shown. Instead. because the motion repeats after 40. so the velocity can only be a"s large ffi fi7nu). while the maximum displacement of an oscillator is firnt the mucimum speed is : This comes from the equation for the velocity.:rimum speed does not occur at the same time as the maximum displacement. and all of its energy is potential energy. The displacement is not always biggest at t:0. Student: The displacement is zero at t . and the period (r). u.LzL The motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is char acterlzed by its frequency. and again at t: 35 ms. amplitude..40 ms. that's what they mean. It is often useful to convert between the angular frequency c{.5 cm. where the greatest that sine can be is 1. . so the displacement goes from as high as *r* to as low as nrn. The frequency is 40. so that isn't " repeating Tutor: Student: . Should the period be 20 ms? T\rtor: The displacement is the same but the velocity is not in the same direction. It says so above. Student: So rrr. or 10 cm? T\rtor: Cosine goes from *1 to 1. " zitr Uvn u1 + T frrr. the potential energy is zero and all of its energy is kinetic energy. Write an equation for the displacement of the mass as a function of time. it is momentarily stationary. the maximum speed occurs when the displacement is zero) as the oscillator coasts through equilibrium. But what are the values for ro. 4/J50 f (ms) The equation is r(t) . So the period T .0 is 4? Tlrtors frm is the biggest that the displacement ever gets. the frequency f (cycles l"). equal to 4 because the displacement at t .U Also. The ma. When the oscillator is at mucimum displacement.
005 s) : 0.5 ms? Y'es. You need to be sure to get the correct one. What does Q do? T\rtor: The phase constant O determines the starting point.78 T\rtor: It's hard to read a graph exactly.':' . or 8o out of 360". Here's another: what is the cosine of. Student: So I have to find both values for @ and put them in the velocity equation to see which gives a positive result? I\rtor: That is one way to do it. When you are done with your equation. 4effi. Student: Theoscillatoris at4whent0. Student: And the final equation is r(t)  (b cm) cos (ttsz lsec)t . Icansett0inmyequation. The phase is wt + 0.. Student: What's the difference? T\rtor: What's the difference between t . but the velocity is in opposite directions. is zero) the displacement is a positive maximum. or the whole thing that we take the sine or cosine of. or 2To of a cycle. The displacement is a function of the time.llfl. What's the difference between phase and phase constant? The phase constant is d./)  arccos0. but the period is not 10 ms either.10 ms? Student: The displacement is the same. Ary equation for a function includes at least one independent variable.8. or everything inside the parentheses.8 37" 0.64 rad ? Tlrtor: You could. not changing with time.. If your equation did not have t in it. Student: So I don't need a value for f.0 is equal to the phase constant.0.o tt) .do r determine r? z t is an independent variable. zero? T\rtor: T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: One.. So when the phase. I can come along and pick any time t.14 out of 2tr.0. Student: So the phase is zero at t . Student: Flom the period I can find the angular frequency u. where the oscillator is at t . u^L 2nrT 21 2r T\rtor + student: so the equation is r(t): (.0.8 O : : cos (.0 and t .andrAcil. Student: We didn't get the same value for Q. The phase at t . (tttt /sec)(5 ms) * d) 0 o  (157 lsec)(0.: o.(5*m) cos (tttt : /sec)(o) + d) 0. then it would be a constant displacement." The displacement at t . That is. Something must be wrong.r22 CHAPTER 15. Student: But I do need a value for /.::. The difference is about 0.10 ms is the same as at t . T\rtor: That's the difference between the two angles. Tntor: You need to not have a value for t. and you can use your equation to tell me what the displacement is. OSCLLATIOIVS the motion. but the problem is that there are two angles for which cos 0 .andsolvefor@.
and radians per second is one over seconds. I have the energy. when it works.. But there are easier ways.: : Tot *.1.*. then why can't we write the angular frequency in Hz? T\rtor: Radians per second and cycles per second are not the same.19 m and the velocity is u(0) .2akg)( . Student: Ok y.z . Ttrtor: Good. + (0. If the motion is vertical. but in comparing the energy at two times or places. Student: So if I want t e maximum speed.:fr. then the spring stretches until it balances the weight at the equilibrium point. then the weight doesn't do any work. Why didn't it work in the last example? T\rtor: Since the energy typically doesn't depend on the time.mn2 : Irro N/)(0. Student: So I need to come up with an equation for the displacement as a function of time.7 equal to zero? Are there any other forces acting? Student: The weight? Ttrtor: If the motion is horizontal.s2 J Okay.2a kg)(r.J l . I need to pick the other time to be when the mass has the T\rtor: Student: maximum speed.*d) + w : (r (50 N/*)(0. the displacement of the mass is r(0) :0. and acceleration one period later.123 EXAMPTE A 0. Find the frequetrcy. At t : 0. and we can do all of the same stuff as long as we mea^sure r from the equilibrium point. T\rtor: Yes. even if the weight is moving vertically.^d) *w . even though neither radians nor cycles is a proper unitr so that both are really one over seconds. we can't use energy to find the time. .4. Energy is usually an easier way..2. 'ur"' *.24kg mass is attached to a spring with spring constant 50 N/..*.le "z . (!rr"a.Ey. When is that? Student: When it coasts through equilibrium. what do I do with it? Using the energy meant using Et. T\rtor: You could do that. Now I'll E use energy as you suggest.1e ) ' +1. so it's the same as before.)' . and find the first and second derivatives.?) Is the work I. We're not really interested in what the energy is.'") ) (0 ) 2 * )2+ ( 0. 50 N/m  1a.0 .4 ls 2n  2. f and cl aren't interchangeable. Student: I'll start with the frequency.rls) 2 .a ls eu r2n t I4.(r"2. mucimum speed. Student: So I can use energy to find the maximum speed. so we often use Hz as a reminder that we're using / rather than kr. the total of the weight and spring force is kr.. Student: It must work here or you wouldn't suggest it.*W . As the mass moves from there. T\rtor: Student: (r.3 Hz Student: If hertz is really just one over seconds.1 m/s. . Student: So I don't need the potential energy of gravity. T\rtor: Yes.
T\rtor: TYue. the greater the force and the greater the acceleration. so But if you knew the force.124 unL CHAPTER 15. The angular frequency is mgh I for a simple pendulum (a point mass on the end of a massless string) of length . the minus sign was a reminder that the force was in the opposite direction as the displacement r. dtr?. then it is approximately the same equation with the same solutions.. the force of the spring is ler. then the displacement as a function of time is If we r(t) : frrn"bt/2rn cos (r't + O) .24 kg)  39. For a pendulum. include this effect. could you find the acceleration? Student: I have the mass. Ah. and resonance. Correct. the oscillator repeats its motion. could you find the acceleration one period Student: Student: Is it positive or negative? T\rtor: later? one period.9 m/s Tutor: It's a speed. What would you have to know to find the acceleration? Student: The maximum acceleration is rrnwz. T\rtor: Is the displacement a maximum at t: 0? Tutor: Student: It would be the same. FYiction or air resistance in an oscillator will do negative work. it is possible to show that & . then 0(in radians) = sind = tan? when 0 is small This approximation is the same as using the first term of the Taylor series (don't panic yet for .0. OSCLLATIOIVS  4. wouldn't it? After T\rtor: Student: No. It is important. The farther the spring is stretched.I .le m) (0. Can a speed be negative? No. what should it be? Student: The displacement is positive. and / is the moment of inertia of the pendulum.. What is the acceleration after one period? Student: Now I have to find an equation for the oscillator. Where does maximum acceleration occur? Student: At maximum displacement. because it's a magnitude.. This is not quite the same equation that we had before. w F kr mm (50 N/*)(0. T\rtor: Not necessarily. so yes. rnghsin0 . where d is the angular displacement... damping. If you knew the acceleration at t . T\rtor: True. decreasing the amplitude over time.wait the appropriate time to panic). h is the distance between the center of mass and the pivot point. so the acceleration should be negative. If the angle 0 is small. So if we restrict the pendulum to small angles (about 15" or less). If we care about the direction of the acceleration. We have three more topics is this chapter: the pendulum.6 ^lsz Student: Is the negative important? When we did springs before.
1za hr. because less of the initial amplitude. . and the other stuff is the amplitude. it cancels. He chooses the ma. /q\ ln'\6/ Tbtor: 2* Are you bothered by the minus sign? Will b be negative? Student: No. : e#ffi12a hrl T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: to get your units straight. When he uses the clock. Does r.. No. 5 6 rm . regard Student: The amplitude rm cancels. Trrtor: The original amplitude cancels. q 6  ob(rs min) /zrn T\rtor: Student: I still can't Student: solve for b. Is that enough? b(73 min) Tutor: It's enough to answer the first part of the question. but you can solve for the combination bl*. the later amplitude is 5/6 of the initial amplitude.: n*ab(zs min)/2'ncos (w'(zlmin) + O) ? 6em T\rtor: A good start.Z* I\rtor: Student: b t"(8) (73 min) You can use this to find the amplitude afber 24 hours. the amplitude decreased by a sixth. fractior e*. How do we find b? We may not need to. so b will be positive. but we need to fix some things. AIso. rather than what is the amplitude remaining. so fivesixths is left.firnah(rs minl lzrn L T\rtor: Much better. he notices that damping reduces the amplitude by onesixth in 73 minutes. The cosine part is the oscillation. How much of the original amplitude will remain after 24 hours? How much does the damping change the rate of the clock? T\rtor: Student: Student: We need to determine the damping constant b.ss and spring constant so that the period will be one second. so we have to get rid of units. What does the information about 73 minutes tell you? That 1 n. not to a sixth.o. still cancel? Tutor: Because the question is what fraction of the original amplitude remains. It is not clear that the oscillation is at mrucimum displacement at t : 73 min. Student: Okay. because the log of a number less than one is negative. anyway. Do the units always have to cancel? We can take the exponent or log only of a number.r25 where the frequency is b2 4m2 EXAMPLE An experimenter tries to build a clock from a ma"ss on a spring. Remember .
L26
Student:
Okay. 24 hours is (24 hr)(60 min/hr)
CHAPTER 15. OSCLLATIONS
:
L440 min.
fractiot}:"(,.8)t#:g(o.182)(19.7):0.0274or2.74To
there an ea,sier way? Well, we could say that 1440173  I9.7 73 minute periods pffis, and during each one the amplitude is decreased by factor of (516), so that afrber 24 hours the amplitude is
Tlrtor:
Student: Isn't
"
/=\
19.7
(;)
T\rtor:
Student:
But the way we did it is more general. Now we can find the real frequency.
(r)' :
:0
0274
TTL
kb2_:
4m2
Student:
The period is 1 second,
so
2r u):;_2r
ls
T\rtor:
And we know the combination
bf 2m.
Student:
So
Tutor:
Excellent.
Student: And we don't even need to know b or k or rn. Cool. Tutor: And what is it equal to? Student: 6.28f s.
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Well, we knew that. The change in the period is really small, but it's that difference that we care about. Take your number and subtract 2r to find the difference.
Student:
Zero.
But you know it's not zero. The equation is clearly not equal to 2r. Student: But it's really close. T\rtor: Yes it is. To find the difference, we need to use a Taylor series. Student: What! We did those in calculus class. I hated them. Thtor: As do many calculus students, because in calculus class they make you derive them. In physics, we look them up in a reference book.
\ffiT\rtor:
Student: And I just look this up?
Yes.
1
.in !"' * *"3 +...
outside the square root.
for
r <<
Student: But I don't have I + r. T\rtor: Make it 1 + r by taking the 2r
r27
T\rtor:
The righthand part is much smaller than one, so it becomes r.
,.,,
x
(2tr t
s)
(t 
; ( rffir)')
You included only the first two terms. Yes. That's the other reason that physicists and engineers like Taylor series. We only include the first nontrivial term.
Tbtor:
Student: Student:
Tutor:
The 1 is "trivial?" The 1 says that the real frequency
c.,r'
is very nearly the same as
u.
The second term is the difference
between them.
u' 
rt)
= Ir(rftflor)':22x1011
And that is why your calculator had trouble telling the difference between 2r and 2r minus that. The difference shows up in the twelfth significant digit. Student: So why do we care? T\rtor: The difference tells us how much the damping has changed the frequency. There are about r x 107 seconds in a year, and if we multiply by the error, we find that the damping causes the clock to lose 0.7
milliseconds per year.
T\rtor:
Student: That
looks small.
T\rtor:
Student: That's not much.
No, but then the damping is very weak.
The la;st topic in this chapter is resonance. The calculations for resonance are typically saved for a differential equations or more advanced physics class. The behavior of resonance is worth knowing now.
It
is possible to apply an oscillating force to an oscillator. That is, as it oscillates, we apply another force * Qa), called a driving force. We can do this without matching our frequenc! u4 to the natural frequency of the oscillator c.r m. Fa cos (rot
When this happens, the oscillator can oscillate at two frequencies, the natural frequency c.r and the driving frequency u)6. Damping will cause the natural frequency to disappear (sometimes quicker than others), but the driving force will cause the oscillator to continue to oscillate at the driving frequency. The result is that
any driven oscillator will oscillate at the driving frequency rather than the natural frequency. The closer these two frequencies are to each other, the greater the amplitude of the oscillation. When the
two frequencies are equal, the oscillation amplitude is the greatest and we call this resonance. For example, when you hear sound, your ear vibrates at the frequency at which the sound pushes on it, rather than the natural frequency of your ear. If this was not true, then any sound would cause your ear to vibrate at the same frequency, and you could only hear one frequency you could tell whether there was sound or not, but that is all.
Chapter
16
Waves I
Imagine a group of oscillators, connected one after the other. We take the one on the near end and shake it. It puts a force on the next one, which drives the next one, and so on. Remember that driven oscillators oscillate at the driving frequency. So the oscillation that we start will be passed down the line at the same
frequency.
The individual oscillators move up and down, but do not travel along the line of oscillators. Each oscillator stays in its place and vibrates. Similarly, when fans in a stadium do the "wave," each fan moves up and down as the wave passes, but the fans don't move to the next seat. What does not happen is that one section of fans stands up and then all of the fans scootch around the stadium. The waae that moves is the point at which the displacement is a maximum. That is, an oscillator along the wave moves up and down, and we find one that is up; an instant later it is no longer up but moving down. The next one is now up. An instant point that is at maximum displacement after that, the next one is up. This is the motion of the wave  the moves, and we call this the movement of the wave.
An important question then is how fast does the wave move. This is different from asking how fast do the individual oscillators move (still nrn  wrrn). An important principle of waves is that all waves travel through a medium at the same speed regardless of the frequency or amplitude of the wave. (A "medium" is whatever waves travel through.) Shaking our end of the train of oscillators will not cause the wave to move down the line any faster.
For any medium,
it is possible to derive a "wave
equation" of the form
ffiu(r,t):
: :
&
1&
ftWY@,t) t.
The solution to
where u is a constant, and g is the displacement of the medium at a spot r and at time this equation is a wave that travels with speed u. Solutions come in two forms:
U(r,t)
y*sin(k*
Iwt
+ do)
A@,t)
y,rsin(k")
cos(c^rt)
The first form is a traveling wave and the second form be cosines and the cosines could be sines.)
is a standing wave.
(Like oscillators, the sines could
In a traveling wave, the
phase 0 is the entire contents inside the parentheses (Qo is the phase constant). When the phase is n f 2, 5r f 2, or 91 12, then the sine is 1 and the displacement is a maximum. The distance along r between successive maxima (from 0  T12to Q 5112) is a wavelength,\. 128
r2g
As time increases, the phase increases or decreases, depending on the sign of the *wt term. To follow a maximur: we need to keep the phase the same, so r must decrease or increase. The ratio of k and u determines how much r must change as t increases, and thus the speed of the wave.
u_Ur_f\_+
The second form u  /,\ is the most commonly used, and can be understood as: the speed of the wave is the rate at which oscillations occur / times the distance moved per oscillation ). The wavenumber k performs the same task for distance that the angular velocity u does for time. If the time increases by one period T, then there is one oscillation and the phase changes by 2n. u is then the radians per second by which the phase changes. If the position tr increases by one wavelength ,\, then there is one oscillation and the phase changes by 2n. k is then the radians per meter by which the phase changes.
TK_T
i:il fl#r"f
#"T""1?#:[?
2n
2r
The signs in the phase determine the direction of the wave. If the signs of kr and wt are the same, then as time increases, r must decrease to keep the phase constant, and the wave moves in the r direction. If the then as time increa"ses, r must increase to keep the phase constant, and the
Remember that the speed of the wave depends on the medium. If we increase the frequency at which we shake the end of the medium, even though u  f the speed of the wave does not increase. Instead the ^ wavelensh decreases. For any given medium we could mea"sure or calculate the speed of waves. One common medium is a tightly stretched string, for which the speed is
Ustring :
\p
lL
T
for the period of the
Here r is the tension in the string, and we use r instead of ? because we are using oscillation. p is the mass density, or mass per length of the string (*u  mlL).
EXAMPLE
The figure shows a "picture" of a wave traveling along a steel wire at time t  2 s. The wave travels at 52 m/s to the right and the tension in the wire is 60 newtons. Find the wavelength and frequency of the wave, the mass density of the wire, and write an equation for the wave.
.A, t1 F{ L.
qt 1
Xo
_9
h
U
4
6
10 20 30
40
50
60
70
80
r (cm)
130
CHAPTER 16. WAVES
 I
T\rtor: We could. r(A,t) rrrsin(ky  c't) is a wave moving in the *A directior, with the oscillations happening in the r direction. Student: Ok y. The amplitude yn, is 5 cil, because that's the greatest that the displacement gets from
zeto.
This picture looks a lot like the one from the last chapter. Yes, but the axes have changed. r is no longer the displacement, but the position along the wire, and y is the displacement. Student: Why couldn't we use r for the displacement?
Tutor:
Student:
There are peaks at r  5 cm and r  45 cm so the wavelength ,\ is 40 cm. What is the velocity of the wave? Student: That's the u  /,\ one, rather than the nrn, : ufrrn, right? T\rtor: Correct . 'urn : uArn is the maximum speed of each piece of the medium. Imagine tying a ribbon to part of the wire. Then ?)nt. : uUrn is the fastest that the ribbon moves up and down. Student: And it's yn rather than rrn because the motion of the ribbon is in the y direction.
T\rtor:
Correct. Can you identify the wavelength?
T\rtor:
Student:
T\rtor:
Yes.
Student: But I want the wave speed u  f
^.
Lvvr f^ > rf ?Y,^hloocm130/s .tr 40cm 1m
Tutor:
Good.
Student:
Now
I can use ustrins: ,ft to find
usrrio r ins:
the mass density p.
60 N
T ) ) u a tl A
^
lL
u,
Student: Now I need to write the equation for the wave. It should look like a@,t): Arnsin(kr tut+do). IknowtheamplitudeUrn:5cm.ThewaVenumberk+:ffi15.7lm.RadianSareavirtualunit, not a real unit, and I can write k  I5.7 rad/m. T\rtor: I don't think I've heard the phrase "virtual unit" before, but it fits. Student: Icangettheangularvelocityc..'fromthefrequency f,a2rf 2r(130 lr)8LT ls. y(r,t) :
(5 cm) sin [(r5.7
l^)r I
(817 l")t + do]
Student: The r and t are the independent variables, and don't have specific values. T\rtor: All very good. All that's left is to choose between * and r and to determine @s. Student: If the signs of kr and wt are opposite, then the wave moves in the *r direction, so they must be opposite. Does that mean I could write (k*  ut) or (k* * wt)? T\rtor: That's what it means. You might get different values of Qo depending on which you choose. Student: I choose (kr  ,.,t).
a@,t)

(5 cm) sin [(15.7
l^),  (8r7 ls)t + Qol
Now I look at the peak at r  5 cr, and that corresponds to zero phase, like in the last chapter. Not so fast. You have the right idea, but we're using sine instead of cosine. Student: Why did we change? T\rtor: We use sine here for the same reason that we used cosine with oscillators it improves the chances that the phase constant is zero. But that doesn't mean that the phase constant here is zero. Because we're using sine, a maximum occurs when the phase is r f 2 rather than at zero. Student: Soat r Scmand t 2sthephase isrl2? T\rtor: Yes, or 5112, or 9112, or so on. It doesn't matter which you use. Student: Then I'll use r 12.
Tutor:
Student:
[(1b.T lrr4(0.05 m)
 (812 liQ s) + dol  ;
131
T\rtor:
There's a quicker way to an answer.
a@,t)
:
(b cm)
ri"
[(
rs.T
l^)@ 
0.0b m)
 (812 lil]p  2 *t/ + 1l 2J
T\rtor: It's clear that if r T\rtor:
As we move away from r  5 cm, the phase changes by L5.7 rad/m, the wavenumber. And as time changes, the phase changes by 817 rad/s, the angular velocity. Student: Yes, those must both be true, and the signs for r and t are opposite, so the direction is correct.
Student: It seems simple, I guess. How do you know that it works? 5 cm and f  2 s the phase isrf2, yes? Student: Sure, because the first two terms of the phase are zero.
waves
If you take two solutions to the wave equation and add them, you get another solution. This is how we get that are not shaped like sine or cosine, by adding many sine or cosine waves together. All of the waves
travel the same speed because they are traveling in the same medium.
There are three important cases of adding waves that appear many times, and are worth learning about:
o two (or more) waves traveling the same direction, identical except perhaps for a phase difference,
o two waves traveling the same direction, identical except for
a slight difference in frequency, and
o two waves, identical except that they travel in opposite directions.
When two identical waves travel the same direction, they add together to form a wave that is twice as big, having twice the amplitude. When the waves are exactly "out of phas€," or one is half a wavelength behind the other, they are exact opposites and they add to zero. We call these constructive interference and destructive interference, respectively. If they are somewhere in between, then using a trig identity
st' (4\ ino*sin p 2sin (Zn 2 )cos\. \
sr sin (k*
so they add
'
/
sin

ut +
il * a,nsin(kr 
ut)

2cos
(;t)
yn
(r"  wt . Lf)
to form a new wave, identical to the first two, but with an amplitude of 2 cos (+0) times the original amplitudes. Sure enough, for 4,  0 this is 2 and for Q  n this is 0.
When two waves have slightly different frequencies,
sin
a * sin p
2
sin
ff)
.o,
(+)
t) sin
y*sin(k*  u1r) +y,'sin (k* wzt):2A,ncos ((r, u1)
(f" "
t",)
The result is a wave with the average frequency, with an amplitude that oscillates at the difference in the two frequencies. We call this phenomena beats, and the difference frequency is the beat frequency.
EXAMPLE
What phase difference must there be between two otherwise identical waves so that their sum has half the amplitude of each of them?
T\rtor:
Student:
This seems pretty straightforward.
Okay. How are you going to do it?
Imagine a vector that initially points in the *r direction. it's a way be? to add waves by adding vectors. WAVES the formula above. Tntor: Student: It would be cos 0. But what if the waves don't have the same amplitude? we have a formula for that? Tutor: We have a technique that we call phasors. 1 O 2 arcco' (i) : 151o : 2. and then the o component is the displacement.r) :i /1\ . let the vector rotate at angular velocity w.4 T\rtor: Student: urn:t ? : Ir* The units on the left are length. but the right side doesn't have units. we add the vectors together.0 . As the wave pa. Like any unit. .64rad Do Student: There. We can draw another vector. I need the amplitude that the waves start with.a/ T\rtor: Student: Does it matter whether I use radians or degrees? No.sses a point. Student: Isn't that some kind of stun gun? I\rtor: Only in science fiction. What would the o component As long a^s we measure 0 from the r ucis. because centimeters. in the gr direction and half as long.arccos (. you need to write the units and use them consistently. instead of to meters or cos(. In physics. yes. but then rotates counterclockwise.r32 CHAPTER 76. I did both for good measure. . Something must be wrong.I Student: With 2cos(. Oh. similar to the first but 7r 12 behind and with half the amplitude.t) urn Yes. T\rtor: Student: But the original amplitude cancels. 2 cos (. Now imagine that we have another wave. in this problem we are comparing to the original amplitude. these rotate at the same rate. Because the waves have the same frequency. To add the waves together.
in a * sin 0 2 sin ff) . some of the wave is reflected and some is transmitted. Student: That's kind of cool. This means that there are many acceptable wavelengths. if both ends must be nodes. the amplitude is large. they add to zero and the amplitude is small. then the wave is flipped upon reflection. 3L 2 . How can you get two identical waves but going in opposite directions? You tie down one end of your string. When they point in the same direction. but they are a discrete set guitar. but they rotate much faster than the difference frequetrcy. and the spots where the amplitude is a maximum antinodes. Tutor: No.ut) . and when they point in opposite directions. If the boundary is especially hard. they all move in sync. or 2L where n is any positive integer. This is the basis of musical instruments. then the entire wave is reflected and we have an identical wave going the opposite direction. It is a general principle of waves that when a wave encounters a change of medium. producing a node at the endpoint.2y. so If both ends of a string are bound then the wavelength is constrained.\ L. If the medium off of which the wave reflects is one in which it would go slower. In a example.I2? Yes. the wavelength must be twice the length of the string.sin (k* * Some places have an amplitude of 2Arn and others have an amplitude of zero. (+) wt) * Arnsin(kr . the vectors rotate at slightly different frequencies. so that none of the wave is transmitted. g.133 T\rtor: T\rtor: So the sum is a wave with amplitude tre)'+ (0. r. and the angle of the resultant vector tells us the phase of the resulting wave. we call them standing waves. .ncos (rt) sin (kr) Each piece of the medium is an oscillator. which is how the difference in the vectors changes. Nodes are half a wavelength apart. or an integer times that. Student: But they don't rotate together.5)' : I. Because these waves don't move left or right. in which the wave would go a different speed. And we can add more than one vector this way? Student: As many as you want.n. We call the spots where the amplitude is zero nodes. but instead of moving one after the other.o. then the length of the medium must be an integer times half a wavelength. Student: The last important case is two waves traveling in opposite directions. ^. but oscillate in place. so that the incoming and reflected waves add to zero.only those wavelengths will work. So how can you explain beats with phasors? Tutor: Because the two waves have slightly different frequencies. for .
f ^nft The important point is that there is a fundamental frequency . and the other allowed frequencies are integers times the fundamental. But since you've opted for the third harmonic. use a . and is the number of antinodes present. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Very good. and especially here. You could use it. apply L : nt or . right? But we've changed the string. The first overtone is the first frequency above the fundamental."  (1398 Hr))u. and the word overtones covers these.fo.I We can then use u .466H2 T\rtor: Student: Yes. and find the frequencies. T\rtor: So Student: If the third harmonic start with what you would need. (440 Ht))b"fo. WAVES . so the wavelength will be shorter and the frequency higher. but then we hold the string down partway along its length. Student: I know Student: the frequency before and after holding down the string. Sometimes these higher frequencies are called overtones. so the medium has changed..ft".134 CHAPTER 16./) to determine the frequency. The difference is that. Initially the fundamental is 440 Hz. When someone plays a guitar.ulbufor" : ubefore : uafter : f^ft"r)"ft". is 1398 Hz. That shortens the string. T\rtor: How does the fundamental afterward come into it. The first harmonic is one times the fundamental. then the fundamental is fs_ Does that mean that the first harmonic is equal to the fundamental? Indeed it does. Student: Because the medium hasn't changed and the velocity is the same.\.\ . or where it doesn't apply. they hold the string down on a "fret" along the guitar's neck. It is always better to learn to use a few equations well than to memorize more equations.ry . EXAMPLE A 74 cm strittg clamped at both ends with a mass density of 0. T\rtor: Student: rf. The integer n is the same integer for how many halfwavelengths fit in the medium. Do I even need to find the wave speed? Nope. so the speed of the wave is the same. so much as first one and then the other. I strongly recommend aga'insf memorizing an equation for the frequencies of a standing wave. but with the same speed./. One of the most common mistakes made with standing waves is to pull out a formula for the frequencies and use it improperly. or equal to the fundamental.440 Hz (the note A). Student: So it's really two different strings. How far from the end would you have to hold the string down so that the third harmonic is the note F (1398 Hz)? Student: I don't see how to get from here to there. ft+. we can .310 glm has a fundamental frequency of. I'll show you in a minute.+. What is the wavelength of the 466 Hz fundamental? Student: How can the fundamental be both 440 Hz and 466 Hz? T\rtor: It isn't both. Tutor: The tension is the same and the mass density is the same. or the second harmonic. if a medium is more than one dimensional. So I can write "fb. there may be allowed frequencies that are not integer multiples of the fundamental. called harmonics. picture the waveforil.fi. Instead.
9 cm The guitar player has to hold the string down 69. so thicker strings are used for the lowest notes. causing them to vibrate at the same frequency /. The two vectors now rotate in opposite directions.9 cm from one end. Guitar strings are of different thicknesses so that they can have the same length and tension but play different notes. o Standing waves. or you could change the tension or mass density and thus change the speed. then they will always add to a vertical vector with no r component.69. so long as you matched wavelength and frequency. Student: Now I can solve.) The high notes are short strings and they get longer for lower notes. For the second.6 cm T\rtor: Student: That's right. If the start both vertical. as he probably thinks about it. Remember that changing the speed will change the frequency because the wavelength is fixed by the length of the string. The strings vibrate at a frequency f . it's only half a wavelength. then they will add to a horizontal vector that varies from *2 to 2. and they start both to the we get an antinode. The fundamental wavelength (can we say that?) is twice the length of the string. Any two waves in the same medium have the same speed. and we get a node displacement ever. have certain allowed wavelengths. with nodes at fixed points. (440 Hr)(148 cm) Student: It's the length of the string. then you would have gotten a wavelength of about 140 cffi.I cm from the other end. )after : (440 Hr)(148 cm) (1398 Hr)  46. (You tune a guitar or piano by changing the tension. consider a piano. You could change the length.  (1398 Hr)lurt". We've seen examples of the first and last. and we can't really put more tension in the strings. So the wavelength is 2Lf 3. . not the fundamental.135 use that.. Is that one wavelength? Student: No.9 : 4. How can you use the wavelength of the third harmonic? harmonic. 69. A wave keeps the same frequency as it crosses from one medium into another. If you had used the fundamental frequency afterward instead of the third harmonic. If right (+"). Student: Is that why grand pianos are curved. and strike the air molecules. it's the third Good. but then the wavelength would have been 2L instead of 2L13. It didn't matter which you used. The fundamental (pardon the pun) equation for all waves is O: f \ Here's how to keep straight which of the three variables is determined. because the strings are different lengths? Tutor: Yes. or 148 cm. Eventually the strings would become too long. What is the wavelength of the fundamental before? T\rtor: Think about what the waveform looks like. T: T\rtor: Or 74 Student: 2L )"ft"r : 46'6 cm L . Student: Can you explain standing waves using phasors? Tutor: If you like.
Instead the pressure of the air oscillates.Chapter fT Waves II Air may seem empty.4r/5 L. This is much slower than light.4I/ 3 . you wouldn't hear the explosion at all. A closed end is a displacement node but a pressure antinode. but that is merely relative./3 )v . so that it changes with temperaturc.f. f. n=2 LzI. So the allowed wavelengths of an open pipe (open at both ends) are sirnilar to those of a string.f. Really. the molecules in air move around. while the pressure in the closed end can change. because there are so few molecules in outer space. contain about 102e molecules per cubic meter. f. But for a closed pipe (closed at one end. Air contains about 101e molecules per cubic meter. for comparison. the air molecules are free to move. At the closed end. but this is not strictly true.. nothing would happen if both ends were closed) the length must be . Imagine a pipe with one open end and one closed end. Because of the lower density. we examine wind instruments here. and this region of slightly higher pressure is the wave that moves. you would see the explosion before hearing it like lightning on Earth. and so on. for example. So an open end is a pressure node but a displacement (of the air molecules. so that when a spaceship in a science fiction movie blows up. But the open end is literally out in the open. travelling a short distance (centimeterlike) before colliding with another air molecule./2= I n=  n= 3 L= 4L )n3 n= 4 h  21. so the pressure there remains atmospheric pressure.f. but the two ends of a closed pipe have to be different.2L/4 = I/2 n=5 L 136 . The speed of sound depends on the molecules in the air and the conditions. room temperature) the speed of sound is 343 m/s. because it would leave a vacuuln in the end. At the open end. changing by a small amount of maybe #dd of atmospheric pressure. It can be helpful to think of sound as the molecules in the air vibrating. Liquids and solids. the air can't move very far. At standard conditions (atmospheric pressure. Having described string instruments in the last chapter. Confusing? Remember that the two ends of an open pipe have to be the same. in and out of the pipe) antinode.
T\rtor: You have the right idea.7cm) f . Does the frequency increase or decrease as the pipe gets longer? Student: If the pipe gets longer. then / gets smaller.. nodes and antinodes are a quarter of a wavelength apart. Student: Havi. Student: So I'm stuck? The open pipe frequency is 784 or 790 Hz and I can't tell which? Tutor: The problem does say that to make the two pipes match. The first overtone is indeed when the length is i.:f\"'. Student: So what's the second harmonic? Ttrtor: There is no second harmonic for a closed pipe. T\rtor: Or 790 Hz. w€ need to make the open pipe longer. only odd ones. Does it matter which is which? T\rtor: Usually not. but let's start with the fundamental.+ 2 L_ !: 2f 3L.I. You mean a single step? Yes. Student: I was hoping for an easier way. we're going to make f smaller.l. and then the needed length. You do have the important thing. L1. Do we have an equation for the change in frequency? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: No. The length of the open pipe is half the fundamental wavelength.7 cm. When the two pipes are played at the same time. We'd have nearly infinite equations. If gets bigger. one is a node and the other is an antinode. T\rtor: Student: Very good.g fewer equations and putting them together is easier than having an equation for every need. Student: In a standing wave.\ and the third is when it is i. the fundamental or the third harmonic? Tutor: Either. because the frequency is five times the fundamental frequency. and the frequency is three times higher. we hear a beat frequency of 3 Hz. For the third harmonic Tutor: Student: L9. The second harmonic is when the length is fi. Student: Well. then the wavelength gets longer too. So for the fundamental.2h .436 m 43.f.f. Student: So if L . but incorrect terminology.\ and the second overtone is when it is i. It would depend on whether you're looking at air pressure or at air molecule displacement.21 71 cm !11? t1') r .1 + 43r ^!^r*ft.1 k . ^ T\rtor: So to rnake them match. How much longer must the open pipe be so that the two frequencies match? This looks complex! Where can I start? Can you find the frequency of the closed pipe? Student: Which. So the frequency from the open pipe is 784 Hz. the wavelength is + what it was.?) T\rtor: Student: ln?=T/' 0. A medium with a node and an antinode at the two ends doesn't have even harmonics. so we call it the third harmonic.l. which is that they are opposites. You can't tell from the beat frequency which of the two is the higher frequency.6cm  T8T Hz Okay. the length of the pipe is a quarter wavelength (L : ifl.137 EXAMPLE A closed pipe in standard conditions has a length of 32. Student: Ok y. When an open pipe is played at the same time. but we could determine the length. Student: So the frequency of the open pipe must be 790 Hz. But when L . Of course we'll need the third harmonic eventually. and subtract. because it's open at one end and closed at the other. Student: Okay. the beat note between the fundamental of the open pipe and the third harmonic of the closed pipe is 3 Hz.l it's the fifth harmonic? T\rtor: Yes.2(790 Hr) .
If the wave from one has to travel for an extra half period. and we don't care whether the difference is positive or negative. .II Lz :." meaning that they produce peaks at the same time. Therefore. J such as standing waves when you add two waves traveling in opposite directions. you take two of the pieces and pull them just a little apart. If a peak from one wave arrives at the same time as a dip (marimum negative displacement) from the other. There are many examples of interference.!1*?I1') . Pulling them 1 mm apart can change the frequency by a couple of hertz.e '' . . but with the same frequency. destructive interference occurs when one source is a halfinteger number of wavelengths further away than the other.(m + *lf . l3m T\rtor: Student: I want destructive interference. Find the three lowest frequencies at which destructive interference occurs.21. AL . It doesntt matter that the waves came from different directions.2f. A^L:lLzLtl * lf constructive interference destructive interference EXAMPTE A person stands near two inphase speakers as shown. when two or more waves add we call it interference. Usually the two sources are coherent. or any halfinteger (integer plus a half) number of periods.Lr  2I.2(787 Hr) .79 cm . The same is true if the further wave travels for an extra one and a half. constructive interference occurs when one source is an integer number of wavelengths further away than the other. We now consider adding two waves coming from arbitrary directions. In general.7e cm 0. then a peak from that wave arrives just as the next dip from the closer sources arrives. then a peak from that wave arrives just as the next peak from the closer source arrives.08 cm. If the wave from one has to travel for an extra period. WAVES r. If peaks arrive at the same time. What is A^L? Student: The difference between the two distances.138 CHAPTER 17. threer or any integer number of periods. like a clarinet. or "inphase. Because a wave travels one wavelength in one period. or is that LJ I\rtor: It doesn't matter. then we have constructive interference where the waves meet. then we get destructive interference. The same is true if the further wave travels for an extra two. T\rtor: Student: That's not very much.2I. two and a half. .8 mm To tune a wind instrument. so I need Good. L2 is 3 meters.7I clr  0.
Light from the Sun brings or brought us most of the energy we use (brought for fossil fuels).6o m Tutor: T\rtor: Very good.3.nl.y per time. then it makes sense.L . The further away from the flashlight. As the light leaves the flashlight it spreads out. it wasn't. 2. The question is whether we should. The lowest frequency occurs when m Student: Oh yes. The intensity is the power divided by the area of a sphere over I . We describe this energy by its power and intensity.!J)AL (^ ! j)' .o. and so on. AL is half a wavelength. is difficult to do mathematically.60 m.(m + i)672 Hr) so + ilr .000 Hz. point source that radiates uniformly in all directions. The brightness or intensity of any wave is proportional to the amplitude squared. I put in 1..(* ++)r". the lower the intensity. This was true for elastic collisions. but the power is the same. or (m f . . as the light spreads out over a larger area.. . but the human ear doesn't hear well above about 20.  0. as before. The power is the energ. Is it hard to do the math? Student: No. T\rtor: It could. Is this something that we'll need many times? Student: It seems like it could come up more than once. because then A. then I can find one and a half wavelengths. where we had two equations and one of them had u2 in it.139 equations.00 : 0. Student: And m car' be any integer. m0 + f (r)(bz2Hz)286H2 mr > f (BXsz2Hz)8b8Hz m2 + f (t)(b72Hz)r43oHz How far can we go? You could keep going.60m? T\rtor: Yes. The flashlight bulb emits a certain amount of power in the form of light. Imagine turning on a flashlight. Student: Then the difference is 3.L is X.s * . Two out of three says to stick to two simple equations and not try to memorize something else. In many cases we use a are many sources that come close to which the power is spread. I Waves carry energy. Student: Couldn't we just combine what we've done and get a formula for the destructive frequencies? Thtor: We could do that for any problem.  f the frequency. The intensity is the power per area. But the frequency hasn't shown up in any of the Ttrtor: You can still use u the Student: Ah yes. and there this. The math is easier. We often describe not the intensity of sound waves in W/m2 but the sound level in decibels B  (10 dB) r. T\rtor: Student: Student: Fair enough.60 . and not prone to misuse. This is true for any type of wave emanating from a point source.. T\rtor: But experience teaching this topic has taught me that it is prone to misuse.L. wavelength. If I can find ^.. Student:SoIcanjustSaythatonedistanceis3mandtheotheri"'ffi3. If an equation is used over and over.
then down another factor of ten (10 dB). That doesn't seem like much of a change. The ear perceives a factor of 10 in intensity to be "one notch" in sound. Student: Ah. You could also say that 4 is two factors of two. WAVES .02 dB T\rtor: True. Student: We're using dB in a relative sense. if he moves 20 times further away? If we moves twice as far away. so the result is 95/6 . Normal conversation l^'is approximately the threshold of human hearing. then double r and find the new intensity." is about 60 dB. then 3 dB more for the second factor of two." 3 dB is approximately a factor of 2. so 23 dB is two times greater than 20 dB. use decibels because the ear is logarithmic. you're at 17 dB. wait a minute. so one signal can be +23 dB relative to another (200 times as large). lbefore: lafter: ano W W T\rtor: Yes.16 dB.89 dB. it asked for the sound level. or about a million times more intense than the threshold of hearing (six factors of ten).II so where Io :1012 W 10 dB is 10 times greater than 0 dB (0 dB is not zero sound).6 . \ I 6. It's 95 . By the w&y. .(3) + (3) + (3) dB is three factors of 2 or 8 times less.140 CHAPTER 17.P"rt". or 100 times greater than 0 dB. and 20 dB is 10 times greater than 10 dB. rather p Student: Now rafter :2rb"forer vv /b"fo. then up a factor of 2 (+3 dB). the intensity is 9 times less. it doesn't say how far away from the jackhammer he starts. you add dB. so it's between 9 and 10 dB. so I7 dB is down a factor of 50. (W. n before is the same as 7r afterward T\rtor: Tbue but not enough. or 23 dB (200 times ^[s.) EXAMPLE A man hears level be? What a jackhammer at a sound level of g5 dB. Student: And if he stands three times further a\May. Decibels can be used in a relative or absolute sense. How can I find the power? Tutor: You can't. What if he stands 20 times further away? Tutor: Student: Seems simple. or threshold). rPb"for"r.for. he starts at 95 dB. then . No." so {orl"' 4' than compared to /s. what will the sound Student: So I have to use the decibel equation to find the power of the jackhammer. (10 dB) 1". so 3 dB for the first factor of two. and the change is 6 dB. Think of 20 dB as "2 factors of ten above 0 dB. or 200 times greater than 0 dB. . Tutor: Good. but the radius has changed. What is the same between the two? Student: Well. the power is the same before and after. Student: And you don't multiply? T\rtor: You never multiply dB. the problem didn't ask for the relative sound level. so he hasn't really reduced the sound much. You need to remember that you add dB to multiply the intensity.  (10 dB) roe *q /b. T\rtor: 10 dB is 10 timbs less. Decibels are "factors of ten. because dB is "factors of ten. Student: Ok y." Student: Can you always do this tricky stuff? What's I7 dB? T\rtor: If you go down a factor of ten (10 dB). and 9 . But see where it says "twice as far away" ? Student: It's a scaling problem. . I write the equation before and after. Tutor: It isn't.
spots of slightly higher air pressure. then it takes less time than a period (* mea^sured by the source) for the next peak to get to us. The source moves toward the detector.in the numerator. or the source of the sound moves. what frequency do they hear for the return wave? The speed of sound in water is 1500 m/s.  The frequency that a "detector" hears is st r . respectively. Student: The detector moves away from the source at 8 m/s. where EXAMPTE A ship is chasing a submarine. and the sub is the detector. use the top sign for motion toward the other and the bottom sign for motion away from the other.T4T Then the intensity is 202 400 times lower. are a wavelength apart as they move toward us. If the source moves toward us. If we move. sending out a sound wave and detecting the reflected sound. and u" are the velocities of the detector and source. and because it's toward we use the top Tutor: It's not quite that simple. so there's no change. use the bottom sign or * sign in the denominator. so we receive the peaks at intervals of a period. Waves travel one wavelength in one period. Which of * and do you use? One way is to remember that motion of the source or detector toward the other increases the frequency. then use the * sign in the numerator. ?)d. The submarine is moving at 8 m/s and the ship chases it at 20 rnf s. 26 dB below 95 dB is 69 dB. the previous one is not a full wavelength away it is a wavelength minus the distance the source moved in a period. If the source moves away from the detector. and because it's away we use the bottom sign or . Our last sound phenomenon is the Doppler effect. and u is the speed of sound. The sub hears a different frequency than the ship sends. frequency of the sound changes. If the detector moves toward the source. 400 is 10x 10 x2x2. ff we move toward the source of the sound. Student: Even though he's moved 20 times further away?! I\rtor: That's why you should wear ear protection when operating a jackhammer. then the Peaks of the sound. The ship is the source Student: . so (10)+(10)+(3)+(3) dB. and it's hard to have a Student: conversation near one. To detect the submarine. The ship is both source and detector. Written the way I have it here. then one period later. and a higher frequency. and use the sign to produce the desired result. the ship uses sonar. If the ship sends out a 700 Hz sound wave. We perceive a shorter period than the source does. 69E} is three factors of 2 or 8 times louder than normal conversation. 26 Tntor: Excellent. as it emits the next peak.r r (u*ua\ \'+'") / is the frequency of the source .
because the source is at the same place as the previous peak as it releases the next one. reflecting that all of the peaks would arrive at the same time. We want the frequency that the T[ue. Sound travels quite well ffi) (TobTHz) (ffiH) :TtrsHz * through seawater.) (ffi) zobTHz and the ship moving 12 mls? Ttrtor: We can't because the sound travels through the water. hears. But we have the frequency that the submarine ship hears. The waves reflect off of the submarine. saying that the sub was stationary Student: The sub is movit g away from the ship. rather than the steel of the submarine. then each peak is on top of the previous one. then the peaks never reach the sub.u r(H)(7oo H. some of the wave is reflected. WAVES . Most of the sound reflects off of the air inside the submarine. Student: Can't they just look? T\rtor: Light does not travel far through seawater. Here. If the source moves at the speed of soutrd. If the sub moves at the speed of sound. . Now the submarine is the source of the reflected wave. even though the ship is moving faster than the sub. Student: That's how you get a sonic boom. Student: Okay. Student: So the ship is the detector and hears T\rtor: Student: (1500 m/s) 1500 /s) + + (8 /s) T\rtor: and the Yes. And the equation would say that the received frequency was infinite.L42 CHAPTER 17. and you used the + sign in the numerator because the ship wa^s moving toward the source. Shouldn't they hear a lower frequency? Student: Ok y. They mea"sure the time that it takes for the reflected wave to arrive to determine how far away the sub is. . sign in the denominator because the sub was moving away from the detector. Tutor: More or less. Is that because the steel of the submarine is a different medium than the water? T\rtor: Very good.7 Hz. Supersonic airplanes are ones that move faster than sound in air. Whenever a wave encounters a change in medium. The error is small because the speeds of the vessels are so much slower than the speed of sound. Can that happen? Tutor: It is possible to move faster than sound. Student: And the ship can use this to determine where the sub is? T\rtor: They can use the shift in frequency to determine the speed of the sub. and that reflected wave starts with a frequency of 705 .II sign or in the denominator. Tutor: The ship is moving toward the sub faster than the sub is moving away from it. Couldn't we have used the relative velocity. Student: But the ship would be moving faster than sound.. so the submarine isn't visible.r". we would get a very small error in our answer.) ( (1500 */s)  (1500 m/s) (s m/s) (20 */s) )(7ooH. if we used relative velocity as you suggest.
" not "373 degrees kelvin. Every object has internal energy Eint Temperature is a measure of the density of the internal energy. Ti Kelvin. other than by doing work on it. We can increase the internal energy by transferring heat into or by doing work on the object. in energy per atom rather than per volume.Eir..15o K. We say "100 degrees Celsius" but "373 kelvin. Throughout these chapters. no heat flows between the two because they have the same "energy density. In physics. and where does the energy go? There is a second way to move energy into an object. so a positive LW decreases the internal energy. Two objects at the same temperature do not necessarily have the same amount of internal energy. Celsius and kelvin are the t43 . the Celsius scale is often used. Then when placed in contact. LW is the work done by the object. When placed in contact." The small bucket could have the same internal energy as the large one. There are many scales for measuring temperature. The first law of thermodynamics is conservation of energy. In chemistry. A. when using a temperature difference. Therefore. then how can we move energy into the food. but would need to have a higher energy density or temperature. Heat is the energy we move into an object other thar by work. higher temperature bucket of water to the colder. &r increase of one degree Celsius is the same as an increase of one kelvin.LQ + Lwdone on . heat would flow from the hotter. lower temperature bucket. A large bucket of water has more internal energy than a small bucket of water even though they have the same temperature. because heat is the transfer of energy.LQ  LWaone by where LQ is the heat transferred into the object. No object has heat." Because the difference between Celsius and kelvin is only adding 273. the most familiar is Fahrenheit (65"F is a pleasant spring day). we often use K oC + So the boiling point of water is 373 273. In the United States. so . o 5 ('C) + gz' where 100'C is the boiling point of water and OoC is the freezing point of water.Chapter 18 Temperatur€r Fleat) and the First Law of Thermodynamics What happens when we cook food? If there is no force exerted over a distance.
. The curve AB is pV . Just like work. . HEAT. of course. What about from C to A? Student: There is no change in the volume. all temperatures must be in kelvin. then our pressure is the same a^s the gas's. Student: If we're looking for the work. The work that the gas does is the pressure it exerts times the change in volume. But zero kelvin corresponds to zero internal energy. Student: It's a constant.corrstant. Tutor: Very good. T\rtor: Correct. Then we should look for ways to avoid doing any more than we have to. and there is no area under the curve.I pdv . or pressure times area.I pdv. which is an important point in thermodynamics. T\rtor: It is the same as work.r44 CHAPTER 18. When the volume decreases. then the motion is in the opposite direction as the force and the work done by the object is negative. Student: I'm all for that. A]VD THE FIRST LAIA OF THERMODYNAMICS same. Because the pressure of a gas or liquid is exerted outward. . Now we need to determine how to find the heat and the work and what they object is do. We push a little harder to get it compressing. Student: The pressure times the change in volume. Student: . and then a little less hard at the end. That means that the integralw . The work done by an w.J[pav where p is the pressure the object (often a fluid) exerts. so no work. don't we push harder on the B&s. so shouldn't we use our pressure? Thtor: If the change happens slowly. Student: So the work is negative? Tutor: Yes. T\rtor: But the change in volume from B to C is negative.pAV. as most changes in this chapter do. TEMPERATT]RE. . Temperature differences can also be in kelvin. We're pushing in on the gas harder than it pushes out. T\rtor: Look at the path from B to C and tell me about the pressure. so it is compressed. Therefore use Celsius only when finding a temperature difference. . but with the same pressure during the compression. EXAMPLE Find the work done by the gas undergoing the process shown. I get it. Student: Shouldn't that be the force. an increase in volume means that the motion was in the same direction as the force and the work done is positive. The work is the area under the curve. times dfr? T\rtor: But dr times the area is the change in volume. E t 6 o 5 U' o l o) L 0 Volume (mg) T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: So Don't you like doing integrals? NO! I have to do an integral W .
32x105 N.m3. I can convert. let's finish the problem in the units we have.3 atm.m3.30 atm.00 callgK. We use temperature to measure this internal energy (energy density.)l. or 4180 J/kg. T\rtor: Before you do that.32 x 105 J/3600 s .) (l^"ffi)  1 ..36 W. If we can't turn atm m3 into joules. (3 atm)(1 rn3) . The work from B to C is 2 atm.t d. Student: All of the energy and work and power stuff still applies? T\rtor: Would you rather you had to learn new energy and work and power stuff? T\rtor: Student: Student: No.ber a complete cycle. .)l. An object has a heat capacity. Student: So the internal energy of the gas decreases by that amount? No. (1. The more of the material. the greater the heat capacity. . or water turning into steam.m.1< 105 N/*'. Because the internal energy is the same af. Add the work from the three Student: 1.30atm. and the heat of vaporization of water is 2256 kJ/kg.ffi(3atm. really). so I. Student: How did you come up with that? Tlrtor: The power is the energy over the time. The specific heat of water is 1. it increases the internal energy.3)[tn1s. It is also possible for the fluid to change form.r45 Tntor: Yes. the internal energy is determined by p and V.v :(3 atm. there must have been heat AQ into the gas somewhere during the process. The heat needed to transform an object is QLm where ^L is the heat of transformation.m3 Tutor: steps.3)_h(1')](3atm. and from C to A is zero) so the total work done is Tutor: T\rtor: Yes.33. to another state of matter. T\rtor: There are many units we could use for work or energy. The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature is QCATcmLT where C is the heat capacity and c is the specific heat.. When heat or work is added to an object. Student: But from A to B we have to do an integral.013 So x 105 N/'.K. so the temperature increases. The heat of fusion is the heat needed to go from a solid to a liquid. Along the curve the pressure times the volume is a constant.m3..32x105 J Is that a lot? About enough to run an LCD computer monitor for an hour.. Student: Student: Shouldn't the answer be in joules? 1 atmosphere (atm) of pressure is 1. then we did something wrong.30 ffif*3) x (1'0rt.m  1 . An example of this is ice turning into water. so we can write pV : wrs:  I pd. . and the heat of vaporization is the heat needed to go from a liquid to a solid. Student: Then we can set up the integral.m. Now I can see whether the work is really joules. Student: Ok^y.v: 3 ut"''*t /. The heat of fusion of water is 333 kJ/kg.m3) [hyrl il: \r(3atm. and a material has speciftc heat. Any one of them should convert to any other of them.
30 MJ of energy to raise the temperature to 100oC. and radiation. Then we need to melt it into water. The energy to melt ice is the same to cool ten times more water by 8"C. Student: The Q . so that would power a house for 68 hours.Lm part? Tutor: Yes.K)(15ks)(100"C . or 13 kilowatts for an hour. AAID THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS EXAMPLE How much energy does it take to turn 15 kg of ice at 10"C into steam? T\rtor: Student: Student: What's the temperature of steam? Water has to be at least 100oC to become steam. Heat transfers by conduction. Student: Ok y. So Q cmLT  (41s0 Jlkg. You can have frozen hydrogen? Yes. s&y from the hotwater tap. The heat you need to remove from a banana to freeze it is sufficient to boil only a small amount of liquid nitrogen. to freeze something you remove the same amount of heat that you added to melt it. Student: And the large heat of fusion is why coolers work. Liquid nitrogen sells for a couple dollars per liter and is commonly used in physics experiments and demonstrations. of course. but a long time to boil it all away. Then we add 6. A typical house uses L2 kilowatts. But you've forgotten the heat of transformation. Student: You make it sound easy. . TEMPERATIJRE. presto. then it takes 10 times the energy to vaporize the water as it does to heat it. then remove the heat of vaporization to turn it into liquid hydrogen. and using the temperature difference is good. Then you cool the liquid down to the melting point and remove the heat of fusion and. The energy needed to melt the ice is Tutor: it's true that Q .840 kJ:33. If you start with hot water.146 CHAPTER 18.84)  45.90MJ ? Partly correct. HEAT. Student: Like the one where they freeze a banana and use it as a hammer? T\rtor: Yes. turning the hot water into steam.63 + 5. solid hydrogen. That makes using ice in a cooler effective. There are three ways to transfer heat.00 MJ The table in the book has a heat of fusion of hydrogen.fference that we need. Student: Ok y. Student: Or turn 15 kg of ice into steam. and degrees Celsius and kelvin are the same because it's a temperature di.63 MJ to heat the ice up to 0oC. and add the heat of Ttrtor: Student: vaporization. Your use of specific heat is good. but it's not difficult.30 + 33.Lm  (333 kJlkg)(l5 kg) :5000 kJ :5.77 MJ Tntor: That's about 13 kilowatthours (kwh).84 MJ Student: The total heat (0. Student: Does the heat of fusion work the same each way? Tutor: Yes.e0x 106 J6.00 + 6. convection.Lm is (2256 kJ/ks)(lr kg) :33. you can freeze a banana. Steam can get hotter than that. T\rtor: Where did most of it go? Student: Into the last step. T\rtor: It requires appropriate equipment.(10'C)) 6. T\rtor: Yes. so with more liquid nitrogen than that. It takes 0. You cool hydrogen down to 20 K. That's why it takes only a few minutes to boil water on a stove. Q . right? Trtor: Yes. It takes a lot of energy.
Radiation is heat transferred by electromagnetic waves. The average temperature of the Earth is about 58"F. A layer of air can be used to insulate an object. rather than moving randomly either into the room or the chimney. L is the length or thickness through which it transfers. Now what's the power out from the Earth? Student: That's radiation. The power or heat transfer rate from radiation is P  oeATa where o is the StefanBoltzmann constant (o 5. and 7 is the temperature. because the thermal conductivity k of air is small at 0.K. What must the emissivity of the Earth be? of the Sun? That would help us find the energythat the Sun gives to the Earth. what we call "steadystate. The speed of the heat transfer is P9:kAY tL where k depends on the material through which the heat transfers. EXAMPLE The intensity of sunlight at the Earth's surface is about 1000 W l^'. The air resistance was expected to heat the plane considerably. . right? Tutor: Yes. the power out has to equal the power in. but not what I had in mind. This is why thicker insulation keeps houses warmer. Convection is the nonrandom motion of molecules in a gas or liquid. and the designers painted it black so that it would radiate heat more quickly. because I is larger so the heat transfer is slower. that are in contact. for example. T\rtor: Except that the Sun is not above every spot on the Earth. and as the density decreases they tend to rise. . and is one for a completely black object and zero for a perfectly reflective object (neither of which can actually be made). T\rtor: True. is the emissivity of the material. T\rtor: Yes. . The SR71 "blackbird" airplane was designed to fly 3 times the speed of sound. Student: . But when air gases get warm they expand.oe AT4. how much of the Earth do you see? Student: Half of it. A is the crosssectional area through which it transfers. (nR')I : oe(4nB')Tn . . with the same internal energy.r47 Conduction is when heat moves between two objects measured by the power. this warm air moves up the smokestack because of its lower density. If the Earth is to stay at the same temperature.Ka). If you stand back from a globe and look at it." Tutor: Student: Don't we need to know the temperature . What is the area you perceive? Student: Ah. A is the area of the object. less than fiberglass insulation. so it's P . the oxygen and nitrogen molecules race around at speeds close to the speed of sound. In air. As a fire in a fireplace warms the air. The area of the Earth is 4nR2. but we already have that. Tutor: But even that half you don't all see at normal incidence. and LT is the temperature difference. such as light or infrared radiation.6704 x 108 W/m2. or energy per time. and we will not try it here. Student: Okry. times the intensity is the power into the Earth. Calculating the heat transfer from convection is very difficult. This nonrandom motion is called convection. All objects give off thermal radiation. Emissivity is a measure of how much radiation an object both absorbs and emits (same number for both). then.026 W/m. It looks like a circle of area rR2. They go only a short distance before colliding with another molecule and bouncing off in a random direction.
LT in two dimensions and 3D where a is the coefficient of thermal expansion. Student: Can't we take an average value? Tutor: Because the temperature goes to the fourth power.4"C . pavement.6 K (1ooowl::].ses. Student: When the temperature of a solid or liquid increa.6T04x Tutor: Tutor: even clouds. HEAT.148 T\rtor: CHAPTER 78. LA: A(2o)LT AV  V(3") AT .150 r4. and I need to use kelvin. 58oF:3("c) K +32o + 273.Laar or AJ L  . land. AND THE FIRS" LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Do Student: Is I need to use kelvin here? it Student: a temperature di. So it's an absolute temperature. Because 2D objects expand objects in three.64 = The emissivity of the Earth varies with the surface.fference? No. 108 Wl^r. The expansion is AL .297.m: 7:4(. Clouds change the emissivity? So the emissivity of the Earth isn't constant.. That's one of the things that makes climate modelling difficult. with different values for water. the object expands. w€ need to calculate the power emitted from each area and average the powers.  L4. rather than averaging the emissivity.4oc I e. TEMPERATURE.K4)(2876Ion :0.
0 o L n cn o L q J lsobaric Work done in one cycle lsothermal l.t . L.0..nRT ln(V1 lU) WpLV.const AEi.W. Q: AEi't : nCvAT 0 so AEi"t AS AS  0 Qlf r49 .0 so Q .ry+ Volume adiabatic isothermal isobaric isochoric isolated constant T constant p constant V Q .: 6 o cl J o ing AW T (! =. PV'Y .QnCrLT W .W .
with mass number L4. and RNok A mole is significant because one mole of atoms has a mass so one mole of nitrogen. There are many specific processes that appear often. A mole is Avogadro's number. after which it has a new velocity. We can evaluate the sum of all atoms or molecules in a gas using the ideal gas law.Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases Gases consist of many molecules."') The difference between the two forms is that the first form uses the number of atoms (N) and the second uses the number of moles of atoms n. The heat in Q . the heat flow Q. K is the gas constant. pV nRT:NkT Again it comes in two forms. Not all of these are travelling in the same direction. Because the temperature doesn't change. Our goal is to calculate the change in energy AE. Na : 6. so the heat i. 2 Ein n (i*) n(. Whatever a single molecule does.8. Conservation of energy still holds. An isothermal process is one that occurs at a constant temperature. How can we deal with so many objects? When the numbers are that large.nCpLT. in grams equal to the ma"ss number of the atom. The chart on page I49 shows these important processes. one for atoms (or molecules) and one for moles of atoms. is the molar specific heat at constant pressure. An isobaric process is one that occurs at a constant pressure. or even at the same speed. it must be in kelvin.022 x 1023 atoms. often 1020 or more. 150 . and R . and the result is W . neither does the internal energy. and that can aid us in our calculations. The average kinetic energy of an atom or molecule in a gas is: E^u" The total energy of a large number of atoms is: 2r. k . where C. it typically travels only a short distance (micrometers at 25"C and 1 atm) before colliding with another molecule. Because T is a temperature and not a temperature difference. statistics works very.nRT In(Vy lW. The work I pdV : pAV is easy to calculate. Finding the work requires an integral.1. and the work done I4l.3145 J/mol . so nNlNe. very well.3807x 102t JIK is the Boltzmann constant. has a mass of 14 grams.r Q must equal the work done by the gas W .
sy to calculate. What's the pressure at C? T\rtor: Yep. pressure. room temperature but twice the pressure. which is 5/3 for an atom and 7 15 for a diatomic molecule. and 7? It depends on the number of "degrees of freedom" of the atoms or molecules. inout. What are Cr. or temperature at A? Student: We know all three. the number of moles n doesn't chatrg€.151 An isochoric process is one that occurs at a constant volume. E^u" . start with what you do know. The process goes clockwise around the enclosed area. But we might be able to calculate the temperature using the ideal gas law. E^ue : nf and Cv : Orn. Because Q .nCv LT. Do you know the volume. right? The volume is 1 ffi3. Does that apply both at A and at B? Tntor: Yes. 2 A F . An atom has three: updown. We don't even have all of the data. In an adiabatic process. but the volume has increased to 2 m3 and we don't know the temperature. it applies anywhere on the graph. Monotomic atom I Diatomic molecule EXAMPTE Find the heat Q. and the change in energy AE for each step of the process of the diatomic gas. the quantity pV1 is a constant. Better yet. \  q) rL 1 Volume (me) 2 Tutor: Well. L. Student: This looks complicated. So for a diatomic molecule. has two additional degrees of freedom: spinning around each of the two axes perpendicular to the line joining the atoms. What about B? Student: The pressure is still 2 atm. so pV lT is constant anywhere on the graph. The work I pdV :0 is again The heat in Q . and the temperature is 300 K. the pressure is 2 atm. leftright.CrlCv. where Cv is the molar specific heat at constant volume.n. two atoms together like Oz. the work W . Cv. ea. A diatomic molecule.0.! v L E rabat c o Q U.7 is the ratio "y . the change in internal energy is the opposite of the work done by AEi"t .W.tnf and Cv . T\rtor: Student: . So for an atom. An adiabatic process is one that occurs with no heat transfer Q.
m3 ? ? ? ? ? 2 3 3 ? 1 ? ? ? ? D E ? C'D 180 180 D+E 1. T\rtor: Student: pp(3 ttt3) 190 K : nR: 1 atm mB lK 150 :0. so pV1 is a constant along the curve. and of course R.r" PrVt^ (2 atry)(2 m3) Te : nR _ (2 atm](=l_m3) (300 K) ('!rrrrr . V . but they're not the same. so these will work fine. because they are always pV together. We know the volume at D and the pressure at E. . T. At C we know that the volume is 3 m3. Student: This is where it matters that our gas is diatomic.* atm rl lK 150 ^s Ts :600 K Can we keep using units of atm m3 lKt Shouldn't we convert to something? Our pressures are all in atm. The temperature isn't the sarne as either B or D. Student: The path from D to E is an isothermal. Tntor: True. do they? T\rtor: No. so the temperature is also 180 K at E. and any adiabatic change will change the temperature. From B to C is an adiabatic path.5 2 A 300 EA loopl _? E?  E:? ?  E:? ? so Student: Now I can use the ideal gas law to find the temperature at B. At D the temperature is 180 K.i: I. Tutor: Student: p (atm) A B C 2 2 ? v (t) 1 T (K) 300 ? ? a I n lot A+B BC ? ? ? ? ? ? all in atm. our volumes in ffi3. Below 100"F.4.13 at:r)(3 m3) (2atm) e4)'n ' \3 m') _> : 1. but not the other way around. I can find po and I/B the same way. Student: Ts : nR: + 150 atm ^.5 atm)VB 180 K t Student: But I can't do point C that way. and our temperatures in K. lK Tc :b10 K . Back to the ideal gas law. I know p. Student: So we don't know the temperature at B or C. THB KIATETIC THEORY OF GASES Okay. p"vA4 " . T\rtor: Yes. I can find the number of moles n. But BC is an adiabatic. Student: Like we did in the last chapter. ^l .1s atm T\rtor: Very good. very cold. Tntor: We don't really need to know n.8 m3 Po . (1.pcvA4 + pc: pB (7. Is the temperature at C the same as the temperature at B? Student: They don't have to be. and I don't think I can read the pressure off of the graph.4 atm and Vs.) (t.r52 CHAPTER 19.0. We can convert the energies to joules at the end.nRT > nP  PnVn r" . What we need is the combination frR.
Q .(800 K)) 2atm. 5 atm 'lt )(300 K) :5 atm'm3 integral.153 p (atm) A B C 2 2 v (t) 1 T (K) 300 600 510 180 180 al*lo" A+B ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? all in atm.v: l. . br! you can also calculate it directly.Et.  nCpLT !r"nm ) ((600 K) Tlrtor: There's the combination nR again. The energ"y is ^E . Oh.V atm . .5 atm. Student: What's the difference between isobar and isobaric? Tutor: Isobar is a noun. Let's do the integral first.lnRrt :r(* It _ 2.Ee . Now we can start on the right side of the chart. and the gas is diatomic Q An adiabat.W to find the change in energy.LE. Cp : Cv I R.!r(* .m3 ? ? 2 3 3 B*C C'D D+E E+A 1.E .f. Es Tutor: Tutor: Student: There's an easier way.10 atm. Student: The * is because it's diatomic.m3 : 5 atm. t_t R^.v:pvelt #) ff) "] . atm *'/^) (600 K) : 10 atm'm3 .(2atm)(1 rn3)  Tntor: Tutor: Student: I can use AE .. Tutor: Student: What do you call the line for an adiabatic process? Student: Ok y. Q Yes.  0. conservation of energy.0.5 2 ? ? ? D E 0. so Q . so Q ..m3 T atm.lrd.'0"(+) " d. yes? Yes. Finding the work is going to take an r.n. and refers to the process. An isobaric process is one that travels along an isobar on the chart. so Cv .'/n .n (!rRf).m3 . Student: Stop being sarcastic. How do I find the heat transferred to the gas during A+B? T\rtor: The path from A+B is an isobar (constant pressure).Wl Tutor: It's nice to know that energy is still being conserved. e lrnuar Student: The work is easy.nCpAT .. w.J[ rd.m' W : pAV .nilrz:Z(* AE . Fhom BC is adiabatic. Cp : $n.Q .13 0.m3 Student: That's the same as A. so if I find A^E then W .8 1 A 300 loopr E? ?  _? E?  E? ? Well done. Tutor: Student: Tutor: Student: So an isothermal process is one that travels along an isotherm? Yes. Isobaric is an adjective. right? Yes. and refers to the line on the chart.4 1.
Student: That's right. Student: From E+A is not any of our special curves. I'll cheat by using W .b atm. and there's no rea^son to do it every time.m3 rnnr:r(* atm *'/^) ((180 K) . Ec:lrnuTs 2r(* 0 atm *tl^) 10 (b10 K) :8. W_nRTIn(V7lu)(*atm*'/K)(180K)ln(#):1.aE Student: Flom CD is an isochoric. I is also 1.(b10 K)) : b.m' AE . so the energy doesn't change. T\rtor: We didn't call it that then because we didn't have the ideal gas law yet. so no work.5 atm'm3 AE /w atm'm3: 1.m3.3 atm. We did the integral in the last chapter.Et . and that's equal to the heat. AE .:+lboatmm' Student: Now I'll do it the ea.(+) "] '.m3 Student: What does it mean that Q is negative? 8.b atm.ncvLr AE .3b atm._tL) I can find the change in energy o 5 . Student: Doing another integral? Tutor: It's the area under the curve. w . and exerted less impulse on the walls as they bounced off.Eo .5 atm.s negative because we were going left on the graph. T\rtor: But you could find the work I. THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES :Wl t+)". T\rtor: It's not cheating.m3 .nRTln(VylU).Ec .5 atm.3 atm.2. . Each molecule had less energ"y. Student: Do you mean below the E+A line but above the D+E isothermal curve? T\rtor: The work from EA is the area under the EA line and above the ancis.m3 .5.m3 : 2 atm.59atm. Can you find the heat directly? Student: You mean using Q .m' Tbtor: We lowered the temperature by removing heat from the system.7.I54 CHAPTER 79. so less speed. it's just a trapezoid.59 atm. It looks like we need to do an integral to find the work.m3 Es: Eo :3 atm'm3 Student: And we can find the energy like we did before.Es:8.5 atm.nCv AT? e .m3 . so Last one. and the D+E work wa.sy way.constant is an isotherm. Student: Ok"y..m3 Student: Flom D+E is an isotherm.b atm) + (z atm) ) (o. we'll add all of the works. the pressure decreased. pV .b atm.En . With the volume held constant.m3 + w .t( rt.z *') : 0.(rr+ ra) Lv .m3 +1. nurs:Z(* _ atm *t/^) (180 K) :3 atm. To find the total work done in a cycle.m3 Tutor: Student: LE is zero. The temperature doesn't change.Eg .5 atm. with no volume change.
we find that we don't recover the heat out.8 1  1. and if we're back to the same temperature. Tutor: Student: +2. Tutor: Student: That's a lot to keep track Make a table.5 x lob Pu)(6oo ^I 3'25 m3 T\rtor: Student: But I can't find Vr because I don't know the pressure or temperature.m3 aho. What is held constant during an isothermal process? Student: The temperature. or +229 kJ.5 0 +5 2 3 3 1. It goes through an adiabatic process and then an isothermal process and finishes with a pressure of 1.  . What about the work. Student: What is "net heat?" T\rtor: In some of the steps we put heat in. then it should be the same energy. and in some we got heat out.5 x 105 Pa and a volume of 3 m3. we get zero.59 A 2.m3.5 0 2 D+E EA 0. How do we get work out if the energy is the same? Oh.mr +2 +1. of.26 atm.5 2  1. ?r Tz: 390 K.35 0.5 x 105 Pa po :3 m3 Vr ? Vz 7 Vo :600 K Tt ? Tz :390 K To Student: I can use the ideal gas law to find V2: PoVo Tr'r1' PzVz : n th f. Ah. In the next chapter.5 x 105 Pa and a temperature of 390 K. The second step is an isothermal process.13 0.155 p (atm) A B C 2 2 v ('''t) 1 T (K) 300 600 510 180 180 a I n lo" A*B B'C CD +7 0 all in atm. EXAMPLE An ideal monatomic gas at 600 K has a pressure of 2. and this has to be true. Find the volume of the gas after the adiabatic process but before the isothermal process.4 1.5 D E b. it's the same as the net amount of heat that we put in.35 300 Ioopl E? ?  E? ?  E:? ? Tntor: If we add all of the AE's.26 atm. :2. Net heat is the difference.59  1. and this limits our efficiency.b 5. For a complete cycle We get work out. though? If we add all of the works. Does that make sense? Student: The energy depends on the temperature.5 x 105 Pa Pr ? p2 :1. they add up to +2. Vz pzTo (1. then we get Tutor: Tfy adding the Q's.
1 . so it's two equations and two unknowns. THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Pt :2. Pt:oifff #vl/':pili/' fr':'3: v:/' vt:(+)''' vo:(m)''' (B *') bzm3 T\rtor: In the next chapter we'll want to calculate entropy. The gas is monatomic. Student: Why would anyone if want to do such a thing? is easy to calculate for adiabatic and we can get from point A to point B using an adiabat and an isotherm. so calculate entropy.5 x 105 Pa ? Ts .156 CHAPTER 19.600 K :3. and write down the ideal Student: Okay. Now write that down.5 x 105 Pa ? p2 : Po Vo:3 m3 Vt Vz 1. What has to be true along an adiabat? The pressure and volume have to match pvl  constant.25 m3 Tt: Tz :390 K 390 K Tutor: T\rtor: Student: it wants. Entropy isothermal processes.513. w€ can o L I J m 0 o o L Volume . p4f Student: I know /3 : poVi/t and PtVt Tt : nR:'+ ?o and ?r. so ". law. but the temperature can be anything ga^s Good.
? is a constant so AS . And indeed Clausius [one of the pioneers of thermodynamics] himself took 15 years in developing a concept of entropy that satisfied his own doubts. While usually the change is both easier to calculate and more meaningful. LQ : 0. For an isothermal process. So what can we say about entropy? Entropy is a state function. that for any combination of We are typically interested only in changes in the entropy AS. writes: No simple "intuitive reason" can be given to explain why a state functi. For an adiabatic process. is divided by the temperature. Robert Jones. the entropy can never decrease. They are important because they are easy to calculate. intuitive manner. Unfortunately I don't have such an explanation. The change in entropy is As : ln'# nCy m* tt Two important special cases are adiabatic and isothermal processes. To decrease the entropy requires work or energy from outside the system. . Reversible processes happen infinitely slowly (and are therefore no fun to watch). then any other way to calculate the entropy must give the same result. For a closed syst€D.r gas . at least without some outside source of energy.nRmY * V. . so AS .S. so we find a reversible path that goes from the starting configuration to the final one.on results when a quantity .I/. with no volume change ASsolidliquid : I# . and for a solid or liquid.LQ lT.0. in his book CommonSense Thermodynam'ics. A reversible process is one where the entropy change is zerol so that a positive entropy change means that the process can't be reversed. Being a state function also means that if we can find even a single way to calculate the entropy. We don't have a good way to calculate AS for an irreversible process. which means of heat p. then we can calculate the change in entropy for the reversible process. Lengthier calculations include an ideal gas ASia". it is possible to calculate the entropy.Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics I'd like to explain entropy in a clear.. and T there is a welldefined value for the entropy .
158
Remember
CHAPTER
20. E I"ROPY AArD THE SECOI\rD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
that Cv is energy per kelvin per mole, and c is energy per kelvin per kg, so these two equations
are very similar.
EXAMPLE
A 30 g ice cube at 5"C is placed in 508 g of 23" C water. Find the change in entropy A,S of the water and ice as the ice melts and the system comes to equilibrium.
T\rtor:
cools,
Student: What's equilibrium?
After the ice has melted, it will be OoC. The melted ice will then warm as the cooled water further until they are all the sarne temperature. Student: What is that temperature? Tutor: We don't know. We have to figure it out. How much energy does it take to warm the ice?
Student:
The mass times the specific heat times the temperature change. Q
 mcLT 
(0.030 kg)(4180 JlkgK)(5
K)

627 J
Tutor:
Student:
Good. You saw that a change of 5"C is the same as 5 K. Yes. Now I need to find the energy to melt the ice. Q
 Lm 
(333 kJlkg)(0.030 ke)
 e.ee J
?
Tutor:
Uh, that's kilojoules.
Oops.
Student:
Q
 Lm 
(333 kJlkg)(0.030 kg)
 e.ee kJ :
eee0 J
Tutor:
Student: I was wondering
Q
why it took so little heat to melt the ice. It's good to see whether your answer makes sense. How much will the water cool while the ice melts?
 mcLT +
(627 + 9990) J
:
(0.508 ke)(4180
Jlke.K)AT > LT:
5K
The water is cooled to 18'C as the ice melts. Good. Now find the equilibrium temperature. The heat that the melted ice gains is equal to the heat that the cooled water loses, until the temperatures are equal. Student: But I don't know the temperature. Tutor: Then make up a variable.
Tutor:
Student:
 Ql  Qz: m2/LT2 (0.030 ks) g  0o) : (0.508 kg)(18'  r) (")(0.030 ks * 0.508 kg)  (0.508 kg)(18") (0.508 kg) (18')ff\\^ / (o.o3o kg * 0.508 kg)  r.o
m1/LT1
T\rtor:
Student: And we still haven't done the entropy. Student:
Now we can. What is the change in_entropy of the ice as Can we use ASrorid,tiquid  TTLCIn fi?
Yes.
it warms to 0"?
T\rtor:
o,"t:":K)
rn
rtrtor:
T\rtor:
How are you going
Student: I must have made a mistake,
."*T
+
?
"j[:ff:::
yes?
Yes. When you found the heat to warm or melt the ice,
it was a temperature
difference. . .
159
Student:
. . . so
I
could use Celsius, but when
I divide temperatures I
need to use kelvin.
AS

(0.030 ks)(4180 Jlkg.K)ln
, ry_5+t
2.32 JIK
T\rtor: I don't have a good explanation for that, just like I don't have a good one for entropy.
Student: Ok y. Then the ice melts,
and that happens at a constant temperature.
Student: What kind of unit
is a joule per kelvin?
AS: 9T
Student: And then the melted
S
ice warms. (0.030 kg)(4180
ry:36.ss JIK 273K
J lks.K), In

IUzs
o+2n 7.58J/K
T\rtor:
Student: And the water cools. Student:
Remember to include the cooling that happens as the ice melts. Oh y€s, the initial temperature of the water was 23".
As

(0.508 kg)(4180 Jlkg.K)
is:
' l' Y23+273
JIK):3.01 JIK
Student:
Then the total change in entropy
As

(2.32 JIK) + (36.5e JIK) + (7.58 JIK) + (43.48
Tutor:
Good.
T\rtor: Correct. Student: But I could put 30 g of the water in the freezer and turn it into ice again, and 23"C is room temperature, so if I leave it sitting out it will warm again. I'll be back where I started, so the entropy will
be the same as it was. That's what being a "state function" means, right? Tutor: AII true. The change in entropy of the water as you move it back to the initial conditions will be 3.01 J lK. But the freezer will use electrical energy, and the water will absorb energy from the room, and if we include that in our system the change in entropy will be positive. You can reduce the entropy only by bringing work or energy in from outside the system. Student: So if I take the water back to the initial conditions, the change in entropy of the freezer and the room must be positive and greater than 3.01 J lK.
Student:
The change in entropy is positive. That means that this process is irreversible.
Tutor:
Yes.
The effect of entropy is to limit the efficiency of thermodynamic processes. In the last chapter, we said that
we could not recover the heat
out. Now we tell why.
First we need to know about reservoirs. A reservoir is an external body at a particular temperature. The reservoir is large enough that we can add heat or take heat out and not change the temperature of the reservoir. Though not perfectly true, it works well for doing calculations. To make a heat engine an engine that turns heat into work requires two reservoirs. Find a liquid that boils at a temperature that is lower than the hotter of the two reservoirs. When the "working fluid" is in contact with the hotter or higher temperature reservoir, it boils into gas or steam. When the working fluid is in contact with the colder or lower temperature reservoir, it either condenses to liquid or is still ges, but lower temperature gas with a lower pressure. If we put a turbine or propeller or fan between the two reservoirs, the higher pressure from the hotter side will spin the turbine. We can connect this turbine to a generator and get electricity, or use the torque directly. If we had only one reservoir, then both sides of the turbine would be at the same pressure and the turbine wouldn't spin or do work.
160
CHAPTER
20, E]VTROPY AATD THE SECOIVD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
The process must lose heat to the lower temperature reservoir. When the working fluid is in contact with the hightemperature reservoir, it absorbs heat from the reservoir. After going through the turbine, the fluid comes in contact with the lowtemperature reservoir, and heat comes from the working fluid to the reservoir. Not all of the heat taken from the hightemperature reservoir can get turned into work.
Heat engine
The efficiency is the ratio of the work out efficiency is
Tr.
to energy in. The highest possible
Tn
:
Ts
 Tr,
Tn
which is obtained
isotherms.
"Carnot cycle," consisting of adiabats and
heat pump takes heat from the lowtemperature reservoir and moves it to the hightemperature reservoir. Heat does not normally flow this w&y, so we need to put energy in to the heat pump in the form of work. The coefficient of performance for a heat pump is the ratio of heat extracted to work supplied, and is also limited by the laws of thermodynamics:
A
r..
r'E lQrl <' rHrL  [, .
Tr
Air conditioners and refrigerators are heat pumps. A refrigerator takes heat out of the colder inside and puts it into the warmer room, typically through coils on the back. An air conditioner moves heat from the
cooler room to the hotter outdoors. To do so takes work, and we use electricity to power an electric motor to do this work.
How can work move heat from a cold reservoir to a hot one? Imagine that you have a box of gas, designed so that you can push in one side to change the volume, and so that heat can flow through the sides of the box. Standing inside, you pull out the side of the box, expanding the gas. As it expands, the gas cools. It is now colder than the room, and heat flows from the room to the box. You now walk outside while pushing in on the box, compressing it. As the gas in the box compresses, it becomes hotter, so that it is hotter than the outside air. Heat now flows from the box to the air. As you walk back inside, you expand the box again, repeating until the inside air is cool enough. The second law of thermodynamics can be expressed in many ways. You can't turn all of the heat into work, heat doesn't go from cold to hot on its own, and AS"roredsyste* 2 0 are just some expressions of the second law of thermodynamics.
EXAMPTE
A solar pond uses salt to trap the heated water at the bottom of the pond, so that the energy does not escape to the atmosphere. Such a pond can achieve
80"C temperature water in this bottom, heated layer. This water is used to make steam out of a working fluid with a suitably low boiling point. Use 450 W l^' for the intensity of solar radiation, with the Sun shining only 6 hours per d.y. How large a solar pond would be needed to make a 1 GW power plant?
T\rtor:
Student:
One gigawatt seems like a lot of power. About enough for an American city of half a million people. Student: Why is the Sun shining for only 6 hours per day? T\rtor: The Sun is not always directly overhead. Take a piece of paper (or this book) and turn it so that
161
you are looking somewhat along the page, rather than normal to the page. The area you see is less than the area of the page. When the Sun is not directly overhead, we need to include a factor of cos 0, wherc 0 is the angle between the Sun's rays and the normal to the surface. It averages out to about 6 hours a day, 7 or 8 in Arizona, S in Ohio. Student: Okuy. If I need 1GW of power, then I need 4 GW for 6 hours aday, because Iget nothing for the other L8 hours a day. T\rtor: You haven't taken the efficiency into account. You can't collect all of the energy that reaches the pond. That comes from the second law of thermodynamics.
Tutor: Multiply the power reaching the pond by the efficiency to see how much power you can get.
P1rrxePo.rt4GW Student:
To calculate the efficiency, I need the high and low temperatures. The high temperature is 80"C,
Student:
So
I
need
to multiply by the efficiency.
but what's the low temperature?
Thtor: Tutor:
Student:
Take something rea.sonable. Okay. The average temperature of the Earth is 15oC.
I'll
use that.
Good choice.
difference.
T\rtor:
Student: And I need to use kelvin because it's not a temperature
Really you only need to use kelvin in the denominator, but
it doesn't
hurt.
e_rr_T,Tn
Tutor:
Probably not even that much.
(80+2Iq) _(15+273) (80 + 273)
_0.18:
t8%
Student: I can get only 18% of the power out?
Pin
x (0.1S):
rn
Pout

4 GW
n^19 0.18
22cw
L r!+ ' tA!'3450W1^' Il9: Y4.exLorm2 A I
About 19 square miles. So one of these "solar ponds" could power a city with an area of 4 miles x 5 miles? Ttrtor: Theoretically. There are issues involved with doing so. For example, you're collecting 5.5 GW, or average, but generating 1 GW, so you need a reservoir where you can dump 4.5 GW of waste heat. Student: Do coal and nuclear plants have the same problem? Tutor: Yes, but they operate at higher temperatures and are about 33% efficient, so they only have 2 GW of waste heat to dump. Most power plants are located by rivers or lakes so that they can dump the waste heat into the water. Remember that water has a high specific heat and can store a lot of energy.
T\rtor:
Student:
Chapter 2L
Electric Charge
So far, every force on an object has been exerted by something else in contact with it, except for gravity. There is a second type of force that can act without being in contact, and that is electricity. Eventually
there will be a third such
force
gnetism.
Electric forces occur between two objects that each have a special character about them. For lack of anything better, w€ call this special trait charge. Charge comes in two types, which we call positive and negative. Then a charge (the object) ir an object that has charge (the character trait). We use the word both ways and use the context to determine which way we're using the word each time. When we want to include the charge in an equation, we typically use q or A for amount of charge (the character trait) that a charge (the object) has. Either q or Q is used, but if both occur in the same problem then they refer to different amounts of charge (the trait). While q is a variable that could be positive or
negative,
charge.
*q
implies an unknown amount of positive charge and
q
implies an unknown amount of negative
The most basic charges (the objects) are the proton and the electron. (This is not entirely true but works well until the last chapter of the book.) Protons have positive charge and electrons have the same amount of negative charge. Because the charge of a proton or electron appears so often in physics, we give it a special symbol e. e is the arnount of charge on a proton or electron, so the charge of an electron is e.
Charge is measured in coulombs, abbreviated C. The charge of a proton e is 1.6 x 101e C. Inversely, a coulomb is about 6 x 1018 protons or electrons. The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 101e C.
Any two charges create an electric force on each other. Two charges of the same sign repel each other, while two charges of opposite sign attract each other. The magnitude of the force they create is
,T2
where q1 and q2 are the charges (the amount, or
is
klqrllqrl
trait) and r is the distance between them. The constant k
k
1
4Tes
gxloeN.^, lc,
EXAMPLE
Three charges, of +3 FC,
respectively. Find the total force on the
5 pC, and +7 FC, are arranged
*7 pC charge.
r62
along the
r axis at 0,
10 cffi, and 25 cffi,
163
T\rtor:
Where do we always start when dealing with forces? a freebody diagram. Tntor: What forces are acting on the *7 p"C charge? Student: There is nothing in contact with it, so only gravity and electric forces. Tgtor: Often when there is an electric force we ignore gravity, because the force of gravity is much smaller than the electric force. Student: Then just the electric force. Tntor: What is the force that the *3 p,C charge puts on the *7 p'C charge? Student: Is the *3 ptC charge blocked by the 5 pC charge? Tgtor: If I hold my hand under somethirg, does the mass of my hand block the gravity force from the mass of the Earth?
Student: With
T\rtor:
Student: Student:
No.
So one charge does
The
*3
not block the force from another. pC charge creates a force on the f7 p"C charge that is
(9
r 10e N. ^2 lc')(3 r 106 c)(7 x 106 c) _ ? n N
(0.25 m)2
Tutor:
Is the force to the left or the right? The force is positive, so it's to the right. T\rtor: We haven't chosen axes yet, so there is no positive direction. When we did forces before, w€ used the diagram to get the direction of the forces right, and the equations never told us the direction. Student: They are both positive charg€s, with the same sign, so they repel. T\rtor: If the +3 p,C charge repels the +7 pr,C charge, what is the direction of the force on the +7 p'C
Student:
charge?
T\rtor:
Student:
Away from the *3 p,C charge, or to the right. What is the force that the 5 pC charge puts on the *7 p'C charge? Student: The 5 pC charge creates a force on the *7 p,C charge that is
(9
"
10e
N.
r ^' lc')(5 (0.15
106 c)(7
x 106 c)
)'

14.0 N
Tutor: What is the direction of this 14 N force? Student: The charges have opposite signs, so they attract. The force on the *7 pC charge is toward the 5 pC charge, or to the left. T\rtor: Are there any other electric forces? Student: We did every charge except the *7 ptC charge, so we have all of the electric forces, and there
are no other forces. T\rtor: Now we can finish the freebody diagram.

3N
Tutor:
Now you have to choose an axis.
Student:
Only one axis?
so ?z? is a variable.j at . We don't know the ma"ss. ELECTRIC CHARGE Tntor: All of the forces are colinear. so gravity and electric forces. so they repel.13 m)2 C) :200N T\rtor: What is the electric force that the right bottom charge creates on the third charge? Student: The distance between the charges is the same as the distance we just did.C charges are fixed 10 cm apart on a horizontal line. What about gravity? Student: The gravity force is down with a magnitude of mg. so it's also 200 N.164 CHAPTER 27. Where do we start? Student: With a freebody diagram.3 l. Tutor: What is the electric force that the left bottom charge creates on the third charge? Student: They are both positive. The force is up and to the T\rtor: Now we can finish the freebody diagram.)(15 (0.C charge? Student: There is nothing in contact with it. x 106 c)(25 x 106 ^. lefb. or to the left. and the force on the top charge is up and to the right: Tutor: Student: r(g 13cm 10e x N. What is the total force on the I'll take left as the positive direction.I t a L . lz3 . q7""i @" &lo crr > . EXAMPLE Two +15 p. lc. T\rtor: There's the connection. T\rtor: Student: Since the greater force is to the left. What is the mass of the third charge? How is the mass connected to the charge? Never mind that. and the charges are the same. Tntor: What are the forces on the +25 p. A third +25 pC charge stays 12 cm above the midpoint of the first two charges. pC charge? *7 N F(+taN) +(3N) :+11 Student: 11 N in the positive direction.
then the top charge would have to move. How do we add vectors? Student: We choose axes. Tutor: Now we can write our Newton's second law equation.9'8 m/s2 38ks "'/  EXAMPLE Two charges. + (185 N) + (*g) ' 0 (370 N)  ms ttoT= m.6"  185 N Tutor: Student: What is the r component of the electric force created by the bottom right charge? The r component is opposite to the angle. the top charge wouldn't be above the midpoint. 2 x 200 N . + (77 N) + (0) : 0 T\rtor: If the r T\rtor: If Student: But Student: What did we learn from that? forces didn't add to zero. break the vectors into components. so there EF" (77 N) : TTL. so it's sine. of *2 pC and 7 pC. so it's cosine.  200 N cos 22. T\rtor: Student: What is the A component of the electric force created by the bottom right charge? The U component is adjacent to the angle. Student: And the acceleration is zero..6" : 185 N T\rtor: component of the gravity force? is no r component. and add the components. T\rtor: What is the angle between the electric force created by the bottom left charge and the g axis? Student: It's the same as the opposite angle.u  200 N cos 22. so the cosine of the angle is (12113). FR. Fn. Fl..6" : 77 N T\rtor: Student: What is the g component of the electric force created by the bottom left charge? The gr component is adjacent to the angle. It goes to the left so it's negative. Tutor: What axes will you use? Student: I'll choose the r axis to the right and the g axis upward. Where can a third charge of +5 pC be placed so that the total electric force on it is zero? . so it's cosine. r forces have to add to zero because the problem is symmetric..  200 N sin 22..mg : 0? Forces are vectors. FL. the EFo (185 N) TTL. What is the r Student: Gravity is parallel to the y axis. the bottom charges weren't equal. Tutor: Student: 0  arccos(I2113)  22. so it's sine. are placed along the r axis at 0 and 10 cm.165 Can we add the three forces.6" T\rtor: Student: What is the r component of the electric force created by the bottom left charge? The r component is opposite to the angle.
1 m)2 0. We have to put the third charge on the r axis. T\rtor: Student: Could T\rtor: forces What if the third charge was above the midpoint between the first two? Student: Then both of them would create forces to the right. But the difference between (100 rn)2 and (100.2(r * tffi (r)\/ 0.1 ttt)2 is very small.C charge would be closer.1 ttFz tz w7 121)  1)(") : 0. the first two charges will create that aren't colinear. so it would create a bigger force. The 7 pC charge would be bigg€r. T\rtor: Could those forces add to zero? Student: No. What if the f5 p. so no. T\rtor: Could it go to the left of the two charges? Student: Then the first charge creates a force to the left. what are the forces on it? Student: The first charge creates a force up.C charge would be bigger and closer. but the f2 p. so that is where the magnitudes are the :"r.j.1 m ) 0. ELECTRIC CHARGE Where do we start? it be on the y axis. and the second charge creates a force to the left. (z pc) (7 pc) (r * 0.C charge is a long way to the left? Tutor: Student: then the *2 pC charge creates a bigger The *2 p. T\rtor: If we put the third charge anywhere other than on the r a force to the right. How do we decide which is bigger? Tutor: Could it go between them? Student: Then the first charge creates axis.1 m 1ry  (r + 0.166 CHAPTER 21. T\rtor: If the +5 p. since it cancels.c)\WT (r * 0.C charge would still be closer.1 rn)2 Tutor: Student: It doesn't We'll see why in the next chapter. could the electric forces have the same magnitude? Student: The 7 p. but in opposite directions. T\rtor: Could it go to the right of the two charges? Student: Then the first charge creates a force to the right. and the second charge creates a force to the right. so it could. force.5cm J ."rt lq2 pc)\bpeT fte p. The forces couldn't add to zero. T\rtor: Somewhere in between there must be a spot where the two charges create the same force. there would still be a component to the right. and the second charge creates a force to the right. and the second charge creates a force down and to the right.. above the first charge? Student: Anywhere on the g axis? T\rtor: If the third charge is on the g axis. We've already gotten the forces in opposite directions.1 )2 (r)' matter how big the third charge is.115rrl11. Student: So the larger charge would create a larger force.C charge is really close to the +2 ptC charge. Student: So that won't cancel and won't add to zero. (r)' 7(r)' . T\rtor: If the third charge is to the right.
Plastic is a good insulator. so long as one of the spheres has a negative charge on it. what happens to the charge on the sphere? The sphere becomes neutral. a positively charged insulating rod. Tby a different way of getting some charge on a sphere." Ground can supply an infinite amount of charge without becoming charged itself. then all of the charge can go from the conductor onto ground. the sphere will get some charge on it. T\rtor: And if you connect a sphere to ground with nothing else nearby. then negative charge will come from ground onto my conductor. another has twice as much positive charge. and the third is neutral. I disconnect the sphere and move the rod away and the charges are still there. but charge does not move easily off of the insulating rod. Tutor: That would give you two spheres with opposite charges. Do this by connecting each to ground with no other charges nearby.Q. Most metals are conductors (made of conducting material). _iq.r67 The other important thing in this chapter is how charges behave. but it would be very difficult to get the right amount of charge on each sphere. the nearby sphere will have more negative charge than the far one. and zero on the spheres? That is. If my conductor is connected to ground and a positive charge is brought close to my conductor. T\rtor: The charges can move. Student: So I connect one sphere to ground and use the rod to pull negative charges onto it. In dealing with charges. You also have access to ground (the Earth). T\rtor: To make sure that the charges are equal. the sphere will become positively charged. it will become neutral. Charges can move around in a conducting material. I disconnect the spheres and then I have two spheres of *q and q. and a conducting wire. Not necessarily. What happens if you connect two spheres together or touch them to each other? Student: Charges can move from one to the other. so we put it on the outside of wires so that the charges don't go through us. If the rod or another charge is nearby. we often refer to "ground. like ground or another sphere. so we make wires out of copper or aluminum. What could you do so that you can get charges of 1. but not in an insulating material. If you have a charged conductor and you touch it to ground. But how do I know that the T\rtor: Using symmetry since the spheres are identical. Now you need to take the q and split Student: I'll it in half. charge splits exactly in half? . Describe how you could achieve this. because ground is SO big that the charge is dispersed too small to detect. Student: I could Student: connect T\rtor: If you connect a sphere to ground. you need to make sure that they are both neutral beforehand. attracted by the positive charge. Is there another way to get charge onto a sphere? Student: If I rub the rod on one of the spheres. That's why we're using spheres. you don't care how big the charges are. take the negative sphere and connect it to the third sphere. they have to have the same charge after the charges are done moving. Student: So if I hold the rod nearby a sphere and connect the sphere to ground. It is not true that any object connected to ground must be neutral (uncharged). opposite charges will be attracted from ground onto the sphere. but if the charged rod is closer to one of the spheres than the other. Trrtor: Maybe some. T\rtor: Yes. If we used cubes. Ground does not itself become charged. Then I connect a second sphere to ground and use the first one to pull positive charges onto it. Student: Okuy. The charges will move so that the two spheres are equal. or connect it to ground through a wire. EXAMPTE You have three identical conducting spheres on insulating stands. T\rtor: it to something with the wire. then we'd have much more difficulty getting the geometry to be symmetric. will the spheres be equal? Student: No. I connect one sphere to another and put the rod near the first sphere.
ELECTRIC CHARGE charges I have le. J . If I connect the third sphere to ground. _ iq. and Lrq. then it will become neutral.168 Student: So now CHAPTER 21. with the other far away.
is a field. On flat ground the force would be the same as your weight and upward (since there are no other forces and no acceleration). The set of vectors. creatirg a force toward the negative charge. This set of vectors would be a field. This is because the force my charge would experience if I put it nearby would be away from the positive charge. QEF Each of these steps produces a vector. all of the forces would switch direction. so that it was perpendicular to the hill's surface. and at each point you measure the electric force on your charge. That was a simplification. a field Imagine now that you repeat the process. The electric field that a char ge Q creates is E _ ke 12 169 . and a charge at that point experiences a force from the electric field. So the units of electric field are newtons of force for each coulomb of charg€. Charges create electric field. so the total force would be twice as big.rg forces on other charges. Imagine walking around and measuring the normal force that the ground puts on you. For each step. Imagine taking a single charge and moving it around among other charges. the equation only tells us the magnitude of the vector. the normal force would be tilted. The field exists whether there is a charge there or not. and electric field creates forces on charges. If you switched the sign of your charge. the positive charge would repel my charge. At each point. The force on your charge is proportional to the amount of charge you use. Just like everything else we've done involving vectors. twice as big. Imagine that a positive charge is creating the electric field. or N/C. creating a force away from the positive charge. we need a way to determirre the direction of the vector and an equation to determine the magnitude of the vector. One way to think about electric field is that it is the force you would have on a charge if there was a charge there. A point in space has an electric field. the force that each other charge creates would be twice as big. Likewise. In the previous chapter we had charges creati. If I were to put a 1 C charge nearby.Chapter 22 Electric Fields means that at each point in space there is a vector. if you imagine that a negative charge is creating the electric field. so the total force would switch direction. A 3 C charge in a 4 N/C field experiences a force of 12 N. Therefore the positive charge creates electric field away from the positive charge. In mathematics. either field or force. Therefore the negative charge creates electric field toward the negative charge. then the negative charge would attract my charge. On a hillside. one for every point in space. but with a greater charg€.
Student: That would be the Q + E step. That field plus the external field is the total field. What are the direction and magnitude of the external electric field? The proton creates an electric field at the electron. Student: Okay. CHAPTER 22. If we have the charge that experiences the electric fieldr w€ Iook at the second step (E + F. electric fields are often 105 N/C or more. Otherwise we might conclude that the charge can push itself.6 x 106 )2 C) : 360 N/C T\rtor: Student: Is this a big field? No. we get the total field. with the proton to the left of the electron. Also. The total electric force on the electron is 4 x 1017 N to the left. but not as helpful at this time. If q is negative. we can do each step backwards if necessary. and the charges we don't see create electric field where the electron is. We find the electric field.qE). ELECTRIC FIELDS it experiences a force of F:qE Notice that this is a vector equation. lC. It is an externally created electric field. EXAMPLE A proton and an electron are located 2 p. there are some types of calculations that are only possible with electric fields. Tutor: But the force is already given. in addition to the field created by the proton. we look at the first step (Q . then find the force. . Student: So are we doing the Q + E step or the E + F step. and the electric field creates a force on the electron. If we add the fields from all of the charges. Student: How can there be more than one electric field? Tutor: Every charge creates electric field. The proton creates electric field where the electron is.E. So we have two ways to calculate electric fields. T\rtor: You were correct in saying that we can find the electric field that the proton creates. Like any equation. What is the direction of this electric field. More on these later. Student: So what is there left to find? There is an external electric field. Meaning that it doesn't exist internally? T\rtor: Meaning that it is created by charges that we don't see charges other than the proton. right? Tutor: Right.) Why do we bother with electric fields at all? Electric fields can do things between the time they are created and the time they act on a charge. then the force on the negative charge is in the opposite direction as the electric field.I7O When a charge q is placed in this electric field. (It is possible to write the first equation as a vector equation.)(1. F . when we want the field acting on the electron we don't include the field created by the electron. The proton creates an electric field Student: Thtor: Student: Ep: kQ 12 (9 x loe N.kQ lr').m apart in an electric field. E . but ro. If we have the charge(s) that create the electric field. (2 x lo1e ^. Student: Do we need to include the field created by the electron? T\rtor: Good question.
6 x 101e C)Etot"r Etot^r  250 N/C Tutor: Student: Student: The total electric field is positive. T\rtor: Yes. but what is the direction of this field at the electron? Away from the proton would be to the right. only backwards. The force on the electron is Student: F:QE (4 x 1012 N) . Because the charge q is negative. The force is to the left. but you know the force on the electron. Now you can find the total electric field acting on the electron.(1. so you can find the field at the electron. Student: How can I do that? I don't know the externally applied field. Does that make sense? The electron has a negative charge. so it's positive. What is your positive direction? How about to the right? T\rtor: Okay. F and Etotur will have opposite signs. so do Student: I include the sign? T\rtor: Yes. write an equation for the total field. Student: You mean using the E + F step. so the field is to the right. Etot^t. Student: I'm going to find the total field. Or you could define a variable for the external field. so the field and force should be in opposite directions.(1.Ev*8"*t (+zso N/c)  (+360 N/C) + Ee*t Ee*t: 110 N/C Student: The external field is to the lefrb. and put it into the F . Tutor: True. It works. Is the force on the electron positive or negative? Student: It's to the left.6 x 101e C)Etot"r ? T\rtor: You need to be careful about your signs. indicating that they point in opposite directions. T\rtor: Good. Yes. (4 x 10tz N) . so it points to the right. . Is ^Eo positive or negative? Student: It was to the right. What is the external field? Student: The total field is the sum of the proton's field and the external field. It's a matter of personal preference.qE equation. The charge of the electron isn't a vector. EXAMPLE Find the electric field at the center of the square. Student: Which is better? T\rtor: They're the same. so it must be negative. Correct. Tutor: Good.17t T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It goes away from the proton.
The bottom *4 p. Tutor: True. so we need to use either the Q + E step or the E + F step. How can we have the force created by the electric Tutor: Student: field? T\rtor: them up. ELECTRIC FIELDS How are you going to start? We want electric field. Do they have the same magnitude? Student: The charges are the same. draw fields. or upward. the *5 p. And last. except that instead of drawing forces. Student: There is no charge at the center of the square. Student: Okay. so the magnitudes same.C charge creates field toward the negative charge. y€s. or up and to the right. Student: Ah. b T\rtor: They are in opposite directions. We don't.172 CHAPTER 22. create the electric field. The top *4 p. Away from that charge is downward. and the distances are the same. What about the other fields? .C charge creates field away from it.C charges cancel? should be the to zero. I\rtor: They add Student: Do the fields from the *4 p. Start with a diagram. but we have the charges that I find the field from each one and add T\rtor: Remember to add them as vectors. They cancel. or to the left. The 2 p.C charge creates field a\May from it because it is a positive charge.C charge creates field away from it. Either we have the charges that create the electric field or u/e have the force created by the electric field.
The angle of the vector should show that. Ttrtor: For a 45o45o909 right triangle. the hypotenuse is fr times the length of a side.0 x 106 N/C)sin45" : *6. What is the electric field at point P? Q:L2 L . the angle is arctan( ):82. : . Are the field vectors colinear? Student: No.84x 106 N/C Eu: *Essin45o  (9.m2 lcrx2 x 106 c) _ 7. E. The point 2 cm above the midpoint of the rod.2x106 N/C Esryv rz Tlrtor: Student: (ex 10e N'.84 x 106 N/C). m2 lCrXS x 106 C) _ g. even if the vectors are electric fields now. _lcQ . Student: It goes a little left and a lot up. So the *5 p. Adding vectors hasn't changed. it's further. J P is a distance  pcC is spread out uniformly over a rod of length L L2 cm. + (Er).).urz the magnitudes and add them.2x 106 N/C) + (9. Do I have to find the components like we did back in Chapter 3 or something? T\rtor: Yep.0 x 106 N/c decide whether to add them or subtract them. that's right.T1{c2)(5x 106 (0.05 m)2 c):18x 106 N/c ? Is the *5 p. 106 E_ Tlrtor: Student: It's (8. I need to use the Pythagorean theorem.L73 Student: I need to find n^ .C charge is rt x 5 cm from the center.36 x 106 N/C To find the magnitude of the field. I have to add the components using the Pythagorearr theorem.urtF.bo EXAMPLE A charge of fl.42 x N/C almost the same as the y component. + (+6./(0. Student: Yeah._ (g x 10e N.C charge 5 cm from the center of the square? ' No. _ ItQ .86 x 106 Nnt :6.F (g x 10e N. Measured from the ranis. T\rtor: Student: Now I Er: Ez* Student: Escos 45o_ (7.0 x 106 N/C)cos 45": 0. The y component is much bigger than the o component.
If there were exactly one million pieces. Tntor: Very small. and the first and last pieces are special and aren't representative. which is dr. What is the length of each piece? Student: Is that dr? T\rtor: It is. Student: But there are hundreds of pieces! Wait.174 CHAPTER 22. Student: Why not the first or the last? L Student: So it could be any piece. what would be the charge of each piece? Student: The total charge is 12 p. maybe more. Then you find the electric field from each piece and add all the electric fields created by the pieces. What's dq? dq is typically used to represent the charge of each piece. r can then be anything from 6 to 6 cm. s&y. You can use that to find the charge on each piece. so any piece of the same length has the same charge. you need to divide it into pieces. T\rtor: We need to do all of the pieces at once. T\rtor: Like.ttQ lr'. really small. How can I tell? The charge is spread "uniformly" over the rod. Got magnitude of the field is it. T\rtor: Do all of the pieces have the same charge? T\rtor: Student: Uh. What is the charge dq of the piece? Student: Well. but not the first or the last. isn't it? Since not all of the charge is at the same place. 1 cm to the right of the middle of the rod. r to the right of the middle of the rod. '"T\rtor: Student: @'+d2)2 Picking r from the middle makes the denominator simpler. Student: Like. Student: So the number of pieces is Lf dr. u Then I find the electric field from the piece using r. but what do I use for r? T\rtor: That is a problem. I think so. Pick one piece. There'd be hundreds of them T\rtor: Yes. then the charge of each piece is really.C. T\rtor: Student: T\rtor: Don't panic. if there are millions of pieces. Pick an arbitrary piece.. k dq The . ELECTRIC FIELDS How do we find electric fields? We use E . or 12 x 1012 C. Student: That would have to be really tiny.. so a millionth of that. but not zero. this is sounding like an integral. and the charge q of each piece is . each so small that we can say that the whole piece is at the same place. say. The length of each piece is equal to the distance from one piece to the next.
F k(Q dr I L) \1 na@xffi:W r Tlrtor: for r? kQ* dr Then the total goes from r component is the sum of all of the individual cm. Instead of finding the angle. Now you can write down the r conrponent of the electric field. t::. Student: But there are millions of fields. The fields all point away from the charge but not all in the same direction. kQr L(*' + d2)tl' dr kQ L r:. Look at the triangle you drew to find the arrgle. and then the r component is adjacent. Do the electric fields created by each piece point irr the same direction? Student: No. just cos 0 and sin d. or coulombs per meter. so it's sin. e T CI 0 r T\rtor: True. while the y cornponent is opposite. What are the limits Student: r L .O cm to *6 E. so it's cos. The charge density is the charge per length. Student:Thecosineof0isrdividedby!ffi. Student: Okay.Isthatwhatyoumean? T\rtor: Yep. do it once for the piece at r and it will be the same for all of them.175 dq a number of pieces L I dr a Adr L T\rtor: Very good. If we multiply the coulombs per meter @ I L) by the meters of a piece (dr) then we get the coulombs of a piece @ dr I L). T\rtor: Again. Another way to get the same result is by using charge density. that if n is positive. using the lengths of the sides. I need to find the angle d. Tutor: So we have to find the r and g components of each field. Remember then the r cornponent of the electric field is negative. But you don't really need 0. r components. Student: So the field created by each piece is drlL) n ft:@k(Q T\rtor: That is the magn'itude of the field created by each piece. find the cosine and sine of the angle. (*' + rdr d2)3/2 .
L Lffi)_"p I n 1"t' Ldrl@kQ I L 12 ffi L12 Student: I can put in the numbers.r kQ . T\rtor: Good. f Lt' [dn:r I (*. so the answer has to look the same. Tutor: Look at the symmetry of the problem. D kQ ["t' LtrLJ_rp@r d. Student: It should be very similar. kQ (9 Ey: x 10e N. Student: Oh. where we find D 'r' kQd. If I flip the problem left to right. yeah. dW (o. dn We look in the appendix of the book. + a2)3/2 L J_rp@Now dn kQd. ELECTRIC FIELDS Tutor: Student: Now we have to do the integral.o2m) ^'lc')(r2 pC)  8. except that it's the opposite over the hypotenuse.5 x 107 N/C . so we can use their answer. the problem Student: Zero? Isn't there some easier way to do this? Eu: Student: ["'' ryx rL/2ftWf ^ +a2 ry fL/z (*' + a2)r/2 kQd. or some other integral table. You still need to do the A component.176 CHAPTER 22. We look in the appendix of the book. rdr + a2)3/2 1 (*t + a2)r/2 This is the same integral that we have. where we find I T\rtor: I (*. Llffiaaz)_rp 1 1"t' is the same. so it has to be along the y axis.
. The mathematical expression for Gauss' law is QB Snet €g where Q6 is the electric field flux coming out of the area. Electric field lines start at positive charges and end at negative charges. and add the results for all of the tiny pieces. You could reduce this rate by using a smaller bucket.l[a : 0. Mathematically. For a field line to come out of a surface. by going to a place with less rain.t a positive charge) ot enter somewhere else on the surface.8. A closed surface is one with no if you are inside the surface and you want to get out you need to exits pass through the surface. at each piece find the component of the electric field that is perpendicularly out of the surface (normal to the surface). You should find that lr{z : l/1 and Afs . We only do the integral when it's when not doing this integral leads to a much nastier integral. 177 dirt simple. This is Gauss' law.85 x 1012 C'/N m2. and es is 4rk . or by tilting the bucket sideways. Flux would be the rate at which raindrops enter the bucket. Remember to count a field line going in as a negative line going out.Chapter 23 Gauss'Law Examine the surface below. What is electric field flux Q n? Imagine that you are out in the rain holding a bucket. it's not so bad. Gauss' Iaw works for any closed surface. This is not mere coincidence. it either has to start inside (. Qnet is the net charge inside the area. Count the number of electric field lines coming out of each surface. multiply times the area of the tiny piece. The surface does not have to be real imagine number of or invent any surface you want and Gauss' law tells you the electric field lines coming out. Qn dA which says to divide the surface into tiny pieces. Despite the scary appearance of this integral. The electric field flux 06 is effectively a count of the number of electric field lines passing through a surface.
We always mea"sure the field out from the surface.E dA Because the field E is the same everywhere on our imaginary "Gaussian" surface en:lnd. symmetry Gauss' law EA:la dA:'r"T . The goal is to use Gauss' law to calculate the electric field. so a negative field is inward or toward the negative charge.2 p. Gauss' law tells us that the flruc is equal to the charge "enclosed" by the imaginary surface divided by EA. centered on the charge q with a radius of r (r is a variable. and the electric field is the same. It has to be because of the symmetry of the proble it looks the same from any angle.A cosoo . GAUSS'LAW We want to do the integral to find the flu>c.Anlat The integral that remains is to add up the area of each tiny piece. To do that we need to know the electric field at each spot on our imaginary surface. What we do know is that the the field field on one side of the imaginary sphere is the same as the field on the other side. Pick any two spots on the imaginary sphere. We don't know that's what we're trying to find. whatever it is. so we'll use a sphere.en Because the surface is a sphere.dA. it could be anything). is the same everywhere on the imaginary surface so we can pull it out of the integral.178 Let's see how it works. E. Because the field is perpendicularly out.EA e6. CHAPTER Gaussian 23. so it's equal to the area of the imaginary surface. What if we had used a negative charge q . oo E UJ Iad. the area is 4rr2 Qnet €g E(hrr') tr uQnet Qnet €g 4trr2 es (4nes)r2 12 This is the same thing we got in the last chapter (whew). We can only do that if the symmetry in the problem lets us do the critical step above the electric field. so the electric field is the same at any angle. At any spot on our imaginary sphere the electric field is perpendicularly out of the surface and has the same magnitude. never in.E d. We want to find the electric field created by a single point charge q away? We can invent any surface we want to use with Gauss' law.C? Everything would have been the same until we put the negative in and got a negative electric field.
but that's not complicated. As r gets bigger.E. but why a sphere? Because of the symmetry. Therefore. then this is the same as EA. T\rtor: Correct. Once you have chosen your Gaussian surface. Q""t €g eB EA Student: I thought that we had to do vector dot products and stuff like that. How do we find the electric field? We divide the charge into Student: (as vectors).5 cm. If the field is the same everywhere. Our result might be a function of r. is the same everywhere. Don't we have to pick a value for r? Tutor: We could. and add the electric fields We could do that. the answer . but everywhere on a concentric sphere the electric field . Student: But we want the electric field everywhere. so the flux O is equal to EA." Yes. Imagine that you want the electric field at a point that is a distance r from the middle of the sphere. Student: Okay. Look at the problem.. A charge of Q :14 pC is placed on a hollow conducting sphere of radius R . but the beauty of leaving it as a variable is that it works for any value. Therefore. Tutor: Student: What's r? Isn't it the same as R? R is the size of the sphere. r is the distance to the point where we want the electric field. T\rtor: Student: o 'DrDrDlr '\ and the problem looks the same. and we couldn't say that the electric field is .' is the same. find the electric field from each. whatever it is. write down Gauss' law. Student: But a"s r gets bigger. the area gets bigger. Is A the area of the conducting sphere or the imaginary Gaussian surface? I\rtor: It's the area of the Gaussian surface 4trr2. I Student: Why does the field have to be the same every. This is the key to using Gauss' lawr I choosing a surface where the electric field. but the number of field lines T\rtor: \ doesn't increase. Student: So the electric field is the same everywhere? Thtor: Not necessarily. when we rotated j the Gaussian surface with the sphere. T\rtor: It is good that you're thinking ahead. but the resulting integral would be very difficult. We don't know what the electric field is. Then we only have to do the problem once. so E does depend on r. " look different. so that at different values of r we get different Student: Ttrtor z electric fields. If we chose some other shape. the problem would : o . did center of mass?). Student: Ah. . let's try using Gauss' So we need some kind of "Gaussian surface. Draw an imaginary sphere that is concentric with the conducting sphere and has radius r. little pieces. '. and add them. Find the electric field T\rtor: Ttrtor: law. Instead. Okay.\ \ where? I F a a  \ So that we can calculate the flux.'\ \ the same everywhere. multiply by the (tiny) area. but the number of field lines doesn't increase. You can rotate it any way you want around the center.179 EXAMPLE magnitude everywhere. also has to look the same (remember doing this when we . We divide the area of the surface into tiny pieces. find the electric field through each. and we don't know. the electric field must get smaller so that the flux stays the same. the area increases and the flux increases.
T\rtor: Yes.*4 pC. I know. Because of the symmetry. T\rtor: Student: And by askittg what the field is everywhere.E(4trr2) r < R? Tutor: Student: All of it. Correct. How much of the field is perpendicular to the Gaussian surface. though? T\rtor: As long as you have spherical symmetry. Let's start inside. then yes.E(4nr') kQ Tutor: r. You just did the vector dot product. our electric field depended on r. T\rtor: Correct. Student: That's the same thing we had before! Tutor: Before it was for a point charge.180 CHAPTER 23. GAUSS' LAW T\rtor: We do. Student: And the field is the same everywhere. If none if the charge is enclosed. what is the area of the Gaussian surface? Student: The area is the area of a sphere . Look at the Gaussian surface. What about outside the sphere? Q"n' €g . T\rtor: Student: Directly away T\rtor: +How much charge is enclosed? eB . so the cos d is 1. Correct.E(4rr2) E _0 Tutor: Student: There won't be any electric field.Qp: E( nr') 9€6\ . J . Is the electric field for a sphere the same as a point charge. then everything we did works. Now it is for a sphere. and because the field isn't constant. so the integral equals EA. parallel to the normal vector? Student: All of it. but to be able to use Gauss' law. it means both inside and outside the sphere? Yes. Ttrtor: If r ) B and the Gaussian surface encloses Student: Then none of the charge is enclosed. what is the electric field? M':oa: €g E(Anrz) 0 . Student: Yes. the field points directly away from the sphere. what is the direction of the electric field? from the sphere.r iJ@: a Keep in mind that the purpose of the example is not to reach such a conclusion. Student: So any sphere has the same electric field as a point charge? . Now. but we need the field to be at least p'iecew'iseconstant in order to use Gauss' law. the sphere. All of the field is parallel to the normal. At each point on the surface. What if Correct. 4rr2 . More on that in the next example. A . and all of the charge is enclosed.
What is the flux through the top and bottom of the Gaussian surface? Student: There isn't any. the charge enclosed is all of it.'d. which is (2mL) + 2(nr'). concentric with the cylinder of charge. T\rtor: So Gauss' law becomes ? I\rtor: ends. T\rtor: All very good. solid. Eu.'r_OE:EA €g Student: The area is the area of my cylinder. The longer the cylinder is. it tips you off to try Gauss' Iaw. where L is the length of my imaginary Gaussian surface. Student: Ok y.  6 cm has a uniform charge density of ) Student: So the symmetry. The charge is 3 coulombs for each meter of length. Q". .. Student: Then I write down Gauss' law.. cornbined with the difficulty of dividing the charge into little pieces. The field skims the surface but doesn't go through. What is thgdirection of the electric field? Student: It points outward from the cylinder of charge. T\rtor: Correct. which might be more of less than ^R.d (2trr2)(0) Student: So the 1 and the 0 are the cos 0's? Correct. Of course. disappears from the equation. I want a Gaussian surface with the same symmetry as the charge.  QB : E ia * "(2trrL)(1) 8". insulating cylinder of radius R electric field magnitude everywhere. We're never entirely sure something will work until we can see the end. Now it's time to think about the electric field. My imaginary cylinder has a radius of r. Multiply the length enclosed by the charge per length to get the charge enclosed. tips me off to use Gauss' law. T\rtor: Radially outward. Tntor: Very good. and that's good because the field wasn't constant as T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Then Student: If r ) it moves out from the cylinder along the R. Yes. the more charge it has. but they don't tell us the total charge. including the ends. so I choose a cylinder.181 EXAMPLE A long.
Now the charge is spread throughout the cylinder. . then the charges would move to the surface and that would be true. GAUSS' LAW Student: : ^L? *enE(2nrL) ETutor: Good. As we get further ifr<R? T\rtor: Student: 2rr/eo 2Tesr r from the cylinder. What Then the enclosed charge is zero. Tutor: The field increases as we move away from the center. *x(r^rl x #)er E(2nrL) r2 + . it would be different.)x T\rtor: #)x # ^L. if it wasn't zero j and we rotated the cylinder around its axis. so the field is zero. As we move a\May. the field gets weaker as the field lines spread out.r. the charge enclosed increases faster than the area. The charge ? enclosed is Q"n. the field should go towards the negative charge.Lx# Tutor: Now back to Gauss' law. How much of the charge is enclosed? Student: I don't know. The charge in a volume nR2I is Q"n"). then half of the charge is enclosed. Tutor: Student: Note that . Not true this time. Student: So I find the volume enclosed. T\rtor: How much of the volume is enclosed? Student: What does that matter? T\rtor: If half of the volume is enclosed.r82 CHAPTER So Q.\ is negative. Almost. If the cylinder were made of a conducting material. so long as we are still inside the cylinder. Student: So if r 1R. What is the electric field atr:0? Student: It is zero Tutor: Which it has to be because of symmetry. The total volume is rR2L.EQrr) eOR2 L r'J Student: \r 2rregR2 The field increases as we nrove away from the cylinder. Student: The volurne enclosed is rr2L. some of the charge is enclosed? T\rtor: Correct. and multiply by the charge? T\rtor: Essentially. Good  EXAMPLE Ad electric field magnitude everywhere. so the field is going into the Gaussian surface. so the field increases. Student: Ah. divide by the total volume to get the fraction enclosed.c 23.
12. Correct. What does the electric field look like? Student: It points perpendicular to the plane of charge.183 a I a ? ? ? ? o O a a . Ttrtor: As long as the right side is inside the plane (r < d. T\rtor: The height times the depth is your area A. The field better not depend on the size of your imaginary surfac different surface but that wouldn't change the field. because it skims the surface rather than going through. whatever that is. I might imagine a rAP €g .l D t. What is the charge enclosed? Student: It's the volume in meterss times the density in coulombs per meter3. Nothing side? comes out of the paper or goes into the paper. and the charge is rAp. and the width is r. But what is the area of the right T\rtor: It's your Gaussian Student: surface. Erp€g T\rtor: Tutor: Student: What if r ) d.eB: EA Student: The area does cancel.l2). . Tbtor: Good. and the right side is outside the plane? The area is still the same. The field at the center is zero. so the only side that has field is the right side.. Q"n' €g eBEA Tutor: What is the area? Student: I only include the area that has field coming out of it. right? T\rtor: Correct. Draw a Gaussian cuboid that starts at the center and goes out a distance tr. lefttoright. so you get to choose.1  rl I ''.f I . The area is A. Student: Then I write down Gauss' law. :+ l*.! € I I : T\rtor: Student: I need a Gaussian Tutor: Does it go in both directions? Student: Can we use symmetry to determine that? If I flip the problem surface that keeps the symmetry of the charge. the problem looks the same. Okay. but not all of the Gaussian surface contains charge. Yes.o 't rl . or goes up or down the paper. Student: So the volume is frA. . '. T\rtor: Good what's the volume? Student: Thewidth times the height times the depth. so it goes both ways and has to have the same field each way. It better cancel.
It's a tipoff or reminder of how the charge is distributed. Greek lambda . row your boat) for coulombs per meter3. since there won't be an electric field inside the conductor. and the 2 appears because. then you use the equation with the 2.o f2es. 23. This happens if you have a conducting plane with charge on the surface. The field here goes in both directions. If the field goes in both directions. so the enclosed charge stops increasing once we leave the plane. by measuring out from the center. . Student: So what's with the Greek letters ) and p for charge? Tutor: We still use a or q for charge.L84 CHAPTER Oh.o l ro and E . and Greek rho p (pronounced "row" as in row.\ is typically used for coulombs per meter. row. GAUSS'LAW Student: (dlz)Ap €g _eB:EA pd 2eo E Student: I saw the equations E . but we use Greek letters for charge density. If the field goes in only one directior. Greek sigma o for coulombs per meter2. w€ include only half the charge. then you don't use the 2. fs this the 2 inthe equations? Tutor: Somewhat.
Since we push in the same direction as the motion we do positive work. and then we don't include them in the work term. If we tied a string to the rock beforehand and wrapped the other end around a generator. One joule per coulomb is a volt and is sometimes called voltage. Gravity pushes in the opposite direction as the motion and does negative work as the potential energy increases. but can we use them effectively to solve problems? Conservation of momentum doesn't help us because some of the charges are usually "glued down. How did potential energy from gravity work? Potential energy is work that wetve done that we might get back out. which is the purpose of physics. How did we use conservation of energy earlier? The energy you start with plus the energy you put in (work) is the energy you end with. The work that we do that is stored as potential energy is mgh.KEy * PEt The work done by some forces (gravity and springs) is easier to deal with by using potential energy. often without noticing. The work that gravity does during the process is the same no matter how we get the rock to the top. which depends on the position. 1V:1* The only significant difference is that the charge can be negative. Can we use conservation of energy and conservation of momentum? Certairly energy and momentum are both conserved." and we don't know the force on them so we don't know the impulse.) The potential energy in joules is equal to the charge in coulombs times the potential. 185 . When we raise a rock we exert a force equal to gravity n'Lg (a little more at the beginning to get it going) while we raise it a height h. is the potential. while with gravity the mass could only be positive. Work done by electric force is the other work that is easier to do with potential energy. Conservation of energy is so effective in dealing with charges that we do it all the time.how latter part. This Jlk1. UPEqV (U is often used for potential energy. the part that depends on position. or joules per coulomb. The potential energy is the product of the size of the rock (*) and somethitrg that depends on the position (gh). then as the rock rolled down the hill we could get electricity to power our stereo and make tunes. If we moved a rock that was twice as big then the potential energy would be twice as big. the potential energy is equal to the product of the size (charge q) of the thing we move times the potential V. The units of gh are ^'l"'or much work it takes to move one kilogram of rock. K4+ PEi+W .Chapter 24 Electric Potential We've learned to use forces when we deal with charged objects. With electricity.
or the negative work done by the electrical force.Ff . Therefore we divide the path into tiny pieces so tiny that we can say that the electric field is constant for the whole tiny path.186 CHAPTER 24. .dfr You might conclude that we're going to be doing lots of integrals. dd is the component of the electric field parallel to the tiny piece d. If the field is constant. The question then is: how do we determine the potential. and a charge at the location has potential energy.E times the length of the tiny The potential enerry is the product of two pieces.q4rcosl Often the electric field is not constant as we move the charge. we do negative work (or get work out) while the potential energy decreases (some of the potential enerry is turned into work). but this is not so. A location has potential. When the charge moves on its own and we hold it back. LPE. dfr . dfr ..stant : I E . the amount of charge that we move and somethittg that depends only on the path along which we move it. aPEot'J piece. 8. Then we add the work we've done (increase in potential energy) for all of the tiny pieces of the path.qE  . Since these come up regularly using potential often keep. When we push a charge against the electrical force we do positive work. There are two cases for which it's rea"sonable to work out the integral and reuse it. To calculate the electrical potential energy we have to find the work we do pushing against the electrical force.. increasing the potential energy. The ca^ses are point charge and constant field. then the integral becomes A%o. The part that depends on the path (and not the charge) is the potential.s us from needing to do an integral.E.E I is ffi .AE if the field is created by a point charge. then the potential Vpoint charge : kq R This assumes that the potential is equal to zero at infinity.dfr where ^d . but potential and potential energ:f are not the sarne. Av: f{ J_8. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Remember that potential and voltage are the same thing.
and half of the remaining to move it the next 160 Student: How do you come up with that so easily? T\rtor: If we double the distance. and half of the remaining work to move it the next 80 cm. True. We don't want to do that. It takes something like half of the work to move the proton the first 40 cm. Student: So the kinetic energy before is zero. so that implies that it isn't. . How can a proton move to infinity? T\rtor: It can't really. then it would have a positive kinetic energy. Good. of course. Now we need to calculate the potentials at P and oo. and we'd have to do more work. Fqievp+w:r$fev* I\rtor: Very good. we've already done 90% of the work needed to move it to infinity? T\rtor: Yes. What is the equation for conservation of ener gy? Energy before plus energy in equals energy after. We need the potential energies. Student: So. The potential energy due to electric forces is qV . + PEi +W : KEy * PEt What is the kinetic energy before? The proton isn't moving. Student: So I find the potential at P due to each charge and add the potentials? .187 EXAMPLE What is the work needed to move a proton from P to m? 30 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The problem asks for work. . but we'd never really get Tutor: Student: it there. is it? Tutor: The problem doesn't s&y. because the universe is finite. so that means we'll need to use energy. Student: So by the time we've moved it three meters. we cut the potential energy in half. and we can calculate how much work it would take to get to infinity. Is the proton moving when it gets to infinity? T\rtor: If it was. KEt. Both kinetic energies are zero. Student: So the kinetic energy afterward is zero. Student: T\rtor: Okuy.
If we had picked anywhere else. x 101e c) ( 22. If we had been doing a vectoq. and then we can't take the potential to be zero at infinity.5 kV) +W . Student: No vector stuff at all? Great.22.6 x 1015 J . The other common situation is a constant. The potential at P due to the *5 p.s kV T\rtor: That's one of the reasons to use potential. and a joule per coulomb is a volt. 22. Since potential isn't a vector.6 x 101e C) (22. it's zero. Student: Oh good! Anyway. Potential doesn't have direction.6 x 101e c) )K0 w . Tlrtor: No.C charge is VkQ: r Tbtor: Student: :9x1o4v Correct. (g 104 Vp: x V) + (1t. The values you just found are the potentials created by each charge. Student: Okry.(1. A newton times a meter is a joule. for point charges. Now I need to find the components and add the r and A components together.kQ l.6 x 101e C)y* Now I need to find the potential at infinity. We chose the potential to be zero at infinity.b00 V . the potential is zero at infinity. ELECTHIC POTENTIAL Student: The potential at P due to the v  kQ r  5 pC charge is kl: p? (40 cm)  11.skv) +w . We'll do one of those Tutor: Student: next. Student: So the potential is always zero at infinity? T\rtor: Whenever we use V . now (1. so that you got a positive value for the magnitude. T\rtor: Yes.m/c TUtor: Yes.(1. and you just add the potentials together. What is the potential if r is oo? Student: Uh.6 I can find the work. Yep.6 x 101e c) ( 22. CHAPTER 24. then the equation for potential would have been more complicated and harder to calculate.3. you need to include the minus sign so that a negative charge creates a negative potential.2b x 104 N.5 kV) .188 T\rtor: Yes.field.(1. then you should have used the absolute value of the charge.25 x 104 V) : (1.
 (300 V/*)(0. Student: Ah. T\rtor: Correct. So if I can't see the charges that create the field. The problem is that the field is a constant. Also. The potential difference is Because a change is always the final minus the T\rtor: Student: How can you tell? AV . so T\rtor: Student: I thought that the units for electric AV . and integrating & constant over an infinite distance gives an infinite value. and again.E x d. the particle isn't moving before or afber. right. Student: Oh. Student: Oh.E x d. so we'll be using consenration of enerry again.300V/m *40cm+ Student: It Student: asks for work again.q(Vo Vc) Student: So I have to integrate only from C to D. and the integral converged. initial.KEf + PEf Again. it is important that you integrate from C to D and not from D to C.189 EXAMPTE What is the work needed to move an electron from C to D? oC . You don't need the potential at infinity. the potential energy is qV.eVc .{iqvc+w Wlevo T\rtor: You're doing well.eVo . What is the potential at C? Well. Where are the charges that create the electric field? Tbtor: We can't see them. In fact. because the field got smaller as we went further away. and I can't integral the electric field from infinity how can I find the potential at C? T\rtor: It's kind of a trick question. K4+ PEi+W .40 m) : 120 V ? . Fortunately the electric field is constant. big math term. W . We didn't have this problem with a point charge.D E. and the integral is easy. you need only the difference in potentials between C and D. that is a problem. and integrate the electric field Student: a^s I come in to C? T\rtor: That would work. (300 V/*)(0. They are. Student: So I have to start at infinity. Volts per meter are equal to newtons per coulombs.50 m) : 150 V ? field were newtons per coulomb. remember that only the part of the displacement that is parallel to the electric field matters. in theory. y. so the final is D and the initial is C. where the potential is zero.
Student: The field isn't a constant.92x 10t7 J Tutor: Does it make sense that the work you need to do is negative? Student: The electric force will push the electron to the right. then the potential difference is the displacement times the parallel component of the field. the displacement is to the electric field is to the left. Student: So 2 must be at a higher potential than C. Tntor: But 4 is greater than 7. Yep. Find the potential at Nothing about energy.E.positive.. and that's what's important.C is spread uniformly over a solid sphere of radius R the center of the sphere. Student: Okay. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Now you need to make sure that you have the sign right. The displacement in the direction of the electric field is 40 cm.s the electron moves. so it must be positive So Vo is negative? We don't know. Because the solid sphere is also spherically symmetric. Our second way to find a potential is that if the field is created by point charges. T\rtor: Negative work means that we can get work out of the process a. T\rtor: Is the potential at 2 positive or negative? . . so it will go there on its own. taking the potential to be zero at infinity. We found the field in the last chapter. so T\rtor: Student: right. I can finish the problem now. We do know that Vxt ) Vc. W  I EXAMPLE A charge of Q . As you go from C to D. and 4 isn't positive. the field outside the sphere is the same as for the hollow sphere. then we can find the potential from each point T\rtor: Student: . and therefore Vo . We found the field due to a hollow conducting sphere. Student: . .a0 m) Another way is to look at the electric field. How do I do that? T\rtor: One way is to follow the math.190 CHAPTER 24. We have three ways to do that. just find the potential. .*4 p.Vc is. Electric field always LV. The T\rtor: (300 V/*)(0. T\rtor: Not quite. q(Vo Vc) .Lil 120 v to lower goes from higher potential potential. If the field is constant.(1.6 x 101e Cxtzl V): 1. Tntor: Yes. Ttrtor: Student: Student: It's greater than the potential at C. I won't need to do any work.  5 cm. and we don't care.
d. Now the potential Vn at R is vn: Tutor: Student: Student: That's the same as the potential for a point charge! I: Edn: I: ydnkel.pr.[" "2! J* 8.191 charge and add the potentials. As we move from ^R to oo. Student: So the direction of each step.fr is the infinitesimally small length of the steps that we take as we move out to oo. is outward from the sphere. What is the direction of dfl Student: What is dtrl T\rtorz d. How much of the electric field is in the direction of the step? Student: All of it. 8. picking an imaginary sphere to keep the symmetry of the charge. T\rtor: So we start there and integrate in.ilEdn T\rtor: Student: That's how we deal with the vector stuff. but it isn't zero. vn: Ttrtor: Student: l: E dil The field outside the sphere is kQlr2. so we need to find Q"n" like we did in the cylinder example from the last chapter. Now we do the same for the field inside the sphere. When we add up all of the steps. and integrate the electric field to the point we want.] .Yx  f+ . we have to get the displacement from R to oo. so 8. The third way is to start at a point where we know the potential.J vn'. so I'm going to reverse the limits and add a minus sign. T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: Yes. Student: If it's infinitesimally small. Q"n" €g o^e : EA E(4nr2) 1 ( "'J"t ftY"a x (charge of . T\rtor: Student: Thtor: Yes. T\rtor: It may be really small."r")) €s \ volume oI Spnere / . small though it is. so the integral of the field is also the same. What is the direction of the electric field? The field points away from the sphere. ke[:*] : E The field is the same as for a point charge. What is the electric field inside the sphere? Student: We need to use Gauss' law. Student: So the field outside the sphere is kQ l12? Thtor: Correct. Student: The charge is spread out over the sphere. so we would have an infinite number of point charges. T\rtor: Yes. How much of the electric field is in the direction of the step? Student: They are in the same direction. Only part of the charge is enclosed. Student: The only place where we know the potential is at infinity. then it doesn't have direction. Yes. we are using r to represent our current position. dfr Trrtor: I have trouble with minus signs when integrating from a higher value to a lower one.*i ^v . T\rtor: Tbue.
#ln'o'l :E. Vo: I"Wdn#*#lo"*dn *'J::8. I prefer to reverse the limits. because otherwise I'm likely to make a sign error. If we can't do either of those. ELECTHIC POTENTIAL * (#"4) ' EJ: T\rtor: E(An") #':E(4n") Qrs : 4v^psrz Qr nrop.44 x1o6 .dfr from someplace where we do know the potential. vo:vn* Jn fo .ig . If the field is constant. then we integrate the electric field AV .L92 CHAPTER 24.ET kQr Wonderful. you used r for that distance. If the field is from point charges.Ir" E dn#* Student: What's wrong with that? Io" W dn ? r. we use Tpoint charge : H. Nory we can do the potential integral. AE. What is the potential at P. T\rtor: The field inside the sphere is a function of how far we axe from the center of the sphere. In using Gauss' law to find the field. We have three ways to find the potential. then we use A%oostant .I E . Tutor: Very good.05 m) 1 Vn: 2kQ R .R. Which way are you going to try here? . a distance d away from the L Student: Let me see if I have this right.y : r.E T "/c'X+a pc) (0. vo:vn*.44MV I EXAMPLE A charge Q is spread uniformly over a length center of the line of charge? L. but in the potential integral we're using Student: So the field inside the sphere is W when we do the integral.E . as 0 goes from 0 to . Thtor: Yes. dn Tlrtor: Agaitr.
193 Student: The field isn't a constant. an maximum values for r? T\rtor: Student: Can I do the integral now? Sure. . so we can't do that. Student: We divide the rod into tiny bits. What is the potential created by each tiny piece? the charge divided by the distance. each dn long. the variable of integration. Or we could integrate the field. the charge of each piece is dQ: (length of piece) x (charge of rod) (length of rod) f A ? I I I I \ L Ttrtor: Student: k times Good. everything there is a constant or r. but the ph ysics of the problem is done. but we could divide it into point charges and add the potentials using an integral. r/^ [k(Qdrlt') YPJW T\rtor: Student: r What are the limits for the integral? What are the minimum goes from L12 to *L12. As before. The charge isn't a point charge. Which way is easier? T\rtor: We can do it both ways for practice. It's probably easier to integrate the charge. Vp: rw (Ll2) + (Ll2) + rn dr vp:ry fr"("+ Vp (t L12) + T\rtor: We can do algebra to simplify this. We have to do an integral either way.
8. vp:voo. start at oo and go to ) P. But the field is not created by a point charge. No. Ea: kQ . since n is our variable of integration. integrating the electric field. T\rtor: Good. Student: True. because we did that in an earlier example. T\rtor: It's easier to get the sign right that way. To get the potential at P. we need the field at a distance fi. we don't have to now. But the field does depend on where we are. Student: Arrg! We have to integrate over the charge to find the field? Thtor: Yes and no.194 CHAPTER 24. and that means doing an integral. As r moves from P to oo.kQ "'\(Ll2)+ L Vp: F7py (Ll2)+@\ (Lt2)+@) vp:Yr^( ) /r vp:'#t"( Tntor: Student: Now you want to integrate the field for practice? Sure. ELECTHIC PO"ENTIAL Vp.dfr T\rtor: Just because r is the variable you're integrating over doesn't mean that the field depends on tr. we have to find the field. Yes. Student: But [ Edfr then you want to integrate the other way. Student: The electric field is kQlr2.
 Ilrtor: Yes. vpkelo*ffi Student: So we get the sarne answers either way. d was the distance from the rod to the point where we found Student: So we replace d with c. . Er(t) the field. then we let s go from d to oo. T\rtor3 No.195 Student: There's no r.
We have a device for storing small amounts of charge. Positive charge flows out of the positive end of the battery to the first cookie sheet (really it's negative charges flowing out of the negative end of the battery onto the other cookie sheet. What if we were now to disconnect the battery from the cookie sheets? Could the charges on the conductors foresee what we're about to do and rush back into the battery? No. such as cookie sheets. If you start with a bunch of (equally 196 .Chapter 25 Capacitance Imagine taking two large flat pieces of metal. When the positive charges get to the first conductor (cookie sheet). and the excess positive charge would go through the bulb. we can express as a potential energy (Icnp: it l . Then connect the two ends of a battery to the two cookie sheets. and placing them parallel to each other but not touching. It takes work to store charge on a capacitor. We could now connect the conductors to the two ends of a light bulb. The units of capacitance are farads (F). the charges are trapped on the conductors. Since this energ"y can all be extracted later. The amount of charge Q that can be stored on a capacitor with capacitance C is QCV Equal amounts of positive and negative charge are stored on the two plates of the capacitor. creating a momentary current. and Q is the absolute value of one of these two charges. they can go no further so they collect there. Other positive charges from the second conductor take the place of the previous charges. One way to understand this difference is to imagine stacking books. but the effect is the same). going into the negative terminal of the battery and leaving behind a net negative charge. After a while (which might be only microseconds) this process slows down and stops.AV This is similar to the equation we had for the potential energy of a charge (U : qV) except for the onehalf. and meet up with the excess negative charge on the other conductor.
Tutor: Student: So why so many capacitors are mea"sured in microfarads or even picofarads. and the last charge takes the most work. Likewise it takes no work to put the first charge on the capacitor because with no charge it has no voltage. Q.oo2 J) : ia(12 pC v) Q 333 T\rtor: Student: That seems like a pretty small charge. . Q_CV 333 pC : C (12 V) C28p. we can find the other two using our two equations. but I need an equation with [/. it doesn't take any work to put the first book on the floor. we say they are in parallel.ieV when each successive charge takes more work than the next.L97 sized) books on the floor.qV for individual charges.. we say they are in series.. We have four variables (C. the third more. which is half of the final voltage. and so on. It's also true that we don't have (Jcrp:lO' (o. If two capacitors are connected in series or in parallel. Student: Now that I have the charge. The second book takes a little work. V. The average is the work for the middle book. but if they are then we can do something with them. don't we come up with another equation? We could . The second charge takes some work. and C. since it must be moved up by the thickness of the first book. we can solve for the others. but use U . Q'+ 2u:cv ) ut"r' The next difficulty comes when we have two or more capacitors at the same time. which is lifted to half the height of the pile. until the last book takes the most work. If we know any two of the four variables. then we have ways of dealing with them. The total work is the charge times the average voltage. T\rtor: It's true that if you know two of the four. V. They store only a little charge.F Thtor: One farad is a big capacitance. an equation with those three. but then there would be an infinite number of equations. It's better to remember fewer equations and to combine them when necessary. but then 2 mJ seems like a pretty small amount of energy. or multiply the number of books by the aaerage work for each book. It is not true that any two capacitors must be either in series or parallel. Use U . We could add the work needed for each book. and t/) and two equations. Likewise when two devices are connected so that they must have the same voltage. EXAMPLE What size capacitor would you need to store 2 mJ when connected to a 12 V battery? Student: If we know any two of the four. What can you find? Student: I can solve for the charge Q. When two devices are connected so that all of the charge that leaves one must go through the other. you can find the others. The third book takes even more work. I guess I can find the capacitance after all. Student: An infinite number of equations would be hard to remember. Most capacitors aren't very big. V T\rtor: We could come up with an equation for every problem.
C APACITAI. . Are Cg and C2 in parallel? We can move a finger from E to D but we can't get from F to C. or the voltage across C3. they are not electrically parallel. Take a finger from each hand. Even though both are drawn vertically.198 CHAPTER 2 5. If two capacitors are in series. or by going through the battery and C1 (also not allowed). If by doing this you can get your fingers to lie at the two ends of C+. and you should be able to do this). Charges that pass through Cz to point D can go either through C3 to F or through Ca to H.{ CE How do we determine whether two capacitors are in series? Consid er C1 and Cz above. and place them at each end of Cs. but only along wires and not across any circuit element. We could only do this by jumping from one wire to another nearby wire (not allowed). The voltage difference between your fingers is equal to the voltage difference between the ends of Cs. Therefore. Aty two capacitors do not have to be either in series or in parallel. so that they are geometrically parallel. The capacitance of this replacement or "equivalent" capacitor is CpCt*Cz EXAMPLE Find the voltage across each capacitor. The capacitance of this replacement or "equivalent" capacitor is G cr. Charge passes from A through C1 to B. How do we determine whether two capacitors are in parallel? Consider Cs and Ca above. then they can be treated as if they were a single capacitor. Now try moving your fingers. I 111 If two capacitors are in parallel. Cs and Cz are not in parallel. so Cz and C3 are not in series. The charges through Cz and C3 do not have to be equal. and the charges that pass through the two must be equal. such as a capacitor or battery. Flom there the charges can only go to C and through Cz to D.c. Ct and C2 are in series because the charges that pass through Ct must then go through Cz. then C3 and Ca have the same voltage across them and they are in parallel (they are. then they can be treated as if they were a single capacitor.
T\rtor: Also correct. Student: If the 6 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. How do you check? Student: I do the "finger test. then it has the same voltage across it as Tutor: Student: the battery does? Yes.F capacitor is in parallel with the battery either. Is the 6 pF capacitor in parallel with the battery? Student: Here we go again. The bottom one has to jump over the 2 pE capacitor or the 4 fB capacitor. The voltage across the 5 pF capacitor is 6 volts. Are the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 frF capacitor in series or parallel? Student: They are in series." The voltage across is the difference in the voltages. . or voltage difference. It might be 6 volts. Student: Okay. Student: So the 6 pF capacitor is not in parallel with the battery. Does all of the charge that comes out of the bottom of the 6 pF capacitor have to go into the 4 pF capacitor. T\rtor: . and that's 6 volts. and the 8 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. Student: So the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 pF capacitor aren'tin series. because it's a 6 volt battery? Tutor: Yes. Thtor: Correct. Charge goes from the 6 to the 4. Ttrtor: That's not enough. T\rtor: Let's check. then it has the same potential across it as the battery does. T\rtor: It isn't necessarily 6 volts. then you can replace them with a single capacitor. but we don't know that yet (and it won't be). A 6 volt battery creates a 6 T\rtor: volt potential difference." I put one finger on each side of the 5 pF capacitor and try to move them to the ends of the battery." use "voltage across.F capacitor nor the 4 p. &t the two ends. A battery creates a potential difference. T\rtor: How do you know that the voltage across the battery is 6 volts? Student: Uh. or could some of it go somewhere else? Student: Some of the charge could go into the 2 pF capacitor. Is the 5 pF capacitor in parallel with the battery? Student: Why does it matter? T\rtor: Two things in parallel have the same voltage across them. I put one finger on each side of the 6 pF capacitor and try to move them to the two sides of the battery. or potentials. T\rtor: Slow down. T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. The voltage across the 6 pF capacitor is 6 volts. Tutor: It gets faster with experience. Student: So what can I do? Neither the 2 p. T\rtor: That's not enough. and I slide the bottom one over. Student: . . Student: So the voltage across the 5 pF capacitor is the same as the voltage across the battery. all of the charge from one must go into the other. I slide the top one over. Student: So I can replace the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 pF capacitor with a 10 pF capacitor. The top one slides over to the top of the battery. T\rtor: To be in series. . The 5 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. Student: So the voltage across the 6 pF capacitor isn't 6 volts. Tutor: If you can find two capacitors in series or parallel. and I'm there. . Student: Nor is the 4 pF capacitor in series with the 2 pF capacitor. and it can't do that. T\rtor: Correct. Rather than "voltage on. Student: So if the 5 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. all of which we need to check. You just did three steps.199 The voltage on the 5 pF capacitor is 6 volts. Student: And the 6 pF capacitor isn't in series with the 2 pF capacitor either.
Often two capacitors that are graphically parallel are also electrically parallel. The 6 pF capacitor and the 5 pF capacitor are graphically parallel.1opFt * c*^*CpE. like 116 + 116: IlI2. Student: So I can replace the 4 pF capacitor and the 2 pF capacitor with a single capacitor? T\rtor: Yes. or with the 42 pair. tu rty T\rtor: Be careful that you don't do something silly. I'll check to see if the 4 is in parallel with the 6. T\rtor: Right and wrong. I put one finger on each side of the 4 pF capacitor. but that doesn't mean that the voltage on each capacitor in the trio is 6 volts. Student: The charge that comes out of the bottom of the 6 pF capacitor can go into the top of the 4 pF capacitor. but not necessary. T\rtor: T\rtor: CpCr*Cz C+uzCa*Cz(4pF) +(2 pF) 6/rF Good. How do we add capacitors in parallel? Student: We add the capacitances. The replacement capacitor is not I 13 p. Student: It is.200 CHAPTER Correct. but not electrically parallel.*(urtt GrrFt 1apE. Tutor: Student: I had almost forgotten how much I enjoyed fractions. Student: Oops. T\rtor: So the 6 fE capacitor is in series with the replacement capacitor. so the voltage on each of the three capacitors is 6 volts. but nowhere else. One over the replacement capacitor is I 13 p. Student: So I can replace them with a single capacitor. CAPACITANCE Thtor: T\rtor: Student: Are some of them in parallel? Check. I can move one from the top of the 4 to the bottom of the 6. so the voltage on the trio is 6 volts. 11121 Tntor: . Student: Oh. What does it mean that the trio is in parallel with the battery? Student: They have the same voltage. Student: T\rtor: Tbue. They aren't that hard. Sometimes we call it the equivalent capacitance of the trio of capacitors. Isn't the 5 pF capacitor in the way? T\rtor: It may be between the battery and the trio. How can the 4 pF capacitor and the 2 pF capacitor be in parallel when one is vertical and the other is horizontal? I\rtor: There's a difference between electrically parallel and graphically parallel. but do be careful. but I can't move the other from the bottom of the 4 to the top of the 6. or into the left side of the 2 pF capacitor. 111 Cs Cr C. 25. and try to move them to the two sides of the 6 pF capacitor. Student: Is the replacement capacitor in series with the 6 pF capacitor? Check. T\rtor: Yes. I can move one finger from the top of the 6 to the top of the battery. Student: Okay. Earlier you tried to add capacitors that you thought were in series. and the other from the bottom of the trio to the bottom of the battery.F . T\rtor: No. The trio is in parallel with the battery.cu+ c*r. but not always. Student: I don't need to combine the 5 pF capacitor with the other trio? . T\rtor: Yes. The voltage across the trio is 6 volts. 11111 c*^*. but it doesn't affect whether or not the trio is in parallel with the battery. Student: Now the trio of capacitors is in parallel with the 5 pF capacitor.F So the replacement capacitor is 3 pF. Tlrtor: But you can move them to the two sides of the 2 pF capacitor. so you need to check for electrically parallel.
Why are you asking about the charge? T\rtor:  2 p. Student: How can we be sure that it's 3 and 3? Tbtor: Because the two capacitors (6 and 42 pair) have the same capacitance. are in series or parallel. which is 6 volts. 111113 co*. then I can replace them with a single capacitor. Let's do that in the next example. so each coulomb of charge leaves the battery with 6 joules of energy. capacitor.* Cpair 111 turtt GpF) What is the voltage across the 2 pF pair? The pair is in parallel with the battery. How do we combine capacitors in series? Thtor: When charge comes so they are in series. so they have to have the same voltage across them. so 12 volts. Student: What if the 6 and the 42 pair didn't have the same capacitance? T\rtor: Then they wouldn't have the same voltage. Good. Neither capacitor is in parallel with the battery. So for each charge it's 3 volts plus 3 volts. so the voltage across the capacitors isn't Tbtor: Good.F Student: By adding their reciprocals. Student: I think that they're in series. L2V 6rlt 12 Student: volts.r. How much energy does the coulomb of charge "spend" to get through each capacitor? Student: Does it spend 3 joules and 3 joules? T\rtor: Student: No? T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes. then through the 42 pair (which is also 6 pF).F Student: . it has nowhere to go other than into the 6 pF capacitor. so I'll check that first. Student: But if the capacitors TUtor: Yes. then the three capacitors in the trio each have 3 volts across them. cbcrc.20L One volt is one joule per coulomb. First the charges go through the 6 p.cr+ cu: 1e1. so it has the same voltage as the battery. Student: But EXAMPLE Find the voltage across each capacitor.F capacitor. out of the 3 p. That's 9 volts! Each coulomb of charge goes through first the 6 pF capacitor and then either the 4 pF capacitor or the 2 pF capacitor. T\rtor: What is the charge on the equivalent capacitor? Student: We're trying to find voltage.
When capacitors are in series. The rules for adding capacitors in series and parallel were invented so that the voltages would add up to 12 volts. QCV v.lT:'. : CV.fi ffi ffi"'iffi . but in series they each get the whole charge.202 CHAPTER 25.s it goes through the two capacitors. Positive charges stop on one plate. we can find the voltages. Student: How much of that charge is on each capacitor? Half on each? Ttrtor: Student: So there's 24 p. Student: In the last example. T\rtor: Yes. and it stops. Student: Now that we know the charges on the capacitors. 24 p. they each have all of the charge. coming out of the bottom of the first capacitor and going into the top of the second capacitor. 24 p. Student: But you said a moment ago that the charges can't go through a capacitor. CAPACITANCE Tlrtor: Because that's how we get to voltage. Remember that Q find the voltage.C of charge comes out of the battery and goes into the first capacitor.*r:. so if we know the charge we can : CpaivVpair  (2 pF) (I2 V) : 24 p'C T\rtor: Tntor: Think about what happens to the charge . the 42 pair would have the same charge as the 6? T\rtor: Yes. ::T'r:"TL'.tlllrl: . Student: The charge on the equivalent capacitor is Qp^i.ff :". The 4 and the 2 would not each have the same charge as the 6.#H?'.I C Vs:XVo:XThey need to. There's a gap. Student: So capacitors in parallel share charge. There it stops.C of charge from the bottom of the second capacitor goes into the bottom of the battery.. so the charge can't go any further.C of charge takes it's place.T'lf :lif.'JIT1T""H:JHilt?#. when the 42 pair wa^s in series with the 6. because each coulomb of charge uses up 12 joules a. T\rtor: True. and 24 p. and different positive charges leave the other plate. T\rtor: Student: Look! They add up to 12 volts.C of charge on each capacitor?! Yes. but their combined charge would be the same as the 6.
we use R:+ 203 .1 C/t).se (60" with a zero.sured in amperes (1 A . So far we have simply waited until the charges quit moving and the electric field disappeared. V:iR The difference in voltage (or potential) between the two sides of a resistor is equal to the current through the resistor times the resistance of the resistor. we know any two of the four variables. can find the other two using our two equations. the symbol for ohms is the Greek letter upperca. and P) and two equations. but an electric field causes current density. Of more practical importance is Ohmts law. Current is mea. An electric fteld in conducting material causes current moving charges.if the voltage difference between the two sides of the resistor 6 then each coulomb of charge uses 6 joules of energly getting through the resistor. These two are connected. . Resistance is measured in ohms. is P The units of power used earlier work here (1 v)(1 A) iV 1w  volts times amps equals watts. Not anymore. J+(ne)da:oE! p \ /w A The current density J is the current i divided by the crosssectional area A. w€ have not had moving charges or electric fields in conducting materials. So the power. The more current. An electric field in a conducting material causes a current density ? J'. and the current density is equal to the density n of charges times the charge e of each times the average drift velocity 't)4. we To find the resistance of a wire. =1. V. the faster coulombs of charge go through. i.se omega (1 O . The current appears because the valence electrons drift in the conducting material. Most of the time we care more about the current than the current density. or 6 joules per coulomb. Each charge uses an energy that depends on the change in the potential is volts. To avoid confusing an upperca.1 V/A).Chapter 26 Current and Resistance So far. o is the conductivity of the material.(1 rl$$El"):1 rlrIf We have four variables (n.1 I d. and p is the resistivity of the material (o . the quicker energy is turned into heat in the resistor. Consider also the energy used in the resistor. or rate of energy used in the resistor. .
You'll need to find the current in order to use Ohm's law. which is correct. It to say that V . EXAMPTE A power plant delivers 100 MW of electrical power to the big city at 50 kV. Iknow P.0.83A V:iR (120 V) : (0. Better to be able to use a few formulas many ways. Tutor: Be careful. Student: I could use P .83 A)n 12ov R.iR. EXAMPLE A light bulb uses 100 watts of power when attached to I20 volts. and ^L is the length. Student: resistance. Your first statement said that the potential difference (or voltage) was equal to 120 volts. I could use it to find the PiV 100W:i(120V) Yes. then put that current back into Ohm's law to find the resistance.I Plv Rq4g (100 w) seems strange r44e Student: If Iknowtwoof thefour. Icansolvefortheothertwo. How much power is lost in the wires? .iV.I20V. just so long as it has the same cross section over its whole length. Remember that variables are in italics and units in regular type. but after a while the number become too large. Your second statement said that the potential difference was equal to I20 times the potential difference. invent a new formula for this. but I can't use it to solve for the resistance. so I should be able to find the i_#0. but I don't know the current. T\rtor: Very good. current. Ttrtor: tue. P iv: (t*) u: # of formulas would Tlrtor: We could invent a formula for euery situation.r44e T\rtor: Student: It seems like we could We could. I do have two of them. CURREATT A/VD RESISTAI{CE where p and A are the resistivity of the material and the crosssectional area above. The power travels through wires with a total resistance of 2 O.100Wand V . I can use Ohm's law V . It is not necessary for the wire to be round or cylindrical. which is not correct.204 CHAPTER 26.83 A .120V. What is the resistance of the light bulb? V : IR and P: IV v2 P D_v v 'u. I'm going to have to be careful.
But you could find them.  ?'city : 100 MW 100 50kV x 106 W 50x103V  2000 A P*ir" : iwireT*ir" : i*ir. You would know two of the four and could solve for the power in the wires. I have the power and I want the power. I want the power. but don't give up. T\rtor: It is true that you know only one of the resistance of the big city? four. T\rtor: Is the number of charges passing through the wire equal to the number of charges passing through the big city? Student: You mean.(2000 A)'Q q . T\rtor: So if you found the current through the big city. Student: I could do that. Is the voltage 50 KV? T\rtor: 50 kV is the voltage across the resistance of the big city.icityV. that's what I mean. P"ity . So the currents are the same. Student: So I don't know the voltage across the wires. are the two resistors in series? T\rtor: We'll handle series and parallel resistors in the next chapter. so you could find the other two if you wanted. I suppose I could. then that would be the current through the wires. so what's the problem? T\rtor: The problem is that there are two resistors. and I can't do the Student: problem. What do you know about the T\rtor: Student: The power is 100 MW and the voltage is 50 kV.i'*rr"Rrvire .8 x 106 W . One is the resistance of the wires to the big city. but y€s. so with three of the four this should be In fact. I don't know the current or the resistance.itv 100 MW icity (50 kV) T\rtor: Student: Yes. and Student: I the second is the resistance of the big city. You know two of the four for the big city. Wire City 50 V kv MW i R 2Q ? 1OO P What happens to the charges after they go through the wire? Student: They go through the big city.8 MW . I know only one of the four. Tutor: What do you know about the resistance of the wires? The resistance is 2 Q. The current isn't mentioned. have the power and the voltage and the resistance. (i*iruRwire) .205 easy. Student: They are in series.
the electric company delivers electricity at much higher voltages. then the resistivities are the same. Student: That's better. T\rtor: It is true that we don't have a value. Student: We know that the length afterward is seven times the length beforehand./ r\ 2 Arr27r(. Rz:'. EXAMPTE f If the length of a wire is increased by a factor of 7. We change the diameter so that the resistances are the same. before and afber. CUHREN" AND RESISTANCE About 8 % of the power is lost in the wires. This is one of those "scaling" problems. and the power in the wires is L 149 as much or 98% less only 0. Tlrtor: What is the length of the wire afterward (Lz)? Student: The problem doesn't say. like 350 kV. You want to get the diameter involved. What do you know about the two resistances? They are the same. and divide or substitute equatiorrs. 4pzLz Student: If the wires are made What do you know about the two resistivities? of the same material. and likewise ev R4PL Student: erything So I'll else. RtTutor: o_r!rr. 4prl D dRt:1t'2@ T[tor: The 4 and the zr cancel.r' Student: Excellent. So my electric bill is 8% higher because of energy lost in the wires? Tutor: To avoid this.206 Tlrtor: Student: CHAPTER 26. tu_tu d'. but we do know something about it.) rd2 use R1 for the original resistance. T\rtor: It is. the current is oneseventh as much.27o is lost. What is the appropriate equation? RT\rtor: Student: PL A Almost. Lz:7Lt . d2. The area is . by what factor must we change the diameter of the wire so that the resistance remains unchanged? No numbers. How do you deal with scaling problems? T\rtor: Student: I work out an equation Student: Isn't it just Student: for each case. and R2 for the resistance afterward.. At seven times the voltage. Very good.
Solve for d. solve and get a rnalue'for d2.207 Ilrtor: 4:T So the length cancels. . Lr (7L) with the factor of seven left behind.z rlre:rt d. Student: The question was: by what factor do we need to change the dia. And that's true regardless of the specific values. And we need to multiply it by rt..meter. 1 (7) Fr:@ Ilrtor: Ilrtor: Ilrtor: Student: I still can't d.2 anJrway.
The voltage difference between your fingers is equal to the voltage difference between the ends of . or the voltage across R3. and now we'll do it with resistors. Note that these rules are the reverse of the rules for capacitors. The currents through R2 and R3 do not have to be equal. so ^Rz and R3 are not in series. How do we determine whether two resistors are in series? Consider Rr and R2 above. Like before. Now try moving your fingers. Charges that pass through Rz to point D can go either through Rs to F or through Ra to H. When two devices are connected so that they must have the same current. but only along wires and not across any circuit element. capacitor.Ra above. when two devices are connected so that they must have the same voltage. Two resistors in parallel act the same as a single resistor that has resistance 111 Rp Rr R. resistors can be in series. or battery. we say they are in parallel. or in parallel.Chapter 27 What happens if you have two (or more) resistors in the same circuit? We did this with capacitors.Rs. we say they are in series. If by doing this you can get your fingers to lie at the two ends of Ra. Two resistors in series act the same as a single resistor that has resistance BsRr*Rz Likewise. Flom there the charges can only go to C and through Rz to D. such as a resistor. or neither. Place a finger at each end of R3. and the currents through the two must be equal. Current passes from A through B1 to B. Rt and Rz arc in series because the charges that pass through Rr must then go through Rz. How do we determine whether two resistors (or capacitors) are in parallel? Consider R3 and . then Rs and Rq have the same voltage across them and they are in 208 .
Is the 4 Q resistor in parallel with the battery? Student: Oops. Two things in parallel have the same voltage across them. Student: Student: This looks a lot like the capacitor circuit example from a couple of chapter ago. they are not electrically parallel. Even though both are drawn vertically. or by going through the battery and Rr (also not allowed). and I'm there. EXAMPLE F Find the voltage across each resistor. I slide the top one over. we often do the series and parallel thing many times. Two resistors do not have to be either in series or in parallel. then it has the same potential across it as the battery does. Let's see how much you remember. so that they are geometrically parallel. Rs and Rz are not in parallel. When doing more complicated circuits. The voltage across the 4 Q resistor is 6 volts. If the 4 Q resistor is in parallel with the battery. and I slide the bottom one over. It's important to keep track of what value applies to what circuit element or group of elements. or to any group of resistors. We have found that Rz and Rs are neither in series nor in parallel. A 6 volt battery creates a 6 volt potential difference. Ohm's law (V . T\rtor: How do you know? Student: Because it's in parallel with the 6 volt battery. and you should be able to do this).I R) can be applied to any resistor. T\rtor: Yes. Are . T\rtor: How do you know that the voltage across the battery is 6 volts? Student: Because a battery creates a potential difference. and the techniques involved are very similar. The voltage o.cross the 5 O resistor is 6 volts. Therefore. but it can also be applied to a pair in series.209 parallel (they are. The bottom one has to jump over the 3 C) Tutor: Student: . T\rtor: It is a lot like that example. Likewise Q : CV can be applied to any capacitor. The top one slides over to the top of the battery. How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery.Rs and Rz in parallel? We can move a finger from E to D but we can't get from f' to C. I put one finger on each side of the 4 Q resistor and try to move them to the two sides of the battery. T\rtor: All good." I put one finger on each side of the 5 O resistor and try to move them to the ends of the battery. The 5 CI resistor is in parallel with the battery. or voltage difference. How do you check? Student: I do the "finger test. but it can also be applied to a pair in series. or to any group of capacitors. We could only do this by jumping from one wire to another nearby wire (not allowed). T\rtor: That's not enough.
Student: I believe that the 3 O resistor is in parallel with the 6 O resistor. Sometimes we call it the equivalent resistance of the pair of resistors. so the voltage fioules per coulomb) on the 4 Q resistor is higher. and I can move the other from the bottom of the 3 to the bottom of the 6. Ttrtor: Correct. It takes more joules for charges to get through the 4 Q resistor. This trio of resistors is in parallel with the 5 CI resistor. all of the charge or current from one must go into the other.2r0 resistor or the 6 CI CHAPTER resistor. First the charges go through the 4 Q resistor. and try to move them to the two sides of the 6 Q resistor. so the voltage across the trio is 6 volts. lhtor: Can you find two resistors in either series or parallel? Check to see if the 4 O resistor and the 3 O It can't do that. or with the 36 pair. One volt is one joule per coulomb. They are in parallel electrically. T\rtor: To be in series. I can move one from the top of the 3 to the top of the 6. Student: It is. 3 CI R. What does it mean that the trio is in parallel with the battery? Student: They have the same voltage. Student: Like finding the charge in the trio a couple chapters ago. I can move one finger from the top of the 4 to the top of the battery. then through the 36 pair (which is 2 Q). even if they are not graphically parallel. resistor are in series. R. then I can replace them with a single resistor. and the other from the bottom of the trio to the bottom of the battery. but not necessary. Rsuo . I put one finger on each side of the 3 O resistor. Tutor: Check to be sure. Student: Then I can replace them with a single resistor.2 Q Student: The replacement resistor is in series with the 4 Q resistor.(4 O) + (2 O) : 6 Cl Student: The trio of resistors has an equivalent resistance of 6 Q. T\rtor: So the 4 Q resistor is in series with the replacement resistor. Student: The current that comes out of the bottom of the 4 0 resistor can go into the top of the 3 resistor. so each coulomb of charge leaves the battery with 6 joules of energy. Tutor: If I can find two resistors in series or parallel. How do we'add resistors in parallel? Student: We add the reciprocals of the resistances. So the voltage across the 4 Q resistor isn't 6 volts. Student: Does aII of the current that comes out of the bottom of the 4 Q resistor have to go into the 3 Q resistor. So the 4 Oresistor is not in parallel with the battery.R+ * Rsu6 . Rt*T\rtor: Student: 1111131 R. or into the left side of the 6 CI resistor. That doesn't mean that the voltage on each of the three resistors is 6 volts. + +60  6o _ 2a The replacement resistor is not I12 O. or could some of it go somewhere else? Some of the current could go into the 6 O resistor. 27. Yes. T\rtor: Excellent. T\rtor: Doing well. CIRCUITS T\rtor: Correct.io . Student: So how do I find the voltage across each of the resistors in the trio? T\rtor: You need to find the current through the trio. but the reciprocal. O Rs:Rt*Rz Rt. Vrio: itrioEtrio . The trio is in parallel with the battery. 2 dl. so we can determine the voltage on the trio. but it doesn't affect whether or not the trio is in parallel with the battery. Isn't the 5 O resistor in the way? T\rtor: It may be between the battery and the trio. Student: So the 4 Q resistor and the 3 O resistor aren't in series. 111 ^Rp R. T\rtor: True. but nowhere else.
and then through the 36 pair. The current through the pair is 1 A. and either way the sum of the voltages is 6 volts. then sometimes.2 A. They go through the 4 and the 3. Student: Using Ohm's law. because none of the charges go through all three resistors of the trio.2LT 6V:itrio(6O) itrio  1A One amp of current goes through the trio. The 4 Q resistor has twice the resistance as the 36 pair. In general. no. In more complicated circuits. so it must have twice the voltage. Student: Is there a current through the 5 C. T\rtor: Now you can find the voltage across the 4 Q resistor. We need more powerful tools. What is the voltage across the 3 O resistor? Student: Doesn't the 3 Q resistor get all of the 2 volts? Tbtor: It does. or through the 4 and the 6. that. T\rtor: Student: V+: i+Rq. or 6 joules for each coulomb of charge. There is a current of I. Kirchhoff has two rules for dealing with circuits: . Look at the 4 Q resistor and the 2 Q pair. The current through the 4 Q resistor is 1 A. so that the two numbers add up to 6? Tntor: Student: Isn't there some shortcut? T\rtor: Student: Four and two. resistor? T\rtor: Oh yes. Can you think of two numbers. And it's not a problem that 4+2+2#6. so that the total current from the battery is 2. sometimes you can do and often they aren't even integers. The node rule: The currents into any point or element in the circuit is the same as the current out of that point or element. This is true regardless of the 5 O resistor. now that I know the current through the trio? Tntor: What is the current through the 4 Q resistor? Student: AII of the current that goes through the trio goes through the 4Q resistor first. If the numbers are nice. va(r T\rtor: A)(4Q) :4V What is the current through the 36 pair? Student: All of the current that goes through the trio goes through the 4Q resistor first. Good. T\rtor: Student: So V3 Vo:Vpair:2V. Yes. equivalent resistance is not enough. and then through the 36 pair. When the numbers are nice. The voltage difference across the pair is the same as the voltage across the 3 and the same as the voltage across the 6 CI resistor. and the current through the pair is 1 A. Now you can use Ohm's law to find the voltage across the pair. Student: What do I do. Yes. one twice as big as the other. The are in series. o The loop rule: The sum of the voltage . Student: Ct resistor No. the voltage must add up to 6 volts. Usually the numbers aren't nice.2 A. Also. T\rtor: Correct. so they have the same current. Vpair :'ipairBpair Vpair  (1 A)(2 Q) : 2V T\rtor: The voltage across the pair is 2 volts. changes along any closed path in the circuit is zero. because the voltage across the trio is not affected by the presence of the 5 Q resistor.
T\rtor: Pick a point. This is why in a complex circuit the sum of the resistor voltages is not equal to the battery voltage. T\rtor: The 3 CI resistor is in series with the 6 V battery. The voltage across the resistors depends on the current. when you returned to your starting spot the sum of the changes would be zero. Because the current could go in either direction. the sum of the voltage changes must if you took a mountain hike. It is not important that our choice be correct negative value indicates that the current is opposite to our choice. and go around a loop adding the voltage changes. which is the top end in this circuit. This variable or symbol represents the current through the resistor. A complete loop is one where we start and stop at the same place. Kirchhoff's loop rule says that the energy that each charge has (12 joules for each coulomb if it comes from a 12 volt battery) must be exactly used up by the charge as it goes from the positive to the negative terminal of the battery. First I go through the 6 volt battery. and we don't know the current. The 3 CI resistoris not inserieswitheither the 2Q resistororthe 5 Q resistor. do you go to a higher or a lower potential? . and the change is 6 volts. This is the same idea we have used to say that two devices in series had to have the same current. When we get back to the starting place. Instead the sum of the voltages along the path that any charge takes adds up to be equal to the battery voltage. CIRCUITS Kirchhoff's node rule says that charge cannot collect anywhere. but we don't have a rule for replacing a battery 3 Q resistor left to right could go down through the 2 Q resistor.2L2 CHAPTER 27. we follow complete loops adding up the voltage changes. (This is essentially conservation of energy in elevation. we usually come across resistors.) In the process. Student: Ok y. I'll start at the bottom left corner. It is important that we use our choice consistently. adding all of the changes be zero. and the voltage across the resistor is I R. we choose a direction to be positive current through the resistor. but and a resistor in series. We do what we always do in physics when we want to put a value into an equation and we don't have a valu invent a variable. I don't see anything in series or parallel. T\rtor: So as you move up over the battery. Current that goes through the it could also go right through the 5 O resistor. In practice. Student: So we need to use the advanced tools. T\rtor: T\rtor: Is the change positive or negative? How do Student: I tell? Which end of the battery is at a higher potential? Student: The end with the longer line on the symbol. EXAMPLE What is the current through the 5 O resistor? 3 o b Cl Y T\rtor: Are any of the resistors in series or parallel? Student: Is the 3 0 resistor in series with the 2 O resistor? I'll check.
+6V(30)i3 QQ)i' o T\rtor: Good. you're going to lower potential. so I'll choose downward as positive iz. but only the sign you used to represent the motion of the car. and all I have to do is use the direction I chose consistently. they are not equal. it doesn't matter as long as you use it consistently. so the change in voltage is negative. you go from a lower to a higher potential. Student: I'll do the righthand loop. We're going to have more than one current that we don't know. I'm going downward. so no. Student: Wait a minute. Your choice of axis did not affect the motion of the car. The higher potential is at the top and the lower potential is at the bottom. Student: Okay. Tutor: Yes. need to choose a variable and direction for the current through the 2 Q resistor. so I need to invent a variable. Can you solve this equation to find the current through the 5 CI resistor? Student: That current isn't even in this equation. Here you are choosing an axis. We have two variables and one equatior. First I go through the 2 Q resistor. I'm moving across the resistor from left to right. T\rtor: Good. Student: I'll use i2. T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: So you need a different variable name for the current through the 2 O resistor. you're going to higher potential. with the current. I at the bottom middle. you got to decide whether the car was moving in the positive or negative direction. determined by the circuit configuration. Is the voltage change positive or negative? Student: The current is going left to right. You already chose a variable and direction. solve so we can't Ttrtor: Tutor: it for anything. How do I tell? Ttrtor: Current goes from higher potential to lower potential. But if I choose the current direction wrong then those will be reversed.213 T\rtor: Student: I go to a higher potential. so it is positive. toward lower potential. Student: Okay. so the change in potential is negative. T\rtor: Good. Yes. How can I be the one to decide? I\rtor: True. Now you're back where you started. Draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit. the current is going one way or the other. from higher potential to lower potential. I draw on the circuit. Student: Which way is the current going? Tutor: You get to decide. The current is going left to right. Student: So I add all of the voltage changes and they have to add up to zero. T\rtor: Careful. I choose i to be the current. Student: Now I go through the 3 Q resistor. The current is certainly going one way or the other. If you go with the current. Now do the next circuit element. Okay. So the voltage across the 3 CI resistor is (3 Cr)(is). We already determined that they aren't in series. How about using i3? Student: The three must be for the 3 O resistor. starting . Draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit so that you'll remember what you chose. Student: I go down across the 2 Q resistor. and your choice does not change the actual current but rather the sign you use to represent the current. then they are in series. so we'll need more than one current variable. I don't know the current through the resistor. I need to pick a direction. and if you go against the current. The voltage across the 3 O resistor is equal to the resistance times the current. Is the change positive or negative? Student: I'm not sure. Pick either direction. The voltage across the 2 O resistor is equal to the resistance times the current. Thtor: And then the negative value of i3 will make everything work out right. So you need to do another loop. You get to choose which way to call positive. T\rtor: Is the current through the 2 Q resistor equal to the current through the 3 O resistor? Student: If it is. Is the change in potential positive or negative? Student: The change is to increase the potential. What if I'm wrong? T[rtor: Then the value of i3 will be negative. so the higher potential is at the left and the lower potential is at the right. When a car was moving on the highway.
toward lower potential. The resulting equation would be the of the loops you've already done . so the sum of the voltage changes is zero. back through the 2. Do I need a variable for the current through the battery? No. Student: So that's what you mean about using the direction consistently. Tutor: Correct. I'm going upward. Student: You may be getting the hang of this. Maybe around the outside. You need to do a "node rule" equation. Going around the outside is the same as doing both 3. Tutor: Good. The voltage difference across the battery is the same. so I choose is and left to right is the positive direction. Is i5 what you're trying to find? . current and toward higher potential. it won't help. 2. + (2 Q)i. I don't have a variable 3 Cl b Ct 6V 4V T\rtor: T\rtor: battery. Student: Now I go across the 5 Q resistor. same as if we added the two equations you already have. Now Student: Okry. I could solve them. CIRCUITS T\rtor: No. 5. . 4. I need to do another loop. The voltage difference on the battery is 4 volts. where the connection to the 2 Q resistor comes in. because there are two unknowns in the equation.(5 O)ir . That is your third equation. Tutor: Can you solve the two equations together? Student: Then I have two equations but three different unknowns. That wouldn't help. so again I can't solve yet. You wouldn't have three 'independent equations. you have to use the direction you chose earlier. so the current going into that spot has to equal the current going out of that spot. so the change is positive (2 CI) (iz).6. When you solved them. Look at the spot midway between the 3 O resistor and the 5 O resistor. T\rtor: Student: Now I have three equations and three unknowns. Can you solve this equation to find the voltage across the 5 CI resistor? No.2L4 CHAPTER the direction again? 27. Student: I don't get to choose against the for that yet. T\rtor: Student: How does that work? T\rtor: Student: So i3 in has to equal i2 * is out? ig:'iz*is Correct. I'm back where I started. so the change in voltage is negative. T\rtor: Tempting though that might be. but I can't do another loop. you would cancel stuff until you got to something like 6 : 6. Tutor: Student: T\rtor: Student: But I'd have three equations and three unknowns. Charge can't build up there. I'm going with the current. I'm going toward lower potential. Now I go across the battery. Student: So I need another equation.4 V: o Good. I can solve for i5. regardless of the current through the so the change is negative. I draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit.
EXAMPLE Find the current through each resistor.2Q)i1(5Q)iu 4V:0 Student: It left.26 A That means that the current through the 5 O resistor is really right to T\rtor: Student: I use Ohm's Very good. (6. and then "node rule" equations for each Tutor: Slow down. Vs : isRs . Then you'd get confused over the direction of the current.g . I need the voltage across the 5 O resistor. +6V. J 2 O 3 o l2v 5C)+8V Student: I need "loop rule" equations around of the nodes.(2 Q)i2 u) 6 3 o) ig If )i.(2 Q)i. right? T\rtor: Right. so the right side is at the higher potential. then I can find the voltage.6 V is : 0. It's perfectly okay now. shouldn't I reverse the direction on my drawing? T\rtor: No.c V + 6'l (30 )xi + i. Student: Since the current ended up being negative.26 A)(5 O) .3 V Remember that the negative indicates direction. each of the loops.o + (2 cl)i ( 5(o))iu4v0 2 ?. T\rtor: Student: Thtor: Correct.4V (1 .( 3Iollis (5 O)iu 4 V : +( +(2CI) ( +(5 0) ')  o +2.2 0)is : 1. It might . What is the voltage across the 5 O resistor? law and the current to find the voltage. with positive is being left to right and i5 having a negative value.(3 o)i5 r6 v t)i 6V. But if I know i5.3 volts. came out negative.(:3iQ )it . .215 Student: No.+ 3\ . There is a tendency to use the most recently learned technique for everything.1. So I'd say that the voltage is really 1. (5 CI)iz: o + v( + (5 0)i 21. L3  iz *is z) ?. Which side of the 5 O resistor is at the higher voltage? Student: The current really goes from right to left.(0.
I can replace them with a single resistor of 4 O. Student: It's not in parallel with +12V(2Q)ir8V:o 4v . iz:2 A Tutor: Two down. Why are you so excited about your loop rather than mine? T\rtor: How many variables are in your loop? Student: One for each resistor. Look at the two batteries. That equivalent resistor is in parallel with the 8 volt battery. and the 8 volt battery. f see.: A So if we haven't learned anything new. What about the 2 Q resistor? either the 12 volt battery or the 8 volt battery. Student: So look for series and parallel pieces and simple loops before resorting to lots of loop equations. and the other from the bottom of the resistor to the bottom of the battery. T\rtor: What does that mean? Student: Because they are in parallel. they have to have the same voltage. so two. CIRCUITS not be necessary. The voltage across the 5 0 resistor is 12 volts. The 5 Q resistor isn't in series or parallel with any of the other resistors. is : it==ipair: Voair 8 V :2 AO E.216 CHAPTER 27. why did we do this example? To make the point that you don't have to use your "best" tool for every job. T\rtor: How many variables are in my loop? Student: One for the 2 Q resistor. Student: It is. T\rtor: Exactly. All of the current that goes through the 3 O resistor has to go through the 1 Q resistor it has nowhere else to go. Tbtor: But it is in parallel with the 12 volt battery. Student: So does the 2 Q resistor.4A Rs 5O Ttrtor: T\rtor: One down. I can put one finger on each end of the 5 O resistor and move one from the top of the resistor to the top of the battery. Tutor: Student: . We can solve the equation from your loop but not mine. The current through the 5 Q resistor is 6:+:ry2. two to go.(2 Q)i. Student: But I can't combine all of the resistors using series and parallel. What can you tell me about the 3 O resistor and the 1 O resistor? Student: They are in series. The batteries and the 2 Q resistor form a loop. the 5 Q resistor.
this equation contains both the magnitude and direction information. then that reverses the direction of the magnetic force. for each step we needed a way to find the direction and a formula to find the magnitude. then 217 . the magnitude of the magnetic force is Fn  lqlrB sin @ where d it the angle between the velocity of the moving charge and the magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic force is into the page or out of the page we use the righthand rule. This chapter is about finding the magnetic force created by the magnetic field. B are parallel. The equation for magnetic force is F'u qd  t a' Because it is a vector equation. Note that any magnetic force problem must be threedimensional. Hold your hand so that the fingers point out of the page (as in the figure) keep your fingers pointing out of the page and rotate your hand so that the palm points right curl your fingers from out to right . Moving charges create magnetic field. When lots of charges are moving in a current. and magnetic field creates forces on moving charges. Also. : iLB sin @ Then we need to find the direction of the magnetic force. Is there any direction that is perpendicular to both out of the page and right at the same time? Only up the page and down the page. Instead.where does your thumb point? Up the page. Imagine a proton moving out of the page in a magnetic field that points left to right. 1f u and the angle between them is zero and there is no magnetic force. and electric field creates forces on charges.Chapter 28 Magnetic Fields Charges create electric field. the magnetic force a the wire is Fn where Z is the length of the wire. for each step we need a way to find the direction and a formula to find the magnitude. ' If q is negative. For magnetic field. When we did electric field. The next chapter is about finding the magnetic field created by the moving charges. We don't typically use the vector equation. The magnetic force on a moving charge is always perpendicular to the magnetic field and is always perpendicular to the velocity of the charged particle.
Maguetic field is measured in tesla: 1T1N/Am1Nt/Cm A tesla is a large magRetic of 0.rrow coming at trs (O symbol). There is a 0. but drawing one into or out of the page is less so. so the angle is twethirds of the way from 0o to 90o.04 T)sin60o : 17. MAGNETIC FIELDS Drawing a vector up the page or right is easy. it would be parallel to the velocity. How do I do that? Begin by pointing your fingers in the direction of the velocity. Student: . Student: I have to find the direction too? Tbtor: Student: I need to use the righthand rule.1 T. T magnetic field toward Tlrtor: Student: How are you going to do this? We have a formula to tell us the magnetic force.3 N Thtor: Thtor: What is the direction of the magnetic force? Force is a vector and has direction. while keeping your fingers pointed in that directior. field strong handheld magnet typically produces a magRetic field strength EXAMPLE fA +10 pC charge moves from left to right at a speed of 5 x 106 m/s.04 one o'clock. the speed.218 CHAPTER 28. Oh. like in a 3D movie. Fn : (10 pC)(5 x 106 m/s)(0. and the magnetic field. rotate your hand so that the palm points in the direction of the magnetic field. if the page were a clock. To describe a vector into the page we lne the tailfeathers of the arrosr going asray from us (8 or x symbol). Fa: Tlrtor: Student: It's (10 pC)(5 t 106 m/s)(0. Find the magnetic force on the charge. To describe a vector out of the page we use the dot of the a. Fn : lqlrB sin @ Student: I know the charge. So I point my fingers to the right.01 T to 0. or 60o. Here it's less than 90o. Tlrtor: Now. Tutor: If the magnetic field pointed to three o'clock.04 T)sin/ What is the angle /? the angle between the velocity and the magnetic field. What would the angle be if the magnetic field pointed tonrard twelve o'clock? Student: Then it would be 90o.
our directions are north. So this time I already know the direction of the magnetic force. What direction does your thumb What direction does your thumb point. T\rtor: Student: If points toward me. But nature decides what direction the magnetic force is. right. but what is the direction of the velocity? Student: Oh. T\rtor: It could be a combination. left. could the magnetic Student: How can I decide? force be up? . Student: What if I use my left hand? T\rtor: Then you'll get the opposite answer. up. Student: So the velocity is either north. down. but the magnetic field and the velocity are not perpendicular. s&y southeast. They no longer point to the right. This is the way we teach you Tutor: to do it. Student: But the magnetic field isn't up. into. Is it? Student: Yes. Could the velocity be up? Tutor: Student: T\rtor: If the velocity is up. It is important that you have a systematic approach. We can create both of those. or you'll get the opposite answer. up. south. Yes. until the palm points up. then the force would be the other w&y.2r9 my hand. you have to do the velocity first and then the field. T\rtor: charge. Draw an imaginary line to the right. Ttrtor: Those don't have to be. This is the axis that you rotate your hand around. When we use the compass as our reference.. Up compared to north is not the same as up the page. The direction of the magnetic force has to be perpendicular to both the velocity of the charge and the magnetic field. Student: And if the charge wa^s a negative charge. Find the velocity that an electron would have to have that the magnetic force balances gravity. Student: But if I do both . or down. Now let's check. Student: Student: Is that what the sin r/ does? Yes. so that you can always get the right answer. so they can be in any direction. T\rtor: The rightward component of the magnetic field doesn't create any force. west. There are many ways to determine the correct direction of the magnetic force. What now? Curl your fingers toward the magnetic field. west. B sin / is the component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the velocity of the Tutor: point? Now my palm is up and my fingers point to the right. Ttrtor: That's the direction of the magnetic force. and nature makes the force perpendicular to the velocity and the field. so we care only about the T\rtor: Student: If I rotate upward component. into the page? T\rtor: Correct. EXAMPLE so The Earth's magnetic field is about 50 pT northward. . Also. the fingers move. When we do 3D problems with the page as a reference. The force is upward. Student: Just how far should I curl my fingers? Tutor: Basically 90". south east. it's up and to the right. our directions are up. east. relative to the page? Student: It points out of the page. So I have to decide whether it's into the page or whatever? T\rtor: There is no "page" here. and down. and out of.
so the velocity can't be up. That comes up in a later chapter. so the force on an electron would be down. Student: So if moving charges create magnetic fields that create forces on moving charges. and so on. Magnetic forces are much stronger than gravitational forces. but the westward component of the velocity would be the same. Student: I'll stick with directly westward. but the eastwest component is the same for all of them. MAGNETIC FIELDS No. FB Could the velocity be southward? Then the field and the velocity would be parallel. we sometimes call them antiparallel. it's negative.ili* . Tutor: Student: T\rtor: Guess. Tutor: Now you can find the speed. and the south component wouldn't create any force. and every atom has little electrons moving inside of it. I point my fingers to the east. Steel is also made of atoms with moving electrons. My thumb points up. The force is up. We often ignore gravity if there's a magnetic field around. what was the direction of the acceleration? Student: In toward the middle of the circle. Then the force is perpendicular to the new velocity. I look up the mass of the electron in the inside back cover of the book. I'll guess eastward. so it causes the electron to change direction. T\rtor: tue. but the velocity has to be east or west. Or Student: down.. T\rtor: It could be southwest. the force is perpendicular to the velocity.220 CHAPTER 28. Student: Ohy. how do permanent magnets pick up steel? T\rtor: The magnet is made of atoms. What is the charge on an electron? Student: Oh. EXAMPTE What magnetic field strength is necessary so that an electron moving with a speed of 5 x 105 m/s travels in a circle of radius 1 m? the electron go in a circle? The magnetic force is perpendicular to the velocity. The west component would cause a magnetic force that balances the weight. Student: So there are two answers? T\rtor: There are many answers. Student: Which one is it? Then I curl my fingers toward the magnetic field. Student: Yep. so the force is up. so the weight would still be balanced. Student: But we couldn't ignore it here.. then see if you're right. Student: Ok y. or westward.8 mls2) x1o6m/s speed. ms u. because we were comparing to gravity.*rent verocity. A charged particle in a magnetic field goes in a circle.l:1 l::ll . so the velocity is the other w&y.. The magnetic force would be zero.1 x 1031 ks)(9. Yes. with my palm to the north. T\rtor: When two vectors point in opposite directions. Tutor: No. or northward. student: r courd use some other angre. T\rtor: And therefore perpendicular to the velocity._1'1 Tutor: Student: That's a really small (9. I need an upward magnetic force. T\rtor: The force on a positive charge would be up. T\rtor: Student: Why would . When somethirg was going in a circle. Let's keep it simple and assume that the velocity is either east or west.
There is no force on the top or bottom. and in the same magnetic field. The force on the left side is into the p&ge. and the force on the right side is out of the page. so yes. We can use two that we already have. The magnitude of the magnetic moment of a loop of current is lp]  NiA where a loop of l/ turns of current i has an are a A.muz lr. curl the fingers of your right hand around the loop in the direction of the current. in a magnetic field that points to the right. rotating it clockwise as seen from the top of the page. with the magnetic field perpendicular to the velocity.6 x 101e C)  2. To find the direction of the magnetic moment vector. What is the magnitude of the magnetic The magnetic force is Fn : quB sin /. Not necessarily.8 p. .8 x 106 T  2. whether I Consider the loop of current shown. What is the force on somethirg going in a circle? Student: Looking way back. To find the torque. What if the magnetic field had been out of the page? The magnetic force on each side would be inward.T T\rtor: Does it matter what direction the magnetic field is? Student: The direction of the field will determine which way the charge goes around it's clockwise or counterclockwise. the circle. Let's take Q to be 90o. because these currents are parallel to the magnetic field. these add to a net force of zero. Arything that creates a magnetic field has a magnetic moment. Magnetic moments are vectors. T\rtor: qaB mu2 qB+ Student: I need to find the magnetic E (9. it's F . With the same length and current. Then your right thumb points in the direction of the magnetic moment. start by finding the magnetic moment. toward the center. and there would be no torque.Are these equal? Thtor: The force needed to get the particle to go in a circle is provided by the magnetic force. But they do create a torque on the loop.22L T\rtor: force? Student: Student: So now we need a new formula.1 field strength B. Tna rq x 1031 ks)(5 t 105 m/s) (1 m)(1. B D Magnetic fields do not always create torque on current loops. but it won't affect the size of the circle.
T .222 CHAPTER 28. This equation does not apply close to the current loop. found with the sine of the angle between them. The magnetic field from the compa"ss comes out of the north pole. and aligns with the magnetic field from the Earth. This is how a compass works." or the radius of the current loop.Fa J li U # . but only at large distances.p. or magnetic moment. the field is ELo 2r < t'L z3 where z is the distance from the magnetic moment. MAGNETIC FIELDS The torque on a magnetic moment in a magnetic field is iF^E The magnitude of a "vector cross product" is equal to the magnitude of one vector. The torque from the Earth's magnetic field causes the compass needle to rotate until it lines up with the Earth's field. large means "compared to other distances in the problem. A magnetic field of 0. The needle is a small magnet.24 T points vertically up. which comes out of the Antarctic and toward the Arctic. EXAMPTE A single rectangular loop of wire 14 cm x 20 cm carries a current of 18 A in the direction shown. At what angle / will the loop reach equilibrium? That is. Thus the geographic north pole of the Earth (where Santa's workshop is) is the magnetic south pole of the Earth. at what angle d will the magnetic and gravitational torques cancel? (! . The loop ha^s a ma"ss of 47 grams and is hinged at the upperleft (darker) longer side so that it can rotate up and down.B sin0 The direction of the torque is such that the magnetic moment rotates to align parallel to the external field. As alw&ys. free to rotate. Magnetic moments also create magnetic fields. times the component of the second that is perpendicular to the first. Along the ucis of the current loop.
0 is the angle between the magnetic moment and the magnetic field. but if it's stationary then we can look at it from a torque standpoint. Tutor: Student: It T\rtor: Tutor: Good. doesn't it? Trrtor: That's one way to look at it. Student: The angle / isn't the same angle as 0? Tutor: Tutor: No. the torque from the magnetic field is (0. Student: And that turns it counterclockwise.*)(cos d).24T)sin@ ? Ttrtor: In the equation for torque. When the magnetic moment is vertically up and aligned with the field.223 doesn't seem like torque is the issue here.50 Am')(O. The moment arm is 14 cm x sin d. Ttrtor: F : iLB. What is the direction of the magnetic moment of the loop? Student: I point my righthand fingers around the loop in the direction of the current. The side that is adjacent to o is opposite to 90o .50 Am2 The torque is p. the angle is zero and. Student: Ol*y. Should we be more interested in force? The end where the loop is attached can provide all the vertical force we need. so the equation would give maximum torque. so (0. so it causes the loop to turn. so a newton is an amp meter tesla. and my thumb points up and to the right. Thtor: Correct. p ind tana. and sin(90o . Student: Student: Student: just find the two torques and set t The magnetic moment is tL . Student: Is that always true? Tntor: It's one of the trig identities.88 r. When they are aligned. 0  arctan 1. there is no torque.  (0. in from gravity.I21 N. so that sine over cosine is tangent. Student: If there's no current then the loop falls.a. Now we find the torque from gravity. Student: That's nasty.047 kg)(9. Student: Then the torque is (0. a is one angle and 90o .121 Nm)(cos . and we have the units we expect. So we Yep.8 T\rtor: ^lr2) (0.1a m)( x sin /) Student: Remember Yes.0.121 Nm) (0.a. The torque from the magnetic fiel the magnetic field.0./) The angle 0 . because sin 0o .a) : cos 0.88 : 62o .0 aT kg)(9. is the other.Bsind  (0.14 m)(0.20 m)] : 0. but that upward force is not through the center of mass of the loop.sln cos / (0.90" .14 m)  1.121 Am'T)(cos /). In a right triangle.I{iA r (1)(18 A) [(0. the angle Q in the diagram is 90o.8 ^1"2X0. Yes.
[ P dB (into page) Finding electric fields wasn't this complicated. dBwhere po lto ?. Multiply by the other stuff and you get the tiny amount of magnetic field created by that tiny piece of current. Add up all the tiny magnetic fields (and there's a lot of such tiny pieces) and you get the magnetic field. using the righthand rule. If the distance to the wire is 10 cffi. How long is long? The length of the wire must be much greater than the distance to the wire. or currents. We need a way to determine the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field created by a current. so we take a few common situations to work it out and remember them. Let's try to explain this. We do this with the BiotSavart law (they were Rench.Chapter 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents Moving charg€s. so the t's are silent). The cross product di x r. Doing this calculation is a long (or painful. so we'll only worry about the fields created by currents.0 . The shorter the wire is. The vector r is from the tiny piece of current to the spot where we're finding the magnetic field. &t least at the beginning. and so we have to use calculus to do this.. create magnetic fields. if you prefer) process. 224 .is found just like we did in the last section.ttt 4n 13  4tr x 107 T m/A. A single moving charge creates only a tiny magnetic field. the greater the error in pretending that it is infinitely long. The difference is that each piece of the current is usually a different distance from the spot of interest. a 2 d? :. The magnetic field created by a long straight wire is B*ir" ttoi 2nR where R is the distance from the wire to the point.dsxr . Divide the current up into tiny pieces of length dg. then the wire would need to be a meter or so long.
What is the magnetic field that the long straight Student: The magnetic field from a wire is B*ire : 1tsil2TR. out of the page. as long as you don't use your left hand (. and in the same plane as. but always circle back onto themselves. How do we know whether they go clockwise or counterclockwise? We use another righthand rule. Take your thumb. Alternatively.225 How do we find the direction of the magnetic field? Magnetic field lines never end. The fingers go around the wire in the same direction as the magnetic field. a long straight wire with a current of 8 A.*y to do if your pencil is in your right hand). T\rtor: Okay. What's i? Student: Whoa! This looks complicated. Either method works. They circle around a long straight wire. Find the magnetic force that the long straight wire exerts on the rectangular loop of current. wire creates? . If the wire is coming at you. Another common situation is a circular loop of wire. like you're trying to "hitch" a ride. and point the thumb in the direction of the current. pick a spot on the wire loop and use the righthand rule: thumb in the direction of the current and curl your fingers. EXAMPLE A rectangular loop of current 6 A is beneath. curl your fingers with the current (counterclockwise) and your thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field in the center of the loop (out of the page). 10 12.6 < 6A +4lcm+ T\rtor: It's not. then the magnetic field lines go around the wire counterclockwise. The magnetic field at the center of the loop is Bloop : To get the direction of the magnetic field.
41 m)Btoo sin@ Tntor: Good so far. Tutor: So we need to know the direction of the magnetic field. Student: My fingers go into the page. What is the angle between the current and the magnetic field. What is the force on the top side of the rectangle? Student: The force is 4oo  (6 A)(0. MAGI. the fingers point up the page. or shortest distance to the long straight wire.L ^ po (8 A) 2n(0. remember to do the current first. and the 6 A current is to the right. I point my fingers to the left. Good. T\rtor: What is the force on the bottom? Student: The magnetic field at the bottom is also into the page. Student: and the thumb points up. and then when I bend my fingers at the knuckles. you need to find the magnetic field at the top of the rectangle. and my hand goes toward the point where I want the field. You need to use both. bend them into the FeB€. and the thumb points . so you do use 10 cm and 26 cm. the first righthand rule. T\rtor: What about the sides? Student: For the left side. then the field. then the distances are even greater.226 CHAPTER 29. What do I use? l\rtor: We always use the closest point. Student: So my thumb goes with the current. Take your hand the way you had it.{ETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS wire. To find the force on the top of the rectangle.10 m) po(8 A) 2r(0. and down doesn't go around it. the fingertips point in the direction of the field. If I pick a different point on the long wire. and bend your fingers at the knuckles. The magnetic field goes around the 8 A current. The magnetic field is down. T\rtor: When you go to find the direction of the force. T\rtor: Student: That's the current in the long straight Student: So ltoi. and my fingers go down. bend them into the page. Student: Righthand rule: I point my thumb to the right. Student: Oh. Some of the rectangular loop is 10 cm away and some is 26 cm a\May. Fingers to the right with the current. To find the magnetic force. so the angle d is 90o. so I need to subtract. What's R? Student: That's a good question. D "t'oP 2nR D. The force on the top is up. and bend into the page. T\rtor: That's the direction of the magnetic field. Student: It's Q? Tutor: I don't think you're doing it right. but weaker. Got it.126 m) Tutor: Yes. 8 amperes. and the thumb points down. The field is into the page. . Tutor: Yes. r'bottom troi 2trR . The forces are opposite.
but stronger than gravity. .. T\rtor: To find those individual forces we would need to do an integral.. the two pieces wouldn't be symmetric. so the forces are the same.227 left. If I split it somewhere else. Taking upward a^s positive.. F trioo  Fbottom  (6 A)(0.. Student: That seems like a small so it's a small force. . Student: But the wire is split in two. . force? Tutor: How do the magnitudes of the forces on the sides compare? Student: Well.41 m) (Brop F(6A)(041 F *) (ffiffi) .rsin90o F (6 A)(0. the dividing point is the closest point on the wire. They cancel.4x 10s P force. so we don't need to..(4n x107 r m/AX6 A)(8 A)(041 ^)+(#) F 2. though they change along the length of the sides. .(0*m))  Buotto"') . and we have two magnetic forces that partially cancel. But the field changes along the length of the side. What about the right side? Student: The force on the right side is to the right. the fields are the same for the left and right. Student: What do you mean . T\rtor: Now you can finish adding the forces. How do I find the magnitude of the Tutor: We'll have to do an integral. T\rtor: . EXAMPLE The long wire was a single turn of radius 12 cm.41 m)Btoosing0o  (6 A)(0. Is each piece exactly onehalf of a long straight wire? "exactly" half? Tutor: If I take a long straight wire and cut it into two equal pieces. The currents are the same and the lengths are the same. the magnetic field from the long straight wire and from the loop and add them. but .41 ttt)Bbotto. Ttrtor: Magnetic forces are generally weaker than electric forces Student: . Student: They'll add to zero. Student: Right. What must the current be so that the magnetic field at the center of the loop is 100 p.T into the page? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: I need to find Correct.
MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS Tutor: If the two pieces are symmetric. and symmetric field  half of a long Student: Okay. Tutor: Yes.4nTutor: Student: ? o You have the right idea. for the whole loop. and this is the other way.228 CHAPTER is good? 29. T\rtor: It's more than you'd have in a household  they typically top out at 20 amps. You're simply choosing an axis for the current. Student: And I have threequarters of a loop. . When I bend my fingers at the knuckles. and the fingers bend out of the page. What is the direction of the magnetic field created by the long straight wire? Student: What direction is the current going? The problem doesn't say. Foi B!pot *lFoi *lr2"R 227tR. you have half the field. Student: I pick the left edge of the loop. 1 Foi Foi * rhrR. and is negative. but you're skipping a step. so the field that the loop creates is positive. I can use +ffi to find the field from each of them. clockwise around the loop. hand to the left. How do I do the loop? T\rtor: Pick a spot on the loop. Now I add the two fields. because I want the field to the right of the piece of wire. . The equivalent with magnetic fields is Ampere's law. Student: I see. You've picked the field you want to be positive field. Student: I choose positive current to be in from the left. it is possible to use field lines to envision an electric field.)1\ E_ 4n. any spot.r 44/' circuit Tm lNi lot of current. T\rtor: Or anything in physics where you have a direction. and if you end up with a negative current then the current is really the other way. but go in loops. . My fingers bend into the page. so I have threequarters of the field. I point my thumb to the right with my hand toward the top of the page. Student: To do the upwardgoing current. I point my thumb up. they point out of the page. T\rtor: Each piece of the loop contributes the same magnetic field.1 4nD_3ttoi ttoi ttoi(3 . To find the field from the rightward current. but I don't have a full loop. Magnetic field is a vector . Each of the two halflong wires ends at the closest point along the line. then they each create the same magnetic straight wire. I point my thumb up the page and hold my hand to the right. and find the direction from there. T\rtor: Good. Tutor: Something like that. Magnetic field lines never end. Student: I know that the magnetic field from a full loop is Bloop : ffi. so the field is out of the page.3 ltoi rhrR . If you have half a loop. The figure shows the magnetic field lines a from a current that goes into the page. T\rtor: Now you have to deal with the loop. T\rtor: So pick a direction as positive. it is possible to use field lines to envision magnetic field. When we did electric fields. we had Gauss' law. So I need to find the direction of each piece and add components. The field lines get further apart a^s we move away from the current Just as because the field gets weaker. so they are each lralf of a long straight wire.hrR: 2R \A B 100x106TStudent: That seems like a Gn x 107 w . Student: Like doing circuits. All pieces of the loop create field in the same direction. and up out of the page.
Take the component of the magnetic field ^d ttrut is parallel to your next step ds. This is not the current going along the path. This is because electric field lines start and end at electric charges. This is good to know. we got a total that was related to the charge inside the surface. so the magnetic field flux through any closed surface is always zero. from the righthand rule this magnetic field will be parallel to the path. Magnetic field lines don't start and end. Let's see how this works. start somewhere and go anywhere so long as you end where you started . . As with Gauss' law.229 Wre with ctrrrent into the page When we calculated the electric field flux. at each point find (using f instead is "f / the magnetic field. w€ only do the integral when it's dirt simple. Also. but passing through the surface of which the path is the edge. Ampere's law uses a closed loop. As you travel along this route. When you add up the product for all of the steps. long straight wire with current i. Instead of using a closed surface.and multiply them. We draw an imaginary "Amperian loop" around the wire at a distance r. We want to find the magnetic field created by .a way to say use a closed path). The problem has symmetry if I rotate the problem along the axis of the wire it looks the same the magnetic field is the same everywhere on the imaginary path (if the wire was bent rather than straight then this would not be true). : Pick any closed loop PoLen" that is. Ampere's law says that you get ps times the current enclosed by the loop. but it doesn't help us find the magnetic field strength.
BL .ds: a d.230 CHAPTER 29.B(2nr) d.s . so B(2rr). but we can profitably use it only when there is symmetry in the problem.FoI"n:Foi BLike Gauss' Iaw. fe . This is the length of the path. symmetry BL:f f B + dg:Foi"n Amperets law EXAMPLE An extruded rectangle is curved into a toroid. . the outer radius is 50 cffi. MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS i (o= o) J I a.u f f o.B JI a. ds : f a . The last integral f ds is the sum of the lengths of each step for all steps. Find the magnetic field inside the toroid. A wire is wrapped evenly 140 times around the toroid and carries a current of 7 A. There are fewer geometries where Ampere's law is useful than there are for Gauss' Iaw. Because we've already dealt with the vector part (the magnetic field is parallel to the path) it is the length of the steps and not the displacement of the steps. so f ds .s Ampere's law tells us that this integral is equal to Foi"n". so that the inner radius is 40 cil. .L. Ampere's law is always true. and the height is 15 cm.
What is the direction of the magnetic field inside the toroid? the inside. Student: Can r be less than 40 cm or more than 50 cm? Tutor: Sure.B(tength of path) . Even if we did. the magnetic field has to be the same all around the toroid.B2trr Is r the inside or outside radius of the toroid? Look at how you used it. So if I draw my path through the middle of the inside of the toroid. we'd have L40 fields to add. ds : f f B d. T\rtor: We don't know how to find the field from a loop at a spot off of the axis. Student: So r is the radius of my path. oops. you get to choose r. "Uniform" means that it's the same everywhere. dg . the field is the same everywhere? T\rtor: Use symmetry to explain how. Student: If I rotate the whole toroid. it looks the same. But at the same radius from the center. We need to find a path where the magnetic field is the same everywhere on the path. &s vectors. J 4 e . whatever it is. Student: But we don't know the magnetic field. because the symmetry still holds. Tutor: How much of the magnetic field is parallel to your Amperian path? Student: All of it.s. so the answer has to look the same. is the same everywhere. so the field 'ins'ide the toroid is constant. T\rtor: Student: f f Trrtor: Student: It goes around B'di: Foi"n. Presumably we can use the symmetry and Ampere's law. to find the length of your path.23r How can you do this? We can find the magnetic field from each of the 140 loops and add them.could be different along the inside and outside edges. Student: And B is constant. the same everywhere along the path. T\rtor: Student: .Bd. T\rtor: Careful. no. T\rtor: True. T\rtor: Correct. Student: That sounds familiar. We use symmetry to say that the magnetic field.s . So E . I\rtor: Yes. so it comes out of the integral. Student: So I can use Ampere's law. Student: Like this? T\rtor: Uh. Draw an Amperian loop around the toroid.B t' a' . The magnetic field inside the toroid isn't necessarily uniform it . Ttrtor: Very good. "Constant" means that it doesn't change with time. Student: Ouch.
even inside the toroid. Student: So the only place where there is a field is inside the toroid. Student: So the inside and outside currents cancel?! T\rtor: Student: And if r Tutor: Yes. the current is going the other w&y. then there is no enclosed current. so they count as negative currents. is greater than 50 cffi. On the outside of the toroid. T\rtor: The inside currents are still enclosed. What if 40 cm ( r 150 cm? Student: Then the wire goes through the loop. The magnetic field parallel to your path is zero. Tutor: Yes. Ttrtor: The wire goes through the loop 140 times. Student: Do I count every time that the wire goes through the loop? Student: What is the enclosed current? Student: That T\rtor: T\rtor: Tutor: Yes. Ampere's law has given me 29. because your path becomes longer but the enclosed current stays the same. Student: So the enclosed current is 140 x 7 A.232 CHAPTER Okay. then the enclosed current is 280 x 7 A. MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURREN"S Student: B2trr : Foi"n Ttrtor: If you pick r to be less than 40 cm. And that field is B2nr:Fo(140x7A) B  Po(140)(7 A) 2rr Student: So the field gets weaker a^s I go further out. T\rtor: Student: And the field is zero if r > 50 cm. . We have to use symmetry to argue that the magnetic field perpendicular to your path is also zero. Yes. Yes. means that the magnetic field is zero. Student: So it would be 140 x 7 A. and the enclosed current is 7 A.
where the magnetic field itself doesn't cause a current but a movement in the magnetic field does. They push a current counterclockwise around the loop. the positive charges along the bottom of the loop experience a force to the right. If the loop moves down. as you move the magnet into position near the magnet there will be a current in the coil. and the result is no net current. This is similar to the magnet and coil. 233 . you will find that no matter how strong the magnet there is no current in the coil. However.Chapter 30 Induction and Inductance If you connect a coil of wires to an ammeter (a currentmeasuring device) and place a magnet nearby. BX XX If the loop is entirely in the magnetic field (rather than partly in the magnetic field) then the positive charges at the top of the loop also feel a force to the right. What's happening? XXXXX XXXXX B XXXXX XXXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX Imagine a loop of wire on the edge of a magnetic field. and as you move it away from the coil there will be a current in the coil.
but my doing so will make some physicists cringe. Then the thumb goes around the fingers in the direction of the current (counterclockwise). One way is to point your thumb in the direction that you want the magnetic field through the loop to go (out of the page). the magnetic flux into the page increases. We typically use EMF t (electromotive force) for an electric field like this. The magnetic field flux is effectively a count of the number of magnetic field lines passing through a surface. In which direction would this current be? There are two ways to figure it out using the righthand rules from the magnetic field section. The direction of the induced current is opposite to the change in the magnetic flux. which had a higher voltage than the next.234 CHAPTER 30. the it is). We could say that one point in the loop had a higher voltage than the next. o": Jf B. at each piece find the component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the surface (normal to the surface). Mathematically. there will be an induced current in the direction that causes a magnetic field to pass through the loop out of the page. multiply times the area of the tiny piece. or by tilting the bucket sideways. and may bring to mind Escher's waterfall. and so on until we got back to the original spot. dABA f definition of flux The derivative (d. The minus sign in the equation is a reminder. and add the results for all of the tiny pieces. What is flrur? (If you remember this from Gauss' law then this is a repeat. The loop "wants" to keep the same flux it had (zero. How does this work? Consider our loop on the edge of the magnetic field. I'll use the word voltage. and reserve the word voltage for static EMFs. You could reduce this rate by using a smaller bucket. by going to a place with less rain. This clearly can't be true. The use of the word voltage here is somewhat misleading.) or delta (A) indicates that it is not magnetic field that creates an induced voltage or current. dA which says to divide the surface into tiny pieces. so constant field magnetic field is the same oB . I]VDUCTIOI{ A]VD I]VDUCTA]VCE The voltage induced in a loop by u magnetic field is t dQB Aos dt Lt if the loop is where Qs is the magnetic field flux passing through the loop. created by a changing situation. An induced current is caused by a change in the magnetic flux. The other is to point the fingers in the direction that you want the magnetic field through the loop to go. into the magnetic field. Flux would be the rate at which raindrops enter the bucket. in this case).) Imagine that you are out in the rain holding a bucket. Despite the scary appearance of this integral. everywhere on the surface (or we'll pretend it's not so bad. Initially the flux through the loop is zero since there is no magnetic field where the loop is. then the fingers curl in the direction of the current (counterclockwise). That is. . so it creates magnetic field out of the page.J B . Typically. As we move the loop down. This voltage causes a current closed (complete).
t /z +3 l4 # T\rtor: Constant i What is the direction of the magnetic field that the long straight wire creates where the coil is? Second righthand rule. . and the coil creates field into the page. Happy? . Student: You said that. flux into page. the field also gets weaker. T\rtor: So the coil tries to replace the flux that was there and isn't anymore. Student: It's as easy as that? T\rtor: Field into p&Be. Student: Even though the flux is into the page. put my hand up toward the coil. so that the field through the coil is weaker. so the loop tries to create magnetic field in which direction? Student: Out of the page. T\rtor: Yes. and the total flux stays the same." Student: Ok y.235 EXAMPTE Find the direction of the induced current as the coil is moved in each of the directions shown. Student: So the coil creates magnetic flux into the page? Tutor: Yes. T\rtor: It will be helpful here if you specify a direction. T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: So the magnetic flux is into the page. we create less magnetic flux into the page. so the coil creates flux into the page. We create less flux into the page. and bend my fingers into the page. I point my thumb to the left. What happens to the magnetic flux through the coil? Tutor: You will be. what happens to the magnetic Student: field? T\rtor: Tutor: Student: The field gets weaker. Student: I'm sure that's what I meant. The coil wants to keep the same flux. The effect of moving the coil is to create less magnetic flux into the page. As the coil moves away from the wire. the coil moves to a place where the field is weaker. right? Student: It gets smaller. in what direction must the current in the coil go? Student: That's the second righthand rule again. By that you mean. T\rtor: It is the change in magnetic flux that matters. Student: Ok^y. For the second direction. The magnetic field goes into the page. opposite to the magnetic flux. because it's the change in flux that matters. so there's less flux into the page. If the coil wants to create an induced field into the page. "Less magnetic flux into the page. By moving the coil. replacing the lost flux. to replace the flux that isn't there anymore. The field that the coil creates is called the induced field.
Which way does your goes clockwise. So let's look at onefourth of a rotation. Tutor: If there is no change in the flux. Student: Okay. then the flux is back to what it started at. only the rnagnitude of the is 25 1 (# s) induced voltage. Student: Into the page. so the change is "more flux into the page. since magnetic field lines never end. / IDUCTIOI{ Al{D 0\rDUCTAIVCE T\rtor: Tutor: Tutor: the coil. Very good. So a clockwise current in the coil creates a magnetic field into the page. Student: In the fourth direction. the field doesn't change.rR2 r20V _ )' s) 0. the coil moves to a stronger magnetic field. in a 0.1e6 ') . Student: Ok^y.4 T)A Is it my imagination or are we being sloppy with minus signs here? We are. Now keep them there and move your hand in a circle. Because the magnetic field lines don't go through the coil? Tutor: Correct. The change happens in onefourth of T\rtor: Student: a period.236 CHAPTER 30. Student: The coil creates magnetic field out of the page to opposite the increase in the magnetic flux. c 'At 'J_ nrA(D" nrO .BA T\rtor: We need to include the factor l/. No matter how big the flux is. T\rtor: Correct. Student: Ok y. hand go? Yes.25 . and there is no As the coil rotates onefourth of the way around. the flux drops to zero. Bend your fingers like you usually do. and the thumb follows the hand counterclockwise.4 T magnetic field.4 i(# l)(0." T\rtor: Student: And outside the coil? T\rtor: T\rtor: Excellent. The original flux is BA. and the final flux is zero. each 50 cm in diameter. EXAMPLE A circular coil consists of an unknown number of turns of wire. if it doesn't change then there is no induced current. Student: Fingers out.196 m2 . then point the bent fingers in the direction of the field. A so the area is 7r(0. what is the induced current? Student: There isn't one. ir since each turn induces a voltage and the voltages add. The radius cr. What's 60. The loop needs to rotate at 60 Hz and generate an average voltage of 120 V. so the flux doesn't change. Student: It At least in the middle of The magnetic field circles around. completely around. In the third direction. the period? Student: The frequency is 60 per second. following your thumb. How many turns must there be in the coil? Student: If the coil rotates induced voltage.^r(0. We're not interested in the direction of the induced current. But we care only about the field in the middle of the coil. The field comes out of the page. The period is one over o ('' T\rtor: Student: n(o.
Student: It shouldn't EXAMPLE A small circular loop (8 cm diameter) of 100 turns sits in the plane of and inside a large loop (28 cm diameter) of 100 turns. should it? No.196 m2) :6. T\rtor: Now what's the magnetic flrur through the small loop? Student: It's the magnetic field times the area Trr2 .237 ^Ar  (120 vXiX# s) (0.4 T)(0. Bloop T\rtor:  ltsif 2R ? That's the magnetic field from each turn. What's the magnetic flux Qa? Student: It's the magnetic field times the area. TUtor: What is the magnetic field? Student: We can use the magnetic field from a loop.4 T\rtor: T\rtor: What are the units for l/? have &ry. So I need a factor of 100. Student: So it's the big loop. What is the voltage induced in the inner loop? r/t >D Student: The induced voltage is A ('' L dQn dt T\rtor: Good. The current in the outer loop is 5 A and is increasing at a rate of 180 A/s. divided by a second is a volt. Student: So the units all cancel. A tesla meter squared is flux. and there are 100 of them. T\rtor: Which r? Student: . Is R the big loop or the small loop? Ttrtor: It's the radius of the loop that is creating the magnetic field. We would have to change one of the other parameters so that N came out to be an integer. Shouldn't the number of turns be an integer? I\rtor: It should.
30 cm XXXXX 15 cm B=0.14 m) ) / (180 A/r) (zr(0. We can pull the area outside of the derivative? The area isn't changing.0 4 . i in the outer loop is changing.27 XXXXX XXXX XXXXX XXXXX . T\rtor: Student: Good. then the induced voltage is tBLu ^L is the length at the edge. t(*") A(*. # is how fast the magnetic field is changing.42): 4. The longer the length at the edge. (*')@") a change in magnetic field. where EXAMPLE Plot the induced voltage as a function of time for the single rectangular loop.t) T\rtor: Student: .d9P: 9B.l: ( !!) dt dt \d.. and an induced voltage.IVDUCTION AND INDUCTANCE Uh.T m/A) 2(0. and R are constants. so it is constant. I. a change in magnetic flux. the quicker the flux changes. Student: But we don't know that. and the greater the induced voltage. Use clockwise induced current as corresponding to positive induced voltage.1 x 103 v : 4. Fo. it's the area of the inner loop. t . and the size of the change in current that determines the magnitude of the induced voltage. T\rtor: So put the equation for the field into the equation for the induced voltage.( \ (100)(4?r x 10?.1 mv When the flux changes because of motion. and the faster the motion. We know what the field is. Tutor: Yes.W@") T\rtor: l/ .238 CHAPTER 30. so you can pull them out of the derivative too. s(#) T\rtor: Student: But I can't pull i The current out. so r is the radius of the inner loop. Student: So it's the change in the current that causes an induced voltage in the inner loop. The change in current causes t .
The induced voltage is a constant as it enters the magnetic field. the greater the flux. What is the induced voltage between t . As it exits.36 mV positive or negative? Student: I need to find the direction of the induced Student: t r r Oh. Is the 0.0 there is no flux and the flux isn't changing either. and the 6 cm is in So the induced voltage is ^L. How long does it take for the loop to enter the magnetic field? Student: It from t The further into the field it goes. It doesn't start to change untilt2s.17 s. then there will be an induced voltage. Since it isn't changing. More flux does not correspond to more voltage. Student: Ok y. At t . and the greater the voltage. How would you get an induced voltage that increased as it entered the field? I'd use a triangular loop. for the entire time that the loop is entering the magnetic field. at 3 cm/s. so 2 s until t . t . current.BLu T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: (0. I\rtor: Very good. Tutor: Good.36 mV.L2 s. When moving into the field. there is no induced voltage. T\rtor: The magnitude will be the same. The loop tries to create field out of the page. Student: Okay. so that L increased as it got further into the field. Tutor: It is possible to have an induced voltage without a magnetic flux. As it enters the magnetic field. And which side is L? T\rtor z L is the width where the flux is changing. as the loop travels through the magnetic field? Student: The flux is constant. or negative. If I waited one second.3 s? Student: No. Is the flux increasing more rapidly att . What is the induced voltage as it exits the magnetic field? Student: It will b" just the opposite as when it enters.2 T)(0.06 r")(0. What is that constant? Ttrtor: T\rtor: has to travel 15 cm to fully enter the magnetic field.7 s and exits from t . so the induced current is counterclockwise.6 x 104 V  0. so the loop creates flux into the page to .7 s and t . the result is less flux into the page. It enters Student: Thtor: Student: DolusetBLu? Yes. of a straight line? Student: It would be constant.6 s than att . but check the direction. the area of the loop with magnetic field in it would increase by how much? Student: T\rtor: Student: By3cm/sx6cm. Good. If the flux is zero.12 s until t . the change is more flrur into the page.239 T\rtor: What's the induced voltage when time begins? Student: There's no flux. Student: The 3 cm/s is in u.03 m/s) :3. what is the induced voltage? it takes 5 seconds. so there's no induced voltage. Tntor: So the voltage is 0. the flux will increase at a constant rate until the loop is inside the field. T\rtor: What's the slope of a constant rate. What matters is how fast the flux is changing. I x ( { ( ( ( x t t t t { T\rtor: Yes.36 mV Yes. T\rtor: Yes. but changitrB. against the change in flux.
240 voltage is +0. and to create flux into the page the loop needs a clockwise current. The it exits the field. INDUCTIONAND INDUCTANCE replace the flux that's disappearing.36 mV as CHAPTER 30. +t(s) .
If the circuit is ever to reach a steady state. then at resonance 24r . but it is incorrect to have one for an inductor. and the amplitude of the current of the oscillation is Iwhere tn t. then the voltage across the inductor must be zero.  0. A steadystate situation is one in which none of the currents or voltages are changing. The only possible steady state is zero no voltage. the current through the inductorcapacitor circuit oscillates with a frequency When we studied oscillators. and so does the voltage on the inductor. Consider a circuit with an inductor. and no charge. Instead. This is true of electric oscillators. As the charge changes. The voltage across an inductor is Vt': L# (Some physics sources have a minus sign.Chapter 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current A coil in a circuit is called an inductor. If R w) this becomes infinite. but the resistance of the circuit won't ever be zero. the voltage. the greater the amplitude of the oscillation. because a nonzero voltage indicates that the current is changing.L is measured in henries. the magnetic field chang€s. The closer the two frequencies were to each other.) The inductance . left over from induced voltag€s. rather than the natural frequency. and that induces a voltage.lR (ra  cera is the forcing frequency and t*is the amplitude of the forcing voltage. What if an inductor and a capacitor are placed in the same circuit? If the current is steady. we saw that a forced oscillator would oscillate at the forcing frequency. then that current through the capacitor causes the charge on the capacitor to change. so does current. As the current changes.
Student: Student: How am I supposed to do this? There are no numbers. x 106 rt) = 102 (10.  2tr x 108 sl x 1014 F : o.2 MHz.w2? T\rtor: Careful. Student: So far. But if I don't know one. and are 0. T\rtor: Student: It's t*lR.)(0.ob3 pF C (a.2 MHz)(2rr00 MHz) L ( (2n0. They are merely disguised.3 ."t. 0. The driving frequency crra is the frequency of the next station over. I can't get the other. So h .2 mHz.8 x 105 H . so the left side is unitless.2 MHz)(2rI00 MHr) \ ^ . ir # the Tlrtor: apart. I need e) : h to be 108. given that the circuit has a resistance of 0. and u .u is 0.242 CHAPTER 37. Do I just .6 o) I. mHz is millihertz instead of meg ahertz E \ . L.H Student: Now I can find the capacitance C. the unit for L. (r'or'\ @3w2) . but how do I get wl . r+ ! ('3")':104 R2 \ u4 ) rL' t= xI02 'r'r rv ) Student: Is 100 MHz the natural frequency u or the driving frequency ua? T\rtor: The natural frequency c^r is the frequency of the radio station that you want to hear.8 x 105 H)(2r x 108 tt)'  b. that's right. Student: Okay.2 MHz) x Loz T\rtor: Tntor: A henry.48 p. we haven't made any assumptions The units don't seem right. you need the amplitude to be So the denominator must be 100. So LIR has units of seconds. Student: The difference is 0. and Hz is ll". is equal to O times a second.\r.2rf Student: Oh.2 MHz So make one up? Tlrtor: The frequency / is 108. We're given the resistance R.2n x 108.2 MHz either higher or lower.. that weren't in the problem. n2 E\ / 'W IU I fi{2"0.6 Q. Student: # of that.(raw)(ra+w) = (waw)(2r) x (210. What's the amplitude of the current at resonance? So if wa . FM stations have frequencies of about 100 MHz.26 x 106 sl  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCLLATIOIVS A]VD ALTER]VATING CURRENT EXAMPLE Choose approximate values for ^L and C for an FM radio so that the amplitude of the next station amplitude of the "tuned" station. Tutor: There are other criteria to match. E (r'26 T t\t L) .
or output wire. The magnetic field stores energy and the power out will increase and decrease as the instantaneous current chang€s.tude of the oscillating current. divided by two factors of seconds is an ohm/second. he may take a travel transformer. the magnetic field through each changes. The magnitude of the induced voltage increases if there are more turns in the second wire. We typically call the first wire the "primary" and the second.rl. "Stepdown" Student: Isn't it? .243 How do you get farads out of that? T\rtor: A henry is an ohm times a second. But over a complete cycle. then take the square root and invert is 1 over seconds. Maximum current in the primary and secondary do not occur at the same time. the power in and out are the same. taking energy stored in the magnetic field. How many turns must be on the primary and secondary sides of such a transformer? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: I need to use V"lVp: N"lNo. whether you put a capacitor in or not. the "secondary. When an American traveler goes to Europ€." The voltage out. ve v" At lve Transformers cannot create energy. and in the home for dimmer switches and model trains. but usually we are interested in the maximum current. You would need to control the "stray" capacitance at this level to tune the radio properly.isinc. This is not true at every instant. transformers only work with alternating current. then the power is 104 less and down by 40 dB. Ttrtor: It is a small capacitance. which is a farad . Student: Tbansformers change the voltage in a circuit.. two wires wrapped around the same space. Only one of them has a frequency that matches the circuit's frequency. Because it is the change in the magnetic field that causes a voltage in the other coil.. so the power out is equal to the power in. Student: Yes. but which is the primary and which is the second arv? The higher voltage is the secondary. LC is (ohm second)(second/ohm) ir second2. If the current in one changes. The instantaneous current is i(t) . Imagine two coils wrapped together that is. or secondary voltage. is determined by the ratio of the number of turns. EXAMPLE Electric power in the United States is 120 volts. If the current is 100 times less. Therefore. the output current must be less. Student: Is this how a radio works? l]rtor: It's one way. Student: So the lower voltage is the second ary? T\rtor: "Stepup transformers" are used for longdistance transmission and highvoltage equipment. and all of the signals arrive at your antenna and try to "force" your circuit. That seems like a small capacitance. Student: Okay. All of the radio stations in the area broadcast their signal. but in Europe is 240 volts. and not with direct current.I is not the instantaneous current but the ampli. or current amplitude /. Every circuit has some capacitance. so there is a voltage induced in the other wire. which allows him to use his American devices in Europe. take the inverse to get second/ohm. VoIr:PpP":V"1" Why do we use ^[ here for current instead of i? Because . like T\rtor: No. Always? transformers are used to decrease the voltage for neighborhoods. so all of the others produce much smaller amplitudes. if the output (secondary) voltage is greater.
.. it's not likely to be 2:L. but you know that Np secondary.. T\rtor: And the voltage that the transformer has to work with is 240 volts.s on the So it could be 200:100. So that's the primary. Student: . Student: That's the secondary. .L20 volts. 120V 1 Np Ve 240 \I . that there are twice as many turns on the primary a. T\rtor: Student: ((in" to the transformer. The magnetic field created in the transformer would be so weak that it wouldn't work as well. Student: But it's not important to know how many turns there are? T\rtor: Only the ratio of turns.2N". . That's what it can get out of the wall. or 60:30. AL V.. Student: So which is which? Tbtor: The device is designed to work in America. or 2:I? Well. how many turns are on either side. so it must need a voltage of . Tntor: So the transformer has to output L20 volts. ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCLLATIONS AND ALTERNA"ING CURRENT mosquito zappers. Ttrtor: T\rtor: Student: But I still don't know Student: No. the Yes.244 CHAPTER 31.
i"r. the current causes a magnetic field.dAT fe . The induced voltage is the sum of the electric field around the loop. so every magnetic field line that enters a surface has to leave it somewhere.E) The first equation is Gauss's law.. There is also a magnetic field around the capacitor. dg: Fo. Magnetism of Matter All of electromagnetism is summed up in Maxwell's equations. #rrr) While not one of Maxwell's equations. says that the magnetic flrur coming out of a closed surface is zero. a fifth is often included with the group: Fn(E+6. plus the piece in parentheses called the "displacement current. The sum of the magnetic field around a loop is proportional to the current through the loop.Chapter 32 Maxwell's Equations. just like a current would.. The third equation is Faraday's induced currents. The second equation." When current passes through a capacitor. The flux coming out of a closed surface is proportional to the enclosed charge. even though no real current passes through the capacitor. It also leads to electromagnetic waves. seen in the next chapter. 245 . This is because magnetic field lines never end. charging the capacitor." * ps (. eB:f E. Gauss's law for magnetic fields. This is because electric field lines start at positive charges and end at negative charges. The fourth equation is a modified version of Ampere's law. But the changing electric field between the capacitor plates creates a magnetic field.
but finding an equation for the flux is a step in that process.S EQUATIOIVS. 6 cm in radius and 1 mm apart. Now for inside the capacitor. Is this a closed surface? means no Gauss's law.246 CHAPTER 32. T\rtor: Correct. Do you remember that? Student: I think so. We draw a circle around the wire with a radius of 3 through our point.03 )  26. The magnetic field is the same everywhere on the circle. That . What is the electric field inside the capacitor? Student: There is a constant field between the two plates. MAXWELL. Tutor: Constant means that it doesn't change with time. and 3 cm from the center of the capacitor.po(4 A) (4n x 107 T m/AX4 A) 2r(0. We need the change in the electric flux. so Student: Isn't that the circle passes di: BL: B(2rr). Find the magnetic field magnitude 3 cm from the wire. MAGNETISM OF MATTER EXAMPLE A capacitor is made of two parallel circular disks. We need to find the electric field flux inside the capacitor. Uniform means that the field is the same at all Student: No. rl ti tt i. The enclosed current is 4 A. A current of 4 A passes through the capacitor. Can we use Gauss's law? What is the surface you are using? What is the loop you are using? Student: I'm drawing a circle around the center of the capacitor with a radius of 3 cm. id this just like what we did with Ampere's law? Tutor: Yes. lr' \i Tutor: The surface is the area surrounded by the loop. B(2rr) .7 pT T\rtor: T\rtor: Ttrtor: Student: Student: Excellent.
or: EAQl("R') €g T\rtor: Student: (nrr) ' t ry. This makes the magnetic field even stronger.r. Good. called the displacement current.9( TR2eg eoR2 !r'. Tutor: Student: It's just A magnet in a magnetic fteld tries to rotate is how a compass works with the Earth's field. That's because your loop enclosed onefourth of the area. The flux is OB . but not the area of the capacitor.po(o) * t o(. I don't need to know the charge. So I take the derivative. The atoms remain aligned because they have less energy aligned than when their magnetic fields are random. What's the electric field? Student: Can we use E ./ B(2nr) B . so onefourth of the flux.. onefourth of what we had before. then we would have gotten the same answer. field. The Curie temperature is the point at which a magnetic becomes demagnetized. or : EA . This  so that its magnetic field is parallel to the existing the compass is a small magnet and it rotates so that its field lines up Many atoms and molecules have magnetic moments. What is the area A? Student: The area of my surface. esft2" Student: The change in the charge is the current. . the atoms are free to "rotate" so that their field becomes parallel to the external field. Iron and some alloys of iron are ferromagnetic materials and are used to make permanent magnets. The increasing flux acts like a current. Lr'dQ d^n_ d9r' dto dtesR2 eoR2 dt / f + . We call these materials paramagnetic. *#r) (2nr) . z rr2 is the area of your surface. right? It's n'(3 cm)2. If such a magnet is heated then the energy put into the magnetic can demagnetize the material." * ps f 'rr\ (. where . When the external magnetic field is removed.r.247 points inside the region is a uniform field between the two plates. the atoms align randomly. so that they tend to cancel each other out and they no longer create a net magnetic field. In some materials. with the field going only one T\rtor: Student: I meant there way T\rtor: Very good. ( !^). overcoming the energy from being aligned. T\rtor: Yes. Ferromagnetic materials are similar to paramagnetic. meaning that they act like tiny magnets.[ EdA: EA. .o 1nr2) €g T\rtor Student: o is the charge Q divided by the area rr2.onnB . except that the atoms can remain aligned after the external magnetic field is removed.*? It's a uniform field near a plane of charge.R is 6 cm. only the current. T\rtor: Yes. fil# i r.. Student: Oops. What we really want is the change in the flux. Student: If my loop had enclosed all of the flux.s+Irni. The area of the capacitor is rR2. dg: Foi". Good.
. The atoms are not free to rotate. EXAMPLE A coinshaped piece of iron has a thickness of 1 mm and a diameter of 1 cm. MAXWELL. the magnetic field? The magnetic field from a magnetic moment is E_ttoF= 2r z3 Tutor: This is the field along the axis of the magnetic moment.meter. but the external field changes the orbits of the electrons in the atoms. . How do I find But that's not the magnetic field. How will you find the number of atoms? Student: Well. T\rtor: Good. I find out how many atoms there are and multiply by the magnetic moment.oo3 m)3 0'96 J lL'm2 Shouldn't the units be teslas? We typically measure magnetic field in tesla. What is the maximum magnetic field strength that this magnet can create 3 mm above its surface? kg/*t Student: Each atom acts like a magnet.tesla. I can find the mass of the magnet.6 x 1021)(2 t 1023 JIT) . Diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields. So Student: B_4rxI07Tml 2n T\rtor: Student: A0.0.248 CHAPTER 32. Diamagnetic materials develop a small magnetic field opposite to the external field. Then I divide by the mass of a single atom. T\rtor: I remember teslas by using F : iLB. Student: I multiply by the magnetic .meteris a tesla. MAGNETISM OF MATTER Materials that are neither paramagnetic nor ferromagnetic are diamagnetic.meter.^rX Tutor: Nicely done. Student: Then a newton per amp. with its own magnetization.Nt p"  (6.S EQUATIOIIS. We get a magnetic field of 1 tesla. so a newton is an amp. if I use the density and find the volum€. Iron has a density of 7900 and an iron atom has a magnetic moment of 2 x 1023 J lT. That's the magnetic moment.?'lilry66x1021 moment of each atom. Is this the same as teslas? Student: A joule is a newton meter. so it's newtons per amp. Now # ry tL n(o"i#]i{].rJ JIT T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Oh. rather than attracted.13JlT (o.
E and B arc always in The instantaneous intensity is given by the Poynting vector ji. The solution also gives the speed for the wave. fn we were to create an electric field that varied like sine. and these electromagnetic waves are radio wave. c lM 3x108m/s it is given its own symbol c. B 249 . and the direction of the vector gives the direction of travel of the wave. and electromagnetic waves are no exception. Remember that the intensity of " any wave is proportional to the amplitude squared. The result is a wave equation involving E and B. and a changing magnetic field creates an electric field. and Xrays. To find the average or RMS intensity. The solutions to the wave equation are waves. then the change in the electric field would create a magnetic field. visible light. and so on. Because the speed of light shows up so much in physics. the magnetic field would be changing. Because the rate at which the electric field is changing is changing (it has a second derivative too). I power area cFo Remember that the RMS is maximum divided by t[2. we need a factor of two. We can replac e B with E I from above.Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell's equations show that a changing electric field creates a magnetic field. phase with each other and perpendicular to each other. so it would create an electric field.'l 'ExE lto The magnitude of the Poynting vector is equal to the intensity.
Envs E. Light is polarized when all of the light is oriented the same way.m.4 N/C Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. and the next horizontal.T. we use polarization. Student: The 5To means that the light power is not the same as the electrical power.75 (N. We can polarize light by putting it through a polarizer. then over a sphere of radius 1.05 x 100 W or 5 watts.75 N/C  12.4nr2 . For a typical incandescent light bulb.203 Wfm2  (3 x 108 m/s) (4n x 107 T m/A) E?^":76. which are about 20% efficient. This is clear mathematically from the Poynting vector. What is the light power from the bulb? Student: It's 0.75  8.5 w'T lr'A or V/m. E? rms Er.soNA. Thewaylrememberteslasiswith FiLB. only 5% of the electrical energy is turned into light. Most light that you see is not polarized.N/r' : 8. They ought to be N/C True.and1T 1N/A.4n(1. T\rtor: Over how much area is that power spread? Student: If it radiates uniformly.4 m.'r:8.A2 : 8. One "photon" of light may have its electric field vertical.6 m2 Student: 0. Student: And we want the amplitude.4 rn)2 What's the average intensity? Intensity is power per area.N/s.4 m away.75 W. T\rtor: Or the same amount of light with onefourth the electricity.75@ I\rtor: Student: I'm not sure about the units.75 N/C T\rtor: Student: It worked. Ttrtor: Correct. The rest is turned into heat. Student: So you get four times the light. When we put unpolarized light through a polarizer. half of it comes through: IIurrr' 1"nOlariZed 2 1_ I .  24. You can save on your lighting bills by using compact fluorescent bulbs. The light bulb is 5% efficient.rr" : 8. To describe the direction in which the electric and magnetic field oscillate. ELECTROMAGNB"IC WAVES EXAMPLE A 100 watt light bulb is 1. and the next somewhere in between. E .m.m. What is the amplitude of the electric field oscillation? or the average intensity? power. Tntor: It's the average electrical Student: Is 100 watts the maximum intensity Tutor: A .*). What we have now is the RMS value of the electric field.250 CHAPTER 33.. meaning that the electric field is perpendicular to the direction that the wave travels. The intensity is the power per square meter. because the cross product has to be perpendicular to vectors that are cross products.n  ERu rth  8.
When light reflects from a surface at an angle (not normal incidence). Tutor: How much comes out of the second? Student: The light going into the second one is polarized. Student: Since it is polarized. T\rtor: Student: Iz:. T\rtor: How much light goes into the second polarizer? Student: What comes out of the first one: 350 W l^'. Is this light polarized? Student: Natural sunlight isn't polarized no. EXAMPLE 700 W l^'of sunlight goes through three polarizers. because it has gone through a polarizer. If you try to put horizontal light through a vertical polarizer. The . then cos90o . So the angle d is 25o.25L but the light that does come through is now polarized parallel to the orientation of the polarizer. so no light would get through. How much light comes out of the third polarizer? 40o. and 105o from the common reference axis. When we put polarized light through a polarizer. none gets through. What is the direction of polarization of the light that reaches the second polarizer? Student: It's not 0o. Correct. So the angle Correct. T\rtor: Correct. isn't it? T\rtor: Yes. but they can remove much more than half of glare from reflective surfaces. the fraction that comes through is I Ipor.350 W l^'. to use when it goes through the third polarizer is 65o.rized cos2 d where d is the angle between the polarizer and the polarization of the light. one polarization is reflected better than the other. not the polarizer and the reference axis. one of the polarizations is not reflected at all. Is: T\rtor: Student: I2cosz 25"  (287 W l^') cos2 650 : 51 W l^' Now if the angle was 90o. Student: Is there a way to depolarize light? T\rtor: Sure. the reflected light will be unpolarized. The three polarizers are oriented at angles of 15".I1 cos2 25"  (350 W l^') cos2 25"  287 W l^' T\rtor: Student: Student: And this light is parallel to the second polarizer. At Brewster's angle. half of what went in: (ZOO W l^') .0. Light can also be polarized when it is reflected. If you shine polarized light on a wall or anything that isn't mirrorlike.  I1cos2 40o ? T\rtor: Why 40"? Because that's the angle of the polarizer. 0 is the angle between the light and the polarizer. the amount that comes through is T\rtor: I 12 fpolarized cos2 P Student: Wouldn't that just be 700 W lm2? T\rtor: It would. T\rtor: How much light intensity goes into the first polarizer? How much light comes through the first polarizer? Student: Because the light isn't polarized. This is why polarizirg sunglasses work they remove half of unpolarized sunlight. or light that reflects off of irregular surfaces like trees. They are especially effective at glare from water. so only the other polarization remains. right? It matches the first polarizer.
and now that light has a nonzero component in the direction of the third polarizer. a's shown on the right side of the figure. T\rtor: True. If the angle 02 was to increase. all of the light is reflected. It We characterize the speed of light in a material with the index of refraction of the material n. called total internal reflection. : n is one for vacuum. This can only happen when the refracted (outgoing) angle is larger than the incident (incomitts) angle. material 2 has the smaller angle (measured from the normal).33 1.5 glass I One effect of the change in speed is that the transmitted light is deflected. Student: Strange. Since the light still more. and thus the smaller angle 0. If 02 increased sine of h would have to be more than one. some of the wave is reflected and some is transmitted.252 CHAPTER 33.the can't exit. Note that there would be some light reflected anyw&Y. and the eouation that we use is Snell's law. so it rnust have the larger index of refraction. This is true regardless of the material that the light starts in. some light gets through. Because some gets through the second one. then dr would be unsolvable . . light only goes slower as it goes through material.  Whichever material has the larger n has to have the smaller sin 9. This is true of light as well. This can lead to an interesting situation. then 01 would reach 90o. but when the incident angle is too large. is a general principle of waves that when a wave encounters a change of medium. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES component of the electric field in the vertical direction is zero. Reflected light is always reflected at the same angle as the incident angle. or when the light is going into a material with lower n. in which the wave would go a different speed. it must all be reflected back into material 2. Student: But if you stick another polarlzer in between them.0003 1. Because vacuum Some Indexes of Refraction 1 (exact) I water I air I t. and increases from ther n is the ratio of two speeds. In the figure. ^ n1 sin 91  rl2sin d2 This important thing to remember is that we always measure angles from the normal to the surface. We can this refraction. never the surface itself. it has no units. Our first and last polafizers were 90o apart.
0o.rcsin(1. So I need to use 0t :90o  15o : 75o . does that mean there is total internal reflection? Yes. Tutor: Use the geometry of the triangle. oz:arcsin fry)sin75"\ \ $.048) 1? Tbtor: Student: T\rtor: How do you take the arcsine of a number greater than You don't.57) sin42. . Whatever.80" .38. nr sin0r  Tt2sin02 (1. (1.48. T\rtor: Student: Student: Then The angle isn't measured compared to the normal.57) from air as shown. The bottomright angle of the triangle is 180o . Then the incident angle at the second surface is 90o . Student: So. T\rtor: Very good.T):38'oo Tlrtor: Now you need to do the second surface. Student: The bottomleft angle of the triangle is 90o . it isn't the angle that you need to use.0o.52.0003) sin02 :arcsin (ffi ) o.0o : 52.57) sinflz T\rtor: Student: Even though the index of refraction of air isn't exactly 1.0o : n1 sin 01 oz Student: But what's the angle? n2sin 0z (1.253 EXAMPTE Light enters the glass block (n  1.00 : 42.0003) sin 75"  (1 .0o. w€ often use L anyway.00 : 48. Find the marked angle.
. Visible light is the relatively narrow range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm. There is not a distinct cutoff where a technique stops working it is not true that your eye can see 699 nm but not 70I rffi. Therefore you have to use different techniques to generate and detect infrared waves than you use for ultraviolet waves. (W" use wavelengths for visible light and higher frequency electromagnetic waves.254 CHAPTER 33. but as you go further into the infrared your eye works less well.) The reason for the different names is that electromagnetic waves of different frequencies interact with matter in different ways. and we use 700 because it's about right. for example. ELECTROMAGI{ETIC WAVES We use names for ranges of electromagnetic frequencies. Infrared. is about 1011 Hz to 1015 Hz.
Iocated behind the mirror. but behind it. and pretend that the object of our attention is indeed there. and in doing so left and right would not be switched. 255 . but all of the light that we see from the mirror is the same as if it were there. the same distance from the mirror as the object but on the other side. You could flip it upside down. so to see the text of the book you have to turn it around. The object is not there. One myth that persists about mirrors is that they reverse left and right.Chapter 34 Images When light reflects off of a mirror. Examine the figure below. The mirror reverses front and back. Your reflection is not at the mirror. and vice versa. To view the book in the mirror. This is not true. The location of this image is behind the mirror. you turn the book around you reverse left and right by turning the book. the sticker on the mirror will not be. Imagine that you are reading this book and decide that you want to read its reflection in a mirror. This results in the creation of an image. we locate the image. Instead. because you didn't switch them. the reflected angle is equal to the incident angle. and you find that all of the light that leaves the nose and then reflects off of the mirror appears to come from one spot. Someone looking put at nose in the mirror will really be looking at a spot behind the mirror. in which case you also could see the text. This allows us to deal with mirrors without working out all of the reflected angles. of course. You can try this yourself a sticker or tape a paper onto a mirror and then look at yourself in the mirrorl when your reflection (your image) is in focus.
but there's an easier way. somehow. and lenses have one on each side. Anyone looking at Betty's reflection will see it at the same place. All of the light from Betty appears to come from there. IMAGES EXAMPTE Joanne (at the bottom) wants to take a picture of Betty's reflection. Every curved mirror has a focal point. Tutor: Student: What if the mirror is curved? There is still an image. How far away does Betty (at the top) appear to be from Joanne (what focal length must she use for the camera lens)? 6m / We could draw the path of the light. it's the same as if Betty was there. to not do an extensive calculation. We could. so we'll deal with them together. When parallel beams of light reach the mirror or lens. and then set up similar triangles. Thtor: I felt that way for years. How far is it from Betty's image to Joanne? Student: In a straight line? T\rtor: Student: 7. and it would work.8m o a a a' Is that it? Yes. Once we know where the image is. The same is also true of lenses. Student: It feels like cheating. but the location of the image is different than if the mirror was flat. just as if she was there and the mirror wasn't.256 CHAPTER 34. The equation that tells us where to find the lmag els 11 fp f. Student: Is that 2 m behind the mirror? Tutor: Yes it is. the location of the image. I' 1 111 or j:E+a . But I've learned that it works because images work that way the image. The math is nearly the same for mirrors and lenses. they are deflected so that they all hit the focal point. because I first saw this "solution" in a book of brain f the light behaves as if it comes from teasers. Where is the image of Betty? Student: Doesn't that depend on where Joanne is? T\rtor: No.
r :__ d. i. Each of f . The magnification is the ratio of the size of the image to that of the object where : h'i np Of TTL : ho h. p. Concave mirrors and convex lenses are converging. or converge less rapidly. and there are meanings attached to each. porx m f converging real diverging virtual flipped upside down not flipped horhl A mirror/lens can be either right side up converging or diverging. and n'L) we can find the other two. and h can be positive or negative. or diverge less rapidly. h' .257 / is the focal length. do If we know any two of / . and have positive focal lengths. and i is the distance from the mirror/lens to the image (many books use dr). or distance from the mirror/lens to the focal point. A diverging mirror/lens causes the light beams to diverge more rapidly. A converging mirror/lens causes the light beams to converge more rapidly. p. and have negative focal lengths. lf (a) Ff (c) . Convex mirrors and concave lenses are divergirg. p is the distance from the mirror/lens to the object (many books use do). i) rn) A common stumbling block in dealing with mirrors/lenses is in handling the minus signs.r.
Whatever direction the light goes when it leaves the mirror/lens is the positive direction for measuring the image distance. Rearview mirrors with the warning "objects in mirror are closer than they appear" create smaller images. A positive magnification I\rtor: does not mean that the inrage is upright. What is the radius of the mirror. Student: T\rtor: Good. so the image isn't flipped. The object car is right side up. Key to this is knowing which way is the positive direction for measuring the image distance. it is a real image.r. and is it convex or concave? T\rtor: Student: Is The image is half as big. You can only have a negative object distance. For the magnification to be positive." if you have more than one mirror/lens. If you can't . the height h' needs to be positive. projectors flip the image. right? T\rtor: The object really could be upside down.then it is a virtual image with a negative image distance. That means that the magnification is positive. . You can still see a virtual image looking at the mirror/lens. There is a similar but more difficult equation for lenr. Student: Aren't you being a little picky? If the image isn't flipped. If a mirror has a radius of curvature r ) then the focal length is f +. so it's +I12. so the magnification Tn: I12. meaning a "virtual object. and if it is less than one.258 CHAPTER 34. EXAMPLE The side mirror on a car is designed so that an upright truck 100 m behind the car will appear upright and half as big when viewed in the mirror.the object might be upside down and the image right side up. If the absolute value of the magnification is greater than one. If the you have to be image is where the light doesn't go. IMAGES If you can hold a sheet of paper up where the image should be. The last piece before we start sorne examples is how to make a mirror. then the image is smaller than the object. so that you can see more. Whatever direction the light comes from as it reaches the mirror/lens is the positive direction for measuring the object distance. then the image is larger than the object. but may distort your mental perception if you do not account for the demagnification. and see the image on the piece of paper. it positive I12 or negative I12? The image needs to be upright. so the magnification is positive. A negative magnification corresponds to a flipped image. Virtual image 1 f It l is also possible to have a negative object distance. A negative magnification does not mean an upside down image . seeing the light that comes from it. if the image is where the light goes. Therefore. or right side up. and so is the image. so the slide must be inserted upside down Sometimes the image is flipped . then it's right side up. it is a virtual image. Student: Okay. then it is a real image with a positive image distance. which we won't deal with here.slide so that the image is right side up.
Tutor: Yes. Student: I can find the image distance. To remember that a concave mirror is converging. *100m  i50m What does the negative image distance mean'? The table says that it's a virtual image. : ?. think about where parallel incoming beams of light would go would they converge or diverge? Student: So a divergirg mirror is a convex mirror. then find the focal length. besides. T\rtor: Where is the image? Student: 50 meters from the mirror. Student: Negative focal length means diverging mirror. Yes. would he look behind him to see the image? T\rtor: The image would be 50 m behind the car. T\rtor: Good. f . If he looks backward. A diverging lens is a concave lens. so your statement is true if the object is a real object. so the object distance is 100 m. so it's +100 m. p t '2 Tutor: Student: 1?. We'll Is always creates a Student: do one of those later. it's 100 m. The driver looks forward to see the image of the truck. and then the radius. 111 Ip?' ^t I 1 f *1oom 5om 100m f . there is only one mirror or lens. The image distance is positive. then your statement might not be true. and the truck is behind the car. Now you should be able to solve. the light bounces off of the mirror and doesn't go there. so the object distance p has to be positive. this is how I learned to remember the shapes. would there be an image on the T\rtor: No. then i has to be negative.100 m 1oom T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Is there a connection between the 100 m to the truck and the 100 m focal length? No. TTL AIso. That's why it's a virtual image. so that's the positive direction for the image.. Seriously. T\rtor: But on which side? Which way is the positive direction for measuring the image? Student: The mirror faces the back of the car. The object is the truck. it true that a negative focal length causes a negative image distance so that a diverging mirror virtual image? T\rtor: Not necessarily. 50 m in front of the car. he wouldn't see the light that reflected off of the mirror. T\rtor: Positive or Student: The light comes from behind the car. but the opposite for lenses. If p is positive and / is negative. Student: If the image distance was +50 m. . Correct. Student: How do you remember convex and concave? T\rtor: A concave mirror/lens is one in which the bear can hide. so the image is 50 m toward the front of the car. and the light that bounces off of the mirror goes toward the back of the car. and the truck is 100 m from the mirror. but he couldn't see it. it's coincidence. T\rtor: If there was a screen or piece of paper screen? Student: Student: Oh.259 Student: I need another one. If you have a virtual object. T\rtor: Yes.
11 > z:p The light bounces off of the mirror. Tutor: Student: That EXAMPLE I Find the object distance necessary for a *36cmfocallength lens to form a real image three times as large as the object.2f :2(100 m) : 200 m seems like a big radius. What do you know about the object and image distances? Student: That I can solve for them.p +i3p 1 1. even if the problem didn't come right out and say so. T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: There is only one lens. It's not a lot of curvature. length / is +36 cm and the magnification is 3. The focal values.260 CHAPTER 34. and we increase the radius until the mirror is completely flat. The problem says that the image is real. Now look at the equation for magnification m Student: If p and i are both positive. and that's the point around which the mirror is centered. but sometimes they aren't explicit. Good. The magnification is TTL : ! pp . (+s0 cm) : *48 cm T\rtor: Signs are important. If you wanted a virtual image. the same distance behind the mirror that the object is in front of it. 6pL t r 0 . then m must be negative. p. so it must be positive. then you'd need a negative i.1 3+1 (+SO cm) p ' 3p 3p 4 3p z. Is the magnification positive or negative? Student: It doesn't s&y. and the virtual image is behind the mirror. TTL: 3. so it's a real object with a positive object distance p. and p4 . We can explain a plane mirror using the same equations. T\rtor: Student: Do I need to convert the 36 cm to meters? No. It does help if you have common units for f .*. Tbtor: But you don't know what the magnification is. IMAGES r . Pick a point 2 football fields in front of the car. so you could only determine two possible sets of Tutor: Student: I have to know two of the four. so it's positive. T\rtor: It may not say explicitly. m is T\rtor: Good. but that doesn't mean that the magnification is positive. !plpl' and :?' 1 *I D3. Now you can do the problem. The radius of a plane mirror is infinite the mirror gets flatter as the radius increases.
'lTL1 . so the left is the positive Student: We have two lenses. The virtual image is on the opposite side of the glass that the light goes. Now we do the second lens.4mmhigh object is 15 cm cm concave lens. The focal length is *10 cm. p and 111 Ip?' al I I 11 *10 1 1 cm 1 goes lrr . That's where the light . Again. i . The light comes from the left. so the object distance p is positive 15 cm. but the same side that it comes from. and the same distance away as the object it is at the object.!p +I\*ftr o 2 T\rtor: Tutor: Student: So far so good. Tn: ?. What is the size of the final image? in front of a +10 cm convex lens. Take the lenses one at a time.nt . the first lens. 24 cm behind the convex lens is a 10 direction for measuring the object.  EXAMPTE A 2.26r so the image is the same size and unflipped. We can likewise examine a flat piece of glass. Student: Okay. The object for the second lens is the image created by the first lens. T\rtor: Correct. The focal length of a flat piece of glass is infinite. so the image from the first +30etr lens is 30 cm to the right of the first lens. I have two of the four. The object is on the left.p arrd m: *1.7 32 1 1 i Student: *10 cm *15 cm 30 cm 30 cm i*30cm The light that leaves the first lens to the right of the first lens. so I can solve for the other two. so we might have a negative object distance. Is the object distance for the second lens +39 cm? No.
15 cm to the right of the second lens where the light goes when it leaves the second lens. Student: But the image from the first lens is on the right side of the second lens. IrL2  !.5x the second object. then it becomes the second object. 6 cm? 1 i 1 35 2 cm 6 cm 30 cm 30 cm 10 i*15cm right because that's 1 111 10cm 6cm =i Student: The final image is a real image. but going to a spot 6 cm to the right of the second lens. (2. Ttrtor: Very good. Student: So I multiply. _ 12 mm Student: And the negative height means that it's upside down. . T\rtor: Student: How do I combine the magnifications? 2x the first object. so it's a negative object distance.262 CHAPTER 34.p +r:ffir Aefrr  +2.4 mm) x (2) x (+Z. IMAGES into the second lens appears to come from. Tutor: And the light into the second lens comes from the left. T\rtor: Student: So the object distance for the second lens is Yes.S.5 and the second image The first image is is 2. The light into the second lens doesn't appear to be coming from a spot.
. . We don't care what the two distances are. we have constructive interference. If you have two waves.L 'J\(+*)r where m is an integ€r. or nearly so.Chapter 35 Interference When we looked waves and sound. . but we do care what the difference in the two distances AI is. For light. or half a period in time. + Typically the two light waves start at the same time. identical except that one is half a wavelength behind the other. any integer. If you have two identical waves travelling sidebyside. There are many geometries we can use to create the difference in the two path lengths. we encountered interference. 2. 1. then it looks the same as the first wave and they again add to give a wave twice as large. The general idea is that if one wave is an integer number of waves behind the first. then we have destructive interference. This is like adding 3 and 3.5.[y^ constructive interference destructive interference 263 . then they add to zero.. a. but regardless of geometry.5. they add and you get one wave that's twice the size. this usually involves two beams of light that are parallel. so one is behind the other because it has a greater distance to travel. If two waves are identical except that one is one wavelength behind the other. and the sum is twice the amplitude. If the second wave is a halfinteger (0. Interference takes place when two waves add.5.) behind the first. and the sum is zero.
Student: We saw six fringes..\. the difference is zero. spread out as it goes through the slits. and minima at LL   The difference in the two path lengths for this geometry is LL  dsin 0 where d is the distance or separation between the two slits. LL m). If we get to another maximum. If you move one mirror out by a wavelength. What is the wavelength of the light? T\rtor: In reality.407 um r. Student: Student: Do I just move one of the mirrors or both? Typically one mirror is fixed and we move the other. Maxima (plural of maxirnum) occur when we go further. we use trigonometry: A . so we moved 31.264 CHAPTER 35. Two narrow slits are made in an opaque surface. the pattern shifts by 6 fringes. and the light goes through them. then that path increases by two wavelengths and the other T\rtor: doesn't change. but it does  When the light goes straight through. It may seem strange that the light would see Huygens's principle.lX.1 _ 3) : I. Do I move it a wavelength? The light has to go out and back. So one fringe cor T\rtor: Yes. When one of the mirrors is nroved by 1. difference in the path length changes by one wavelength.Dtan? . the fringes shift by one. We call this a bright fringe or a maximum. and the light is bright. light from one of the slits has to go further than light from the other. If you're using visible light. \ /\ . the light from the two slits goes the same distance. As you go a little ways away from the center. Student: So the question is: What do I have to do to change the path length difference by a wavelength? Student: Shouldn't the waves either cancel or not? The viewer should see bright or dark. When this difference reaches LL .L{H+})r constructive interference destructive interference To find the position A on the screen of the maxima and minima.x 1 3 10ox : 1n llltl One of the most common geometries for interference is Young's doubleslit experiment. the two lights cancel and there is no light.407 pm w l0_t 469 ) Tutor: It's handy to remember the wavelengths of light. Visible light goes from 400 nrn to 700 nm. then you should expect the result to be in that range. When the T\rtor: T\rtor: . one mirror by 6 x . there are fringes due to slight differences in the paths to the telescope. Student: So the difference LL would increase by responds to moving one mirror by X. Movable Yes. 2. So dsino_ L. (m + i)f.407 pm. IIfTERFERE/VCE EXAMPLE A Michelson interferometer is shown below. We call this a dark fringe or a minimum. Student: And it is. so that LL ^.
(m++)) for a minimum.(2+ 1)f.265 D+ T I Path length differen ce L. Yes. between the zeroth and first muima? Student: m has to be an integer. Student: So the first maximum is at TTL :1. how far from the central maximum is the third minimum? T\rtor: What is m for the central maximum? the center. The central maximum is the "zeroth" one. with TrL.0. Student: At L. .\. T\rtor: Good. The central maximum is at LL _ 0 and the first maximum is at AL Student: I use dsin0 .0. so we can use tan? l << d when 0 is small To check whether the angle is small.2.0.(0 + +)^. 0 : 0o . And the second minimum is at LL (1 + *)f. Student: Student:  So the first minimum occurs at m . What's m for the first maximum? Student: The central maximum isn't the first one? T\rtor: No.+ There is a minimum there.0 and LL . T\rtor: Okay. and m . with m . and the second maximum is at m . where ( typically means 100 times EXAMPLE T Light of wavelength 562 nm is incident on two slits with slit spacing 80 plm. What is at So that's what you mean by m ... On a screen 2.3 for the third one. check for either less than. or a K D.L v where D is the distance to the screen. and ine third at AL  .6 m away. Often in doubleslit experiments the d(in radians) = sin 0 x angle 0 is small. What is at m .AL . T\rtor: Yes.L: Tutor: Tntor: ixz Student: . What would you call it the first minimum? Sure. LL .
Tutor: So the angle is small.266 Second CHAPTER 35. d is 80 pm. T\rtor: Student: + *xo aN? :sing nY tan o # *(0. If m .\ is 562 ril.6 m) :0'0457m45'7mm EXAMPLE Light of wavelength 562 nm is incident on two slits with slit spacing 19 Ltm. Student: . _ (19 ry_mXt) : (0.il O rl q . so we round.562 /rm) 33.m. as in ) << d.33.J sl il o Third minimum I Center of pattern.rl .8 T\rtor: ^ Student: Of course.562 pr. T\rtorz rrl does have to be an integer.order Zsothorder maximum maxlmum' / maximum \ t/ .8. 0o Student: Then the angle is dsin0AL(z+*) I Before doing the arcsine. so . is the angle small? How small? T\rtor: Small enough to use sin0 = tan?.562 pm)(2. be a limit? As you go to higher values of m. How high would m have to be so that the angle 0 is 90o? m _ dsing0o dsin0ALm). What would the angle be if we used No. How many interference ma. the angle I fTL :34? Student: It would be more than 90o. nz has to be an integer. . or 0. INTERFERENCE order First. You would need to find an angle such that the sine of the angle is greater than You can't have a sine greater than 1.\ is less than a hundredth of d. you get larger angles. Eventually you get to an angle that you Ttrtor: Student: You mean past 90o? Yes.r{ {J x ut q o . Student: is 90".rima are there in the whole pattern? Tntor: cantt Student: Why should there use. 1.
some of the light is reflected from both the front and the back surfaces of the glass. When a wave reflects off of a surface in which it would go slower than it would in the medium it is in. then what would have been constructive interference becomes destructive. Light reflects normally off of the film. despite the figure.) Because the extra distance occurs in the film. One beam goes 2t further than the other. So you can't use m .34. Remember that a general principle of waves is that when a wave reaches a change of medium.8 wavelengths apart. and vice versa. If a beam of light strikes a piece of glass. \n:: So 2t: AL : constructive interference destructive interference There is one more change in thin films. then nothing changes. where t is the thickness of the glass. so you can't get the 34th interference Tutor: Student: maximum.81. If both waves or neither wave is flipped. using the wavelength in the film.267 T\rtor: Ttrtor: m 0. . some of the wave is transmitted and some is reflected. So if the material that the wave bounces off of has a greater n. But if one is flipped and the other isn't.24. EXAMPLE A thin film of soap is stretched across a coat hanger. (Most glass is too thick and doesn't have a uniform enough thickness we usually observe this with much thinner films. so the greatest path length difference we can get is 33. You can't get a path length difference of 34 wavelengths. we need the extra distance to be equal to an integer number of wavelengths. you need light from one slit to be 12 wavelengths behind the other. the wave is flipped. Student: So we truncate rather than rounding. We get the So the lst through 33rd interference maxima on each side. plus the central maxima for Student: total is 33+1+33:67 Is there some reason? To get the 12th interference maximuil. We will a. Yes. Find all wavelengths of visible light for which the reflection is especially bright. the wave is flipped. The slits here are only 33. The film is 575 nm thick and has an index of refraction of 1 .ssume that the light hits at normal incidence.
The transmitted light isn't flipped as it moves into the second medium. It bounces off of soap. T\rtor: Good. Student: I start with 2tAL+) * constructive interference destructive interference Tutor: Okay. Tutor: No.24)(575 nm) 1426 nm (* + Lr) m0 mI + (*+ : 2852 nm 951 nm *) )) L426 nm 0. 2(1.24. IN?ERFERENCE the formula. Student: Okuy. so a quick drawittg is important.268 CHAPTER 35.24. with n .00. Student: I want brighter light. The thing it bounces off of has a greater n than what it's in. Student: What value do I use for m? Student: All? That could take a while. It bounces off of air. so it is not flipped. Tutor: You need to determine whether the waves flip on reflection. The light is in air. means constructive interference. which T\rtor: All of them. Ttrtor: T[y it. Student: One of the waves is flipped and the other isn't. Student: Is the transmitted light also flipped? Student: Really? it is flipped. with n_ 1.5 1426 nm 1. Student: Okay. so the equations switch.00. but make a quick drawing. with rr:1. so Ttrtor: Very good. At the second surface.I. The thing it bounces off of has a lesser n than what it's in.5 . il* ffi ffi destructive interference constructive interference Tbtor: Good. with n : I. regardless of whether the reflected light is flipped. the light is travelling in soap.
when we move away from the center of the pattern.269 )^ 1426 nm 2. Do you need to keep going? Student: No. Find the diameter of the wire. Yes. and the light that reflects off the top of the bottom piece of glass. The light from the top and bottom of the top surface interfere constructively or destructively. a total of four surfaces. or something in between. Like the twoslit experiment. Only 570 nm and 407 nm are visible light. also interfere.5 1426 nm 4. As m gets even bigger.5 1426 nm 3. and the last one is ultraviolet. when using 632 nm light. The light that reflects off of the bottom of the top piece of glass. of the wire have to do with fringes? The light reflects off of the top and bottom of each piece of glass. T\rtor: Student: What does the diameter Thtor: Student: So the changing interference causes fringes. and it's already too small for visible EXAMPLE Two pieces of glass are placed with a thin wire separating them at one end. There are LL4 bright fringes between the left end and the wire. This interference will change from constructive to destructive to constructive and so on as the thickness of the "air gap" increa^ses. T\rtor: light. the wavelength will get smaller. but whatever it is it doesn't change. . the path length difference increases and we see fringes.5 : : 570 nm 407 nm 317 nm TUtor: Which of these correspond to visible light? Student: The first two are infrared.
270
CHAPTER 35. I]VTBRFERE]VCE
So the first thing
Student:
I do is write down the
( mL
equation. constructive interference destructive interference
2t: L,L:
Student:
Then
t r#*
+)*
I
make a
little drawing.
glar3
Student: The top beam is traveling in glass (n = 1.5) and bounces off of air (n * 1.0), so it is not flipped. The bottom beam is traveling in air and bounces off of glass, so it is flipped. One is flipped and the other is not, so the equations are flipped.
Mdestructive 2t: L,L: [ ** . ( + +)* ffi constructive \ T\rtor:
Student: That
interference interference
Doing well. At the far left end, is it dark or bright? would be the top equation, so it's dark. f'm not sure that makes sense. T\rtor: The second beam goes no extra distance, so there is no change from that. One of the beams is flipped, so the two beams are opposites and add to zero. Student: Now I need to relate the fringes to the thickness f, which is equal to the diameter. T\rtor: The first dark fringe is at TrL  0 and f  0. Where is the first bright fringe? Student: At m equation.
2t:
T\rtor:
Student: What value should I use for n? Student: Air. So I use n t
1.0.
(113 +
ili
What material is there where the extra distance takes place?

*tt13.5)^

*tt13.5)(632 nm) :35866 nm:35.9 pm
Chapter 36
Diffraction
In the previous chapter we examined interference from two sources. It is possible to have interference from
more than two sources.
A diffraction grating (ot interference grating) is a series of slits, so that there is interference from 100 or more sources. If the slits are evenly spaced, then the math is the same as with two slits. If the light from the second slit is one wavelength behind that from the first, then light from the third is one wavelen$h behind that from the second, and so on. The maxima are in the same place, but are narrower because, if you go a little ways off from the maximur, there are more sources and they cancel each other out sooner.
A more interesting question is what to do with a single slit. It may seem that with only one source, there should be no interference. But light from the far edge of the slit has to go a little further than light from the near edge of the slit. To deal with one slit properly, we need to divide it into an infinite number of slits.
When the interference is from different points in the same slit, we call
it diffraction.
Consider the point in the middle of the slit. If the light from here goes half a wavelength further than light from the near edge, then they will cancel. Working across the slit, light from each point in the near half is canceled by light from a point in the far half of the slit. All of the light cancels, and we get a minimum. This occurs at fisin 0  , *here a is the slit width. In general, the diffraction minima occur at
osin0m),
This equation is similar to the one used in twoslit interference, except then more slit) maxima, and here it is for diffraction (one slit) minima.
it
was for interference (two or
27r
272
CHAPTER 36. DIFFRACTIO]V
Totally destmctive interference
Pr
Central axis
Path length difference
Viewing
screen
Incident
wave
C
EXAMPLE
Light of wavelength 570 nm goes through a slit of width 30 pm. What is the width of the central diffraction maximum on a screen 1.5 m away?
What's the "central diffraction maximum?" At the middle of the pattern on the screen, light from all points in the slit travels the same distance, so they all interfere constructively, and the light is the brightest. If you move away from the center to the spot where o sin 0  ), then the light from the bottom half of the slit cancels the light from the top half and
Tutor:
Student:
there is a minimum.
Student: Wait aminute. Insingleslit diffraction,
the minimaoccur at osin0
so shouldn't there be a minimum in the center of the pattern?

rn),.
If m 0 then 0:0,
T\rtor: A good question. In diffraction the minima occur at every integer value of m ercept m  0. There has to be a maximum there because all of the light travels the same distance. Because there is no minimum at m  0, the central maximum is twice as wide as the others. Student: So there is a maximum at 0  0, which is m  0. How do I determine the width of this central
diffraction maximum? T\rtor: The edge of the maximum is where the minima are. Student: So I need to find the minimum corresponding to m
T\rtor:

I?
Yes.
Student: And they are at
a sinfl
:fr^I
T\rtor:
Student:
Yes. There is one on each side, the same distance away from the center. So I can find one and double it. To find the distance on the screen I use
A
 Dtan?
Is the angle small enough to use d(in radians) = sin I x tan?? How do you check? Student: With twoslit interference, w€ compared the wavelength to the slit separation d. T\rtor: So with singleslit diffraction, compare the wavelength to the slit width a. If ,\ ( a, then sin 0 is
T\rtor:
small.
Student:
273
Student:
So the
ratio ),la is
T\rtor: Tfy it both ways and see.
Student: It needs to be 1/100 or less, doesn't it? Student: If I make the approximation, then
A: Da
width
::ffi
tan 0 =sinO

]
57 mm

za
m)  2^D  2(0'57#,')(1t5  0 .xsl rD 
T\rtor:
Student:
What if you don't do the u*lo*rl,,onrtto*' Then I have to use arcsine to find the angle.
sino
e
 la
30pm

arcsin(0.019) :1.0887"
width
 2y:2Dtan 0 
2(1.5 )(0.0190034)

0.0570103
rrl
57.0103 mm
So the difference is that with the approximation, the width is 57.0 mm instead of 57.0103 mm. Correct. 57.0103 mm is the true width of the central diffraction minimum. Student: So I didn't need to be worried that the angle was too big? Tntor: It depends on how much precision you want. The difference between sine and tangent reaches ITo at about 8" or 0.14 radians. If two significant figures is enough, then you need * < 0.I4. To keep the error below 0.I%, you need an angle less than 0.04 radians. Your angle was less than 0.02 radians. Student: So if the slit width is 110.04  25 times as large as the wavelength, then I can use the approximation and my error will be less than 0.I%? Tutor: Yes, using 1/100 is more restrictive than you need to be.
T\rtor:
Student:
Having determined the location of the minima, we now ask what the intensity is at any spot on the screen. For two slits, each of width a and separated by d,, the intensity is given by
r(o)
where
_ro,(ry)'{.",2
B)
affsinl and P!rr^e
I,n is the maximum intensity, found at the center of the pattern (P  0). This may seem mysterious, but is not that bad.
The cos2 B factor is the effect of the interference of the light from the two slits. At the center of the pattern,
p0andcos2p
interference minimum. This happens at
7trd1 ;: 0:^sin0
> ;^ 
dsin?
That is, cos2 p goes to zero at the angle where we know the first interference minimum is. The first interference minimum always occurs when cos2 P T12,, regardless of the wavelength and slit separation, because P uses the ratio of these two. Interference maxima occur wherlever cosz p 1, or at P

274
CHAPTER 36. DIFFRACTION
2,
71 3n
dsin0
dsin0],1,$,f,...
The
T, T'
5n
''
', which is at
minimum. This happens at
(Y)' factor is the effect of diffraction of each of the slits. At the center of the pattern, a (%")' 1(asalimit). Whena  7r, sin a_ 0, sotheintensityis zero) corresponding to the first diffraction
7TATrCL
sind >
^ That is, sin o goes to zero at the angle where we know the first diffraction minimum is. The first diffraction minimum always occurs when sin a  7r ) regardless of the wavelength and slit widths, because a uses the ratio of these two. Diffraction minima occur whenever sin a asin 0 The diffraction maxima are close to a t,+,+,..., but not at exactly these spots. Consider a point in the pattern where cos2 P  1 and sino0. The cos2 p part says that the point is an interference maximum that the light from the two slits is in phase, because light from one slit goes an integer number of wavelengths further than light from the other. The sin a part says that the point is a diffraction minimum for  that each slit the light from part of the slit cancels the light from the other part, so that there is no light from the slit. The light from the two slits would interfere constructively, except that there is no light from either slit. The intensity is I  1,.(0lax1)  0. The a in the denominator causes the pattern to lose intensity as we move away from the center of the pattern. In the first diffraction maximuffi, light from the middle third of the slit cancels light from the top third, and only light from the bottom third remains. In the second diffraction maximuil, light from the second fifth of the slit cancels light from the top fifth, Iight from the fourth fifth cancels light from the third fifth, and only light from the bottom fifth remains. As we continue, each diffraction maximum is less intense than the one
before.
^osin0
^,2^,...
since no light would go through such a narrow slit, becomes zero regardless of the angle, and (Y)'
In the last chapter, we treated the slits as being infinitesimally narrow. This is a practical impossibility, but it works well mathematically. When o  0, then a
all directions. We had to take only interference into account.

1 regardless of the angle. Light diffracts out evenly in
EXAMPLE
Light of wavelength 614 nm goes through two slits with slit width 73 pm and slit separation 214 prr^. What is the intensity of the second interference maximuffi, compared to the intensity at the center of the pattern?
and p. p? T\rtor: There's an easier way. What's Student: Don't I need to know the angle? T\rtor z p is zero at the center and r at the first interference maximun, regardless of d, Student: So 0 2r. T\rtor: Yes. What's a? Student: Presumably you'll say I don't need the angle for that one either. T\rtor: Yes, you don't. What's the ratio of p la? So
Student:
I find the angle 0, then calculate c
I, or 0.
Student:
Most of the stuff cancels.
p_a
ff
t' sind :
sinO
d a
T\rtor:
You can use the ratio to find c.
a]e: P*^Qd_
2.r4r
275
Tlrtor: If you know one of o and p, then you can use the ratio to find the other.
must mean something. does. The ratio dlo tells us what the last interference maximum inside the central diffraction maximum is. The ratio here is 214173  2.93, so the second interference maximum is inside the edge of the central diffraction maximun, but the third interference maximum just misses. This is true regardless of wavelength. If we increased the wavelength, the pattern would get narrower but would keep the same shape and intensity ratios, the whole pattern getting narrower together. Student: Interesting. Now I can calculate the intensity.
Student: That was easy. Does it Student: That
always work like that?
Tntor: It
r(o)
r*(ry)'{.""2p)
*:(ffi)'{."s21zzr;)
T\rtor: Tlrtor:
When you take the sine of o, remember to have your calculator in radians mode.
Student:
Is that important?
Yes. The equation was derived with o and 0 in radians. Student: Does d have to be in radians, if we had found d? T\rtor: It can be in whatever you want, and have your calculator in the correct mode. A hint that a and B are in radians is the zr in the equation for them. (0.3e2)' (r.0)
:
0.154

15.4%
Student: So the second interference mucimum has 15% of the intensity of the central interference maximum, regardless of the wavelength of the light. Ttrtor: Yes. It is determined by the ratio dlo.
EXAMPLE
The figure shows intensity as a function of angle (0" in the center) for a number of slit arrangements. Which figure corresponds to
o a single narrow (a << ^)
slit?
3a)?
o two slits with slit separation three times the slit width (d : o many narrow (o < A) slits?
The first diffraction minimum occurs when light from one side of the slit goes a wavelength further than light from the near side. the diffraction minima move way in.(1)l a Student: If a ( ). Student: So is that the topmiddle graph? T\rtor: Yes. then light spreads way out. we get the topleft figure. T\rtor: Good. Student: And when they're about the same. You can tell that the minima are caused by diffraction rather than interference because each minimum is so much smaller than the previous one. Tutor: That's what you get when you have many slits narrower bright spots. Is it two slits or many slits? Student: How can I tell? T\rtor: Compare the leftmiddle graph with the bottomright graph. If a > topright graph? lfrtor: T\rtor: Yes. Student: The leftmiddle graph looks like interference. Because the slit is less than a wavelength wide. . but the maxima in the bottomright graph are much narrower. Yes. One Student: There's nothing to calculate.276 CHAPTER 36. sin0 .m). Tntor: You might find a little. Tutor: There isn't one. Student: So the leftmiddle is two slits and the bottomright is many slits. then the right side is greater than one. Student: And when the slit is wide. If a { ). DIFFR ACTIO]V J\ ll It tl lt tl tl lt II i) tt /l t! t\ /t t'l /'r of evil bonehead question is this? meant to see if you can distinguish between interference and diffraction. Student: They're similar. where is the first diffraction minimum? Student: The diffraction minima are at Tutor: Student: What kind asin 0 . The central maximum is the same size as the others and they don't get much smaller as we go out. there isn't room for this to happen. When the slit is very narrow. and because the central maximum is twice as wide as the others. We can't solve for the first diffraction minimum.
3 cm long? T\rtor: Student: Why do I want to see his nose? To see if his opponent broke it. but there is no light from either slit due to diffraction. objects that are close together but far from us. The small angle approximation applies. they may appear to be a single object. How wide are the slits? There isn't much diffraction. but still smaller than a wavelength.wherea<. . Rayleigh's criterion for being able to tell the two objects apart is that the center of the second object has to be outside the first diffraction minimum of the first object. Iike the hole. How large a telescope would be needed to distinguish the athlete's nose.4a. There is a third interference maximuil. Student: The middle graph has the second interference maximum missing. and get weaker in intensity as you go further out. and there's no diffraction minimuil.r.\. Excellent. The diffraction minima and maxima are circular in shape. If we look at two 0n: I'224 d. doesn't say. When light travels through a circular hole rather than a slit. and d is the diameter of the hole. Student: Is this the same angle 0 as in the previous equation? Yes. T\rtor: Very good. so d . but the intensity is zero there. and d  3a for the rightmiddle and bottommiddle graphs.Od . T\rtor: Yes. 100 m away. This diffraction minimum depends on the size of the hole through which we view the object. Notice that the third interference maximum in each is missing.277 Ttrtor: Student: Yes. so Student: 0xtan0_ D Y Tutor: Student: where g is the length of the nose and D is the distance to the nose. it again forms a diffraction pattern. EXAMPLE An athlete is at the far end of a sports field. What about the bottomleft Student: The fourth interference maximum is missirg. The slits in the bottomright graph are wider than those in the leftmiddle. Student: Is that because there is a diffraction minimum there? T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What wavelength should I use? The problem Pick one in the visible light range. Okay. The light from one slit travels three wavelengths further than light from the other.22I where 0 is in radians and the small angle approximation applies (d = sin 0 x tan 0) . so they're like the topmiddle graph. The angle to the first diffraction minimum is 0 . So d graph? T\rtor: graph? Yes. Student: Is that the difference between the rightmiddle and the bottommiddle graphs? They look the same but with narrower slits.
Student: Let's see. But what if the binoculars are 7x binoculars? T\rtor: If the limiting factor is diffraction. then y goes down.22xD A !'22(500 "0. then you can see details 12 times smaller.0020 m :2. So I should be able to see the nose. Tbtor: So you should just be able to see that there is a nose. #=01. DIFFNAC"ION Like 500 nm? Tbtor: Student: Sure.03 m t9n m)(100 m) : 0.there are other things that could keep you from seeing the nose. This is assuming that diffraction in the eye is what limits your eyesight . If. If you use 25mm{ia. but not tell the shape of the nose. d goes up.278 CHAPTER 36. T\rtor: Student: .meter binoculars.22) d  r. then it's the ratio of the diameters that matter.0mm That's about the size of the pupil of the human eye. but diffraction limits you to just barely seeing a nose.
If the driver of the car steps on the brakes. If you drive by me at 60 miles per hour. compared to which all measurements are made. Forexample. The issues begin when you need to change from one frame of reference to another. I subtract off the travel time of the signal to determine when the event happened. Note that any frame of reference that moves with a constant velocity compared to an inertial frame of reference is also an inertial frame of reference. If an event happens somewhere in my frame of reference other than in front of me. all of physics works just fine. In particular. One of the points of relativity is that there is no "standittg still" frame of reference. An inertial frame of reference is one in which Newton's laws apply. they measure the world differently. if I shine a laser beam and measure the speed of the light. nor is one right and the other wrong. Both of us are right.Chapter 37 Relativity When two people are moving compared to each other. all of a sudden. Flom your standpoint. I believe that I am standing still and that you are moving. This is not because of the delay in my seeing the events. I get c.by the side of the road . you get the same speed c. As long as you stay in one frame of reference. with a PingPong ball on your hand. Note that we don't say that one is standing still and the other is moving.u. All 279 . and measure the speed of the same light beam. I believe that they are not simultaneous. Noninertial frames of reference typically involve acceleration that causes objects to accelerate without forces. If I see sornething at t0 but 3 x 106 m awayfromffi€. you were just sitting there when. The most immediate result of these two postulates is that two frames moving compared to each other will not agree on whether two events are simultaneous or not. rather than c * u or c . The important thing to remember is that nothing in relativity changes what we've covered so far.0. The second postulate is that the speed of light is the same for all observers.01 s. This is not because one of them is less competent. but the PingPong ball will continue nroving forward.as moving toward the rear of your car at 60 mph.01 seconds for the light of the event to travel to ffi€. If you are moving compared to me. the PingPong ball accelerated forward without any horizontal forces on it. The world is just different to two people who are moving compared to each other. There are two basic postulates that we start with in relativity. holding out your hand. in our own frame of reference. But you see yourself as station&ry. As I move compared to you and look at the same events. I realize that it took 0. you see the car not moving. the car will slow. You believe that two events happened simultaneously. so that the event really occurred at t . The first postulate is that the laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame of reference. What is a noninertial frame of reference? Imagine that you are in a car. and you see me . and these lead to some interesting results.
866 c 26 lt Yt Yes. and everyone else is moving. The person who sees both events (start and end) happen directly in front of them measures the proper time. and t. or the time between two events. From Krank's point of view. as measured by Krank? K 0. it is still true that d ut. How long does Krank's trip take.y Lto EXAMPTE Captain Krank leaves Earth to go to Vapid to visit Smerk while McClay stays behind on Earth. where proper is a name and not a description.r' .280 CHAPTER 37. Many of the most important effects of relativity can be understood in terms of proper time Ato and proper length Ls. u. and will get different values. can me&sure the distance between two points. RELATIVITY observers are considered smart enough to compensate for the travel time of the signals. One frame of reference measures the "proper time" Ato.866c and Vapid is 26 It yr away. T\rtor: Student: If we can use proper time and proper length.u At) t Lt'"y(AtbA") ^l where ? is the Lorentz factor and u is the velocity between the two frames of reference. but this does not explain the effects of relativity. T\rtor: Being on Earth does not mean that he isn't moving." Each person is standing still in their own frame of reference. we use the Lorent z transform. Everyone is correct for their own frame of reference. one frame of reference measures the "proper length" Lo. The person who sees the two ends stationary measures the proper length. Similarly. where proper is a name and not a description. Krank isn't moving and McClay is moving to the left at 0. To convert spacetime coordinates between frames of reference. . These are never the same Person r Lo ll and At : .866c. moving compared to each other. then that will be easiest? Student: . so he is the one measuring proper time and length. and the proper time is not the correct time. Who measures the proper length for Krank's trip? McClay is not moving. both as measured by McCIay. For each. A second result from these two postulates is that two observers. but they have different values of d. Student: How do we tell who is moving and who is standing still? Tntor: There is no "standing still. t L.(A. Captain Krank travels at 0. and the proper length is not the correct length.
0.ct^vf "l  (26 lt yr) l@  13 It yr T\rtor: I\rtor: Student: tick questio Krank isn't Student: Student: Yes. tM. Earth and Vapid are stationary.clavf ^f Student: What is 7 ? zj comes from the difference in speeds between the two frames of reference. It is always a positive number greater than 1. The Good.y ^rrvvral : 26 It yr 26 lt vr  uMcClay 0. T\rtor: Correct. What is the length as measured by Krank? He mea. Gamma is not negative. And what is this "proper length" ? e T\rtor: Student: Student: 26 lt yr. Very good. What is the distance measured by Krank? Student: It isn't 26 lt yr.. . moving according to Krank. so it's the time measured by McCIay. 'r 0. To him. LLoll T\rtor so + trKr"rrk  LM. Ttrtor: Correct.sures a different length. So Student: +d t'a 26 lt yr 0. but not yet. right? Tutor: Right.866 tKrank: dK""k _ t=t]ll' :g uKrank 0.k 1to find the distance : LM. How fast is Krank going according to Krank? Is it just 0.". "Y 11 1 (0. When we square the negative velocity the sign disappears. from relative motion still works. McClay sees the proper length because the endpoints aren't moving in his frame of reference.866c? dl'e: deA. and is Student: Wouldn't that be McClay. you can do that. I get the time measured by Kratrk.866c ltYr. Student: So McCIay measures the proper length for the trip because the planets are not moving in his frame of reference. How fast is Krank going according to McClay? Ttrtor: I\rtor: So I need a minus sign.r Lv r L Thtor: We could also have found the time according to McClay and converted the time into Krank's frame. trK. w€ can use the KrankMcClay according to Krank. Now we calculate how long the trip takes according to Krank..866c  30 yf T\rtor: Tutor: Who measures the proper time? since he measures the proper length? No. Student: Okay.866)2 T\rtor: How far is the trip according to Krank? Student: Since McClay measures the proper length.Cluy : du"cl.866 It yr /yr 3oyr 26 T\rtor: That is the distance measured by McClay and the velocity measured by McClay. There are some times when the sign of the velocity matters. the proper time is measured by the person who is at Earth when Krank leaves Earth.281 T\rtor: Student: But I can use d : ut. right? Fbr each person and each frame of reference. Student: And if I take the distance measured by Krank and the velocity measured by Krank.866c lt yrf yr  1g.
Each frame of reference measures things and gets different results. We use relativity to change measurements from one frame of reference to another. So we have to do the problem in two pieces. At : ".uf c2 in one frame and u' is the velocity  u. the velocity between the twins changes. which one is the correct frame of reference? T\rtor: Neither. Scootie according to Scootie? leaves Earth toward Vapid at 0. CHAPTER 37. EXAMPLE In the previous example. so he is younger when they get back together. RELATIVITY T\rtor: Student: That Correct. we u use where u is the velocity measured 1+ u.. so they will also measure velocities differently. When the twin in the rocket turns around. Student: But if McClay measures proper length and Krank measures proper time. but their measurements are correct for their frame of reference. To transform a velocity from one equation into another. The equations we use in this chapter assume a constant velocity between two frames of reference. How long does Krank's trip take K 0.ut as long as all three are measured in the same frame of reference. When the rocket ship turns around. everything in the rocket ship that is not bolted down picks itself up and flies against the front of the ship.. There is no "correct" frame of reference.866 c 26 lt Yt . Now I've heard of this socalled "twin paradox.f Ato Atu"c Atu"clay uv 11 : I Ltxrank Atx. This never happens to the twin on Earth." where one twin stays on Earth and the other Can't we say that the one in the rocket stays put while the one on Earth goes away and comes back? T\rtor: Good question.+u measured in the other. Student: So I can use d . This moment of noninertial frame of reference is the difference. which is shorter.'k   (30 yr) I Q) : 15 yr Student: goes away and comes back.282 also at Vapid when Krank arrives at Vapid. and in each piece the twin in the rocket ship experiences the proper time.943c. if only from positive to negative. would be Krank. Just as two observers will measure lengths and times differently.
but not necessary. How do I keep u and u' and u straight? Ttrtor: It's possible. Is there some way to go trom Student: Ok y. it is negative in the denominator? Then I find 7 from this velocity. do what you already did.s43\(0. (0. ^l is always more than 1. That's the speed between McClay and Scootie. can find the time. Student: So we need to use the complicated formula. proper time measures the shortest time. Now we need 7 between Krank and Scootie. Student: Like this? velocities.866c0. Whoever measures the . one going 86. and then find the gamma factor 7 between the frame with the proper time and Scootie's frame. the world looks like this.943c. : ^f Lto Ats"ootie : I Ltxrank  (1. so Af . and everyone else measures a longer time.15 yr. T\rtor: Student: T\rtor: I\rtor: Which is? Student: Student: 0.10? 0. shouldn't he see a shorter time? T\rtor'.866c. I got 2. Student: Could we have done the calculation in Scootie's frame of reference? T\rtor: Yes.283 Can we use At 1 Ltg? We can.10)(15 yr)  16.943c 0. just use them in the denominator.866c) (o. you would say that the second was gaining on the first at 7. but Tutor: That is the speed at which it is still in McCIay's 1 + 0. T\rtor: Good. We would find the proper time. According to Scootie. . The equations in relativity are highly nonlinear. Student: Krank measures the proper time. "Y 1  (0. . so any other time is longer than the proper time. Then. In the numerator. Can I subtract? 0. If you sa\M two cars on the highway. Now I At Not really.42)2  1.6 mph and the other chasing it at 94.866A l/  0.5 yr Student: Since Scootie is going faster. Precisely.866c) lc2  ? Tutor: More like this.7 mph. I'd get 3. With 0. Student: So I take the speed between Krank and Scootie .10 Student: Now if I used T\rtor: 2 and 3 to 1. whatever values you used in the numerator.42c T\rtor: Student: Student: So if one of them is negative in the numerator.e43c) 1+ + (0. It is the difference of two frame of reference.943c0.866c (0.077c ? a McClay sees Scootie gaining on Krank.943c and found 7.3 mph.e43c)(0 .
523c? Afs"ootie : AdS"ooti" Uscootie 0.5c. . _ lt yr lyr 16.7 lt yt The question for Scootie is: how fast is Vapid gaining on Krank? Student: So Krank is facing toward the right but moving toward the left? T\rtor: Everyone sees Krank facing toward the right. According to McCluy. Also at n . What is that distance according to Scootie? Student: McClay measures the proper length. according to Scootie. G T\rtor: Student: It's not quite the same.42 c + 8. Ar rruDcoof.284 CHAPTER 37. Scootie is gaining on Krank.0. Which flash does Helen observe first. but Scootie sees Krank moving toward the left in the picture. one red and one blue.le : ruDcoof. RELATIVITY 0.943c  0. that's 26 lt yr.7 lt yr T\rtorr T\rtor: us. but Scootie is gaining on Vapid faster than he is gaining on Krank."ct^yll  (26 lt yr)l(3) : 8. T\rtor: Very good. EXAMPLE Ashley obserttes two flashes.42c Yes. trscootie : Ly. and by how much? f : 0. according to Scootie.6 y.0. both at t .Lt. 0. Because of rounding in intermediate steps.523 g.ootie is the speed Student: Is that uscootie : at which Vapid gains on Krank.r. Helen races by Ashley at .  0.le T\rtor: AdS"ootit uscootie  T\rtor: Student: What is Adscootie? Student: How much distance Vapid must gain on Krank. and 7 between Scootie and McClay is 3. That is.
Her "observation" is that they happened at the same time. Like when we chose the potential of a point charge to be zero at infinity didn't have to. they really happened at the same time. which is different from which one she ttseestt first. Ttrtor: Yes. fr. but if we didn't then the equations would be messier. Now I can find the times according to Helen. Student: Then ta : 0.sured by Ashl"y. ts. not antiparallel. No. she might conclude that the one she "saw" first really happened second. So u is positive. frR. and then the blue one 1 ps later. Tlrtor: Take Ashley as the "unprimed" frame. Does that mean u' is negative? T\rtor: It does. For both of them . T\rtor: Correct.285 H ele Ashley l*100 m 3oom# Blue Ashley does not see the light of the flashes at the same time. both people must have there raxes parallel. a At) I At'"y(AthA*) T\rtor: Student: Does it have to be that way? t. Is u positive or negative? T\rtor: According to Ashl"y. Take Helen as the "primed" frame. is Helen moving in the positive or negative direction? Student: Positive. I Ar'. To use the Lorentz transform. so that t. Student: u is the velocity of Helen as measured by Ashley. Student: And we want to know which one Helen "observes" first. measured by Ashley because it is unprimed. because the blue light had to travel further. once she corrects for the travel time of the signal. I\rtor: They might be the same. But she concludes that. andu' are measured by Helen. andt'e is the time of the red flash as measured by Helen. x'.:r(r3") 11 1. and fs is the time of the red flash as measured by Ashley. and u are mea. We do know fn.155 .y(A. She sees the red one first. Student: Does that mean that we need to use the Lorentz transform? Yes. Student: We don't know that. fr7. so that t'. So neither of them measures the proper time. but not doing so would lead to messier equations. t : tt fi : r' :0 at the moment that the one passes the other. after she subtracts off the travel time of the signals. Student: So which of Helen and Ashley mea"sures the proper time? T\rtor: Which one is at the red light when it goes off and at the blue light when it goes off? T\rtor: Student: What do we mean by "observes?" T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Neither. and u. Student: Ok"y. but y€s.
I92pts t'B :. The total energy is E_ ^ymc2 The difference between the total energy and the rest energy is the kinetic energy K. RELATIVITY t'R: t (t" 3"") t'n Y 2(3 (+1oom)) rll (. that one couldn't have caused the other.bc)(0)) . This is the rest energy. so that Helen concludes that the blue one could not have caused the red one.92x107s0.770ps) .286 CHAPTER 37.mc2." T\rtor: An interesting point. If the red flash happened after the blue one in Ashley's frame. Here E is the total energy.346 m d . then there is no frame in which the red one happened first.. it can't cause the other in any inertial frame of reference. = 1 and we get the same equation for momentum One of the most well known equations from relativity is E .155)(+aoo m) 2(3 x 108 /s) Helen "observes" both of the flashes before she passes Ashley. (+1oo 1 ) x 108 /r) I. In Ashley's frame of reference. Tutor: It happens Student: And because (1.1bb) (tsoo m) . Note that 8. Often nuclear physicists will describe particles with their kinetic energy. or vice versa. For a third person that Ashley sees going in the opposite direction as Helen.(0 . pc.ct (3 * 108 /s) (f. and mc2 all have units of energy.0.. E1mc2:mc2+K For slow speeds .(0. The momentum is pi . Another useful equation involving energy is x E2: @")r+(*"r). K lmu2. I Energy and momentum also have relativistic values. it will be greater than the time difference between the flashes in Helen's frame times the speed of light? T\rtor: Yes. a 100 keV electron is one with a kinetic energy of 100. Student: Let's check. Therefore two observers can observe different orders for the events. there would not be time for the red flash to "cause" the blue one. which the blue time is more negative. that we have always had.r' (1. They happened at the same time in Ashley's frame of reference. because one can't cause the other in Ashley's frame of reference.. long enough after (> 1 ps) that the blue one could have caused the red one.a ar)  Student: So she concludes Helen sees the flashes 346 m apart.rs2r')) . it happens first.000 electron volts. . . For example.lmd "y For objects moving much slower than the speed of light. first in Helen's frame of reference. Student: So one observer might say that "the bomb went off before the fuse was lit. the energy that something has even when it isn't moving. The second one already happened before the light or signal from the first one arrived.173 m I l L. Student: So if I find the distance between the flashes in Helen's frame. but in the time between them light could only travel 173 m.^t(A" . that person would observe the red flash first. It is possible to show that. (r" 3 "")  (1 lbb) Y(+aoo*)) : T\rtor: The negative times me isatt:0.
This is called the photoelectric effect. The characteristic behavior of particles is that they can't be arbitrarily divided. It is possible in these next few chapters to do the calculations in joules. In particular. and then found something that showed this behavior. such as electron volts ("V) and 287 . Given sufficient enersy.eventually get to one baseball and I can't go any further. When light interacts with matter like atoms. Therefore light sometimes acts like particles and electrons sornetirnes act like waves. what kind of behavior is a characteristic behavior of particles? If we could identify such a behavior.hf :X where h amount of energy that can be taken from light has to be an integer multiple of the photon energy. So if a single photon has enough energy. then an electron can escape from the metal. showing interference. Consider what happens when light hits a metal. then the electrons can't escape at all. I can always reduce the amplitude. is typically a few electron volts. it behaves like a wave. But an atom can absorb only one photon. If I want to reduce the power of a wave. In this way light is indivisible and behaves like a stream of particles. If the photons do not have enough energy. or E.Chapter 38 Photons and Matter Waves In the last few chapters. It is easier to use units of about the right size. When does light behave like a wave and when does it behave like particles? In general. You can't take half of a photon's worth of energy from a beam of light. Interference and diffraction are wave behaviors. > O. but it took Einstein to explain it using photons. I cannot continue to reduce baseballs I . electrons can escape from the atoms in the metal. an atom can absorb only one photon and therefore only the energy of one photon. meters. showing indivisibility. Now we ask the question. we have examined how light acts like a wave. we would know that this something was a particle. Light behaves like little particles called photons. called the work energy O. and small particles like electrons show interference behavior. and the other units that you've become familiar with. More intense light is more photons. it behaves like particles. The energy in each photon is E. Any excess energy that the photon has above the work function shows up as kinetic energy of the electron after it escapes. no matter how intense the light. and anything that demonstrates interference and diffraction is acting like a wave. but not greater energy photons. The energy needed. People knew about the photoelectric effect. The stunning observation is that light shows this indivisibility feature. when light interacts with light.
54 eV. When a hardertoremove electron is ejected.2.64 eV.470 nm strikes a metal.16 eV .16 eV is left over and goes into kinetic energy of the electron.eV 511 keV . In particular. because the work energy does not change. PHOTOIfS A]VD MATTER WAVES nanometers. Student: So 2. and substitute the value in the right column. Student: And I use hcl ).02 eV .0. that would help. Ttrtor: It Student: I see. If the kinetic energy is 0.10e m. What is the stopping voltage and the speed of the ejected electrons when 410 nm light is used? Tutor: Student: I need to know the energy Yes. Remember that 1eV . T\rtor: Yes.2.000 eV 938 MeV . And after the atom absorbs the energy from the photon.44 nm. So 3. Student: But the work function is still the same. look for the item in the left column.eV mp ffipc2 p U pc ulc ke2 k momentum in energy units velocity parameter 1. The work function is the energy needed to remove the easiest electrons. of the photons. So the stopping voltage is the kinetic energy divided by the charge of the electron. And comes from the way . electrons are ejected with a maximum kinetic energy of 0. We create a potential difference and gradually increase the potential difference until the electrons can't make it any more. Student: Then what can I do? T\rtor: Can you find the work energy? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: How do I do that? Don't I need a formula? How much energy is in the 470 nm photon? 2. "maximum kinetic energy?" Some electrons are easier to remove from the atom than others. there is less energy left over for kinetic energy.0.6 x 101e J and that 1 nm .16 eV. then the stopping voltage is 0. It's easy to detect the presence of an electron.54 eV must be energy left over to become the kinetic energy of the electron. try to turn it into the combination in the middle column.(e)(1 V) :1. Look for h TTLe Thrn into hc TfL.48 eV .48 eV must be the work function. ^ 470 nm EY l T\rtor: Student: 410 nm Is the kinetic energy of the electrons proportional to the photon energy? No.938 x 106 eV EXAMPLE When light of. but hard to detect it's velocity. T\rtor: Ttrtor: Yes.511. Ehf:y Student: And for the 4I0 nm photons. to find that. Student: Why do they talk about the what's this "stopping voltage" about? in which the experiment is done. So we use an electric field to slow it down until it stops.c2 Value 1240 nm.0. Student: That seems like a strange way to do things.64 eV . Now the 410 nm light hits the metal.54 V.288 CHAPTER 38.
^ Good. This equation does not work for anything that has mass it only works for photons. T\rtor: That's one way. their wavelength is the de Broglie wavelength. Because the kinetic energy of our electron is so much less than the rest energy. and solve for the speed. I can convert that to joules. just like in the last example. Then I use the speed and p . the electron is going much slower than the speed of light. Tutor: You could do that.{*"') G)' (:)' u c 2(0. T\rtor: In the sense that we can't just know everything about them. Student: Ok y. but you want to know what the greatest energy is of any of the basketballs. we get Tutor: Student: I can't use . When they do so. Student: Is this the "combinations" thing? .E for  for the electron because the electron has mass. so you could use p . I have the kinetic energy of the electron in electronvolts.E 1. but there's an easier way. T\rtor: If we find the speed from the energy.mu.000  0. I . Student: Correct.1mu to find the momentum. Student: I need to find the momentum. you don't really need the speed.289 T\rtor: Imagine that some people are tossing basketballs in the air.f. T\rtor: You can. If K K. Student: So the way to tell is to compare the energy to the rest energy.00I45c 0. But I need to find the momentum.00145 u . put in the mass of the electron.p EXAMPLE What is the de Broglie wavelength of a 14 eV electron? L This equation is also true regarding the momentum of a photon. matter like electrons can act like waves. ^. Also. mc2. then you're safe with p .n'LU.! i*o' and prrla + ptffi .00145(3 T\rtor: " 108 /s)  4. So you hold out your hand and keep moving it up until you don't feel any more basketballs hitting it. You are blindfolded and can't see them.54) 511. do you? That's just an intermediate step. Just as light can act like a particle. A common mistake is to use electron. Student: So when we look at electrons we're blindfolded.36 x 105 m/s The advantage to this is that you aren't dragging big exponents all over the equations. and put the speed into the momentum. The potential energy of a basketball where your hand was when you quit feeling them tells you about the maximum energy of the basketballs. KE:)*r' Trrtor: Yes.0. So I use the kinetic energy to find the speed.
290 T\rtor: Student: CHAPTER 38. Student: Okay. with shorter wavelengths corresponding to greater momentum.tffit<. PHOTO." it is hard to say exactly where the electron is.ppc@  0. and the wavelensh tells us the momentum. so I have p . we need to shrink the width of the wave packet (shown horizontally). Now that we know that an electron acts like a wave.Mrequiredthat the speed be slow.328 nm  328 pm Student: What's a pm? T\rtor:Apicometer. To improve the determination of the position of the electron. use E2 (p")2 + (*"')' to find the combin ation pc.hhchc . which states that the uncertainty with which the position and momentum are measured must have a minimum value.eV) 2(511. This effect is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. so we can't determine the wavelength as well. Remember that the de Broglie wavelength of the electron is connected to the momentum of the electron.\ffi Ttrtor: Then you can find the wavelength. w€ can show you a picture of an electron. . and get pc. Two interesting questions to ask are: where is the electron and how fast is it going? Because of the width of the "wave packet. I Student: I put two factors of c inside the square root to get mc2. There's more algebra involved.Justrememberthatourearlierstepthatledto. Yes. p. But then the wave packet will consist of fewer waves.IVS AND MATTER wAvES Is there a reason that we're using K for kinetic energy now instead of K E? Because we have a total ener gy E that we didn't have before. . T\rtor: and use Student: What if the speed isn't slow? Then we find the total energy E .hlp . 000 eV) (r4 eV) . I want to do this combinations thing. L. and add one factor of c to the left.hcf pc to find the de Broglie wavelength. so someone might get confused and think K E was the product of two values.r Lp* )h: h 2n We cannot determine the position of an electron exactly without losing all information on its velocity. /^ pc 2(mc2)K Student: I need to use (1240 nm. but the idea is ^ the same. It works out perfectly. Tutor: It will be much easier.K + mc2.or10_12m.
T\rtor: Sure there is.6 pr.6 pm Where does the 1450 m/s go? The minimum uncertainty in the position depends on the uncertainty in the velocity. Student: I would think that a slowmoving electron would be easier to pin down than a fast one. For an electron moving with a speed of 5 x 105 m/s. What is the minimum uncertainty in its position? T\rtor: How did you decide that? Student: Because it asks for minimum uncertainty. so that the minimum uncertainty in the position of the car is about 1034 m while knowing the velocity to the T\rtor: Student: nearest I mph. this is an error of 0.25 mm. spread out over more distance. Student: Why don't we see the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in larger objects? When a policeman pulls me over for speeding. So this is a very slow moving electron. then the wave packet will be wider. J .r Ap* ) h: h 2" h ArmAur> h. so he claims to know your speed 50 times better than our electron. Student: So the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is not going to keep me from getting a ticket.25 m/s.29r EXAMPTE tr An electron has a speed 10 1450 +.hc? A' > Ar (*"') c2r A.eV 2r(mcz)(Au lc) 2n(511. Then he must not know where I am. 000 ev)(25 lQ x 10t)) : 4634 nm  4. the more wavelengths you need.005%. Nothing else we've done has required a minimum A. and the uncertainty in the position is 50 times worse. uncertainty. If you use fewer different wavelengths. not the velocity itself. T\rtor: The way you make a wave packet is by adding waves of difference frequency or wavelength. so that you know the wavelength better. In a previous example. Tbtor: Can you spot the combinations in the equation? Student: You mean like h . Tlrtor z 25 m/s is about 50 mph.r ) hc 1240 nm. That makes the wave packet longer. less than 1 eV of kinetic energy gave an electron a speed of half a million meters per second. To know the momentum better. he says he knows my speed to 1 mph. Student: So there's no way to measure the position of an electron to better than 4.m. w€ need the wave packet to contain more "wavestt so that we can better determine the wavelength. but not while mea"suring its velocity to a precision of 25 mls. But the mass of the car is much bigger. or 0. Student: I need to use Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The narrower the wave packet.
w€ take away some of its kinetic energy. As the electron approaches the proton. so the energy is the kinetic energy. It is a general principle that the energy of anything that is stable is less than the energy that the pieces have when they are apart.Chapter 39 More About Matter Waves In the previous chapter. .2L12. where the electrons orbit the positively charged nucleus. so if the energy together 292 . A hydrogen atom consists of an electron orbiting a proton. What happens when an electron acts like a standing wave? In a standing wave. but the potential energy is more negative than the kinetic energy is positive. The allowed wavelengths of the electron are 2LlI. This means that we would have to do work to move the negative charge away from the positive charge and back to an infinite distance apart.rl\n This is the Bohr model of the atom.2Lf 3. The tube is so skinny that we worry about the motion of the electron in only one direction. and the result was that only specific frequencies would work. . 13. it is possible to determine the allowed energies. Imagine an electron in a long skinny tube. FYom this.. so the total energy is negative. only specific energies are allowed. .6 eV n2 Why is the energy negative? Remember that the potential energy <rf the proton and electron when they are far apart is zero. and the potential energy is "flat" within the well. Because the electron behaves like a wave. Things tend to move toward lower energy. it takes an infinite energy to get past the ends of the tube. it gains kinetic energy and loses potential energyr so that the potential energy is negative. h h hn P2Lln 2L ^ The potential energy doesn't change throughout the box.I*. we forced nodes at particular places. the distance it travels must be an integer number of wavelengths of the electron 2rrn . Because only specific values of the wavelength are allowed. only specific values of the energy are allowed. it must form a standing wave with a node at each end. When the electron makes one complete orbit. w€ treated a moving electron as a traveling wave. The electron can move in only one dimension.r* (h)' : *: * (#) There are specific values of the energy of the electron that work. We call this a onedimensional infinite square well. Flom these we can find the allowed momenta. A similar thing happens inside an atom. While the electron is close to the proton. E . and all other values don't work. or square. For an electron in a similar situation. The kinetic energy is positive and the potential energy is negative..2L13.
The energy of the photon must be equal to the difference of the energies of the initial and final states. but is a continuum. with light of wavelength 97. and with light of wavelength 90.6 eV. or change from one state to another.293 it would tend to move apart. but whether the energy of the atom after absorbing the photon matches an allowed energy. So the initial energy is 13. T\rtor: Student: E.750 eY 97. To move to a higher n value. The energies of the onedimensional infinite positive. to about 8 significant figures.39 eBBS. requires that the atom gain energy.255 nm 1240 nm. T\rtor: Your idea is partially correct.739 eV En: 13. If the energy of the photon is not exactly right.255 ril. or energy levels.255 nm? The atom absorbs the energy of the photon. Negative 13. or higher energy. so eggs are quantized. The lowest energy state is called the ground state. T\rtor: Tlrtor: Yes. then the atom can't go there and won't absorb the photon. .255 rffi. so ground beef is not quantized. or perhaps a single egg. square well are was positive. What value of n gives the lowest energy? Student: n : I. or any value you like. Therefore a "quantum leap" is the smallest possible change in a quantized system. The different allowed values in a quantized system are called states.Eto*l: E. requires that the atom lose energy. in a hydrogen atom involves moving to a different energy. and the next lowest state is the first excited state. the photon must have exactly the right amount of energy. Not all quantized things are microscopic.493 eY ? o Thtor: What are you trying to do? Student: I need to find out if the energy of the photon matches solve for one of the allowed energy levels. The question isn't whether the photon energy matches 13. Student: Ah. If the energy from the photon puts the atom between allowed energy states.255 nm ^ 13. EXAMPLE What happens to a hydrogen atom in the ground state when it is illuminated with light of wavelength 99.6 eV divide d by n2 . then the atom can't absorb the photon and can't make a transition.6 eV n2  12.493 eY 12. so I need to add the photon energy to the starting energy to find the after energy. and the study of quantized systems is called quantum mechanics.T 1240 nm. buy you can't bry 1.255 nm 1240 nm. This is the principle behind spectroscopy. The smallest possible value that a quantized system can have is called a quantum.hc ) hc Ehc E. So I'll n and see if it's an integer.eV 90.6 eV. Atoms gain and lose energy by absorbing or emitting a photon of light. Student: T\rtor: What's the starting energy? The hydrogen atom is in the ground state. When you bry eggs you can buy a dozen. Student: So I need to see whether the photon has the right amount of energy. To move to a lower n value. Because both the initial and final energies are quantized. AE  lEnt*n .39 pounds of ground beef. but the energy when the electron is outside the "box" is infinite rather than zero. and be unstable. To make a quantum leap. then A system that can have only specific values is said to be quantized. You can go to the butcher's store and buy 1. Not necessarily. or lower energy. or a half dozen.eV  12.eV 99.
So if we see photons going off in other directions. either n .850 eV  0. but we call it ionization. Student: Like the photoelectric effect. so it works.255 nm light on a hydrogen atom. so nothing happens.13.6 eV n2 0. It's possible to cause effects similar to that to happen. With the first photon.2 or n of the two states. Student: Is that how scientists do spectroscopy. So it jumps back down to the ground state? Ttrtor: After a while.294 Student: CHAPTER 39.255 nm light. right? T\rtor: Right. so we can't shine 99 . Now with 90. The ionization energy is the energy needed to extract an electron. but that's for advanced quantum mechanics and we won't get into that stuff. w€ can shine the light on a hydrogen atom. Es: 1.1.739 eV n2 13. Something does happen. The atom absorbs Good.6 ev * En 13. Student: The atom wants to be in the lowest possible state. l]rtor: Yes. Student: Not the energy of the n . This photon goes off in a random direction. Student: Okay. it jumps to a lower state. Then what happens? 4. that is a sign that the energy of the incident light matches a transition energy. Student: Could the hydrogen atom absorb a photon and go up to n: 3? T\rtor: The photon has too much energy.51 3. and then it would be ohy.51 is not an integer. T\rtor: So a positive energy is more than enough for the electron to leave the proton. not necessarily the same direction as the incident photons.750 eV 13.2 or n. With 97.107 eV  1. .850 eV T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: n is an integer. ev * 12.3 or n . MORE ABOUT MATTER WAVES Oops.6 eV +0. So nothing happens.6 eV n2  1. It has to lose energy in the process so it emits a photon with the appropriate energy. like 10 or 20 ns.3 or n.493 eV En 13.00 the photon and jumps to the rr  4 state. . Student: I don't know. remember. Oh. by changing the wavelength of the incident light until they see light coming off? T\rtor: A simplistic but substantially correct explanation.139 T\rtor: Tntor: Student: Student: How am I supposed to take the square root of a negative number? You aren't. There are no values of n for which the energy of the hydrogen atom is positive. but the atom doesn't absorb any of the photons. What happens at energy equals zero? Student: The hydrogen atom has zero energy when the electron and proton are separated. the energy afterward is 13.107 eV : T\rtor: Student: 3. right? T\rtor: That doesn't happen. Student: Cool. Student: But the atom could emit a photon with the excess energy.255 nm light.6 eV + 12.511 eV.
and so on. Also. but an electron in the n. the energy of the hydrogen atom is a continuum. except that we use the work function only for metals. the allowed energy levels are Student: Student: How is the ionization energy different from the work function? T\rtor: E. before going back down to n emission lines are all of the ones available but the absorption lines are only the ones that start at n .5 state can also drop ton . Look at the other end.t have energies > have photon wavelengths in the infrared. like helium? T\rtor: When there are two electrons in an atom.5 nm. Student: Lithium has a charge of 3. Shorter wavelengths correspond to what? . At what level does it start? Student: The problem doesn't say that either. the states have energies that are close together. What is the longest wavelength in the series? 3 and the energies are 13. someone has already measured them so we look them up in a book.1 (ot the ground state). When we put the hydrogen atom in n stays there for only a short time.6 eY lnz for a particle in a onedimensional box. the problem becomes extremely difficult to solve.2 to n . right? T\rtor: Yes. so a series is transitions with photon wavelengths that are close together. An electron in the Tl state can drop ton . Okay. like the helium atom. Above zero energy. What are the allowed positive energies? Any positive energy is allowed. in hydrogen all of the transitions that end at n . Student: What about other atoms. 7z lr'.6 ev level the transition finishes at. I have a 40.13'6eY\22 TL' T\rtor: where Z is the charge of the nucleus. EXAMPLE The shortest wavelength in a series of Li++ is 40. with an energy of hc ET: l24o "ry 4o5rT\rtor: Student: But I don't know what :30. do we have a name for that? T\rtor: No." Student: Ok y.5 nm photon. like 10 or 20 rs. So sometimes we call the photons "lines.295 T\rtor: It isn't really. But I don't know initial or final levels. like a diffraction grating. T\rtor: The problem does say that you have the shortest wavelength in the series.3. A helium ion H e+ is similar to a hydrogen atom. it only applies to the hydrogen atom. it appears as lines. so Z  T\rtor: They mean the lowerenergy level of the two. For example. For atoms with more than one electron. Student: What about up to n . remember to not use 13. it gives off photons.3. which is the ending level when photon emission takes place. Student: And the photons have energies equal to the difference between the energies of the initial and final states. Student: So the names Balmer and Paschen mean the level at which the transition ends. it can have any kinetic energy it wants. and what's a "series" ? the T\rtor: A series is em'iss'ion l'ines from transitions that end with the same n. When we view this light through a spectrometer. For oneelectron atoms with greater charg€s.3. It's not easy to go up from n .3. Once the electron is free of the atom.3. When we get to high values of n. because it has one electron.6 eV . Student: What's a "line?" T\rtor: When we excite an atom into higher energy states and it decays. The Paschen series in hydrogen is all transitions down to n .
Using the wavefunction we can calculate energy levels. To solve a quantum system we have to find the wavefunctions. What's the longest wavelength in the series? Student: Longer wavelengths are lower energies.rywu(*)t$:o The significance of the wavefunction is twofold. and often the value of the wavefunction is a complex number.9 nm The solutions that we've presented are overly simplistic. How big can n get? Thtor: As big as you can make it. or the biggest n. Because the wavefunction is zero at each end. For the n . A wavefunction iI. the integral of the square of the wavefunction is the sum of all the probabilities of finding the electron everywhere. Thtor: Student: En:Tutor: Student: (tg'6 eY)(32) : 30. and the energy of the final state is 30. Ground state I tt excited state n=3 n= 4 . Therefore.6 ev > n  2 The series is all transitions O"# to n .@) l'in(T") These resemble the amplitude of a standing wave. the chances of finding the electron very close to the end of the onedimensional box are nil.). the wavefunctions that work are 'b.z. but the math gets na.1 state that is the most likely place for it to be.296 CHAPTER 39. To solve these and other problems properly we use the wavefunction. where working means to satisSr the Schrodinger equation #.t) . but for the n . angular momentum. .6 ev  lDs .h is zero at the middle.E (ts'o eYXg2) 32  13.6 eV. That would be when the electron goes to n . it is hard to hold atoms together when n gets to be 100 or so. If this is the shortest wavelength and greatest energy.3. Student: So I can take zero as the starting energy.rh(fi. For the electron in the onedimensional infinite square well. so it must be equal to 1.eV 17 eV : 17 eV :72. Also. The energy gets too close to zero. so I want the smallest transition energ. so the electron is never there.2 state.sty.(30. momentum.z)eiutt. is a function of both position and time tU(r. is the initial energy higher or lower? Student: It would be the highest starting energ"y. Es:Et: A.6 eV)l 1240 nm. the probability of finding the electron at a given spot is proportional to the square of the wavefunction t/2 at that spot. Yes.y. MORE ABOUT MATTBR WAVES Greater energies. Experimentally.6 eV) . Only specific wavefunctions work.Ezl : l(13. and transition probability between levels. Good. A.y.
the wavefunction extends past the walls of the well. that's right.19 n2 76. The sinusoidal line is one of the wavefunctions. What are the energies for the onedimensional Student: Oh.76 eV (19. Student: Ok y.76 eV eY)nz + n : 2 T\rtor: Student: The electron is in the n .2 state.14 nm. so if the electron is there it must have less kinetic energy. even though the electron doesn't have enough energy to get out. Which state n is the electron in? T\rtor: You need to determine that. yes? Mostly correct. The wider lines represent the potential well it is possible The potential energy on the right side is greater.6 eV n2 :76. . we divide the region into pieces so small that we can treat the probability a^s being the same throughout the region. Otherwise known as the first excited state. Student: Infinitesimally small pieces.y well but not enough to get out. What is the probability of finding the electron in the leftmost 0. You want to find the probability of the electron being at each spot in that region.n2 'o 76. F (h")'  2(mc2)L' .297 to get out of the well without an infinite amount of energy. and it takes energy to get from the left side to the right.02 nm of the infinite well? So I need to find the wavefunction and integrate it from 0 to 0. so I can find the state that has the right energy. The probability is the square of the wavefunction. The electron has enough energy to get to both the left and right parts of the energ. and a longer wavelength.76 eV. The horizontal line represents the energy of one of the wavefunctions. Ttrtor: Student: En: 13. The electron has an energy of 76. EXAMPLE An electron is in a onedimensional infinite square well of width 0. Because the probabilities are not uniform. There is a nonzero chance of finding the electron outside of the well. Consider the onedimensional finite well shown. Less kinetic energy means less momentum. Tlrtor: Yes.76 eV ? T\rtor: The square well?  13 .6ln' applies only for the hydrogen atom. Also.02 ril. This is a purely quantum mechanical effect that doesn't happen in the old "classical" physics. How can you tell the states apart? Student: They have different energies. I know the energy.
I replace the sin2 with the trigonometric identity. or an integral. but to get the probability for a given piece you need to multiply by the width of the piece.I can write down the wavefunction.298 CHAPTER 39.. probability  kbr("))' d* : 7 2. MORE ABOUT MATTER WAVES n has to be an integ€r. nm is the sum of all the proba T\rtor: Yes.02 Student: Then the probability of finding the electron between bilities. nm loo" l. Student: What if I hadn't gotten an integer for n? Student: : T\rtor: What is the probability that the electron is in an infinitesimal piece of width dn? Student: That's the square of the wavefunction. For an infinitesimally small piece this is infinitesimally small.53T0. so either you or the problem author made an error. but nothing in your equation is infinitesimally small. probability : kbz("))2  Tbtor: The probability of finding the electron in any infinitesimally small piece has to be infinitesimally small. it up in a book. J2 nm looo' ["in'ar? sin2ar :?ry3"*"(ffi")l :8fB *""(+"):oo6b3 6. The square of the wavefunction gives you the relative probability.i" (+")l:"nm Student: The chances are . . sm (7")dn 0 and 0.f .2. l.hz(*) Tlrtor.in'(7") d*:?l. Now that I know that n .in'(7") dn T\rtor: Student: Or just look To find the integral.
An electron in an atom is specified by the quantum numbers { rL. I 5n ft4d The Pauli exclusion principle still says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers. The first electron is in the state { 1. has to be an integer between l and l. or even in the z direction. mt) ms } I is the orbital angular momentum of the electrorl. By filling up the levels from the lowest energy. So after two electrons. 0. But the z component can be + ot + (from the minimum to the maximum in steps of 1).) The z component could be all of the angular momentum. rather than r.  One way to write the electron configuration of an electron is nl#. I0is . m1 could be 1 or 0 or +1. The 2s electron configuration of aluminum (Z : 13) is !s2 2s2 2pu 3s2 3p'. The Pauli exclusion principle says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers. the next electron must go into the n . The energy of 3d is greater than the energy of 3p 3p is greater than the energy of 3s. l. they have more effect on each other. 0. or none of it. The quantum number I has to be an integer between 0 and n.. + }. 299 .2 state. Previously.f level is f s filled. The next quantum number. As the number of electrons in an da atom increases. trll is the z component of this angular momentum. fa we create the periodic table (located at the end of the book). so 2s is filled first. we could write ls2. and m" is the z component of the electron's spin. As the electron it has orbital angular momentum. and  But there are more quantum numbers than just n. (Itr quantum mechanics. l:Ii. it also spins on its own axis. The idea is that once one electron is in the n 7. letterrsol0iss. The angular momentum of the spinning is always s *. w€ use z as the first axis chosen. 4. This is not entirely true. the energies of the states depended only on n) so that 2s and 2p have the same energy. TTL1.1.andcontinueswithgandh. So m. and the state n l:2isd.Sothestaterr2. the E second ir { 1. 0. because the n . A configuration of 1s2 2sz 2p6 3s2 4sr would be aluminum in an excited state. l3is/.2 is called 4d. .0.Chapter 40 All About Atoms so on. ++ }. is the z component of l. so much so that the energy of 3d is greater than the energy of 4s (in some atoms). ++ }. and the energy of 2p is slightly 'Jgreater than 2s. As the electron orbits the nucleus. 0. The # is the number of electrons in the nl level.p. For the 3p state. We attach names to the values of l. 0.3 / can be 0 or 1 or 2. and the third ir { 2. so for n . orbits the nucleus The preferred way to distinguish between states of the same n is by the angular momentum. and call them by the first called 2s. state. ro we don't bother writing it.
Z  33) in the first excited state? T\rtor: Ttrtor: Student: . Student: Does that mean that there can be 6 electrons in any p level? T\rtor: Yes. +L. and I need 15 more.1 and / has to be less than n.1 we call it a Kp photon." With more than one electron the energy becomes very difficult to in an atom a .1. but you need to fill the n . Student: So how can there be six electrons in the 2p state? T\rtor: Because I . ALL ABOUT ATOMS EXAMPLE What is the electron configuration of arsenic (Ar. Student: There can be2 electrons in 1. When an electron drops from n . This was applied to a single electron electron atom.2. because p means I Student: That's Student: 5s is lower than 4d. so I fill the 3d level. and 3 x 2 . and 2+ 6+10:18 in n3.1 level (the other has been knocked out).300 CHAPTER 40.2 and 18in n.8 inn2.3is28. So there can be only two electrons in the ls state.6. When an electron drops from a higher level to a lower one. Student: Ok y. . { 1.. Is there some easy way to determine how many can fit in an n level? T\rtorz 2. 0. We also get photons of other energies.4 level. 0. so 2n2. An electron from a higher level comes down to fill the lower energy level. giving off the extra energy as an emitted photon.18 is twice I. Student: Oops. w€ use the combined charge of the nucleus plus the ls electron. When an electron drops from n. 0. This photon typically has a high energy and is in the xray spectrum. Then comes 4s2. I\rtor: Yes. Student: 2(4)2 . 4s has lower energy than 3d. so you start n .32. 9. right? Correct. } and { 1. Because there is one electron in the n .3 to n. so As is one electron past 32. + }. For the first excited state. There are three possibilities for m7. and 10 in any d level. Arsenicis5electronspast n3.2innI andSin n." Student: And the last three go into 4p. We take an atom and bombard it with highenergy electrons. but we can get an estimate. move one of them up to the next highest level. so m7 can be 1 or 0 or 1.I. Student: And there can't be one in the lp state. 4. up to a maximum equal to the energy of the incoming electron. and 2+ 6 ."one calculate. and then 3dr0.8. and 3 levels first.1 we call it a Ko photon. T\rtor: There can be 32 electrons in the n . Sometimes you'll see a level called a "shell. Tntor: Careful.2to n . Sometimes the incoming electron knocks out one of the electrons.6 eV x Z'lr'for the energy of the electron. T\rtor: That's the lowest energy place for them to go.3. rs2 2s2 2pu Jsz Jpu 18. it emits a photon with a characteristic energy. The energy of the photon must equal the difference in energy of the two levels. Previously we used 13.4 before finishing n . rs2 2s2 2p6 3s2 Bpu 4s2 Jdro 4p' 5s1 We use an xray spectrum to identify the nucleus of an atom. 0. right? Correct. and for each of them there are two possibilities for m".
Thtor: And the largest energy is the shortest wavelength.E .( 4. Student: But I use Z .4I keV)l : Tntor: Student: What if the incoming electron doesn't have 39. Z keV photons?  55) when bombarded with 42 Student: Kp means from rr .b pm .D' n2 E1: Es (13'6 evX55 12  1)2 1)2 :  39.I level. I find the energy of the two states.66 keV) .2 pm How do I get the minimum wavelength? What's the most energy that you could possibly get from a 42 keV photon? Student: 42 keY.6 eV)  (Z .1. Student: So the minimum wavelength photon is the one with an energy of 42 keV. Then it wouldn't be able to knock the electron out of the n .I to find the energies of the states. L/n' in the D (13.25 keV : (13'6 eVx55 32 Et : A.66 keV of energy.o2sbnm  2e. Student: So the wavelength of the K B photon is \p:y_ ry: eV E 35.41 keV 35.251 Tutor: T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: Very good. then the difference energies is the energy of the K p photon.66 kev 4. 42. )min Student: : YE t?10.301 EXAMPLE What are the minimum wavelength and K p wavelength for cesium (Ct.l(39.o3b2 nm:3b. o.000 eV ll':Y  o .3 to rr .
nm3) El$ (For a 2D material. For a (1 mm)3 sohd. with one empty chair and one person in the middle of the circle. about 0. Because there is but a single empty chair. Semiconductor 302 . To move rapidly. and you have virtually no current at all. but one of the people next to the empty chair "shuffies" over into the chair.) When atoms are this close. leading to a density about 3000 times smaller. bo Band GoP b r{ material is n(E) ry. the movement is relatively slow. How close together are these energy levels? The density of energy levels in a 3D I >. The Pauli exclusion principle says that no two electrons can be in the same state. electrons need room to work.81/eV. The result is that instead of discrete energy levels. and the next person shuffies into the chair the first one vacated. To avoid overlapping electrons being in the same state. as each electron waits for its turn to move.Chapter 4L Conduction of Electricity in Solids When atoms form a solid. then each electron could constantly be in motion." a couple dozen people sit in a circle of chairs. The conduction of electric current in a solid depends on whether the energy states in these bands are filled. and without it they can move only slowly. Imagine a single empty chair among 1023 electrons.1 nm away from each of their nearest neighbors. of course. The ((it" person in the middle tries to sit down. they change their energies just a little. In this way the people shuffie one way and the empty chair shuffies the other way. the units conceal a large density. because nanometers are much smaller than the typical solid. such as a very thin film.) While this number may look small. with many energies very close together. In the camp game "shuffie your buns. but the location of the empty chair moves. they are very close to each other. This is about the same size as an individual atom. the energy levels are about 101e eV apart.n 8t[2r(^"')tt' ttr (h")t  (0. the electron wavefunctions begin to overlap. one does a difference calculation and gets a difference result. (For comparison. the energies become energy bands. None of the chairs move. But if half of the chairs were empty. in a gas at room temperature they are about 2 nm away from each other.
For semiconductors. More energy is lost in the collisions. the rate of collisions for the moving electrons increases. T\rtor: Student: That's it? I'm supposed to be able to figure Let's see how T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: How do you know that it's one? The electrons in the ground state are in Is2 2s2 2pu 3s2 3p6 3d10 4sL. more electrons have the energy to move to higher levels. the number of electrons is very large. Semiconductors have a completely filled band. and plenty of room to move about. and the power turned to heat increases. EXAMPLE For a 1 cm copper cube. At higher temperatures. Metals are typically conductors. the energy band is only half full. a^s the temperature increases.5 eV requires a temperature equal to the temperature of the Sun.303 In the insulator shown to the left of the figure. This corresponds to atoms where the outer shell of electrons is completely filled. where k is the Boltzmann constant of 1.38 x 1023 JlK. perhaps 3 eV or more. the density of charges in the higher energy band is about 1016r so that only a trillionth of the electrons have the energy to make it. How could an electron hope to jump 1 eV to the next energy band at only room temperature? Though the probability is small. Student: I need the density n. Only the last electron is available to move around. Remember from thermodynamics that temperature is a measure of internal energy. The probability of an energy level being filled by an electron is P(E) _ e@Er') /kr + 1 k? is the typical energy available to electrons. Student: So if I know the density of copper atoms. and a current could flow. 3d. Each copper atom contributes 1 electron. For a semiconductor like silicon. You could start by findittg the Fermi energy. and there is plenty of room to move around. perhaps 1 eV or less. One of the interesting result of this temperature dependence is that the resistance of semiconductors decreases with temperature. to fill the 3d shell than the 4s shell. (+ nm2 . Shouldn't it be 4s2 3ds? Multiple electrons in an atom cause the energy levels to change. Some of the electrons might get enough energy to move to the next band. and very little current can flow. For a conductor like copper the density of "valence electrons" n . but the number of electrons trying to make it is much more than a trillion. Electrons would have plenty of room to move around if they could jnp up to the next band. It's better. but that requires a considerable energy. To get a value of kT of even 0. Is that something that I need to look up? Tutor: You can find it from the density.tmp to the next band is relatively small. Each metal atom has one or more electrons in a partly filled shell. Student: I thought that 4s had lower energy than . how much more energy than the Fermi energy is the most energetic electron likely to have? this out from only that information? far we can get. the energy band is completely full. or about I eY 111. so there are available states at nearly the same energy.I x 1028 l^t. The Fermi energy Ep is the energy of the highest occupied state when all lower states are filled. In the conductor shown in the middle. &trd the density of electrons in the higher conduction band increases. where they would have plenty of room to move around. as in lower energy. There is no room for electrons to move around.600 K. so the current can increase. higher temperature means more available energy.v) n2/s To the right is a semiconductor. the density of valence electrons is the same. For metals. corresponding to increased resistance. but the j.
Doping means to replace a small fraction of the atoms of the original substance with atoms of a difference substance.nm3) ro22I "^r)r/r(*)' ev)/(t : 7. but only about I0%.8x 1022 Student: Oh. so there would be 2 electrons. very few if any electrons.5 x r02z1" . Ep: Tutor: T\rtor: (+ nm2 "v) n2/s ..81/eV. of states is a little higher. You already have the electrons per atom. Avogadro's number. and you know the number of atoms per mol. COI. Now.) 1'3 ev T\rtor: At that energy.a x r0"): 51 \ (3oo K) E .8 x 1022 l"y The energy levels are spaced 1022 eV apart? They are 1022 eY apart.e6) . Each silicon atom has 4 valence electrons..Ep)lkT . . That would involve integrating the probability times the density of states. To find the highest energy electron.8 x 1022 . about how many electrons would be in an electronvolt? Student: 1000 x 211000 .02 x10") (#) (8. because it's a probability. and shares one of them with each of its four neighbors. because the e@Er') /kr is so much bigger. Then each atom has eight electrons around it.96 gl" 3) and the atomic mass (63. T\rtor: Well.ln (t. we could go until the density times the probability was about 1. Student: So above that the probability is small enough that there are no electrons. if the energy level spacing was such that there was 1000 state per eV. I need to find where e@Ep)/kr +1 T\rtor: I think you can safely neglect the *1 on the left. semiconductors are "doped" with another material. and all of the electron shells are filled. or one electron over a whole electronvolt.Er :srkT: 51 ( :"u v^ (E \ rr.03 ev We can also find the density of states lr(E') ffi : nt) volt. . Be careful with nm and cm and m. We could do a calculation to find the expected number of electrons with even higher energies.(+ nm (0. so that there are about 1022 eV of them over a space of 1 eV.. Student: No thanks. /kr "(EEr')  1.') x (1 c)3 x (+*)':1. but the probability of a state being filled was 21L000.304 T\rtor: CHAPTER 41.18/eV nm3 We're more interested in the density p So Student: I multiply by the volume? n(r) T\rtor: Student: (ra l"yr. P(E)  1.{DUCTIOIT OF ELECTRICITY II{ SOLIDS You look up the density (8. In practice.54 g/mol).2. Student: Oh. ooo K. T\rtor: About 2 electrons.8. T\rtor: Student: Now I can find the Fermi energy. electr_ons cm3 (6 electrons mor x ry x '\ mol g x q atom ag n  (1) . the density Student: Close enough for me.
We saw earlier that only about a trillionth (1 in 1012) of the atoms in a semiconductor contribute an electron to the conduction band. Thansistors allow us to control one current with a second current or voltage. Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons. We use transistors to make amplifiers and computer logic circuits. One way to dope silicon is with phosphorus. so the doping must do all of the rest. plus one extra electron. This gives us good control of the density of conduction electrons when manufacturing doped semiconductors.86 cm3)(10" l^. Tutor: Student: That's really small! . It wouldn't take much to mess up the production of a semiconductor. so that there are enough to fill all of the electron shells. If only a millionth of the semiconductor atoms were replaced with something with an additional electron. (0.1021 l^t? Student: The silicon itself contributes a density of 1016 l^t. Vm: p l/p : ^:0. But 1021 . I could multiply by the density to get the number of phosphorus atoms.1016 is nearly the same as 1021. Student: Why are semiconductors so important? Tntor: When we put semiconductors together we can form a transistor. T\rtor: The phosphorus atoms are scattered among the silicon atoms. (#) (*'q)  44x1o8s Semiconductors are made in "clean rooms" to reduce the chances of contamination.!=^ \t : \to.) ( .86cm3 glcm5 2. Student: So I find the volume of 2 grams of silicon and multiply by the density of phosphorus to find the number of phosphorus atoms. the extra electron to the conduction band. T\rtor: Almost all. cm) 8. T\rtor: Yes. Student: I can live with that. The error in saying ((all" is in the sixth significant digit. Ail of the conduction electrons come from the phosphorus. these additional electrons would completely outnumber the conduction electrons from the semiconductor.305 For each silicon atom that is replaced with something that has one more valence electron. Student: If I knew the volume of the phosphorus. The vast majority of the silicon is still siliconr so the volume is determined by the silicon. So the density of phosphorus atoms needs to be 1021 l^t. moves EXAMPLE How much phosphorus must be added to 2 grams of silicon to create a doped semiconductor with a charge carrier density n .33'r. Essentially all of the conduction electrons would be from the doping..6 x 1014 r.p(80x1014.
we need to find this difference in ma. The atomic mass number A is the number of nucleons.05 2164 1go.000549 1.es4esl t83Y t83cr 39Rb 306 I 1o1. STnU is rubidium with 37 protons and 40 neutrons. To find the binding energy.00782b 1.r tSrt 239. Some Nuclear Masses f e 0. Because Z determines El. El and Z are redundant and Z is sometimes omitted. multiply by and convert to megaelectron volts (MeV). The difference in mass. Atoms of the same element but with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. located at the center of the atom. The strong nuclear force holds the protons together. the electric force tries to push the protons apart. We write a nucleus or isotope nt. We can combine all of these factors into c2 :931.ss units (u) to kg.ss.88u zt. We add up the ma^sses of the pieces of the nucleus. The mass of the 37nU nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of 37 protons and 40 neutrons. Then we find the ma^ss of the nucleus itself. Because there are only positive charges in the nucleus.902089 eb. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. Where El is the chemical symbol for the element.es42T2 (includes ma. equal to the number of protons.oboz88 '8?P. which is the number of protons and neutrons. but only at short distances of about 1015 m. For example.88u 2g8. and is called the binding energy. Which element an atom is is determined by the charge of the nucleus or atomic number Z. We convert from atomic ma. otherwise it would fall apart.5 MeV/u.ss of electrons) . Because everything wants to have less energy. times c2. while 85Rb is rubidium with 37 protons and 38 neutrons.go 6124 4.gaabb8 186. Nuclear physicists have measured these and we look up their results. is how much energy we would have to put in to separate the nucleus into individual nucleons.Chapter 42 Nuclear Physics We now examine the nucleus.s.o4aggo .oooooo bb. remember that anything stable must have less energy together than apart. Therefore. The neutrons are necessary to create more space between the protons. the mass of the nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of the pieces. so that the strong nuclear force will be greater than the electric repulsion.008665 lH fin tn" tu'c !8p" . "'.002608 12.
The standard for an atomic mass unit is L.008665 u)  23e. That's one reason to use nuclear energy. Do we really need a new unit? Tutor: It's handy to have a unit that's about the size of the thing that we're measuring. An alpha particle is the same as a helium4 nucleus. T\rtor: The binding energy is proportional to the difference. EXAMPLE Find the binding energy of '88U. T\rtor: Hydrogen was 13. an antielectron with the same mass but a positive charge: a . Those were 13. Student: (1. sometimes called mass defect.934202 u. Then I subtract the mass of a '88U nucleus. but what difference? Student: I add up the mass of g2 protons and 238 neutrons. we'll get a much smaller number with two or three fewer significant figures. Beta decay can also be the emission of a positron. the mass of the nucleus (in atomic mass units u) is about equal to the number of nucleons. Is the binding energy negative? Some nuclei are stable. Because the binding energies of the various isotopes is different. Because a proton and a neutron each have mass of about 1 u.5 MeV/")  1802 MeV Tutor: It's true that the binding energy is how much less energy the nucleus has than if the parts were separate.007825 u) + (146)(1.8r  highenergy photon . and l particles. We'll work on nuclear energy in the next chapter. So the binding energy is 1. while we did mea^sure the atom compared to all of the electrons removed. Nuclear reactions involve much more energy than chemical reactions. Student: Student: And the ma^ss of the pieces is (e2)(1. but y€s. but not 238 neutrons.tH"*' P . Just keep track of your units.) B.984990 u  238. I\rtor: A '88U nucleus has 92 protons and 238 nucleons. Radioactive nuclei emit e. but is approximately the same. Student: What's a nucleon? Tutor: A nucleon is a proton or neutron in the nucleus. Student.e84ee0 u Is there a reason to keep so many significant figures? Yes. this is much more. Student: When we did atoms. It's normal to specify binding energies as positive. &s always.ss difference. Tty it. We're about to subtract a number that's pretty close to the number we have. is I.of the mass of a t'C nucleus.307 The mass of a nucleus is not equal to the atomic mass number. w€ would have one or two now. the energy was negative. The energy here is much greater than for an atom. and greater charge in the nucleus led to greater energies. The sum of the masses of the pieces minus the ma"ss of the nucleus is Tutor: 239.6 eV. The ma. T\rtor: Student: Ok y.050788 u  I. Student: So there are only 238 . Student: The binding energy is the difference in the ma"ss. Note that some nuclei have more and some less mass than the atomic mass number A.934202 atomic mass units. T\rtor: Correct. the deviation away from A is different for each isotope.!e or +1"* "y .934202 u)(931. Student: To get the binding energy. and gamma is a highenergy photon. Student: Okay.5. which includes the binding energy of that nucleus. When we do that. and occasionally neutrons. But we don't typically measure compared to all separate pieces. and others are radioactive. I multiply by 931. a beta is the same as an electron.934202 u T\rtor: If we had only kept three or four significant figures.92 .6 €V.146 neutrons.
Student: But I don't know what comes out. write down the first reaction. So that mean that A is 2I9. and A2I5. a highenergy photon. Z 83.rtgBi. I. This is not the same as the mass being conserved. and this will cause the mass afterward to be different from the mass before. So. we can determine one that is missing. lhtor: Nuclei have excited states. Student: Now the bismuth2l5 decays by gamma radiation. But the mass number A is conserved. so again we can determine any one missing mass number if we know the rest. so Z must be the same before and after.308 CHAPTER 42. followed by after the decays? f decay. Student: Okay. Sometimes we write a nucleus in an excited state with an asterisk. emitting a photon. like a variable. There's no way to derive or deduce the symbol just learn them or look them up. EXAMPLE F Astatine2l9 ('ltAt) decays by a decay. The mass number is also conserved in a nuclear reaction. based on 2. so the photon is very high energy.+2? Does T\rtor: Student: And the A's have to be the same. What isotope remains Tutor: Student: I don't know where to start. Since A and Z of the 7 photon are zero) the isotope afber should be the same as before. you 'ltAt tc. the charge is conserved. All o particles are two protons and two neutrons. *8r+2r1$Bi Student: What's so interesting about gamma decay? Why do we care? T\rtorr l rays will penetrate most things.rt$. An a or P decay can leave the nucleus in an excited state. %t$si*8r+2rlfBi How can you get gamma decay? Nothing happens. or 215? so Student: 219:4+A. and after a short time it decays.rtei8r +t? T\rtor: It's a photon. Trrtor: Leave it blank. .  ta +'rt!? Tutor: Student: What element is Z : 83? T\rtor: Look it up in a periodic table. The energies in the nucleus are much greater than for the electrons. right? The total A for each side is the same. like the At. The charge is expressed with the atomic number Z. By adding the Z's on each side. Student: Student: Student: How can the radiation particle have no mass and no charge? Photons don't have mass or charge. Z . or are carrying kitty litter with you. you might .{UCLEAR PITYSICS When a nucleus decays. The binding energies before and after will be different. . the same as a tnu nucleus. just like the electrons in orbit around the nucleus do.. Likewise8S . followed by B decay.83 is Bi for bismuth. So if you've recently had a nuclear medical procedure done. since the mass is not exactly equal to the mass number. so radioactive material can be detected from these gamma rays.rt$At tc. & B&mma ray.qt 2+2. Good.+2r1$Bi Student: Is alpha decay always a fa? T\rtor: Yes. .
And where do you find all of this information.8 milliseconds half of the polonium2l5 turns into lead2l1. I'm not going to do that. with each nucleus "deciding" independently when to decay. but the disintegration constant does not change. The units of ) are l/time. your chances Tntor: If it doesn't this information. Student: Kitty litter? Yes. When we said above that polonium2l5 has a halflife of 1. including 'rtiPo. Ttrtor: It has a halflife of 1. typically l/seconds but not always. then all of the nuclei would decay in one natural lifetime (R: Nl"). Is it p+ or p7 Student: But how do you know? T\rtor: I know because I looked it up. . of getting cancer will increase slightly. or whatever element you want.8 milliseconds.gou/wallet/ on the Web. the atomic number can go up. In beta decay. Student: 8t Student: What about 2]feot Where does it end? . On to the beta decay. The result of this is that the rate at which the nuclei decrease in number R is proportional to the number of nuclei l[. F_1 Tt/z ^ ln2 .R remained the same (it won't.309 set off a security detector.s\t : et/r :2t/Trt. of course). L rrtSgi L %tfpo g %Ltpu LrJrtBi 3 rgln.8 milliseconds. and has nothing to do with wavelength (*" just the Greek letter). are highly radioactive. ^. so does the number that decay per time. where l/6 is the size of the initial sample and Rs is the initial decay rate in nuclei per time. Lrglu Lrgtrpa T\rtor: Within four hours.bnl. The meaning of r is that. This may be expressed as . all of the astatine2I9 will have turned into \ead207.t?At g retSgi. isotopes in it. Do alpha and beta decay always alternate like that? just coincidence here. Student: Is polonium2l5 stable then? Tutor: Most isotopes of polonium. it is not true that after precisely 1.6 milliseconds all of the polonium2I5 will be gone. It has small amounts of radioactive Student: Isn't that dangerous? Student: say. R  . assume B. found at http://wluw. As the number of nuclei decrease. T is the mean life or natural lifetimg. which is the time needed for half of the sample to decay. or that after 3. R we get exponential decay. You can also find it at Wikipedia by searching forisotopes of polon'ium. if the decay rate . Emitted gammas can be used to detect radioactive material. Nuclear decay is a random process. Because these three forms of exponential decay are identical. A lethal dose of 'rtlPo is only T\rtor: Student: about 10e kg. Nuclear physicists are very good at compiling and disseminating 'rt5Bi > ?e + 2t ) ?P + 'rtiPo The atomic number goes up? "tfBi Yes. Trrtor: T\rtor: If you swallow it. T\rtor: At the nuclear wallet card.\ is the disintegration constant or decay constant. We often use the halflife Tr/z instead. nearly Thtor: Student: Student: No. Well.tr.nndc.Ar reuse If we solve the ensuing differential equation.
Of course. how long must you wait until the decay T\rtor: Tutor: There's l/. so it's . they would all decay 389 times in a second. or the final number N. A single cell has around 1012 to 1014 atoms.8 x 1017 atoms.\ Ttrtor: It's averyshort halflife. the decay rate is such that. with a halflife of 1. Student: +r.I multiply the initial number Ab by ).781 ms In2 Student: What does 0. As the number of atoms declines. True. Only a very small fraction of the uranium decays every second. What's 20 decays/second? Ttrtor: Student: That's the final decay rate. if it continued. Student: It just seemed like a big number.09 x 1020 atoms/s T\rtor: Student: That's a lot.9%. but 100 /rg is really small. Now to find the initial rate Ro. If the rate was negative. /\r0 2t/rr/z the initial decay rate from the initial number N0. Student: And I need to find when it drops to only 20 per second. If you knew the initial decay rate Ro.2):111 ms . Student: Okay. No.8 x 1017 atoms)  1.WU has ahalflife Student: That seems fast. or 38. Ro.9007o decays in a second. then you could find the time.389. We won't get a negative time. so does the decay rate. right? Because of the short halflife. T.781 milliseconds.R. 1 mole of polonium2l5 would  (100 x r0o s) x f t/ 6'01:10'?3) \ x 1012 atoms 2LbS / 2.rz h(*)) +'2 \ Ro trr/z' /nr Tutor: Are you bothered by the minus sign? Is it because the number of atoms is decreasing? Tutor: No.\= 5 x 101E ls. i. Student: But then 389 per second means that 389% decays in a second! T\rtor: It means that 38. this will eventually drop. Tt/2. seems like a lot. Where do we start? Are there any that you know? Student: The halflife Tt/z is 1.389 /t mean? T\rtor: It means that a fraction of 0. and the log of a number less than one is negative.281 ms) (62. t/z *.4f0  (389 liQ. 100 tlg of polonium2l5 has 2. the decay rate does not stay constant. Yes. But as the number of atoms decreases. and ). Ttrtor: Student: That Tt/z 1. T\rtor: Very good. NUCLEAR PHYSICS EXAMPLE Given a 100 pg sample of polonium2l5.781 rate has dropped to 20 decays/second? ils. fto: ^. Student: Ah! R < Ro.310 CHAPTER 42.2t/r./.h("t) :#h(ffi) In2 (1. T\rtor: Consider that you have between 1027 and 1028 atoms in you. decays in a time of 1 millisecond. and 1017 isn't that much. of about 5 billionyears.8 Yes. so . Yes. because there are fewer atoms to decay. R. R^Ir # Student: I'll try to find have a mass of 215 grams. the sign would disappear when we divide the two rates.
Student: How dangerous is radiation? We measure the energy that the radiation deposits in the body. alphas interact with the first thing they can.000 years &Bo. then the thing died one halflife ago. The modern unit is the sievert. so it's the expected life of a single atom. No.\^nf Student: Student: ^nf Student: It only takes 111 milliseconds? How many atoms are left when this happens? or find the decay from the original number N0. where 1 rad .2 : 0. Ttrtor: T\rtor: that fast. which is stable and doesn't decay. T\rtor: Correct. If the ratio of carbonl4 to carbonIz is half what it would naturally be. tr  Ab2 t/rrrz . Of course. T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: So you couldn't even get a decay rate of 20 per second. They also don't penetrate very far you could defend yourself from a beam of alphas with one page of this book. When we find something organic that died.  Ns2t/Trr.1J/kg (t Gy . of course. Anythirg old will be in rads and rems.781 ms Student: 103 + 2. but for alphas it is 1020.100 rad). For things that died 50. Some radiation does more damage than others. does it? So how does this carbon dating work? People have carbon in their bodies. and anything new and from the government will be in grays and sieverts. Tbaditionally. then add one natural lifetime.01 JlkS of flesh. multiply the rads by the quality factor. Because gammas interact weakly. So what does this mean? Remember that even a single atom would have a decay rate of 389 decays per second. so little of the carbon has decayed that carbon dating isn't useful. + . Student: But the halflife of carbonl4 is 5700 years. To defend yourself from a beam of betas. Atoms. To get the rems.106 ms for them to all decay. _ (Z. Because they interact strongly. you would want to block them with the whole book. The quality factor for gammas is 1. they penetrate much better. To block a beam of gammas. but you can get a reasonably good estimate.0. Student: I can use R. so the new unit is l gray .g x 10tt) 202. where more or less means it could be a few milliseconds more or less. and grays times quality factor is sieverts. more or less. Because the damage from alphas is localized and more extensive.0b T\rtor: T\rtor: How can you have less than one atom? You can't. you would need a couple inches of lead. are quantized. we use rems rather than rads to describe the damage. we can measure the ratio of carbonl4 to carbonL2. and some of it is carbonl4. How long would it take until all of them have decayed? You can't say for sure when that happens. Student: Why a natural lifetime instead of a halflife? T\rtor: That's the time it takes for all of them to decay once at the current rate. but the halflives are very short.311 T\rtor: It takes 62 halflives.Tt/' h (#) In2 _loams _ oA b#h(#) rlrr2 Student: But not everything No. and dump all of their energy in a small volume. T\rtor: For things that died last week.6 . decays Tt/z 1. all units should be 1. while gammas have no charge and interact weakly. this energy is measured in rads. there is so little carbon left that it is hard to measure. Alpha particles have more charge and mass and interact more strongly. . can you? No. Find the time that it takes to get to one atom.
(Other sources include medical xrays. EXAMPLE 'zfllV has a halflife of 4. J"U r.019b J Radiation does damage at the molecular level. The effect of small doses is incredibly hard to measure. One rad is 0. So I need to convert it into seconds. even LCD wristwatches. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: So the question is. Student: And each decay produces 4. like plutonium.3 MeV. htmQ . How much does a typical adult weigh? Student: And Student: Oh. because we want the 300 millirems to be in a year.6xfu x ffi 1 Mev .s. how much 'z$fU would cause a dose of 300 millirems? Yes. 30 mrad x 0. much like AIDS.001 1 *rua radx 0. It's about 10. The EPA has a Web site where you can estimate your annual dose (http : / / w'tlt D. but also short enough that it decays before you die of other causes. Good. .01 J llr5. Student: Now I need to know how many decays it takes to get that much energy. so it's only 30 millirads. 400500 rem in a short period of time is fatal it kills off the white blood cells and the victim dies of infection over the next couple of months. Student: Is an extra 300 millirems dangerous? T\rtor: The 300 millirems we get can't be too dangerous.01 J lks x (65 kg)  ffi 0. Radon has a halflife of 4 days long enough to breathe it. and we want to know how much is dangerous.3 MeV. I. T\rtor: Student: That's not a lot of energy in a year. increased cosmic rays during air travel. NUCLEAR PHYSICS How much radiation is too much? A person typically gets 300400 millirem per year of radiation. you die of something else before most of the nuclei have decayed.3T2 CHAPTER 42. Doubling this dose shouldn't be too dangerous. I need to know the kilograms. About half of the 300400 millirems is from radon ga.) Uranium in the ground decays through a string of decays into radon gas. (o. T\rtor: Yes. because the effects are so small that they are indistinguishable from other effects. For somethittg with a much longer halflife. Student: If we divide by the energy in each decay.22 x 1011 MeV 4.1'22x 1011 MeV T\rtor: Student: Is that a lot of MeV? That's why we do the math. It doesn't take many joules to break molecular bonds. 1 rem is 0. Long halflives are not the greatest danger. we can find the number of decays. Estimate how much t88U you would have to swallow so that the added radiation dose would effectively double your annual dose. It's impossible to avoid radiation altogether. or we would all be dead. ep a.83 x 1010 decays T\rtor: Student: Remember that this is per year. about 65 kg. to proteins and DNA. g o u / ra di ati o n / stu d ent s / calculat e .5 billion years and decays via o emission with an energy of 4.o1e5 J) x . Higher doses can cause other bodily malfunctions.3 MeV  2. What is the quality factor of the alphas? Student: Oops. I\rtor: Estimate.01 J lk1.
and it goes into the air.5 .01 milliremf year from nuclear power plants.tot='/{t ro 1.gx1020atoms .!:. Student: I'm not going to swallow anything radioactive! Many foods contain trace amounts of radioactive isotopes.. . What's the weight of a uranium238 atom? 238 grams per mole. lt. like potassium4O.ly. need Student: R)N Tutor: Student: T\rtor: It + N.\ 1. The average person gets 40 millirem from food each year. Student: What about nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs? About 1 millircmf year from all past bomb tests.54 x 10. and about 0. But it's only seven times shorter. In a nuclear power plant the radiation is contained. . Student: Now that I have R and ). or Avogadro's number. Yes. What about other decays? Doesn't uranium238 turn into something radioactive. so that we to include that as well? TUtor: Excellent thinking. .02 x 1023 atoms :0. because there are trace radioactive isotopes in the coal. and it ends up as uranium234. so it doesn't change too much. (1. Should we be worrying about other isotopes? is true that about I% of.313 Tutor: You could.naturally occurring uranium is z$lV.'flt. but they have low energ"y.\ . and 99 times less of it.yTt/z 4.ro ly. so very little of this will decay before we get hit by a truck or otherwise perish. and years is a perfectly good unit of time.073g:73mg T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: So don't go swallowing more than 70 milligrams of uranium. and that this isotope has a shorter halflife. Coal plants release more radiation than nuclear plants.?= x 10e yr  1 . I can find N.b4 x 10. it is followed by two beta decays. Uranium234 has a halflife of a quarter of a million years.8x1020atoms)x ' 6. But we have the halflife in years.
If the two pieces formed are more stable. it would take They would then "nrrry.) If we were to break the molecules into their pieces. (The energies in chemistry are not defined the same way as in physics. then more energy would be given off than we put in to start the reaction. The maximum for binding energy per nucleon occurs at !8p". If two small nuclei merge into one larger piece that is closer to iron56. and release energ"y. and energy is given off. and have lower energy or more binding energy.. If the new molecules wer. The pieces then form into new nuclei. w€ call it fusion. form new molecules. where a large nucleus splits into two pieces. much like extracting energy from fossil fuels. from an energy point of view. *or. than the initial nucleus. so positive energies are possibl. then more energy comes off than we put in to start the process. Carbon dioxide (COz) and water (HzO) are relatively stable molecules. 314 . The binding energy of the large nucleus is the energy that we have to put in to separate the nucleus into its pieces. Because the number of nucleons does not change. If a large nucleus splits into two pieces that are closer to iron56. This is the energy that we would have to put in to separate the molecule into its pieces. Most of the energy that we use is chemical energy. w€ measure stability in binding energy per nucleon. stable than the old ones. and comes from the chemical reactions of fossil fuels. so about 8 eV of energy is given off every time we do this Now consider the process of nuclear fission. we call it fission. and energy is given off. Each molecule has a binding energy.Chapter 43 Energy from the Nucleus How do we extract energy from the nucleus? The process works. seek lower energies. Consider the reaction when we burn methane: CHa + 2O2 ' COz * 2HzO reaction.
d ta h LI o t*Dy . and a chain reaction that keeps the process going. The energies involved in nuclear reactions .Lm. and it's rubidium. Notice that the energy is L72 rnega electron volts. bo lra >.t) t Am Lm E . Student: Ais  onthe left. A TJ \/ o U u F.008665. Z \s g2ontheleft.185239 u)(931. 1. right? 236 Yes. [n + 'z$fiv '$Ic' + T\rtor: Very good.172MeY T\rtor: Tutor: Student: So what's new? Nothing. We look Z . plus two or three loose neutrons.rr.}Eu Tutor: and Z + '$Ic'+ t? +3[n Student: Figuring out the missing piece is just matching the A's and Z's. so I37+A+3 236. s2 0. like previous chapter.315 oCd l{tp. . Where do we T\rtor: They are conveniently located in the previous chapter.5 MeV/") . 95 !r.185239 u : (0.37 up in the periodic table. So? Student: The energy of burning methane was 8 electron volts. and A96. just like previous chapter. causing more fissions. ori d \J  F 100 Mass number A tr .907089 u * 95.r  How do we split a large nucleus? We smack it with a neutron. {. Student: To find the energy. These extra neutrons can smack other nuclei. find the masses? ?q Rb + 3 fin w€ find the difference in masses. L. +0:92.934272 u * 3(1.043930 u  136. EXAMPTE Determine the missing "fission fragment" and the energy released in the reaction [n + .008665 u + 235. qJ bo L. This process results in two smaller pieces. so55+ Z 37.
Student: So this is what the CIA looks for? Tntor: Yes.38 x 1026 MeV) lQ00 MeV) then we need I. we need to know how much material is significant. for T\rtor: Student: What about Chernobyl? example. Wasn't there a lot of radioactive material released? There was. E]VERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS are 100 million times larger. T\rtor: But reasonable estimates are that an invasion would have resulted in 50 times as many deaths as the explosions. are the problem. so this number is not substantially worse than what we already suffer. but about 40. In an HEU bomb. and strontium are the worst. Radioactive iodine lands on the grass. The smaller pieces. EXAMPLE The bombs used in World War II had energy yields of about 13 kilotons. The average is about 200 MeV per fission. any death is Student: .. (1. called fission fragments. to prevent proliferation of bombs now.any death is a tragedy. More important. They are highly radioactive. There were about 8000 additional thyroid cancers in the area because of the accident. once a neutron causes one fission. with much shorter halflives. cesium. there were perhaps 2000 more due to cancer. there are many neutrons around and the chain reaction happens very fast.316 CHAPTER 43. because they have long halflives so they decay slowly. Also. 235 x l024. Student: Only 9 people died in Chernobyl? T\rtor: The United Nations did a study and concluded that the death toll wa^s about 60. But the most dangerous materials were the fission fragments with halflives of days. How much enriched uranium would you need to make such a bomb? T\rtor: Again. but there could be others. is drunk by people.02 x 1023 atoms )(ffi) 066kg . for the capability to enrich uranium from I% U235 to g0% in substantial quantities. and there were only 9 deaths due to thyroid cancer. That many people die on American roads every month. But we have many more deaths from other causes. Student: But what about the nuclear waste? T\rtor: The uranium and plutonium aren't the problem.6 x 1025 MeV)  3. One kiloton is 2.000 of the surrounding population would be expected to die from cancer anyway.38 x 1026 MeV T\rtor: Tutor: The fission above gave I72 MeV.7 x 1024 atoms. and then the iodine collects in the thyroid gland. we need to use the isotope uranium235. Each mole is 235 grams. (3.7 g 1 . Yes. So to get the same amount of electricity. w€ use 107 to 108 times less fuel.. Student: Isn't this a little morbid? Student: Ok y. w€ need to have one onehundred millionth as many nuclear reactions. so 2000 more is hard to detect.atragedy. including coalburning power plants. Uranium235 comprises about I% of naturally occurring uranium. or years. Student: And by using nuclear power. but we need 4% 28tU for a reactor an d 90% '88U for a highly enriched uranium bomb. 13 kilotons is Student: (13) (2.6 x 1025 MeV.7 x 1024 fissions How many kilograms is that? Student: If all of the U235 is fissioned. There are hundreds of possible fission reactions.tor) ( 6. goes into milk. Radioactive isotopes of iodine. Don't get me wrong . Fortunately thyroid cancer is treatable. gets eaten by cows. To achieve a substantial chain reaction. Uranium238 does not fission well. months.
Ttrtor: Student: That's not a lot! No it isn't. md the chain reaction doesn't turn into an explosion. the enrichment process is very challengiDg. so building a bomb sounds easier than it is. Ah. that isn't .317 enough to make a working bomb. Can't we just ban them or something? T\rtor: The knowledge of how to build them is too widespread to ever do that science works that way sometimes. too many neutrons leak out the side before causing more fissions. We have to find another way to keep them from ever being used again. With a piece that size. Flortunately. Student: That's a good thing.
They are one of a group of particles called leptons. and slam them together at high speed. bottom. The standard model of particle physics has been developed to explain these exotic particles. But whatever the pieces of a proton are. Quarks are never seen alone. Every particle also has an antiparticle. strange. charm. Groups of one quark and one antiquark are called gl@11g. Neutrinos interact very weakly. to the appendix. (Ashley Hopkins) . Over the last couple of decades it has been remarkably successful in interpreting the results of particle collisions. and they are paired with the other leptons. and protons are made out of . and atoms &re made out of protons. for example. Other leptons include the muon and the tau. so we don't encounter them very often and haven't needed them until now. There are three neutrinos. so let's save a little time and go straight some funny pictures and a mindbending plot twist. and top. perhaps another protoD. and the tau neutrino. and molecules are made out of atoms. and include protons (uud) and neutrons (udd). seriously. they are not made of anything else. If we want to separate a proton into its constituent pieces. the muon neutrino. Most of the neutrinos from the Sun pass through the Earth without interacting. . neutrons. We do this hoping that the kinetic energy will change to internal enerry and free the pieces of a proton so that we can examine them. These particles have short lifetimes. is a positron e*. Groups of three quarks are called baryons. There are also elusive leptons called neutrinos. An antielectron. funny you should ask. The other six elementary particles are the quarks. but only in groups. so that they are hard to detect. Leptons. and the Big Bang None of these things really exist. An antiproton is made of two antiup quarks and an antidown quark (uud). down. 318 Student conception of a muon. because otherwise they wouldntt stay together. then we need to add energy. Electrons are (currently believed to be) elementary particl that is. before learning that muons are subatomic particles. named after an obscure literary reference. Things are made out of molecules. and electrons. The most obvious result of slamming microscopic particles together is to create unusual particles like pions and kaons and exotic baryons.Chapter 44 auarks. . as well as protons and electrons. The typical method of doing this is to take a proton and something else. so that we call them the electron neutrino. they have less energy together than apart. Particles made of quarks are called hadrons. The six quarks are called up. which features No.
Even if the rest ma^ss afberward is greater. Student: First is energy. The charge beforehand is *1.319 Some Hadrons Baryons Mesons proton p neutron uud udd uuct antiproton p antineutron n ___. Student: Ok"y. and the positron is an antielectron. Almost. Student: So there is 1 electrontype lepton and +1 muontype lepton on the right. Neither of the things on the left is a lepton. Student: So the positron counts a^s 1 lepton? and the T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes. if any. if the two initial particles are moving fast enough then there would be enough energy. then the reaction can't happen. and also the tautype leptons. but there could be energy somewhere else. but no leptons on Student: . Student: Ah. Some ParticlePhysics Conservation Laws energy momentum charge leptonf (in families) baryonf strangeness EXAMPTE Which. the conservation laws one by one and check to see whether they're okay. we don't have the momentums so we can't check that one. The "in families" means that the number of electrontype leptons has to be the same. but the positron neutrino up are leptons.ss. so there are two on the right. The energy shows up as ma. T\rtor: Partially correct. it doesn't n*P+ e* *up+Eo *ro T\rtor: Student: I go through Okay. Student: Now we check leptonf .ss on the right is more than the ma"ss on the left. Then the number of leptons on the right is 1 plus *1 equals 0. lhtor: Good. So charge is okay.i p+ 5o udd uus uds dds USS E_ FO kaon 6+ kaon Ko kaon Ro kaon K pion zrUd pion zro uu or dd pion zr+ ud uS ds sd s[ There are many things that are conserved in all particle reactions. so if the ma. What about momentum? Student: How do I check momentum? T\rtor: While momentum is conserved. conservation laws does the following reaction violate? Fix the reaction so that violate any of the conservation laws. The electron is a lepton. and the number of muontype leptons has to be the same. T\rtor: Good thinking. so it's okay. and the charge afberward is *1 because of the positron e*. Ttrtor: Yes. kinetic energy.
it will fix the baryonf T\rtor: But then you'll have 2 strangeness on the right. Tutor: Correct. n * p+ * e* * u"+2to + ro +2Ko Yes. Student: And if I find the Higgs boson . T\rtor: You can't have more than two things on the left. T\rtor: A baryon has three quarks. QUARKS. Student: I'll add a E0 to the right to fix the baryon number. but now I have 2 strangeness on the right. why do they keep studying it? Tutor: There are limits to what we know. . Now I'll add two kaon K0 to the left so that the strangeness will be 2 on each side. Thtor: . This is one of many areas of research that continue in physics today. Student: None of the baryons listed have strange quarks. It is very difficult to get more than two things to collide all at once. Student: What if I add an antiEo on the right. but no one has ever observed one in an experiment. Student: Okay. so the reaction can't happen. and T\rtor: Correct. with strangeness 1. so having an antistrange quark makes it an antibaryon.320 cHAprER 44. Student: Oh. without adding charge. and to have a role in creating mass. and on the right only the 2o is a baryon. Tutor: You need to add one baryon and one antistrange quark to the right side. We would need another baryon on the right. and you need to add one baryon and +1 strange to the right. AIVD THE BIG BAIVG the left. that's right. For example. T\rtor: So to fix the reaction. a I0 ? That will have *1 strangeness. Thtor: Student: And if I add another E0 to the right. the Higgs boson is thought to exist. There are two baryons on the left. I\rtor: You'll receive the Nobel Prize in physics. LEprO_n\IS. .1. Student: If physicists understand all of this so well. Baryonff it can't happen? is next. . A strange quark has strangeness of . Student: The leptons will be fixed if I change the u* to a L/e) won't they? T\rtor: Yes. This is one of many reactions that are possible when a highenergy neutron and proton collide. T\rtor: Just count the number of strange quarks on each side. Student: So I need to add two kaons K0 to the right. Student: The only strange quark is in the E0 on the right. But then the baryon number on the right becomes zero. Student: And last is strangeness. There are fewer baryons afterward. you need to get the leptons conserved in families.
.sin2 0 . Some Common Taylor Series .1 *nr + f...1 *2r * 12 e* :1+ r***'+#"t+.. I tt + *)' .o.Mathematical Formulas Righttriangle: o2 r..*rt+...coso cos 0 +sino sinB cos2 0 ff) cos.  (1+ r)31 *3r*3r2+..  (1 + n)L/2 ..h*' +f...2sin2 0 sin(o + 0: sinocos P + cos asinB cos(o + P) ..2cos2 1 .1)*' +.r4+.1 . ..r :l .o..  (1 + n)2 12r*Br24rs +.. cosn. .1. . DrrI ' \ . sinr n*n3+*ru+..Lz**t*' .": ... *cos B2cos cos (+) a cos B 2 sin (ry).n(n..1 +*"t*' +#"t+. +b2 "2 sin2 0+cos2 0 . I tt *r)Llz 32r .3 +.. ln(l  . (1 + n)n *r) nL*' +irt+. (1 + *)L tansr* t"t +?u*' +.1.r_ .hypotenuse tan0opposite adjacent Quadratic equation: If Thigonometry an2*br*cQ then nry sin20 identities: )sin g cos 0 cos 20 sina*sin po^.("H) ...no tan 0 k adjacent sinp:ghypotenuse cos0.t" (+) (ry) .1n*12 r.
m2 as 0.y+ electron mass me 9.6605 x 1027 kg .013 x 105 N/' or pascals 1 cal .T.674 x 1011 N.3807 x 1023 J lK elementary charge e L6022 x 101e C universal gas constant R 8.022 x 1023 f mol Boltzmann constant k 1."astronomical unit") speed of sound in 20"C air 343 m/s acceleration of speed of light in SI Prefixes E P T G M k c m p n p f exa peta tera giga mega 1018 1015 1012 10e 106 103 kilo centi milli micro nano pico femto 102 103 10o LOe 1010 12 15 Conversion Factors 1 mile : 5280 ft (exact) 1 in .931 .s .998 x 108 m/s Newton's gravitation G 6.6704 x 108 W l^'.0 x 106 m) lQ") radius of Earth's orbit AU 1.8.999 eY f c2 proton rnass mp L6726 x 1027 kg .m circle: C 2rR sphere: A .27 MeY l"' neutron mass mn L6749 x 1027 kg .s W .109 x 1031 kg .938 .939.45  electric field current potential resistance capacitance volt ohm farad henry tesla ACl":YlQ V .JIC .m'lr'.80665 mf s2 vacuum c 2.2.s hc 1239.I.1868 J 3.4nR2 322 .602 101e J 1 atm .s  N/A.786 liter N = 0.99 x 10e N.2.A CI.4.84 nm.4.m/s: V'A force enerry power charge joule watt coulomb ampere 360' t hectare 1 pound  43.1.50 x 1011 m (AU .Jl.s 1 gallon (US)  1 eV .510.m2 lk1' Avogadro's constant I{n 6.4536 kg 4.606 eV Rydberg energy k Il(aneg) .3048 m 1 Units length meter second  1609 m time MASS y :365. .K .529 x 1010 m Bohr radius Ep 13.24 mph 1 acre  r x 107 s kilogram newton l* N .560 ft2 104 m2 CA.8542 x 1012 C2/N.N m: kg.Some Useful Constants and Data gravity g 9.2425 d = 1 m/s .(a0.m/s2 J .54 cm (exact) I ft 0.W.vlA N/C Ylrrr' FClvs/o T t hp 1 Tesla  746W  104 gauss inductance magnetic field HV.37 x 106 ID .494MeY f c2 atomic mass unit M@ 5.626 x 1034 J.565 MeY f c2 Tnu 1.).s/A:f.mzf s a.Nek Planck constant h 6.98 x 1024 kg mass of Earth radius of Earth B@ 6.136 x 1015 eV.3145 J/mol.eV hc for photon energy permeability constant Fo 4n x 10z a.m2 lC' Coulomb's law StefanBoltzmann constant o 5.mlA permittivity constant €s 8.N.kg.
1 2 H 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 He 10 Li 11 Be 12 B 13 C 14 N 15 0 16 F 17 Ne 18 Na 19 Mg 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Al 31 Si 32 P 33 S 34 CI 35 Ar 36 K 37 Ca 38 Sc 39 Ti 40 V 41 Cr 42 Mn 43 Fe 44 Co 45 Ni 46 Cu 47 Zn 48 Ga 49 Ge 50 As 51 Se 52 Br 53 Kr 54 Rb 55 Sr 56 Y Zr 72 Nb 73 Mo 74 Tc 75 Ru 76 Rh 77 Pd 78 Ag 79 Cd 80 In 81 Sn 82 Sb 83 Te 84 I 85 Xe 86 Cs 87 Ba 88 * ** 57 Hf 104 Ta 105 W 106 Re 107 Os 108 Ir 109 Pt 110 Au 111 Hg TI Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Rf 58 Db 59 Sg 60 Bh 61 Hs 62 Mt 63 Ds 64 Rg 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 * ** La 89 Ce 90 Pr 91 Nd 92 Pm 93 Sm 94 Eu 95 Gd 96 Tb 97 Dy 98 Ho 99 Er 100 Tm 101 Yb 102 Lu 103 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr .