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Planning of Full Optical Network
Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures: Functionalities, Configurations and Client Signals
• • • Managers, PNO Optical Network planners Experts on Standard Bodies (ITU T SG-13/15 and ETSI TM1 WG2/3) Optical systems and equipment manufacturers
For full publication
EURESCOM PARTICIPANTS in Project P709 are: • • • • • • • • •
Finnet Group Swisscom AG Deutsche Telekom AG France Télécom MATÁV Hungarian Telecommunications Company TELECOM ITALIA S.p.a. Portugal Telecom S.A. Telefonica S.A. Sonera Ltd.
This document contains material which is the copyright of certain EURESCOM PARTICIPANTS, and may not be reproduced or copied without permission All PARTICIPANTS have agreed to full publication of this document The commercial use of any information contained in this document may require a license from the proprietor of that information. Neither the PARTICIPANTS nor EURESCOM warrant that the information contained in the report is capable of use, or that use of the information is free from risk, and accept no liability for loss or damage suffered by any person using this information. This document has been approved by EURESCOM Board of Governors for distribution to all EURESCOM Shareholders.
© 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709
Considerations on Optical Network Architectures
(Prepared by the EURESCOM Permanent Staff) Network traffic is increasing at an unprecedented rate, driven by the dramatic growth of the Internet and corporate data communications. The evolution of photonics makes the development of optical switching and routing structures in the core and metropolitan part of the transport network possible. This brings an increase in capacity and reduces transport costs. The Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technique jointly with optical crossconnect (OXC), and Optical Add-Drop Multiplexing (OADM) equipment, will permit the realisation of a switched optical layer based on wavelength routing of semipermanent paths and fast protection/restoration mechanisms for the large amount of information flows carried on the optical links. As a consequence, the development of an optical network infrastructure will enable the flexible, reliable and transparent provision of transport services for any type of traditional and innovative services and applications. Taking into consideration the current trends, the objective of network planning is to find the best possible balance between network implementation cost, network flexibility, network availability and survivability, subject to service requirements and topological constraints. The aim of the P709 EURESCOM Project is to investigate a number of alternative strategies for the planning of the optical transport network - with massive deployment of WDM, OADM, and small size OXC - that will be used in a middle term future. This is the first Deliverable (D1) of P709. D1 provides an overview over network architectures, which potentially may be used in the future. It also summarises the requirements on optical networks as well as maturity and availability of optical functionalities. It should be noted that the Deliverable could not include all new functionalities of optical devices since it is an ongoing technology and due to the limited study period, this was not possible. P709 is a logical continuation of the P615 Project (Evolution towards an optical network layer) and some input from this Project was used in D1. D1 is a very useful study for Managers, Optical Network planners, and experts on Standard Bodies of ITU-T SG15 and ETSI TM1 (WG2 & WG3).
© 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709
page i (ix)
Considerations on Optical Network Architectures
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© 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709
Considerations on Optical Network Architectures
Optical WDM network is gaining more and more attention and is being implemented in a number of field trials. Several commercial products are appearing on the market with certain maturity. In USA, Europe and Japan, most of PNOs are planning to increase the capacity of their transport network with massive deployment of WDM point-to-point system as well as fixed OADM and small size OXC. The aim of EURESCOM Project P709 ‘Planning of full optical network’ is to investigate a number of alternative strategies for the planning of optical transport network. This Deliverable D1, the first one of P709 Project, concludes the results of Task 2 ‘Considerations on Optical Network Architectures’ activities. This document is aimed at those people who work on Network Planning for PNOs, Experts on Standard Bodies related to the optical technologies, systems and networks, or manufacturers building equipment for WDM networks. The fundamental idea of the document is to show how the WDM technique could bring new network architectures through the use of novel optical functions, and how the latter optical network layer could transport multi-client signals. It could provide companies with an overview of the state-of-the-art of optical functions, and useful considerations on optical network architectures impacting the network planning process. The first part of this Deliverable discusses the general characteristics of optical functions as they are available now or will be in the near future. Commercial WDM point-to-point systems are also described and compared. Different classes of network architecture, from the simple topologies to more complex structures are presented in Section 2 in order to select reference network architectures. The possible combinations of basic optical network architectures are collected, in relation with work carried out in P615 Project. The resulting selection of reference two-level network architectures is the following: • • • • CS-Ring architecture OMS-SP Ring architecture mesh-ring architecture ring-mesh architecture
The document goes on to discuss important network parameters which characterise the WDM networks in terms of architecture, demand, physical limitation, topology and survivability. In the last Section, the possibility to plan an optical network using a non SDH client signal is proposed. After a brief investigation into ATM and IP client signals performance and functionalities, multi-layer network configurations are proposed using IP, ATM, SDH and WDM network functionalities. A first evaluation of ATM over WDM, IP over SDH, IP over ATM and IP directly over WDM configurations is discussed. Main achievements of the Deliverable are: • identification of new optical functions considered necessary in order to enable the migration to WDM future optical networks or desirable to enhance offered network functionality
© 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709
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Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 • • • selection of optical network architectures contribution to determine the physical limitation and typical values of network characteristic parameters contribution to determine the ability of planning an optical layer carrying non SDH signals. The selected optical network architectures will be used in Task 3 and Task 4 in comparative studies of planning methodologies. While addressing considerations on optical network architectures. page iv (ix) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . network configurations and the possibility of carrying non SDH client signals are discussed. the elementary optical functionalities.
3 Leader PIR 2. Norway): Martjin Luyten (NL): Internal Reviewer External Reviewer External Reviewer © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page v (ix) .Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures List of Authors Jamil CHAWKI France Télécom BD-CNET Task 2 & PIR 2.2 leader António Jaime Ramos: Dag Roar Hjelme (Sintef.4 Leader António Jaime Ramos: Portugal Telecom/ CPRM-Marconi Hélder Gaspar: Eduardo Sampaio: Reinald Ries: Ralf Herber: Paulette Gavignet: André Hamel: François Tillerot: Géza Paksy: Teresa Almeida: Portugal Telecom/ CPRM-Marconi Portugal Telecom/ CPRM-Marconi Deutsche Telekom AG Deutsche Telekom AG France Télécom BD-CNET France Télécom BD-CNET France Télécom BD-CNET Hungarian Telecom MATAV Portugal Talcum PIR 2.
........1 1 Assessment of optical functionalities and WDM point-to-point systems .......6 Optical time domain multiplexing OTDM (Long term function) .. and Failure detection) ...................9 Space switch (matrix) .....................1..........................3...........16 2......................13 2.....2.............2 Optical signal monitoring functions (QoS......12 1.......1...1...12 1........................14 2..............................................1 Specific characteristics of optical network ...................................................13 2................11 1...................3 Parameters related to physical limitations.....................1 Wavelength conversion ............2 N x 2........1 Complex topologies .. iii List of Authors......................................................................12 1...................................1..................................................................................................Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 Table of Contents Preface ...................................................2......1...............................................................................1 Two-level CS-Ring architecture.......................................... viii Introduction ............12 2 Assessment of optical network architectures ................3......................7 1...19 2..........................................................13 2.............................................1 Description of a WDM point-to-point link.............................5 1.......................................10 1..........................................3 1.......................................3 1.....................................6 1.....................................................3......vi Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................17 2.4 Conclusion .....................2 Characteristic parameters ......4 1........................................2.................3....3.........................5 Dispersion compensation .......................................................4 1................................................................................1 Connected rings .........................2.............1.....3 Selection of reference network architectures ...................2.........19 2...........13 2...................................................5 Management functions .................1.......3......... restoration)..........................v Table of Contents ..2 WDM point-to-point Systems..6 Optical Amplifier OA......................11 1..................3.........................................5 Parameters related to architecture .........2 Parameters related to topology ....3 Optical 3R regeneration...............................................................6 1........11 1.2 Transmitter ............. 1R (EDFA) ...1.....5Gbit/s systems.....18 2.................................................1 Description of available functions.......................4 Transponder......................2............3 Identification of new/desirable optical functions ......................................8 Optical Add Drop Multiplexer OADM ...................4 1................13 2............................................................. optical spectrum...................1 Signal Transport (Single mode fibre)..................11 1............................................1....................13 2..............................3 1.........1..........5 1...................................................................................3 Receiver...............................................................6 Parameters related to the survivability approach .........3 Ring domains interconnected by a meshed trunk...........3 1...................................i Executive Summary.......................................................................................................15 2.........2...............................................................................7 Filters....2 Meshed domains interconnected by a ring trunk..........7 Optical packet switching (Long term function) .1.............................2......................20 page vi (ix) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .1............................................................8 1..........4 Parameters related to demands .................4 Network survivability (protection...........7 1...........................................................................................................................................................3...........
................. 21 2...3 Two-level mesh-ring architecture ................................ 28 3 Potential of WDM routing for different client signals........4...............................................................2 IP client signal ....................................................2 Identification of systems/components which introduce limitations... 33 3.......4 Two-level ring-mesh architecture .2 Configuration ATM over WDM ........................................................4...................................................5 Conclusion........................... 29 3..............................................3 Processes to overcome limitations at present and solve them in the future .......................... 30 3.3 ATM Performance Parameters................................................2.........................3 Network configurations required by ATM/IP client signals....5 Identification of Ranges of values.................Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 2.................................1 ATM client signal.....................5...................... 31 3....... 39 References............4 Configuration IP over SDH [10..................... 22 2.....6 Conclusions .............................. 25 2...........4...............3 Configuration IP over ATM  .................. 26 2.....................4............ 29 3....... 36 3...................................................4......4 Impact of non SDH client signal on the planning of optical network ...... 23 2.................................................. 30 3................................................................................1.............................5... 32 3.. 40 Appendix 1: Recent Progress in the Performance of Optical Transmission System Components ........ 11..........3........... RTP and RSVP ....................................................................................1..................... 20 2.......3........4..........1 Internet network layers and services ........................................................................... 29 3.......................................2... 29 3.............................................5 Characteristics of the selected optical network architectures ... 24 2.................... 33 3.......... 5].........3.....................1 Identification of mechanisms originating limitations [4............... 38 4 Conclusion ......................................... 37 3....................................................................... 12] .... 23 2..5 Configuration IP over WDM .................... 41 © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page vii (ix) ......................................................1 ATM over SDH over WDM : SDH protection vs..........4................................................1...........................................2 Two-level OMS-SP Ring architecture ................................... WDM protection......................3.............. 22 2..................................................1 ATM Network functionalities and physical layer................................4 Identification of physical network parameters limitation .. 37 3...........2 ATM Services .................. 26 2............................ 35 3...1 Functional layer characteristics .............................. 25 2....2 Ranges of values ................................4.......................2 IP protocols : IP v4/v6..................... 29 3.......................
Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 Abbreviations AAL ABR ACK APS ATM AWG BER CBR CBFG CDV CER CLR CMR CS Ring DA DCF DFF DSF EDFA FTP FWM HDLC IP IPv4 / v6 LAN LLC MAPOS MCTD MS MSP MS-SP Ring OA OADM ATM Adaptation Layer Available Bit Rate ACKnowledgement Automatic Protection Switching Asynchronous Transfer Mode Arrayed Waveguide Grating Bit Error Rate Constant Bit rate Chirped Bragg Fibre Grating Cell Delay Variation Cell Error Ratio Cell Loss Ratio Cell Miss-insertion Rate Coloured Section Ring Dispersion Accommodation Dispersion Compensating Fibre Dispersion Flattened Fibre Dispersion Shifted Fibre Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier File Transfer Protocol Four Wave Mixing High level Data Link Control Internet Protocol Internet Protocol version 4 / version 6 Local Area network Logical Link Control Multiple Access Protocol Over SDH Mean Cell Transfer Delay Multiplex Section Multiplex Section Protection Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring Optical Amplifier Optical Add Drop Multiplexer page viii (ix) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .
Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures OC or OCH OC-DP Ring O/E OMS OM-SDP Ring OMS-SP Ring OPS OSC OTDM OTS OXC PDU POH PPP QoS RSVP RTP SDH SDXC SHR SMF SNAP STM TCP UBR UDP VC VP WDM WWW Optical Channel Optical Channel Dedicated Protection Ring Opto-Electronic Optical Multiplex Section Optical Multiplex Section Dedicated Protection Ring Optical Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring Optical Protection Switching Optical Supervision Channel Optical Time Division Multiplexing Optical Transmission Section Optical Cross Connect Protocol Data Unit Path Over Head Point-to-point Protocol Quality of Signal / Service Resource Reservation Protocol Real Time Protocol Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Digital Cross Connect Self-Healing Ring Single Mode Fibre Sub Network Attachment Point Synchronous Transport Module Transfer Control Protocol Unspecified Bit Rate User Datagram Protocol Virtual Circuit of ATM or Virtual Container of SDH Virtual Path of ATM Wavelength Division Multiplexing World Wide Web © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page ix (ix) .
different classes of network architecture. is also identified. the most important network parameters which characterise the WDM networks from the point of view of architecture. In Section 2. The purpose of this document is to show how the WDM technique could bring new network architectures through the use of available and forthcoming optical functions. From these possible network functionalities described in Section 1. multi-layer network configurations are proposed using IP. topology and survivability. based on network interconnections. The first part of this Deliverable discusses the general characteristics of optical functions as they are available now or will be in the near future. The optical functions needed for the future WDM networks are progressing rapidly. advanced functions such as wavelength conversion and optical nodes. Finally. The Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technique jointly with optical nodes will permit the wavelength routing of semi-permanent paths and fast protection/restoration mechanisms in the optical layer. The resulting selection of reference two-level network architectures is the following : • • • • CS-Ring architecture OMS-SP Ring architecture mesh-ring architecture ring-mesh architecture The selected optical network architectures will be used in Task 3 and Task 4 in comparative studies of planning methodologies. ATM. and identifies characteristic parameters. Commercial WDM point-to-point systems are described and compared. As a logical continuation of the P615 Project (Evolution towards an optical network layer). and how the latter optical network layer could be compatible with the transport of signals with various formats. are summarised. the possibility to plan an optical network using a non SDH client signal is proposed. It also provides more complex network configurations. Physical limitation and typical values of network characteristic parameters are presented in the last part of this section. are presented in Section 2 in order to select reference network architectures. in Section 3. After a brief investigation into ATM and IP client signals performance and functionalities. A set of new optical functions considered necessary in order to enable the migration to WDM future optical networks or desirable to enhance offered network functionality. from the simple topologies to more complex structures. this document provides results from the investigation of the commercially available and the desirable optical functionalities especially concerning optical amplifiers. A first evaluation of ATM © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 1 (42) . Beyond the scope of the P615 Project. some input from this Project was used in this document. the evolution of the optical technologies makes the development of optical switching and routing structures in the core and metropolitan part of the transport networks possible. demand.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Introduction In order to cope with the increasing network traffic driven by the dramatic growth of the Internet and corporate data communications. SDH and WDM network functionalities. physical limitation.
Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 over WDM. IP over ATM and IP directly over WDM configurations is discussed. IP over SDH. page 2 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .
.1. is kept non zero at a value optimised in order to produce minimum distortions due to the combined effects of non-linearity and dispersion. Thus it is necessary to update the information on the presently available optical functions. a list of desirable optical functions will be discussed in the last paragraph. will be presented. In this first section of the Deliverable. The most relevant properties of transmission fibres are attenuation..5 True wave 1. With attenuation values close to that of SMF its dispersion.565 ? <2.5 Table 1: Characteristic data for some types of single mode fibres 1. 1. however. The state-of-the-art of optical components and of realised functions which can be used in WDM optical networks.1 Description of available functions Signal Transport (Single mode fibre) All-optical networks are based on a passive fibre infrastructure which serves as the physical transport medium between the network nodes. Key features of these devices are : • • • optical output power modulation bandwidth dispersion tolerance 0 to +10 dBm 10 GHz 1000 to 10000 ps @ STM-16 © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 3 (42) .312 17 DFF 1. Among these is the set of the available optical functions which is to be used for the construction of the network under consideration. offers a high dispersion tolerance through the use of electroabsorption modulator on the same laser chip.2 Transmitter Laser diode with direct and integrated modulation The standard optical transmitter element in WDM systems is a laser diode.7 DSF >1.655. The performance of available WDM systems (point-to-point) will be compared.  .Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 1 Assessment of optical functionalities and WDM pointto-point systems Optical network planning activities have to reflect a variety of physical as well as practical conditions and constraints in order to produce useful results. dispersion and non-linearity. Fibre type Zero dispersion wavelength (µm) Dispersion coefficient at 1.652 .56 0.1 1. as they are available now or will be in the near future. however. Standard single mode fibres (SMF) as well as dispersion shifted or flattened fibres (DSF. the state-of-the-art of optical functions. DFF) are commercially available with standardised properties according to ITU-T recommendations G. is progressing very rapidly.518 -1 – 5. In this part such results are already available from EURESCOM P615 Project.1 – 3.1. Finally. TrueWave® fibre also is a kind of dispersion manipulated fibre. Integrated laser modulation. ILM.km) SMF 1. In table 1 the characteristic data of various fibre types are summarised .55µm (ps/(nm.535 – 1.
. Most WDM system manufacturers rely on transponders as input interface into the WDM system.05 nm Laser diode with external modulation External modulation is used in order to reduce the chirp of the optical transmitter and thus increase its dispersion tolerance. Transmitter modules are available for 10 Gbit/s transmission and in laboratory systems modulation bandwidth of 100 GHz has been demonstrated. Transponders accept 1. Frequency. 2. Some manufacturers still offer devices with output frequencies not matching the ITU-T recommendations concerning the WDM channel frequencies. They are available now for bit rates up to 10 Gbit/s.or phase modulated optical input signals cannot be used with transponders.) and bit rate (155 Mbit/s. ATM. Dispersion compensating fibre Dispersion compensating fibre (DCF) is a special type of fibre which for light in the 1. State-of-the-art optical receivers reach sensitivities close to –30 dBm for 2.5 Gbit/s. 1. 1.5 Dispersion compensation Besides fibre attenuation it is the effect of fibre chromatic dispersion which mainly limits the achievable repeater spacing in optical links.g.3 Receiver Optical receivers are found in optical line terminations and in transponders where they convert the signal from the optical into the electrical domain.km). –20 dBm) for devices from different manufacturers.. 1.km) in SMF. This signal is used to modulate a laser diode optical transmitter which produces the required optical carrier frequency.as well as 1. The input sensitivity varies considerably (-5 dBm . SDH. 622 Mbit/s.3 µm... As chromatic dispersion is a linear effect it can be compensated by inserting additional appropriate optical elements into the transmission link.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 • stability & accuracy of optical frequency 0. 10 Gbit/s) within the limits of the specifications. In fibre optical transmission lines the dispersion effect increases linearly with fibre length and width of the optical spectrum and causes pulse distortion and bit interference. Thus 1km of DCF is needed to compensate the dispersion of about 5 km of SMF as the corresponding value is 17 ps/(nm.1.5 Gbit/s and around –20 dBm for 10 Gbit/s (BER 10E-10).1. page 4 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .55 µm input signals and their output powers are around 0dBm. Transponders which do not regenerate the input signal will work with any type of intensity modulated digital (binary) client signal independent of signal format (e. The origin of the latter effect is the variation of the group delay as a function of the optical frequency. The receiver converts the optical input signal into the electrical domain where it is amplified and sometimes even reshaped and re-timed.55 µm wavelength region has negative dispersion coefficient in the order of –80 ps/(nm.1. Apart from reduced width of the optical spectrum the other properties are the same as for directly modulated laser diodes.4 Transponder Transponders are opto-electronic frequency converters which basically consist of an optical receiver and transmitter.
The saturated output power is the upper limit of the total output power from the amplifier for high input power. the typical insertion loss is 5 dB and the crosstalk is 25 dB (figure 1). Typical values range from 13 dBm to 17 dBm while EDFAs with output powers of up to 30 dBm are commercially available.6 Optical Amplifier OA. Presently compensation bandwidth of only some hundreds of GHz achievable with one CBFG is more limited compared to DCF. for an AWG. They are commonly used with optical circulators to obtain the OADM functionality. It depends on the number of channels and on total link length. The power gain is calculated as the ratio of output to input signal power of the amplifier.6dB/km is still considerably larger than that of SMF. This device has the advantages of being low loss. 16 or 32 channels with 100 © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 5 (42) . Therefore it is not possible to achieve perfect dispersion compensation in a large frequency range. their non-linearity is practically zero which may be particularly important in very high bit rate systems with 10 Gbit/s and more. The system relevant optical properties of EDFAs are: power gain. 1R (EDFA) Erbium doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs) are one of the key building blocks of WDM systems. with a narrow pass-band characteristic (0. Chirped Bragg fibre grating Using chirped Bragg fibre gratings (CBFG) is another option for dispersion compensation.5 nm) and potentially low cost. In recent years. optical bandwidth and polarisation mode dispersion.7 Filters Fibre Bragg Grating Filters These filters are based on photosensitivity in Ge-doped core optical fibres. A wider bandwidth can be achieved through the use of longer gratings or cascaded gratings. 1. fibre Bragg Gratings have proven successful as in line filters. They allow the economical power amplification of all the signals in the different WDM channels. Components are commercially available for 8. The other type is an integrated optic device (SiO2 or InP) called Arrayed Waveguide Grating. But the requirement of additional circulators or couplers may be regarded as a drawback. The attenuation of DCF with typical values around 0. These devices provide a low loss solution.1. 1. reflection gratings are written by illuminating the fibre with a standing wave interference pattern. This value directly determines the maximum link segment attenuation between consecutive EDFAs. saturated output power. Diffraction Gratings and Phased Arrayed Gratings Grating devices are suited to address several wavelengths simultaneously because they pass a discrete set of predefined wavelengths. In practical links this value varies from below 20 dB to 30 dB.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures The value of the dispersion coefficient varies as a function of optical frequency in DCF as well as in SMF. the first one is a micro-optic diffraction grating. Two types are available. On the other hand. noise figure. This is a very promising technology for fixed filtering with a channel spacing in the nm range. they work in reflection mode and therefore optical circulators or fibre couplers are necessary to separate input and output signal. However. Tuneable filtering is obtained by stretching the fibre where the Bragg filter is deposited. The typical insertion loss per channel of a diffraction grating device is 3 dB with a -30 dB adjacent crosstalk level.1.
Various approaches have been followed to perform the switching function. Indeed 8 channels can be added or dropped at each amplifier site in the Ciena Multiwave 4000 and 12 in the Pirelli Wavemux. electro-statically or piezo-electrically deflected micro mirrors for the switching of the optical signal. Due to the required mechanical movements of part the switching times page 6 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . two main suppliers are offering them : Ciena and Pirelli.1. Figure 2 indicates where this function can be introduced in a WDM point-to-point system. motors.8 Optical Add Drop Multiplexer OADM Concerning optical add and drop facilities.9 Space switch (matrix) Switching matrices are available which are suited for realising of flexible OADMs and OXCs. The available add/drop functions are fixed but selectable add/drop facilities have already been announced as well as reconfigurable OADMs and OXCs. Devices relying on mechanical operation contain actuators.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 or 200 Ghz channel spacing and the insertion losses for a transit wavelength are 6 to 10 dB.g. Figure 1: Spectral response of a wide pass-band AWG 1.1. W DM te rm in al W DM te rm in al a m p lifie rs tra n sit d ro p a d d Figure 2: Possible position of an add/drop function in a WDM point-to-point system 1. It shows the example of insertion and extraction of channels at an amplifier site. This is planned for the next years but to our knowledge no exact dates have been given. e.
then the performances of the WDM products will be compared and finally we will give some elements concerning the future functionalities (OADMs and OXCs). the signals which feed the WDM terminal must be able to be transmitted on dispersive fibre (standard fibre G. We have considered a system which processes a bi-directional transmission over two fibres (which is more often the case) with in-line amplification. The non-amplified systems will not be considered in this document.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures achieved so far range from 30ms to 500ms. Each of the optical signals coming from SDH (or SONET) terminals (or ADMs) is sent into a transponder (optional or not) used to provide a wavelength compatible signal to the WDM terminal. we will describe what is generally called a WDM point-to-point system. 1. With respect to insertion losses and channel crosstalk wave-guide devices do not perform as well as mechanical switching matrices. Technology actuator size insertion loss (dB) switching time (ms) channel isolation (dB) mechanical motor mirror Electro-static thermal polymer thermal 8 x 8 8x8 27 x 27 8 2 50 8 2 40 8x8 8 <2 30 Electro.2 WDM point-to-point Systems First.2. Moreover. Another terminal. similar to the first one is placed at the end of the line and the signals are either directly received by the SDH terminal or via a transponder.1 Description of a WDM point-to-point link Figure 3 shows what is commonly called a WDM point-to-point system (in the broken-line rectangle). Wave-guide devices which make use of thermal or electro-optic effects are considerably faster as can be seen in table 2 which contains data of various switching matrices. Then.optic 64 x 64 8 x 8 16 x 16 100 x 100 64 x 64 2 500 60 2 30 60 4 40 60 Table 2: Characteristic features of optical switching matrices 1. (transponders) SDH interfaces WDM terminal WDM terminal (transponders) SDH interfaces SDH interfaces SDH interfaces amplifiers Multi-wavelength system (WDM) Figure 3: WDM point-to-point system description © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 7 (42) . the optical multiplex is launched into the transmission fibre and regularly amplified (each 80 to 120 km) by optical amplifiers (so without opto-electronic conversion). The WDM terminal contains a multiplexer (or a coupler) and a booster for one direction and a preamplifier and a demultiplexer in the other direction.652) over several hundreds of kms (typically 500).
configuration and performance information. Moreover. giving an idea of the optical bandwidth that is used for the transmission. G. The target transmission distance over G. In fact. This is the maximum bit rate available with existing SDH TDM equipment (STM-64).653 or G. the transmission of 10 Gbit/s optical signal is difficult. It indicates the supplier and the name of the product.652 standard fibre but some suppliers like Lucent also recommend G. Some of the systems accept both 2. The systems are designed for G. The systems with transponders in the WDM terminal are sometimes called ‘open systems’ (because they can theoretically accept various input signal formats). The channel grid is defined with 100 GHz interchannel spacing (193. Systems without this feature are called ‘embedded systems’ (they are less flexible but the cost can be reduced compared to the open systems). emission.1 THz is the reference frequency).5 Gbit/s WDM systems with in-line amplification. Some systems are already announced for a total capacity of 200 Gbit/s and more with a number of wavelengths reaching 80 (and even 96). the distance between amplifiers and the maximum distance that can be reached (it depends on the number of spans that can be cascaded).2. detection. We can see that the increase in the number of wavelengths has led to the reduction of the channel spacing from 200 GHz to 50 GHz (0. the maximum bit rate capacity. 1. page 8 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 The management of the system is made using an Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) at a wavelength (very often outside the multiplex) which is dedicated to transporting fault. Concerning the Nx2. the maximum bit rate per channel at the input of the WDM terminal (or the transponder) is 10 Gbit/s. This channel is processed in the WDM terminal sites and also in each amplifier site (demultiplexing.2 N x 2. and 120 km (5 spans). processing.4 nm).655 fibre. the ITU-T recommendation G.5 and 10 Gbit/s input rates (they will be indicated hereafter) and also lower rates (155 and 622 Mbit/s). many WDM systems use the multiplexing of 2. multiplexing).652. Today. due.692 addresses 4 or 8 channels multiplexed together (with a possible extension to 16 or 32). to chromatic dispersion and polarisation mode dispersion (PMD) limitations.5Gbit/s systems Table 3 shows the performance of the WDM systems on which information is available.5 Gbit/s signals. essentially. The channel spacing is also indicated.655 fibre is 640 km with nominal span lengths of 80 (with 8 spans). the availability.
8 1 2 0 y e s 4 0 0 4 0 (9 6 ) 4 (to 1 6 ) 8 0 . which proposes a switching from the working transmission line to the protection one in the WDM terminal (in the optical layer).8 / (0 .. the switching being done by the SDH interfaces (in the SDH layer). 9 8 2 0 0 6 4 0 8 0 0 .8 8 0 4 è Q . Ciena transports a few overhead bytes of the SDH layer in the OSC channel. A X D 8 W E ric s s o n E R IO N . the OSC channel being used to transport the required data.6 _ 4 0 _ 1 6 0 . A X D 1 6 W L u c e n t / W a v e S ta r O L S 8 0 G L u c e n t / W a v e S ta r O L S 4 0 0 G * N E C S p e c tra lw a v e P ire lli T 3 1 P ire lli W a v e M u x y e s 4 0 8 0 y e s 1 0 1 6 0 4 5 ? 4 0 y e s 4 0 1 0 0 / (2 4 0 ) 1 0 (to 4 0 ) 2 0 6 0 0 1 6 0 .8 ? _ 4 0 6 4 0 1 6 0 . d is ta n c e (k m ) 6 4 0 λ n u m b e r (N ) 1 6 C h a n n e l s p a c in g (n m ) 1 . © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 9 (42) . 9 8 ? y e s 6 0 0 1 . Moreover Ericsson has introduced the "Flexing Bus" concept which applies to a ring network topology with an unused section dedicated to the protection. configuration. D S C F o c u s W D M E ric s s o n E R IO N .4 ) 1 2 0 * 10 Gbit/s allowed inputs Table 3: Description of the main point-to-point WDM systems The management of these systems is done using software interfaces which allow access to the system state (alarms. It allows a rapid protection in the optical layer. The new generation of WDM systems propose evolution concerning management in order to have a global management of the two layers. The protection is implemented at the multiplex level (MSP 1+1) but by duplication of the whole WDM system (terminals and amplifiers). This is the case for all the equipment suppliers except Ericsson..6 S p a n (k m ) A lc a te l 1 6 8 6 W M * B o sc h F le x P le x T M O -4 C ie n a M u ltiw a v e 1 6 0 0 C ie n a M u ltiw a v e 4 0 0 0 D S C C o m . Today the supervision data of the WDM system (in the optical layer) are processed independently of those of the SDH (or SONET) equipment (in the SDH layer).4 1 0 0 y e s ? 5 0 0 _ 7 0 to 8 0 ? y e s 2 n d S e m ..4 _ y e s? 8 0 4 0 0 3 2 _ 8 0 y e s 2 n d S e m .). Each terminal or amplifier site can be accessed either directly (craft terminal) or remotely.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures P ro d u c t n a m e A v a ila b ility C a p a c ity (G b it/s ) M a x . 9 8 ? 2 0 8 0 / (1 6 0 ) 5 0 0 8 3 2 /(6 4 ) 1 0 0 6 0 0 0 . For that purpose.
Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 manufacturer Alcatel Bosch Ciena DSC ECI Ericsson Fujitsu Lucent NEC Pirelli-Quante Siemens Tellium no.(?/16 4Q98) ? (?) 12/32 (?) optical ADM flexible available (plan) .(?/40 4Q98) .(?/32 4Q99) (64/64 3Q99) (32/32 1Q99) .(8 x 8 ?) .(?) 16/16 .(16 x 16 ?) .(?) . The first entry in each column is the value characteristic for the systems as they are presently available from the corresponding manufacturer.(4/16 3Q98) ? (?) .(?) .(16 x 16 4Q99) .(?) .(?) .(4/16 4Q99) 8/16 ?/8 ? (?) .(? 4Q99) (?/32 4Q98) . fixed and flexible OADM and OXC. of channels available (plan) 16 λ 8λ 40 λ 8λ 16 λ 8λ 16 λ 32 λ 32 λ 8λ 32 λ (40 λ 4Q98) (16 λ 1Q99) (80 λ 4Q98) (32 λ 2Q99) (8 λ 3Q98) (32 λ 1Q99) (? λ ?) (80 λ 2Q99) (64 λ 4Q98) (64 λ 1Q99) (32 λ 3Q99) (64 λ 1Q99) optical ADM fixed available (plan) .(?) . A minus sign indicates that the function is not available at present and a (?) indicates that manufacturer information is not available. The second entry in brackets in the column indicates the manufacturers future plans. The following functions were identified: • • • • • • • OXC nodes Flexible OADMs Wavelength conversion Optical signal monitoring functions (QoS.(32/32 3Q99) 4/16 (?) Table 4: Specifications of WDM systems presently available and under development Table 4 presents data of available systems as well as future plans of various manufacturers concerning number of WDM channels.(128 x 128 3Q99) .(?) OXC available (plan) .(? 4Q99) . restoration) page 10 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .(?/32 2Q99) . are identified.(40/80 2Q99) .(?/32 4Q99) .(?) (16/40 4Q98) .(?) .(?) . The planned performance as well as the estimated time of realisation are written whenever possible. and Failure detection) Optical 3R regeneration Wide band (80 nm) Optical Amplifiers Network survivability (protection. 1. optical spectrum.(16 x 16 4Q00) . WDM optical functions considered either strictly necessary or just desirable for enabling or enhancing optical networking.(? 2Q99) .3 Identification of new/desirable optical functions In this part of the Deliverable.
Availability: from 2005 onwards 1. Availability: from 2000 onwards 1. regarding signal origin.4 Network survivability (protection. frequency accuracy and stability. and detect failures. Reshaping and Retiming of the optical signal Application: necessary function to overcome “opacity” of optical systems. Integration with existing network management systems desirable Application: necessary function to assure QoS and activate survivability mechanisms in the network. Amplification.all-optical wavelength conversion.1 Wavelength conversion Definition: to convert the optical frequency of an optical channel on a WDM comb from its original position in the input signal comb to another position in the output signal comb. using optical layer mechanisms Application: necessary function to assure provision of service with QoS. by re-routing traffic on the network via alternative available routes.3.3. either pre-allocated (survivability dedicated resources -protection) or dynamically allocated (restoration) Availability: protection: from 1998 onwards. allowing higher cascadability numbers. Some realisations provide 2R regeneration properties. and Failure detection) Definition: monitor the optical signal. in order to determine BER. Function transparency desirable. format and bit rate . optical spectrum. Allows optical spectrum dynamic allocation that can be used for re-routing and survivability.3 Optical 3R regeneration Definition: perform optically. to convert a full comb from its original position in the fibre window to another position in the same window .Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures • • • • Management functions Dense WDM systems (64 and 128 λ) OTDM Optical packet switching 1. restoration) Definition: ensures network fast recovery from a state of failure.2 Optical signal monitoring functions (QoS. Application: necessary function in order to improve flexibility in the optical network by the use of wavelength domain switching on OXCs and OADMs. restoration: from 2000 onwards © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 11 (42) . Availability: from 2000 onwards 1.3. Function that could be used to implement transponder function.3.
and components such as fast optical switches..5 Management functions Definition: allow management of optical network elements by an integrated network management system. Needs improvement of optical signal processing techniques like optical addressing. a set of new optical functions considered either strictly necessary in order to enable the introduction/ migration to WDM future optical networks or desirable to enhance offered network functionality. The use of these functions can however not be considered independently of the architectural network context. Availability: 5 years 1. where the above described optical functions could find their place.6 Optical time domain multiplexing OTDM (Long term function) Definition: optically multiplex digital optical signals in the time domain. optical memories. Availability: from 2000 onwards 1. May be associated to WDM: N x OTDM signals on a N optical channel WDM signal. The next Section proposes reference network architectures for the optical layer. optical memories) Availability: > 5 years 1. Application: increase the transmission bit rate beyond electronic limit (currently 40GHz). and by its bit rate. Application: management of optical network elements by existing integrated network management systems.g. all-optical regeneration) and necessary components (short pulse optical sources. OTDM-WDM converts. This optical digital signal will be characterised by the optical wavelength.3..Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 1. Most of these functions have already been developed and tested either in laboratory or in field trials. soliton +WDM). soliton. OTDMOADMs.7 Optical packet switching (Long term function) Definition: performs dynamic routing (switching) of optical packets Application: enable very high-speed digital optical packet networks.. via standardised management interfaces whenever possible. A possible definition and the application context were analysed.. optical timing systems. was identified. page 12 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .3. optical header procession. by technology (e.4 Conclusion After a presentation of available optical functions and WDM point-to-point systems.3. Needs improving of optical signal processing techniques (clock recovery. Allow optical packet transmission and switching.
2. and therefore the trunk ring is mainly advantageous in areas where the cost of installing cables is high. Typical values of parameters. and this justifies the need for a specific analysis of network requirements. low cabling costs and efficient use of the network elements can be achieved by a network structure composed of connected rings. to a large extent. 2.1 Connected rings The combined advantages of good protection performance. from the simple topologies to more complex structures which potentially may be used in future optical networks. related to topology. are listed at the end of this section. In such a network topology the aim is to optimise the capacity of the network by mixing the different types of traffic on as few network elements as possible.1. be considered pointto-point and. 2. Techniques and principles commonly applicable to existing networks do not necessarily apply to the dimensioning of networks based on wavelength routing.1. the requirements of transport capacity between neighbouring nodes are high compared to the mesh.2 Meshed domains interconnected by a ring trunk The ring trunk network gives excellent protection capabilities with a minimum of interconnections.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 2 Assessment of optical network architectures In this section we provide an overview of classes of network architectures.1 Complex topologies A network characterised by a complex topology is composed of sub-networks which are directly interconnected by sharing nodes.3 Ring domains interconnected by a meshed trunk The meshed trunk network has the advantage of providing excellent node-to-node physical connectivity and. 2. thereby. physical limitations.1. the requirements to the transmission capacity on the links are easy to predict.2 Characteristic parameters The purpose of this section is to present and discuss various parameters to be taken into account to allow the future routing and dimensioning of the optical networks. It points out most important network parameters. The sub-networks will have basic topologies. The aim of this section is to select and propose complex optical network structures for further study of Task3 and Task4. 2. The traffic on the cables in a meshed network can. © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 13 (42) . which characterise the WDM networks in terms of architecture. topology and survivability. provides many alternative routes for traffic. therefore. However.
1 Specific characteristics of optical network • High capacity: the core network has to deal with many applications and services envisaged for the future. which will probably have different bandwidths. the signal should not be converted to the electrical domain wherever it is possible. This could be easier in optical networks since the granularity of handled signals is higher. the network has to have a large capacity and to be able to handle the granularity of optical channels. Scaleability: is the possibility of capacity or functionality upgrade of a network by adding new facilities in uniform steps. The overall traffic volume is expected to be large and to increase as applications and services become cheaper and easier to use. OXC blocking or limited number of OADM wavelengths are the main barriers to full optical connectivity. Flexibility : refers to the ability of the network to accommodate changes in traffic patterns. During a network planning process topological. Several levels of transparency could be specified such as signal format. as physical constraints always cause transparency limitations.2. Hence. • • • • The relationship between characteristic parameters of different network layers and other network related requirements is shown in figure 4.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 2. bit-rate. Connectivity is the network ability to establish connections independently of the actual state of the network. In optical networks the gradual increase of available wavelengths without changing the whole WDM terminal is a key scaleability feature. page 14 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . In optical networks the availability of wavelengths. Full transparency usually does not exist. transfer mode and service. architectural and general requirements are to be considered and fulfilled. Full connectivity means that any connection between any two points of the network can be established at any time. Transparency: in order to take into account most of the assets of optical functions and to reduce the complexity of equipment.
sw Network engineering Operation and Maintenance Figure 4: relationships of network characteristics and network requirements 2. the demonstration of general results can be achieved in some cases.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Input data Traffic demands Network planning Geographical topology Topological characterisics Basic network structures Service availability requirements Architectural characteristics Network characteristics Functional layer characteristics Transmission performances Functional layer characteristics Network implementation Capacity Transparency Connectivity Fexibility Granularity Scalability Available equipment hw. a node being either a source of traffic (optical channel) or a pure transit node The node degree (D). The number of fibre per link (F) The shape of the network (to be defined) The network density © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 15 (42) . Some of the most important network parameters are: • • • • • • The number of nodes (N). The link length (LF) normalised to the node spacing. defined as the mean number of nodes directly (i. which provide simple design rules that could be used for guidelines in network planning. without any transit) connected to a node via one or more fibres. the evaluation of topology optimisation algorithms and network planning tools have to be done using numerical simulations. However.2 Parameters related to topology The definition of network design rules for WDM optical networks.2.e.
N = 5 d=1 Mesh D = 3.4 Mesh D = 2. which are closely related to the signal quality: • the average and maximum link length in the network page 16 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . In summary. it has been demonstrated  that a good estimate of W. In an all-optical network. N = 6 d = 0. The network density d is defined by the formula: d = N − 1 .2. the transmitted data remain as optical signals all along the path in the optical layer. This parameter reflects the depth of the mesh in the network. The design of optical cross-connects and the definition of the architecture of the nodes should ensure the nodes provide the necessary functionality.5. The figure below illustrates various situations for network topologies with a given link density. which complicates the wavelength allocation and routing problem. since topological particularities can be noticed. N = 8 d = 0.357 Figure 5: Examples of various graph densities 2. number of wavelengths required to meet the traffic demand (T being the number of channels per connection) can be expressed as : N 3 2T W≈ FDLF 2 1 − 2 πN 1 However.3 Parameters related to physical limitations The quality of the signal across the network dictates engineering rules for network planning. the following parameters should be considered. signal distortion and noise accumulation. Another issue is related to the limited number of wavelengths per fibre due to cross-talk problems and limited amplifier bandwidth. However. D Full mesh D = 4. the number of wavelengths and signal characteristics on fibres can differ with links. As long as the regeneration of the signal has to be performed by the electrical layer. Given a fixed number of nodes in the network. there is the issue of how many nodes can be cascaded along one optical path while keeping the signal quality to an acceptable level. The problem can be smoothed by wavelength re-use. N = 6 d = 0. The physical limitations lead to degradation of signal quality through cross-talk. each path cannot be fully considered as a point-to-point WDM link because : signals on different paths may travel through a different number of optical devices.6 Ring D = 2. extreme values are obtained with full mesh (d=1) and ring (d=2/(n-1)). a limitation on the optical path length should be addressed as well. However. those parameters may not be fully sufficient for describing a network.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 From those parameters.
because it can affect the selection of the architecture.2. Most of multiwavelength systems recently available use STM-16 granularity. In principle the demand matrix for the optical layer should be expressed in wavelengths.) reconfiguration time (re-routing and switching time) 2. Entries. allowing mixed granularity on the same fibre. per fibre being used BER Degradation and system bandwidth optical channel individual integrity (Optical power level. The bit-rate allocated to each kind of signal may be different. it is not possible to increase signal power since optical amplifier gain may saturate and non-linear effects like four-wave mixing will degrade signal transmission performance.4 Parameters related to demands The demand matrix (or matrices) has an important role in the planning process.. Different distributions can lead the planner towards different network architectures and allow him to use different methodologies and algorithms in the planning process.. the grooming and routing policy. defines the correspondence between the demand matrix in the optical layer and the wavelengths matrix. the transport characteristics of the optical layer. The planning process also includes the grooming and consolidation of those signals towards the optical layer. Both single wavelength and multi-wavelength demands should be addressed. Thus. Demand distribution The distribution of demands among optical nodes is an important characteristic of the network. leased lines. Wavelength stability. data. optical channels. The granularity. video signals. Different © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 17 (42) . the distance between amplifiers and the number of cascaded amplifiers (link length). The choice of a granularity iss of courses dictated by technology. However. The transmitted power per wavelength must be large enough to provide an acceptable Signal to Noise Ratio at the receiver. and so on. However. are given in Mbit/s. announcements were made towards STM-64 granularity. there is a compromise between the capacity per link. various kinds of traffic demands can be carried in the optical layer : voice. Capacity per link The physical limitations lead to a limit in the number of optical channels per fibre. A large set of objectives can be taken into account in the optimisation. or channel capacity.. but often it is expressed in the typical unit of the client layer that leaves to the optical layer planner a higher degree of freedom in the optical layer design .Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures • • • • • • • the maximum number of optical nodes that can be crossed without regeneration the maximum optical path length allowed without any regeneration the number of wavelength conversions along the path the number of wavelengths. generally. Optical channel granularity The design of present transport networks is based on static traffic conditions.. Demand grooming and consolidation Depending on the network services offered.
O p tic a l la y e r G r o o m in g D em ands (lo w e r le v e l) Figure 6: Grooming process 2. Generally. grooming optimisation should also take into account the impact in the optical layer.2. and it depends only on the actual network size. Types of sub-networks A sub-network can be any network partition. while a hierarchical one allows. a communication between two peer hierarchical nodes through one or more nodes of a highest hierarchy. mainly based on the demand distribution. Candidates for sub-networks are in optical networks WDM rings and optical meshes. and a lower level based on WDM rings. Very often traffic in large telecommunication networks is allocated to hierarchical levels or tiers.5 Parameters related to architecture Flat or hierarchical networks A single layer network can be structured in two different ways: flat or hierarchical. Number of sub-networks on each hierarchical level Both a flat and a hierarchical network can be split into several sub-networks. interconnections of sub-networks in the same network level are allowed only via the next higher hierarchical level. Number of transiting nodes (hubs) per sub-network Unless the demand distribution does not need to cross more than one sub-network. which included an upper level meshed configuration based on OXCs. three or. In the near future. in principle. like rings or small meshes. each sub-network must have at least one special node where the outgoing traffic is transited. page 18 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . but usually consists of some kind of basic network topology. Two. Generally a sub-network is defined by the node connectivities and by the independence of its own survivability mechanism (that is the reason why these subnetworks are often called Survivable Sub-Networks). A flat network does not impose any constraints on the demand routing. their requirements and the target value of utilisation of the optical layer.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 grooming alternatives can be taken into account. However. For that purpose. sometimes this results in longer paths for individual demands. Many European projects considered a two-level all-optical network. The number of sub-networks on a network level is not limited. The main advantages of traffic hierarchisation are the clear routing rules and easy manageability. in a hierarchical network. These nodes (often called hub nodes) have special functionalities for interworking with other sub-networks. in some special cases. four level networks are designed. alloptical networks with two hierarchical levels will probably be common for core network applications.
. length of paths.2. the OMS-SP Ring is a very advanced full-optical architecture. the OXC-based mesh is seen as an advanced optical architecture. In Table 5 possible combinations of these domains are collected. OMS-SP Rings OXC-based optical mesh The reasons for choosing this particular set of network architectures were the following: the CS-Ring was considered by the previous EURESCOM Project P615 as a good first step in introducing optical functionalities in SDH networks since this architecture combines SDH functionalities of existing equipment (routing and linear MS protection) with optical routing for logical node ordering. In the following we investigate those kinds of hierarchical optical architectures which consist of the basic optical network domains like: • • • CS-Rings. These constraint will be addressed in the Deliverable D2. Only the dual node interconnecting architectures are selected because in large capacity core networks the disjoint alternative routing is an essential requirement. Complex optical network architectures consisting of these domains will have a performance dependent on the different protection schemes and re-routing strategies applied over individual sub-networks. routing . it is expected that the OMSSP Ring will bring specific problems that must be taken into account in the planning of optical networks. In © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 19 (42) .. in the evolution from existing networks to networks based on the new optical network architectures. - - The hierarchical network configurations selected are seen as interesting possibilities for the partitioning of real networks in more manageable domains. where the introduction of optical routing and restoration might contribute to simplify the complexity of the electronic equipment in high-capacity mesh networks. be deployed at different stages in time. 2. possibly.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 2. The different domains can then be implemented using several network architectures. where both routing and protection are implemented optically. The investigation is limited to two-level architectures only because these architectures can be considered to be a realistic solution for core networks.6 Parameters related to the survivability approach A protection or a restoration mechanism (or both) is generally applied to a network in order to increase the demand survivability against failures. resulting in complex network topologies. The recovery mechanism often adds some new constraints to the network planning activity such as restoration time.3 Selection of reference network architectures Having studied network topologies we now have to select the reference network architectures that will be implemented in those topologies. These configurations are expected to be useful in different network scenarios and will. This hierarchisation can be naturally translated to appropriately interconnected topological domains. Therefore. In practice the PNO’s core network is divided into hierarchical levels from the traffic routing point-of-view.
In this case wavelength conversion could be necessary for the interconnections. Figure 7: Two-level CS-Ring architecture 2. Equipment is available now. In the hubs the optical OCH level flexibility depends on the optical cross-connect capability of the applied OADMs. Interconnection and cross-connections are carried out at the SDH client layer. Upper level Lower level Selected architecture Study CS-Ring CS-Ring 1 P615 OMS-SP Ring OMS-SP Ring 2 P709 OMS-SP Ring Optical Mesh 4 P709 Optical mesh OMS-SP Ring 3 P709 Table 5: Selected reference architectures for comparison of two-level optical networks 2.3.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 the following paragraph. page 20 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . The main advantages of this architecture are: Wavelength allocation can be planned for each ring independently.1 Two-level CS-Ring architecture A two or more level (tier) CS-Ring architecture consists of hierarchically interconnected CS-rings.3. First generation OADMs only have fixed add/drop capability. we will provide a qualitative comparison since more precise results on network planning for the various architectures proposed here should be provided in Deliverable D3.2 Two-level OMS-SP Ring architecture The main advantage of this architecture is the optical connectivity between the rings.
Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Figure 8: Two-level OMS-SP Ring architecture 2.3. like in a traditional SDH network. Analogously to similar SDH network architectures. the Optical Sub-network Connection Protection (OSNCP) (1+1 optical path protection) can be a candidate for this purpose. Traffic in lower capacity rings is collected and transported by the very high capacity upper level. Figure 9: Two-level Optical Mesh-Optical Ring architecture © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 21 (42) . Further study is necessary in order to develop suitable optical protection and restoration mechanisms for this complex architecture.3 Two-level mesh-ring architecture This is probably the most promising architecture for the future. In case of large network sizes OXCs probably have to have wavelength conversion functionality in order to establish large numbers of optical paths.
.3. In this case a very high capacity optical ring is necessary for interconnection of meshed sub-networks on the lower level.4 Two-level ring-mesh architecture In some special cases this architecture could be an optimal solution. Figure 10: Two-level Optical Ring-Optical Mesh architecture 2.3.) no rings OMS-SPRingOMS-SPRing 2 limited limited optical (OC) yes (limited) limited wavelength low OADM 2(3.. Reference network architectures Characteristic Parameters Selected architecture General transparency connectivity restoration on optical layer flexibility granularity scaleability Architectural Hub equipment No. The protection and restoration problems are similar to the mesh-ring architecture.) limited rings by 2000 OMS Mesh .. Of hierarchical levels Flexibility on optical layer Types of subnetworks CS-Ring CS-Ring 1 no full SDH (VC-4/3/12) no SDX DXC VC-4 low SDXC 2(3.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 2..5 Characteristics of the selected optical network architectures The following table characterises the reference networks in terms of some of the parameters discussed above.OMSSPRing-Mesh SPRing 4 yes optical (OC) yes (limited) good wavelength good OXC 2 limited rings/OXCs/ links by 2000 3 yes optical (OC) (VC-4-3-12) yes good wavelength OXC (SDXC) 2 yes rings/OXC/ links after 2000 Equipment availability now Table 6: Some characteristic parameters of the reference network architectures page 22 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .
This constitutes therefore a limitation to cascadability of nodes with crossconnect/ switching functionality. their respective causes and originated limitations are listed below: 2. Intra-band crosstalk is due to the presence of residual levels of optical power in other wavelengths of the used comb (non perfect filtering).1. Four Wave Mixing FWM is the most relevant non-linear mechanism in the networks considered. the wavelength spacing of optical channels. SRS generated crosstalk: depending on the optical power.4 Identification of physical network parameters limitation In this part of section 2. which in spite of the degree of perfection of used components or systems. can limit cascadability. which will add to the signal in those wavelengths. Linear crosstalk: due to non-perfection of components such as filters and switches. 2. These limitations can be grouped into two sets. By this. The first set comprises the limitations imposed by the optical nature of used technology.1 Optical channel individual integrity Crosstalk Crosstalk in WDM systems arises due to filter/Demux imperfections and due to fibre non-linear effects. FWM generated cross-talk: depending on the optical power. Thus it is a consequence of switching. on realising complete aimed functionality. © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 23 (42) .Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 2. we mean the limitations of real existing optical components and subsystems. Two types of linear crosstalk: inter-band crosstalk and intraband crosstalk. cannot be eliminated (theoretical limits). and on the transmission distance. regarding its origin: intrinsic limitations and technological immaturity limitations. an attempt is made to identify physical network parameters limitation. it is a limitation on the number of channels for HD-WDM. these limitations are expected to be greatly reduced with the improvement of technological aspects. lead to BER degradation. Inter-band crosstalk is induced by other wavelength optical channels due to imperfect filtering. and limit system bandwidth and range. and its impact on optical networking.4. 5] Some effects. Both can be kept small enough by appropriate system design so that no significant penalties are expected. which result in a non-ideal behaviour or the components. The higher the transmitted bit rate the higher importance these effects have. Crosstalk induced by this process cannot afterwards be removed as it has the same wavelength of the optical signal to which it was added.1 Identification of mechanisms originating limitations [4. as it becomes higher for channels more closely spaced and for lower dispersion values. The second set groups the limitations mainly due technological immaturity. the wavelength spacing of optical channels. it is a limitation for the number of optical channels and the range of the system. BER degradation: Physical mechanisms that produce pulse broadening with travelled distance. The following types of induced crosstalk were identified: Non-linear crosstalk: due to non-linear effects in the fibre.4. and on the transmission distance. on the fibre dispersion values.
2.4. A relation between the physical nature of the introduced degradation. the fibre presents birefringence and therefore the two polarisation states have slightly different propagating velocities. Optical Switches BER degradation: Insertion losses Linear crosstalk: optical filtering. optical Switches Cascadability limited due to optical power losses. This Birefringence varies randomly along the fibre. due to the dependence of fibre refractive index on the optical propagating field intensity. in particular FWM OXC. This is due to the dependence of propagating velocity on the wavelength. even for narrow linewidth optical sources this effect becomes important.2 Identification of systems/components which introduce limitations Various elements contribute to the physical limitations mentioned above.4. PMD: Polarisation Mode Dispersion. which causes different amplification of individual optical channel power. This causes linewidth broadening and thus BER degradation. Intensity modulation results into refractive index modulation and therefore phase (and frequency) modulation of the optical signal occurs.2 Network element cascadability Optical Amplifier OA Optical amplifier cascadability limitation due to optical amplifier generated noise. in the 3rd window. Optical amplifier cascadability limitation due to non-flatness of optical amplifier gains. In case of a change in the number of channels passing through the OA. intra-band linear crosstalk and bandwidth reduction by filtering. Optical Mux/Demux Cascadability limited due to optical power losses and bandwidth reduction by filtering 2.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 Dispersion: the first cause of pulse broadening and consequent BER penalty. is fibre chromatic dispersion coefficient. Non-linear effects. filter misalignment. results from the fact that due to non-perfect geometry of the fibre and induced mechanical stress. optical switching System bandwidth narrowing: optical filtering. wavelength instability page 24 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . power transients may cause degradation. Special fibres as DCF and EDF (used in EDFAs) present higher values for PMD than SMF. Optical Fibre Crosstalk: Non-linear effects. in particular FWM System bandwidth limitation: Dispersion BER degradation: Attenuation.1. OXCs. For SMF. and the impact on the optical transmission is established in the following list. this noise accumulates with the number of transverse optical amplifiers therefore limiting cascadability of OAs. depending on the component. So for long links using DCF and EDFAs the total PMD can result in significant BER degradation. SPM: this is a non-linear mechanism.
3 Processes to overcome limitations at present and solve them in the future Most of these limiting mechanisms arise from the use of high optical power levels and WDM signals. Some of them cannot be eliminated (however they can be compensated) such as dispersion effect. © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 25 (42) . Whenever possible a third value is presented that reflects results from laboratory experiments or theoretical calculations and which may indicate what will be achieved in future systems.. attenuation. These values are necessary in the planning process of such networks. however. the optical multiplex section and the optical transport section in WDM networks are specified.5 Identification of Ranges of values In this point. i. 2. can be greatly reduced. such as linear crosstalk due to filtering and switching. Wavelength accuracy.4. filtering and misalignment etc. Optical layer performance of today’s commercially available WDM systems for terrestrial optical networks. by improving wavelength accuracy. Others. 2. stability. the number of parameters related to the layers of the optical channel. wavelength instability Optical Sources System bandwidth narrowing: Line width.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Optical Filters . non-linear effects. still keeps improving. Wavelength stability. with number of transverse elements. The second parameter value has been derived from manufacturers’ publications or advertisements regarding product development in the near future. already known and existing. maintaining system bandwidth. Optical Mux/demux BER degradation: Insertion losses Linear crosstalk: non-ideal optical filtering System bandwidth narrowing: optical filtering. their influence only became important in the present context. In order to take into account the expected technical progress of optical WDM transmission systems as much as possible there are up to three values specified for various parameters. with techological improvements on the manufacturing processes of the components. almost eliminated.e. The first of these values represents presently available commercial WDM systems. Wavelength tuning accuracy (if tuneable sources) BER degradation: optical power efficiency coupling Optical inline amplifiers BER degradation: amplified spontaneous emission noise BER degradation of less amplified channels: Different channel power amplification due to gain curve (non–flat) Limited cascadability: build-up of optical signal degradation as a result of above mentioned mechanisms. tuning.
652) are to be used without dispersion accommodation (DA) techniques the dispersion budget is limited to values of about 12000 ps/nm for 2.2 Ranges of values Values reflecting limitations of present implementation of optical functionality and its impact on optical networking.5. G. This value is optimised with respect to a dispersion limited system (no dispersion accommodation) at a bit rate of 2. will be presented in this section. Dispersion accommodation necessary in this case introduces additional optical attenuation. 10 Gbit/s transmission without DA is too page 26 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .5Gbit/s transmission. either obtained by calculation. Dispersion budget If standard single mode fibres (G. which may happen to come into existence due to optical switching. If a larger transparent total link length is desired the power budget between neighbouring EDFAs must be reduced. Power budget The achievable power budget depends mainly on the optical output power of the EDFAs and on the number of wavelengths used in the network as well as on the maximum number of EDFAs cascaded in any transparent link.5 Gbit/s on standard single mode fibre resulting in a total link length of 500 km to 600 km which corresponds to 150 dB of optical power budget.5. simulation or experimentation.1 Functional layer characteristics According to Rec. configuration. or restoration processes within the network.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 2.otn an optical network will consist of the following three optical layers: • • • Optical Channel (OCH) layer Optical Multiplex Section (OMS) layer Optical Transmission Section (OTS) layer These functional layers can be characterised in terms of the following parameters: Layer OCH Characteristics Transparency Maximum number of cascaded optical nodes Optical cross-connect capacity Optical protection OMS Number of available wavelengths Wavelength conversion Optical protection OTS Power budget Dispersion budget Accumulated noise Cross-talk Number of cascaded optical amplifiers Table 7: Characteristics of optical layers 2. Power budget of present systems is limited to a value of 30 dB of attenuation between EDFAs.
With soliton techniques transmission of 8x10 Gbit/s over 10000 km was shown using more than 300 cascaded EDFAs. It is possible to increase this number considerably without running into ASE noise accumulation problems if the optical budget between succeeding EDFAs is reduced. A values of 75000 ps/nm is experimentally estimated. using a shorter span length. Parameters values for OCH. 300 possible Min. 300 possible number of cascaded EDFAs (10Gbit/s client) 4-6 G. OMS and OTS layers © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 27 (42) . With DA methods the limitations in dispersion budget are relaxed considerably. that takes into account the network requirements the accumulated noise effects can be kept small enough so that no significant penalties are to be expected Number of cascaded OAs Available WDM point-to-point systems are designed to use a maximum number of up to 6 EDFAs in cascade as outlined above. parameter available performance announced performance limits Optical channel (OCH) layer characteristics transparency number of optical nodes in cascade number of wavelength conversions Optical Multiplex Section (OMS) layer number of available wavelengths optical cross-connect capacity protection methods supervision channel Optical Transmission Section (OTS) layer power budget (for link between consecutive EDFAs) in EDFA cascade number of cascaded EDFAs (2. 35 30 50 35 Table 8: Parameter values for OCH.5Gbit/s client) dispersion accommodation (DA) dispersion budget (10Gbit/s client) accumulated noise cross-talk Inter-band Intra-band no 12000 ps/nm DA req. With a transmission link design.5Gbit/s client) 6-7 1-2 5-10 16-32 ? ? <30dB 4-6 80-100 16x16 ? ? <30dB <200 128x128 ? ? <30dB Min. Transmission of 8x5 Gbit/s over a total distance of 4500 km of standard single mode fibre using dispersion accommodation technique has been demonstrated.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures severely limited in length to be attractive.652 dispersion budget (2. ? 25 25 DA req. Accumulated noise The amount of accumulated noise depends on the system design. 15 at reduced power budget of 20 dB. With dispersion shifted fibre 20x5 Gbit/s over 9100 km have been achieved. DA req. 30 at reduced power budget of 20 dB. OMS and OTS sections are summarised in table 8.
when considering the actual growth of different client signals such as ATM and IP. Their relationship with the network planning and network engineering processes has been mentioned. related to topology. accumulated noise and number of cascaded optical amplifiers. Four reference network architectures have been selected. which could be promising. physical limitations. page 28 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . Various parameters have been presented. The next Section is dedicated to the potential of the optical layer for routing various formats. However the application of the described architecture and the study of network planning problems should also consider the client layers. consisting of interconnected basic topologies. which will be considered further in Task 3 and Task 4 of the Project. demands architecture and survivability. either in flat or hierarchical arrangements. A particular attempt has been made to identify physical parameters limitation and ranges of value for power and dispersion budget.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 2. network configurations have been proposed.6 Conclusions In this Section.
1 3. making it suitable for a given type of resource allocation. 3.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 3 Potential of WDM routing for different client signals The objective of this part is to describe the various client signals. SDH and WDM characteristics.1 ATM client signal ATM Network functionalities and physical layer ATM is a connection oriented technology with end-to-end QoS supporting multiple service. 3.1.1. Variable Bit Rate (VBR). which could be carried in the optical networks. Main advantage of ATM are: • • • • fast switching high-speed interfaces efficient use of bandwidth through statistical multiplexing at VP and VC levels ATM network functions are : VP or VP-VC switch. We can identify (ATM Forum). These sources have a global © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 29 (42) . multi-layer network configurations are proposed using IP. Recent development of ATM and IP physical interfaces could have an impact on the future optical network design. ATM.356. Available Bit Rate (ABR) and Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) categories. and they are: • • • • • Cell Error Ratio (CER) Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) Cell Mis-insertion Rate (CMR) Mean Cell Transfer Delay (MCTD) Cell Delay Variation (CDV).3 ATM Performance Parameters The ATM performance parameters are defined in ITU-T recommendation I.1.2 ATM Services An ATM Service Category is intended to represent a class of ATM connections that have homogeneous characteristics in terms of traffic pattern. A first classification of these services/capabilities may be seen from a network resource allocation viewpoint. QoS requirements and possible use of control mechanisms. VP or VC Cross-Connect and ATM Multiplexer 3. Constant Bit Rate (CBR). the requirements of client layers is analysed. It is necessary to identify the network degradation sources that have a direct or indirect impact on the ATM performance parameters. After a brief investigation on ATM and IP client signals performance and functionalities. A first evaluation of such configurations is discussed. In order to pinpoint the possibilities to plan an optical network using a non SDH client signal.
The lowest layer is called the link layer which contains protocols for LANs and sub-network communications such as Serial Line IP and Point-to-point Protocol PPP . Table 9 shows the impact of the network degradation sources on the ATM performance parameters. 3. The ATM degradation sources are directly dependent on the ATM technology and equipment.1 IP client signal Internet network layers and services The Internet offers global connectivity for data communications between different computers networks. In this section only the transmission degradation sources will be analysed. As shown in Figure 11.2 3. page 30 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 effect on all services that are supported by the network. They are: Propagation delay.  and . The transmission degradation sources are directly dependent on the physical medium or technology used to transport an ATM signal.2. Statistical physical errors and Faults. the Internet is based on a four-layer protocol. Item Propagation delay Statistical physical errors Switching architecture Buffers capacity Number of nodes between ends Traffic load Resources allocation Faults ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä ä CER CLR CMR MCTD ä CDV Table 9: Impact of degradation sources on the ATM parameters Transmission degradation sources have been highlighted The referred network degradation sources can be grouped into two main areas: ATM degradation sources and Transmission degradation sources.
Frame Relay .Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Application layer SMTP. For short message applications another protocol. It can be used for multi-cast application in IP network. Real Time Protocol RTP is designed especially to support a new type of real time traffic.25. controls end-to-end communication links between different Internet systems.) which provides routing and relaying between LANs and sub-networks. addressing routing and error reporting. Security: IPv6 requires and supports both authentication and confidentiality.2. • • • • • • • SMTP :Simple Mail Transport Protocol FTP : File Transport Protocol SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol HTTP : Hypertext Transfer Protocol TELNET : Remote Terminal Protocol NNTP : Net News Transfer Protocol MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions Figure 11: IP network model and services PPP was designed as a standard method of transmitting IP datagrams over point-topoint links. Resource reservation protocol RSVP is a signalling protocol for IP allowing applications to make network resource reservations for data flow. called application layer framing. UDP Internet layer IPv4. application layer provides Internet applications like e-mail. SNMP.2 IP protocols: IP v4/v6. For example.. FTP. FTP. ISDN. Instead of introducing delays with re-transmissions.. RTP applications prefer the transport layer to simply forget about missing data. It supports 32 bit address space. 3. NNTP Transport Layer TCP. RSVP.. replaces TCP with a simple framework for a direct application. The second layer is the Internet Layer (IP-v4/v6 RTP. It is also includes error control detection and recovery for the transmitted packets within the Internet network. © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 31 (42) . The deployment of RSVP in IP network can support end-to-end QoS. Finally. WWW. TELNET. MIME. Telenet. is used. TCP-UDP transport layer. HTTP. Large network addressing: IPv6 supports 128 bit network addresses. RTP and RSVP IPv4 defines datagram format. audio algorithms can tolerate missing data much better than can lengthy delays. IPv4 can only offer connectionless. the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). leased lines. ISDN. UDP is also connectionless oriented but without any overhead for establishing end-to-end control. The next layer. IPv6 IP ng Link layer LAN-Ethernet WAN-PPP X. The RTP architecture. IPv6 introduces a new modular datagram format with the following advantage : • • • Flow label: the header includes a flow label. Best Effort packet delivery and does not support end-to-end QoS. Initial deployment intended to govern point-to-point link over short local lines. TCP is used to provide a reliable transportation using end-to-end control. and old telephone service POTS using standard dial-up modems. Flow values can be assigned to particular streams of traffic with special QoS requirements.
ATM. Inter-working of IP. Add/Drop and protection functions can be obtained using both SDH and WDM technologies. ATM and IP network. Taking into account the network functionalities of the different client signals the following layering structure is proposed for the 2003-2005 period (Figure 13).3 Network configurations required by ATM/IP client signals First. but crossconnecting. It is clear from this figure that the main routing and switching functions are for IP and ATM respectively. The main difference between SDH and WDM remains the processing of SDH in time domain and for WDM in frequency domain.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 3. SDH and WDM will be discussed later. the main Optical network functionalities considered are: -Optical Multiplexing / De-multiplexing OMux/Demux -Optical Cross Connect OXC -Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing OADM -Optical Protection Switching OPS IP v4/v6 •Routing ATM VC/VP • Switching • XC SDH LOP/HOP • XC • ADM • APS WDM •OXC •OADM •OPS Figure 12: IP / ATM / SDH & WDM network functionalities Figure 12 illustrates network functionalities for WDM optical transport network as well as for SDH. Different configurations of network architecture are proposed in the next part of the document. page 32 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .
and in that way the several services © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 33 (42) . In the WDM case.4 Impact of non SDH client signal on the planning of an optical network ATM over SDH over WDM : SDH protection vs. The problems could be grouped into three main areas: • • • connection degradation (problems in the transmission cable) connection breaks (cable cut-off) terminal equipment problems (faults). several ATM parameters will be affected. The configurations are the following : • • • • • ATM over SDH over WDM ATM over WDM IP over ATM over SDH over WDM IP over SDH over WDM IP over WDM For each configuration 2 cases are presented. The statistical physical errors are directly related to the physical medium and technology used. according to the implementation of protection and routing in the WDM optical network. WDM protection Under normal operation only two degradation sources are active: the propagation delay and the statistical physical errors. lower values for the BER (less than 10E-10) are expected. In what concerns the propagation delay. this is constant and will not vary unless one fault occurs. 3. 3.4. Another case is the situation when a connection problem occurs.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures IP v4/v6 PPP(HDLC) ATM VC / VP (Cell Based) ? SDH HOP/LOP PDH WDM Optical Network OMS/OCH Figure 13: IP/ATM/SDH and WDM network mapping for 2003-2005 Based on the above network functionalities. 5 configurations were selected to study the impact of an ATM or IP client signal on the planning of an optical network.1 In the case of the connection degradation and soft terminal equipment problems.
CLR. can be tolerated for some period of time.810 ms 7. There are services where low CLR and CER are required and others where higher values. Depending on the degradation factor the services could be smoothly or strongly affected. CTD and CDV are considered. In these situations the ATM services supported will be affected. Several ATM cells are lost and others will be delayed. The second considers that all the protection is provided by the WDM.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 supported by the connection. The main results are summarised in table 10. such as file transfer. This means that for SDH and WDM times of 8ms and 14ms will be used respectively as reference times for protection actions.325 ms 5. Example Node failure Bi-directional signal fail Unidirectional signal fail Unidirectional signal degrade MS-SPRing 4. the service will be affected permanently until the fault is cleared. page 34 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . Several protection schemes should be studied in order to minimise the impact on the ATM performance. The first one considers the WDM as a means of transmission and all the protection is provided by the SDH structure. The services and the ATM performance parameters will be affected.655 ms Table 10: Protection switching times for 7-node rings with 51 km-long spans In the above table the worst cases are used. Normally the re-routing and protection schemes of the network will be activated in order to establish one alternative connection between affected end points.810 ms 13. can be affected by the degradation of the transmission signal for some milliseconds. In order to perform this study higher level signals such as video and audio signals in interactive applications. The influence of such scenarios should be analysed taking into account the ATM signal characteristics.190 ms 8. The SDH is used as traffic encapsulation. in what concerns the ATM service. Within a fault condition several situations could occur. in case of WDM link failure. The user does not sense this degradation or problem most of the time. One of the most critical points is the switching time or protection action when a failure occurs. The connections will be lost.190 ms 5. Another MCTD is established. such as the WDM technology. respectively. From the user point of view these are the most critical ones. of the order of 10E-3. Connection breaks and strong terminal equipment problems will severely affect the connections and render the normal way of signal transmission impossible. After the establishment of the alternative connection we will have a situation similar to the normal operation.325 ms 8. are considered. such as video signals. the re-routing or protection scheme used in the transmission technology. their QoS requirements can be mapped into ATM performance parameters as shown in table 11. This depends on the CLR and CER values and their impact on the services. taking into account what was expressed before. Data applications. will have a strong impact on the ATM performance. If the fault affects one end of the system. This configuration study should be performed taking into account two different scenarios. the most critical ATM performance parameters CER.655 ms OMS-SPRing 7. For that. Considering higher level signals. One example of each is the video and the voice service. As a reference the «APS protocols for OMS SP Ring network» document issued by the EURESCOM P615 Project is used. So.
In this configuration.4.2 Protection at WDM level According to Table 10 the protection scheme takes about 14ms to re-route the traffic. The impact on the higher level service (such as video-conference) depends on fail recovery mechanisms or applications used. 622 Mbit/s bit rate for the ITU standard and up to 2.4. Each VC-4 takes 125 µs at 155 Mbps (STM-1). 4945cells are lost. The use of WDM ring architectures provides a high capacity self-healing network for the VP services. multiplying 44151 by 64 we get 2826 cells. 3.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures ATM Performance Parameters CTD CDV CLR CER Value for High video quality 4 ms (99% of time) 500 µs (99% of time) < 1.5 Gbit/s for the ATM Forum. So dividing 8 ms (the rerouting time) by 125 µs (the time necessary to transfer one VC-4) we get 64. For normal transmission rates one frame is transmitted each 33 ms.1.1.2 Configuration ATM over WDM The recent standardisation of ATM cell based interface leads to a direct connection between the ATM VP/VC and the Optical Channel OCH of the WDM optical network. for a video-conference signal transmitted at 30 frames/s a fail will affect one or two frames. In each VC-4 we can transfer 44151 cells. 3. So.1 Protection at SDH level According to table 10 the protection scheme takes about 8 ms to reroute the traffic. Concerning ATM at full SDH link speed. 2826 cells are lost. © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 35 (42) . At present. The several ATM services supported by the SDH link will be affected. The OXCs create a flexible and highly secure system needed for CBR paths in an ATM backbone network with a data rate from 155 Mbit/s to 2. the VP cross-connects are directly interfaced with OADM nodes.5 Gbit/s. Concerning ATM at full SDH link speed. When a failure occurs in an ATM network. the impact of SDH on the performance is not critical for this service. The loss of one or two frames does not impact video services. A first scenario of introducing WDM switching layer in an ATM network is the use of WDM ring architectures (Figure 14). ATM cell based is proposed for UNI interfaces with 155. As an example. the VP connections are re-routed over the OCH network without the need for any electrical back up VPs. as well as on the amount of information lost. This means that with STM-1 link 112 VC-4 are lost. A second scenario is also proposed. The WDM switching layer is composed of OXC nodes connected to VP cross-connect.4. In conclusion. The vacant bandwidth can be used for other services.7 E-9 --- Value for Low video quality 400 ms 130 ms < 3 E-7 < 4 E-6 Table 11: Video performance parameters Also for video signals one question to be considered is the number of transmitted frames. 3.
• IP encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (ALL5): two methods for carrying IP over AAL5 are proposed. It allows the use of direct ATM connections inside a sub-network. called VC based multiplexing. whereas the second method. The disadvantage of an IP switch is that it is cell-oriented. allows multiplexing of multiple protocols over a single VC. and connection-oriented. It combines the highspeed layer 2 switching of ATM with standard IP routing. IP Switching: IP switching provides high-speed IP routing. but shares the VC connection with all other applications running between the same transmitter and receiver.4. The advantage of an ATM switch is that the QoS and multicast are available. assumes that each protocol is carried on a separate VC. IP Flow control IP Router ATM VC Switch • Figure 15: IP switching page 36 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . the protection scheme takes about 14ms to perform the traffic protection. not packet-oriented. Classical IP defines IP to ATM address resolution and IP packet encapsulation.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 _ Figure 14: WDM/ATM network scenarios Considering the values of table 10 for the worst case protection switching time. unlike the connection-less IP network protocols . 3. called Logical Link Control (LLC) Encapsulation. The first method. establishing direct VC connection whenever a long IP datagram flow is detected by the router (Figure 15).3 Configuration IP over ATM  Different approaches to running IP over ATM are considered for performing connection-less IP and connection oriented ATM technologies.
IP over SDH is an efficient approach compared to IP over ATM. Connection set-up © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 37 (42) . A typical example of inter-working between the IP and the WDM layer is the signalling protocol for the optical protection mechanism. • • PPP IP multiprotocol encapsulation Error checking Link initialisation control HDLC • • PPP packet delineation SDH Path • STM-N. without PPP interface. procedures and protocols between IP routers and WDM network elements OXC. Scrambling of HDLC framed signals is required to provide security against emulation of the SDH set-rest scramble pattern and replication of the STM-N frame alignment word. interconnected rings and ring-mesh configurations. 11. IPv6. For the IP over OCH configuration.5 Configuration IP over WDM The importance of running IP over WDM is a new issue for the all-optical network. VC4-Nc Figure 16: IP-PPP over SDH layers IP datagram can be directly encapsulated over SDH. error control. IP datagram size can be can be in theory up to 64 Kbytes.. until the configuration from the switch is received. The most important parameter of the signalling protocol is the connection set-up time. using HDLC frame switches.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 3. At the moment there is no standard for direct working of IP over the Optical Channels of a WDM network. but for most individual Internet users 1500 bytes is the maximum length which is determined by the Ethernet access network. IP The PPP encapsulated IP datagrams are framed into SDH Virtual Container VC (Figure 16). The additional overheads required for IP over SDH is about 3% compared to 18-25% for IP over ATM.4. 3..4 Configuration IP over SDH [10. various all-optical network architectures. The signalling protocol must be implemented between the IP and WDM layers to provide a fast reconfiguration of the optical protection layer or switches (Fig. for overall network routing and protection mechanism.. such as point-to-point. overheads.. presented in section 2. broadcast/multicast-capable switched LAN and WAN environment using essentially point-to-point SDH lines transmission media. 12] SDH is a serious candidate to interconnect high capacity IP routers.17). should be considered.4. IP • Client datagrams.. The HDLC provides the delineation of PPP encapsulated IP datagrams . To solve this problem two items are identified: • • encapsulation mechanism to carry IP payloads over OCH. IPv4. OADM. This configuration provides multiple access. the time from when the host driver sends a request.
SDH and WDM optical network functionalities. WDM protection mechanism. The following configurations have been identified: • • • • • ATM over SDH over WDM ATM over WDM IP over ATM over SDH over WDM IP over SDH over WDM IP over WDM It was concluded that ATM and IP client signals requirements on the performance and the management of WDM optical network are not the same as SDH client signal.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 time depends on signalling transport network. For the IP over WDM scenario the following topics are identified for a future EURESCOM Project: • • • Encapsulation of IP over the Optical Channel Signalling protocol for the layer inter-working Management and OAM issues.5 Conclusion This last section has been focused on analysing an alternative solution to SDH/WDM based optical networks. IP Signalling Control OPTICAL SWITCHES UDP Fig17: Signalling protocol layers for IP/WDM using optical protection mechanism 3. services and performance) has been presented. reconfiguration time and network architectures should be reconsidered for ATM or IP client signals. First. ATM. an overview of ATM and IP client signals (network functions. The following multi-layer network architectures have been selected to study the impact of ATM and IP client signals on the planning of optical network. TCP . focusing on IP. In WDM network the signalling protocol could be transported over the optical supervisory channel . page 38 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .
A list of desirable functions enabling or enhancing optical networking. In the last Section of the Deliverable. SDH and WDM network functionalities. The selected configurations will be used for network planning studies in Tasks 3 and 4 activities of the Project. optical spectrum.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures 4 Conclusion In this Deliverable. The selected configurations are listed as follows: • • • • two-level CS-Ring architecture two-level OMS-SP Ring architecture two-level mesh-ring architecture two-level ring.mesh architecture Characteristic parameters dealing with architectures. and Failure detection) Optical 3R regeneration Network survivability (protection. demands and physical limitation have been identified and ranges of value have been proposed. Most of the important optical functions used for simple network topologies are considered to be available by 1998. ATM. Multi-layer network configurations are proposed using IP. restoration) Management functions From the assessment of optical network architectures. results from Task 2 ‘Considerations on Optical Network Architectures’ activities are presented. directly based ATM over WDM and IP over WDM approaches require the definition of a new network interface and corresponding management system. The following configurations are proposed: • • • • • ATM over SDH over WDM ATM over WDM IP over ATM over SDH over WDM IP over SDH over WDM IP over WDM The cumulative configurations using many layers like ATM over SDH over WDM and IP over ATM over SDH over WDM are considered to be an inefficient solution for their resource consuming overhead requirements. four complex network architectures have been selected as reference configurations. © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 39 (42) . have been identified as follows: • • • • • Flexible OADMs and OXCs Optical signal monitoring functions (QoS. Unfortunately. topologies. the potential of optical transport network for multi-client applications is discussed.
V. M.J. A. ITU-T.I pp. 1997 D.Slagsvold. ‘Using proxies to enhance TCP performance over hybrid coaxial networks’. Vol.org/ RFC 1661. E.1998. D3. Peter Newman et al. IEEE communication magazine January 1997.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 References   Katsusuke Tajima. pp 305-306. http://www.org/ encapsulation over ATM ALL 5’. “Photonic transport networks : Why. ‘How many wavelengths does it take to build a wavelength-routed optical network ’. Computer Communication 2.1998. No.Royset. Nov. How and When ? ”. December 1997.J.1996 Demeester.L.R.. ‘The mapping of HDLC payloads into SDH Virtual Containers’. 85. “ Guidelines for the introduction of Optical Networking Functions”. RFC 1483.ietf. http://www. «Low loss optical fibres realised by reduction of Raleigh scattering loss». ‘PPP over SONET/SDH’. pp 64-69. M. ‘IP switching and Gigabit routers’. Sept. ‘MAPOS’.P. et al. 11. pp 1412-1430. den Hollander. of the IEEE. D. ECOC ’96.            C.. Schiess. May 98. «Optical fibres and Amplifiers for WDM Systems».org/ page 40 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 .Hjelme. EURESCOM Project P615.. Da Silva. ‘The Internet: global information superhighway for the future’.M. OFC ’98 Technical Digest.org/ RFC 2171. NOC’96. et al. Deliso. ‘Point-to-point Protocol PPP’. http://www. Yadlowsky. ‘Multiprotocol http://www. 158 –165. Vol. Computer Communication 2. pp 1502-1518. Gurdeep Singh Hura. Reuven Cohen et al. Proc.ietf. RFC 1619.J. COM 15-61.ietf.ietf.
. These limit e. Fig.Deliverable 1 Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Appendix 1: Recent Progress in the Performance of Optical Transmission System Components Introduction Even though the state-of-the-art of available optical functions was reviewed at the beginning of the Project the progress achieved in the performance of some of the functions has been considerable since then and it seems appropriate to take that into account. in terms of a dB value as it is often undesirable to take into account the more detailed information of the optical gain spectrum. In WDM links with a large number of cascaded EDFAs these gain relaxations will be even more pronounced. possible that distinct power transients in the surviving channels are produced. EDFA properties The absolute values of EDFA key properties power gain. In recent work it has been demonstrated that the variation of these parameters as a function of optical carrier frequency can be reduced considerably and corresponding improvements in system performance can be achieved. Under the same conditions in a cascade of EDFAs with an advanced gain control scheme. In contrast to that the gain spectrum.g. if some of the WDM channels fail.g. The diagram in Fig. Figure a-1 : Gain spectrum of a conventional EDFA Figure a-2: Wide band EDFA gain spectrum  Temporal behaviour of EDFAs is characterised by very slow gain relaxation effects . Within the entire gain bandwidth of an EDFA the deviation of actual gain from the nominal gain is specified e. it is. the power transient was suppressed by 10dB. Under special circumstances e. however.g. © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 page 41 (42) . It has been shown  that in a cascade of conventional EDFAs these gain relaxations can induce power transients of nearly 0dBm in the surviving channel under extraordinary conditions. The variations of these properties as a function of optical carrier frequency seriously impacts the performance of WDM transmission systems. a-2 shows the considerably enlarged gain range and correspondingly lower gain variation within a certain wavelength band that has been achieved in . a-1 represents a gain spectrum of a conventional type EDFA. saturated output power and noise figure of EDFAs have not changed dramatically. the maximum number of channels and the total number of cascaded amplifiers in a WDM link. however. . Usually these relaxations do not interfere with the very rapid power variations of the transmitted optical signals.
Karasek. 'A gain-flattened two-stage EDFA for WDM optical networks with a fast link control channel'. ECOC’98. pp.Considerations on Optical Network Architectures Deliverable 1 In today’s WDM point-to-point systems with only SDH clients these gain relaxations are not likely to pose any problems. pp. of channels: 1. Sun.. J. 'Performance of all Optical Gain-Clamped EDFA in 8 Channel x 10Gbps WDM Using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering'.J. 53-54 S. Lyu. OXCs and optical packet switching appropriate EDFAs with improved relaxation properties are necessary ..W.B.K.Y. 'Modelling of a pump power loss controlled gain locking system for EDFA application in WDM transmission systems‘.23-26    page 42 (42) © 1999 EURESCOM Participants in Project P709 . August 1998. Proc. A. Kim. S. Lee. pp. Vengsarkar.Proc.54µm .565µm gain bandwidth: in band gain variation: no. Lee.H. G.M. pp.-Optoelectron. Abramov.R.H. Liu. Wysocki. ’Gain variations in optically gain clamped Erbium doped fibre amplifiers‘.1. 1. These improved values have not yet been achieved in one single device. 153. J. A. pp 43-44 Y. S. IEE Proc. Watkins.528µm . Y.L Zyskind. Vol.C.. Kang.F. Park.H. Kim. T.. Espindola. 'A Gain-Flattened Ultra Wide Band EDFA for High Capacity WDM Optical Communication Systems'. Wolf. 47-48 M. H. J.54µm . References   M. 145. Strasser. 4. J.P. Sulhoff. Judkins. J. A. Proc. Optics Communications. S.. No. van der Plaats. 205-210 S.565µm 25nm 3dB 32 (100GHz spacing) advanced EDFA features gain band: gain bandwidth: in band gain variation: no. (1998). ECOC’98.1.Y. C.A. J. Pedrazzani. conventional EDFA features: gain band: 1.F.J.M. In table a-1 values for some of the improved EDFA properties are shown. H. Zhou.K. J. For a future network which will extensively make use of flexible OADMs. ECOC’98. Krol. Shin. J. R. Lee.611µm 83nm 3dB 100 (100GHz spacing) 200 (50GHz spacing) overshoot: 0dBm overshoot: -10dBm Table a-1 : Properties of conventional and advanced type of EDFA Conclusion Due to strong competition among the different manufacturers of optical components and transmission systems rapid progress in the performance of some devices (according to desired and necessary properties) can be observed. P. Srivastava. of channels: 1.Y.
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