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By: Ianne Merh F. Tuazon, BSN II-1, Group 4 Jose was sent to Manila four months after the martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za and with Dona Teodora still in prison. He studied in the Ateneo Municipal,, a college under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits. Ateneo Municipal y Bitter rival of the Dominican-owned College of San Juan de Letran y Formerly the Escuela Pia(Charity School)- for poor boys in Manila established in 1817 y In 1859- name was changed to Ateneo Municipal by the Jesuits and later became the Ateneo de Manila. Rizal Enters the Ateneo: June 10, 1872- Jose, accompanied by Paciano, went to Manila to take the entrance examinations on Christian Doctrine, arithmetic, and reading at the College of San Juan de Letran, and passed them. His father was the first one who wished him to study at Letran but he changed his mind and decided to send Jose at Ateneo instead. Father Magin Ferrando, college registrar of Ateneo Municipal, refused to admit Jose because: y He was late for registration and; y He was sickly and undersized for his age (11 years old). Upon the intercession of Manuel Xeres Burgos, nephew of Father Burgos, he was admitted at Ateneo. Jose adopted the surname ³Rizal´ at the Ateneo because their family name ³Mercado´ had come under suspicion of the Spanish authorities. Ateneo was located in Intramuros, within the walls of Manila. He boarded in a house on Caraballo Street, 25 min walk from the college. The boarding house was owned by Titay, who owd Rizal family P300. Jose boarded there to collect part of the debt. Jesuits System of Education: Jesuits trained the character of the student by rigid discipline, humanities and religious instruction. They heard Mass early in the morning before the beginning of daily class. Classes were opened and closed with prayers. Students were divided into two groups: 1. Roman Empire- consisting of the internos (boarders) with red banners 2. Carthaginian Empire- composed of the externos (non-boarders) with blue banners Each of these empires had its rank. Students fought for positions. With 3 mistakes, opponent¶s position could lose his position. y y y 1st best: ³emperor´ 2nd best: ³tribune´ rd 3 best: ³Decurion´ y y 4th best: ³centurion´ th 5 best: ³Standard-bearer
Ateneo students uniform is consisted of ³hemp-fabric trousers´ and ³striped cotton coat´. The coat was called rayadillo, and was adopted as the uniform for Filipino troops during the days of the First Philippine Republic. Rizal¶s First Year in Ateneo (1872-1873). y y Rizal¶s first professor in Ateneo was Fr. Jose Bech. Rizal was placed at the bottom of the class since he was a newcomer and knows little Spanish.He was an externo (Carthaginians), occupying the end of the line. But at the end of the month, he become ³emperor´ of his Empire. He was the brightest pupil in the whole class, and he was awarded a prize, a religious prize. Rizal took private lessons in Santa Isabel College during noon recesses to improve his Spanish language paying three pesos for those extra lessons. He placed second at the end of the year, athough all his grades were still marked ³Excellent´
Summer Vacation (1873) Rizal didn¶t enjoy his summer because his mother was in prison so Neneng(Saturnina) brought him to Tanawan. But without telling his father, he went to Santa Cruz to visit her mother in prison. He told her of his brilliant grades. After summer, he returned to Manila and now boarded inside Intramuros at No. 6 Magallanes Street. Dona Pepay, who had a widowed daughter and 4 sons, was his landlady. Second Year in Ateneo (1873-74) Rizal lost the class leadership. But he repented and even studied harder, once more became ³emperor´. He received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold medal. Prophecy of Mother¶s Release Dona Teodora told her son of her dream the previous night. Rizal, interpreting the dream, told her that she would be released from prison in 3 month¶s time. It became true. Dona Teodora likened his son to the youthful Joseph in the Bible in his ability to interpret dreams. Teenage Interest in Reading The first favorite novel of Rizal was The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas. His boyish imagination was stirred by the sufferings of Edmond Dantes (the hero) in prison, his spectacular escape from the dungeon of Chateau d¶If, his finding a buried treasure in the rocky island of Monte Cristo, and his dramatic revenge on his enemies who had wronged him. Rizal alos read non-fiction. He persuaded his father to buy a costly set of Cesar Cantu¶s historical work entitled Universall History. He also read Travels in the Philippines by Dr. Feodor Jagor, a German scientist-traveler who visited Phil in 1859-60.He was impressed by: 1. Jagor¶s keen observations of the defects of Spanish colonization 2. His prophecy that someday Spain would lose the Phil and that Anerica would come to succeed her as colonizer. Third Year in Ateneo (1875-76) June 16, 1875- He became an interno in Ateneo. Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez, one of his professor, inspired him to study harder and write poetry. Rizal¶s best professor in Ateneo. Rizal described him as ³model of uprightness, earnestness, and love for the advancement of his pupils´. He returned to Calamba with 5 medals and excellent ratings. Last Year in Ateneo (1876-77) Rizal- The most brilliant Atenean of his time, and was truly ³the pride of the Jesuits´. Graduation with Highest Honors March 23, 1877- Rizal, 16 years old, received from his Alma Mater, Ateneo Municipal, the degree of Bachelor of Arts, with highest honors. The night before graduation, he could not sleep. Early morning on the day of his graduation, he prayed to the Virgin to ³commend his life and protect him as he step into the world´. Extra-Curricular Activities in Ateneo y He was an active member, later secretary, of Marian Congregation, a religious society. He was accepted because of his academic brilliance and devotion to Our Lady of Immaculate Conception, the college patroness. y He is also a member of the Academy of Spanish Literature and the Academy of Natural Sciences.
He studied painting under Agustin Saez, a famous painter, and sculpture under Romualdo de Jesus. He continued his physical training under hi sports-minded Tio Manuel.
Sculptural Works in Ateneo He carved an image of The Virgin Mary on a piece of batikuling (Philippine hardwood) with his pocket-knife. The Jesuits fathers were amazed. Father Lleonart requested him to carve for him an image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. He intended to take the image with him in Spain but forgot to do so. So the Ateneo boarders placed it on the door of their dormitory. It plays a significant part in Rizal¶s last hours at Fort Santiago. Anecdotes on Rizal, the Atenean 1. Felix M. Roxas- He related an incident of Rizal¶s schooldays in the Ateneo which reveals the hero¶s resignation to pain and forgiveness. 2. Manuel Xeres Burgos- his anecdote on Rizal illustrates his predilection to helo the helpless at the risk of his own life. Poems Written in Ateneo Mi Primera Inspiracion (My First Inspiration)- first written poem of Rizal, which was dedicated to his mother on her birthday. He wrote it when he was 14 years old. In 1875, inspired by Fr. Sanchez, he wrote more poems, as such: 1. Felicitacion (Felicitation) 2. El Embarque: Himno a la Flota de Magallanes ( The Departure: Hymn to Magellan¶s Fleet) 3. Y Es Espanol: Elcano, el Primero en dar la Vuelta al Mundo (And He is Spanish: Elcano, the Fist to Circumnavigate the World) 4. El Combate: Urbiztondo, Terror de Jolo (The Battle: Urbiztondo, Terror of Jolo) In 1876, he wrote poems on religion, education memories and war. (e.g. In Memory of my Town) Rizal¶s Poem on Education Through Education Our Motherland Recieves Light- education plays in the progree and welfare of a nation The Intimate Alliance Between Religion and Good Education- showed that µEducation without God is not true education.¶ Rizal¶s Religious Poem y y y y Al Nino Jesus (To the Child Jesus)- written when he was 14 years old, expressing his Catholic faith devotion. A La Virgen Maria (To the Virgin Mary)
Dramatic Work in Ateneo Father Sanchez requested him to write a drama based on the prose story of St. Eustace the Martyr. He finished that request on June 2, 1876 entitled San Eustacio, Martir (St. Eustace, the Martyr). First Romance of Rizal y He experienced his first romance with Segunda Katigbak, a pretty 14 year old Batanguena from Lipa. One Sunday Rizal visited his maternal grandmother in Trozo, Manila with his friend Mariano Katigbak. One of whom was an attractive girl, who mysteriously caused his heart to palpitate with strange ecstasy was Segunda. His grandmothers guests ureged him to draw Segunda¶s portrait. ³From time to time,´ he reminisced,´she looked at me and I blushed´ Rizal came to know Segunda more intimately during weekly visits to La Concordia College, where his sister was boarding student. Olimpia and Segunda was a close friend. Theirs was indeed ³a love at first sight´. But Segunda was already engaged to be married to Manuel Luz.