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Salisbury Court, Fleet Street,

London, E.C.






THIS work was originally meant to be a continuation of the "Electromagnetic Induction and its Propagation,"

published in The Electrician in 1885-6-7, but left unfinished. Owing, however, to the necessity of much introductory

found to be impracticable, and was, by request, greatly modified. The result is something approaching a connected treatise on electrical theory, though without the strict formality usually associated with
repetition, this plan


at once

As critics cannot always find time to read more than the preface, the following remarks may serve to direct their attention to some of the leading points in this volume.
a treatise.





I believe, be

found easy to read,

and may perhaps be useful to many men who are accustomed to show that they are practical by exhibiting their ignorance
of the real


of scientific

and mathematical methods

of enquiry.

The second

chapter, pp. 20 to 131, consists of an outline

scheme of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory from the Faraday-Maxwell point of view, with some small modifications
in terms of

and extensions upon Maxwell's equations. It is done my rational units, which furnish the only way ot out the idea of lines and tubes of force in a concarrying

and intelligible manner. It is also done mainly in terms of vectors, for the sufficient reason that vectors are


subject of investigation.

It is also

done in the

duplex form I introduced in 1885, whereby the electric and





magnetic sides of electromagnetism are symmetrically exand connected, whilst the "forces" and "fluxes"







potential functions

which are such powerful aids to obscuring and complicating the subject, and hiding from view useful and sometimes important relations.

132 to 305, is devoted to vector algebra and analysis, in the form used by me in my former As I have at the beginning and end of this chapter papers.
third chapter, pp.



views concerning the unsuitability of quaternions

for physical requirements,





a vector

algebra which


based upon the vector and
it is

dominated by

vectorial ideas instead of quaternionic,

needless to say

more on the point




must add that

has been

gratifying to discover

among mathematical

physicists a con-

on these


and rapidly growing appreciation of vector algebra and moreover, that students who had found

quaternions quite hopeless could understand


vectors very
this chap-


Regarded has manifest shortcomings.

as a treatise

on vectorial algebra,
It is only the first


of the subject.

Nevertheless, as the reader



from the

applications made,

fully sufficient for ordinary use in

the mathematical sciences where the Cartesian mathematics
usually employed, and we need not trouble about more advanced developments before the elements are taken up. Now, there are no treatises on vector algebra in existence yet,

suitable for mathematical physics,

Cartesian mathematics
greatest importance).


and in harmony with the matter to which I attach the

I believe, therefore, that this chapter


be useful as a stopgap.
pp. 306

The fourth



devoted to the

theory of plane

and, being mainly perhaps be read with profit by many who are unable to tackle the mathematical theory comprehenIt may be also useful to have results of mathematical sively.

electromagnetic waves,


simple. But should they profess to be. V. out results without effect. and demands some notice. their official weight imparts a fictitious impor- tance to their views. minded man. But in other countries I find. a it sufficient is statement of their meaning and But Some examples in illustration only introductory to plane thereof have been crowded out.PREFACE. This probably came from a simpleit has been said to be too is This objection. The phenoinvolving electromagnetism classes. and I will probably be given in the next volume. be roughly divided Besides the main A2 . and obstruct the spreading of views they cannot understand. it has been said to be too complicated. not expected of them. On the other hand. Having thus gone briefly through the book. of weight. Two diverse opinions have been expressed about it. and acts most deleteriously in propagating error. considerable agreement with my views. and also an account of the of effects of self-induction and leakage. however. included in the present volume the application of the theory (in duplex form) to straight wires. There have been some very queer views promulgated officially in this country concerning the speed of the current. On the one hand. them from criticism. the impotence of selfinduction. and other material points concerned. Whether a theory can be rightly described as too simple depends materially upon what it professes to be. reasoning expanded into ordinary language for the benefit of mathematicians themselves. especially when their official position is held up as a screen to protect there is. they No matter officials how eminent may be in their departments. coming from a wise man. it is desirable to say a few words regarding the outline sketch of electromagnetics in the second chapter. and lay down the law outside their knowledge. have. It is need not be scientific men. mena into may two primary and secondary. who are sometimes too apt to work waves. which are some significance in present practice as well as in possible future developments.

and have subsidiary extensions to is The theory of electromagnetism then a primary theory. etc. and the substitution ol the second circuital law for Maxwell's equation of electro- motive force involving the potentials. PREFACE. but there are some differences. and furnishing a guide to special extensions. but suitable for the primary effects. What Maxwell's theory? or.VI. the expression of the . It is especially of exhibiting the relations. merable details. which is way It clarifying in complicated cases as well as in simple ones. theory would be so unwieldy as to be practically useless the major phenomena would be apparently swamped by the minor. partly or even mainly electromagnetic. debatable than that of the primary would be an injustice to the latter to too Then again. and be sufficiently comprehensive to I believe the form of theory in the serve for a framework. useful in the duplex second chapter will answer the purpose. for instance. by Maxwell's theory ? What should we agree to understand . the secondary phenomena were thoroughly known . I It might perhaps be done ii think not. seem best not to attempt too much. but their theory is so much more phenomena that it closely amalgamate them. But there is one is change in particular which raises a fresh question. Some are changes of form only . but also trenching upon other physical it sciences. but have a sort of abstract electromagnetic scheme for the primary phenomena only. Now the question arises whether is either practicable or useful to attempt to construct a theory of such comprehensiveness as to include the secondary phenomena. primary phenomena. the theory cannot be expressed too simply. is essentially Maxwell's theory. at least at present. the rationalisa- tion effected by changing the units. there is a large number of secondary ones. a skeleton framework corresponding to a possible state of things simpler than the real in innuthereof for the secondary. From this point of it view. and to call it the theory of electromagnetism. It would. provided be a consistent scheme. therefore.

may It may be much be. or second circuital law. only by changing see it Speaking for myself. then I think the resulting modified theory may well be called Maxwell's. yet it may be readily derived from his equation this state of things is exemplified circuital Now of electromotive force . and the law change it from the case of a stationary to that of a moving medium should be necessarily accompanied by a An similar change in the first. He might have repudiated them to believe that the utterly. are his equations : together they it we come to examine closely. which is a sign that it is not set forth in a perclear and unmistakeable form. make his theory. to see theory is. by his celebrated law defining the electric current in terms of magnetic force. For although he did not employ the other. and there . written say during the twelve years following the that there publication of Maxwell's treatise. we readily see that the independent formal proof is unnecessary . the similarity of . impossible to adhere strictly to Maxwell's theory as he gave to the world. is sufficient to refer to papers by physicists. vii. differently interpreted by different fectly ties men. suffers in passing made a fundamental one. There is Maxwell's book as he wrote it there is his text. or Maxwell's circuital law. it was form of presentation that I was able to to avoid the inconsistencies. if But it it is only on account of its inconvenient form. is and so as Now it there no finality in a growing science. To begin first with. and when this is done. The first approximation to the answer is to say. that he would have admitted the necessity of the change when pointed out to him. clearly not admissible to make arbitrary changes in call it if and still his. It is. difference of opinion as to what his and has been. But when we find that this answer is it unsatisfactory. therefore.PREFACE. There are many obscuriits and some inconsistencies. clearly. But we have good reason and to believe theory as stated in his treatise does require modification to make it self-consistent.

the strongest reason to consider them The following example. current does not appear in is the second circuital equation. the motional magnetic force. Lodge's recent paper on Problems. so that a convective magnetic D being the displacement.. Fresnel considered that the external ether was stationary. requires the use of a similar auxiliary where q is term in the first circuital law. viz. form and of the conditions of motion show that Maxwell's auxiliary term in the electromotive force). say water. which has been suggested to me " Aberration by remarks in Prof. will illustrate the matter in question. J. But. force. in the case . must therefore appear not always circuital. if v The experiments of Fizeau and the speed of the water. and that. But further than this I should not like to go. 2 light referred to the external ether be V//* + v(l -ft~ ). it is would be taking too great a liberty to not necessary. is V//A. when moving. D convective electric current circuital equation. and there is other evidence to support FresnePs is hypothesis. And there is yet For whilst B is circuital. VDq." referring to a previous investigation of Prof. and in the first just mentioned.Vlll. it is For the reason the theory as thus modified that I consider to represent the true Maxwellian theory. VqB (the motional electric and B the velocity of the medium the induction. Thomson. having made a fit. Michelson have shown that this result is at least approximately true. another change sometimes needed. It is known if V be the speed of light through ether. if p that is the refractive index.. and because it make additions without essential. PREFACE. viz. the water only carried forward with it the extra ether This makes the speed of it contained (or equivalently). and that the ether was /a 2 ? waves This times as dense in the water as outside. is Now what in the is the speed as when the water itself moving is same direction the light a very old problem. with the other small changes required to make a fit. the speed through a stationary transparent body. J. at least in a generalised form. because.

because the only change occurring in the equations is in the value of one or both ethereal constants. and it an axiomatic truth that there should be superimposition velocities. velocity is not superimposed upon that of the velocity of waves through the medium at rest. if we employ the modified t or corrected circuital law above referred to. This example shows the importance of having a simply For if the auxiliary expressed and sound primary theory. Maxwell's theory is a theory of propagation a simple medium. For all motion is relative. is. as a matter of fact.fir 2 ) v. so that V//* is of +v should be the velocity in the above case according to any rational theory of propagation through a simple medium. there is at least a chance of its extension by auxiliary hypotheses being also good. the additional speed of light due to the motion of the water might be ^v instead of (1 . This actually seems to corroborate the experimental results. And. we do obtain full superimposition of velocities. But the argument is entirely a deceptive one. of water. provided i?/V is small. Consequently. Whereas if the primary theory be good. through but when we pass to a solid or liquid dielectric it is still to be regarded as a simple medium in the same sense. the permittivity and inductivity practically only the first. hypotheses required to explain outstanding or secondary phenomena be conjoined to an imperfect primary theory we shall surely be led to wrong results. the true inference is that there is something wrong with the theory. Now suppose should we examine be. the extra velocity being the full v instead of Jv. The true conclusion from Fizeau and Michelson's results is that a transparent medium like water cannot be regarded as (in the electromagnetic theory) . If the matter electro- magnetically. Fundamentally it is the ether. without much disagreement. and enquire what the increased speed through a moving dielectric we follow Maxwell's equations literally.PREFACE. as above. is if we its find. that when the medium itself moved. we shall find that the extra speed is |r.

that no theory of the ether can be complete that does not fully account for the omnipresent force of gravitation. is Let it not be forgotten that Maxwell's theory . and that it is well recognised that the 4?r was an unfortunate evils. at least for is waves of light. without which all electrical theory would I believe that this view is fall to pieces. But however this matter may be finally interpreted. now nearly extinct. Fresnel's forgotten the contrary conclusion arrived at by Michelson as to the absence of relative rounding ether. a simple medium like the ether. There sion. is a matter for the future to determine. In plain English. the source of many . speculation is But if roughly equivalent to supposing that the mole-' cules of transparent matter act like little condensers in increas- ing the permittivity. Whether Maxwell's theory will last. Fresnel's sagacious its except indeed as regards form of without The ether. as a sufficient and satisfactory primary theory upon which the numerous secondary developments required may be grafted. for example.ether and. we must have a clear primary theory that can be trusted within its limits. is one other matter that demands notice in conclunot long since it It is was taken correct. the latest being Prof.X. and the matter slip through sensibly affecting it. PREFACE. and that the matter. only carries forward the increased permittivity. may be identical inside it and outside the body. and that a secondary theory speculation expression. At any rate the evidence that with whirling discs. moreover. when in motion. the common system of electrical units involves an irrationality of the same kind as would be brought into the and mischievous mistake. Lodge's experiments though on the other hand must not be motion between the earth and surthe ether be stationary. is justified. for granted that the common electrical units were 4?r That curious and obtrusive constant was considered by some to be a sort of blessed dispensation. only the first step towards a full theory of the . this is the case preponderates. necessary.

But there was also the theoretical of fixing the relations of the units in a convenient. for ever and ever had do The B. on the other hand. But that thing it is is to correct it. and everywhere should not be. X i. Now. but of a circle of unit diameter. were we to define the unit area to be the area. and the new (or rational). of course. metric system of weights and measures. Committee on two kinds of work. the immense benefit to be gained by rationalising the units requires some consideration to fully appreciate. Some temporary inconFor a time there would be necessary. So it is in the common electrical units. on the one hand. When make a mistake is easy not enough. This work has not yet been done. The constant TT would then itself into the area of a rectangle. and harmonious manner. This has been done at great length. by reason of the enormously rapid extension of electrical industries. and natural to man.. obtrude it which are truly irrational. Electrical Standards to There was the practical work of making standards from the experimentally found properties of matter much work (and ether). and with labour and success. There have been several already. not at present sufficient popular not seem very satisfactory. and be a source of great confusion and inconvenience.PREFACE. Is demand it for the change does ? not for leaders to lead of light And who should lead but the men and leading who have practical influence in the matter ? Whilst. not of a square with unit side. To say that they ought to do it is almost a Who else should do it ? To say that there is platitude. The next a mistake has once been started. . not a novelty to have two sorts of ohms. the old style two sorts of ohms. rational. A. very easy to overestimate the difficulty of venience is making the change. &c. to is it not necessary to go on repeating with cumulative inconvenience. Eemember that the number of But it is standards in present existence is as nothing to the number going to be made. it is. and with ever increasing rapidity.

then disappear. but something It was henceforward to be H 2 0. chemists. Electricians should set a good example. that the when they found wrong. the wisdom of the change. it will be far more troublesome if put off until the general British units are reformed. and I do not know that there is a practical question than this one of rational- more important ising the units. to be altered. of course). .XII. on account of its far-reaching effect. DECEMBER 16. for so many other formulae had and new books written. Old style instruments would very soon be in a minority. 1893. did not cry " Too late. But no one questions at first. like the pins. as he had taught us before. Now observe." ignore the matter. PREFACE. sap. here. This was strange and inconvenient. One day our respected master informed us that it had been found out that water else. and ask Parliament to legalise the old erroneous weights Verb. and think that whilst the change could be made now with ease (with a will. I advocate is The reform which somewhat similar to the important improvement made by chemists in their units about a quarter of a century ago. ! They went and set the matter right. was not HO. and that their atomic weights were their formulae irrational. even though that period be not so distant as it is customary to believe.

deduced by Mathematical Reasoning 14 CHAPTER II.. 21 Electric and Magnetic Energy Absolute . 189 1. . PAGE.. OUTLINE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. Conductivity ...CONTENTS.current and Current [Feb.} CHAPTER I.. 20 [Feb.. 1891. . and Magnetic Force Displacement and Elastivity and Permittivity. Density and Intensity . . .] Description of some Electromagnetic Results . . ... .... 1891... (Pages 20 to 131.] 1 7 16 [Jan. 24 Real Magnetic Forces and Fluxes Line-integral of a Force... 2.. Permittance and Elastance . 27.] Induction tivity . [Jan. 1891... 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Eolotropic Relations Distinction between 22 and Relative Permittivity or Inductivity Dissipation of Energy. and Resistivity. 16. 1891. 23 The Conduction-current .) SECTION.] ......... .] On the nature of-Anti-Mathematicians and of Mathematical Methods of Enquiry .. 1 7 813 14 Preliminary Remarks [Jan. Fictitious Magnetic Conduction . INTRODUCTION... SECTION. Voltage and Gaussage Surface-integral of a Flux. [The dates within brackets are the dates of first publication. 32 Inductance of a Circuit 25 25 26 27 27 28 29 30 .. The Electric Current . Permeance.. Inductance and Reluctance 29 30 31 . 30. .... PAGE. 13.. .. Conductance and Resistance . Inductivity and RelucElectric .....

. ... .... . . the Stationary Sheet generated. ... Equa. . .. Cancelment of Charges or else Passage through one another different results... and Magnetic Forces... . . 59 60 61 61 Plane Appendages produced by ... gence" Moving Source equivalent to a Convection Current. . ... 1891. Stoppage of Charge.. 56 (4.. 55 (3. 53 [May 1. Appendages 58 59 60 61 (6. 1891...) Sudden Spherical Field Plane Sheet moves on.. Definition of . . ... . Generation of a Spherical Electromagnetic Sheet ultimately Plane.... sudden jerking apart of opposite Charges .... ... Flux travels with them undisturbed ... . Intrinsic Electrisation Intrinsic Magnetisation The Motional Electric .... 1891. .. 33 [March 13. Impressed Force and Activity Distinction between Force of the Field and Force of the Flux [March 27. . SECTION....] Force..... Circulation .. " Diver- 52 A .. Circuit fixed... 32 33 35 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 41 . Final Result.. . A Stationary Electromagnetic Sheet .... Definition of a Vector-Product Example. ... 58 Meeting of a Pair of Plane Sheets with Point-Sources..) .. Spherical Sheet with two Plane Sheet .. ...... its Magnetic Analogue... ..) Source and Medium with a Common Motion. 57 instead of Charge.) Collision of Equal Charges of same Name Spherical Sheet without (8.. ..) Hemispherical Sheet. .. ..) Medium moved Or both moved with . Variation of the Induction through a Moving Circuit ... CONTENTS. (1......... First Cross-connections of Electric and Magnetic Circuital Flux.....) ...... PAGE.. . . daries General Nature of Electrified Spherical Electromagnetic Sheet 63 .. . same Relative Velocity 57 (5... Modification. Electrification and . (7. 1891...... and " Electromagnetic Force " .. The Motional Magnetic Force The " Magneto-electric Force " .... . . . . .. Induction moving equivalently .. ...] Examples to illustrate Motional Forces in a Moving Medium with a Moving Source. and makes the True Current Circuital .. tions of a Pure Electromagnetic Wave . Plane. .......) Source and Medium in Relative Motion. and Cylindrical Boun...] Classification of Impressed Forces Voltaic Force Thermo-electric Force .XIV. 42 43 44 45 46 48 49 49 51 [April 17.. .... .. 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Law of Circuitation Second Law of Circuitation Definition of Curl . .. A Charge suddenly 54 jerked into Motion at the Speed of Propagation... . . . Conical... 53 54 (2... .] Connection between Motional Electric Force .. ...

Magnetic Stress. . Harmoni- Movement Energy of Insulators in Electric Field.. . Effect on the Stored . [July 17..] General Remarks on the Circuital Laws.. Body independent of the Internal Stress.CONTENTS SECTION. . ..] Uncertainty regarding the General Application 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 The Electrostatic Stress The Moving Force on Harmonisation of the Electromagnetic Stress in Air . . 64 66 67 68 70 72 Changes in the Form of the First Circuital Law 65 66 67 68 69 Introduction of the Second Circuital Law [July 3.. 1891.. .. ... Real Surface Traction is the Stress Difference 96 98 80 81 Translational Force due to Variation of Permittivity. The Cardinal Feature of Maxwell's System... Medium at Rest. Any Stress Self -equilibrating .. .. Extension to include varying States in 107 . 21... . .. 74 .. 1891. Criterion The Persistence of Energy. Advice to antiMaxwellians . bodily and superficial.... . ... . > 63 64 Ampere's Rule for deriving the Magnetic Force from the Current....] Lateral Pressure becomes prominent. 102 . 90 91 Depth of Electrified Layer on a Conductor . The Poynting Flux Extension to a Moving Medium...] tinuity of form of expression of the Con. but no Stress Discon. .. Special Estimation of Energy of a .... 4. Electric Field disturbed by Foreign Body. .. active Stress. ...... ..... Rational Current-element .. Energy... Derivation of the Electromagnetic Stress from the Flux of . . . Difficulty... Continuity in Time and Space and Flux of Energy Convection of Energy and Flux of Energy due to an Gravitational difficulty Specialised ........ ... [Aug... Examples.. 83 84 85 Force on Intrinsically Magnetised Matter. Effect of a Spherical Non-conductor Dynamical Principle.. PAOE.. . Full interpretation of the Equation of Activity and derivation of the Flux of Energy .] . ... . Electrification.. ... .. . 99 82 Force due to Abrupt or Gradual Change of .. 1891..'] Meaning of True Current. 93 95 Resultant Action on Solid Electric Application of the Principle... a Moving Medium .... . 62 [May 1891. ..... Energy 77 78 80 83 85 87 70 71 Electromagnetic Application... which is statically indeterminate... The 82 A [Sept. 1891. Division into an Electric and a Magnetic Stress [July 31.. .... . . XV. 103 Magnet and the Moving Force it leads to 106 Force on Intrinsically Electrised Matter Summary of the Forces. sation with Surface Traction ... . Force on Electric Current Conductors..... Maxwell's Solution probably wrong. . 29. . 100 Movement of Elastically Magnetised Bodies Inductivity......... tinuity in general .. .. .. 1891... ...

.. ..... 1891. . 1891.... . Elementary Vector Analysis independent of the Quaternion Tait v. 16. 25. SECTION.. Notation... Irrational Electric Poles Rational v. 13... 23. 147 148 151 155 107 108 [Dec.. .] Rational v. Tensor and Components of a Vector. IN ITS APPLICATION TO ELECTROMAQNETISM 127 CHAPTER III. Irrational Magnetic Poles APPENDIX THE ROTATIONAL ETHER A.. Source.. Fundamental Property Reciprocal of a Vector of Scalar Products..... 1891. 90 91 92 [Oct... 4.] Scalars .) SECTION..] Type for Vectors. [Jan.. General Demonstration of this Property ... Futility of Popular Demonstrations. Electromagnetic Stress. 30. . German.XVI. .. and Examples ... Unit Vectors " 139 142 143 of Reference The Addition L06 Circuital Property Application to Physical Vectors... CONTENTS... 1891.. 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 and Vectors .. Characteristics of Cartesian and Vectdrial Analysis Abstrusity of Quaternions and Comparative Simplicity gained . THE ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS... by ignoring them.. Distinction between Source of Energy and of Disturbance .. Greek.. Backsliding in the Present Generation.] . Letters unsuitable.. 1891. Gibbs and Gibbs v.. . Two Vectors. 18. .. . Barbarity of Euclid .] 87 88 and Magnetic to produce . PAGE. Identity of the Disturbances due to Impressed Forcives having the same Curl........ .. of Vectors.. and Roman [Nov. Example : Single Circuital Source of A Disturbance 112 89 Production of Steady State due to Impressed Forcive by Example of a Circular crossing of Electromagnetic Waves. Tait Abolition of the Minus Sign of Quaternions [Dec. . 1891... . .] The Scalar Product of and Illustrations .....] The Eruption of "47r"s The Origin and Spread of the Eruption The Cure of the Disease by Proper Measure Sources 113 116 117 119 120 122 123 125 of the Strength of 93 94 95 96 Obnoxious Effects of the Eruption A Plea for the Removal of the Eruption by the Radical Cure [Oct.. L04 L05 Clarendon Type suitable. Typographical . 132 133 134 136 137 138 .. (Pages 132 to 305. . .. .. . 109 ... 86 [Sept. ..... . . . . Notation ... 1891.. . Principal Axes Dependence of the Fluxes due to an Impressed Forcive upon of Electric its Union 109 110 Curl only.. .. . PAGE..

.. 1892.Cartesian Expansion of a Vector Product.. . The Theorem of Divergence Scalar Product VD. Tangency and Curvature .. .... and its Solution 34 Connections of Potential.. 1892. 169 [Feb. &c... Examples of Differentiating 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 Functions of Vectors ......... 1892. 1892.. . Resolution of a Spin into other Spins Motion of Systems of Displacement.. Divergence.. 29... . Five Examples of the Operation of V in Transforming from Surface to Volume Summations Five Examples of the Operation of V in Transforming from Circuital to Surface Summations . of Circuital Vectors Separa- A Series 206 209 212 213 214 215 216 135 136 137 138 139 140 [May 27. 1.. . Curl. 1892.. ...CONTENTS........ Function . Semi -Cartesian Differentiation... .... 1892.. . ... SECTION. tion of a Vector into Circuital and Divergent Parts. and its Extension . Illustrations 155 156 158 159 162 163 165 167 112 113 114 Combinations of Three Vectors. " Integration by parts... Extension of the Theorem of Divergence . 1892.} A Series of Divergent Vectors The Operation inverse to Divergence . . or the Curl of a Vector. ... Determination of Possibility of Existence of Differential Coefficients 172 174 176 178 180 Variation of the Size and Ort of a Vector 122 [March 4. .......} The Differentiation of Scalars and Vectors . . 1892. . .. ... and Various Forms of Expansion ..} 183 185 186 188 190 191 194 130 131 132 Nine Examples of the Differentiating Effects of V The ...} Preliminary on V....} Hamilton's Finite Differentials Inconvenient and Unnecessary . . PAGE. . The Parallelepipedal Property Semi. .. . ... the Fundamental Distributive Principle . . Velocity and Acceleration Tortuosity of a Curve......] The Vector Product of Two Vectors. Xvii.. 13. Differentiation referred to Moving Matter 123 124 125 126 127 123 129 Motion of a Rigid Body. [April 8..} Characteristic Equation of a Potential.. 197 199 202 133 1 [May The Potential of a Scalar or Vector. Axial Differentiation... 12. and Slope. 110 111 Expression of any Vector as the Sum of Three Indppendent Vectors {Jan... ... . . ... Motion along a Curve in Space. Vector Product WE.. ..... Motion of a Strain-Figure [March 25. [Jan. The Operation inverse to Slope The Operation inverse to Curl Remarks on the Inverse Operations .} Space-Variation or Slope VP of a Scalar .... .. .. . .. . and Proof of ." Energy Equivalences in the Circuital Series .. . .. Examples relating to Vector Products . ..... . . . .. The Theorem of Version..

....... . The Sphere and Ellipsoid. but Electric Force compared [July 15. compressible Solid with Distortional Elasticity : 232 234 234 147 148 149 150 151 Second Example with Velocity : Same as last...} Third Example: A Conducting Dielectric compared with a Viscous Solid.} Symmetrical Linear Operators. Liquid. .. Rotational Analogy : Energy in general Induction compared with Flux Velocity 5.. ample Magnetic Force compared with Velocity in an In.. 1892. . . . First ExElectromagnetic and Elastic Solid Comparisons.. SECTION.. 1892.... . . Useful Analogy Modification of the Second and Fourth Fifth Example ....... .. ..} Elastic. when Principal Axes are Parallel . Manipulation of . The . .. with tended to Friction Energy Kinetic. 1892..} compressible The Rotational Ether.} Probability of the Kinetic Nature of Magnetic Energy Unintelligibility of the Rotational Analogue for a Conducting ... Other Forms for the Displacement in terms of the Applied Forcive . 250 252 The Rotational Analogy.. 241 153A [July 29..... Rotation. Compressible . exa Conducting Dielectric by means of Translational 253 256 Electric 160 161 [Sept. . verse... PAGE. Sixth Example A Conducting Dielectric compared with an Fourth Example : : A 236 239 240 21Q : Elastic Solid with Translational Friction 152 153 Seventh Example : : Improvement of the Sixth . direct and in. 1892..... CONTENTS.. . ..... 143 144 145 The Stored Energy and the Stress in the Elastic Solid. . ... .. 243 245 247 249 154 155 156 157 158 159 First Rotational Analogy Magnetic Force of compared with Velocity Circuital Indeterminateness of the Second [Aug... ... 1892.... 1892. ._ through the Potential . referred to the Principal Axes . Friction.. Eighth Example A Dielectric with Duplex Conductivity compared with an Elastic Solid with Translational Elasticity and The singular Distortionless Case .... 226 146 ..XV111.. Inverse Geometrical Illustrations. 224 [June 24. Expansion. Forceless and Torqueless Stress .. Failure Pure Conductor compared with a Viscous .. .... : or In. 141 [June 10.. 2... ...... . Dielectric when Magnetic Energy is Kinetic ... . . . .. The Elastic Solid generalised to include Dissipative and Inertial Resistance to Translation.. and Distortion .... .....} gent Series Energy and other Equivalences in the Diver- 217 219 221 142 The Relation of Displacement to Force Isotropic Elastic Solid.. Perpendiculars and Maccullagh's Theorem Internal Structure several 259 262 162 of Linear Operators. ..... . .. ..... ... .

Once a Vector. Effect of Self- " Fatuity of Mr. of Linear Operators .. .. Dielectric.. 264 Theory of the Relative Motion of Electrification and the Medium...... 6..CONTENTS. Currents and the Medium The General Linear Operator The Dyadical Structure of Linear Operators .. . 1892... . Preece's KR law " .. 1892..... Spherical Action at a Distance versus Intermediate Contrast of New with Old Views about Electricity Generation of . 30. 281 283 285 287 The Inversion .. their Initiation 320 321 Heterogeneous Medium 183 184 .. .. absorb the Energy of Electromagnetic Waves . . 16. . Waves . The Equilibrium Surfaces 165 166 [Sept. . A Perfect Conductor is a Perfect Obstructor. netification and the Medium . 30.. ....... turbance Increased Induction as well as Eolotropic Dis- 277 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 [Oct... . Optical Wave. Intermittent Source producing Steady States and Electromagnetic Sheets. . .. Hamilton's Theorem .. . 323 325 328 Effect of Eolotropy... 27..... (Pages 306 to 466.] 180 181 182 Relations between Induction. Axiom . 176 177 [Dec...... General Notions about Electromagnetic Waves. .. ..] Theory of the Relative .. .. 18. of in general Motion of . THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.) SECTION. Vector Product of a Vector and a Dyadic. but does not . PAGE. Motion of Electric .] Summary of Method of Vector Analysis Uosuitability of Quaternions for Physical Needs.Surfaces. versus Elastic Solid Theories .. 1802. .. . .. 289 293 295 297 301 The Differentiation .... 21. 269 274 Mag. 178 179 [Jan. Contrast Self-contained Forced Electromagnetic Vibrations... ...... 163 164 [Sept. 1892.. [Nov. always a Vector ... 1893. Wave-Fronts .H. with Static Problem E and H in a Pure Wave. ... The Solution for a Point-Source.] Also of a Effect of a Non-Conducting Obstacle on Waves.] Theory of Displacement in an Eolotropic .. 1892.'] Theory of the Relative .. Theory the Relative Motion of Magnetisation and the Medium.. . .....] Agency. A Train of S. The Solution for a Point-Source in steady Rectilinear Motion... . .] Hamilton's Cubic and the Invariants concerned of Linear Operators ... : [Dec..... . 9. . 1892. and Progress [Jan.. Xix. Electromagnetic ..... SECTION. .... PAGE. 1893.. CHAPTER IV. 306 310 314 316 Waves and Steady States .

.... .... Identity of ' . The Effect Conducting 192 ... CONTENTS. Generation of Tails... . 1893... [June 9. Emissivity and Temperature [March 10.. 1893... . 378 381 386 202 203 Transformation of the Circuital Equations to the Forms in... . ..... .. and Magnetic Force to Voltage and Gaussage .. . .. Long Waves and Short Waves. .] Conductors at Low Temperatures .] Transformation of Variables from Electric . Persistence of Induction and Loss of Displacement 353 357 The Persistence of Induction in Plane Strata.... . The Simple Propagation of Waves in a Distortionless Conof 564 366 ducting Medium .. ..] of Waves of ..} though with Loss. and their Attenuation . .. Meaning . Possibility of Guidance within a Single 399 401 403 Tube 207 208 Interpretation of Intermediate or Terminal Conditions in the Exact Theory [Aug. . 1893... Also in Cores and in Linear Circuits . ..] Effect of a Thin Plane Conducting Sheet on a Wave. Usually Two Guides. Diverting External Induction . . .......] The Spreading of Charge and Current in a long Circuit... . .. Elastic Wave Wave of Diffusion.. . . ... ........ 199 200 201 Distinct Effects of Electric and Magnetic Conductance Application to Waves along Straight Wires 369 374 [May 26. Magnetisation... . and in general.. 1893.... .... The Mean Flux of Energy The Mean Pressure of Radiation . 1893. .. .... Speed of Free and Guided Waves The Guidance of Waves.XX...] The Second Circuital Equation for Wires in Terms of V and C when Penetration is Instantaneous .. . 340 Matter in [March 24.... 1893. Parenthetical Remarks on Induction.. .. Simply Periodic Waves Easily Treated in Case of Imperfect 390 393 395 Penetration [July 7... ... . SECTION.. Induc- 344 349 tivity and Susceptibility 193 194 [April 7. 25.. Equilibrium of Radiation.... .... PAGE... 185 186 187 188 189 190 L91 [Feb. 1893. .] The Laws of Attenuation of Total Displacement and Total Induction by Electric and Magnetic Conductance 360 196 The Laws 197 Attenuation at the Front of a Wave. One sufficient. Reflection and Conduction 1893.] Internal Obstruction and Superficial Conduction 330 331 334 335 337 The Effect of a Perfect Conductor on External Disturbances. Resistance Operators. and their Definite 204 205 206 . 1893. 1893... .] The Transformation by Conductance to a of an .. 195 [April 21... due to Electric and Magnetic Conductance . The Second Circuital Equation when Penetration is Not Instantaneous. 198 [May 5.. volving Voltage and Gaussage . 24...

.. xxi.. 455 463 .. Artificial Leaks Self-induction imparts Momentum to Waves.. A. 209 210 211 The Distortionless Circuit. 17.Class Telephony.Constanta as regards Dis...} Part II. Self-induction combined with Leaks. PAGE.. W. when the Attenuation is ignored . .. .. Evidence in favour of Self-induction. 6. 3. Con- 433 218 219 Importance of the Magnetic Eeactance Various ways..... . 1893. 20. The two Extreme Kinds of Diffusion in one [Sept. 4.] and that carries them on.. . Application of above Theory to Inductive Leakance 446 447 449 453 APPENDIX B. 216 217 The Bridge System of Mr... [July 14. [Oct. tortion and Attenuation Beneficial Effect of 212 213 214 215 The [Oct. of increasing the Inductance of dition of First.. 437 441 Circuits [Nov. A Parti. 1893.1893. and suggested Distortionless Circuit . . 15. 1893} Effective Resistance and Inductance of a 220 221 222 Combination when regarded as a Coil. Analogy with a Flexible Cord . good and bad.. 1893..} [Aug. and Effective Conductance and Permittance when regarded as a Condenser .. ... or without Auxiliary Devices . 1893} Heaviside. .} Leakage in Submarine Cables Short History of Leakage Effects on a Cable 413 417 420 424 429 Circuit Explanation of Anomalous Effects... [Nov.... GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALOGY. .... 1893. No limiting Distance get by it .} Theory 409 411 The Effect of varying the Four Line.. SECTION... Inductive Leaks applied to Submarine Cables General Theory of Transmission of Waves along a Circuit with .CONTENTS..


the mathematics required is more or less of the characgeneral. But transcendentality begins. This is a grandiloquent word. the 47th Section. I am not so sanguine myself. You can find it in arithmetic. articles Preliminary Remarks. (A straggler. appeared December 31. The particular branch of the subject which I was publishing in the summer of 1887 was the propagation of electromagnetic waves along wires through the dielectric surrounding them." which Truth is said to reside is really a bottomless pit. that the interpretation of transcendental formulae is sometimes . and continued to the 46th Section in September. its many-sidedness demands that special In cases of interest should receive separate full development." comin The Electrician on January 3. What is of more importance is the fact never mind the word. believing that the well in out. a word to frighten timid people into believing that it is I do not know where all speculation. 1885. of which this is the The main first.) Perhaps there were other reasons than those mentioned for the discontinuance. as was mentioned to me not long There is a time coming when all things shall be found since. and therefore unsound. " But. 1887. when the great pressure titled *' menced on space and the want of readers appeared to necessitate its abrupt discontinuance. suggestive of something beyond human capacity to find out . is object of the series of to continue the work en- Electromagnetic Induction and its Propagation. 1.UNIV3 CHAPTER I. Besides a general treatment. ter sometimes termed transcendental. INTRODUCTION. We do not dwell in the Palace of Truth. 1887. This is itself a large and many-sided subject.

Anything. " It supplies a want. is not to make mathematical exer- very laborious. Thomson's meaning (though that cises may be necessary). possesses a value of its own wholly nections of apart from immediate or. commonly termed evident the moment it is be a practical man . during the examination of a practical telephonic problem. that aids this. self-induction is of such great importance in the transmission of rapidly-varying disturbances in preserving their individuality and preventing them from being attenuated to nearly nothing before getting from one end of a long circuit to the other . indeed. the transcendentality of the mathematics automatically vanished. by the distorting effects on an electromagnetic wave. that in a certain case of propagation along a conducting circuit through a con- ducting dielectric. ful in. in of the word. CU. Now. to simple algebra. however. and why copper wires are so success- and iron wires so prejudicial to effective. I. but to find out the con- known phenomena. . and that. 2. manner. but also why. by a study of the distortionless circuit we are enabled to see not only that. For instance. the real object of true naturalists. and rendered the circuit nondistortional or distortionless. therefore. when they employ mathematics to assist them. The very useful word " practitheory as well as in practice. and by deductive reasoning. any application of the kind There is. to obtain a knowledge of hitherto unknown phenomena. and of the conductance of the dielectric. for it is cian has lately come into use. I was so fortunate as to discover. and the manner of transmission examined in complete detail in an The distortionless Nor was this all.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Now Sir W. elementary circuit could be itself employed to enable us to understand the inner meaning of the transcendental cases of propagation. occasionally that a man mentioned that a practician need not on the other hand. being of opposite natures. in the main. so that they neutralised one another. of the resistance of the conductor. of disturbances could be The mathematics was reduced. long-distance These matters were considered in Sections 40 to telephony. when the distortion caused by the resistance of the circuit makes the mathematics more difficult of interpretation. it may happen who is not a practician may still be quite practical. practicality in practical.

with many readers. nor. and send it into the world full-grown. good excuse for abstaining from publication when no obstacle You may grow your plant yourself. to. Phil. or from disappointment at the reception given to. from the purely Perpoint of view. The necessity of condensation in a journal where space is so limited and so valuable. that is utterly inexcusable . nurse it a hot-house. in a more learned form. 1888-9. But that directly. July. and want of presents itself. a mere accidental circumstance.. 3. few men have an unbounded power of persistence . is There though in a it may do so sometimes. it is the Royal Road to electromagnetic waves in general. either from a want of confidence in himself. is imperative. without any appreciation B 2 . to write. carefully in of. is. when he can neither find acceptance of matter in a comparatively elementary form by journals of a partly scientific. Fault has been found with these articles that they are hard to read. August. It is like putting it. and letting it take its There is nothing like I can see only one publication and free criticism for utility. to keep his investigations to himself. But it cannot often occur that it is worth the trouble taken. But that does not answer. instead of planting chance of growing to a useful plant. the work he gives to the world . he must condense greatly. partly technical type. and are therefore declined. It is possible to imagine the case of a man being silent. of course. 3 45 (June. and leave out all explanatory matter that he Otherwise. he may be told his papers are more possibly can. 47 contain further developments. Mag. What is an investigator to do. 1887) of the work I have referred and Sections 46. by a purely scientific journal with comparatively few readers. but to make valuable discoveries.INTRODUCTION. especially when the transmitting medium is a conductor as well I have somewhat developed this matter in the as a dielectric. little fit for publication in book form. important practical applications. They were harder. viz. and to hoard them up as Cavendish did. and space to spare ? To get published at all. away seed mummy case. scientific this matter of the distortionless circuit has. As for the secretiveness of a Cavendish.. it is a sin. in a general way. a third course. that haps a more valuable property of the distortionless circuit is. perhaps. dealing with all branches of physical science.

November 14. Could not one set of men be induced to call themselves organists? We have organic chemistry. viz. and therefore materialists? That "materialist" is the right name is rous association. to use the word The matter involved here is worthy of parenthetical consideraSir W. I think. valid reason. should be subdivided. CH. He has certainly no exclusive right On the other hand. It must. then why not organists 1 Perhaps. Here. Let that notion go. either. but as Prof. tion." nor. Faraday. organists might not care to be temporarily confounded their work is so different. Tait almost criminal not to know several foreign languages. and the valuable word "materialist" be put to its proper use. however. an unsound objection. vitalist.) " naturalist. Buffon. there is another good name. as at present generally understood. (See." 4. it seems necessary to employ strong language when the criminality is more evident. Newton. which would not have any ludic- Then about the other set of men. is This seems strong language. excellent a name. and that " naturalist. and their type of mind also so seems very desirable that their names should be differentiated. however. the a student of to so is living nature only. be noted that is naturalist. were typical vitalises. obvious at a glance." comprehending both. I had occasion. It is both severe and logical. and be dignified think there by association with an honourable body of men. in the supposed evil sense. . which is a very venial offence in the opinion of others. Are they not essentially students of the properties of matter. I. and organic science . such a thing as a materialist. in the main. the physicist a student of inanimate nature. a certain suppositions evil association of the word might militate against its adoption. different. But exclusive right to the name. or ever was. for I do not is. Cuvier.4 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Thomson does not like " physicist. that it with those members of society who earn their living by setting a If so. just lately. cylinder in rotatory motion.. the article in The Electrician. seems one of the most criminal acts such a man could be guilty tells us that it of. Maxwell. Darwin. on this point. "scientist" either. so that he has no Both are naturalists. I think. and organisms. for the organist. 1890. But this would be. however. were typical materialists.

and how to produce them. it may be far more important than his. establishing the formula for the flow of energy. usually highly respectable-looking gentlemen." It was so dignified. for many years. with very large bald heads. followed by the numerous others of Fitzgerald and Trouton. in connection with the theory of lightning conductors. Davy. if one judged only by the old German electro-dynamic theories). have dealt a death-blow to the electrodynamic speculations of the Weber-Clausius type (to mention only the first and one of the last). of Dublin. when a Salvation but not most melodiously ? But I would not disparage their work . of the veritable actuality of electromagnetic waves in the ether. Young. 5.. and raised up visions of the portraits of Count Rumford. ing calmly over the secrets of nature revealed to them by their There are no natural philosophers now-a-days. Lodge was doing in some respects similar work in England. however. &c. the theory Three years ago electromagnetic wanted experimental proof. and much wrapped up about the throats. they were everywhere. for whilst Hertz with his resonating circuit was working in Germany (where one would least expect such a discovery to be made.INTRODUCTION. and to calculate the loss of energy by radiation. An important step was then made by Poynting. Prof. was the most of the very few materialists (if I may use the word) prominent who appeared to have a solid faith in the electromagnetic theory of the ether . &c. Sir H. and have given to Maxwell's . There was. J. waves were nowhere. imitable theory of dielectric displacement was for long generally regarded as a speculation. And it never rains but it pours . an almost complete dearth of interest in the unverified parts of Maxwell's theory. J. no This was due to a very remarkable and unexpected event. fashioned term "natural philosopher. Shortly after.. elderly Herschel. of Karlsruhe (now of Bonn). Fitzgerald. Maxwell's inReturning to electromagnetic waves. 5 For my part I always admired the oldAll were naturalists. joyously. These researches. Thomson. How is it possible to be a natural Army band is performing outside philosopher . sitting in their studies ponder- experiments. it may be. Still. thinking about it and endeavouring to arrive at an idea of the nature of diverging electromagnetic waves. less than the experimental discovery by Hertz.

How much depends entirely upon the reception given to the articles.G ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. room for more theoretical speculation. only it came rather unexpectedly. I. The other kind of electrodynamic There will be plenty of speculation is played out completely. It cannot even be accuspells Finality. it seems. Mathematics is at a discount. but it must now be of the Maxwellian type. in which this work first appeared. At the same time I may remark that to one who had carefully its examined the nature of consequences. more experiThe interest excited has been immense. I shall. Nevertheless. when compared with the refined tests in other parts of electrical The important thing proved is that electromagnetic waves in the ether at least approximately in accordance with Maxwell's theory are a reality. to be really useful. the consideration of electromagnetic occupy a considerable space. and the can now write about electromagnetic waves without in- curring the reproach that he is working out a mere paper theory. The speedy recognition of Dr. Hertz by the Royal Society is a very unusual testimony to the value of his researches. theory just what was wanted in mental theorist basis. not by any means to be concluded that Maxwell There is no finality. endeavour to avoid investigations of a complex character also. Speaking without prejudice. and that the Faraday-Maxwellian method is the correct one. however. to such a one Hertz's demonstration came as a matter of course 6. whose scientific horizon is bounded entirely by commercial considerations may as well avoid these articles. theory completely. and how it of Maxwell's theory. how rationally furnished the only approximately satisfactory (paper) theory of light known . * Referring to The Electrician. C1I. as the subject is intrinsically a mathematical one. In what is waves will (perhaps) to follow. . its higher parts. 7. rately said that the Hertzian waves prove Maxwell's dielectric It is The observations were very rough indeed. matter more to his taste may perhaps be found under the heading TRADE NOTICES. and seen mena and looked into most of the phenoelectromagnetism were explained by it. science.* Sunt quos curricula. when the methods and terms used are not . I shall not scruple The reader to employ the appropriate methods when required.

it does not The explain very well their attitude towards mathematicians. or that the distance of the is exactly 6 miles 500 yards. or some other easy number (any but the right one) . There are men of a certain type of mind who are never wearied with gibing at mathematics. and its P. should know better. or that the earth is flat. too. as a fact. known I shall explain them. I believe this to be a general fact but. matter may be left for students of mind to settle. they yet lay self-satisfied down the law in the most confident and manner. the is 3. the ! moon anti-mathematician must belong to the same class as the paradoxer. even amongst people who. They. How does it come about. a subject upon which there are many popular delusions current. in must. stance. But What is of greater importance is that the anti-mathematicians sometimes do a deal of mischief. and effects of mathematical investireason seems to gation. For there are many of a neutral frame of mind. telling the mathematician what the nature work is (or rather is not). therefore. It I shall. they may be hindered . generally of the next place make a few remarks upon mathematical investigations in general. and at mathematical methods of inquiry. 7 . therefore. be gradually led up to. should they possess some mathematical bent. this whereas the really wise man is ignorant in his wisdom. men who nice want to make you believe that the to the diameter of a circle ratio of the circumference or 3*125. for inlie deeper. meaning. one would think. 8. inutility. at mathematicians. that whilst they are themselves so transparently ignorant of the real nature. it would be absurd to jump into the middle of the subject all at once. or that the speed of the current varies as the square of the length of the line. whose characteristic is to be wise in his ignorance. and of its erroneousness and It is quite as if they knew all about it. and so forth 1 of his It reminds one of the professional paradoxers. . then.M. who are sufficiently impressible to be easily taken in by the gibers and to be prejudiced thereby . It goes almost without say- ing that these men have themselves little mathematical bent. and. write as if they knew all about it Plainly. Considering the lapse time since the discontinuance of E.INTRODUCTION. or that the sun is a lump of ice .I. little acquainted themselves with mathematical methods.

(inventing a dynamo. quite the reverse. mathematics. by their prejudice from giving it fair development. the use of it ? It is all waste of time. no doubt. or invent anything. You can't get anything out of it that you don't put in first. For it may be easily observed that clude that it is of no use. " What is is gibberish.) and not be wasting his time in (so to speak) trying to force a crop of wheat on the sands of the sea-shore. plain. You can't get more than a And so forth. People who do not cultivate their minds have no conception of what they lose. then ? Well. should one's occupation be a branch of engineering for example. but that there is an immense amount of moderate mathematical talent lying latent in the average man I regard as a fact .8 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. you might be inventing a new dynamo in the time you waste over all that stuff. that is what is to the point is that they connothing . That is You can if But what is the use see the nose turn up. for instance. We cannot all be Newtons or Laplaces." Little need be said about It is only worthy of the utterly illiterate. They become mere eating and drinking and There money-grabbing machines. Better be doing something useful. it is quite certain that a person has no mathematical talent whatever he had really " better be doing something useful." that is to say. " Mathematics is a mere machine. of it. You put it in. I. and then question. This is quite a personal Every mind should receive fair development (in good directions) for what it is capable of doing fairly well. something else than mathematics. similar remarks to these I have often heard from fairly intelli- They don't see the use of it. and even the moderate development implied in a working knowledge of simple algebraical equations can. 9. " Mathematics this statement. ! You can't discover anything by grind it out again. pint out of a pint pot." Now. Why. with common-sense to assist." just . the parrot-cry "What's the use of it?" does not emanate in a humble spirit of inquiry. but on the contrary. CH. gent and educated people. be not only the means of valuable mental discipline. but even be of commercial importance (which goes a long way with some people). And yet they seem happy is some merciful dispensation at work.

dependent singled is made to do. Mathematical reasoning is. or he would not express it so contemptuously along with the fallacy. not different from reasoning in general. The cause lies deep in the nature of the anti-mathematician . mechanical. but vitiated by fancy. tioned. is all reasoning must be. the fundamental data and their You may connections. who might have fair mathematical aptitude themselves. But why the mathematical reasoning should be in general. only to students of Nature on . And in if the data be or be only true within cergeneral. of course. Or the data may be faulty. I say nothing of the pure mathematicians.. out for condemnation as mere machine work. And as by the exercise of the reason discoveries can be made.INTRODUCTION. tain limits hardly definable. else it is not sound reasoning at all. with a given supply of not very evident. I may But (perhaps imperfectly) recogas regards the truth men- idea of it doubt whether the caviller has generally any distinct either. fundamentally. 10. why not by mathematical reasoning? Whatever were Newton and the long array of mathematical materialists who followed him doing all the time? Making discoveries. fallacy is not self-evident affords an excuse for its not being perceived even by those who nise the element of truth. largely assisted by their mathematics. which form the basis of your inquiry. though quite undeveloped. Now all this obtains exactly in mathematical It is in no way exempt from the perils of reasoning reasoning. the statements contain That the at once a profound truth. I refer Their discoveries are extensions of the field of mathematics itself a perfectly limitless field. By any process of reasoning whatever (not fancy) you cannot get any results that are not implicitly contained in the material with which you work. and a mischievous fallacy. and so arrive at erroneous results from the data. It is scarcely credible to the initiated that such statements made by any person who could be said to have an in- But I have heard similar remarks from really talented men. he has not recognised that upon what the machine material. imperfect. 9 could be tellect. make most correct mistakes. the results can have but a limited application. in a sense. The fact is. and lead to erroneous conclusions by the most correct reasoning.

are not unknowable . which he would This willingly hand over to a properly trained computator. everything that can be deduced with the known. but it is the effects themselves to which I refer when I speak of discoveries. CH. when they were flogged Now this is only a part of his work. because ever shifting. Mathematics is reasoning about quantities. a someover fractions. or the ultimate nature of magnetisation. or of life. fresh knowns may make The distinction is the former unknowns become also known. times necessary and very disagreeable part. which it is though it will always be a favourite But whatever is in this Universe can be (or might be) found out. is said to be known because but unknown in algebra. I. Some of the unmathematical believe that the mathematician is merely engaged in counting or in doing long sums . this limit. part of the work only concerns the size of the effects. or more generally to a definite function. reduced to a quantity. no matter how complex and involved. and this statement is true. of little service to discuss. material side. or in imagination). the Unknown becomes and cannot go beyond it.10 its ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. is The limits of human knowledge are a very important one. it Thus only reasoned about. sun. But this inaccurately will be observed. when it virtually expressible in terms of unknown by the absence of known the literally sufficient quantitative connection known can be cludes. and therefore does not belong to Thus the constitution of the middle of the the unknowable. But there must be an ultimate limit. Not unknown in the sense in is which a quantity virtually quantities. subject of speculation. The un- known not necessarily unknowable . from the known. Even if qualities are in question. this probably arises from reminiscences of their schooldays. Beyond the Unknowable. then that something cannot be accurately reasoned about. even though they should never be dis- . of any number of other quantities which can be measured (either actually. for the who have employed mathematics expressly purpose of making discoveries. without appeal to the unknown. because it is in part unknown. it is their quantities that are subjected If there be something which cannot be to the mathematics. we are a part of Nature. or of universal gravitation. 11. or of the ether.

and imagine it measured and brought into proper Human We connection with other qualities and external influences. then the course of events able. 11 can we go beyond There are no inscrutables in Nature. special act of creation could be formularised. provided no But even the discontinuity or special act of creation occur. nor can we prove that the sun will not rise to-morrow. past. and could be formularised. which is so active and widespread at the present day. if deduced. It is exceedingly remarkable that the scientific spirit (asking how it is done). and have his whole life-history developed. nature. Yet a man. 12. and ceases to be definite if unknown impressed forces act. are compelled to take him in parts. and consider this or that quality. it hardly existed amongst the Ancients (who would be more approIt is a very encouraging fact priately termed the Youngsters). involving continuous changes in the laws of nature. either now have merely a confession of ignorance. leading them to believe that the evolution of . The behaviour of the system is perfectly definite and formularisable so long as no impressed forces act. could have down if we knew in what it consisted. itself.INTRODUCTION. And special acts of creation might be going on continuously. and its effects known. By Faith only as far and where we please. The assumption or at any time. With a few exceptions. or rather billions. is no evidence of any such discontinuities. if we only knew him intimately enough. present. and without what is going on around them. could be the universe formularised Even formularised. covered. is again definitely formularisof a special act of creation. We cannot prove that there have never been any. But if the forces be also the discontinuities. We Nearly life all beings who have peopled the millions. should be of such recent origin. or say a man. case is The known. and tp come. is a highly complex quantity. the acts of creation were known. to the minutest particulars. or the so to speak law of somewhat analogous to that of impressed forces acting upon a dynamical system. for evolutionists. if every law in action were thoroughly its history. of human this earth have been content to go through any desire to understand taking things as they found them. or that the clock will not wind itself up again when the weight has run down.

Without theory scientific knowledge would be only worthy of the madtheir apparent incoherency. intellectually. man of Now. in the development of our knowledge of the workings Nature out of the tremendously complex assemblage of phenomena presented to the scientific inquirer. In some branches of knowledge. They bewilder by their number and into theory. a suitable study for so far. to see that the facts and their connections are too indistinctly known to render mathematical analysis not Facts are of practicable. the state of electromagnetic waves. It goes without saying that there are numerous phenomena connected with electricity and magnetism which are very imperfectly understood. Electromagnetism. the facts have been so far refined into theory that mathematical reasoning becomes apOne of these branches is plicable on a most extensive scale. showing the electric and the magnetic aspects either separately or together. eminently unmathematical (and therefore men of large capacity. and brought into house.12 ELECTROMAGNETIC THBOUT. with equal development of the electric and magnetic energies. Such is particularly except perhaps in an empirical manner. of great development. who may be nearly destitute of mathematical talent but this by the way). excepting electrolytic phenomena and other compli- . Chemistry is. I. it is merely necessary to refer to the sciences connected with living matter. is not played out . much use. and that the general standard will be far higher in the future than at present. and which have not been formularised. however. but that man is capable. and to the ologie^ generally. But generally speaking. CH. As regards the limitations. that most extensive science which presents such a remarkable two-sidedness. and a third condition when the electric and magnetic forces act suitably in dynamical combination. the case where the sciences of Electricity and Chemistry meet. and it appears to communicate a part of its complexity and vagueness to electrical science whenever electrical phenomena which we can study are accompanied by chemical changes. Let them be digested mutual harmony. to say nothing of the complexity. in others a very important part. considered as facts. mathematics plays in some respects a very limited. and it is another matter Theory is the essence of facts. in stationary conditions.

be it noted) into order a host of puzzling facts connecting electrobrought motive force and electric current in conductors. 13. unfairly treated ? Ohm . "quantity" and "tension" were much used by men who did not fully appreciate Ohm's law. even von Helmholtz has mentioned the difficulty he had in getting recognised. By Ohm's discovery a large part of the became annexed to theory. and . Poisson attacked the difficult problem of in- duced magnetisation. exessence. are still the theory. Then there were the remarkable researches of Faraday. phenomena of electromagnetisni remarkably well known. Mayer . into theory Ampere brought a multitude his of phenomena investigations between conductors supporting currents by of the mechanical forces and magnets. and completely annexed by Green's domain of electricity investigations.INTRODUCTION. he would have been greatly assisted in his researches. and amenable to mathematical treatment. in the main. and would have anticipated much later work. the prince of experimentalists. cations 13 (e. on electrostatics and electrodynamics and the induction of currents. (Is it not rather remarkable that some of Germany's best men of genius should have been. as a most important first approximation. in my opinion. pressing the real These were rather long in being brought from the crude experimental state to a compact system. Another large part became virtually annexed by Coulomb's discovery of the law of inverse squares. by his own results have the connected readily been led to Neumann's theory. the are. perhaps. have saved himself much useless speculation. late as 20 years ago. and a schoolboy now can predict what a Faraday then could only guess at roughly. for instance.. (a distinguished mathematician. which all previous electricians had only succeeded in loosely binding together Ohm Even as qualitatively under some rather vague statements. and his results. Unfortunately.g. But perhaps it is the same all the world over. It can scarcely be doubted that had he been one. knowing Ampere's theory. He would.) Ohm found that the results could be summed up in such a simple law that he who runs may read it. Faraday was not a mathematician. though differently expressed. the transport of matter in rarefied media when electrical discharges occur). Reis .

him by the proper co-ordination in his study of the laws governing the material of known and the dis- covery of unknown (but not unknowable) phenomena. tion of detached theories. in conse- quence. simply and not because they can in the least . to the spirit of the time. in particular. and embedded in a heap of unnecessary hypotheses. for one thing . a complete and harmonious theory had to be made up out of the useful re- mainder. a man \v paratively speaking. com- 14. for another. but loosely connected. done. in fact. was a medium. Passing over the other developments which were made in the theory of electricity and magnetism. But it is perhaps too much man to be both the prince of experimentalists and a competent mathematician. and much more. It will have been observed that I have said next to nothing upon the study of pure. many of them neither understand it nor believe it. Now very few (if any) unmathematical electricians can understand this fact . we come to about 1860. because they are told believe it do so. mathematics . its it skin. Helmholtz and Thomson. this is a matter with which we are not concerned. But that I have somewhat dilated (and I do not think needlessly) upon the advantages attending the use of mathematical methods by the materialist to assist universe. propagated in time. All the useless hypoand. of CH. scientifically valueless. 1. or of magnetism. and that. abolished. the physics of the subject required to be rationalised. and do not sensibly penetrate to its interior. has. great as sent Maxwell. *'"' it is now. in fact upon the outside of begins entirely upon its skin . and. Even many who do so. theses had to be discarded. and work to expect a entirely opposed to the spirit of Faraday's ways of thinking. sufficiently rapidly impressed fluctuations of the current keep to the skin of the wire. or of elements of electric currents upon one another. the supposed mutual attractions or repulsions of electricity. The crowning achievement was reserved for the heaven^e fame. yet to come. I believe.14 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. without striking new There was then a collecdepartures. It was discovered by mathematical reasoning that when an electric current is started in a wire. and electro- magnetic effects accounted for by continuous actions through All this.

in his way. and justification for the confidence that mathematicians can feel in the results theoretically deduced in a legitimate manner. but as a plain matter . good service in the cause of truth and the advancement of scientific knowledge. and which cannot be properly understood without matheFor without the mathematics. 15 feel positive about its truth of their own knowledge. It is quite preposterous from this point of view. especially with properly constructed induction balances admitting of exact interpretation of resu '. however. and the laws con- cerned. and modify their old views if they should be found wanting. Nothing is more useful than open and free criticism. I will say for the sceptic who has the courage and writes openly against what is. therefore. however difficult it may be to give an easily intelligible account of their meaning to the unmathematical. can. He is doing. by stimulating interest in the subject and causing people to inquire and read and think about these things. but also for Jbo. who can doubt it ? What a world of worldly wisdom lay in that remark Now I do admire this characteristically stubborn English way of being determined not to be imposed upon by any absurd theory that goes against all one's most cherished convictions.INTRODUCTION. This. and the truly earnest and disinterested student of science always welcomes it. by straightforward experiment. within certain limits. " When " Sir W. sure knowledge of Ohm's law and the old-fashioned notions ! concerning the function of a conducting wire to guide one. and with only the matics. to him. We have. of his convictions. As an eminent practician remarked. pure nonsense. . all the conditions wanting for the successful application of mathematical reasoning of a precise character. for instance. of fact. and even in iron for Poisson's law of induced magnetisation. Nevertheless. it is true and the view was not put forward as a hypothesis. in circuits.xiday's law of E. The all case in question is one in which we can be very sure of the fundamental data of any importance.F.M. after prolonged scepticism. no one would think of such a theory. readily satisfy ourselves that a high degree of accuracy must obtain not merely We for Ohm's law. and form their own judgment if possible. Thomson says so.

which will finally move as the former rigid core did. and free to rotate on its axis. CH. and to lead to a complete theory of the functions of wires in general. however. only the inertia varies with the material. and a find that there inertia. if the source of current its external portion. and this increases the same time the inertia effective resistance of the coil. that is to say.1C ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the current in the coil fluctuate in strength very rapidly. If. like treacle. coil it cannot now turn the core round bodily at once. but only In time. On examining the theory of the matter (on the basis of Ohm's law and Faraday's law applied to the conducting core) we find that we can now account for things (in our analogy) by first used is replaced by a On starting a current in the viscous fluid core. I. the effective resistance is increased by the viscosity generating heat. but is merely descriptive. the corresponding fluctuations of motion in the core The effective inertia is will be practically confined to its skin. At the reduced. It is as if the current in the coil could not move without simultaneously setting into rotation a rigid material core filling the solenoid. according to its magnetic inductivity. Start with a very long solenoid of fine wire in circuit with a source of electrical energy. new phenomena.- . Let the material inside the solenoid be merely air. It is not demonstrative. for But we if we use a conducting is core we get. however. it be translated into mathematical language and properly worked out. supposing that the rigid solid core be steadily operating. however. ether and air. no longer a is definite resistance definite There is now frictional resistance in the core. If we take the air out of the solenoid and substitute any other non-conducting material for a core the same thing happens. 15. If we examine the nature of the fluctuations of current in the coil in relation to rent in the coil behaves as inertia the fluctuations of impressed force on it. reduced because the core does not move as a rigid body . we find that the curif it were a material fluid possessing and moving against resistance. The following may assist the unmathematical reader to an understanding of the subject. the motion will penetrate throughout the viscous core. of course. it will be found to be demonstrative. The fanatics of Ohm's law do not usually take into account the inertia. If.

Passing to the case of a very long straight round wire supporting an electric current. from the boundary to the axis. But in the other case the source of energy the battery. and assert that the transference of energy in any isotropic electrical conductor always takes place across the lines of conduction cur- and not merely in the case of a core uniformly lapped with wire. is confirmed by the electromagnetic equations. first supply the dielectric surrounding the wire before the substance of the wire itself can be influenced . is plainly on its boundary. and This therefore perpendicular to the current in the core itself. and uniformly lapped with wire. But the electromagnetic equations go further than this. The source of energy must. the source of energy. and it is therefore a matter of common-sense that in the communication of energy to the core either when the current is steady or when it varies. where it is nearly self-evident that it must be so. But observe that in the former case the may be magnetic force is axial. however. that is. there does not. we have perfect symmetry with respect to its axis. that is. and the electric current circular. This is a very important result. we are bound to conclude that the transference of energy takes place of along transversely. where the coil is placed . understanding of electromagnetism. at first sight. therefore. the transfer of energy takes place transversely. since the core is supposed to be exceedThe situation of ingly long. returning to the solenoid. Beyond this transverse transference of energy. 17 Now. the dielectric must be the real primary agent in the electromagnetic phenomena connected with the electric current in the wire. an examination Now of the electromagnetic equations propagation of shows that the conditions of axial magnetic force and circular current are the .INTRODUCTION. in planes perpendicular to the axis. and there is no immediately obvious uniform application of the source to the skin of the wire. being the post-finger pointing to a clear rent. as regards the core itself. that is. whilst in the latter case the electric current (in the straight wire) is axial and the magnetic force circular. The source of energy in one case is virtually brought right up to the surface of the core in a uniform manner. not longitudinally . across the wire instead it. for instance miles away at one end of the wire. appear to be much analogy between the case of the solenoid with a core and the straight wire in a dielectric.

instead of allowing them to be immediately spread away to nothing by spherical enlargement at the speed of light . though they act as con- in another sense. producing electric displacement and magnetic induction . But it is quite Even if we had no knowledge of impossible to stop here. instead of through the wire. involving immensely . from it that the battery or other source of energy acts upon the dielectric primarily. Maxwell's theory of dielectric displacement furnishes what is wanted to explain results which are in some respects rather unintelligible when deduced in the above manner without reference to elec- phenomena. So far we can go by Ohm's law and Faraday's law of if need be. of transmission of electrical disturbances through a medium surrounding the wire. same and circular magnetic force. that when we deal with steady states. for example). not as conductors but rather as obstructors. as those for axial current CH. The source instantly from its real energy. and. that the manner of propagation is similar to that of displacements and motions in an incompressible elastic solid. Furthermore. that disturbances are propagated through the dielectric at the speed of light . by the above course of inquiry. electrostatics and of the properties of condensers. we should.M. We therefore further conclude that (with the exchanges the phenomena concerned in the core of the solenoid made) and in the long straight wire are of the same character. as regards the internal propagation. Poisson's law of induced magnetisation (or its modern equivalent practically). is virtually transferred place to the whole skin of the wire. if we go into detail. and consider the influence of the surroundings of the wire (which go to determine the only value of the inductance of the circuit) we shall find that not is the character of the phenomena the same. or only slowly varying states.18 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. over which it is uniformly spread. that electrical trostatic We learn conductors ductors act. therefore. but that they may be made similar in detail of (so as to be represented by similar curves.. just as in the case of the conducting core within a solenoid. by guiding the electromagnetic waves along definite paths in space. be irresistibly led to a theory 16.F. E. I.

identified with electromagnetic disturbThe great gap between Hertzian waves and waves of ances. 19 great wave length in the dielectric. Now all these things have been worked out theoretically. signs however. mentally and yet I most of them have been proved experihear someone say that Hertz's experiments ! don't prove anything in particular Lastly. which are. the resulting magnetic phenomena are just such as would arise were the speed of propagation infinitely great instead of being finite . and that if we make our oscillations very fast indeed. c2 . as is now . that if we make them much faster we shall obtain a comparatively undistorted transmission of waves (as in longdistance telephony over copper wires of low resistance) . well known. that if we make our oscillations faster. great distortion and attenuation by the resistance of the wires . and. proceed to billions.INTRODUCTION. we shall have practically mere skin conduction of the waves along the wires at the speed of light (as in some of Lodge's lightning-conductor experiments. and more perfectly with Hertzian waves). with. we shall begin to get of propagation in the manner of waves along wires. from millions of vibrations per second. and we come to light (and heat) radiation. but I do not doubt that it will be done by the discovery of improved methods of generating and observing very short waves. in Maxwell's theory. light has not yet been bridged.

CHAPTER 11. or are of force nr capable of measuring. Electric and Magnetic Force . Displacement and Induction . The conception of fields upon and tive aspect. or magnetisation. Inductivity 20. In the study of these mechanical forces we are led to the more abstract ideas of electric force and magnetic force. Elastivity and Permittivity. the electric displacement . showing that different substances by the same intensity of electric Electric force is then to" be conceived as or magnetic force. from the electromagnetic point of view. Our primary knowledge of electricity. and similarly magnetic force as producing a are affected to different extents second If flux. the actual physical state of tl^e medium concerned. with the mapping out of space by means o. apart from electrification. -ines or tubes of force definitely distributed. A further and very important step is the recognition that the two vectors. when taken in conjunction with other quantities experimentally recognisable as properties of matter. we have D = cE: . be the electric force at any point and D the displace(1) ment. in its quantita-. OUTLINE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. E the magnetic induction. producing or being invariably associated with a flux. to work visible effects. or electric current. and by a body supporting electric current. ^produce J irally follows. represent. and Reluctivity. is founded upon the observation of the mechanical forces experienced by an electrically charged body. by a magnetised body. electric force and magnetic force.

and we may. H = ^B. All space must be conceived to be filled with a medium which can support displacement and induction.. but a very large increase in a magnetic metals. The range within which the proportionality of flux to force obtains is then a limited one. there being a very small increase The permittivity known. indicating the capacity for psrmitting electric displacement. and E that of H is HB. to consider the magnetic side of the matter. whilst the other. The presence of matter. generally understand by a dielectric a medium which supports both the fluxes mentioned.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. to a value of these constants. equally necessary aspect only it is a dielectric. merely alters the is al ys increased. The work spent (not counting what is. On the most substances. The one (ft). the inductivity may be either increased or reduced. T =| H rfB. Away from matter (in the ordinary sense) the medium concerned is the ether. without coining a new word. provided no The activity of E is ED. contains some important practical applications. their rates of increase velocities corresponding to the forces other effects are produced. B and D are the and H. . the so-called When the fluxes vary. however. however. is its Otherwise. which indicates capacity for supporting magnetic induction. (2) Here the ratios c and p represent physical properties of the medium. or decrease in few. if H be the magnetic B = /*H force and B the induction. E^-iD. therefore may be done simultaneously B in producing the fluxes in other ways) U = TE dD. and fir1 is the reluctivity Sometimes one way is preferable. 21 and then similarly. which. is its inductivity . In the former It is. Electric ratio c"1 is the elastivity (3) (4) (or reluctancy). and now the the other. we may write permittivity (or permittancy).. other hand. far as is first approximation. sometimes and Magnetic Energy. 21. and p and c are absolute constants. (5) .

Eolotropic Relations. 22. and mag- When p and c will give definite values to are not constants. and the If E be parallel to a D's those of the displacement. CH. cipal axes when we have (referring to displacement) if the c's are the principal permittivities. with which complex details have to be separately adjusted in the most feasible manner that presents itself. In general. made eolotropic. electric (6) (7) medium... and by compounding the flux components obtain D the displacement to correspond. and there will be usually a waste of energy in a cyclical process. precise mathematical theory. we obtain E the . so closely This does nob come within the scope of a studied by Ewing. by compounding the force compoactual force. as in the case of iron. principal axis.. All bodies are strained -more or if usually tropic. these give JcE*.. where U is the electric and T the magnetic energy per unit volume. U . .. But a precise theory nevertheless admits of considerable extension from the above with //.. and c regarded as scalar constants. even The force and the flux less. and are thereby be not naturally eolothey are not then usually concurrent. the E's the corresponding effective components of the electric force. which must of necessity be a sort of skeleton framework. When /* and c are constants. J/JP. however... But at any point in an eolotropic substance there are always (if force and flux be proportional) three mutually perpendicular axes of concurrence the prinor identical in direction. so is nents.JED T = JHB = to express the energy stored in the netic respectively. IT. If. . there be no definite relation (which means that other circumstances than the value of the force control the value of the flux).22 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the energy stored will not be strictly expressible in terms simply of the force and the flux. the previous expressions (5) the energy provided there be a de- finite relation between a force and a flux. which can only concur with E in the above-mentioned special D.

I think. for the permittivity is the same for D any axis in this plane. the three principal values must be given. indeed. at recommendations. system (used by Hertz) has some evident do not think its adoption is desirable. understanding that the scalar product of two vectors. the ra^'os c/c and /X//AO of the permittivity and inductivity of a body to that of the standard ether are the specific inductive capacities. 23. is the same multiplied by the cosine of their included angle in the general case. then /A and c in all bodies are mere numerics. electric and magnetic They do not respectively . The two quantities c and /* are to be regarded as known data. then E and the equal permittivities. least at present. concur in the plane containing a pair be equal. I do not see how it is possible for any medium to have less than two physical properties effective in But although this I . express physical properties themselves except in the limited sense of telling us how many times as great something is in one case than in another. little later. in order not to have to too frequently interrupt our electromagnetic arguments by mathematical explanations. most profitably studied in the concrete application to physical questions. is still The energy stored force half the scalar product of the \ and the flux. Distinction between Absolute and Relative Permittivity or Inductivity. as well of matter. or. This is an important point. is it it be convenient. c=l in ether. but when the simpler properties of the ether are complicated by the presence of to place in isotropic then varying in value from place but heterogenous substances . given over all space. for every point Considered. Vector-analysis is. and are mere numerics.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. In will the meantime. as the direction of their axes. specially adapted. a Nevertheless. cases 23 But should if the principal permittivities be all different. or JED. usually absolute constants . for which. consider the dielectric medium further. which is the product of their tensors (or magnitudes) when they concur. to give a short account of the very elements of the subject. of course. Keeping to the case of isotropy. in case eolotropy. It is It is like the difference between density and specific gravity. possible to so choose the electric and magnetic units that /*= 1.

If this be admitted. energy is dissipated continuously.the ether constants w above described. CH. 24. the rigidity. Sometimes the termination -ancy does as Jc constant (at one temperature). and k the conduc- The wears Its reciprocal is the resistivity. the Joulean waste. The dissipation of energy does not imply its destruction. also (most probably) an electromagnetic process. although their precise interpretation If. the waste of energy takes place at a rate proThus. we have also to admit that in certain kinds of matter. then c"1 (the elastivity) is the corre- sponding coefficient of elasticity. besides being stored. II. when under the influence of electric force. but of a different order. if Q x be portional to the square of the electric force. the conductivity. . so far as the special electroThe conductor is magnetic affairs we are concerned with. termination -ivity is used in connection properties. with specific but that well. as in the previous cases with respect to //. but as physical magnitudes in a wider sense). Besides influencing the values of . whilst c is the coefficient of compliance. be imagined to be the velocity of a sub- H stance. as the case may be . by differences of temperature. It does not always sound well at first. the conduction current. be a torque. When the conduction electrical conductors. These are called is of the simplest (metallic) type. Only in so far as the effect of the heat alters or. I think it may the propagation of waves. long remain unknown. off. and c. may for example. C= E is (8) (9) is This new flux C tivity (electric). and JcE 2 is the stored energy of the strain. or gwm'-rigidity. &c. and the heat is radiated or conducted away. ->r if Q^/jE^EC. This is heated. and /x its density. Dissipation of Energy. or the compliancy . is - The conductivity but simply its rejection or waste. tivity and Resistivity. The Conduction-current ConducThe Electric Current. causes .24 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. or is a linear operator. And if then JfiH 2 is its kinetic energy.. also be admitted to be desirable to explicitly admit their exist- ence and symbolise them (not as mere numerics.

and the rate of waste of energy Q 2 = HK = <7H2 The activity of the magnetic force is (12) now (13) is H(K + B) = Q 2 + T Compare this equation with (10). two involving storage and two waste of energy.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. So far state of things at a point is concerned. 25. K = <?H. such magnetic & substance would (by analogy) be a magnetic conductor. viz. thermo-electric force. We reckon forces per . Let. electric and magnetic. it is The magnetic current B is of course real . needless to invent a special ' for it or its reciprocal. E(C + 6) = Q 1 + U The sum rest. as well as storage. The idea of a conductivity. when the medium at a further term has sometimes to be added. current. K Forces and Fluxes. is (11) then K is the density of the magnetic conduction current. were found which could not support force without a continuous dissipation of energy. Magnetic Conduction-current and Real Magnetic Current. name but to simply call g the magnetic magnetic current is a very useful one. the part that is speculative. (10) is + D is the electric When it is in motion. It plays an important part in the theory of the transmission of waves in conductors. producing four fluxes. 25 we concerned with energy wasted when there is The activity of the electric force. nevertheless. we have considered the two forces. Fictitious the convection current. As there bolised is (I believe) no evidence that the property symit is by g has any existence. are according to Joule's law. If a substance for instance. The magnetic current K + B. is waste.. and we have defined the terminology when the 26.

it may are uniformly distributed throughout it. whilst a certain unit of voltage is called a volt. I believe this last has already been done. when any finite volume is concerned. or any other concrete indeed be of any size if the quantities concerned 1 The next step is to display the infinitely small. and energies or wastes per It is thus a unit cube that is referred to. whose and volume are utilised. this was abbreviated by Fleemiug Jenkin to E. Gaussage may also be experimented with. that it may often be conveniently termed the voltage irrespective of any particular unit.M. The line-integral of the magnetic force from one point to another along a stated path is sometimes called the magnetomotive force. and develop the equivalent terminology. fluxes per unit area." I think. is But a unit cube does not mean a cube whose edge length . of the effec- the tive force being merely the tangential component of the real . equivalent relations. in those cases that admit imagined to be of the tions. Volta was a distinguished man who made important researches connected with electromotive force. which is. electromotive pressed force may be. He was " we may try it and see how it works. though it has not been formally sanctioned.F. but as they usually vary from place to place. At any rate. The voltage effective electric or or the gaussage along a line is the magnetic forces along the line sum . called voltage.26 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. edge. When exin terms of a certain unit called the volt. The only recommendation of this cumbrous term is that it is brous electromotive the gaussage self in [pr. IK unit volume. and often is. unit length. 27. after Gauss. CII. gowce]. the unit cube of reference should be centim. This is much better than the volts. The line-integral of the electric force from one point to another along a stated path is the electromotive force along that path . We might put it in this way. however. Voltage and Gaussage. correctly correlated with the equally cumforce. a practical man. Magnetomotive force may be called gowsage]. side. as well as a practician. who distinguished him- magnetic researches. and a certain unit of gaussage may be called a gauss [pr. therefore. called the voltage. same simple representation in the form of linear equa- Line-integral of a Force.

voltage established between A and B through the conductor be V. we may speak of the induction through a surface (or through a circuit bounding reference to any The flux or of the current through a surface (as across the section of . This will be the case when the current is steady. force. electric force.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. 27 Thus. that is. or of the displacement. Conductance and Resistance. meaning in all cases the it) surface integral of the flux in question. at least in a matheBut it should never be forgotten that matical treatment. or of the induction. may be observed by a thoughtful reader that there is a good deal of the conventional in thus associating one set of vectors with a line. electric force is the voltage per unit length. Also let G be this steady current. or of the displacement through a surface (as in aeondenser). Next as regards area. In contradistinction to this. and other It is. Thus. is distributed throughout volumes. however. We shall have . and resistivity to resistance. A and B. without any indefiniteness. in at A and out at B. and let it be the same by any path. to Let the be conductively connected with a source of voltage. 28. let a conducting mass of any shape be perfectly insulated. it may be sometimes convenient to speak of the density of the current. and magnetic force the gaussage per unit length along lines of force. and not merely along lines or over areas. when considered with through an area is the sum of the effective fluxes through its elementary units of area . Similarly. except at two places. equally with displacement. of considerable pracquantities with a volume. I think. Surface-integral of a Flux. a wire). and another set with a surface. We do not. we may sometimes speak of the intensity of the electric or 'magnetic force. the amount per unit area. tical utility to carry out these distinctions. 29. need a number of new words to distinguish fluxes through a surface from fluxes per unit surface. Conductivity gives rise to conductance. the fluxes. Density and Intensity. the effective flux being the normal component of the flux or the component perpendicular to the area. using "density" for a flux and " " intensity It for a force. For explicitness.

it is also the volume-integral of the energy-density.e. We have now a charged condenser. Say. The true current (that is. . CH. leaving the terminals and external arrangements as before. activity of the impressed voltage 2 2 is VC = RC = KV ductor. It (3) is the displacement. (2) and represents the Joulean waste per second in the whole con- EC &E 2 before con- Permittance and Elastance. and its reciprocal the elastance of the condenser. or J2cE 2 . between and at the terminals . supposed to be a non-conductor. and elastivity to elastance. . measure of the charge of the condenser. This elastance has been called D the stiffness of the condenser by Lord Rayleigh.. i. of .. If so.. let the conductance be K. But it may also be conducting. or of . when voltage takes the place of electric force. .. the current) is now the sum of the conduction dielectric is As the and displacement currents.. the time-integral of the current.. taking the place of resistivity and conductivity.. and we now have D = SV.e. .. the The resistance and the conduct- ance. To illustrate. half the product of the force (total) and the flux (total).28 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. substitute a nonconducting dielectric. takes the place of current in the last case. The total energy in the condenser is (4) i. making the conduction current be C = KV. (1) R and K are constants. II.. or the volume-integral sidered. and only exists when the charge is varying. and the current that of current-density. for the conductor. V = RC.. if V = S-!D. the current is I) or SV.. Permittivity gives rise to permittance.. elastic resistance to is is the the The displacement displacement. 30.. where C = KV. S the permittance. Displacement.

his Thomp- Cantor Lectures conductor by an inductor. The energy stored is we replace our . P. In a conducting dielectric the permittivity and the conductivity are therefore in parallel arc r It was probably by a consideration of conduction as it were. Inductance and Reluctance. and have an impressed gaussage instead of voltage at the terminals. 31. and suppose it surrounded by supporting magnetic induction. and reluctivity to reluctance. or of elastance to elastivity with electric force and displacement. vary If H be the gaussage and B the induction enteras the force. sum of the same quantities per unit volume throughout the substance concerned.. The (5) activity of the terminal voltage we find by multiplying. 2 + SV 2 \ . of a condenser. The formal relation of reluctance to reluctivity with mag- netic force resistivity and induction.. have used with good If son has also used effect. This 29" is the characteristic equation. the ratio H/B is the reluctance. (6) representing the waste in Joulean heating and the rate of inEach of these quantities is the crease of the electric energy. In this sense I it. if the force be weak enough. by which he boldly cut the Gordian to the knot of electromagnetic theory. Permeance. tfae word in this sense in illustrative Prof. in a leaky condenser that Maxwell was led to his inimitable theory of the dielectric. and the reciprocal B/H is the permeance. giving vr=vc-fvi>. but be shunted by a conductance.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. by V.. inductivity to inductance. Permeability gives rise to permeance. is the same as that of resistance to with electric force and conduction current. though only once or twice. It comes same thing if the condenser be non-conducting. Permeance is the reciprocal of reluctance. ing at the one and leaving at the other terminal. we shall have a flux of induction which will. imaginary matter of zero inductivity. K. S.

. that these uses occur toolder use. II. but there is a pracConsider a closed conducting circuit of one tical distinction. LH the perme- a function of the distribution of inductivity and of the form and position of the conducting core. I am aware that the use of the name induction for this flux.. That is. is (8) where. supporting a current Cr As will later appear. When usefully the relation of flux to force is not linear. .. the persistence with which the practicians have stuck to " the lines. was adopted and. 32.. as witness the improved and simplified way of considerI must. . remembering that and then using (8). is in partial conflict with an But it is seldom. essentially as permeance. for one thing . ance of the magnetic circuit. the reciprocal of reluctance. we can still employ the analogy with conduction current or with displacement by treating the ratio B/H as a function of H or of B . The meaning It is of inductance has sometimes been mis- conceived. It is the same abbreviated to " the self-induction. which I have taken from Maxwell. another thing is that the older (and often vague) use of the word induction has very largely ceased It was not without consideration that induction of late years. if ever." sometimes tion...30 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. magnetic force in any closed circuit (or the circuitation of the Let also A be the force) embracing the current once is C r B induction through the circuit of Cr Then BX-LA. to harmonise with it. CH.. inductance and inductivity were coined..gether. This H .. The magnetic energy by using the there is is JBA-iW . C^ (9) first expression in now represented by (7). nor for self-inducbut means " the coefficient of self-induction." turn of wire. not a synonym for induction. Inductance of a Circuit." as they usually term the flux in question. wonder at ing the dynamo in recent years. however. the line -integral of the this G! is also the gaussage. by what has already been explained.

It is This L is the inductance of the circuit. (8a) and by (9) and (Sa). Calling N this total B.. so that Cj = NO. differences convenience in respect to the external connections of the coil Let requires us to make the current in each wire the current. Then we shall have. of the same size and form. by . be seen that the distinction between permeance and is a practical necessity. coil. (86) which harmonises properly with (9a). Disregarding small due to the want of exact correspondence between the bundle and the one wire. B = B N=(L 1N 2 )C = LC.. It would only serve to obscure the subject to bring in 47T. .. it would seem that this name is more particularly suitable to express the ratio /*//z of . by 1 (8a). N 2 times the permeance of the magnetic is the Again. . I in the coil. But if the same current be supported by each wire.. everything will be the same as before if the above Cj means the total current in the bundle. this be C. B x through each winding. only (usually) a small portion occupying the conductor itself. I prefer tion. 31 energy " of the current " resides in all parts of the field. merely depends upon the different way of reckoning the current With one winding only. . that arbitrary and unnecessary constant which has puzzled people. practical N in number. so many It will inductance identity. they are identical.. if (9o) L=N L 2 1} to express the energy. especially to connect with self-inducRegarding permeability itself. therefore. we have. The difference between inductance and permeance. Now substitute for the one turn of wire a bundle of wires.. it as above stated. regarding the coil as a single circuit. . should here observe that I am employing at present rational Their connection with the Gaussian units will appear units. .OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. (8).. later. in spite of their fundamental But which should be which ? On the whole.. B i = (L 1 N)C to express the flux of induction . B : induction through it that is.

451. The two prin= 1 in cipal systems are the so-called electrostatic. theory. by assumptions. we and a magnetic- One tioned. II. in which c ether. CH. so that ft and c are very much what we choose to make them. field the cross- Or. we require to know something more. But with these specialities we have no further concern at present. without any explicit connection being stated between the electric set and the magnetic set. 33. may be considered quite independently of one another. of these interactions has been already partially men- though only incidentally. form.. Flux.* Thus electric current is a circuital flux. we do not know the real nature of the electromagnetic mechanism. As has been more particularly accentuated by Prof. whether they coexist or not. . has been recently supplied by Sir W. we really nition or. and the connected products and ratios. in which ft =1 in ether. the electric and magnetic forces.32 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Circuitation. mentioned.. a wider significance should be attached. as used by Sir W. Cross-connections of Electric and Magnetic Force. Thomson's introduction of " circuital " for the the word purpose. p. A word has been much wanted to express in a convenient and concise manner the property possessed by some fluxes and This want other vectors of being distributed in closed circuits. in stating the meanings of permeance and inductance. " do not know anything about the real dimensions of ft and c . which is. Thomson in connection with his " electromagnetic defi- But to inductivity." Vol. with their corresponding fluxes and currents. Circuital The two sets of quantities. in fact r consistent with the original meaning. But to have a dynamical electromagnetic viz. I believe. Riicker. the inductivity of a medium to that of ether. and so is magnetic induction. The fundamental basis of the property is that as * much of a circuital flux enters III. as beforeof magnetic force. more strictly. and the electromagnetic. in another require to know how an electric field mutually influence one another. "Mathematical and Physical Papers. connections or interactions between E and H. It was observed that the electric current in a simple conductive circuit was measured by the gaussage in the corresponding magnetic circuit.

and R the reAnd in the magnetic circuit we have a formally sistance. however. Thomson called the line-integral " circulation. though even Or a volume-distribution and a surface or linedivergence. any departure from the essential principle concerned.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. (1) where E is the circuital voltage. so that the flux has any volume at some parts of its surface as leaves no divergence anywhere. distribution of a flux may be necessarily conjoined. which will be often used. for it qualification. we have two circuital fluxes. and Lr 1 the reluctance. flux which is may not diverge locally. electric displacement. we have then specialised meanings of circuital and of circuital in general. when there is D ." of the velocity in a closed circuit the This is " circulation. C the current. First 34. Sir W. E = RC. as a flux need not be distributed throughout a volume. suggested to circulation. There is a circuital conducting core supporting an electric current. for a as. Further. Or. electric displacement may be circuital sometimes." The word " me the word " case of a moving fluid. or to a line. This "anywhere." to indicate the often-occurring operation of a line-integral in a closed circuit ." But " circulation " seems to have like curiously too specialised a meaning to be suitable for application to any " circulation. B the induction. without. (3) where L is the inductance only one turn of wire). for instance. in the circuital. where (2) H is the circuital gaussage." should be remembered. but may be confined to a surface. (or the permeance. Law of Circuitation. as. and I shall employ operation of to any vector. and there is a circuital flux of induction through the conductive circuit. in the estimation of circuital voltage or gaussage. instance. the case of a simple conductive circuit. B = LH. whether it be circuital circuitation is applicable or not. 33 at others. H=L-IB. similar relation. Now. Now in In the electric circuit we have Ohm's law." The vector.

regarding positive senses of translation and rotation when taking line and surface It integrals. if you are looking through the circuit along its axis in the positive sense. Look at the face of a watch. when the is positive in its circuit. is is also necessary to understand that a certain convention implied in the statement of the law. applies to any circuit of any size or shape. Also. the positive sense of the current in a positive side. travel in this circuit in the positive sense. mean" circuit " merely a closed line. but their sum (the convection current term will be considered separately). The terminology of electromagnetism is in a transitional state at present. The Or. This is the excuse for so many new words and forms of expression. for a comprehensive view of electromagnetism. the cross-connection in this special case is implied in H and G are the same quantity. owing to the change that is taking place in popular ideas concerning electricity. you are looking at the negative side of the circuit. The line-integral of the magnetic force in any closed circuit measures the electric current through any surface bounded by the circuit. The electric current is measured by the magnetic circuitation. and imagine its circumThe ends of the pointers ference to be the electric circuit. or the dis" placement current alone. current . Thus. circuit and the induction through it are connected in the same way as the motions of rotation and translation is ordinary right-handed screw. CH. and irrespective of the kind of matter it passes through. This of a nut on an " the " vine system used . not merely the conduction current alone.34 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. circuitation of the magnetic force measures the electric current through the circuit. when measured in rational units The expression of the law of which the assertion that this is an illustration is contained in any of the following alter- native statements. and the unsuitability of the old terminology. from the negative side to the current Otherwise. Or. or by the circuital gaussage. the magnetic induction goes through it in the positive direction. along which the gaussing by " By the current is to be understood the age is reckoned. Some of them may find The above law permanent acceptation. founded upon the fluidity of electricity. Now. II.

-cur!E 1 = G. Or. a change of sign. if J be the the magnetic current. 36. for the same translation. and other alternative equivalent statements. (4) (5) Ex and H x are the electric and magnetic force of the We may now say concisely that The electric current is the curl of the magnetic force. the two laws are its " curl. but some continental writers use the "hop" system. Thus The negative line-integral of the electric force in any circuit : (or the electric circuitation) through the circuit. Frenchman who talked prose for The concrete circuitation is D2 sufficient for many problems. and the forces also the concrete voltage or gaussage." curlH^J. measures the magnetic current The voltage in any circuit measures the magnetic current through the circuit taken negatively. The circuita- tion of the force electric is then called current and G Thus.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. being like the many years without knowing it. where field. especially those concerning linear . The other cross-connection required is a precisely similar relation between voltage and magnetic current. with. then ignore the Second 35. Definition of Curl. and when one comes across the. it is. It is useless trying to work both systems. Magnetic current is measured by the circuital voltage reversed . in which the rotation is the other way. though he may not himself be aware of There is who understands the laws his knowledge. best to marginally put the matter straight. 35 by all British writers. In the above laws of circuitation the currents are the concrete currents (surface-integrals). Law of Circuitation. and text. When we pass to the unit volume it is the current-density that is the flux." nothing transcendental about Any man of circuitation also understands what " curl " means. " curl. left-handed system in papers. however. Or. perhaps. The magnetic current is the negative curl of the electric force.

conductors in magnetic theory. what circuitation is in general. II. if we integrate through all space. we shall obtain (7) where 2 means summation and similarly of total waste. In the statement of the laws of circuitation. The latter for the former. U what follows it. regarding (5). Q per second. CH. vector-analysis is most suitable. .36 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. dicular to the magnetic current measures its density (negaIn short.. H tively).. How to mani" curl " is a different matter altogether from clearly pulate understanding what is it . taking it as it stands at present. a belongs The gaussage in this circuit measures the current-density. and... and the right side what results. curl is the same per unit area. Similarly. U (6) where the left side expresses the activity of the electric and the magnetic force on the corresponding currents.. and to go into detail we require to pass from the concrete to the specific and use curl. Impressed Force and Activity. there must be impressed forces is obvious enough. the voltage in a unit circuit perpenrent J. the activity per unit volume we have seen to be . if Q be the . and T the total Or. means and the part open to everybody it plays. Let a unit area be chosen perpendicular to the electric curIts edge is then the circuit to which in (4). as second of the electric energy there are supposed to be no impressed forces. Thus. I have That intentionally omitted all reference to impressed forces. because a dynamical system comprehending only the electric and magnetic stored energies and the Joulean waste. 37. But it does not suffice for mathematical analysis. and increase per and the magnetic T . energies. viz. waste of energy. ing the communication of energy to or from our electromagnetic system without having to enlarge it by making it a portion of a more complex system. is only a part of We require means of showthe dynamical system of Nature.

cannot remove the sign of summation and make the same form for the unit volume. The distinction between H and H and between E E is often a matter of considerable importance. is then a translational our immediate purpose. it is naturally convelocity. 37 meaning.. in whatever way space may be sum divided into elements.. We have x x (10) (11) . be an ordi- nary match. This is the persistence of energy when there are no impressed forces. and however we may There may be many choose to reckon the impressed forces. large or small. and do away with all mutual action between contiguous elements and transfer of energy between them. Distinction between Force of the Field and Force of the and Flux. f may sometimes. 38. if there be impressed forces communicating energy at the rate A. the velocity to for netically . so that the corresponding velocities are the electric and magnetic currents. the last equation must become T and A must be f the . (8) of the activities of the impressed forces in the elements of volume. . . This matter will be returned to in connection with the do transference of energy.. We (7). and in all space. for example. and But v. and h the impressed magnetic force. We shall then have. that whatever energy there be wasting itself is derived solely from the electric or magnetic energy. for this would make every unit volume independent of the rest.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. which decrease accordingly. if e be the impressed electric.. ways of doing it .. Now. to represent their activity per unit volume. Instead of (9) This is the integral equation of activity. venient to reckon the impressed forces electrically and magforce.

curl(H-h) = J. fluxes. as well as of the fluxes. in the laws of circuitation. Thermo-electric force.) The force of intrinsic electrisation. Classification of Impressed Forces. -curl (E-e) equivalent to (4) (12) = G. (5. 39. . per unit volume. As 3 and To upon the distribution of the energy.) (4. II. and this should be understood to take place at the It must then be either stored on the spot.) Perhaps due to various secondary causes. Similarly as regards h and G-. effective in CH. For. (3.respectively gaussage. Motional electric force. which may be of several Thus under e we include kinds. the impressed forces do not count at all so that we have.38 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. or taken in by. (13) (5).) (2.) Voltaic force. according to a law which will appear later on. or wasted on the spot. in terms of the forces E and H. to be there stored or wasted. depends E and H. the amount eJ of energy per unit volume is communicated to. But this concerns only the reckoning of impressed force. it is usually best to use them in the formulae. acting. spot in question. or be somehow transmitted away to other places. J being the electric current anywhere. is Thus and also of and H the force On the other hand. I sometimes call E l and H the forces " of the field. distinguish from the forces of the fluxes. and is independent of its physical origin. Now it is E and H that are E is the force of the flux D of the flux B. especially ia connection with strains. producing . j as above expressed." Of course they only differ where there is impressed force. force e (1. netic force The vectors representing impressed electric and magdemand consideration as to the different forms they Their line-integrals are impressed voltage and Their activities or powers are eJ and hG. the electromagnetic system per second . if there be an impressed may assume. and in this statement we have a sort of definition of what is to be understood by impressed force.

one of the oldest of the sciences. special we know not what displacement and inducBut if we try to materialise the theory by inventing a mechanism we are almost certain to go wrong. involved in the law of electro-chemical . The very abstract nature of Electricity is. there is the remarkable connection between the quantity of matter and the time-integral of the current (or quantity of electricity) produced. in its favour. it may be that Maxwell's theory of displacement and induction in the ether is far more than a working theory. a real advantage to get away from matter when possible. For there is considerable truth in the remark (which. Furthermore. the truth. in some respects.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS.) (3. We should rather explain matter in terms of ether.) Motional magnetic Perhaps due to secondary causes. It is. No one knows what matter any more than ether. (2. and herein lies one of the most important sources of electric current. Voltaic Force. be cast upon chemical problems (and molecular physics generally) by previous discoveries and speculations in Electricity. the more likely it is to be true. uniform in its properties. However this be. and is something very near before. and of the developYet Chemistry and Electricity are so intimately connected that we cannot understand either without some explanation of the other. if it has not been made is now originated) that the more abstract a theory is. Voltaic force has is still its origin in chemical affinity. therefore. we may have to wait long. For a rational theory of Chemistry. however useful the materialisation may be for certain purposes. though tion are. in its essentials. Electricity is. we have the fact that definite chemical changes involve definite voltages. a far simpler and it is possible that great light may matter than Chemistry. 40. But we do know that the properties of matter are remarkably complex. For example. force. in spite of the activity of chemical research ment of the suggestive periodic law. than go the other way to work.) include The force of intrinsic magnetisation. 39 And under h we (1. This a very obscure matter. and think of something far more simple and is.

40 equivalents. electromagnetic vibrations of very great frequency. based upon the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics (the First is a matter of course) to the reversible heat effects has been verified for conductive metallic circuits by the experiments of With some its author. in spite of the sweet simplicity of Ohm's law and that of Joule. CI1. It is this irregularity that is a general characteristic of radiation.. reversible with the current. The well-known failure of Ohm's law (apparent at any rate) when the periodicity of electromagnetic waves in a conductor amounts to billions per second may perhaps arise from the period being too short to allow of the averages concerned in Ohm's law to be established.e. and those of Prof. the thermo-electric force. Now heat is generally supposed to consist in the energy of agitation of the molecules of bodies. Now the result of subi. itself at the contact of different substances or manifesting between parts of the same substance differing in temperature. this may give a clue to the required modification. At The theory of thermo-electric force due to Sir W. intrinsic electric and therefore formularisable as due to an force. If so. an irreversible process. Thomson. whereby a continued effect of a regular type is produced. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. success the same principle has also been applied by von Helmholtz to voltaic cells. Thermo-electric Force. For these laws are most probably merely laws of averages. to heat them. however. and But when contiguous parts of a body are at different temperatures. which is one of the most suggestive facts in and must be a necessary part of the theory of the physics. Thermo-electric force has its origin in the heat of bodies. the junction of different materials at the same temperature it is still the heat that is the source of energy. That the energy of chemical affinity may itself be partly electromagnetic is likely enough. which are thermo-electric as well . Tait and others. II. That even conduction may be an electrolytic process is possible. 41. jecting conductors to electric force is to dissipate energy This is. but in a thoroughly irregular manner. and this is constantly being transferred to the ether in the form of radiant energy. atom which is to come. a differential action on the ether results.

Thus the displacement initially produced by a given voltage slowly increases. a) the full displacement the force e can produce elastically. is." "soakage. a similar due to a passage from the elastic to the intrinsic phenomenon. Maxwell's speculations. and is probably due to a molecular rearrangement... If I x be the intensity of intrinsic electrisation. How far electrolysis the matter is not thoroughly clear. Calling the intensity of intrinsic magnetisation I2 we have is concerned in 43. immeThe remainder has become intrinsic. It is the manifestation of a departure from perfect electric elasticity. Intrinsic Electrisation.. if permitted.." "absorption. as voltaic 41 law is There are wheels within wheels. There is no magnetic .. result- 42. for the time. and diately. where h is the equivalent intrinsic magnetic force. and upon the removal of the impressed voltage only the initial displacement will subside. in some respects." &c. solid dielectrics is a phenomenon shown by most under the continued action of electric force. 41 The phenomenon of residual charge. Maxwell attempted to give a physical explanation of this phenomenon by supposing the dielectric to be heterogeneously This is perhaps not the most lucidly successful of conductive. whereby it " rendered independent of the " external electrising force. form of induction externally induced in solid materials. phenomenon than In one important respect intrinsic induction is a less general intrinsic displacement. Intrinsic electrisation is ing in a partial fixation of the electric displacement. and c the permittivity.. and /* the inductivity (elastically reckoned). then iiis . It is not necessarily the actual displacement.. are accounted for by this e and its slow variations. and Ohm's cells.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. Intrinsic Magnetisation. merely the crust of the pie. Ij all external reaction being removed by short circuiting... may be considered due to an intrinsic electric force e. Intrinsic magnetisation .

This is denoted by c = Vab. conductivity to produce similar results as regards the magnetic current as there is electric conductivity as regards the electric current. We want another Newton. Definition of a Vector-Product.42 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. doubtful. more particularly (3) the prefix here. "vector-product. meaning "vector." The vector c is perpendicular to the plane of the vectors a and b." or. IL. and c their vector-product. their properties ? cerns the construction of a physical theory. quite though varying in magnitude and permanence from. This is infinitely more speculative than the other. and perhaps another heavenborn genius may come to make their meaning plain. and 6 be the included . Swing's recent improvement of Weber's theory of magnetism seems important. which is sufficiently similarly in kind to. The motional electric and magnetic forces are the medium supporting the To express them symbolically. and its tensor (or magnitude) equals V the product of the tensor of a into the tensor of b into the Thus sine of the angle between a and b. and why but con- The Motional Electric and Magnetic 44. Facts there are in plenty to work upon. it is clear that we have not got to the root of the matter. (4) the italic letters denote the tensors. But as in static explanations of dynamical phenomena the very vigorous molecular agitations are ignored. Let a and b be any vectors. what we find with an electric condenser." with a magnetically conductive external circuit. and get our residual results to show themselves in it. Properties of matter are all very well. then we could have a magnetic " condenser. This is not a metaphysical inquiry. it will save much and fluxes. CH. repeated circumlocution if we first define the vector-product forces induced by the motion of the of a pair of vectors. but what is matter. But if there were. Forces. c if = absmO. The analogue of Maxwell's explanation of " absorption " would be heterogeneous magnetic conductivity. the Newton of molecular physics.

. that the above concise way of representing them should On this understanding. and their tensors are thus is This . 43 angle of the vectors. . h = VDq. a positive rotation about c in the plane If the time by a watch is three carry a to b. are perpendicular. according to (3). where q. Example. and that the motional magnetic force is the vector -product of the displacement and the velocity. . as will appear later. possible. is a combination of the natural propagation through a medium at rest. this is reckoned in the same way as before explained with regard to circuitation. 45. in symbols. then tensor c of is a and b posiwill o'clock. (6) is the vector velocity. then. Thus.. Besides this. Or. A Stationary Electromagnetic Sheet.. (7) .. big hand be a and the little hand b. (5) . and their Cartesian representation is so complex.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. so that the resultant effect on propagation. These vector-products are of such frequent occurrence. It should be remembered that we regard the displacement and the induction as actual states of the medium. Of course we could not expect the two laws of circuitation for a medium at rest to remain true when there is convective propagation. it carries its states with it.. and what we may call the convective propagation. we can conveniently say that the motional electric force the vector-product of the velocity and the induction. The matter is placed in a very clear light by considering the very simple case of an infinite plane lamina of ling at the speed of light v perpendicularly to E and H travel- itself through a homogeneous when E and H related : dielectric.. considered with respect to fixed space. and the is the vector c directed through the watch from its face to its back. is be clearly understood. when the tive. it usually happens that these states are themselves being transferred through the medium (independently of its translational motion).. As regards the positive sense of the vector c.. and therefore if the medium be moving.. ..

magnetic sheet will be brought to rest in space. medium pours coincident impressed forces. e viz." force is second way of arriving at the motional electric by a consideration of the work done in moving a con- A ducting circuit in a magnetic field.. is the negative of the velocity v.. Or.. Or. In for to short. Electromagnetic Force. carefully. IL . and we shall obtain the formulae (5).. and may be independently proved in a variety of ways. according to the definition of a vector-product. h=H . consider the directions (8) with (5) and (6) and remember that the velocity q.." This is a force perpendicular to the vector current and to the vector induction. Connection between Motional Electric Force and " 46. principally useful in showing the necessity of. (8) gives the Now.. CH. F = VCB. however. : = E. . that the forcive (or system of forces) acting upon a conducting circuit supporting a current. which are thus proved for the case of plane wave motion. The method is. and the inner meaning of the motional electric and magnetic forces. to which we now proceed.. by the definition of a vector- product.. (9) .44 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. may be accounted by supposing that every element of the conductor is subject what Maxwell termed " the electromagnetic force. whilst the Being at rest and steady. It results from Ampere's researches. vectorising v to v.. To show the general application of (5) and (6) requires a more general consideration of the motional question. and its magnitude equals the product of their tensors multiplied by the sine of the angle between them. by starting Now compare with a simple solution belonging to a medium at rest. directional relations as well as the numerical.. suppose we set the whole medium moving the other The travelling plane electroway at the speed of light. the electromagnetic force is the vector-product of the current and the induction. the electric and magnetic induction can cnly be kept up by displacement past it. (6).

with other working formulae. the activity is expressed mechanically . it is and another necessarily an e. Here F is the force arising from the stress in the f. It should be observed that we are not concerned in this explicit connection between e and C. . induction through it is there is the magnetic current before considered.* Here. mode of reasoning with the and pursued. but. conversely. on the other hand. The two entirely distinct ways. on the right side.. way whatever. however. (11) This is identically the same as fq = . * if the circuit were Proved. generally. the current.. or to be used therefore the impressed f=VBO. it is expressed electrically. (10) desire to consider work done upon the or. is magnetic field. 47. of more any circuit....OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. we may by (11) and (12) previously derive the electromagnetic force from the motional electric force. vector. we depart from the method of deriving relations But. rests upon a knowledge of the electromagnetic force. so that. The activity of f is fq. . fq = qVBC CVqB. (12) by a fundamental formula in vector-analysis. say mechanical force. Variation of the Induction through a Moving Circuit. Its negative. due to First. calling it we have (13) e = VqB again. changing Let it be moving in any and size arbitrarily. in this respect the process is remarkably simple. on the left side. to express the motional electric force... in shape altering in the time-variation of the induction. in the chapter on the Algebra of Vectors. . if q be the velocity by (10). As it. and So. which is the electric force.. when we electromagnetic system.. as the scalar product of the current corresponding force. and B the the force per unit volume. if 45 P is induction. We need not think of a conducting circuit. necessarily impressed. A third method of arriving at (13) is by considering the rate of change of the amount of induction through a moving circuit.

when we use (13) to express the impressed force. the auxiliary g in (15). momentary position. . But now. in addition. independently of the time-variation of the field. to keep as near as one can to first principles. when expressed for a unit circuit. II. then. .. (16) -curl(E-e) = G. depending merely upon 'the motion of the circuit across the induction.46 at rest in its ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.. If. addiLet its rate of tional induction to pass through the circuit. obvious. its we should have the second law of circulation true in primitive form (14) -curlE = G. Examination in detail shows that g=-curlVciB.. CH. ectuivalently.. (15) where the additional g may be regarded as a fictitious magnetic That it is also expressible as the curl of a vector is current. The method by which Maxwell deduced (13) is substantially the same in principle . when G involves dissipation of energy. It is always desirable when possible The above may. however. the motion of the elements of the circuit in the magnetic field causes.. (17) the standard form of the second law of circuitation. be applied to the case of assumed magnetic conductivity. especially as regards the physical meaning of the process.. does not itself involve dissipation. Modification. we force E (of the flux) equals the rate of decrease of the induction through the circuit always. he. the equation (14) becomes altered to -curlE = G + g. BO that we have. increase due to this cause be g per unit assume that the circulation of the electric area. because it depends upon the velocity of each part of the circuit. 48. makes use of an auxiliary function. and is therefore a line-integral. the vector-potential of the electric current. whether it be at rest or in motion. and this rather complicates the matter. without any formal change.. Induction moving Perhaps the matter may be put in a somewhat clearer light by converting the case of a moving circuit into that of a . Circuit Fixed. by inserting (16) in (15).

and that it moves from right to left perpendicularly across AB. by stopping the motion of its parts. oircuit at rest. it may. one of whose sides. For. suppose the induction at AB is perpendicular to the plane of the paper. directed downwards. It is evident. and then apply the resulting formula to through every element. and distortion of circuit). such motion being the negative of the (abolished) motion of the The matter." is really an elementary circuit (or equivalently for this. involving the translation. its 47 and then employing the law of circuitation in The moving circuit has at any instant a definite position. without chosen for q and B any argumentation. We now get equation (15). Imagine it to be momentarily fixed in that In order that position. on the understanding that g means the additional magnetic current through a fixed circuit due to a given motion of the lines of induction across its boundary. Let also from A to B be the positive sense in the circuit. we must now communicate momentarily to the lines of induction the identically opposite motion to the primitive form. is. as induction merely to examine what happens at a single element of the cirsweeps across it. therefore. rotation.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. Fixing the circuit does away with any and we have cuit. be chosen to be a unit square in the plane of the paper. is the element of unit length. the process of demonstrating (15) which " examination in I have referred to as an detail. AB. therefore. that the directions are the most favourable ones possible for . circuit. it is immaterial what the shape of the circuit may be. in increasing the induction the circuit. In the consideration of a single element. (abolished) motion of the part of the circuit they touch. in the former way. considerably complex. simplified in treatment. Now. the relation of the circuit to the induction should be the same &s when it was moving.

Lastly. (18) . CH. its effect is fully included in the term G. 49. if the velocity q be not wholly transverse to B y as described. The motional magnetic force h may be similarly First we have the primitive form of the first law of deduced. circuitation. or that e = VqB AB when its it is fixed. we must take. instead of still be wholly transverse to the effective transverse com- ponent q sin 6 if be the angle between q and B. element AB is therefore from B to A. because it is the negative circuitation which measures the magnetic current through a circuit. the real magnetic current. finally. but is perhaps quite as much to the point as a complete analytical demonstration. apply the process of circuitation. is simply qB. AB. if the motion of B be not wholly transverse to AB. this is the tensor of VqB. II. but q. the product of the tensors of the velocity q of transverse motion and of the induction B. and that the rate AB alone is concerned. So. This merely amounts to taking the effective part of VBq along the circuit. Now.48 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. so far as increasing the induction through the circuit. Now. The fictitious motion of the induction above assumed has nothing to do with the real motion of the induction through the medium. negative represents the motional electric force when it is the element AB that moves with velocity q through the induction B. Further. and have some difficulty in interpreting the analytical steps electromag- netically. we see that VBq fully represents the impressed electric force per unit length in and the induction moves across it. of its increase. and we see that e is such that its curl represents the rate of increase of induction through the unit circuit due to the motion alone. This may seem rather laboured. The Motional Magnetic Force. and is VBq. If there be any. making our result to be qB sin 0. we must further multiply by the cosine of the angle between VBq and the element AB. where one may get lost in the maze of differential coefficients. whose The motional electric force in the direction is from A to B. curlH=J.

per unit volume.. is an impressed mechanical force. This being arises from the opposite senses of circuitation of the electric there is and the magnetic force to represent the magnetic and currents. Electrification and its Magnetic Analogue.. this more hereafter... j Next show that (20) (21) and = curlh.. the flux before the velocity in one and after it in the other. by the same transformation as from (11) to (12).. of the Newtonian type.." laid Definition of 51.. so that by insertion law of circuitation is reduced to the standard curl form (H-h) = J.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS.. arising from the electric conclude that We VGD By analogy with the electromagnetic force it may be termed the magnetoelectric force. Of stress. and next curlH = J+j.. acting on dielectrics supporting displacement when the induction varies with the time. Comparing the form of h with that of e we observe that a reversal of direction in the vector-products. The activity of the motional h is found by multiplying by the magnetic current. and is. . But the laws circuitation its cannot be completed without suggested magnetic analogue." 50.. that is. h = VDq. therefore. . including electrification and . (22) with the special form of the impressed force h stated. therefore. where the auxiliary to a electric current equivalent the increase of displacement through the circuit by its motion only. j is (19) fictitious moves . that VDG. 49 when the unit circuit is at rest.. where J is the complete electric current-density. when the circuit . So far nothing has been of down about electrification. .is a mechanical force. by in (19) the first similar reasoning to that concerning e .... "Divergence.. electric it The "Magneto-electric Force.. and..

It is then called the divergence That is. the divergence of the induction measures the magnetification. the divergence of any of flux is the amount of the flux leaving the unit volume. This is indepenits distribution within the region. of the displacement. by the same process of surface-integration. the divergence the displacement measures the density'^pf " electrification. and this purely a circuital flux. This. and of of the size and shape of the region. find the volumeelectrification and in the density of the electrification. means the excess of the quantity leaving over that entering it. the surface-integral the displacement leaving any closed surface measures the electrification within it. II. If the amount be finite. Carrying this on down to the infinitely small unit volume. same manner determine the electrifications in them. the source of displacement. This being general. And in particular. induction has any divergence far as is certainly . Similarly. there is just that amount dent altogether of of electrification in the region. Describe a closed surface in a dielectric. If the amount net amount be zero. Divergence is represented by div.e is any to measure." if thu. if we wish to find the distribution of we must break up the region into smaller regions. the (unknown) magnetic conductivity. . In another form.50 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. More formally. thus : divD = />. How these fluxes are distributed after leaving their sources is a perfectly indifferent matter. there is no electrification within the region bounded by the surface. it is is known. so most intimately connected with the other missing link in a symmetrical electromagnetic scheme. so far as concerns the measure of the strength of In an isotropic uniform medium at rest. of course. if p and cr are the electrification and magnetification densities is respectively. which is a very There is no evidence that the flux doubtful matter indeed. in general. electrification and magnetification the source of induction. and observe the net of displacement leaving it. the fluxes naturally spread out uniformly and radially from point-sources the sources. we. (1) (2) divB = o-. CH.

the displacement is the same with reference to it. When permanently at rest in another place. Starting with the charge at rest be in motion through a dielectric at at one place. therefore. and makes the True Current Circuital. its distribution.. perpendicularly to the plane. Now. is at the source itself. The displacement current is therefore circuital. the source send all the flux one But if we by any means make way only. />.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. and therefore the only place where the displacement current diverges is at the source. essential The above being merely to concisely explain the meaning of electrification in relation to displaceand how it is to be measured. the displace- There must. consider a pointment... (3) are the tensors of the displacement a-.. because it is the time-variation of the displacement. In the transition. by the mere symmetry.. 51 The density of the fluxes of displacement or of induction. however the source may be moving. the only place where the displacement diverges. (5) A Moving Source equivalent to a Convection Current. so that (4) at any distance from the plane. with the exception of a missing ment has changed E2 . then varies as the inverse square of the distance. then o-.. and induction at distance r spread uniformly over a plane in a uniform isotropic medium to surface-density p or cr. source or charge to rest. therefore. we see that half the flux goes one way and half the other.. the displacement is radial and stationary. be electric current. Thus Dfrom point-sources p and If the source be ? ~ B- * . 52. D= at any distance. B= . because the concentric spherical surfaces through which they pass vary in area directly as the square of the distance. then.

referred tofixed space. made up of three parts. and the convection current . (6) p being the volume-density of electrification moving through the stationary medium with the velocity u. when the charge is it leaves it again. and such that the volumeintegral of the current density is u/>. CH.52 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. suppose the charge to be first outside a closed surface and then move across it to its inside. we must understand by u above the velocity also referred to fixed space. netic current be expressed by making the complete mag- if w be the velocity of the magnetification of density o-. if the displacement goes through the surface to the inner region. and the displacement system of this current together form a circuital flux. when the charge is in the very act of crossing the surface. if there should be such a thing as diverging in" " duction. On the other hand. Thus it will come to the same thing if we stop the motion of the charge altogether. tributing to the magnetic current. and let the medium have the motion equivaSimilarly. 1L link at the moving charge. and this displacement through it outward changes from is the time-integral of the displacement current outward whilst This is perfectly and simultaneously comthe charge crosses. Thus. . and u are only the same when the medium and the charge move together. or the magnetification denoted by <r above. Therefore. If we suppose that the charge p moving with velocity u constitutes a current Tip. the displacement current. If the medium be also moving at velocity q. The electric current is. in the same sense as the motion. the conduction current. therefore. then the complete " convection " current. the whole displacement passes outward. the to /o. making the whole current pensated by always circuital. inside. The velocities q. the convection current. When outside. that is. then weshall be obliged to consider a moving magnetic charge as con- lent to the former relative motion. thus.

if not inconceivable) combined with our initial assumption that the electric flux (and the magnetic flux not here present) represent states of the medium. as it were). let us start with a single charge p at rest any point ether. happen that this can be done with profit and much circumlocution.) Source and Medium with a Common Motion. Flux travels with them undisturbed. which may be carried with it just as states But as of matter are carried with matter in its motion. however.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. the motional 44. referred to a stationary medium. the changing dis- placement at any point constitutes an electric current. often It does not. for A in an infinite isotropic non-conducting dielectric at rest. is ( magnetic force. 49) the vector-product of the . the mathematical representation of the results. the charge. That this should be so in a rational system we may conclude from the relativity of motion (the absolute motion of the universe being quite unknown. example which is also Under these circumstances the stationary condition is one of isotropic radial displacement from the charge at A according to the inverse- square law. and there is nothing to disturb this distribution. which Here. and with it the displacement. Now. if the whole medium and the charge itself are supposed to have a common motion (referred to an assumed fixed space. and therefore would necessitate the existence of magnetic force. 53 Examples to illustrate Motional Forces in a Moving Medium with a Moving Source. than from the formulae. rather easier to see the meaning of the solutions from a description. without indeed. In order to clearly understand the sense in which of a charge through a medium. in the background. without it is In the at first place. and of the part played therein by the it will motional electric and magnetic forces. medium to be understood. no change whatever will take place in the distribution of displacement referred to the moving charge. or of both together with respect to fixed space. move through space as a rigid body without rotation. In the present case. be desirable to give a few illustrative examples of such a nature that their meaning can be readily followed from a description. however. if we treated the first law of circuitation in its primitive form. motion is 53. or motion of the itself. (1.

it follows that the displacement outside the sphere is undisturbed. in another changes the law of circuitation (curl H = J) referred to fixed space. comes into play. CH. to the moving medium) unaffected .) Source and Medium in Relative Motion. at the time t the charge has reached B. from the mere fact first that the speed of propagation is v. They are unaffected by a common motion of the whole medium and the sources (or quasi-sources). tion. because the charge has only just reached that place. v. and let AC be the direction of its subsequent motion. and leave the displacement it form. Now. Next. and the displacement stationary and isotropically radial. 1) be the initial position of the charge when it begins to move. and this result is mathematically obtained by the motional electric and magnetic forces. It is clear that there cannot be any change to the right of B. then. The result is H = 0. investigation the remainder is an example of the theory of the simplest spherical wave given by me in "Electromagnetic Waves. which" call at this and us suddenly set the charge the medium moving in any direction rectilinearly through same speed. fluxes let through the speed (MC)~~. and disturbances only . so as to refer it in the same form to the moving (referred medium. Ths question is. Charge suddenly jerked into Motion at the Speed of PropagaGeneration of a Spherical Electromagnetic Sheet . ultimately Plane. what will mathematical happen ? A part of the result can be foreseen without . (2. and the medium have a Start again with charge and medium at rest." Let A (in Fig. it is so constructed as to precisely annul all magnetic force under the circumstances. and displacement and the velocity of the medium. or. and D moves with the medium. Equations of a Pure Electromagnetic Wave.54 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. introduce the fact (the truth of which will be fully seen later) that the medium itself at transmits all disturbances of the -y. Describe a sphere of radius AB = vt . II. A 54. Similar remarks apply to other stationary states. But the case is entirely altered if the charge relative translational motion.

travel at the i>5 same speed to as it is moving itself. therefore. therefore. represent the actual displacement. and each portion goes the shortest way to the conceivable manner. in such a manner that the leakages are equal from equal areas. The displacement emanating from the charge joins at B. no displacement whatever inside the sphere BTCDF. We There is have now to complete the description of the solution. A through this to B will show well as the original displacement. though of course.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. by the B it But it leaks out externally on the way. radial lines. . opposite pole D. We on to the external displacement over the spherical surface. Similar con- siderations applied the expanding sphere charge at every moment of its passage from The that no disturbance can have got outside the sphere. The displacement thus follows the lines of longitude. can say beforehand that it should do so in the simplest shortest paths. in the they extended to the point A. as latter case. On leaving the in all directions on the surface of pole spreads uniformly the sphere.

therefore. distortion as time goes on. therefore. later. cerned. the law of the inverse first power (instead of the original inverse square). becomes infinitesimal . the charge at ternal displacement. varying in density with the distance according same law. The tangential displaceD and surface-densities (or fluxes per unit area of B . E = VB v. Now. expressing the . in fact. or. say. and down through the A (at F. ac- companied by a distribution of induction in to the circles round the axis of motion. c E and ft H be the equivalent forces got by dividing by 2 fj. as we shall see the place considered. E = /xvH Or. is the vector velocity of the electromagnetic sheet at These last are. and connected with the displacement by the . paper above paper below A (at E. which though it may attenuate as it travels. B moves off to the right. = cv if . the general equations of a wave-front or of a free wave. and therefore Its direction is up through the follows the lines of latitude. are connected by the equation ment and induction the sheet). following. at one point of which the moving charge. CH. The exthe electromagnetic sheet simultaneously expanding. since = 1. from which the displacement diverges uniformly in the sheet. and corresponding to the displacement there is a distribution of coincident. does not suffer where v by mixing up with other disturbances. for example).56 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. mutual directions as well. Or. II. This completes the case so far as the displacement is conBut the spherical surface constitutes an electro- magnetic sheet. then. therefore. we D are finally left perpendicularly to itself is with a plane electromagnetic sheet moving at speed v. induction. for example). This induction is perpendicular to the tangential displacement. likewise side of the shere. that on the and by respectively.

which is then of insensible curvature. of the We FIG.) Sudden Stoppage of Charge. Plane Sheet moves on. Spherical Sheet generated. Field. the Stationary Having thus turned the radial isotropic displacement stationary charge into a travelling plane distribution. after will be reassumed ? some time has elapsed. know that let us suddenly reduce the charge to rest. and the plane sheet is the portion of the spherical sheet round B. In the diagram. and the plane DOE would have been the position of the plane Let in Fig. with B then the point C is where the charge would have got at time t after the stoppage had it not been stopped. and now the question is. 2. Describe a sphere of radius vt. isotropic distribution how will this take place be the position of the charge at the moment and after. 2 of stoppage for centre . the former . B . Final Result. 55. (3. AB has to be very great. 57 above equations.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS.

and being connected with the tangential displacement by the former relations. but there is no magnetic Attending to force (except in the spherical sheet). directed to before. following the lines of latitude. Or both moved with same Relative Velocity. out to In time. (4. (4.) The internal displacement joins itself on to the external in the plane sheet. the charge being there originally. return it is suppose to the case of 54. radial displacement of the charge in its DOE The stationary new position at B is fully established within the sphere. The is this. as before said. without any induction. We must now suppose B to be at rest. is. described before in stationary plane electromagnetic 45. instead of Charge. as. accounted for by the motional magnetic force. external displacement is continuously altering. the actual : state of things is- The its plane except at (2. therefore. IL electromagnetic sneer. the former description applies exactly. by leaking into it and then following the shortest route to the pole C. and this. where the charge has been taken out. made move bodily past motion is so that the relative it from right to left at the same as before. and there electric current to correspond.) Now.) The induction still.) sheet moves on quite unaltered. and referring to Fig. to be the charge that is kept at rest. in fact. (3. That is. the plane sheet and the spherical sheet go infinity. and there is left behind simply the radial dis- placement of the stationary charge.) Medium moved 56. whilst the to medium speed v. where we considered the displacement and induction in the sheet to be kept up steadily by electric and magnetic forces impressed by the motion . and remaining there. The final result is now a sheet. core C. 1. the tangential displacement follows the lines of longitude. CH. whilst it is A that is travelling from right to left. over the spherical surface.58 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Now. in the spherical sheet is oppositely however. and the spherical surface has a motion compounded of expansion from the centre A and translation with it. described by saying that (1.

in Fig. 3. of induction initially. From the two solutions of 54. momentarily. and Fig. given a certain plane sheet first union. joined by a spherical For it is the same as the problem of stopsheet. as well as the charges. without altering the position of the charge. the two sheets will immediately That is. But if the charges cancel one another continuously after their It is. 2 will show the growth of the radial stationary displacement.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. provided the relative speed be always the speed v however different from this may t We be the actual speeds. Spherical Sheet with two . (5. so that there is no The answer into electrification ever after. 55 (either of which of may be derived from the other) we may deduce a number other interesting cases. the plane waves will pass reappear and separate. if we can carry the charges through one another. 59 Now stop the motion of the medium. Touching the sphere at the point F and the . without change in their motion.p be moving towards one another. 2 is to be placed the additional plane wave. each with When doubling the induction. leaving none. on the understanding that there is to be no electrification ? is. and the two inductions add. as in Fig. as it is in fact the same case precisely after the first moment. its accompanying plane electromagnetic sheet. 57. let initially a pair of equal opposite charges +p and . sheet of induction. each at speed v through the medium (which for simplicity we may consider stationary). that the induction sheet immediately splits two plane electromagnetic sheets. We have thus. Cancelment of Charges or else passage through one another. what becomes of it. Plane Sheet Appendages. the charges meet the two sheets coincide. page in 55 with another equal charge of opposite kind moving the other way and stopped simultaneously. Thus. different results. a mere Now.) Meeting of a Pair of Plane Sheets with Point-Sources. a fresh case arises. can in a similar manner treat the cases of motion and stoppage of both charge and medium. the two displacements cancel. through one another. as in 55.

That is to say. and without leakage of the The charges are at opposite poles. as there no source Fio. CH. and let them be suddenly jerked apart. Each displacement sheet has its corresponding coincident induction. in is to be abolished. (6. at the ends displacement. according to the former formulae. and the displacement just flows over the . and there diverges uniformly in the other plane sheet. without plane appendages. then flows without leakage to the opposite pole C internal displacement along the lines of longitude.60 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. II. Similarly. with no displacement. of the axis of motion. The result is simply a single spherical wave. 3 the displacement converges uniformly to F in the plane sheet there. 6. let there be a pair of coincident or infinitely close opposite charges. They is all move out left.) Spherical Sheet without Plane Appendages produced by sudden jerking apart of opposite Charges. leaving nothing behind. each moving at the speed of propaga- tion of disturbances. 58. Fig. to infinity.

it will still be an electromagnetic sheet. (7. which sends its surface of the sphere. if Now. this plane sheet splits into two plane electromagnetic sheets joined by At the centre of the last is the (doubled) a spherical sheet. although they are really portions of a large spherical sheet. they be of the in the case of colliding plane sheets with charges. whilst the displacement is doubled.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC. and Cylindrical 60. (8. but will contract instead of expanding. charge 2/5. 57. If a charge be initially in contact with a perfectly conducting plane.) Collision of Equal Charges of same Name. merely the stationary field of the charge 2p. 3 also shows this case. we have practically two widely sepa- rated plane electromagnetic sheets. If the charges be kept together thereafter.. is. when the waves have gone out to infinity. displacement isotropically to the is picked up and turned round line of division of the oppositely flowing displacements. The final result. the result is an expanding spherical electromagnetic sheet as before. If. CONNECTIONS. If they are then stopped nothing more happens. Conical Boundaries. if we leave out the plane sheets and suppose the positive charge to be at F and the negative at C. same name. of course. then. we have momentarily a plane sheet of displacement. But if the charges can separate again. 61 is There the usual induction Fig. sheet. which then diverges in the plane sheet touching the pole.. 59. . on meeting. Plane.) Hemispherical Sheet. the total amount reaching each pole being p (half the central charge). That is. B = /wD to match. surface from one to the other symmetrically. corresponding to the moving netic shell. It will go on contracting to nothing when the charges meet. The equator of the sphere is the The displacement gets greater and greater as the poles are neared. and be then suddenly jerked away from it at the speed v. the result is merely a hemispherical electromagThe negative charge. without altering the displacement. imagine the motion of the two charges to be reversed we simultaneously reverse the induction in the spherical . After a sufficient time. where it towards one pole or the other. it is the- induction that vanishes.

and then terminating the displacement normally upon a conductor. expands in a circular ring upon the conducting plane. this ring being the equator of the (complete) sphere. and when the charge has reached B the displace- ment terminates upon the plane in the circle DF. A is the original position of p on the conducting plane CAE. point-charge. FIG. with portions of perfect spherical waves run- ning along them at the speed v. is included as an extreme case The . internal and external (or one conical boundary alone). . In Fig. of con- tinuously increasing thickness. merely amounts to taking one-half of the solution in 58. case of uniform thickness the (portion of the) spherical wave then becomes a plane wave. 4. II. 4. This case. we may similarly have conical boundaries. we have a sort of concentric cable (inner and outer conductor with dielectric between). If the two conical boundaries have nearly the same angle. in fact. and this angle be small. Instead of a plane conducting boundary.62 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. CH.

but lead the displacement away into plane waves touching the sphere. 63 General Nature of Electrified Spherical Electromagnetic Sheet. when there has been electrification on the sheet. may also be readily seen by the foregoing. which may may be on a concentric be in similar motion. or it may itself be in motion. and have the external and internal elecThe leakage should be of the isotropic trification in reality. of a spherical or contracting at speed v. and superpose the solutions. There is thus a great variety of ways of making up problems of this character. or we may The external electrification. of opposite sign we do not need any external or internal but we may make use of them let one charge leak outward. so that integration docs When there is a pair of equal charges the rest of the work. . The sheets. and part outside. Or the charges .(q l and q ) may be put exter2 with isotropic leakage. on a spherical sheet. It may be uniformly distributed upon a at the central point. may be stationary. This. that may be of finite depth. and arbitrarily electrified. the other inward. Now. it has it is when been a solitary point-charge or else a pair. complementary electrification. But the internal electrification need not be character always. the nature of whose solutions can be readily pictured mentally. Or we may have no complementary electrification at nally. too. expanding or contracting at the speed v. all. we have any volume-distribution of electrification in space in radial lines to or from a centre. Two way two is charges. too. expanding 61. argumentatively . q l and q^ for example. concentric sphere. One to put . at opposite poles. spherical so surface. the general case of an arbitrary distribution of electrification can be followed up from the case of a pair of charges not at opposite ends of a diameter. and each of these may be taken by itself by means of an opposite charge at the centre or externally. accompanied by electromagnetic disturbances arranged in spherical moving sheets.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. again. So far. The nature electromagnetic sheet charged in an arbitrary manner.q t and q2 at the centre. Or part may be inside.

although they express the fundamental electromagnetic principles concerned in the it was comparatively late in the history of electromagnetism that they became clearly reWe have not here. with a condenser consisting of a pair of concentric shells uniformly electrified. or B = /*VvD where tangential displacement in the sheet (volume density x depth). IL Only when the total charge on the spherical sheet is zero can we dispense with these external aids (which to use depending upon the conditions of the problem) . . electro-dynamics to which Oersted's discovery. D One case we may notice. and is given by the above is the formula. to do the work of the electrical Todhunter. and therefore without induction. That is. So. receive the above used form of fact. howcognised and explicitly formularised. the speed be not exactly will do. gave rise. either or both may expand or contract without magnetic force. On most concise and clear manner. there is no induction at all. ever. and Faraday. there result diffused disturb- ances. The two laws of circulation did not start into full activity all at once. Henry. The first law had its first beginnings in the discovery of Oersted that the electric conflict acted in a revolving manner. the contrary. Ampere's Rule for deriving the Magnetic Force from the Current.64 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Any speed v. The corresponding induction is always perpendicular to the resultant tangential displacement. however. If the density of electrification be uniform over the surface. not peculiar to the case of motion at speed if v. 62. without tangential displacement. It did not. but only to notice a few points of interest. then the displacement has sources and sinks on the sheet which balance one another. This is. But in general. but only a sheet of electrification. it is not an electromagnetic sheet. and in the almost simultaneous remarkable investigations of Ampere. however. in the long series of investigations in expression. it was customary to In consider an element of a conduction current as generating a . The electromagnetic waves are no longer of the same pure type. Rational Current-element. and the work of Ampere. General Remarks of the Circuital Laws. CH.

65 have seemed. But so far as closed currents are concerned. and there is left only the circuital current sense.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. this complete current being related to the current- element in the same way as the induction of an elementary magnet is to the intensity of magnetisation of the latter. the field of corresponding magnetic force is given by at distance r from the current-element 0. Calling the complete system of electric current a rational current-element. this way of regarding the relation between current and magnetic force gives equivalent results to those obtained from the first law of circuitation in the limited form suitable to the circumstances stated. of which the current-element mentioned is only a part . is perpendicular to the plane containing r and the axis of are circles about this axis. This applies not merely to conduction current (which was all that the older electricians reckoned). for it left the question the closure of the current open . it may be easily seen that in a circuital distri- bution of rational current-elements the external portion of the current disappears by mutual cancelling. of Natural as this course may was an unfortunate one. axis). in a medium of uniform inductivity. therefore. or the lines of But from the Maxwellian point of view this field of is that H H corresponding to a certain circuital distribution of electric current. but. we have to consider its inclination to the axis of the of the distance between r and the H is the angle current by means of the factor sin (where Also. the current-element. but to electric current in the wider sense introduced by p We . made up of the elements in the older may. certain field of magnetic force. and it is quite easy to see it now that this alone constituted a great hindrance to progress. involved in the vector product. along r from the element to the point where The intensity of thus follows the law of the inverse square H H along any radius vector proceeding from the current-element. in passing from one radius vector to another. employ the formula (1) to calculate without ambiguity the magnetic force of any circuital distribution of current. if xl be a unit vector is reckoned. If C is the density of conduction current at any place.

that are important and significant. may be regarded as an independent problem. Maxwell made the first law of circuitation (not. Now. This but subject to similar reservations. the simplicity of the process being in striking contrast to that of the integrations by which we may mount from current to magnetic force. consider the illustrations of plane and spherical electromagnetic waves of the simplest type given in 53 to 61. CH. II. Advice to But this method of mounting from current to magnetic force (or equivalent methods employing potentials) is quite unsuitable to the treatment of electromagnetic waves. and is then usually of a quite unpractical nature. But the result will not be the real magnetic force unless the 'distribution of inductivity is uniform. Tn passing. This involves very important and far-reaching con- That it makes the electric current always circuital sequences. and observe that whilst the results are rationally and simply describable in terms of the fluxes or forces. and if we wish to know the electric current (which may be quite a useless piece of information) we may derive it readily from the magnetic force by differentiation .66 Maxwell. When /* we may regard the magnetic force of the current thus varies. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. To exemplify. It is the two fluxes. Besides that. we may remark that we can mount from magnetic current to electric force by a formula precisely similar to (1). obtained as an impressed magnetic force. anti-Maxwellians. 63. It also necessitates the existence of electric current in perfect non-conductors or insulators. induction and displacement (or equivalently the two forces to correspond). This has always been a . in its complete form) practically the definition of electric current. the " is then often a quite subsidiary function " electric current and unimportant quantity. and then calculate what induction it sets up in the field of varying inductivity. how- ever. at once does away with a host of indeterminate and highly speculative problems relating to supposititious unclosed currents. yet to describe in terms of electric current (and derive the rest from it) would introduce such complications and obscurities as would tend to anything but intelligibility. The Cardinal Feature of Maxwell's System.

and only let the tree be judged by Is it not singular that there should be found people. it is Let him have patience. and consistently harmonise the cardinal It is the equations of electromagnetism. One is of a formal character. F 2 . a significance he appears to have so sadly missed. mendations (apart from modern experiments). who are so intensely pre- judiced against the Maxwellian view. the introduction of the h term to express the intrinsic force of 64. and believe that speculative metaphysics because it is not to his Never mind the ether disturbances playing present taste. The labours of many may be required before a satisfactory elemen- So much the tary presentation of the theory can be given. therefore. makes the insulating medium the true medium in the transmission of disturbances. Maxwellian and otherwise. and. its fruit. when properly followed up. which it would be quite natural not to appreciate from the theoretical standpoint. But Maxwell's innovation was really the most practical im- The electric provement in electrical theory conceivable. of Maxwell's system. current in a nonconductor was the very thing wanted to coordinate electrostatics and electrokinetics. of the * or three changes I have made* in Maxwell's form law." The Electrician^ 1885. When that is done. more need. its Propagation. is there for the popular writer to recognise the profound significance of the remarkable experimental work of late years. the authors of works on Electricity. not all Changes in the Form of the First Circuital Law. without the unnecessary obstruction evidenced by a carping and unreceptive spirit. Two first circuital "Electromagnetic Induction and 3. 67 stumbling-block to practicians who think themselves practical. but think Sea fruit ? it no better than Dead The subject is quite sufficiently difficult to render understandable popularly. stand aside. January and later : or reprint. as to be apparently quite unable to recognise that the fruit has any good flavour or savour.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. which can only be appreciated after a pretty close study of theory. They can take care of themselves. pranks with the planets. then will be the time for an understanding of Maxwell's views. and explains a multitude of feature phenomena that are inconceivable in any other theory (unless But let the theoretical recomit be one of the same type).

no good reason why the many faults in Maxwell's treatise should be ignored. by Prof. CH. and places the essential relations more clearly before the eye. and I see suggested to him. there are spots on the sun. he was strongly upon the circuital nature of electric current. Although Maxwell did not himself explicitly repreinsistent sent this. like the first. which was a remarkable oversight. Fitzgerald) of the term to explicitly represent the conforce. was conditioned by the variation through it. to Maxwell's theory. II. it is vection-current or electrification in motion as a part of the true current. Tait would: In application preserve in the form given to it by Hamilton. The second circuital law. mental had an experiwas long in approximating to its present form much longer. Prof. to the science of Quaternions. is the introduction of the h term to represent the motional magnetic In general problems relating to electromagnetic wavea equally important with the motional electric force. I think. and. which. and would doubtless have seen the oversight the moment it was Now. magnetisation. apparently merely because it was so great an advance. in fact. in order to get consistent results. The remark applies generally . but went to work in a more roundabout way. that the voltage induced in a conducting circuit recognition 65. Connected with this intrinsic is a different reckoning of the energy of an is magnet. of the number of lines of force rather remarkably. but is an extension of an obligatory character. though in a The experimental foundation was Faraday's different manner. mathematicians did not put this straight into symbols for an elementary circuit. But. Tt is most objectionable to stereotype the work of a great man.68 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and expressed it through the medium of an integration extended along a concrete circuit > . Introduction of the Second Circuital Law. of. like the first. which character. The third change is the introduction (first done. for instance. I am sure that it is in a measure to the recognition of the faults in his treatise that a clearer view the theory in its broader sense is due. not merely one of a formal The second change. origin. if I understand rightly. and because of the great respect thereby induced. This somewhat simplifies the mathematics. of course.

The change is." We need not wonder. working together not altogether in the most harmoniously intelligible manner in plain English. a fact which has been recognised that not even Maxwell himself quite understood how " they operated in his general equations of propagation. and enables us to considerably simplify and clarify the treatment of general questions. and also not sufficiently comprehensive. working out and presentation of results which could be equally well done in terms of other theories. Another rather curious point relates to the old German electro-dynamic investigations and their extensions to endeavour to include. It would be slaying the slain to attack them. I believe. the electrostatic. that Maxwell's followers have not found it and how a very easy task to understand what his theory really meant. and the great complexity of the investigations. but one point about them deserves notice. and. or generalise Maxwell by anti-Maxwellian methods. muddling one another. 69 or else. and. I believe. do not abate one jot of my appreciation of his work. supersede. p. It is. I had occasion to remark. whilst bringing to light interesting relations which were formerly hidden from view by the intervention of the vector potential A. that it For he devoted the greater part of his daily. The main causes of the variety of formulae.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. and its parasites J and "VP. were first. then. and another potential. some years to work it out. the natural companion to the first. which are which increases treatise to the utmost importance. since. by the tone of quiet confidence in which he wrote concerning them. I was obliged to dispense with them . and gave only a very cursory and incomplete exposition of what were peculiarly his own views and their consequences. Finding these equations of propagation containing the two potentials unmanageable. the indefiniteness produced by the want of of the * See footnote. in now repeating the remark. introduced* what I term the second circuital law as a fundamental equation. . a practical one. was very much Maxwell's own fault that his views obtained such slow acceptance. it is easily to be recognised that he was himself fully aware of their importance. 67. of an equation of electromotive force containing a function called the vector potential of the current. At the same time. going back to first principles.

it will be seen to involve. Now." may be employed.] But if the critical reader will look through these investigations. the convection current. and eliminate the potentials. and which are of dynamical significance. using this law gropings after mares' nests. had a second part. merely as a into . which was originally conduction current only. " be added to make up the " true current. working to the same end. and sometimes assist working out. extensions of meaning. CH. when there is electrification in motion. he will find. most astoundingly complex investigation of Clausius. the displacement current.. I think. add a third term. the}7 may be regarded merely as mathematical extensions which. II.full view.70 circuitality in the [J. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. will see that purely artificial matter viz. one should keep as close as possible to those with which we are experimentally acquainted. as a useful residuum. devoid of physical significance. that contains an account of many. added to it by Maxwell. and further. yet to be considered. As we have seen. 66. in the investigations. electric current. bringing it many of these investigations are elaborations. that in the choice of variables to express physical phenomena. of the first mathematical circuital law. to be deduced is. As regards the terms in the expression of the second law which stand for unknown properties. the and so to justify Maxwell in his The useful moral doctrine of the circuitality of the current. by symmetrizing the equations. when the medium supporting the fluxes is in motion. Meaning of True Current. One of these extensions refers to the meaning to be attached to the term current. electric or magnetic respectively. render the correct electric and magnetic analogies But some other plainer. and be on one's guard against being led away from the straight and narrow path in the pursuit of the Will-o'-the-wisp. the use of another. we must. the second circuital law. A fourth term may now . Criterion. J. so to speak. have a more substantial foundation. in the second volume of his " Mechanische Warmetheorie. and. to produce a circuital flux. current. referred to. fitness of things. and next the potential methods Thomson's " Report on Electrical Theories " As a very full example. to preserve circuitality.

the extended meaning of true current is not a further complication. denoting the former by e and h. To show the effect of the change. As the auxiliaries j first there may not at which ary.. Away. as and g are themselves circuital vectors. but is a simplification. 39) . auxiliaries before used. (13) read 38. . .e . of a merely formal character. producing . and there is If continuously changing displacement outside a certain sphere. (E e c ) = G = K + B + wo.curl e. and g are the j by = curl g = . it is to be observed that from the Maxwellian method of regarding the current as a function of the magnetic force. therefore. .+ g. we consider J the true current. 71 Thus. . . For whereas in the equation (2) we deduct from the force E of the flux not only the intrinsic force e but also the motional force e whose curl measures the current . given h. thermo-electric. and the latter by e equations of circuitation [(12).curl (E .OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. the force whose curl is to obtain the effective force taken in (4) is the force of the flux. whether it be stationary or moving. which specifies the elec- tric state of the medium. On the other hand. from the sources of energy which are independent of the motion of the medium.e) = G = K + B + wcr. we should say there is elec- . <feq. let us separate the motional electric and magnetic forces from all other intrinsic forces that go with them in the two circuital laws (voltaic. (3) (4) . (1) (2) .. It is the new vectors the true currents J and G which should be regarded when the medium moves. on the other hand. (7) now curl(H-h -h) = J = C + D + u/>. Now transfer the e and h terms to the right curl side. The two 52)] and (6). . is of course the same as J when the medium is stationThe extension would appear to be an unnecessary one. for the current J is circuital. . . and so is J . sight appear to be any reason for further complicating the meaning of true current when separated into component parts. in which the medium moves past the charge. consider the example of 56. and h .curl where j (H-h ) = J =0 + D + u/o + j. in (4) we deduct only the intrinsic force.

but the main steps can be given .72 trie current. viz. or filled in by those who can do it. expresses the rate of communication of energy to the electromagnetic system from a source not included therein. that is to say. but not for working purposes. is x to be J or J (or anything else) when the medium moves ? Now of a this question can only be much answered by making it a part and more important one . and their mutual harmonisation. How to the subject of a future chapter. which may either be taken for granted. II. The is energy principle of the conservation or persistence of certainly as old as Newton. course will be continued now.h ). When the medium is stationary x is J. and the absence of magnetic force implies the absence of true electric current. (H independently of the make up This is of its component parts. this question remains. (2). This being done. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. not the place for a full investigation of this complex question. say e x.. when viewed from the . (4). Up to the present I have used the notation of vectors for the concise and plain presentation of This principles and results. by a larger all comprehensive examination of the fluxes of energy concerned in the equations (1). rent to be always the curl of and consider the true cur. not for the exhibition of the mathematical working. 67. whatever it be. but especially with a view to the understanding in a broad manner of the course of the argument. But still ventional one. and it is naturally suggested that in case of further possible extensions. . The Persistence of Energy. Continuity in Time and Space and Flux of Energy. somewhat of a conIs there any test to be applied which shall / effectually discriminate between J and J as the true current ? There would appear to be one and only one . no magnetic force. or (3). with the simpler relation to the force of the flux. But accord- ing to the other way there is no true current. the result is that e J is the activity of e so that it is J that is the measure of the true current. that e being an intrinsic force. and not connected with the motional force e. although there is CH. its activity. we should follow in the same track. so far. and the question is. It is not so work vectors may form hard when you know how to do it.

and they will afterwards look upon the notion of its going through the conductor as perfectly absurd. for almost This period is certainly not weekly we may read about " the velocity of electricity in wires. and will wonder how anyone ever could have believed it. that in various cases in which energy disappeared from one form. it was not lost. This involves continuity of existence in time. quite generally . The principle of the continuity of energy is a special form of that of its conservation. to others.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. but made its appearance in other forms. This arose from the experi- mental demonstrations given (principally those of Joule). in which scientific men themselves are learning to believe the modern view thoroughly from the evidence of its things comes to pass. and nothing is said about its distribution or its motion. Only train up the young to believe this. But before this inevitable state of must be passed through. extending to recognised by all the phenomena of Nature. So it will be with the modern view of the ether as the medium through which energy is being sent when a wire supports a current. although he might tell you that he could not conceive the possibility of energy being destroyed. by who could not tell you correctly what the principle meant. Its ultimate basis is probably the conviction (a thoroughly reasonable one) that the laws of motion hold good in the invisible world as well as in the visible. and to the same amount. The principle is now-a-days a sure article of scientific faith. having taken it in when young. then we are ask how energy gets from place to place. But bound if to we can localise energy definitely in space. But only (roughly speakdid it become ing) about the middle of the present century scientific men as a universal truth. but not conservation principle is necessarily in space also. In the ordinary understanding of the it is the integral amount of energy that conserved. an intermediate period truth. and to teach yet come to its end it . the ordinary unscientific man. He goes by faith. or energy either. confirmed by the repeated But the principle is now believed in experimental verification. for example." such language emanating from scientific men who are engaged in repeating and extend ing Hertz's experiments. If it . to save his life. 73 standpoint of theoretical dynamics.

intermediate space. .rotates. the convergence of the flux of energy is accounted for by increased energy in the unit volume where it converges . travel with on the whole. divA=-T That is. This is sufficient for its conservation. if part of the energy be outside it will the body. it Examples. Convection of Energy and Flux of Energy due Gravitational difficulty. itself. or the amount transferred per unit of time per unit of area normal to the direction of its transfer . if it be associated with the body. naturally involves the idea of a fiux of energy. CH. there are numerous energy is perfectly plain. A body in translational motion. Let be the vector flux of energy. is however. and only needs to be pointed out tobe recognised. and therefore included under "potential energy. does not recommend the principle thus The alternative to assert continuity of existence in space also. We may conv then write (5) (6) or A = f. it might go out of existence at one place and come into existence simultaneously at another. not merely the kinetic energy of its translational motion. the divergence of the flux of energy.74 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. for instance. it. carries its energy with it. and let T be that we should do our utmost to carry it out. yet. and likewise the energy of any internal vibratory or rotatory motions it may possess. or the rate at which leaves the unit volume. possessed continuity in time only. 68. or. therefore. II. and other energy not known to be kinetic. cases in which the flux of Now. A the density of the energy." which we Even may have good reason to localise in the body. to an active Stress. but also its rotational energy if it. This view. The simplest of all is the mere convection of energy by motion of the matter with which it is associated. The idea that energy has position. This is When traverses the so intelligible and practical a form of the principle. : and to enunciate it energy goes from place to place. is accompanied by simultaneous and corresponding decrease in the density of the energy.

we do not go is When q is If.) I cannot see it. and think it is pushing like matter ? the principle of continuity of energy. This brings us to Prof. the energy flux is qT.. But we are and of its matter. (Phil. which it does not. not of the matter. or personal identity. if we regard T as the density of matter. There is an unceasing- enormous flux of energy through the ether from the Sun. objectivity. where energy the velocity and T the density of the energy conveyed (of all energy were conveyed. any kind). or thinginess. But as the science of dynamics is at present understood. would become thus conveyed. and that is the of ordinary matter. I think. the great store-house of all This makes the ether gravitational energy. attached to of energy. for one . energy. like matter. Mag. somehow. above to be the velocity of the energy. because characteristic Observe here that ether must be regarded as a form of it is the recipient of energy. The chief reason why the founders of the modern science of energy did not explicitly make use of the idea of the continuity of energy was probably the very obscure nature of gravitational it became localised as the kinetic no use to call it potential energy if that is to explain anything.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. then. if sometimes) may be considered to be rigidly This case may be regarded as the convection too closely into detail. Where was ? it before is energy of a mass It of was transferred into the body. It would. we cannot make use of this idea profitably. too far. which Prof. equation (5) convaT = t (7) Now this equation. If we atomise the energy we can then imagine the q. 1885. somewhere. relativity of motion seems to be entirely against the idea. Lodge's theory of the identity of Has energy personal identity. and energy. mode of transference. seem that the energy must have been in the ether. Energy may be transferred in other ways than by convection of associated matter. entirely ignorant of its distribution in the ether. for . 75 and so (at least it. is the well known equation of continuity of matter used in hydro- dynamics and elsewhere. The Nor are we able to write the equation (7) in all cases. Lodge was It is difficult to endow energy with writing about.

or radiation through the ether. and indicates energy communicated to the unit volume in an unstated manner.. . (9) where A is the flux of energy other than convective. to avoid is not a convection of energy. But when we pass to a less ideal case. is the activity of the force f. so to speak. The flux of energy other than convective is jpq. fq should also explicitly represent the convective flux. more likely to be the medium of gravitational action than to gravitate itself. for example. which can hardly be considered to be convective. + conv(qT + A) = f. is P7 . we shall have a flux of energy. when the stress is an isotropic pressure p.. not assof.76 instance. (10) the vector expressing the pull per unit area on the In this equation q is plane perpendicular to the velocity q. generated within the unit volume. it is well to distinguish ether from ordinary matter .. the tensor of q. a flux of energy through matter or ether. for example. and we know that : confusion.. sometimes reduce it to the form qT 1? and then it would appear to be convection of When energy. OH. perhaps. .. ciated with a stress works. as in wave propagation through an elastic solid. in which the stress is of a more general character. by its separate name but it is important to note that it has some of the characteristics of ordinary matter. it ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. We can... without bringing the ether with it. therefore. This occurs in a moving frictionless fluid. The force f is thus an impressed force. in the sense explained. By this device we can allow for unknown We Thus. as an elastic solid. fluxes of energy. In default of ability to represent the flux of gravitational energy its entry into a body must be otherwise represented than by the convergence of a flux. f<l Turn (7) into + convA = f (8) Here fq.. A. it is. the energy flux expressive of the activity of the stress takes the form A=-P where fl (z. It need not be gravitating matter . comes through Of course. however. R it it takes several minutes to come the ether.

which once wasted. A. and kinetic energy. and partly non-convective. and Q may have to be split up into different parts. The equation is simply system. and that when we localise it. On the right side we account for of increase of the stored potential it by the ratesand kinetic energy. at least temporarily . and by means the rate of waste of energy in the unit volume. by proper devices. (11) where the terms in the square brackets indicate the energy flux. T.. the terms A. Passing to more practical and specialised forms of expression of the continuity of energy. Also. . the activity of impressed force (here merely a transThus on the left side of equation (11) wehave a statement of the supply of energy to the unit volume- Also fq is lational force). too. 69. have the following as a practical form. that when- ever we showing can only partially definitely localise energy we can obtain an equation its continuity in space and time. and wasted energy. so that we may ignore energy altogether after it is Q. and T that of kinetic energy. The wasted energy is also stored. translational.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. may be not external. allow for the absence of definiteness. indicating a supply of energy from certain sources. U being the density of potential energy. In place of the term fq. according to the nature of the dynamical connections. that it is convenient to under condivide the denoting energy above denoted by potential T into different parts. viz. but internal or intrinsic. in which the impressed force is we may have other terms possessing a similar meaning. U. with the factor q. Thus we energy. but only with the particular formsrelating to the dynamical question that may be sideration. These sources. fixed in space. The important thing to be grasped is. 77 Specialised form of expression of the Continuity of Energy. but not recoverably. as for instance when there is a thermo-electric or voltaic- source of energy within the unit volume considered. we can still. it is to be observed first that we are not usually concerned with a resultant flux of energy from all causes. which may be due to a working stress. fq + conv[A + q(U + T)] = Q + U + T. Secondly. partly convective. suitably the equation of activity of the dynamical .

there is no difficulty with the interpretation. 70. and can always be obtained when the equations of motion are known and also the nature of the stored and wasted energies. CH. " motion are the in the electromagnetic case.h ) and (4) by (E . the "equations of two circuital laws. II. We obtain e J + h G = Q + U + T + divW. Electromagnetic Application. is T the magnetic energy. It is here made distinct. We conclude. .e) and (E e multiply (1) by (H h h) and (2) by add the results . we .e ) and add the results. The flux of energy takes place in the direction perpendicular to the plane containing the electric and magnetic forces (of the field). Medium at Eest. by the waste Q. or else multiply (3) by (H . . Trans.. that expresses the flux of energy in the electromagnetic field when it is stationary.78 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. . because the energy is distinctly localised in Maxwell's theory. 1884. 2]. by ). exhibited the rate of supply of On the right side it is accounted U and T. When the medium is stationary. and independently It was this discovery that brought But it the principle of continuity of energy into prominence. and by increase of the stored energy The rest is exhibited as the divergence of the flux given by (13). therefore. Poynting [Phil. (12) where W is is a new vector given W = V(E-e )(H-h and . On the left side of (12) energy from for partly intrinsic sources. (14) if E = e + E1 . (13) U the electric energy. arranged to show the flux of energy. and Q the waste per unit volume. Pt. The Poynting Flux. H=h + Hr . should be remembered that there is nothing peculiarly electromagnetic about a flux of energy. The equation of activity thus obtained has then to be dynamically interpreted in accord- may - - ance with the principle of continuity of energy. This remarkable formula was first discovered and interpreted W W by Prof. say W = VE H 1 1. and to form the equation of activity. . Now.. by myself a little later.

Details are best studied application. up energy on the But when the not steady. . When the current is and ceases at is steady. towards the wire indicates its convergence If the wire had no resistance. which current is wasted in the Joule-heating. no convergence of energy upon it. In the case of a simple progressive plane wave disturbance. The flux of subjected and how the energy is energy usually takes place nearly parallel to the wire (because the electric its slight slope force is nearly perpendicular to its boundary) . its axis. If we work out the its force outside the wire.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. there would be* thereupon. are the densities . and U. the flux of energy is therefore it comes from the boundary It delivers of the wire. the flux of energy would in be quite parallel concfete to it. passed out from the source into the dielectric medium. the magnetic and electric energy will be distributions of electric also varying. according to the conditions to is and magnetic which it environment. For inside a wire the electric force is axial. that we can obtain a the meaning of considered as a flux of energy. sideration of variable states.. and the magnetic force circular radial. W = v(U + T) = VEH. way. 79 The formula is not a working formula. But it is a valuable and instructive formula W for all that. it. The flux of energy therefore (since e = 0.. T (15) where v is the velocity of the wave. the and it is only by the conand the propagation of electrofull magnetic waves. in which a distribution of E and (mutually perpendicular) in W understanding of H the plane of the wave is propagated unchanged through a medium at constant speed. well's Its discovery furnished the first proof that Max- theory implied that the insulating medium outside a conducting wire supporting an electric current was the medium through which energy is transferred from its source at a dis- tance. provided that we admit the postulated storage of energy. it is a self-evident result that the energy of the disturbance travels with is. we can similarly fully trace It is supplied to the wire from its source. h = 0).. for to we must first know the distribution of the electric and know magnetic forces. and then converges upon the wire where it is wasted.. about the axis . in general.

with the result that (on this understanding) is the flux of energy. (4).80 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. interpretation ciple of continuity of I have the prinenergy is not so easy as in the former recently given a full discussion of these in accordance with .0o . (which are here equal) of the electric and magnetic energies. Thomson's rotational ether. we may get the form )(H J + h G = E J + HG + div V(E . field. whilst is the potential energy of the rotation. [See Appendix at the end of this chapter. velocity. but the fundamental principles concerned are the same throughout. 71. In this example. are perfectly plain and reasonable. and T the H VEH U kinetic translational energy. and hard to follow . which is approximately that of radiant energy from the sun. the flux of energy is necessarily also very complex. + e) J + (h + h)G = E J + HG + div V(B . CIL II. the equation of activity. the Equation of Activity and derivation of the Flux of Energy. Or from equations e (3). we shall obtain.e of -h ). the idea of a flux of energy.h). from equations (1). (1 7) and from these a variety other forms may be derived. (2). (16) 66. reduced to this simple of the wire. and the velocity of the medium.e)(H . and the conclusion that its proper measure is the density of the energy multiplied by the wave many Now. with a correction for the resistance and other cases can be represented by two or more In a very complex oppositely travelling plane disturbances.ho . But it is very difficult to extend this analogy to include electromagnetic phenomena more com- prehensively.] Full interpretation of Extension to a Moving Medium. The dynamical case. cases of the propagation of waves along wires can be case. when interpreted in a certain manner. (e 66. so that 2E shall represent a torque. arises from the internal structure of somewhat analogous to the activity of a stress. W But the only dynamical analogy that is satisfactory in this respect is that furnished by Sir W. electromagnetic The flux of It energy is the ether. Passing now to the case of a moving medium.

It is given by . ... is the velocity of the medium. : ) . Finally.. i.. independent of the motion) when it is moving. a convective flux of other energy.... therefore. is which of the . We. sum X.. equations in another place. X. say.. the activity of the intrinsic forces is + VJo. (19) where q. 1(U + T The complete vectors.. (23) so that J is the true electric current.. there is a flux of energy representing the activity. there is. .e. .OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. )..e... Next. (18) from the fact that disturbances are propagated through a medium endowed with a uniform translational motion in the same manner as when it is at rest. (24) a special form of equation (11). be a flux of this kind (i. (21) flux of energy is the of these four X = W + q(U + T) + A + q(U + T (22) W and A being given by (18) and OoJo (20). with the convergence energy flux in it replaced by its divergence (the negative of convergence) on the other side of the equation. whatever other flux of energy there still may then be. I conclude that the Poynting flux W preserves the form W = V(E-e )(H-h )5 .. A.. have the equation of activity brought to the standard form e J +h 0- = (Q + U + T) + (Q + U + T ) + div. of the results : 81 The following gives an outline Since there there will is still a flux of energy when the medium is stationary. (20) Fourthly. .... of the electromagnetic stress. there is the convective flux of energy . Thirdly. Otherwise we could only know that it must reduce to this form when at rest. in association with this stress. .

with the making entirely eliminated. making the energy flux in it become V(B .[W + A + q (U + T)] where the energy flux represented includes the Poynting flux. including those in X.ho) . although within the same unit volume these properties may be changing by the exit of one and entry of another part of the medium of different permit" understanding by medium" whatever tivity and inductivity is supporting the fluxes. irrespective of . these permittivity and inductivity with it unchanged. inductivity. which is always found associated with matter. side of (24). the stress flux. by use of the secondary equation of translational activity may be T where ). (25) F When is the translational force due to the stress. or ether alone and it is also to be understood that the three velocities q. u. . subject to the two laws of circuitation and the distribution of energy accordand H in the field. II. which is then the matter and ether.q (U + T). moving together. (27) . and w are identical. and the convective flux of electric and magnetic energy. CH. * is this done. with a view Equation (26) is. [* I regret to figure. ficance of the equation of activity. . and conductivity (electric. carries its intrinsic properties of That is. do not alter for the same portion of the medium. as it moves.e )(H . In other respects equation (26) is unrestricted as regards either homogeneity and isotropy in respect to permittivity. VEh. equation (24) takes the form (26) e J + h G = Q + U + T + Fq + div. He have misrepresented Dr. therefore. moves with the medium. It should be understood that it is an identity. on the right zero suffix. and my objection does not apply. to the simplification of exprescause us to altogether lose sight of the dynamical signision. . and fictitious magnetic). or that electrification. whether matter and ether together.VeH -.] . But the unknown terms. properties its position. But these changes. so that this term may be eliminated from (26). and of the stress function. We may observe that in the expression (20) for A occurs the term . But it should be also ing to that of mentioned that in the establishment of (26) it has been assumed that the medium. Burton's notion of a moving strain it does entirely by conservative elastic forces.82 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. . the best form.

But in ordinary large scale electromagnetic phenomena. and conclusions therefrom are conflicting. Strictly speaking.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. As usual in such cases. were of the irrotational type considered in works on Elasticity. It is unnecessary to consider here these vary in other ways. 68.of expression for stress. therefore. or only partially carries it forward. But for a ' stress of the most general type the corresponding formula is (28) UNIVERSITY . The assumption. viz. artificially. or moves through the ether. Hertz. Optical evidence is difficult of interpretation. Derivation of the of Energy. that the permittivity and inductivity of the same part of the medium remain the same as it moves is not strictly correct. when matter is strained its elastic and other constants must be somewhat altered by the distortion of the matter. the distortion in the magnetic field produced by the stirring would be next to nothing. like water in a basin. A in equation (20). are questions which cannot be answered at present. the magnitude of the expressions for the corrections is out of all proportion to their importance. 83 Whether.. This matter has been But the constants may also lately considered by Prof. Stress. 72. we may derive the the energy due to the If the stress expression for the electromagnetic stress itself. in relation to the primary formula to which they are added. we could do this by means of the formula (10). small corrections. pagates disturbances through itself is so enormous that if the ether round a magnet were stirred up. and what is the nature of the motion produced in the ether by moving matter. with any not excessive velocity. when matter moves. it carries the immediately surrounding ether with it. it can "make very little difference whether the ether moves or For the speed with which it prostands stock-still in space. Electromagnetic Stress from the Flux Division into an Electric and a Magnetic From the form of the flux. The dependence of the permittivity and inductivity on the strain can be allowed for in the reckoning of the stress function.

is CH.JED) = N. This gives . II. a pressure of amount U. from which H and B . . (29) D. BP the stress. It will also be found that the tensor of the electric stress vector is always U. amount U DN = 0. thus QN = D. since its direction is the same).84 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. cally the the stress vector conjugate to Pq .JED. that In the second case.HN-N(U + T). and a magnetic stress (31) H. and PN = E.JED = NU.JHB To find their (32) in turns parallel to and perpenmeaning. In the first case.BN-N(U + T).DN + H.BN-N. when so that the stress is N is perpendicular to E. . (30) the stress vector for any plane denned by N.DN-N. we have -NU. BE the electric force. Similarly the magnetic stress consists of a tension T parallel to the magnetic force. to E. these are identi- same when the stress is irrotational. This is . the interpretation is simple enough.EN + B. we obtain PN by merely exchanging E and . observed that the electromagnetic stress (30) divides into an electric stress E. where Q. a unit vector normal to the plane. . take dicular to the force E (or to D. combined with an equal lateral pressure. Putting^ these on one side. This applies to any direction is. But it is only in eolotropic bodies that we have to distinguish between the directions of a force and of the corresponding flux. combined with an equal lateral pressure. The following construction (Fig. the stress (31) becomes N N(ED . indicating a tension parallel to the electric force of per unit area. and that of the magnetic stress vector : is always T. and considering only ordiIt will be nary isotropy. 5) is also useful Let ABC be the plane on which the electric stress is required. so that the electric stress consists of a perpendicular tension U parallel to the electric force. BN the unit normal.

That into an equal pressure. 73. unaer certain suppositions. . tween E. and P are in the same N and E equals plane. except as To show the transition from a tension to aniequal pressure. the mechanical forces experienced by electrically charged bodies. Of course E remains fixed. imagine the plane ABC to be turned round. 85 Then N. been formularised.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. P and N in the same line. P N N being >N FIG. 5. that between E and operation which turns regards the tensor of P. Then P N also coincides with them. Or. and with it the normal N. intrinsic or induced. stress We may now consider the practical meaning of the whose relation to the electric and magnetic forces has. by conductors It supporting currents. Start with coincidence of and E. being the electric force at the point B. we have is. or a shearing stress. so do E and P equally. now is makes with at right angles to N. the same to E also turns E to P. Go back to the foundation of electromagnetic theory. and by magnets. Further increase in the angle brings BP to the other side of BC j and when N E E at right angles to N. but oppositely directed. the tension has become converted Uncertainty regarding the General Application of the Electromagnetic Stress. viz. and represents a normal pull on the surface ABC. so that when E makes an angle of 45 with the normal pull is turned into a tangential pull. As and E separate.. N and the angle beP.

surpristhat of conductivity. we see that the localisation of the stored energies. combined with the two circuital laws. is extremely bald. we shall find that the problem is essenAll sorts of stress functions may tially an indeterminate one. must. To begin with. shows that the theory of electromagnetism. even if we take the stated influence of matter on the ether as sufficient for the purposes of a rough sketch. and then by deductive work. by observation of these forces in the first place. It is. be something far more (instead of less) complicated than theory as now developed ? The latter is. II. and now. If we investigate the subject statically. when matter is present.86 is ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. indeed. CH. the way of expressing the action of ordinary matter merely by altering the values of the two ether constants. even as at present existent. and. except in certain relatively simple cases. ing what a variety of phenomena is explained by so crude a method. and only worthy of Whatever do they expect ? Do they not superficial minds. endeavour to arrive at a stress which shall explain those forces. that the carving out Of space into tubes of force follows. followed by the induction of the laws they obey. merely a rough sketch of a most elaborate subject. as it were. The objection retical is sometimes made against some modern theo- developments that they are complicated. know that experimental knowledge. and by a fresh property. the natural concomitant of the stored energy. although agreeing with it in others. the objection is valueless. leads definitely to a stress which which is is existing in the electromagnetic field. the theory of the stress should. to be comprehensive. should be so will be apparent on examining the manner in Why this which the stress has been obtained from the circuital laws. Such is not the case. according to the square of the electric and magnetic force respectively. that we could only expect it to be true if in certain cases. the theoretical foundations were also rigidly true in all respects. and the immediate cause of the mechanical forces observed But the theory of the stress goes so far beyond experimental knowledge in some respects. however. . further. only small parts of which can be seen at one time. be received with much caution. Considered as an argument. starting from certain mechanical forces regarded as known. In the next place.

as we have are considered. be 87 are precisely equivalent in their effects in the as regards translating or rotating solid bodies is. force be quite steady.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. divide space into conducting and non-conducting . down to = *E. even towards parts of Maxwell's theory which have received experimental demonstration. Besides that. this datum appears to be one by which is essential to the dynamical method . there must the voltage in any circuit must be zero. sometimes be received The with considerable confidence. and is such that the flux of energy can be traced.. and a really speculative may is that concerning the motion of the ether as controlled the motion of matter. The first condition We is no electric force in conductors. -curlE = 0.. that (1) . then a determinate stress comes out. wherein what goes on in the unit volume whilst its electric and magnetic states are changing. and the matter concerned is itself in motion. If our system of connections is dynamically complete and consistent. (2) be no conduction current anywhere. To remove this indetergross. be carefully distinguished scepticism. These limitations bring the circuital laws 74. therefore. simplest case is that of ordinary electrostatics. a correct one. nevertheless. and the electric and the medium be at rest. however the require to be modified by alterations in the data. results The method is. found. therefore. (1) implies that there may. be one of scientific This should. Now. the distribution of energy (electric and magnetic) in bodies is in some cases open to question . and is.'. that made up which minateness a dynamical method must be adopted. from an obstinate prejudice founded upon ignorance. Let there be no magnetic force at all. such as datum is displayed by some anti-Maxwellians. placed in an electric or magnetic field. if not absolute certainty.. The Electrostatic Stress in Air. however. and there be no impressed forces. at any rate. The stress theory can. the only alternative is the statical and quite indeterminate method. Our attitude towards the general application of the special form of the stress theory obtained should.

The lines of force. ways mutual actions of the conductors. Whether the conductors are also dielectrics or not is quite immaterial. of a peculiar nature. or parts thereof. C1I. that measures the density of the electrification. that is DN. as developed In the other way. What is real is a stress in the electric field. the tensor of D. It is also may to be noted that one non-conducting region which is entirely separated from another by conducting matter may be taken by ductors in itself. and give the proper internal electrification. Thus D. so that as there is no in the other or conducting side. terminate perpendicularly on the conducting matter. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and that the makes up the real forcive. other p' with a force repels any of considering the 2 pp'l 47rcr . there may be interior electrification N of the non-conductor. But in general it is the normal component of D. and our electric field is entirely confined to the latter. be replaced by matter of different permittivity. and have no real existence.88 regions. II. without replacing the air by matter of different permittivity. The old way is analogous to Newton's way of expressing the fact of We may say that any element of electrification p gravitation. measures the surface density of electrification. there must be no tangential The second condition E E on the non-conducting side. appropriate to the philosophy of Faraday. first the rest ignored. (2) implies tangential continuity of E at the boundary of the non-conductor. its volume density being measured by the The arrangement of the divergence of the displacement. where is the unit normal vector. when the positive direction of D is from the conductor to the insulator. is uniquely determinate. . Besides this. these forces acting at a distance are mathematical abstractions only. and the charges on the conductors. We and all Now. we see that there are two entirely different if resultant of all such forces r be the distance between the two charges. so that the circuital voltage shall be zero throughout the non-conductor. by Maxwell. The displacement also terminates normally on the conducting surface in the usual case of isotropy. electric force. therefore. have thus the ordinary case of a number of charged conair. with the difference that the air.

which was formerly almost entirely ^plates. if the plates be in. The parallel plates of a When they are very large condenser are pulled together. the force on either is J ED x area.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. whereas. depends entirely upon the slight departure from uniformity of distribution of the electrification over their surfaces. no doubt. Here E is the transverse voltage divided by the distance between the plates. They do not the stress vector is appreciably move. or by using smaller the displacement. Thus a charged soap-bubble is subjected to an external radial tension. and will terminate in appreci- But by able amount upon the sides remote from one another. and the further the plates are separated the more When displacement goes to their backs. the distance is great enough it tends to be simply the -attraction Thus the attraction between two point charges. the attraction varies inversely as the square the distance between them. combined with an equal lateral pressure.sulated and their charges constant. compared with their distance apart.-source -of . Since the electric force move air. or strains them. because of electrical forces acting at a distance across the but because they are subjected to moving force on the spot by the stress terminating upon any distance sufficiently small compared with the size of the plates. when by constraints they cannot if normal to the conducting surfaces. entirely a normal pull of amount U per unit area. the attraction is the same . 89 being a tension of amount U parallel to E. which varies closely as the inverse square of the distance. and the motions or tendencies to move of the conductors are perfectly accounted for by this pull. and the less is the attraction. and it is the action of this stress that causes the the electrified way they conductors to move. 'between them. according to are supported. whereby . if the plates be connected to a constant of voltage. sufficiently separating the plates. between two distant oppositely charged conducting spheres. and so. does a charged metal sphere to some small extent. = J E x charge. and therefore expands. will spread out. so that. By the pull on the remote sides thus produced the attraction will be lessened.

it be observed that the tension alone comes into play. compared with a rope in a state of tension. so there DN is the surface equivalent of is at first sight a discrepancy between the ex- pressions for the force per unit volume (3). The law is true. But these attacks appear to have been founded upon misapprehension. pulling whatever But the lateral pressure is its ends may be attached to. per unit area. lately mentioned. the inverse is square law itself.90 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. per unit volume.. so that the only places where translational force arises from the stress is where there is electrification. here . Evidently the mean E is JE. (4). div D. owing to the tubes of displacement terminating Thus each tube may be perpendicularly on the conductors. ing surface force is The correspond(4) F = iE. previous expression. and always The moving Force on 75.per unit area . as in the case of the inverse square law between point charges. . is not.. especially in its magnetic aspect. merely the ultimate limit of this operation.. is CH. (3) This is the force on volume electrification.. of amount o. Some attacks have been will be. greater on the side Also.DN = NU Now. but JEo-. so that the on unit area of the skin obtained by summation of the forces on the volume electrification in the skin. which is exactly true for point charges. bodily and superficial. made on the law of inverse squares. the normal pull on either made a little next the other than on the remote side.. above electrostatic application of the stress. E falling off from E outside to J comes in may inside the total force skin.. will needed to keep the medium itself in equilibrium. II. The mechanical force is F = EdivD = E/> . In the Electrification. and per unit area How the coefficient and surface electrification. on bodily be seen by taking the limiting form of the Let there be a thin skin of electrification... and is the result of the differential action of the stress round about the electrification. at least explicitly. Harmonisation.. This is merely a mathematical harmonisation^ Eo-.

be suspected that. The harmonisation is simply evident when the layer is of uniform density. if x is measured perpendicularly to the skin's surfaces. it any depth at all. if so. for the electric force will then fall off in inIt might. and an insensible amount might Thus in a molecular theory penetrate through many layers. its Depth of Electrified Layer on a Conductor. and. however. 76. cursory examination will show that it is all right . assumed any other law of distribution. it is evident that the displacement in the ether outside the conductor would not terminate entirely upon those molecules which happen to be most superficially situated. the electrification density will be c (dE/dx) and the translational force will be cE (dE/dx) per unit volume. If a powerful mental microscope be applied to magnify the molecules and produce evident heterogeneity. so that the result is the single normal pull of the tension on the non-conducting side. the surface of a conductor would become indefinite . But the case is entirely different in a theory which delibeof structure. the depth of the layer of electrification has meaning. In the present case the second term U 2 is zero (within the conductor). and kept to it in proBut a ceeding to the limit by making the skin infinitely thin. Integrate through the skin. the result would not come out quite the same if we haps. arid the answer thereto lies in the application thereof. on two sides. and assumes continuity . and the result is where the suffixes refer to the value just outside the skin. how much ? The question is not so superficial as it looks. pertensity uniformly. and could be roughly estimated. 91 From sent the point of view of the stress the difficulty does not pre- itself. and unless the molecules were found to be very closely packed. for if E is the electric force within the layer. In this connection the old question of the depth of the Has layer of electrification on a conducting surface crops up. rately ignores molecules.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. but that a portion of the dis- placement would go deeper and in sensible amount reach molecules beneath the first set.

92 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and has no depth. In either case it is ultimately surface But. that ether But of this nothing is known. in its own way . it is desirable to ignore all the discontinuity. if we positively and on negatively electrified matter. when the meaning of volume density of electrification is considered. so now see that we we volume density is a kind of surface density. is it the electric stress appears to act differently on But. It is desirable to be consistent in working out a theory. heterogeneous mixture A simply to make nonsense. is E/>. and still keep in harmony with Maxwell's theory. The electrification on it is therefore surface For it to be otherwise is electrification. we enter illimitbegin why . to talk about what is not understood. Nor. The same question occurs in another form in the estimation of -bodily electrification. we wish to give depth to surface electrification. obtained of the translational forces on the multitudinous electrified particles. Each view is true. more importantly. really mean that E/> is the average. itself however improbable. therefore. but as in the mathematical theory continuity of structure is tacitly assumed. and assume a continuous and practically equivalent distribution of bodily electrification. and it is as electripossible. When. and not a and the surface of a conductor is an . we say that the where E is translational force per unit volume the electric force and p the volume density of electrification. then a conductor all through. for the sake of distinctness of ideas . differential effect. as every one of these forces being itself a before seen. conductor is CH. unbroken surface. as previously saw surface density to be a kind of volume density. if. it is probable that the electrification is carried upon the foreign particles suspended in the air. merely for the electrification.. we have a simultaneous evanescence of one dimension in the distribution of electrification. understood may become electrified. the resultant of the unequal pulls on different parts of a particle exerted by the electric stress. then. found in association with matter. and quite discontinuous. viz. and it may be partly upon the air molecules themselves. we by summation. we must change our way of regarding a conductor. and bring in heterogeneity. sake of facility of working. Thus. When air is electrified. II. As ether has some fication is of the properties of matter.

plete tangle. It is a necessity to limit the field of inquiry. but swallow. so as but if there be to come wholly or partly under the same case no superficial or internal conduction. 93 Men who are engaged in expounding practical problems sometimes make the boast that they take and discuss There is a sound of things as they are. who take things as they they only think so. us introduce a foreign body into a stationary electric The field will be disturbed by its introduction. 77. Spherical Non-conductor.. But if it be a non-conductor. Electric Field disturbed by Foreign Body. usually greater. able regions. or contains any other source of displacement. but always as they might be. as it presents itself in reality.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. But the principle and practice of limitation altogether omitted. all the camels in Arabia. either charged or uncharged. let field. questions of physics never are upon as they are. specious plausibility here. there is always substituted a far simpler one. thus reproducing the previous case result is 74 to 76). in politics. in substance or superficially. it be a good conductor. whether conducting or non-conducting. or only so little that a long time must elapse for it to become fully effective. would lead at once to a comFor the problem. state. do not do it . as a scarecrow. To further exemplify the significance of the electric stress. If superficially conducting. reached very quickly. quite unawares. what we : is simply to replace the dielectric air in a certain region by another dielectric of different permittivity. will be such that the displacement will terminate normally upon its surface. the change depending upon the nature of the foreign body. containing certain features of the real one emphasised. as it were. They may strain out a few gnats successfully. and will to a settle down new state . not as they might be. we may indeed have an ultimate electrification of the surface. the ( somewhat different. do . or as they seem to be. which is grateful and comforting . but. and substitution is the same all over. and othera theorised The juveniles. where a fictitious British Constitution does brave duty. the final. Effect of a. for to take things as they are. for instance. as a matter of plain fact. and upon whether it has a If charge itself. and in other useful ways. are.

It is certainly a little surprising that the ultimate displacement with infinite permittivity should be only three times the original (and it is not much less when the permittivity is only 10 times that of the air) . II. must also be allowed for. may vary between zero and three times the original displacement. When the transverse voltage of the condenser is maintained constant by connection with a suitable source. where quite simple case (excepting that of infinite plane that of a sphere of uniform permittivity brought into sheets) a previously uniform field. whilst. however. The intrinsic electrification of the body itself. as the permittivity of the sphere varies from zero up to is infinity. because the displacement never enters the sphere at field The original uniform all. if any. and the displacement will pass freely through it. the zero displacement case) is when the permittivity is zero (a quite ideal obvious enough. the insertion . if its permittivity can be less than that of the air). There is. on the other hand. supposing the external insulated field to be due to charges upon conductors or to internal electrification in the air (kept at rest for the purposes of the argument). Then. caused by the displacement becoming denser within the foreign body than before (or less dense. no change will occur in their amounts . be conveniently that between the parallel plates of a may very large air condenser. The ultimate displacement in the is The only sphere It then parallel to the original displacement in the air. which increases or reduces the or reduce its charge permittance of the condenser. but should it have none previously. when the plates are insulated. but goes round it. the insertion of the foreign body. will increase under the action of the constant source. This is expressed by the surface condition D : and D 2 are the displacements in the air and foreign body respectively at their interface. besides concentrating the displacement within the body.94 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. CH. a double action taking place. it will remain unelectrified when introduced into the field. but there will be merely an alteration in the distribution of the electrification on the conductors. or the reverse. and out again in a solenoidal manner. and N 1? N 2 are the unit normals from the interface to the two media. however. With constant charges.

OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. or stress in the air. entirely translational force. of the foreign 95 body will reduce the transverse voltage when its Increase permittivity exceeds that of the air . in tending to translate and rotate it. Or. in the case of an ordinary irrotational stress. is concerned. constitutes mechanical force tending to move the body. there is internal force. torque on the body. any stress in and torque due to any stress in any any region forms a is superficial force. equivalently. and brating system. Dynamical 78. Now. but extends all through it. however. boundary. the force and torque equivalent to the surface forcive are the negatives of those due to the internal If it were otherwise. . as the resultant force and electric stress. and consider only the external. cause indefinite increase in the translational and rotational energy to arise out of the internal mutual forces only of a body. since the electric force does not terminate on the boun- dary of the foreign body. so does the So far. Next. reckoned per unit volume. when solid. over the surface and throughout the volume of the solid respectively. reckoned per unit area. is zero. The stress-variation. of permittivity also increases the stored energy when the transverse voltage constant. This will be. we may ignore the internal stress altogether. when esti- Imagine any distribution abruptly on of stress to exist in a region its mated in a certain way. due to the abrupt cessation of the stress. This is a particular case of a somewhat important and wide prope^ in abstract dynamics. force Any Stress Self-equilibrating. which we may state separately thus. imagine a piece of a stressed solid to be removed from its place without altering the stress. the differential action would forcive. But there are two kinds. acting on the inner side of the surface of the body. First. This surface traction is repre- sented simply by the stress vector itself. region is Or. and conversely. in other words. but reduces it when the charges are Now. due to :he continuous variation of the stress in the body. to terminate Or. the resultant effect of these two forcives. Principle. is constant. . The resultant zero.

Returning to the electric field. we see that whatever be the nature of the reaction of the foreign body on the original state of the field. and the force in the skin. CH. if the stress be rotational) conveniently divisible into the internal force all Otherwise it is the same. in this respect. or in the relative internal motions.96 If ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the resultant mechanical action on the body as a whole outside it. or assumed absence of absorption. which is statically indeterminate. Solid Body independent of the Internal Stress. The solid is then under the influence of continuous bodily force only (and torque also. In case there be any difficulty in conceiving the traction exerted on the surface of a body by the stress within itself. and that we need not concern ourselves with the Nor are we limited. by any assumed proportionality of electric force to displacement in the body. There need be no connection between The latter may be anyso far as the resultant force and torque on the The difference will arise in the strains piece are concerned. another is substituted*- Resultant Action on Electric Application of the Principle. we may replace the sudden cessation of the stress by a gradual cessation through a thin skin. Real Surface Traction is the Stress Difference. or other irregularities and complications. Nor do we gain any information regarding . constituting an external surface traction. when for one stress produced. the resultant force and torque due to the surface tractions will cancel those due to the internal forces and torques. we its place again. there will be an in(per unit volume) as well as a translational Still. over. II. Since its see that whatever the forcive on the piece its may be boundary it must be statically equivalent to the action of the external stress only. as modified by the presence of is the body. thing we like. ternal torque force. however. fully represented by the stress in the air just in its actual state. the external and the internal stress. the stress be of the rotational type. Now own upon put the solid piece back into stress balances itself. we need not have any internal state of stress. That is. 79. theory to explicitly account for the change made in the electric field by the body.

P: being the . suffix x relates to to the other cos medium. viz. U2 sin and 2 202 . viz.. that is and cos^1 = D 2 cos #2.: U cos 26 U sin 28 if normal. (otherwise the surface would be electrified and covered with a magnetic current sheet). In general. or the tensor of the stress vector. so that there is no resultant tangential traction.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. and the principle The air stress vector P will usually have both a normal and a tangential component at the surface of a body. Or E xDj sin l cos 6l and E2D 2 sin 2 6%. (It may be remem- bered that P when positive means a pull. an idea appropriate to molecular theories. the real surface force is represented by the vector P1 -P2 the stress difference at the boundary. external and P2 may. the internal stress vector. when there is no stress at all on the other side of the boundary. tangential components are split into Now. and tangential continuity of the force E.) Each of these may be a normal and a tangential component. to. But here we have normal continuity of the flux D. and H . tangential. 97 the internal stress from merely a knowledge of the external stress. / These relations make the tangential tractions equal and opposite. if we please. 1 E1 sin^=E2 sm02 D ) . and U the density of the electric energy. In only one case. be the angle between the normal N to the surface (drawn from the body to the air) and the electric force E. however. the Uj where the sin 20j and the air. that is. which two stresses be imagined to be united continuously by a gradually changing intermediate stress existing in a thin skin. will this external surface traction represent the real forcive in detail (as well as in the lump). minateness of the stress before referred applies generally. in the case of a conductor in static equilibrium. although that involves the reaction of the body on the This is the meaning of the statical indeterelectric field.

meaning the vector.. furnishes a second way of calculating the resultant force and torque on the body. although either a pull or a push.. Since U = J C E 2 the second form in (8) will be understood.slope of U as dependent upon the variation of c only. which is (6) the same as (being subject to (5).. 75. viz. it may be inferred 80. Translational Force due to Variation of Permittivity. being the difference of the normal components of P l and P 2 . when the permittivity varies continuously there is a bodily translational force due to the stress variation which is in the that direction of the fact. Thus. .. . E varies as This formula (6) or (7) being the real surface traction when D in the body. Harmonisation with Surface Traction. through a thin skin. and it is noteworthy that the surface traction is.3 sin 2) . and is in the direction of this change. .. electrizable Noting that the mechanical force on the elastically body is situated where the change of permittivity occurs. if x be .98 the actual traction ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and summing up the translational forces in the skin by the formula (8). most rapid change of permittivity. but continuously from the value Cj on one side to c 2 on the other side of the surface of discontinuity. entirely normal. II. and the stress is of the same type as in air.) ^D x cos Ol ... is CH. (7) J comes in for a similar reason to before. .P! The coefficient (E x cos x 1 -E 2 cos 2) sin ^ (D sin 6^-0.. (8) where yc means the vector rate of fastest increase of c roundabout the point considered. entirely normal. and the previous surface force may be harmonised by letting c vary not abruptly. the force represented by -JEV=-VJJ. in what the stress vector indicates when c varies continuously. as in the case of an electrified it may now be conductor in equilibrium. or. This is. This bodily force. when its permittivity is uniform . .

Now n and E f are constant ultimately. but is merely But if the body be not in an initially uniform field.r id*. If. (11) between the verified. complex calculations are usually needed to determine the effect.JE 2 (dc/dx) skin. or the stress. limits. it has no tendency to move. in the field increases most rapidly. and the tangential component of E. that surrounding a charged sphere. the electric force varying in intensity as H 2 ... 2 E t are proportional to the [JcE cos2<9] .. giving . or. 99 measured normal to the volume is . Since a sphere of uniform permittivity placed in a uniform causes the external lines of electric force to be symmetrically field distorted fore strained. since En and cosine and the sine of 6 respectively. when its permit- The total electric tivity exceeds that of the gaseous medium. it be only a small piece. the translational force per unit in the direction of the normal . for example. (6).OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. and aft.between the limits . dc -j- 2-kf dx E ft and n are the normal components of E and D. which is the same as which was to be Movement of Insulators in Electric Field.. Effect on the Stored Energy. so we can intewhere D E 4 D grate (9) with respect to x immediately. or ~ dx . however. or be not spherical. field be kept up These properties are rendered particularly evident by taking the extreme cases of infinite and zero permittivity of a small body placed in a widely varying field. the tendency is for it to move in the direction in which the energy. independent of the direction of the electric force. for the reason before given. energy will be diminished by permitting the motion when the charges are constant . but increased should the by constant sources of voltage. 81..

Force due to Abrupt or Gradual Change of of Elastically Magnetised Bodies. In intermediate cases the tension dominant when the c of the body exceeds. we shall find that there must first be no magnetic conduction current . Here we see the part played by the lateral pressure in the case of conductors in It has no influence on them immediately. Magnetic Stress. On the other hand. be thought wholly unnecessary. or. with it. and therefore no disturbance of the field. and is greater on the side next the charged sphere. to an imperfect have a stationary magnetic field without impressed forces. but an increase of energy is the voltage is constant. since the total electric energy is JSV where S is the permitthe voltage. when the natural motion of the body to or from the sphere is allowed . we may observe that the analogy one. whether resulting from attraction or the charge is constant . if Q is the tance and V charge. the infinitely permittive body. II. but it is equally might important with the tension in the non-conducting dielectric itself. also. The magnetic force we then conclude to be confined entirely to the magnetically non-conducting regions. for the lines of force go round and the lateral pressure comes fully into play. Passing Movement now to the corresponding magnetic side of the is stress question. 82. Here the non-permittive body is repelled. equivalently. if allowed. there being perfect equilibrium of a piece of any shape in any field if there be equality of permittivity. CH. and the pressure is dominant when it is less than that of the air. greater on the side next the charged sphere. and equilibrium. and this being attraction. we have always a diminution is if of energy when the natural motion repulsion. it is the tension that comes fully into play. and next. and to terminate perpenThus we come to the dicularly upon their boundaries. and decreased in the former that is. concentrating the displacement. Inductivity.100 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Thus. the inverse square of the distance from its centre. 2 so. the result is an The permittance of the sphere. is increased in the latter case. that the gaussage in any circuit must be zero. JVQ. proceeding as at the beginning of 74. conception of a number of detached magnetic conductors im- .

however. it should be remembered. are.. Faraday's remarkable sagacity led him to the essence of the explanation of these and other allied phenomena. depends fundamentally upon the variation in the intensity of magnetic force near the pole . nevertheless. abrupt or gradual. as was later mathematically demonstrated by . and we create surface magnetification by regard- ing one side only. and the axial equilibrium of a paramagnetic bar. because of the absence of magnetic conductivity. therefore. analogous to (6). (13) per unit volume on tridimensional magnetification. left with the forces (14).B . measured by the divergence of the induction. and a force -iH per unit volume. with possible associated volume magnetification in the non-conducta normal traction . when it is the stress across any surface that is in question. and a force Hcr = Hdiv. which... forces (12)..OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. . . We upon according as they are paramagnetic or diamagnetic. 101 mersed in a magnetically non-conductive medium.. plain the mechanical action upon elastically magnetised media. The the absence of " magnetification. (14) per unit area. (15). .. when /z 2 W .g.. ing medium. are absent. e. 1 Also.. (12) per unit area on the conductors. depending These exvariation of inductivity.. These are analo- gous to the forces on surface and volume inductivity surface traction of amount. (15) varies continuously. and equatorial equilibrium of a diamagnetic bar. the motions of bodies to or from a magnet pole.. we shall have a normal T 1 cos2^ -T2 cos2^. of density cr.." But (12) may be sometimes used. when the /* varies. . in connection therewith. and. electrification. (13). The magnetic stress will exert .. when p changes value abruptly at the interface of two media . these conductors having magnetic charges on them measured by the amount of induction leaving or terminating upon them..

producing repulsion. so that the stress vector in the air at the boundary of a conductor represents the moving force on it per unit area. and considering the stress within ih& conductor liarity. therefore. and therefore no surface forcive of the kind stated. W. Proceeding further. The lateral pressure of the stress here comes prominently into view. also. translating the results from There is no tangential the electric to the magnetic stress. therefore. Thus. first mathematically investigated by Ampere. But the magnetic move elastically current. because their magnetic forces are additive on the sides remote from one another. rendering the lateral them greater there than on the sides in proximity. and. stress has other work to do than tomagnetised matter under the circumstances stated. II. (5).102 Sir ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. to T. it produces the very important moving force on conductors supporting electric- 82a. This may be easily seen from 79. Thomson. In (5). are. there is no superficial discontinuity in the stress. in Questions relating to diamagnetic polarity comparison. with finite volume density of electric current. so that the transformed expressions (6) or (7) U In the case of a real conductor. we find this pecu- In the case of unmagnetisable conductors (typified practically by copper). The Lateral Pressure becomes prominent. when we ignore the stress in the interior of the con- ductors. the moving force is distributed . the lateral pressure of the stress is greater there. Wholly independent of magnetisation. and note that vanish. mere trifling. Force on Electric Current Conductors. and as transformed. CH. But when the currents are dissimilar the magnetic force ispressure on greater on the sides in proximity. are true when the force and flux are exchanged. (7) turn E to H. and there is no dis- continuity in the normal component of the stress because (since there is no difference of inductivity) the normal magnetic force and the tangential induction are also continuous. but no Stress Discontinuity in general. according to the same law. two parallel conducting wires supporting similar currents attract one another. discontinuity in the stress because the normal induction and tangential magnetic force are continuous . and D to B. (6).

. upon the surface magnetififind a distribution of fictitious electric current cation. and that This to obtain the real forcive we must go inside the magnet. Or we may combine these methods Evi- dently. current. can only be done hypothetically. such methods are purely artificial. but. or to whatever other source of induction may be. by F = VOB. It is probable. This is. Special Estimation of Energy of a Magnet and the Moving Force it leads to. that in grinding away at the ether they also stir it about a good deal. though not fast enough to produce sensible disturbances due to etherial dis- placement. 103 throughout its substance . (16) where This is what Maxwell termed is the current density. of fictitious electromagnetic force on this in various ways. it is there tion interior magnetisation. which shall be externally equivalent to the Now. . motors. and then represent the forcive by means 82a. Or.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. and with precarious validity. so far as the resultant effect on a magnet is concerned. namely. merely regard it as being pushed or pulled by the stress in the surrounding air. and things of that sort. which shall be externally equivalent to the interior sources. Force on Intrinsically Magnetised Matter. . Difficulty. Maxwell's Solution probably wrong.." and it is what is so extensively made use of by engineers in their dynamos. as before. There is next the force on intrinsically magnetised matter to be considered in connection with the magnetic stress. as modified by the magnet itself. cates that the translational force per unit and the variation of the stress indivolume is expressed . another traction.. "the electromagnetic force. I think. 83. perhaps.. however. yet it is impossible that the real forcive can be represented merely by the surface traction P N . possible to find a distribution of magnetification over the surface. we need not trouble about its internal state. the most difficult part of magnetic science. we may upon the boundary of the magnet. such stress being calculable from the distribution of magnetic force immediately outside it. Although. Then we may substitute for the surface trac- PN . .

especially in comparing Maxwell's displacement with magnetic polarisation. It will be sufficient to point out the particular way which harmonises with Maxwell's scheme in general. or. or on the variation of magnetism estimated in different ways. same way as the displacement due to intrinsic electric force in a non-conducting medium of similarly distributed permittivity . can be estimated. is that given by Maxwell in his chapter on the stresses (Vol. Proportionality of force and flux is assumed. and that it lumps together intrinsic and induced magnetisation. or on free tial differences magnetism. Nobody would read it. in a manner. as before.). The want Given a question. the induction due to it in a medium of any inductivity (varying continuously or abruptly. CH. in accordance accompanying change in the with the continuity of energy. One way of exhibiting the mechanical action on a magnet. in the form in which I display it. Many have been misled in this respect.104 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. with a special estimation of magnetic energy. acting upon magnetisation. This I believe to be quite erroneous for many reasons. to make a fourfold analogy. which shall not be explicitly referred to. Intrinsic magnetisation possesses the peculiarity that it is. although this is disguised in the ordinary mode of representaCalling this intrinsic magnetic force h (any distribution). definite relation of this proportionality is quite a separate between force and flux. inasmuch as it needs to be exhibited in them through the medium of an impressed force. II. or as the conduction current due to the same in a medium of similar conductivity . There are many other ways of exhibiting the resultant force and torque as made up of elementary forces. as the magnetic conduction current due to h in a (fictitious) medium of similar magnetic conductivity. which have essen- and are physically distinct. or on magnetised matter generally. the stress vector. the principal being that it does not harmonise with his scheme generally. It is unnecessary to enter into detail regarding them. II. if required) is found in the tion. I may here point out that a clear recognition of the correct analogies between the electric and magnetic sides of electro- magnetism is essential to permanently useful work. This I have recently shown how to do in another place. outside the dynamical system formulated in the more electromagnetic equations. The true .

This is the meaning of JHB being the stored energy per unit volume. . . so is no the energy. is the greatest =h But it is now not at all available. J/*. (19). considered as energy more or less immediately The connection of the two available without destruction of h . of which one half is wasted.H or J/ir^B the total work done by h to be h B per unit volume. But it may not be immediately To take an extreme case. This reckoning does not harmonise with the continuity of energy. There are enough sources of error without bringing in gratuitous ones. . Investigations based upon the false foundation mentioned can lead to nothing but confusion. . reckonings is shown by lio). H which is zero in the just mentioned case. although it has significance.. presuming we have induction set up by h how is the energy to be reckoned ? I reckon its amount per unit volume to be JHB generally. since be destroyed...OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. as above reckoned.. On the other hand.. Now. . . in the usual isotropic case. Now. when H and B are parallel.. = curl h n .h ) 2. . (20). 2T is set free and If is be suddenly des- dissipated. J 2|h B = 2i uh 2-2^(H-li )2. field. available. unless possible. whether outside or within the magnet . 2 2 This makes or. .. if we have a complete magnetised intrinsically that there . h (17) if the 2 troyed. according to the reckoning (17) of the stored energy. . mainly by the heat of currents induced within the magnet itself and surrounding conductors. and the That is. . rest remains as stored magnetic energy. (21). . . Maxwell would appear to h have considered the energy of a magnet to be 2 J/*(H . . . and the consequent flux of energy. if h is suddenly established . (18) j or. the energy indicates space-summation... 105 analogue of D is B. magnetic external circuit. the stress vector derived therefrom indicates that the moving force per unit volume is F = Vj B where j .

set up. JcE 2 per unit volume. is CH. changes. in the case of a uniformly longitudinally mag- round the magnet. besides that dependent upon the intrinsic magnetisation. magnetic force does not depend upon primarily. quite apart from complications due to conduction. seems very probable that there is a true electrisation. be non-existent. reckoned. It may be far more important than the For internal current. It should also not be forgotten that if the inductivity there is also the moving force (15) or (14) to be Force on Intrinsically Electrized Matter. where R . under the same circumstances as regards inductivity. and perhaps in pyroelectric crystals.. Jo is netised bar. corresponding thereto. and with a similar reckoning of the stored energy. The electric "absorption has occurred. however. is now also affected by the presence of conducting matter). intrinsic tion. its distribution Substituting this current system for the intrinsic magnetise " the equation (20) indicates that the moving force is " electromagnetic force 82. but solely upon that of its curl. The interpretation that the vector J represents the distri- which would. the equivalent current forms a cylindrical sheet In general. repre. or be associated with. surface distribution of current. It may be remarked that the induction due to an bution of (fictitious) electric current. The accompanying senting the abrupt cessation of h must not be forgotten. and have a current layer in the skin of the magnet. the surface representative of VNh where . according to (16). the same distribution of induction B as the intrinsic magnet is. (22) N is a unit normal drawn from the boundary into the magnet. indeed. II. surface actions. 84. represented in " analogue of intrinsic magnetisation is ina solid dielectric in which by means of intrinsic electric force e0> producing displacement according to the permittivity of the medium (which displacement. instance. viz. and electrolysis. When formulated in a similar manner to inIt trinsic magnetisation. which may. trinsic electrisation.106 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. or we may let it cease gradually.

in square brackets. Passing to unrestricted variable states. . the different moving forces we have Now bring together On gone over. magnetoelectric force on the fictitious magnetic current g which is equivalent to the intrinsic force e And. (25).. (24). the electric and magnetic stress vectors indicate that the moving forces arising therefrom are obtainable from those exhibited in (25). .r]-iH2vM + VOB + Vj where the third term on the right of (25). of the Forces. express the complete translational forces due to the electric and magnetic stresses (31). . (27) (28) . (26). (26).. . upon its curl. with motion of the VDK flux-supporting media also. That is. . . we may expect viz. .curl e . and in stationary states. (32). they stand for conduction current only. Above. Extension to include varying States in a Moving Medium.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. . where g = . includes e 107 . magnetification and The other component forces can all separately exist. are zero Ho. and do find. . the electric side we have . similarly to before. " true " currents. to find. as explained in 66. . They must be altered to G and J the changing . Summary 85.. by simply the meaning of the electric current and the magnetic current symbols in the third terms on the right. . and one of them is fictitious. and the first on the right of (26). 72. B. a moving force (23) analogous to (20). we may remark that the flux due to e depends solely .being force on the magnetic analogue of VOB. and on the magnetic side F m = [H. Thus .

from default of real data. on the same principles. the idea of moving force on the ether when its electromagnetic state is changing will be found to be quite natural. reactions on the ether. for some disturbance. (electric) F = VDB + VDB (29) dt v* dt (30). and whether they make any sensible difference in phenomena calculated on the supposition that the ether is fixed. so. We do know something about how disturbances are propagated through the ether.108 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. which obtains when the electric and magnetic forces are steady. The division of the resultant translational force into a number of distinct forces is sometimes useless and artificial. because the elastic solid theory of light. are indicated. There is then the electromagnetic force in virtue of the displacement current and the magnetoelectric force in virtue of the magnetic current . Further. in a material dielectric. allow for bodily motion of the ether itself. and we can. of a dielectric medium free from electrifica- tion and intrinsic forces. But -here we are have no knowledge of the density of the ether. nor of its mechanical properties in bulk. except upon speculative data. where Here we neglect possible small terms depending on the motion of the medium. But if we take an all round view of the electromagnetic connections and their consequences. it is The equilibrium not desirable to overlook the division. for inof old associations stance. wherein displacement of the ether represents the Perhaps this is. CH. is is less the people. stopped. that is. moving force brought into play under the action of varying displacement and W But it induction does not present any improbability. what motions actually result. are unable to say. and studied separately. tending to move it. easy to grasp the idea when it is the ether itself that dielectric concerned. II. is the flux of energy. But as many of them can be isolated. if not imperatively necessary. We . is upset when they vary. That there should be.

F. or else is transmitting waves. which are also entirely normal. . Thus when a long straight wire supports a steady current. But in the . That is.) requires not merely the coexistence of electric and magnetic force. 86. there is no moving force. further. W EL and H x are unit x is always a principal stress axis. &c. by men who are old enough to know U and T are unequal. vectors. its vector time-variation. but also that one or other of them.M.. -y . or both. oetter. Here Thus. The two lateral pressures combine together to produce a stress on the plane W Pw^-W^U + T). From the last formula we see that to have moving force in a non-conductor (free from electrification. The first and perpenone has a pressure (U pressure (T acting along it.. when the energy flux is steady. expresses is a natural one to choose as one of the direction of 2 W axes of reference of the stress. but when it varies.. being perpendicular to both E and H. where (31) l W x is a unit vector parallel to W. and the third (parallel to H) a pressure (U-T). the second (parallel to E) a U).) In general. (Take N=W in the general formula (30) If. 72 for P N ). while E : and Hj_ become the other pair of principal axes when they are perpendicular.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. as in various cases of electromagnetic waves. + T) and do. divided by The the moving force. stresses E and II are perpendicular to one another. the principal axes of the stress at a it point near the wire are respectively parallel to dicular to it. Principal Axes. Union of Electric and Magnetic to produce Electromagnetic Stress. radially and circularly. the on the planes perpendicular to them are PE1 =E 1 (U-T) J (32) (33) P^H^T-U). (This legitimate use of pressure must not be confounded with the utterly vicious misuse of pressure to indicate E. or voltage. which indicate the axes of symmetry of the electric and magnetic stresses. should be varying with the time.

Dependence of the Fluxes due to an Impressed Forcive upon its Curl only. say U and T . or at any rate so far as to include Its equivalent is Q the total rate every place where e exists. 87. .still somewhat speculative stage. natural to ask what part do the stresses play in the propagation of disturbances ? The stresses and accompanying in a is It strains in an elastic body are materially concerned in the transmission of motion through them. where the 2 indicates summation through all space. and lead to a connected property of consider. tion case of a solitary wave or train of waves with negligible distorand T are equal. and in out connecting the flux displacement and intrinsic electric That is to say. that with axis parallel to W. demonstrated in a manner which shall make its truth evident in a wider sense. CH. energies. able importance in the theory of electromagnetic waves. and its space-variation conThis matter is . . 84 a similar property was pointed but upon its curl. of waste of energy.and the and and the electromagnetic stress time-variations of . It is viz. a pressure 2U or 2T.110 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and there is but one principal stress. . H and possible bodily motions seem to be accompaniments rather than the main theme. II. This remarkable and. Its activity is e rent. General Demonstration of this Property. In 83 it was remarked that the flux induction due to an intrinsic magnetic forcive depends not upon itself directly. U this pressure (or its mean value) that is referred to as the pressure exerted by solar radiation. . . admits of being sight. at first and g not upon e and h which is general. and the rate of increase of the total stored Thus.stitutes the moving force before mentioned. T (34). and it might be thought that it would be the same here. strange property. where J is the electric curand the total activity is 2e J.. the fluxes depend upon the vectors J force. But it does not appear to be so from the electromagnetic equations and their dynamical consequences that is to say. Let there be any impressed forcive e in a stationary medium. J per unit volume. we represent the propagation of disturbances by particular relations between the space.

This negativity of Q being imposConsible.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. viz. Qo should become negative. That is. This proposition may be rendered evident particular method of effecting the space sumCartesian instead of the method of cubic sub- division of space. but to all intermediate stages.. . if the flux corresponding . provided it be restricted to be of the irrotational type. summation is zero if e has no curl. any irrotational e . that flux. Now state of things is absence of E and and T are all zero. when any distribution of impressed force is made to vary in time and in space. and suppose that the initial everywhere. divide space into the elementary circuital tubes belonging to the flux. Nothing happens. or any method employing co-ordinates. to the force is restricted to be circuital. these quantities Q U and T must all remain zero. in which the Fixing the attention upon any one of these flux is a constant quantity. and see what will happen. the right But Q U and T when side must also be and continue zero. curl But there is no impressed voltage. and. more strikingly. we see that . since this is true for every one of the elementary circuits. The left side of (34) being zero. positivity of energy . Now if (U + T ) becomes positive. Further. (Here it is J. so that Q U H . and inclusion of them all includes all space. forcive can produce no fluxes at all. upon cir- the factor with which the impressed force is cuitality and similarly G with h ). Next start return to equation (34). we see at once that the part of the summation belonging to it is the product of the impressed voltage in the circuit and the flux therein. so that the voltage (or the gaussage) in every circuit Notice further the dependence of the property of is nil. not zero are essentially positive.) circuits. and flux of energy. because e has no hence the circuit contributes nothing to the summation. Ill Now. It should be observed that this proposition applies not merely to the steady distribution appropriate to the given forcive. the independence . the summation 2e J necessarily vanishes under the circumstance stated of e being irrotational. the value is irrotational of the is. in fact. an irrotational sequently E and H must remain zero. involving both electric and magnetic force. in order to keep the right number of (34) at zero. and the associated (thus J with e . or an irrotational forcive does no work upon a circuital by employing a mation.

Returning to (34) again. Here it is desirable to take the same. This system of force is irrotational everywhere except at the bounding circuit. II. which call S. Identity of the Disturbances due to Impressed Forcives having the same Curl. spread the curl of e . A 88. let all force V act normally. as regards and the varying states of gone through. Example: Single Circuital Source of Disturbance. an explicit example for illustration of the meaning and effect. V being the same an impressed over the surface. of such details as are not concerned in equation (34). due to V over the surface S are in every respect the same as those due to (the same normal impressed force). Describe a linear circuit in space. V over any other surface bounded by the same circuit. FIG. Over this surface. or of the forces being linear functions of the fluxes.112 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. such as the distribution of conductivity. where there is a circuital distribution of g of strength V. whilst . CH. if their curl is . &c. 6.. and is inoperative. and a surface bounded by the circuit (Fig 6). The comprehensiveness of this property may be illustrated by supposing that one surface is wholly in a non-conductor. H For the difference of the two forcives is an irrotational forcive. we see that any two impressed forcives produce the same results in every particular. permittivity. our present proposition asserts that the disturbances Now.

But there must be some difference made by thus shifting the source of energy. the only change itself. they cuit ABA is the source of the disturbances. and will do so in the same that is.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. that.of it and through another conductor insulated from the first. 113 the other passes through a conductor . whilst the arrows serve to show the direction of action of the impressed force. in spite of the independence of E and butions (subject to the limitation mentioned). is in the sheet of impressed force Production of Steady State due to Impressed Forcive by crossing of Electromagnetic Waves. and S t the second. intrinsic forces to obtain the forces effec- tive in transferring energy. in fact. W = V(E-e )(H-h where we deduct the ). and the stresses. will be electrification of the the same. H of their distriIn our example. Now the same final force. for example. Obviously the nature of the flux of energy This being is changed. will be the same when expressed in terms of E and H. may be readily suspected from the preceding. let S be the first surface (in section). Example of a CirDistinction between Source of Energy cular Source. or that one surface is wholly within a conductor. If disturbances were propagated emanate from this line. in the diagram. however. when ultimately i . as far as the production of electromagnetic disturbances goes. j as the real sources. whilst the other passes out. The points A. passing through a conductor represented by the shaded region. and of Disturbance. the electromagnetic disturbances generated manner. B are where the common boundary of the two surfaces cuts the paper. the case In the example just taken the ciranalysed. That is. also reaching into the these forcives (each by itself) will produce state of displacement in the dielectric and all conductor. we see that every change made in the distribution of the intrinsic sources affects the flux of energy. we may ignore e and h altogether. It vectors g and This is. S2 is another surface of impressed conductor. The distribution of energy. Thus. and regard the circuital 89.

7. finite speed of propagation. let the source be FIG. any time t later. depending upon the values of c and /x. the electromagnetic disturbance will be confined wholly within a ring-shaped region having the circular source for core and of radius vt round creases to But when the distance vt inJAB overlapping commences. but. Thus. as we shall see later. II. Now.114 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. circular in a plane perpendicular to the paper (Fig. A these waves produces the steady state of displacement without magnetic force tha* e. 7). and A. then. although by its attenuating and distorting effects it may profoundly alter the nature of the resultant phenomena. such that vt is less than the distance JAB. the speed of propagation is always finite. the circle ABA is the first line of magnetic force. because the steady state appropriate to the instantaneous state of the impressed force would exist infinitely rapidly there (if the conductor were away) .in the medium . we have merely to cause the impressed force to vary or fluctuate sufficiently rapidly to obtain distinct evidence of the emanation of waves With. B the points where it cuts the paper. within the shaded region the magnetic . might be some difficulty in recognising the property. CII. a from the real sources of disturbance. When the source is suddenly At started. and conduction does not alter this property. the union of or round B. and a little later there in the shaded part of the figure) a region occupied by two is (as coincident waves crossing one another.

after overlapping has begun it is still working in Aac and B6c?. of energy and sources of disturbance. The allowed to work by the electromagnetic wave reaching To emphasize the matter." of galvanic electrolysis generally still and in remains obscure. we may shift the " seat of the E. land. The source of energy only works when there is electric current at the spot.M. of course the shaded itself indefinitely. The sheet at Newfoundland and the surface sheet will together Valencia. having done of impressed force has its work. in the last figure. as before explained. impossible to go into detail at present. it is any other shape.F. region occupied by This supposes that there is no infinity. by extending the sheet over the whole surface of the conductor between the two places. the being merely to point out the difference between sources object It is. line. take another case. in produce the same effects as the original sheet at Or. of disturbance is of thickness 2vt. going round it. way. of course. then. the is What property batteries practical interpretation of this extraordinary in connection with the "seat of E. different from the former. so that the vortex line is a line on its surface. but inoperative elsewhere. but is inoperative in cd.F. we may have the sheet entirely outside the provided only that it is bounded by the original vortex touch with the conductor. for instance. If this be at Valencia. working Again. when the ring turbance). as soon as initial although outside it is still a electromagnetic disturbances going out to it is conductor in the struck by the electromagnetic wave. region enlarges As time goes on. the force is in Aa and in B6." to Newfoundprovided we preserve continuity of connexion with the vortex line. it becomes and continues to be a secondary source of disturbance. circuit. and the final steady state. and this comes to it from the vortex lines (the circuital sources of dis- Thus.M. i2 . Similarly when the sheet impressed force only works when it. if the impressed force be in a circular disc whose trace is the straight line AB.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. force vanishes. Let the impressed force in any telegraph circuit be confined to a single plane section across the conductor. now arises from the superimposition of the primary waves and the secondary. at time vt. Should there be one. 115 and the displacement is that which belongs to the final steady state.

One of the earliest which a student of the mathematics of electricity was introduced in pre-Maxwellian days was Coulomb's law of the relation between the density of the electric layer on a conductor and the intensity of electric force just outside it. which is usually so obtrusively prominent. in the well-known . This constant 4?r was formerly supposed to be an essential part by me results to and magnetic theories. since this was proved by mathematics. has been conspicuous by its absence.. inasmuch as the constant 47r. (2) is the permeability and K another physical property. at the beginning of magnetism. //. The Eruption of 90. viz. II.. say of all electric (1) and. and. was Gauss's celebrated theorem proving mathematically that the total flux of magnetic force outward through a closed surface equalled precisely 4?r times the total' amount of magnetism enclosed within the surface . for all that might appear to the contrary. All impressed voltages and gaussages are more or less difficult to understand. indeed. again. Then.. CH.116 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the susceptibility to magnetisation of a substance. it wasnot. It "47r"s. 4?r it seemed that thebetween two physical quantities. even recognised to be conventional. But there need be no doubt as to the general truth of the property if the circuitality of the current can be trusted. The dark where . for instance. this remarkable result flowed out necessarily from the properties of the potential function and its derivatives. and is not at was an essential ratio the present day in some quarters. may have been observed that the equations employed in the preceding differ from those in use in all mathematical treatises on the subject in a certain respect (amongst others). It was funny very funny. . How ever the 4?r managed to find its way in wasthe puzzle in these and similar results .^ Never electricity and the force it exerted on other electricity.. and of the three direction cosine* of the normal to an element of the surface. a hint was given that this 4:r was purely conventional ..

thus. But. in forming a systematic representation of the same. It was as hard to understand as the monarch found it to explain the presence of the apple in the dumpling how did the goodwife manage to get it in ? Nor was the matter rendered plainer by Maxwell's electric Maxwell thought his theory of displacement explained the meaning of the 47r (in the corresponding electric theorem). The Origin and Spread of the Eruption... it will be fitting. p. referring to the magnetic law of inverse squares. The our ancestors. as As the present chapter has been mainly devoted the fact. it were thought of at all ? Our beyond that is to say. indeed. after learning that certain physical quantities bear to one another invariable relations.. instead. 117 mystery was carefully covered up by the mathematics. A. is physics. 91.. and were not to blame. Thus.. out absurdly. (3) where a is a constant what was more natural than to make the expression of the law as simple as possible by giving the constant a the value unity. This valuable principle was recognised to a small extent by our ancestors. Appendix C. and perceive that this system would work their noses. as if it were a matter of great treatise. nised. we should. endeavour to avoid the introduction of arbitrary and unnecessary constants. as above . in bringing it to a conclusion. of irrationally chosen units.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. ancestors could not see into the future. . 59 of Spon's Reprint). say that two charges q l and q2 repelled one another with a force varying inversely as the square of the distance between them. it was emphasised by Maxwell and Jenkin in their little treatise on units in one of the Reports of the B. we have the following : . origin of the 4?r absurdity lay in the wisdom of The inverse square law being recogliterally. if. Committee on Electrical Standards (1863. . They were sufficiently wise in their generation. to explain here the relation these rational units bear to the ordinary irrational units. to a general outline of electromagnetic theory expressed in formulae involving rational units.

Though by no means evident until it is pointed out. which fault should be attended to and set right ab initio. CII. When it is considered what Maxwell had then done in the way of framing a broad theory of electromagnetism." is That 47r. separating the poles. or with any one else's.. The strength tional to the force it Hence the force / m and m v must be proportional to the product mm r The force f is also found to be inversely proportional to the square of the distance. but in his Treatise. It depends upon something much more fundamental. his theory of electric displacement accounts for the So it seems to do.. we have called the induction through the surface is simply the electric displacement multiplied by 47r. By mere force of habit one might. and the total displace- ment outward the surface. D.. especially in framing a permanent system of practical which was what Maxwell and his colleagues were about ? It would seem that the proclamation fell upon deaf ears. it is marvellous that he should have written in that way. indeed. unless an absurd and useless coefficient be introduced. it is entirely a question of the proper choice of units. units. ... for not only were the units irrationally constructed.118 " ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and to depend on no other quantity . II. that the total completely induction through a closed surface is equal to the total quantity For what of electricity within the surface multiplied by 4?r.. necessarily equal to the total charge within is. exerted between two poles of the strengths f=mmJD*. 155. (4) Observe the words which I have italicised. we have. " theory of electric displacement. which followed some years later. we find the following After an account of his statement (p.. and is independent of all theories of electricity. not consider there to be anything anomalous about the 4?r in Coulomb's and Gauss's theorems. we are told that the theory accounts for the theorem of Art. hence. 77. of the pole is necessarily defined as proporis capable of exerting on any other pole.. . . 2 But did not Maxwell's electrostatic energy pffi/Sir per unit K^ /8?r and his magnetic energy volume loudly proclaim that there was something radically wrong in the system to lead to such a mode of expression. and yet the 4?r has no essential connection with his theory. second edition).

the question is simply the natural measure of the strength of a source ? Suppose. by analogy. which may therefore should naturally measure its by the current in the pipe. no particular connexion with former case it is merely to exemplify that the matter has In the electric displacement. passing out through any surface enclosing the If the flux of heat be isotropically regular.. and the natural measure itself. . for instance. or has its source. there must be sources within the region enclosed. be regarded as a source. an incompressible where it is. in the latter. or in a magnetic field. flux of force through a closed surface is not zero. we strength in a similar manner. and holds good in the abstract theory of the space-variation of vector magnitudes.. or by the total outflow. of the total strength of the sources is the total flux of force I have put this in terms of electric force rather than of electric displacement. 119 The Cure of the Disease by Proper Measure of the Strength of Sources. It is a part of the fitness of things. If. or in the field of any vector magnitude. we have everywhere mathematically analogous cases. for instance.. We find. how should we measure the 92. looked into carefully. giving . Similarly. viz.. Now in an electric field. then. that electro- static force is distributed like liquid.. (5) if C be source of strength source.. intensity of the source will vary inversely as the square of the distance from a point source. we have a source of heat in a medium which does not absorb heat. velocity in except at certain places. apart from all physical application. and the principle concerned in a rational reckoning of the strength of a source is the same in either case.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. If we knock out the 4?r we shall obviously have an unnatural measure of the strength of the we send water along a pipe and let it flow from end. is a source of "electric force" that considered. it would be of displacement . its density source. we observe that the generated. : When is this What ? Plainly by the amount of heat emitted per second. its if the heat flux (per unit area) at distance r from the S.

when the point be easily seen by substituting for a linear an equivalent magnetic shell. . Considering merely the formulae belonging to point sources with uniform divergence. We so. The universal property here is is that the circulation of the magnetic force circuit is . and a point source m of induction. Also. (8) expresses the intensity of magnetic force at distance r from a long solitary straight current of strength C. the language of lines of force. when (7) if q/c and m/p are the measures of the sources of electric and magnetic force respectively. CH. we may say that a unit pole sends out one line of force. making This the circuitation of magnetic force the proper reckoning. (6) r. if we have a point source q of displacement.. Thus. for instance. . as usual. . however. the 4r will disappear from the reckoning of electric current. of force (which.. or of tubes sometimes works out rather nonsensically). as here.120 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. out of the irrational reckoning may therefore expect sources are measured rationally. or one tube. In the magnetic case m may represent the strength of a pole. II. temporarily. H = C/27rr . we have is of the strength of point sources. as may electric current D = ?/47rr2 . when rationally estimated. proportional to the current through the and the natural pleasure of the strength of the current itself. 93. on the understanding that (since really circuital) we ignore the flux coming to the a filamentary magnet). Next there is the proper measure of the strength of circuital fluxes to be considered. Using. in rational units. Obnoxious Effects of the Eruption. the circuitation this division Now that by 4?r arises without. and so bringing in point sources distributed over its two faces. and consider only the pole (as along the induction is diverging induction. we see that the effect of .. dividing by 4n-. and . electric current. .. B = m/47rr2 .. to express the displacement and induction at distance the fluxes emanate isotropically .

and afterwards break out all over the body of electromagnetic theory. For instance. it works out quite differently. in many of the irrational formulae the irrationality appears to disappear. if x = (47r)*. For if K is a rational physical quantity. Or ^. it is jp and ^/4w which are analogues. useful formulae of actual practice. unnatural suppression of the 4:r in the formulae of central where it has a right to be. there to multiply itself. and of the practice of theory. For the as a matter of fact. and in everything connected with them. This difficulty in the way of understanding the inner mean- not entering into the magnetic formulae in the same way as into the electric. in J^/o. but it is not. ED = the same in both irrational and rational units. The 4?r is also particularly inconvenient in descriptive matter relating to tubes of force or flux. presents some difficulty even to a student of ability. or if /A is right. force. interpretation of equation (2) above. let alone the desire to see things in their Furthermore. for instance. ^. the many it is forced out are. it should be remarked that the right places. then K must be wrong. we have. and the It looks as if J) were the flux two irrationalities cancel. on the contrary. and ^L must be incongruous. in J($5 * n an(i i n some This is because both the factors are irrational. drives it into the blood. irrationality of the formulae is a great impediment in the way The theory. ing of theory is still further increased by the 4n- others.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. belonging to ($. In reality. Again. The few formulae where 4?r should be are principally scholastic formulae and little used. ^j therefore. we might overlook the fundamental irrationBut. 121 changing from irrational to rational units is to introduce 4?r. cannot be . If this were all. then u. whilst c is . practical theorist would knock them out merely from the formulae where A trouble they give. Thus. unless he be given beforehand a hint or two to assist him. in J31C/. ality and use irrational units for practical convenience. or of the similar well-known equation of a clear understanding of electromagnetic $= ) + 47r|ji.

to go on perpetrating and perpetuating their errors for ever and ever.. The question now is. etc. needed. pole. The " brain-wasting " perversity of the British nation in sub- mitting year after year to be ruled by such a heterogeneous and incongruous collection of units as the yard. etc. gallon.. acre. for the yard and the gallon are legalised . are now legalised. and thus lead to the abolition of the present British system of weights and measures with its absurd and insert the thin division of the electrical units.. who would introduce the common-sense decimal system . CH. ohm and its companions right. ounce. foot. and amongst them have been prominent electricians who hoped toetc. their labours that they should have fallen into the very upon ! The perverse British pit they were professedly avoiding nation practically the British engineers have surely a right to expect that the electricians will first set their own house in order. This is a non seq. The ohm and the volt. can be now fixed with the same degree of accuracy as the irrational ones. has been repeatedly lamented by would-be reformers. pint. horse-power. explaining the origin of the 4?r absurdity and its cure. quart. so that rational ohms. by any calculator. I did not go further than to use rational units in explaining the When . volts. mile.. end of the wedge by means of the decimal suband their connection with the metre and gramme. inch. knot. it is too late to alter them. etc. however. and if it is not too late to alter them. it cannot be too late to put the newfangled mend.. pound. 94.. II. what is to be done? Are we modern pigmies. No new physical laboratory The value of TT It is never too late to determinations will be to- has been calculated hundreds of places of decimals . is But what a satire it useless arbitrary connecting constants. it is to b& legal hoped that it will not be made a penal offence not to use the and imperial units. who by looking over the shoulders of the giants can see somewhat further than they did. as I am informed. A Plea for the Removal of the Eruption by the Radical Cure. and even legalising them ? If they are to be enforced. so that.122 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. I first brought up this matter in The Electrician ia 1882-3.

you must first insert the constant 4?r in certain static system become widely recognized and thoroughly assimilated. then. At present you have to first settle whether to use the electro- or the electromagnetic units. appropriate powers of 10. and the general ignorance and want of interest in the subject. compare some of the more imporLet us denote quantities in . Even the perversity of the British engineer has its limits. etc. however. the real advantages of the rational Even at present the poor practician is complaining that he cannot even pass from magnetomotive force to am" " 4?r coefficient getting in the pere-turns without a stupid way. so long as the irrational units last. and then introduce the If rational formula) are used. So there far as is theoretical difficulty. That the practical electrical units should be reformed as a preliminary to the general reform of the British units That this general reform is requires no argument to maintain. and similar matters. if work. along with the method of converting into volts. scalar and vector. Irrational Electric Poles. At any rate. then returning to irrational units in order to preserve harmony with the formulae in Maxwell's treatise. therefore. Rational 95. When. in the the change is to occur. some one must set the I have. treatise on Electricity should be done in rational formulae. 123 theory of potentials. preceding. amperes.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. We may now briefly tant formulae in the two systems. The spread of electrical knowledge has been immense. wholly avoided the irrational units ab initio . and shall continue to use rational units in the remainder of this example. to say nothing of theoretical and experimental developments. their connexion with the irrational (so long as they exist) being explained separately (in a chapter at the end of the book. I therefore now think the change is perfectly practicable. no Every papers and treatises are concerned. A. concurrent with the development of electrical industries. But much has happened since then. then will come a demand for the rationalisation of the practical units. in addition. for instance). v. the present practical units. Committee's work. on account of the B.. places. coming I have not the least doubt. and I did not think a change was practicable.

. also et . P electric potential or potential difference. V. voltage... (12) _E< x -fi-A-V-7-F A 13 x the line-integral of E.... Since whilst D = cE.. C electric current density (or else the total displacement and current). D^cEJiTr. it sufficient merely to observe that the magnitude the number expressing a This quantity varies inversely as the size of the unit. . D displacement.. but keep to the concretes appearing in formulae. Let qi be the irrational charge which repels an equal irrational charge at distance r with the same force F as a rational charge q repels an equal at the same distance. q and &. or where is the time-integral of E.. clyirge 1 Then.. is (10) As regards the ratio of the units. CH. and the corresponding quantities in irrational units by the same J symbols with the suffix f . II.... V The permittivity c is the same in both systems.. unit cube condenser is c..124 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Also denote (47r) by x. If S is S-^S* .. So is the ratio c/c of the permittivity to that of ether. P. (14) . applies throughout. a- surface density.. e impressed electric force. we have A. rational units as in the preceding (except that when vector rela- tions are not in question we need not employ special type). and the irrational the permittance of any condenser is cjkir. Therefore 2 (9) = *% of . so that we need not bring in units at all. D = #Di by and (11). thus. By (10) we shall have if p is volume-density of electrification. or the specific The rational permittance of a inductive capacity (electric).

. is F 96. i We also have . magnetisation (intensity of). . (21) Rational v. i (23) Here some discrepancies come in.. . .. . ... (24) /ner\ we have ft is . (15) if Q is its charge and V its i voltage. (16) (17) (18) the first and second sets relating to electric energy. and this is also the repulsion between imu- m m tional poles m i and m i5 we have (22) where /x.. JED = JE D = JcE2 = icE 2/47r. therefore and V = RC. . t . So or the permeability. so and Bv ^. .. m = xm . lit .. is the inductivity of the medium. By Ohm's law V = RC... so that .. If the repulsion between two magnetic poles and at distance r. (19) by (11) and (13) *2 =l=-^> . Irrational Magnetic Poles. . . (25) magnetic potential or gaussage. 125 and its energy is . .. Hi *=_ = _! = _!= Tfl - ^ . = l2v B = /*H. .OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. then where If I be intrinsic and l^phjtf. (26) . as is likewise /A//A O the ratio of p. For 3. (20) where r is resistivity. the third to magnetic energy. common to the two systems. to that of the ether.

. B = /x(h + F). ^ = ^ (1+K) = ^(1+4. i i (31). curlH = C (35) . by (28) and (26). and F is the magnetic force of the .126 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. in the sense used me. . expands to (28) field.. we have I = *Ii by . we have K = x*K i . are of the same kind as induction. II. (29) B = I + fi F + /v<F. .. The curl H= f 471-0^. ^LC^L^ B = F + 47rI i 2 . I (27) with (25) for B and Bf intrinsic or induced. where If /* (30) KF is is the induced magnetisation. divD=/>. Although magnetisation.. L inductance. - - (27) The equation B = /*H. may be either The common equation. CH. from which. . the intrinsic and induced magnetisations are lumped together The quantity K for one thing. and by (25). yet the reckoning is discrepant. and it is assumed that fi = l. where h Also is intrinsic. whilst /* is only a numeric by assumption. . div "D i = p { becomes . whether intrinsic or induced. In the common equation. is thus essentially a numeric.. But P itself is given (34) by P = 2/>/47iTC definition of current density. But whilst p= i*>i. whence M *=* = J^ L M if is mutual inductance.. (32) and the characteristic equation of Poisson V2 P= _ the 4n- /) / (33) going out by the rationalisation. Compare In (27) also. becomes.0 we have. so far as the ratio x goes. becomes c.).

There is. propagation containing A. the velocity in the elastic electric we find that the curl of the impressed represented simply by impressed mechanical force of the ordinary Newtonian type. to be considered as the source of the resulting disturNow. on the assumption that the magnetic force is solid.. viz. and by some dubious reasoning concerning M* and J. The easiest of all is to assume that the magnetic force is the velocity of the medium. and so on. the electric and magnetic forces. which are so much Other changes readily follow. ITS According to Maxwell's theory of electric displacement. I have shown that when impressed electric force acts it is the curl or rotation of the electric force which is bances. disturbances in the electric displacement and magnetic induction are propagated in a non-conducting dielectric after the manner of motions in an incompressible solid. 127 have explicitly and the and return for good. I hope ordinary. APPENDIX. and can be used in very many ways. as is done by Prof. all of which are functions . I have also used this method for private purposes. The analogy has been made use of in more ways than one. considerably remote from the vectors which represent the state of the field. This is is force very convenient. magnetic induction the momentum. the electric or the magnetic force. as it becomes immediately evident when we ignore the potentials and use E or H instead. The subject somewhat obscured in Maxwell's treatise by his equations is of J. . however. no doubt about the statement with which I commenced. I leave the irrationals to the rational and simplified formulae. Lodge (Appendix to "Modern Views of Electricity"). on account of the facility with which electromagnetic problems may be made elastic-solid problems. THE ROTATIONAL ETHER IN APPLICATION TO ELECTROMAGNETISM.OUTLINE OP ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. stated the relation between But now that rational I my formulae superior.

extend our analogy to conductors.128 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Sir W. Tc will be considered have now the equations of electric and magnetic force in a dielectric with duplex conductivity. The stress consists partly of a hydrostatic pressure (which I but there is no distorting stress. Thomson. is place motion . k being the where g is later. N (unit normal) is simply VEN. This system makes electric energy kinetic. the torque to the rotation. which I do not find so easy to follow. and magnetic energy potential. shall ignore later). Let the translational and the rotational motions be both frictionally resisted. and the potential energy icE 2 the The vector-flux of energy is VEH.curl E = juH. not The kinetic energy JftH 2 repreparticulars. Now let us. alas. and let the above equations become -curl E= the translational frictionality . and We merely in some of the stress. but possesses a quasi' rigidity arising from elastic resistance to absolute rotation. This gives proportional is curl H = cE. But. the permittancy. The force is We have therefore the equation of curl E. It gives rise to a transIf E be the torque. a rotational ether. the stress on lational force and a torque. and has no true rigidity. is the inductivity where c is Now c have a parallelism in detail. II. the way of a complete and satisfactory of electromagnetic phenomena by an elasticrepresentation solid ether are insuperable. This mode of representation differs from that of Sir W. the reciprocal of the quasi-rigid ity. if H is the velocity and p the density. Thomson But the has recently brought out a new ether . It is incompressible. Recognising this. the compliancy. the activity electric energy. the vector product any plane of the torque and the normal vector. and its taken by a rotating stress. sents the magnetic energy. who represents magnetic force by rotation. if possible. these are the equations connecting electric and magnetic force in a non-conducting dielectric. We . difficulties in Cn. when p.

and C be the tubes . in the above manner. This is the analogue of a concentric cable. To show how this analogy works out in practice. and the dielectric insulator. Now. a parallelism in every detail. varying inversely as the distance from the axis . and let there be no slip at all between and A. will take place precisely = friction <?H 2 (translatibnal) and &E 2 k/c the propagation of disturbances as in a non-conducting dielectric. if the conductors A and C be perfect conductors. in fact. A the innermost. sistance in the dielectric not only conducting electrically but also This will not do.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. we make magnetically. The terminal torque corresponds It should be so distributed over the B a perfect to the impressed voltage. but the middle one separated by a third. Let. end of B that the applied force there is circular tangential traction. whilst the other two should have B : ductors. without change of type. suppose that there is perfect slip between B and its neighbours. so that they are pre-eminently con The three constants. B. Let their material be the rotational ether. Let also there be rotational resistance in A and C. should have practically very slight conductivity. and rotational resistance keeping the slip perfect. C the outermost. though with attenuation caused by the loss of energy. if we introduce translational still in B. very high conductivity. therefore. all closely fitted. which is most simply taken to be three co-axial tubes. still We have. may have any value iii the three tubes. ft. K . and g the magnetic conductivity (by analogy with elechut a frictionality in our present dynamical analogy). We have now the analogue of a real cable two conductors All are dielectrics. when a torque is applied to the end of B (the axis of torque to be that of the tubes). and B and C. and circular motion thus given to B. k. like the distribution of magnetic force. A. consider a telegraph circuit. the motion is (in virtue of the perfect slip) transmitted along B. c. Abolish the translational re- B altogether. Then. but practically k should be in the middle tubs a very small fraction of what it is in the others. and without affecting A and C. We have waste of energy by If g/fj> (rotational). B between them. electric 129 tric force. In the first place. so that it is pre-eminently a dielectric . at constant speed.

the density. and k the translational frictionality. This gives curl H = &E + cE. the quasi-rotational resistance in B. viz. B there is partial absorption. It is remarkable that the quasi-rotational resistance in A and should tend to counteract the distorting effect on waves of But the two rotations. C it should be observed. A Then we can have perfect annihilation of distortion slip. To make this neutralising property work exactly we must and C to the tube B. /* the compliancy. is if we which magnetic force allied .. But as regards the meaning of the above k there is a diffi- In the original rotational ether the torque varies as the culty. due to the relative smallness of Tc in the middle axial or A tube. at transfer the resistance in the tubes Also restore the same time making it translational resistance. and not of the right form. which does not obviously present itself in the mechanics of the rotational ether. the the passage of a disturbance along but no reflection. with a translational resistance to cause the Joulean waste of energy . which is (as above) H d But this therefore some special arrangement is required (to produce the 2 dissipation of energy &E ). II. the torque . are practically perpendicular.. On let c the other hand.E be the velocity and H follow up the other system. we may put g = 0. in with rotation. being and C. in the propagation of disturbances. If we superadd a real frictional resistance to rotation rotation.130 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. we get an equation of the form E is the velocity. e We thus represent a homogeneous conducting dielectric. CH. and transverse or longitudinal (now) in radial in B . being (as before) the torque. when k and g are so In proportioned as to make the two wastes of energy equal.

above are merely designed to facilitate the elastic-solid and electromagnetic comparisons without unnecessary constants.OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONNECTIONS. 131 But it is now seemingly impossible to properly satisfy the con- ditions of continuity at the interface of different media. . And The analogy will. In we avoided this difficulty by having the an Either way. further than anything known to me that has been yet proposed in the way of a stressed solid. the d/dt of our equations should receive an extended meaning. satisfactorily. for the present. For should be continuous. in imperfect state.S. the velocity -E have normal continuity of the case of the tubes velocity tangential. deduce the Maxwellian stresses and mechanical forces on charged or currented bodies. The similitude does not ex- But certainly the new ether gees somewhat far. on account of the translational motion of the medium. electric force at an interface.but we do not instance. In the general case. We cannot.] . therefore. tend so The special reckonings of torque and rotation in the [P. work out less it must be remembered that it is only an analogy in virtue of similitude of relations. then. the matter is left. for instance.

are evidently quantities in the simple algebraical sense.. any expressed by a simple number. . it is a Vector. If. for instance. density. &c. and which are fully specified by statement of the size and direction. (The question of the " of physical magnitudes is not in question. or simply vectors. that is. A certain (it may be an unstated) unit density is of density. electric current. namely as an entity. are vector magnitudes. we and shall soon find that the a straight line. but with this is conjoined another important property. treats of quantities their relations. It has. its direction. is- a Scalar. which have direction as well as size. momentum. an ordinary quantity. size. its length . when regarded fundamental entity concerned.. scalar magnitudes. Again. Ordinary algebra. But such magnitudes as displacement. cannot be treated simply as a quantity in the algebraical sense. indeed. Taken as a whole. we examine geometry. "dimensions and subject to scalar algebra. All such magnitudes as mass. acceleration^ force. if we consider the mathematics of physical questions. THE ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. velocity. having size only. energy. In contrast with this. viz. magnitudes prominently present. however. as is well known.) All magnitudes whatever which have no directional peculiarity and which are each specified by a single number are scalars. temperature. Scalars and Vectors. we find two distinct kinds of or simply scalars.CHAPTER III. 97. being implied.

and. and expressive form. and it is the object of the present chapter to give a brief account of the latter. When we work upon directly with vectors. just as there is an algebra and analysis for scalars. especially in respect to its application to electromagnetism. That this is a highly artificial process is obvious. in fact. tion of every vector into three rectangular components. either consciously or unconsciously. It was once told as a good joke upon a mathematician that the poor man went mad and mistook his symbols for realities . e v en though the notation be thoroughly symmetrical. as for There is another side to the the moon and S for the sun. mathematics is ill-adapted to the work it has to do. a reduction to scalar algebra by resolualgebra. though dealing ultimately with vectors. be endeavouring to translate the Cartesian formulae into the language of vectors.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. it becomes a work of time and great patience. to the working out of mathematical exercises upon the components. and frequently calculated to conceal rather than to furnish and often. Again. there is an avoidance of the vectors themselves by their resolution into components. 133 Now. blind mathematics. eye. in the usual treatment of physical vectors. but it is often convenient. or tends to M . The formula which was expressed by and what a difference a few letters and symbols in a single line. Characteristics of Cartesian 98. compact. geometry in the usual Cartesian form. we are led away from the physical relations that it is so desirable to bear in mind. and on their mutual relations . readable at once. we have our attention fixed them. whose inner meaning is evident at a glance to the practised Put the same formula. Similarly. however. and these are usually exhibited in a neat. so is there a vector algebra and analysis appropriate to vectors. however. It becomes. into the Cartesian form. Algebraical or analytical and Vectorial Analysis. in the Cartesian method. ! ! In this interpretation we shall. the Cartesian More exhibit useful results and relations in a ready manner. become. A very close sometimes swells out and covers a whole page of the complex array of symbols is then required to find out study what it means . being lengthy and cumbrous. is not vectorial It is. which are manipulated as scalars.

for several years past. nor should I have. and that what is needed is not "awfully difficult. so far as the vector analysis I required was concerned. and no one who has ever learnt it (not too late in life. owing to the geometrically progressive lated. rathei than mathematical." There was a time. with avoidance of useless though equally true mathematical exercises. Abstrusity of Quaternions and Comparative Simplicity gained by ignoring them. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. It will readily be concluded. when I. involving vector algebra something "awfully of meta- an abstruse nature. if so. Tait. beyond a certain point. for example. and I should not be writing this." supposed. is as is generally difficult. however. persisted in using vector algebra in electromagnetic theory a prophet in the wilderness. then the more closely we can identify the symbols with their physical representatives the more usefully can we work. CH. in vectorial analysis . although recognising the appropriateness of vector analysis in rally). But supposing. so that our formulae may become alive. this is possible. Tait's Quaternions. the quaternion was not only not required. but is very difficult in Cartesian analysis. however) will ever care to go back from the vitality of vectors to the bulky inanimateness of the Cartesian system. comparatively easy. indeed. 99. electromagnetic theory (and in mathematical physics genedid think it was harder to understand and to work But that was before I had than the Cartesian analysis. as it were. thrown off the quaternionic old-man-of-the-sea who fastened himself on my shoulders when reading the only accessible treatise on the subjects-Prof. Well. but was . there would not be the slightest chance for vector algebra and analysis to ever become generally useful . of The mere sight of the arrangement symbols should call up an immediate picture of the physics symbolised. such as Prof. IIL If our object be ultimately physical. howling that I believe that the vector analysis is going to become generally used in scientific work.134 story. Now complexity of the expressions to be interpreted and manipuVectorial algebra is the natural language of vectors. only to be thoroughly understood by consummately profound metaphysicophysical considerations mathematicians. But I came later to see that. then. and indeed.

not a ghost of a quaternion in any of my papers (except in The vector analysis I use may be one. vector analysis. prejudiced his readers against the whole thing. undoubtedly. The former are out of the question for initiatory But the latter is excessively difficult. for a special purpose). and with a simplified notation harmonising with CarIn this form. and with a conFor the reader of Maxwell's veniently workable notation. however. with a method of establishment of principles adapted to ordinary minds. Cartesian analysis nions. described either as a convenient and systematic abbreviation of or else. amount of familiarity will make Quaternions an easy subject. probably. and to In this way occasionally express his results in vectorial form. his readers became familiarised with the idea of a vector. in impeded by the absence of sufficiently elementary works on the subject. treatise who desired to learn to work vectors in analysis had my opinion. as Quaternions without the quater. Initially. and also with the appearance of certain formula) when exhibited in the quaternionic notation. 135 a. I am inclined to think that the omission of this information has not tended to impede the diffusion of a knowledge of For. and this would have violently But the diffusion of vector analysis has. positive evil of no inconsiderable magnitude . for reasons I shall shortly mention. " " an not the same thing as scribed as elementary treatise " a treatise on the elements. did not go any further than to freely make use of the idea of a vector. unfamiliarity may make it difficult.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. had he given an account of the theory. tesians. in the first place. measure from the quaternionic basis. whilst pointing out the suitability of vectorial methods to the treatment of his subject. but easier to work than Cartesians. Maxwell. he would certainly have followed the Hamilton-Tait system." The difficulty arises in a great) either feo Tait's treatise. Of course you must learn how to work But no it. or else to Prof. derive any information how to work vectors. been go to Hamilton's ponderous volumes. it is not more difficult. in his great treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. . They did not. although depurposes. and that it could be con- There is veniently harmonised with ordinary Cartesian work. On the whole. and that by its avoidance the establishment of vector analysis was made quite simple and its working also simplified.

He would find certain combinations of symbols and quantities occurring He might again and again. for one thing and. tives. but is and a rotating faculty. Cfl. entirely independent of the exceedingly difficult theory of quaternions . results. Everything revolves . elements. in which vectors themselves and certain simple functions of for the multiplication vectors appeared. introduce tentatively an abbreviated notation for these comAfter a little practice he would perceive the laws according to which these combinations arose and how they Finally. Elementary Vector Analysis independent of the Quaternion. its laws were discovered by that extraordinary genius Sir W. A quaternion is neither a scalar. and its laws. however. nor a vector. considering the complexity of the Cartesian mathematics out of which he had discovered them. and would be delighted to find that the rules and general manipulation of these vectors were. but a sort of combination of both. to bring the one into . I think. " " Quaternion was. It has no physical representa- a highly abstract mathematical concept. quaternionically ab initio. inspection and comparison of the Cartesian formula). to make the one vector become as long stretching faculty first. The ancients unlike Prof. he would come to a very compact system operated.136 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Hamilton. binations. there would be no metaphysics or abstruse reasoning required to establish the Vector analysis is. when the latter is treated . in its rules of manipulation of his vectors. of an almost incredible But there would be no sign of a quaternion in his simplicity. for another. as the other Now down in Quaternions the quaternion is the master. defined by an American school" an ancient This was. and lays the law to the vector and scalar." girl to be a complete mistake." It is the " " It has a operator which turns one vector into another. parallelism with the other. Suppose a sufficiently competent mathematician desired to find out from the Cartesian mathematics what vector He could do so by careful algebra was like. Tait knew The quaternion and not. III. 100. that is. religious ceremony. and did not worship Quaternions. usually in systems of threes.

viz. Gibbs and Gibbs v. scalar Tait v. Tait has assumed a very theory of quaternions. but to italicise the words that if they did not see it. The laws of vector algebra themselves assisted by the imaginary ^re_established through quaternions. the quaternionic is an undesirable way of beginning the subject. I never understood it. though much improved. For instance. N/^l. in virtue of his pamphlet on Vector . conservative attitude in relation to Hamilton's grand system. p. Tait's treatise. . the laws of which are quite plain in the Cartesian mathematics. Prof. ! characteristic of the sardonic philosopher as a certain heavy " kind of " flippancy is of the Cockney. Now this relates to the very elements of the subject. he. in the light of certain preceding parts of the treatise. That the establishment is not demonstrative may be the reason of the important changes made therein in the third edition. Considering the obligations I am personally under to Prof. Again." decides not He also told them to modify it. This is as . . extending the application of the calculus. and impedes the diffusion of vectorial analysis in a way which is as vexatious and brain-wasting as it is unnecessary.". 137 round the quaternion. But I am not sure that any one has ever quite underIt is done in the second chapter of -stood this establishment. Tait. Tait has the extension of the Besides. then they had "begun the study of Quaternions too soon" (Third edition. it does seem ungrateful that I should complain. 110). in his Preface he states one cause of the little progress made in the develop- ment Quaternions to be that workers have (especially in been more intent on modifying the notation or the France) mode of presentation of the elementary principles.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. Clearly. 101. than in of "Even Prof. but had to pass on. But I have at heart the spread of analysis quite as a working knowledge of elementary vector much as Prof.. then. But it is still undemonstrative to me. "on full consideration. Tait (in spite of that lamentable second chapter). to "more than one correspondent" who had written for explanation of something they found obscure and the same thing occurred to me described in his treatise by "It is evident. Willard Gibbs must be ranked as one of the retarders of quaternionic progress. the and vector products of a pair of vectors.

and that Prof. established. W. but simplified. a calculus of vectors. is not a quaternionic treatise. do not like it. I may observe. Gibbs's pamphlet (NOT PUBLISHED. and a difficulty in readily passing from Cartesians to Vectors and venient. Mine is Tait's. clearly separates the quaternionic question from the question of a suitable notation. Prof. I may. notation. quite simple (freed from the quaternion) ." Grassmann.138 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. there is thus a want of harmony with scalar investigations. compounded of the notations of Hamilton and Grassmann. 1881-4. and argues strongly against the I am able (and quaternionic establishment of vector analysis. am happy) to express a general concurrence of opinion with him about the quaternion. and the . Tait's condemnation. an obtrusive stumbling-block. but not of quaternions. Tait's rejoinder has still to appear. but an able and in some respects original little treatise on vector analysis. He has by a long way the best of the argument. In Quaternions. conversely. positive scalar products have the minus sign prefixed . 83). remark that the modifications referred to are evidence of modifications being felt to be needed . 102. Gibbs unless Prof. the square of a unit vector is 1. Gibbs is well able to take care of himself. it all follows from the definitions of a vector and of the scalar and vector As regards the establishment of the elementary vector is that products of a pair of vectors. III. has recently (in the pages of Nature) made a powerful defence of his position. I practical vector analysis. This singular convention is quaternionically convenient.' however. a sort of hermaphrodite monster. arranged to facilitate this mutual conversion. on the other hand. Gibbs. being no doubt a little touched by Prof. Newhaven. CH. Analysis. Now I can imagine a quaternionist (unless prejudiced) admitting the simplicity of establishment and of operation. Prof. inter alia. however. and its comparative uselessness in As regards his notation. though too condensed and also too advanced for learners' use . pp. My is expressly algebra. and that Prof. But in the practical vector analysis of physics it is particularly incon- All being indeed. and made to harmonise with Cartesians. Abolition of the Minus Sign of Quaternions.

therefore. if we wish to go further. and yet adding the inquiry whether there is not. Typographical Backsliding in the Present Generation. can. whilst the other admits of appropriate extension to more I. even to an intrinsically easy matter . Also. however. Greek. A vector may obviously be denoted by a single letter . and so deduce the whole But sufficient for the day is the labour body of Quaternions. But practical experience shows that it is very . that books can do The best plan is to sit down and work is to show the way. however. for Vectors. having defined certain letters to stand for scalars and others 103. and Roman Letters unClarendon Type suitable. and maintain that the anti. thereof . after ex- quaternionic establishment of vector algebra. To this I would reply. over is and above this vector analysis. he should remember that unfamiliarity with notation and processes may give an appearance of difficulty that is entirely fictitious. so that it is necessary to thoroughly master the notation and ideas involved.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. and we shall* now be concerned with scalars and vectors only. We should. go further. conjoin the scalar and vector. all Type suitable. German. does not exclude the important theory of y and its applications. and its sufficiency for practical requirements up to a certain point . although in reality this is for vectors. . Cer- not food for the average mathematician. it is certainly unnecessary that the vectors should be distinguished from the scalars by the use of different kinds of types. and tainly. find it sufficient to take my stand upon the superior simplicity and practical utility of the generalised cases. any idea that The reader should entirely divest his mind of we are concerned with the imaginary ^^ "1 in vector analysis.. in the first place. We may. never be generally used by him. 139 convenience of the notation. fix vectors.or ex-quaternionic vectorial analysis was far superior to the quaternionic. Gibbs would. I think. and. which is^ uniquely adapted to three dimensions. how to represent the outcome of experience. and make the quaternion. ex-quaternionic system. a theory of Quaternions which overlooked. his practical requirements being more suitably satisfied by the rudimentary but it is This vector analysis divested of the mysterious quaternion. Prof.

and in fact many people think it is about time the dead languages were buried. and thus easing the stress This is all the more important and strain on the memory. irrespective of is this. the flourishing ornamental character of the letters fact. Tait usually indicates vectors is by Greek well Greek letters that a considerable familiarity with the such as is acquired by studying the literature known is of ancient Greece manipulated with required before they can be read and On the other hand. few are Greek facility. but to others it is a work of great pains to form German letters legibly. them are so much alike that a close scrutiny with a glass is needed to distinguish them. III. there can be little doubt that the prevalent shortsightedness of the German nation has (in a great measure) arisen from the character of the printed and written letters many generations. I formerly used ordinary Roman letters to mean the same as Maxwell's corresponding employed mulation. Nor is the reading of the printed letters an easy matter. Perhaps some few readers who were educated at a commercial academy where the writing of German letters was taught might be able to manage the German vectors without much difficulty . and again transmitted to posterity. cultivated in youth. by showing at a glance which letters are vectors and which are scalars. it was intensified in the adult. Some of unfortunate choice. of mediaeval monkery. Rejecting Germans and Greeks. for so It . which he who runs may in favour of the plain It is a relic read. differs from that letters. the German type is Germans themselves are giving In against legibility. in order to facilitate the reading of vectorial work. characters.140 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. This was an being by itself sufficient to prejudice readers against vectorial analysis. unless one is lynx-eyed. at any rate. and is quite unsuited to the present Besides. so thoroughly unpractical that the it up Roman day. CH. desirable that this should be done. This is a fatal objection. German letters must go. Now But it Prof. Greek letters are. because the manipulation of vectors sometimes of scalars. scholars. Maxwell employed German or Gothic type. by inheritance and accubecame racial . But. not very well adapted to a vector analysis which aims at practicality.

" revived a factor generation since. It would be a public benefit if the retrograde step were reversed. 1886). are open to objection. which make it spects. and the revived old style. or that their eyes are not right. and the good light wanted. and suitable for use in formulae along with other types. and when this is the case merely there is no particular reason why a special kind of type should be used. Roman or it is italic. it is exceptionally) in their vectorial signification. a remark may be made in general. and introduced the use of the kind of type socalled. differs from the more " " modern legible style (of this page. August. contrasting and also harmonising well with them. that it is not the mere use of special types that converts scalar For instance. but not (save . as before mentioned. which results in a pale This is the main cause impression.HSITY ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. That is. But the size of type per se has is little to do with its legibility . The " old style. a far more important the style of type. as the case may be. of course . . with vector magnitudes in their calculations. is it thoroughly suitable. whether blocks or another sort. I should mention here. engineers have often to deal to vector algebra. In connection with Clarendon type. who possess fairly good and normal eyesight. but. and is always in stock . their size that is in question. It Mag. Sometimes block letters have been used but it is sufficient merely to look at a mixed formula containing them to see that they are not quite suitable. for instance) in two reIt has certain eccentricities of shape. or that the light is not good. Even of the strain upon the eyes. find a difficulty in reading printed books without straining the eyes. Many people.. not thin and pale. They are plain enough. however. as if the ink were watery. Finally. I believe. 141 1 Germans. especially as regards the fineness of the marks printed. on a subject which I refer to is important to the community the retrograde movement in typography which has been going on for the last 20 years or so. which threatens . I found salvation in Clarendons. and now largely in use. very small print is easy to read if it be bold and black. for vectors (Phil. and do not know the reason. have found very neat. They may think the print is too small. somewhat less easy to read but. the letters on the types are cut a good deal finer. it is perfectly legible (sometimes alarmingly so). more importantly.

w . large stock of letters is thus set free for other use. As everyone who has had to read MSS. nary letters representing vectors may receive some conventional mark to vectorise them. III. its tensor is E. and the effect is magical. E denoting any Simivector. work. The tensor from direction. . the most legible handwritings irrespective are those in which the of the proper formation of the letters Now it is the same writing-master's fine upstroke is discarded. still A be too much of a good thing). G. would perfect.142 to drive out the is ELECTKOMAGNETIC THEOEY. others have to be . or magnitude apart Other important connected quantities are its three rectangular scalar components the Cartesian components which are the tensors of the three rectangular vector 104. This may be satisfied by calling E the tensor of E. and drawn upon. Unit Vectors of Reference. to use three sepaor u. Only when an investigation is it is to be written out for the printers necessary to bring in special letters. of a vector is its size. work it is inconvenient tinguished from printed work. and its components are Ej. Thus. E 2 E3 the tensor of a is a. as F. CH. . as disIn MS. and this is most simply done by a conventional mark affixed to every Compositors are very intelligent. H is a large number of vectors the memory- is remember their proper constituents. waste of useful letters. of course. or rate letters for these components. In my notation the same letter serves for the vector itself. ordinary Or the ordiletters will suffice for both scalars and vectors. Tensor and Components of a Vector. producing something intermediate between it and the Clarendon style (which last. and the components are a lt a^ ay A larly. v. and for its tensor and components. But. something is required to distinguish between the vector its tensor. in print. Notation. One alphabet Another strongly taxed to is the prodigal is soon exhausted. components. presuming ordinary letters are and written. Not that the latter better style would be arrived at by thickening the fine lines in it. to be at the trouble of writing two kinds of letters . One objection to this practice is that when there ^> fj'&c. But a remark must be made concerning MS. discarded. . It is usual. modern style. Thicken the fine lines. read mathee) vector. in Cartesian work. knows.

viz. This equivalence is expressed by r Or. . . if a be a unit vector parallel to a (or. that' is. . written afa a vector x times as big as a. r = XL + yj + zk. . applies to any vector. more with a). .. we may reach the opposite corner by three mutually perpendicular journeys along three edges of the brick.. t retained. z/r. starting from one r. The final result is the same as if we went straight across from corner to corner. and by Euclid I. . is 3 we have a = aa r It is sometimes useful to separately represent the direction and length of a vector. j. = x + y + z. (4) . 3 . x = ^i. 105. If a vector a be multiplied by a scalar x. yjr. That is. let r be the vector from the origin to any point. and. brings us to vector addition. z of a point may be Thus. as we know by the elementary geometry of a rectangular parallelepiped or brick. . by carrying out the operation indicated by the vector r. signifies translation If. we shall now. parallel to and concurrent or az. . . the Cartesian co-ordinates x y. i .ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. This Circuital Property. of unit length. the result. (1) the vector projection of r on the axis. strictly. where x is y = yj. 143 matics like winking. translation through the distance y in the direction j . and the above is a convenient way of doing it without introducing new letters. and having the same direction. and carry out all instructions made by the author. lastly. performing this operation. and let i. This But it need not be an absolute rule. z = zk. For instance. carry out the operation z. after arrive at the end of the vector corner of a brick. or translation through the distance z in the k direction. Thus. The Addition of Vectors. we carry out the operation indicated by y. The vector through the distance x in the direction x i. 47. k be^ unit vectors from the origin along the three We shall then have rectangular axes. the direction-cosines of r are x/r. Also. (3) by (1).

any number of vectors. Or we translating. symbolised by the vector (5) Thus. in the second case. CH. we go from P to R vid S. in space. direct translation from P to R. or through an from means translation from Q parallel line. as case. its vector projections on the axes. say. by the use of a skew parallelepiped We any vector may be expressed as having any directions we please. For in the latter case the parallelepiped degenerates to a plane Instead of a brick we see that the sum of three other vectors figure. The meaning of addition of vectors in this example is simply the carrying out of the operations implied by the individual vectors added. whilst b R in the first figure. a meaning translation from P to Q in the first figure. provided they are independent. with b first and then a. .144 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. The order of since there are six ways of going from one corner to the opposite one of a brick along its edges. III. or translation is indifferent. But it is perhaps best to explain vector addition in general without any reference to axes. addition see that any vector may be expressed as the sum of three mutually perpendicular vectors. and then b. viz. In the first P performing the operation a first. 2. the geometrical vector meaning a displacement from one point to another. or not all in the same plane. we go from to R irid Q . or through an equal distance along any parallel line. The final result in either case is equivalent to c.. P equal distance along any to S in the second figure. FIG. Furthermore. The above may be extended to may reason thus : Let A be any given vector. as from S to to R in the second figure. Thus let a and b be vectors to be added.

I . We need not go from infinite P to Q direct. from 145 P to Q. but may follow any one of an number of paths. as for example.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.

>. the finite change in the vector s from any fixed origin produced by passing from beginning to end of the vector a. however the individual terms may be made up.-(d + e + f). we have k6 3 c . . so we have Now . and every vector = equation expresses the fact symbolised by (7). The . for example aj . the vector element of the circuit itself.a) x Thus. for there add up. Similarly for j and k .sign. b. = icj + jc 2 + kc3 (11) . (8). In the latter case. ) . . is no change of direction. In a vector equation every term is a vector. altering the direction: thus . a+b+c+d+e + f=0. a+b+ c= -d-e-f. . without lation. (9) we may . the matter may be clinched by means of i. . the resolution of vectors into If (9) for a circuit in rectangular component vectors depends only upon the properties Thus split up the vectors a. c of the right angled triangle. the equivalence of two translations by different paths from one point to another. change in that is. III. however.146 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. .sign prefixed to a vector is the same as multiplication by 1. any trouble be experienced in seeing the necessary truth of whatever order the addition be made. transfer any terms to the other side by prefixing the Thus. j.. of course. we express is equivalent to no translation. . k.aa x = a x ( . (10) In the form (9) we express the fact that translation in a circuit In (10). . or by 2a when the vectors are finite. a may be also regarded as As. .'.. s is CH. the unit rectangular vectors . as we saw before. into components. in any vector equation.a = .a x ) = ( . and its effect is simply to reverse the direction of transOr it may be regarded as reversing the tensor. All vectors parallel to i add in scalar fashion. it made in an infinitesimal step along the circuit.

or geometrical vector. there is something of the vicious circle in such demonstrations. a vector. This identity of treatment applies not only to the addition property. + put between Application to Physical Vectors." especially compiled for the torturIf a quantity ing of students and discouragement of learning. In the above metrical vector. 106. as in the polygon of vectors ? L2 . force. we have referred entirely to the geoBut a very important step further can be made referring to physical vectors. but only needs pointing out. the addition property of which does not want demonstrating. The addition and subtraction side of and transfer from one an equation to the other are thus done identically as in the algebra of scalars. in his treatise. but to the multiplication and other properties to be later considered. length and be thought necessary to give demonstrations of the parallelogram of forces. Addition has. in its mathematical aspect. strations. 147 Now please. We may symbolise a physical vector by a straight line of given direction. I have some dim recollection of days It used to spent in trying to make out Duchayla's proof. though benumbing. Maxwell. &c. or parallelogram. the scalar additions It follows that the may same be done in any order we is true in vector addition. it is true. to know that it follows the laws of the geometrical vector. So. which was certainly elaborate and painstaking. and is therefore subject to the same laws as the vector. we must have the same property exemplified in the addition of all vectors. and. but the vector meaning is not inconsistent with the of vectors scalar meaning. Is it not sufficient to recognise that a quantity is a vector. perhaps even before the student knew what force meant. a step which immediately does away with piles of ingeniously constructed and brain" wasting demonstrations. just as we have the triangle. or polygon of geometrical vectors. Futility of Popular DemonBarbarity of Euclid. elaborated a demonstration that electric But surely currents compounded according to the vector law.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. be recognised to be a directed magnitude. acceleration. it is. There is never vectors and + put any conflict between between scalars. not the eame meaning. as velocity. in fact. includes the latter as a particular case.

Macmillan and Co. Illustrations. Swan. Elementary calculus should go on simultaneously. . Then. This geometry. I learn that the correct title of the society above alluded to is the Association for the " It was founded. When more advanced. it is to be noted at the beginning that the ordinary idea of a product in * From The Electrician. Small as the visible results of the Association have been. have published an elementary geometrical conies. But Euclid for children is barbarous. as Mr. Messrs. vector product. a syllabus of plane geometry.).* like Homer. to VI. but algebra. not Euclid. solid as well as plane . and come into the vector algebraic geometry after a bit. sense proofs of Euclid's problems were accepted by Cambridge examiners. about ten years ago by a few teachers. we believe. Notation and 107. yet worth while to point out that by means of the addition property of vectors a good deal of geometry can be simply done better than by Euclid. p. a considerable part of whose 12 books consists of examples of how not to do it (especially Book V. My own idea of a useful course with arithmetic. not demonstrations. and applied to Addition first. who pleads that he cannot make any change. conjoined with algebra. but practical geometry. simply barbarous. . need of improvement there can be no question whilst the reign it is to begin Next. Improvement of Geometrical Teaching.148 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and there the labours of the Association appear to have stopped. Sonnenschein and Co. Three pamphlets have been published by Messrs. Heaviside puts it. The Scalar Product of Two Vectors. Books I. December 4. The Association has had to struggle against the stubborn conventionalism of the modern schoolmaster. even in the best public schools and the educational value of Greek is in many respects higher than that of Euclid. CH. corresponding to Euclid. another of modern plane geometry and another of linear dynamics. 1891." . not Euclid. Euclid might be an extra course for learned men. IIL Although this is not the place for exercises and examples. who realised that Euclid for children is. Coming next to the products of vectors. At present geometry is taught as badly as Greek. bring in the covers a large ground. then the scalar product. not Euclid. but elementary vectors. is of Euclid continues. and then. . because of the After a considerable fight. but as to the Teaching. there is a distinct change of feeling taking place with regard to geometry. There is a Society for the Improvement of Geometrical I have no knowledge of its work . 106. Hamblin Smith's commonUniversities. but to make acquaintance. both as an educational subject and as an implement of scientific work. Mr.

j. of i. by taking First multiplying each of i. or is the same as the square of A =A 2 2 (14) is is Also. . to be the scalar AB cos 0. j. k. which are oeper- and B to be one or other of them in pendicular. and AB 1 1 now Next make scalar products of ij i. and are parallel and concurrent. = . . And since Similarly. or deter- mine this question by any prior reasoning of a legitimate nature. To see its full significance and how it works out. for unity.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. the square of any unit vector is unity. now immediately concerned. Thus AB = ABcos0 (12) defines the scalar product and its notation. i. 12 A = 1. and then introduce definitions and conventions of notation to give expression to the facts in the simplest and most convenient way. k ti in pairs. we get turn. A = AA its 15 tensor the square of any vector . (13) with the convention borrowed from scalar algebra that ii is 2 This may be called the square equivalently denoted by i . we are We define the scalar product of a pair of vectors A and B whose tensors are A and B. the scalar product and It is with the former of these that the vector product. k2=l. k by itself. We get (15) = 0. In each of the three cases (13) the vectors multiplied together are of unit length. j. therefore. is unity. By this examination we are led to recognise two distinct kinds of products of a pair of vectors. . After this. 149 arithmetic and in scalar algebra does not apply to vectors. . say beforehand what the product of two vectors ought to be. AB = AB A B 1 1 . We cannot. J2 = l. let us first apply (12) to the unit reference vectors. jk = 0. the work is deductive. because they are not scalars. so that the scalar product. and we denote it by AB. and whose included angle is 6. according to (12). the scalar product of any two parallel vectors the product of their tensors. We must examine in what way vectors enter into combination as products.

(16) (12) by AB . of course. the activity the activity. . being subject. It is the effective product. not).150 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. a branch of vectorial algebra. rrThus. Thus the equation AB = means that A is perpendicular to B unless. A frequently amount of induction unit normal vector N through a surface. It is. occurring operation is the surface integral of the normal component of a vector . that A obviously as in scalar algebra. are perpendicular. or activity. may employ the idea We of perpendicular projection simply. the scalar product of any two the cosine of the included angle. Notice. the scalar product of two perpendicular unit vectors is The same is. indeed. Here the idea of a is useful. The normal component of B . We have also ^ AA-cosfl. no occasion to introduce trigonometry. one or other of them is zero. force and v the velocity of its point of application. to express the AB = BA. Or we might make the trigonometry be a simultaneously developed There is. for example. notation^that harmonises in this a convenient one. true of any two perpendicular vectors. III. it is the product of the When the force and the velocity is nil. if F be a energy. This is reckom positively from concurrent coincidence. upon the other . is. or. scalar developments of parts thereof. CH. or connected quantities. their scalar product Fv is speed and the effective force. although the velocity may be changing striking. of the force .. we may say that the scalar product of a pair of unit vectors is the length of the projection of either product of any vector upon the axis of i . and that the scalar A and a unit vector i is the projection of and. and then through by dividing vectors is again to + 1. strictly. comprehensively. also. that the scalar A product AB of any two vectors A and B is the product of the tensor of either into the projection (perpendicularly) upon it of the other. in fact. a fact which familiarity does not render less When F and v are parallel (whether concurrent or the same as Fi. so that as ge2s from to 2 TT. AjBi goes from 1 through to 1. Fv becomes in the common meaning way is of a product. so to speak H In physical mathematics scalar products frequently have reference to Thus. That zero.

when considered Thus. lateral pressure. it behaves as a scalar. We have an example of this combination of three vectors in the stress formulae. perhaps. When multiplied by a vector the result is a vector . Thus. to illustrate. the voltage between two points along the path to which the summation refers. and: the integral Similarly. is scalar. we may T be the unit that is.bc is be . preferable in initiatory work. obtained pendicular to E or by taking D. separator than as a sign of multiplication. the sum of two vectors. say that ha knew it all before in one form or another. but I c(ab). and. a. think the dot plan is more generally useful. is expressed by E. it may be regarded merely as illustrative. express the line-integral line.ab may be written ca. As all the preceding is involved in the definition of a scalar product. that is.N. (equation (31). . is 151 then NB. The reader might. we may use brackets to indicate the same thing. times the vector This is. if E be the electric force. to is 2 NB. and Examples. #ab or aba:.c means ab times the vector c The dot here acts rather as a Thus.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. for example. c. thus c. the summation extending of let . instead of the dot. the unit tangent then TE is the tangential component of the vector E. being simply x times ab. similarly.DN . 72) . whose tensors are N EDN The respectively. the effective component of a vector along a element of curve . and is obvious enough. But. Since ab is as a whole. a scalar.ab or ab. and 2TE is the integral . when multiplied by a scalar.b means ca times the vector b a. in fact. x.JED. 108. thus. the electric stress vector on the plane whose unit normal is N. and that he did not see any particular advantage in the way of stating it in the notation of scalar products. over the surface. the result. has been already discussed. N combined with an equal parallel to and then per- Fundamental Property of Scalar Products. But we now come to a very striking and remarkable property . trigonometrical or geometrical. where interpretation as a tension along and -JED D E is the displacement. parallel to E the electric force and to respectively.

A=a+b+ Now c. and first split it up into scalars. the is A Now it requires no formal demonstration. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and that this process may be carried out in any order. taken in any order. b. Start with the vector A. that the projection of A upon any axis is the same as the sum of the projections of its component That is. that is. this property admits of demonstration in a sufficiently simple manner as to enable one to see its truth. but becomes evident as soon as the meaning of the proposition is correctly conceived. in vector algebra. as if all the vectors were Moreover. which will go far to justify them as working We know t that in scalar algebra. when there is overlapping and cancelling. (18) two or three vector components being sufficient for illustration. viz. say i. the latter projections vectors. and similarly as regards when we have a product of any number of other y. xy we may express x by the sum quantities. partial similarity. According to our definition of a scalar product. that of project the vector perpendicularly upon any axis. on that axis.. For example. or else some may be negative and others positive.. CH. but projection Ai. and similarly as regards B. The question now is whether the scalar product is the sum we know already that there is a that we can decompose a vector A into AB of all the scalar products if made up out of the components of A paired with the components of B. ' . . utilities. and the process of manipulation is the same as in scalar algebra.. and is B = c + d. and fit together to make up the projection of A . AB = a + bc + d ) * J The answer is Yes. and then obtain the complete product xy by adding together all the component products obtained by multiplying every element of x into every element of y . Now..152 of scalar products. the sum of any number of others.. c. a. 111. are either all positive or all negative.

(23) For example. we may split up B into the sum of any number (21) of other vectors. Or. AB = (a + b + c)B = aB + bB + cB. thus of AB. If we now multiply (19) by any scalar B.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. we express the cosine of the angle between them in terms of the products of . I have already remarked that a good deal of geometry may be done by the addition property alone. . Bi=B. . (19) got by multiplying (18) by i. If we substitute this in (20) we have use of the same reasoning which established (19) (20). put the vectors in terms AB = (A i + A j+A 3k) (B^ + BJ + Bak). The range of application is greatly extended by the use of the scalar product and the fundamental property of i. remembering (13) and (15). and we establish the property fully. if (20) we multiply (18) by B direct. result AB = A B + A 2B2 + A3 B3 1 1 . thus. applied to the bracketed vectors. till 153 with the same result algebraically. we obtain . . with the result Now make and = ad + ae + af + bd + be + bf + cd + ce + cf . . (22) Now The effect is the multiplications. This is expressed by . . (17). . j. the same as Similarly. the expansion being done formally as in scalar algebra in every respect . so that which is any vector. and each may be reversed. if A and B are unit vectors. since the various terms may be written in any order. To obtain the Cartesian form k. Ai = (a + b + c)i = ai + bi + ci. the activity of a force is the sum of the activities of its component forces in any three coperpendicular directions. ad = da. . since i may have any direction. 1 2 . say.

then (A + B) and (A-B) are the vector diagonals . if A and B be the vector sides of a parallelogram. so (24) gives the length of one diagonal and (25} that of the other.154 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Since the square of a vector is the square of its tensor. . . If. then A + B and from the fixed point to the ends of the diameter. . . and A is the B vector from the fixed point the vector from the centre to one are the vectorsend of the diameter. (25). which -the (24) (A-B) = A 2 -2AB + B 2 2 . (26) parallelepiped. (28) expressing the difference of the squares of the diagonals as four times the scalar product of two vector sides. Similarly. vectorise the six scalars on the right side. A-B There is an application of this in the kinetic theory of gases* For when two elastic spheres collide they keep the sum of their kinetic collision energies constant. . if we please. . we may express the tensor at once in terms of the tensors and the original vector is resolved. 111- the direction cosines of the vectors. . Adding (24) and (25) we obtain 2 2 2 -B) = 2(A + B ). In (23) we may. by subtraction 2 2 (A + B) -(A-B) = 4AB. Equation (27) also shows that the sum of the squares of the distances of the ends of any diameter of a sphere from a fixed For if point is constant. and (26) to a In (24). . (25) and similarly for three. for two. (27) expressing that the sum of the squares of the diagonals equals the sum of the squares of the four sides. then. to the sphere's centre. the proposition. Here (24) and (25) apply to a parallelogram. CH. each product referring to one axis. Whence. by (27). be A + B and A-B. cosines of the angles between a series of vectors into Thus. their velocities before their velocities after collision are indicated by vectors from the origin (in the velocity diagram) .

Reciprocal of a Vector. which is quite a different thing. where r . Expression of any Vector as the 110. a-1 6' 1 cos 6. . its own reciprocal. being a vector. 'or reciprocal of the other. where 6 is the angle between between either and the So a/a or aa' 1 or a' 1 a equals unity.and we therefore have . makes scalar proThus ab-1 or a/b means the scalar ducts with other vectors. We may denote the reciprocal of a by a-1 or I/a. ' (30) of a/b is (a/b) cos 6. Thus as a = aa p we have (29) is. The first is Notice that a" 1 b. because this is (a/6)/cos 0. It is and whose tensor is the reciprocal of that of a. which is actually the new diameter depending upon the circumstances of impact. reciprocal of a vector. Thus we 2 2 1 = easily see that aV ab/6 because the tensor of b is b times the tensor of b' 1 But we cannot equivalently write a 2 /ab. therefore. especially when put in the fractional form. . . In using reciprocals the defined meaning should be attended to. occasionally useful to employ the reciprocal of a We define the reciprocal vector in elementary vector algebra.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. the scalars are the lengths of the projections of r upon the axes. i-^-S-H-SThe tensor a and b. Sum of Three Independent Vectors. whilst the latter is or 1 ft^/cos 0. or between their reciprocals. of a vector a to be a vector having the same direction as a.1 is not the same as (ab)-1 . We is know that in the equation i yd -i "^"j the vector distance of a point from the origin. Any unit vector The 1 product of a and b. 109. to the ends of 155 some other diameter of the sphere described upon the line joining their original positions (in the velocity diagram) as diameter .

c.b.. magnitude. This exhibits explicitly the expansion of any vector in terms of any three independent vectors a.. The auxiliary vectors just employed in the expansion of a vector into the sum of three vectors having any independent directions. c to be i. each which is perpendicular to two others. m.. k. say 1. as the three This ease. j. of The Vector Product of Two Vectors. to the preceding Cartesian case by taking a. to the plane These auxiliary vectors bring us to the containing them.. where (31) To find / we must a. so that multiply by Ib = 0. a vector perpendicular to b and c. so that /=rl/al we get (32> g and '-i'OO.. Illustrations. CH. Then rl=/al. find them in terms of r algebraically ? x we must operate on the equation in such a manner as this j and k terms to disappear. study of the vector product.. their vector product Of course. when the reference vectors are not perpendicular for instance. disregarding Two vectors being perpendicular to both of them. Now by multiplying by i. c. and Ic = 0. n are vectors normal to the three planes of b. Observe the peculiarity that auxiliary vectors are used. of course.a and a. j. 111. however. is given. For i is perpendicular to multiplication by i gives to cause the j we can do k. b. so that and Similarly. c are any independent vectors. where 1. How To find should we. rj =y and rk = z. III.. are examples of vector products. there is but one such . or any scalar multiples of the same.156 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. to do From this obvious case we can conclude what . when 1. k. b. Similarly to isolate therefore A. c. n will also be i. m. that is. b. in ... reduces edges of a skew parallelepiped.

6. Examples will serve to clinch the matter. But the vector product of two vectors has a strictly-fixed tensor.. V may be used to denote the unit vector The only troublesome part is to correctly fix which way along the perpendicular to the plane of a and b is to be considered positive. This vector product is c = Vab. the auxiliary vectors. will be observed that one of the vectors. we define the vector product of two vectors a and b whose tensors are a and &. 5. so that the values of the fractions are independent of the tensors of m. . so that (33) and its tensor may be denoted by V we have (34) ab Similarly.. vectors. and whose included angle is 0. tion third vector c whose tensor c equals ab sin 0. both in the numerator and in the denomiappears nator of one of the three fractions in equation (32).ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. Thus... and whose direcis perpendicular to the plane of a and b . Nor the normal to the plane containing the given is the tensor of any consequence in the example it in question. FIG. vector. let . 157 viz.. for 1.. ab. x parallel to Vab. depending upon those of the component vectors and their inclination. to be a b FIG. n. the positive direction of c being such that positive or right-handed rotation about c carries the vector a to denoted by b. There is particular advantage in taking the Thus tensor of the vector product of a and b to be ab sin 0.

then c is is a right angle..ab is ab cos 0. Again. (36) because the vectors paired are coincident. the tensor of c is zero. that k is to go downwards. whilst a moves round so as to vary the angle Q. . After this. reaches two quadrants. in the next two quadrants. 6.158 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. in Fig. Property. . though discurrent. and its tensor is the area of the parallelogram upon a and b. and the (37) Vab is ab sin scalar product we have (38) Combinations of Three Vectors. c must be upwards It reaches a maximum (downwards) when when and falls to zero again from the paper. . but now. . 112. Vij = k. of course combines with is make scalar and vector products again. Since the tensor of .. Also. Thus any new vector. the . 5. other vectors to cVab. By the definition. the same numerical changes are gone through . a be towards the north. supposed in accordance with our definition we have . Vab= -Vba. where c These are both important combinations. CH. j. means the scalar product of c and Vab. . then c is k noting in Fig. we have Vii = 0. Vki=j. The unit reference vectors i. which occur frequently. Starting from coincidence. a is i and b is j. with 6 = 0.. III. in (33). and their interpretations and expansions will be given presently. the reversal of the order of the letters in a vector product negatives it. Observe the preservation of the cyclical order i. Thus . k are so arranged that when. the sine being negative. k in (35). Vjj = 0. Vjk = i.. being a vector. Vkk = 0. (35) because the mutual angles are quadrants and the tensors unity. and b towards the surface east on the earth's downwards. The Parallelepipedal A vector product. j. Thus. or away from the reader. straight direction of c is downwards through the paper. and a is in the same line with b. . and VcVab means the vector product of c and Vab. Let b be fixed.

then. for instance. it may where. cVjab.. a parallelepiped whose three edges meeting at a corner are a. This is (39) defi- is the angle between c and Vab. and Proof of the Fundamental Distributive Principle. C The semi-Cartesian expansion of c = Vab is = i(a2 63 -a 3 6 2 )+j(a3 6 1 -a 1 63)+k(a 1 6 2 -a 2 6 l i. 113. (40) which observe the preservation of cyclical order. Its value is given by cVab = V abxccos<. We also know that the volume of a parallelepiped is the product of its base and altitude.. Therefore. . where < . so there But there are two other bases and two other altitudes to are two other ways of expressing the 'volume. as will be verified a little Semi-Cartesian Expansion of a Vector Product.. on to dVaVbc. We do not often go further in practical vector algebra than combinations in threes . where V x ab is the unit vector. and V^V^b and V cVab.. by (39). in later. the scalar product of d and the previously explained VaVbc. since by dividing by its tensor we unitise a illustrative of notation. the tensor. is the same as cVab/V ab. giving the equalities . as before explained. and various other modificaV^Vab tions. ab is the area We V of the parallelogram. (41) in terms of j. cVab is the volume of the parallelepiped. k and the scalar components of a and b. whose meanings follow from the definition of a vector product and its notation. 159 As be mentioned that cV ab. and the V corresponding altitude is c cos <. done to keep the sign the same throughout. know that Now refer to Fig. tration. and c. On the other hand.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. by the nition of the scalar product. The area of one of its bases is ab. but V ab is We may also have Similarly as regards VcVjab. correspond.. and of the tensor of a vector. 5 again. The scalar product cVab has an important geometrical illusvector. vector parallel to c.. b. ). Construct. . is obviously a V ab times as long.

. except that it remains to be seen whether the right member represents Vab or its negative. that of The tensor negative. . be transformed to Z> = fa* + a* + a32 ) (V + is. c c 2 2 = a2 b 2 (ab) . We ac = aj (a 2 6 3 be = 6j (a 2 6 .i But. by common algebra. parallel to the j. 2j and 6 3k . in a slightly different form.. these therefore. Do this by the rule embodied in get equation (23). by cancelling. this. square (41). Vab itself. that is. = a2 6 2 . which are the scalar pro- To do is planes jections of c of the area V ab on the axes. be = 0. We have therefore only to verify that the projection of any plane on the plane normal to one of the axes is given correctly in Take a rectangle. are also the areas of the projections on the planes perpendicular to them. From It is. . sign by (41). That is. c is. k plane.. or a multiple of the same.a2 62 cos 2 6 = (ab sin 0) 2 therefore. 2 2 3 3) 5 2 . We get . (43) (44) That or. of the rectangle on a parallel plane..160 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. or else its Equation (44) is the same as (38). To find its tensor.. we may remark that the angle between two the same as the angle between the normals to the planes. OH. so that Here 2 6 3 is the projection and is correctly positive. c 2 = (aj). Equation (41) is proved.(a^ + a 2&2 + 2 (42) But c2 this may. we know that c is perpendicular to a and to b.0362)8 + (a jh _ ai j3 )2 + (ai&2 _ a2 j i)a + &3 2 ) . . if the normals coincide when the planes do. Ill* To prove scalar products ac multiply (41) by a and b in turns to form the and be. Vab itself. sides parallel to j and k. so that the three quantities in ( )'s in (41). all the terms on the right disappear. ac = 0. this.

relating to the scalar products. Va(b + c) = Vab + Vac.a3 c 2 ) + (46) Add these together. We have (45) Vab = i(a 2 6 3 -a 3 6 2)-iSimilarly Vac = i (a 2c 3 . It shows that the and B. the truth of (17) could be seen without much trouble. That is.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. the vector products which can be made up out of the com- A ponent vectors [(a + d) and (b + c) in (50)] into which we may divide and B. k. the formula (50) is precisely similar necessity of this proviso of course the reversal of Vab with the order of a and b. would not be at all easy to follow. owing to the many changes of direction inThis is why I have done it volved in the vector products. On the other hand. V (a + d) (b + c) = Vab + Vac + Vdb + Vdc. . which are auxiliaries of the greatest value. . similar proof of (50). means Va (b + c). fly to i.. yet we see from (50) that vector products are nearly as easily to be manipulated algebraically as scalar products. through When in j. and there is preliminary trouble in fixing the direction of a vector product. although the establishment of (50) by geometry without algebra is difficult. (41 ). The Now A to (17) 108. Subject to the limitation named. on the other hand. yet the process by which it was obtained evidently applies to any number of components. (48) (49) Vd (b + c) = Vdb + Vdc by adding these again.. k. We get (47) or by Vab + Vac = i[a 2 (6 3 + c3 )-a3 (6 2 + c 2 )] + But the right member. j. (50) a very remarkable and important formula. follows from Although (50) only shows this for two components to each primary vector. equals the sum of all vector product of two vectors.. i. 161 Now go back to (41). . by definition of a vector product. doubt and difficulty. Similarly So. provided we keep the components of always A A before those of B.

ca "i. then by (41) we have Vcd = icd Next put for given in (41). and multiplying by Vc sends it back into the plane. any multiple of it. 114. applied to (41). as by its aid they can be recovered at any time. . Lastly. By means of the formula (41) we can at once obtain Use cartesian expansion of the parallelepipedal cVab. equation (31). remembering that c is now any equation (23).. was. III. I is is ^ 2 *^ % 2* This important formula should be remembered. the vector. j. It is. perhaps. and similarly for we use now Vbc which m and n. add and subtract a^c^ and we get = ifc^bc .bc-b. we obtain aVbc. That VcVab in the plane of a and b is evident beforehand. (52) perpendicular to this plane. we have r .. reconvert fully to vectors. and we get .. putting By rearrangement the a's outside the brackets. Next. as in (52). which shows the magnitude of the components.^ac] + VcVab .aj)^ of (51) terms on the right side of this. Examples relating to Vector Products. for 1.. and putting the b s outside. in terms of a's and b's.. and thus verify (40) again. . In some more complex formulae it is sufficient to remember the principle upon which they are founded. most simply expanded through k. cVab = ^(0363 . dv d2 d3 their values and we have .. vector VcVab is. . and we have VcVab = a. therefore.. (53) already treated. Thus in the case of r=/a+#b + Ac. expressible in terms of a and b. because Vab .a^) + c^a^ . before. CH. if . First write d for Vab. The i. we obtain bVca.a 36 2 ) + c^a^ ..162 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.

it reduces to a semi-cartesian vector formula involving i. vectors as we please) the result is a single scalar for- in cartesians. three vectors. Here. mula The converse process. b and Vca. The Differentiation of Scalars and Vectors. boiling it down to a vector investigation. one for each component. It is very good practice to take a symmetrically written-out cartesian investigation and go through it. obtain Notice that the three denominators in (54) are equal. we rand it " aVbc Vbc+ * bVca Vca+--Vab. In the preceding account of vector addition. But if it be a vector formula. using the unit reference vectors i. because it is so simply obtained at any time from (53) by multiplying by the auxiliary vectors so as to isolate /. h in turn and give their values. 163 There is no occasion to put a formula like this in the memory. to put a scalar cartesian investigation into vectorial form. their substitution in the vector formula is all that as is many If the formula be scalar (although involving required.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. j. whenever found to be convenient. or semi-cartesian. a. taken in pairs. k. (55) this is also true. <7. Here the three component equations have to be reduced to one vector equation. and terms on the right. 115. at once prove by multiplying each of which operations nullifies two c. the reader has nearly all that is needed for general purposes in geometry and in the usual physical mathematics involving vectors. as in turns by a. is less easy. (55) is the expression of r in terms of we may such a formula can be immediately recovered if wanted by attending to the principle concerned. which are normal to the three planes of any three independent vectors. To obtain the cartesian expansion of any formula containing vectors is usually a quite mechanical operation. representatives of a few fundamental functions being remembered. b. c. giving three scalar equations. j. again. that by exchanging a and Vbc. though dependent upon the same principles. so far as the algebra M 2 . k. and of the scalar product and the vector product. b. cVab . Also c and Vab. The cartesian.

though There is also the method of differentials. u being a function of x. CH.. whose differential is dx.on the tacit assumption that the rate of increase of the function keeps the same value throughout the whole unit increment in the variable as it has This plan. concerned. Thus. value then the ratio Aw/A# usually tends to a definite limiting when A# is infinitely reduced. these being derived from others by the process of differentiation. reduces to dudx. referring to unit increment. (56) + dx). though we are not concerned with immediately. i. we have the same vector algebra with new vectors introduced. Thus. u may be termed the " differentiator. which. which is of some importance in vector analysis. III. sometimes leads to great saving it of labour. for the particular value of the variable concerned. . by expanding/ (x . For the addition of differentiations does not usually introduce anything new into the algebra. u being a scalar function of x. the corresponding differential of . Thus." This way has perhaps been done by Sylvester and others. du=f(x + dx)-f(x). thus strictly the rate of increase of the function with the variable. . (57) . " This I should be strongly tempted to call the " different iant of u to x. a quantity whose value depends on that of x.164 itself is ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. acts on the operand as of regarding a differential coefficient. involved. splitting du/dx into (d/dx) and u. or the increase of the func- The differential coefficient is tion per unit increase of the variable..e. it is often very useful. The ideas concerned in the differentiation of a vector with respect to a scalar are essentially the same as in the differentiation of a scalar. in the analysis of varying vectors. which limit. denoted by du/dxy is called the differential coefficient of u with respect to x. need not be mentioned. as it can be employed when differential coefficients do not exist. we know that if AM is the increment in u corresponding to the increment A# in x. The reservation must be understood.'. were I not informed on the highest authority that " for "differential coefficient" is the expression " differentiant But the differentiating operator djdx which objectionable.

that is.. . of x. the tinuously change itself in E between two points on the line is a vector. (62) whilst the i. 165 provided we neglect the squares and higher powers of dx... as in u=f(x.y). approximates towards a definite limiting vector denoted by dE/dx.. -f(x). in direction as well as in magnitude in any case. by the manner of its construction. .. Dividing by Ax. or the increase in E per unit increase in x. so we have dx j . which is. And if f(x.. the rate of increase of the vector d'E/dx with x is the second differential coefficient d 2 E/dx 2 and so on. line will It may change conpass along the line. Similarly.. dx dy . we get the vector AE/A# . the electric force. ^? = i^l+j^2 + k^3 dx dx dx showing the components (63) of the vector dEjdx. leading to . being the vector AE which must be added to the E at the first point to produce that at the second point. leading to (58) du = dx + dy... or axis x may mean distance measured along a straight in an electrostatic field. Semi-Cartesian Differentiation. usually change as we .. understanding that the differentials dx and dH are infinitesimal.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. E. j. (60) (61) dE=^dx.. dx . regard dx as infinitesimal. . For instance. We have also. y). and this.. k are constants . In semi-Cartesian form we have Here the scalars reference vectors E I} E = iE 1 +jE 2 + kE3 E2 E 3 are functions .. in differentials. when the increments are taken smaller and smaller. 116. Now let the operand be a vector function of x say. we have .. and therefore there be two variables. t (59) expressing the differential of u in terms of those of x and y.. where E. . the rate of increase of E with x. then du also. Examples of Differentiating Functions of Vectors.. the increment in x.

t. we have . i dx* ax 2 +J . (65) just as if A and B were scalars. as (66) we may see immediately expansion of VAB. functions of vectors. ax 2 ax* differential (64) shows the components of the second obtained by differentiating (63). but also on the right sides of (67) only and . Any vector may is member upon and (64). we have. yet we must always remember those which are not For example. quite general. (67) A VAVBC = VAVBC + VAVBC + VAVBC. with respect to scalars. . . . Similarly. by (23). by We = ^AVBC AVBC + AVBC + AVBC. on the left sides. we must peculiar to the vector algebra. so we are the same as those for differentiating similar functions of the independent action of a differentiator on the separate members of a product goes. CH. so far as a variable scalar.166 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. AB. differentiating the semi-Cartesian have also equation (41). as in . be expressed in the form (62). Thus. with respect to scalar variables. in differentiating a scalar product... . although we proceed formally. Snarly. III. Now. . as regards the properties peculiar to differentiation. . . the differentiations are performed The same remark applies to (63) and see that the rules for differentiating vectors. and when the right differentiated. = (A! B! + A 2 B 2 + A3 B3 ) + (A l Bx + A 2 B2 + A3 B3) or.. . &c. re-transforming to vectors. scalar functions. and But. this semi-Cartesian process function is coefficient. (68) the ordinary differentiation of scalars.

the similar law of vector products. there be any curve in space. equation (17) . Motion along a Curve in Space. and. we obtain (65). equation (50). . we may proceed thus. So.VAB = V(</A)B + VAdB. With the form First. and let s be length measured along it from some point on the curve. 7. of course. omitting the infinitesimal dAdE of the second order. (69) Dividing we have d (VAB) = V(A + dA. omitting the second differential we obtain (66). say the arc PQ. and proceeding to the limit. dijds.) (B + dB) . dividing . FIG. Now. using differen- d (AB) = (A + cfA) (B + dB) . k. WAc?B.AB = AdB + Bo?A. in getting (70). (70) dt. by dt. Tangency and Curvature Velocity and Acceleration. Independently of tials : i. j.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. used the distributive law of scalar products. of the function we have We have then no concern. remember the reversal of the sign of a vector product with the order of the letters. 117. if the to a point P on the curve. Some spacial and motional examples maybe here useLet fully inserted to illustrate the differentiation of vectors. Similarly . by In getting (69) we have. the . consider the meaning of the first differential coefficient increment As is finite. Also let r be the vector from any fixed origin r =/(s). 167 (68).

t and it may Now ture.(71) T is expression (got the unit vector tangent. since the unit of length is arbitrary. * = **-t. are to the tangent. we have & r -5 3 of curvature is and the vector from the origin to the centre + R. let a point move along the curved path. That is. be readily seen that this is the tensor of dT/ds. and its tensor is unity. differentiate again with respect to s to obtain the second differential coefficient d 2 T/ds 2 or dT/ds. since the chord and the arc tend to equality. plane of the curve for the time being. Next. curve.. it its can only change It is the in some plane. when it is the plane of the whole curve. as the unit tangent cannot change direction . Consider its velocity and acceleration. moreover. Now reduce the increIn the limit the direction of dr/ds is that of the tangent to the curve at P. instead of OP orr. Now. its length. points from the curve towards the centre of curvature for the time being. the new vector of the curve being OQ. being at right angles to T. and the semi-Cartesian by expanding r) is also given. We see that Ar/As is a vector parallel to the chord. In the figure the T is quite arbitrary. . usually termed the osculating plane. initial and final. Moreover. unless. J-I-irff as as where size of + j^ as + k*. l (73) .T = dt ds dt v. . 7). its tensor For the usual measure is d6/ds measures the curvature. as . . corresponding increment in Ar is the vector chord PQ. is the ratio of the chord to the ments to nothing. where dO is the angle between the tangents at the ends of ds. Now. it be a plane Thus dT/ds. It is the change in the unit tangent per unit step along the curve.168 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. this change is a vector perpendicular It and the two tangents. whose tensor arc. . III. that is r + Ar. the reciprocal of the curvature is the radius of curvaIf then R be the vector from the curve to the centre of curvature C (Fig. taking t We have the time for independent variable. CH. and. referring to the same figure.

whilst the second we may expand thus. if be the unit normal to the osculating plane.. This shows the It is towards rate of acceleration perpendicular to the motion. . the well known result.*_* .. by introducing the intermediate variable s : &-.. in fact. The three vectors. 118.. It turns round the tangent. for we have N = VTR 1. v or ds/dt. of amount -y 2/R. 7.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.. since there is no relative change. if d<J> is the ing per unit step along the curve. be imagined to be three perpendicular axes fixed in a rigid T and R x body moving . 169 Its tensor is by using (71). Differentiate again to We dt get . This is similar to N the equivalence of dd/ds and the tensor of dT/ds in measuring the curvature before noticed. the equivalent plane in that case being the plane normal to T. and Various Forms of Expansion.. the centre of curvature.. and denoting the velocity by v. the osculating plane undergoes change as we pass along the curve. They may. T. The interpretation of (73) is sufficiently obvious. As we move along the curve this system of axes moves as a rigid body. Again referring to Fig. since it says that the motion is (momentarily) along the tangent. the first being the tangential component. Tortuosity of a Curve. R dt ds dt (75) where the third form is got by using (72). if the curve be not a plane curve.. and R lf form a unit rectangular system. at speed v. dt 2 dt (74) of That is. or be a tortuous curve. angle between the two osculating planes at the extremities of ds. N. whose tensor equals the rate of acceleration of speed. t. It is equivalently denoted by the tensor of dN/ds. the vector rate of acceleration is exhibited as the sum two vectors. (76) since are perpendicular unit vectors.. and the measure of the tortuosity is the amount of turnIt is d<f>/ds.

(77) gives one expression. .. T^. R x and axis only when the the body rotates. Then since YN = N^ = j4N2 =0. term on the right So by (72). .. along the curve in such a way that these axes keep always of the curve. by as is (81) a third and entirely different expression. It is also. giving i . CH.. VT^i . N N plane.. (83) This shows Y is pendicular to T. coincident with the T. Various expressions for the tortuosity may be obtained.. The vector change (infinitesimal) in T is perpendicular to it. ds ds is zero. (79) Or Y=V considering the tensor only. by (76) and the context. A . but about the T axis as well when tortuous. Y is parallel ... (78) But the after first V being parallel.170 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.. second is got by performing the differentiation. perperpendicular to N. (80) to But... the plane whose normal is N. and directed towards the centre of curva- N ture. It rotates about the . in the osculating plane that is. also in vector change (infinitesimal) in the osculating plane.. So its direction is that of R r . . since (79). and is directed towards the centre of curvature. therefore. the vector R from the curve to the centre of curvature being on the intersection of the two planes mentioned.. And the curve is is perpendicular to it. the two vectors Y= gives another expression. it Let be Y the tensor of Y. Multiply (77) by N. That Y is parallel to R! we may prove by (77) and ds (79). . by (79). III. 1 - Ru we have YRj = Y . given by ' -< 77) Then... ds (82) N =l 2 . As it moves.

. and turn into .. by the definition of a vector product we have which is less = 6 when B. (89) Tait.. But the reader who wishes to get a sound working knowledge of vectors should go through the ordinary Cartesian investigations..+ ^ dsR . is a known symmetrical form. curvature.. as ...-. as to which see works on analytical geometry. parallelepipedal property (40) we may also write (81) as (84) Here again. Y = V T^. V^b and b are perpendicular... as well as to N. 171 By the thus. but whose meaning to understand than several preceding expressions. velocity. K d ds-R R I dR. = -. a x being a unit and b any we may. in terms of r and derivatives. . and acceleration may be sufficiently plain. 1 .... f. L ds = dE. which is equivalent to a form given by Thomson and Similarly.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. or. as* ... we may write R. as T (90) Y being perpendicular to follow. . R" 1 There is then left -^-L ds R s . hard to though the previous matter relating to tangency. The hardness lies in the intrinsic nature of tortuosity.. .^ vector. from the first equation (77) conclude that . find the above relating to tortuosity The reader may. - /Q ~ X (oo) ds first Substituting this compound vector in (84). we see that the of the resulting vector products vanishes because RJ and are parallel. perhaps. easy Since. (8G) (37) by (72).

we " require to employ a definition of a differential somewhat different from the ordinary one. third edition) of the novel difficulties that arise in . at least. which often the name science..) in. although. and followed by Tait. consider the when we way in Thus the important physical operator operator. This practice is sometimes confusing. four including two. where we are informed that Chapter IV. returned to more generally in is. (For the word "quaternion. but coinciding with it when Here again." a most searching examination fails to show me the however. because a vector is considered by Hamilton and Tait to be a quaternion. 33. or is often counted as one. convert the all CH. There mere repetition of the name of the some gain in clearness by preserving the the quadruped. Hamilton's Finite Differentials Inconvenient and Unnecessary. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. quaternion differentiation circumstance. . and remarks that it is a striking which Newton's original methods in the differential calculus have been decried. i. above to Cartesian form through j. from this illustration.. 119. a vector. of the is triped. or. or. III. the quadruped might be held (in the matter of legs) to include the biped. in order to overcome the characteristic difficulties of quaternion differentiation. The subject necessity of the requirement . the It would be more analogous to inconvenient that nions. It is now desirable to say a few words regarding the method of treating vector differentiation employed by Hamilton. y is called a quaternion It is as unfair to call a vector a quaternion as to call a man a quadruped . Quater- should be a is operator. k. on Differentiation. and verify Space may be.172 vectors. is the results. and not the more modern forms. where the obligation to depart froni common usage comes however." we may read vector or vectorial here. The latter speaks in his treatise (chapter L. to find that Hamilton was obliged to employ them. also viz. It is really a vector. for the real quaternion is illustrated by the motion of a it name that is " " quaternion point The matter But a curve. as the case too short here for much detail. that the necessity is demonstrated. indeed. applied to functions of mere scalar variables. Also. does not appear. along to say. or correct them.

and (da). and denote them by (du). .a + da)-f(r. (di).a). Here du.. and avoid the circuitous ness? . but is it necessary ? Let us examine into its by n.-<*> n finite (94) division of the finite differentials (da) duces infinitesimal results. That this process First. + (>-/(. on the understanding that n stress is laid) is infinity. in connection with the following. that (93) and (91) become iden- *>-&. + to) -/(r. meaning. and it is important to remark. and that (on which the differentials (di) and (da) are finite and perfectly arbitrary. we shall here dignify them with brackets. on giving the infinitesimal increments dx and da to r and a we produce the infinitesimal increment du in the function. yet. (93) see at a glance. that they are infinitesimal. and (di) by n prodifferential (du) is then not employ Why the infinitesimal differentials at once. .. Hamiltonian differentials have a different meaning. to distinguish them from the The Hamiltonian differential (du) is then differentials in (91).ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. di and da are the differentials. defined by (du) - [/(r + (>. (92) )]. Following the common method of infinitesimal differentials. we have du=f(r + dr. . (91) That is. and that du is really the increment corresponding to dr and da. we tical if a). Though they would be denoted by du. and the similarly reduced to an infinitesimal. Now. consider for simplicity a function of a single scalar variable a and a single vector variable =/(r. r. and compare (92) with We then have (91). . being different. 173 To examine u say this matter. Now.. di and da. divide (92) is circuitous is obvious.). n The *-(*) n *.

There's the I can only give my own personal experience. yet the differential (du) is not the increment in u belonging to the finite increments (di) and (da\ nor is it anything like it. rub After is The above as fair of the difference ! muddling my way somehow through the lamentable quaternionic Chapter II. r and a are functions of t. it than I was then.174 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. on this very matter of the obligaI am no wiser now about tory nature of the finite differentials. At present let Determination of Possibility of Existence of Differential Coefficients. or du/da. the reasoning is the same. as in into by changing d to the scalar differentiator d/dt (for 116. OH. When we if proceed to form a differential coefficient. because this merely says that the value of the fraction du/dt is unaffected when we see that their values are equivalently expressed by the numerator and denominator are each multiplied by the same quantity. may reach a suitable age.. (du)/(dt) and (du)l(da). as du/dt. Anyway. and although we may turn it into an equation of differential coefficients example). the third chapter was tolerably easy . In the above. HI. but at the fourth I stuck again. Hamilton is a name to conjure by. u is a scalar But whilst the differential coefficient comes out the same. Although in we may employ the method of differentials any equation involving vectors. Perhaps there is some very profound and occult mystery involved which cannot be revealed to the vulgar Or perhaps in a treatise . whether or a vector function of r and a. " the study of quaternions too soon !" Or perhaps it I began is only a fad. using the symbol d. yet we cannot usually turn differentials coefficients differential when the variable is a vector. using the finite differentials. us return to common infinitesimal differentials. exceptions excepted. But then the Hamiltonian plan is said to be obligatory. and we see that the Hamiltonian plan is only a roundabout and rather confusing way of expressing what is done instantly with infinitesimal differentials. 120. and as clear a statement as I can make between common and finite differentials as applied to vectors . and if I live long enough. after all. . if r is a function of a. I am willing to learn.

. (100) (52) is we As a special result the value of zero (a parallelepiped in a plane) : and by equation may develope (101) to (rfb^a^b^-a But it is ..) Let w = ab . therefore. Here the imitation differential coefficient du/db is a fraud. (The failure has nothing to do with the previous question of finiteness or otherwise of differentials. because its expression on the right side of (97) is not clear of the differential db..(db) 1 (97) where (db) l means the unit db.... ... Nor is equation (97) of any particular use. This will be easily seen from typical examples. although true and interpretable geometrically.. but because they are not differential coefficients when the denominators are vector differentials... a differential coefficient clear of Thus.. = (db) l . ..... And (101) also contains the differential.. (102) (99) that is the really useful fundamental equation.db) l [a. (95) and let the vector b vary/ Then. .. the developments (100) to (102) being useless for ditferentiating purposes.. db = (dT>)- l (B. in the vector equation R = Vab let . whose direction it involves.. is differentials. com- pared with (96). this equation of differentials we may form dH/db and but neither of them. (100) contains the differential on the right side. Again.....ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. . Here we have (99) and from VdR/db . (96) and. .. . (98) b be variable. 175 This is not because we cannot form the expressions du\dt or dH/di. nor any combination of them.

. y and 2..176 if ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. . Even when we reduce the R viz: ' ^ dx This dy dy __ dx =__^52. dR = EdE If there l +H dU.. is .. and the dy. cannot possibly be freed of the differentials dx. with z = making and R3 = 0... ratio of are functions. CH. < 109 > . .. then dH = ~RdR l Dividing (107) by the scalar coefficient c?R... by differentiating. say in the plane of i. from we produce.. .. then ^R = R^R. (105) is the vectorial basis of the large and important branch modern mathematics called the Theory of Functions.. usually different. Thus. (103) a function of (104) then Rj. (107) the tensor does not vary. 121. of Variation of the Size and Ort of a Vector. we get a proper (108) differential =E . Sometimes unit vector.. j. Generally... l (106) be no variation of direction. R 2 R3 . and if . dR to di (even in the most general quater- nionic sense).. generality of the problem by and r coplanar.. dz. III.. which appears in electric and magnetic bidimensional problems.. whilst the direction does. of x. or it is convenient to have the variation of a its vector exhibited in terms of the variations of its size tensor and and ort. .. It only becomes one by special relations between the differential coefficients of Rj and R 2 with respect to x and y. dR/dr is not usually a definite differential coefficient.

<kc. From (108). proceed thus : . even when by some limitation.. in (106).. or.. and there is no abstrusity about it.. which makes c?R perpendicular to E.. (114) we get (115) JR = RdK 1 + R 1 (R 1 ^). xx. whose full expression is given by (106). Using (106) in (113) we get = Using (113) in (106) . .. . or differential coefficients with respect to make the differentials themselves finite. . .ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.. on differentiation. (116) which results may be geometrically interpreted. But it as well to avoid forms of this kind (with a vector variation in the denominator). provided we do not attempt to make vectors.. R = RR + R R 1 . Nor is there about differentials. we can get rid of the differential. .. we can change d 1 Of course. We have also R 2 = R2 . or.< where. . provided 177 dR1 = 0... dividing by R.. (112) (113) which says that the increment in the tensor is the component along the vector of its vector change dR. for d m) may be written djdt... any limitation... (Ill) It is this (scalar) kind of differentiation that nearly always occurs in physical applications.. dividing by R. as above... provided is dE = 0. See 116. . In differentiating the reciprocal of a vector. ^= it all of ( /R 1 + ^5... without to d/dt (or other scalar diffe- rentiator) thus.. .. which. gives RrfR = RdR..

. the Of may Triangle. when treated vecIt is denned by torially. the other hand. The Hamiltonian vector occurs in all physical mathematics involving three dimensions. Preliminary on V- Axial Differentiation. Differentiation referred to Moving Matter. (120) all special cases of the scalar product . that better known musical instrument. and that these are JV=-V 2 . from its alleged resemblance to an Assyrian harp presumably.178 Another way is ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.. its differentiating functions are simultaneously course.. and easier to set up. OH. V V = i-^+j/+k^. without any means of evoking melody. often more We see that the Hamiltonian convenient. however. scalar its components these differentiators are provided attended to. Enough has now been differentiating vectors. in virtue of i. j. dx dz dy (119) the second form being merely an equivalent one. is a fictitious vector. The Hamiltonian has been called Nabla. III. tor. First notice that V> and- it does not iV = Vi. having nothing vectorial about them Hamiltonian. are not inasmuch as the tensors of magnitudes. but the scalar operators. but are differentiators. perhaps equally well resembles want strings to play upon. by (106). which be either scalar or vector. not scalar magnitudes. 122. It may easily be shown. that these results are said about the meaning and effect The important vector differentiator equivalent. kV = V 3. k. - . 8. behaves just like any other vecAs. an operand is always implied. only the frame On thereof is meant. (121) . of V deserves and demands a separate treatment..

NV. therefore. N V is a differentiator. . and this form may be used with advantage if found easier to read.B+B..NV. VA.A)B+VA. = ds ds . Thus. The dots are merely put in to act as separators.NV. is arising from VAB.B.NV. (123) P being scalar and A vector. Expanded Cartesians. Of course. by similar forms. N being scalar. . NV. The A two equations will also serve to illustrate notation. j. Mere blank spacing would do. 179 where N is any unit s. Here or its equivalent means differentiation with respect to measured along the axis of N. tiator. Also . for example. use brackets last equivalently.. and keep the proper symbols connected. We that N Vj or the N component (scalar) of V> is an axial differentiator. This operation was termed by Maxwell differentiation with respect to an axis. (124) contains the eighteen differential coefficients of the components of and B with respect to x. usually denoted NV by ds or dx dy dz .ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. however.v1 / any It is plainly v times the corresponding axial differen- V- Thus.VAB=V(NV. length. or y.NV. the axis being that of N. if . which we may more see. A. vV Let. Cartesian expansion. is still a vector product.AB=A.. Thus. We may. simply because . y^ and z. k terms we like. say vector. A somewhat more general operator is vVj where v vector. NV.A. conveniently call axial differentiation. (iDi vV-D = KVi + va V 2 + %V 3 ) which we into use. w comes frequently denote the measure of some N2 .. and so on. V the result remains a scalar product. + JD 2 + kD 8 ).B. Similarly. but would be troublesome to work.B may be written A(NV)B. (124) (125) in . on its insertion between the two members of AB. (126) may separate into i. When v is the velocity of moving matter. expanded.

like dfdt and vV> a s exemplified in (124). it for w we turning it round. obviously vanishes If. substitute a vector function. a function of position and of time. we have a further development. III. moving matter is so connected that it moves If we set a as a rigid body. yet the rotational part of the motion will alter it by however. so that SA/St will not vanish. But if we wish to know the rate of time-change of w for the same portion of matter. In elastic solid theory the term vV. 8/8t is The operator distributive.w is generally omitted. we must go thus. (125). the equation extensively employed in hydrokinetics. and the direction of P's motion is containing P. a given particle describes a circle round obviously necessitated by the rigid con- the axis. then Sw __ dw ~St~di by elementary calculus. therefore. Let Swfit denote the result. If the Resolution of a Spin into other Spins. when w may happen that any one of the Thus the term on the left side keeps the same in the same matter. This . CH. That is perpendicular to the plane through the axis is. point P in the body equals the product of its perpendicular distance from the axis into the angular speed. in special applications.180 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. property of the moving matter (here a scalar. and. Motion of a Rigid Body. is being often small compared with the But. it three terms in (127) vanishes. say A. but it may equally well be a vector). dw dx ~dxdi dw dy ~dydi dw ~ dz Or where v This is the velocity of the matter. the speed of any 123. rigid body spinning about a fixed axis whose direction is defined by the unit vector a1} with angular speed a. in space Its rate is of change with the time at a fixed point and the matter to which this refers is changing. first term on the right. dw/dt. even not suffer change at first sight in the same though may matter.

Of course. v = q + Var . This is by the definition of a vector product. its tensor being the angular speed. according to the rule of vector Now addition. then. according to the Of course the body cannot spin about more than vector law. and q means the translational velocity of Q itself.. equation (129) will still be true. proves without any more ado that angular velocities vectorial method. is The most general kind of motion the rigid body can possess obtained by imposing upon the rotational any translational velocity common to all parts. translational velocities. instead of (128). We may infer from this that if we shift the origin to Q. or. Similarly. The former depends on the spin. the components of the right of a.. like vectors. Cartesian mathematics. every vector. nection of the parts of the body (or detached bodies)... the three terms on same nature. may be expressed as the sum of others. and its direction that of the axis of spin. Let q be this translational velocity. r is the vector to P from any on the axis.. are vectors of the one axis at once. velocity of P is therefore expressed by 181 The v = Var.. The latter fixes the position of P. (129) Here observe that q is the velocity of the point 0.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. for instance. a being a.. But every vector has its species. about different axes compound like displacements. as before seen. vector axis of spin with tensor equal to the angular speed. a point on a parallel axis. in (128) we see that the velocity of P is the vector product of a and r.. or forces. Therefore any spin may be replaced by other spins about other axes. but its motion is the same as if it could and This property is notoriously difficult to understand by did.. the . provided r means the vector from the new origin Q to P. its components are vector distances. obtained by elementary considerations. r being a vector distance. Here we may observe a striking advantage possessed by the For (128). Thus. or of any other point on the axis of rotation passing through the point 0. if . iu short. point (128) a = aa and 1. Thus.

CH. let R be the vector from any origin about which there is a spin a. by the preceding. may. where the transverse go. we shall where the velocity due to the rotation about either + w or w. to where h to P. plus the velocity at P due to rotation about the axis through Q. be more convenient not to employ the screw motion with a shifting axis. if we go to the distance w/a from the axis through Q. Take + R. we see that the general motion of a rigid body consists of a spin about a certain axis (which is termed the central axis). keeping in the plane The For if w is . celled. and let u and a be the translational and rotational velocities of a point Q fixed in the body. spin is. then Q R the vector from Q Put (130) v = q + Vah + VaR But so we have here a + Vah is. but to use (132). also have simultaneous spins about axes which do to a Thus. It translation along this axis. of rotation. is the vector from in (129). through the axis perpendicular to w. according to which side of Choosing the latter. (131) of by (129). We may and formally prove (130) it thus. say u. III. sum (132) of the translational showing the velocity of P to be the velocity u at any point Q. v = Va(r-R) (133) . combined with a transverse latter may be got rid of by shifting the axis. the velocity of Q transverse to the axis. it is a screw motion. and r the vector from point Q Then the velocity of P due to the to any other point P. It is involves and Q consists of a motion along the axis motion. All motion of is relative. combined with a That is. the velocity Q.182 axis of rotation is ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. reach a place the Q axis is the Q axis is we motion can- and transferring the axis to it. We may not meet. however. v = u + VaR. now through r=h Q. But observe the absolute character it absolute just because depends entirely upon relative motions. The translational velocity u of the point the spin a.

or the spin of the body. be regarded as indicative of a mental deficiency to be unable to readily work the Cartesian processes which is in fact my own is case. whilst the minus summation expresses the velocity at 0. in passing. speed ah. indeed. carrying when the matter itself is fixed.. 124. But that does not alter the fact that if not skilful in Cartesians. or is transferred from one part of the matter to another. terms of the type (133). we have S = i!r (n+VaIl)v w - - (135) But equation (127) moving through applies not merely to the case of matter space. These transformations are effected with a facility and a simplicity of ideas which put to shame the Cartesian processes. we should. I give these examples. each The velocity at P is then the sum of spin vector a. For example. difficult to the other method. and that the skilful mathematician who can play with Cartesians of great complexity. .ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. to illustrate the working of vectors. employ in it the special reckoning of v of equation (132). he may get along very well in vectors. a. in which r is the same for all. (134) where is the sum of the a's. The result is therefore Next with let there its v = VAr-2VaR. but also whilst some measurable pro- perty or quality moves through the matter. Thus. . if he would only get over the and accustom himself to the vectors as he had to do elements. 183 be any number of points of the type Q. giving the velocity of any point P in terms of u and a at an invariable point Q in the body. and think only of some stationary medium which can support and through which the phenomenon can be transferred.. two equal spins. when the property whose time-variation is followed belongs to matter moving as a rigid body. in opposite senses about parallel axes at distance h combine to A make a mere translational velocity perpendicular to the plane of the axes. some property with it. Motion of Systems of Displacement. &c. could as easily do far a man more work in vectors. Going back to (127). And here we may leave out the consideration of matter altogether.. It may.

. and these may be things to be found out.. in (136). The displacement system is. may have a system of electric displacement D in a which may be moving through it independently of dielectric. for instance) move and the motion is of a steady type. however. will (by reason of the selfiuduction) be changed to another displacement system. D becomes the known . so long continued that the displacement itself (in the moving system) as a rigid body. Here VaD is the rate of time-variation of the displacement in a moving element of the displacement system. however. and a maximum when it points straight away from the axis. too. not necessarily or usually the same when in steady motion as when at rest. only in relatively simple For it is implied that we know the motion of the followed up.. like the spoke of a wheel. the velocities of the connected sources be only a very small fraction of the speed of propagation of disturbances through the medium.D at . its stationary type. enable In the latter case only can it it Set steadily moving and it new displacement system. This will occur when the sources of the displacement (electrification. instantaneously (as so that the displacement system remains unchanged preserving as the sources if . It is zero when the displacement is parallel to the axis of spin. however. any motion it may possess. caused by the rotation. in rigid connection with the sources. whilst it moves through the medium as a rigid body. obviously quite but there the effects themselves are insensible. is steady. OH. Nevertheless (136). Thus. along with the electromagnetic equations. But should the displacement system move as a rigid body. (This is incorrect at a great distance from the sources.184 Thus. It cases that this can be is.) In this case. it is clearly unnecessary that the motion of the sources should be steady. Should. we ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. be regarded as known initially. Writing D for w in (135). the re-adjustment of the disus to find the placement move takes place practically the speed of propagation were infinite). and apply (127) to calculate D. displacement and how it changes in itself. we shall have (136) ~=VaD-(u + VaR)V. the matter is greatly simplified. III.

forced or unnatural state of At any perhaps rate. however. indeed. V. and strain do so. it strain-figure referred to the medium in certain places. moving as defined by u and a. 1892). on dynamical principles involving Newton's strain-figure symmetrical with respect to a centre will behave as a Newis to be done we may expect beforehand that a as does a similar electrical displacement . by rigid connection. (ordinary). 185 displacement system (of equilibrium). some idea of how the strain-figure We is have is first to get it kept up. D may signify the displacement whose variation in space constitutes the strain. similar to that of slow motion of Mag. and is expressed in terms of the velocity of the strain-figure. we might require intrinsic "sources" somewhere. in general. Imagine a stationary infinite medium with the speed of propagation of disturbances of strain be practically infinite. when A general caution. But. If then the strain-figure can move about through the medium. medium is 125. without symmetry. or in other wys upsetting the regularity of the moving system.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. sion for the From the expres- the complete strain-figure." treated of by Dr. Burton in the current number of the Phil. and for this reason be convenient to consider . But the real difficulty appears to me to be rather of a physical than a mathematical nature. inertia. is necessary there are conductors or other bodies in the field. Let be a Then the stationary first. As this kinetic of laws. they should also partake in the motion. Motion of a Strain-Figure. energy the mechanical forces concerned can be deduced. It an electrical displacement elastic system. the velocity of displacement. Similar considerations apply to systems of induction. induced in them. Then D is In the above. (February. provided the sources of the let somehow set into a strained state. the calculation of the forces concerned would be very troublesome tonian point-mass figure. C. which may vary anyhow. it will do so as a rigid body. moving with their sources. not To keep them from having currents containing sources. Equation (136) also applies to the motion through a " of a strain-figure.

we may conclude that [* where S In case of eolotropy. 126. how is it to be set moving? Three ways suggest themselves.V3 P. Now. however. we may keep the whole the sources themselves to portions of medium medium at all in at rest. Next a motion of the atomic portions medium (with the sources) through the rest of the either disturbing it to some extent near by. By (119) we have VP = LV1 P+j. j. (137) vector and meaning is easily found. or of x. since v Its is . The simplest and most easily understood effect of V upon a function is when it acts upon a scalar. Of course. . so to speak.V2P + k. having got a stationary strain-figure. a bodily motion is of the medium plainly inadmissible. These objections are. if it be our object not to move the Thirdly. This carrying the strain-figure with it. rather than the whole strain-figure. on the other hand. only of the would carry on the strain-figure. First. the dynamical question of the forces on an atom brought into play if the strain-figure can move in the manner sup- doing this posed. At present let P be simplex. But P may also be multiplex. Ill these portions of the medium (with the sources) to constitute the atom or molecule. any part. or the corresponding magnetic potential of magnets. as when it represents density. important to be deserving of a thorough threshing out. In the most important applications P is single-valued. y> z. . as when it is the magnetic potential outside a linear electric current. This disturbing it at all slipping through. or electric potential.] member of (26) the term Sa. From the fact indicated in (137) P that the rectangular scalar components of V P are the rates of increase of P along the axes of i. add to the right is .the torque and a the spin. But it is inadmissible. so that the atomic the medium change.* Space. scalar. the result is a vector. The second course above. The matter sufficiently only made suggestively. say P. CH. and cause move through it. although is it is more intelligible. k. or temperature. or not medium. implies something akin to liquidity. But there is no means for It lies beyond presented to our consideration. or pressure. This implies that P is a scalar function of position. .Variation or Slope VP of a Scalar Function.186 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.

true when for P is substituted a NvP we shall see later. . T is any tangent that is. as If is vP therefore that of the normal to the surface. N. we see that . and vP itself is the vector showing at once the direction and the rate of the fastest No perfectly satisfactory name has been found increase of P. Thus.NiVg) + k(N x V2 . being any unit vector. But the illustration is inadequate. (138) Comparing with (121).. then. (123). (141) as P. when the operand 1 . 2 2 2 = (VP)2 (V 1 P) + (V 2P) + (V3 P) . or the lines of cut the equipotential surfaces perpendicularly.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. If. we take P = constant. on a We in its product the semi-Cartesian formula have.N^). or space. (140) as with any other vector. to the surface at a chosen point.N3 V. s being length measured along and Nv-P is tolerably obvious algebraiidentity of It is not. we have. paring P with height above the level on a hillside. we shall have (142) (VNV)P = VNVP . .. vector. 3 P. however. since on the hillside we are confined is to a surface. any line in the tangent plane perpendicular to the = The direction of vP itself normal. and pass from one to the next (infinitely close) by the shortest paths.) + j(N8V Thus..variation of a scalar function. We may effect also here notice the vector scalar. we shall have TvP 0.. vP shows the greatest slope upwards. VNV = i(N 2V3 . The tensor of vP given by . . . by VNv for a vector product. we obtain the equation to a surface. (139) by The cally. Comfor this slope. . The distance between any two consecutive equipotential surfaces of a series having a common difference of potential varies inversely as the magnitude of vP. N by (137). 187 the component of vP in any direction is the rate of increase of P in that direction. is scalar..

that 2 Nq is incompressibility. it simplifies the reasoning. which measures incompressible. making the liquid But. . whore = 1. over any surface. and its size. or else there must be because sources of liquid within the region. expresses the total flux of liquid through the surface. So we have . 127. result CH. III. the normal component if N denotes the unit normal to the surface. let velocity. if N be the outward normal. any surface per- pendicular to dicular to of q. we have both the scalar product and the vector product to consider. we see that the summation the appropriate measure of the total strength of the sources in the region.e. The and vP. or the rate of supply. say D. and so is. The is the density and q the current is mq per unit area. is a vector perpendicular to the plane of other vector product. (143) called its divergence. m m the amount q. the operand of v is a vector. But is the effective flux the surface be not perpenonly Nq. the shape of the region. and is a very important function in physical mathematics. of liquid crossing unit.188 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. or the manner in which a source sends out its liquid (i. Then the current is simply q. and a maximum when they are perpendicular. if per second. we have . The position of the internal sources is quite immaterial. Now This amount is evidently zero. 2 Nq. or the summation of Nq Therefore. When Taking the former alone first. either the fluid is compressible. vanishing when they are any parallel. Then the summation represents the amount of liquid leaving the enclosed region per second through its boundary. Its general signification is D be best appreciated by a consideration of the Theorem of Divergence. equably or not in all directions). Adopting the latter idea. *s in N Scalar Product VD. not zero. to further simplify. because of the assumed If then we observe. The Theorem of Divergence. or state. Let liquid be in motion. The continuity of existence of the matter imposes certain restrictions on the motion. divD = VD = V 1 D 1 + V 2 D2 + V3 D3 This function of will . suppose the surface (fixed in space) is closed.. area of q. since it is the rate at which liquid is is 2 Nq being generated therein.

as in (143). by 2 Nq applied to the two sides of the This is. measured by the sum of the normal fluxes on its two sides per unit area. volume-density.i and i. line-. a vector. its appropriate reckoning is That this is the divergence of q is clear per unit volume. so that p is a continuous function of position. But we may have any number of other special forms. For purposes of reasoning. if the flux wholly proceeds outwards. so to speak. The outward fluxes due to are therefore . prove have to reckon the flux outward through the sides of a unit cube.q v and q l + v^. and the principle concerned The sources need not be so distributed We may is is Thus the density of a surface-source the same throughout. however. &c. have. Take its edges parallel to i. or . of co-ordinates.'ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND if ANALYSIS. k respectively. In the case of a point-source the measure of the strength is the flux outward through a closed surface enclosing the point infinitely near it the surface of the point. Then . sides . Any other- . whose sum is them v^. 2 includes them When the sources are distributed continuously. however. so that the full measure of the surface-density has to include the divergence of the surface-flux. at once by the Cartesian form there exhibited. enough. such as spherical. as there may be a flux in the surface itself. there are two sides whose outward normals are and their distance apart is unity. according to the explanations relating to divergence already given. and the most ready ing to the co-ordinates way to find the corresponding form is by the immediate appli- cation of the idea of divergence to the volume-element concerned. columnar. 189 p represents the strength of a source. it is best to entirely eliminate the idea of co-ordinates. may We That it is the same as vq. we ( 51). whose normals are j contribute V 2 g 2 and the remaining sides contribute V 3 ^3 Comparing with (143). to be found by calculating the flux leaving the unit area across its bounding line. not fully general. j. accordwe may choose to employ for calculating purposes. Similar considerations apply to linear sources. Divergence is independent as to give rise to a finite within the region concerned. unit area. that is.. and the all. we verify the Cartesian form of the divergence of Similarly the two . or point-sources.

so far as the common surface goes. . but it is not necessary or desirable to complicate matters by entering upon Divergence Theorem. to which it is applied. then the divergence of its velocity represents the rate of exIt would.for the other region. 128. and 2 ND for one is the negative of N that for the other. regions. Consider the apart summation 2 ND of the normal component of a vector D over Divide the region enclosed into two any closed surface. special peculiarities of discontinuity in considering the Its general form is 2ND = 2divD. is very useful. following way of viewing the Divergence Theorem. but if the reduction in distance be accompanied by a corresponding increase in strength of the This is the case of a sources. admits of finite differentiation . from material analogies. in order to satisfy the principle concerned. as above. Thus. Any distributed vector magnitude will have the same peculiarities of divergence as the flux of a liquid. If. magnetised particle on the theory of magnetic matter . the other a sink. may be understood. a pair of equal point-sources. we sum up the quantity ND for their boundaries. with sources and sinks to take the place of expansions and contractions. so that on the is + for one surface common to the two smaller regions and . of course). carry an incompressible liquid. Their bounding surfaces have a portion in common. the result will both regions (over be the original 2 ND for the complete region. The then. III. would be equivalent to no source at all if brought infinitely near one another . The normal is always to be reckoned positive outwards from a region. the final result is not zero. If it be the motion of a real expansible fluid that is in question. is far more manageable. it is not necessary.190 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. CH. surface enclosing the point will do. and the special meanings to be attached to the divergence of D. provided there are no other There may also be multiplex sources brought in by the change. one a source. sources. when the (145) vector D. is important. however. be very inconvenient to have to out this analogy in electric or magnetic applications . pansion. Extension of the Theorem of Divergence. Although a material analogy.

and of its Extension. on the right side. or the few semi-Cartesian form should it be a vector function. or the Curl of a Vector. N (147) Here. should F(N) be a scalar function.. (148) the Cartesian form. 191 we Since this process of division may be carried on indefinitely. we have a surface-. it will be seen that the validity of the process whereby we pass from a surface. take this form : 2F(N) = 2/(N) .summation. 129. (146) where. where any function which changes sign with N. is the out The function F(N).. depends solely upon the quantity summed We may therefore at up. once give to the Divergence Theorem a wide extension. is the value of 2F(N) for the surface of the element of volume.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. /(N)=V 1 F(i) + V 2 F(j) + V3 F(k) is . The Theorem of Version. to the elementary volume in question. see that the summation for the boundary of any region 2ND equals the sum of the similar summations applied to the surfaces of all the elementary regions into which we may divide the original. the element of the volume-summation.. viz. belonging now. But if this demonstration be examined. ND. say E. by considering a cubical element. is ward normal. In Vector Product WE. real vector. Thus. That is. The other function /(N). is The vector product 3 v and a given in semi-Cartesian form by WE = i(V E 2 V3E 2) + j^ - = curlE. We have already identified <(D) with the divergence of D. the meantime the other effect of v should be considered. however. .. changing its sign with N. we have a volume-summation whose elementary part <(D) is the same quantity 2ND as before. making it. instead of (146).. . A examples of the general theorem (147) will be given a volume-summation. on the left side. and on the right side a volume.

when the normal is i. k. expressed by the Theorem of Version. Two circuits are thus made. As On any circuit is surface draw a closed curve or force. where on the left side (150) we have a circuital summation. the tangent. by (149). or TE. before. the first case. and to i. VvE. therefore. if we rotate the same way in both the smaller circuits as in the original.192 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. or the axis is of the circuit. CH. is the value of 2 TE. The Calculate the voltage in the effective force per unit length of circuit the tangential component of E. and therefore the Similarly when N=j. This process may be carried on to any extent by drawing therefore have the result that fresh lines on the surface. 2 TE. . or a line-integration extended once round (along) the closed curve. to k. since here N = i. the axis of the circuit is j. having a portion in common. the voltage. because the common portion contributes voltage equally and oppositely to the two smaller circuits. we can best appreciate the significance of this formula by the general property involved. &c. The result is the voltage in the first circuit. Let. in the circuit bounding the particular element form of of surface con- cerned. E be electric due to E. Reckon up the voltage in each of the smaller circuits and add them together. summation being circuital. the quantity summed. j. in which 0(E). III. the i component normal component. To find the in terms of i. circuit. we need only calculate the voltages in unit square elements of surface taken In successively with edges parallel to j. to the square circuit. the voltage V 2 E3 -V3 E 2 that is. Or 2TE = 20(E). for distinctness. if T is the unit The voltage in the circuit is. j. We the voltage in the circuit bounding a surface equals the sum of the voltages in the elementary circuits bounding the elements of surface.. with respect to the divergence of a vector. and the voltage in it is expressed bv the of . and on the right side an equivalent surface-summation. that is. i. k. Now draw on the surface a line joining any two points of the circuit.

like suggested to me). be given later.. is the value of the former Of this general theorem a few examples of surface in question. but this does not not circuital voltage.. . connecting together the electric and 33 to 36. div and curl. circuital Since the validity of the process whereby we pass from a summation of the tangential component of a vector to an equivalent surface-summation depends upon the fact that TE changes sign with T. in any case. sometimes termed Stoke's Theorem. its direction being that of the axis of rotation. But I have not made use of the fluid analogy in describing and proving the Version Theorem. magnetic forces and their time-variations. coefficient 193 is ofj in (149). terminologically conSince divergence and curl are expressidered. If the vector whose curl is taken be velocity q in a moving Laws then curl q represents twice the spin or vector angular velocity of the fluid immediately surrounding the point in question . because it is not of material assistance. This theorem is particularly important in electromagnetism because it is involved in the two fundamental laws thereof. (151) expressing the Theorem of Version. why o . When E but is not electric force. Thus. or of Circuitation. which has been not use the vex operator only. So (150) becomes . (See II. affect the general application of the theorem. . magnitude twice the rate of rotation. 2 TE is circuital something else . the voltage in an circuit of unit area is the normal component of k VvE.) Chap. whilst /(T). and fluid... will A sible in terms of vex (a provisional name for v. the voltage the coefficient of elementary in (149). what were termed the First and Second Circuital Laws. few words regarding v.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. and later. NVvE. . and F(T) is such a function of T as to change sign with T . we may generalise the theorem thus : 2F(T) = 2/(T). And when N = k. (152) where on the left we have a circuital and on the right a surfacesummation.. that is. the element of the surface-summa2 F(T) for the particular element tion. may be useful.

Of too. 130. Now V alone product of v and divergence .194 the quaternionists obvious. whilst for the scalar and vector curl. for one may use it alone. CH. that it is desirable. or 2/. exemplified in vP. (153) us take a few of the simplest cases that present themselves. we convert it to an equivalent summation throughout the enclosed region by making/. Given any odd function F of N. HI. and work a vector. some examples should be given. should be In the first place.". when the combinations of symbols are not so simple that their meaning and effect can be readily seen. however. Returning to the theorem (147). not convenient for this purpose. be the . the space product are employed div and in descriptive matter. are so remarkably different in their algebraical development and in their meaning. its other functions. The scalar D conveys no such distinct idea as does nor does the vector product of v and E speak so is Besides. which are weighty.. it as this. the quantity summed. to very distinctly separate them in representation. namely. and VvE. the three results of V. expressing approximately their essential meaning without being too mathematical. and vD. Five Examples of the Operation of Surface to V in Transforming from Volume Summations. temporarily if desired. remembering. the symbol V is only prefixed to a scalar. however. The reasons. cases when it may be desirable to use v and Vv applied to vectors in formulae. in the preceding part of the present work (as in all former papers). Therefore. the normal outwards from a closed surface over which the summation on the left side extends. and when it is required to perform transformations also not readily recognisable.. ? ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. in the formulae as well as There are. plainly as the curl or rotation of E. even in the algebra.. as in V P. The utility of V in its vectorial significance then becomes apparent. let . variation of P. we require a convenient language for describing or referring to processes and results.

it makes a well-known elementary hydrostatic result. . (d). When negative. /=V F(i) + V2 F(j) + V 1 3 F(k). Take p negative to indicate pressure. or. thus.. . Vjp. or of The simplest case of all by considering that the is F(N) = N itself. . .. of course. Take F(N) = ND. (c).. (157) of the summations. = 2divD. The sum surface tractions equals the sum of the bodily forces vp arising from the space.. then.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.. This gives the most valuable theorem of divergence. have the same case again if p be constant.. value of last is 195 This 2 F(N) for the surface of the element most conveniently a unit cube. . that a normal pull applied to every part of a closed surface. by vector normals to the six faces pairs. a cube balance one another in we have (155) 2N = 0. . Here V has to differentiate (159) both D and P. by (154).. where P we shall find is a scalar. or by (158). . expressing that a closed surface has no resultant orientation . (156) so that we have 2Np = 2V# These are. . (154).. has no resultant. But when p is not constant. . (160) 02 .. . . Take F(N) = NDP. 2NDP = 2V(DP) .. so that of volume.variation of the internal tension. .... . Then. where D is a vector function of position.. of uniform amount per unit area. we (b).. If we multiply by p. (a).. any scalar function of position. (158) already discussed. (154) as in (148). Here. vector . by (154). .

But here we may shift the v's to the other side . by (163). Now VnH curlH. Applied wholly within the region. Ignore if the region. . . normal drawn inward from the boundary. gives the to elementary circuits current through a circuit.electric Then the circuitation of there be any. Then. of the V's a because they are scalars this produces /=VVH. III.2DvP is their mutual energy . apply the process of circuitation to a circuit consisting of two parallel lines of unit length. (162) interpretation may be more readily perceived by reversing Take N = . so that the previous equation may be written . The surface-distribution and the volume- . we find that VnH represents the surface-density for of current. Take F(N) = VNH. The quantity . (163) H be magnetic force. so that n is the the direction of the normal. Then 2curlH + 2VnH = If . cation and P the potential in another. (161) which is a form of Green's Theorem relating to electrostatic D may be the displacement in one system of electrifienergy. . and this is. so as to make the circuitation a maximum. region. by (154). we have. H H suddenly ceases. if J be current. 2 J = by taking any region. So. so that we have 2VNH = 2VVH = 2curlH. equivalently expressed by the sum of products of every charge in one system into the potential due to the other.. (e). by itself. infinitely close together. But at the boundary. there is a surface-current find its expression.. Only the unit line the region contributes anything to the circuitation . by infinitely short it to coincide with H.. The ..n.196 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the result is curl H. CH. . To joined inside of the boundary. current-density in the surface equivalent of the bodily altogether the magnetic force outside the is curl H is the . and but on opposite sides cross-pieces. /= ViViH + V2VjH + V3VkH. where as well. by (161).

. when put end to end. : Theorem 2F(T) = E/. and on the right an equivalent surfacesummation. Five Examples of the Operation of V in Transforming from Circuital to Surface Summations. have 2T = 0. Taking three elements of surface to be unit squares. (a). of these see the special form assumed by / in Thus. whose normals are i. (164) of the internal we have the divergence (at the surface) current. is zero. (169) . that the sum of any vectors forming.. whose elementary part / is the value of F(T) for the circuit bounding the element of surface. take a few examples of the extended of Version (152). Next. . 131. (6). nVVH=-VVnH. take F(T) =T itself.. we readily see that the corresponding /'s are v 2 F(k) . . = TP. . .FW-v^k). j. the unit tangent. .v 3 F(j). Thus.. . . on the left side. by the first of (166). we can vjfl-vf. Take F(T) Then.' . (165) where now. we have the circuital summation of an odd function of T. . Then we . (167) merely expressing the fundamental property of adding vectors. .. and on the right the equal convergence of the surface-current. (166) By means any case. k. that make up a circuital is.. where on the left side . a circuit. distribution of current are 197 properly joined together to complementary . (168) so. where P is a scalar function of position. we obtain - . we have.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. with normal i. viz. they are distribution. writing N for i.. v. .

(170) trans- Theorem again. the first of (166) gives /= V2VkH . Therefore. (173) The element slope of of the surface-summation itself. by (149). in . is V 8 P. therefore. But observe formation (164).P . (e). . Til. .i (iV) In general. . Take F(T) = TH. putting N for 2TH = 2NVVH = 2NcurlH i. . . by the 2TH = 2VNV. P.N NVP) = 2 Va P = 2 V (VNV)N. This has no volume (c). But here we have so that kV2 . taking N= . and therefore. . of surface.JV3)H. with normal i to the element /= V2kH . drawn perpendi- cularly to the plane of T and N. surface OH. /= V2Vki P V3Vji .VgjH = V2 H3 . Take F(T) = VTH. but (170) is more practically useful.H.198 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. (172) Let the quantity in the circuital summation be a vector of length P (a scalar function of position) is. its value being then zero. Here. meaning the it P on the surface disregarding any variation . The quantity summed over the is. and using the first of (166). This mnemonically useful. .j V3 = ViV.H. . /=V(ViV. (171) is which the operand is a scalar. . We then find. representative.V3VjH = V (kV2 . 2 VTN P = 2 (VP . putting N for i. . 2VTH = 2V(VNV)H. with normal i. we have Here. F(T) That = (VTN)P. i. (d). generally. similarly to (169).V3 H 2 = iVVH. therefore. we may also write it the Version that. - P = (j V 2 + kV3 )P = VP . the surface representative of the curl of vP.

which is preferable. bearing in mind the elementary reasoning upon which the passage from much more one kind of summation to another is based ( 128. and see how the transformations occur. the first form. expanded vectorially. assume that E precedes the y acts back- VNV. the be plainer. expressing the divergence of VEN. 199 may have out of the surface. In the third form. or (VNv)E. . But in the second form. Thus. and T becomes VNv. change the third form to scalar product of and E. that both duct are variable. since follows V. required the divergence of VEH. The equalities remain true when is vex. (a). by the parallelepipedal property. . the operand differentiator. . .. or else. Suppose.. NVVE = VVEN = EVNV. 2F(N) = 2F(V). when we pass from a and that (174) closed surface to the enclosed region.. however. I (175) N when we pass from a circuit to the becomes V. Thus. expressing the N component of curl E. instructive to go more into detail.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. We must either. when V V a . (176) common vector. if that VNv vectors in the vector pro(b). we must understand that is supposed to remain N N constant. provided we consistently employ the differentiating power in the three forms. Nine Examples of the Differentiating Effects of 132. Thus.E. V The fications introduced following examples relate principally to the modiby the differentiating functions of V. wards. satisfied surface But it bounds. then. 129). The last form of (173) involves the transformation formula (52). cannot recommend anyone to be It is with such condensed symbolism alone. as in the above examples. is not open to misconception. again. We have . (177} . 2F(T) = 2F(VNV). . We is have. * Observe that in all the above examples.

we have curlVqB = VVVqB. provided the differentiating power is made to act on both E and H. B VVVqB = VVq VqB + VV BVqB.200 where the first ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.. div VEH = H curl E-E curl H. in the q. and V B when alone. (179) the induction and q the velocity of the medium supporting it. . (184) . It gives VVVqB = q. where . and with(178) out ambiguity.B. and Bv. therefore the same is true in both terms on the right side. wherein H alone gives the rest. (181) That is to say. Taking the former. . . It is concerned in the deduction of the equation of activity from the two circuital laws of electromagnetism.B. (183) .. .q -Bdivq-qV. (180) both q and B have to be differentiated . . when . But on the left side VVVqB = qdivB + BV. its equivalent ferentiated. gives one part of the result. In these circuital laws we have also to consider the curl of a vector product. as without ambiguity or need of reservation.q when q alone term in (180). .. Apply the elementary transformation (52) to is B (179). (c). a very important transformation. viz. . This gives y is a mere vector. But we may of y use either of the others.Vq. . CH. But if we keep to the plainer and more usual convention that the operand is to follow the operator. Then. (182) . in which E alone is differentiated. we get entiated. Or we might write V q when q alone. VVqVqB = BV. W VqB = qdivB-qV. complete.. the curl of the motional electric force in one law. . fully. . . vB of (180) both q and B have to be differentiated. whilst the second is dif- form.. IIL form alone is entirely unambiguous. or rather.VB-B. -EVvH. qdivB when B is differ- Similarly for the other B alone suffers differentiation. So we have. and the curl of the motional magnetic force in the other. then the third form.q-Bdivq.

66. although abstract and far removed from practice. (186) (3). Equation (181) may be applied to the Take the second. electrification. in the form (4). and the corresponding form 66). .q)<r.q of p (and <r) then to the right side of (187) add the term (u-q)/>. and vector under consideration. . b7 ( 127 )> 122 so that ( 185 ) becomes w = q.curl (E - e ) = K + B + wo.. for example. is. . both P and D suffer differentiation. are of a sufficiently simple nature to enable one to follow the course of events. is the first law (equation . . w It is desirable to preserve the velocities u and w. Further.q of with respect to the ether motion u . of . as well as the velocity q of the medium.. scalar We have already had the divergence of the product of a Now examine its curl. we cancel the convective term wo-. (/). The circuital laws. scalar. or else the relative velocities. we have B + qy. of any vector 0. (188) Here V can only make a vector product with D.P-VDV. &c. in order to facilitate the construction and comprehension of problems relating to electromagnetic waves. (e).P = PcurlD-VDVP.curl (E -e ) = K + SB/8* + Bdivq-BV. So in the second line we have V both before and after D. have relative .q.q. and to the right ride of (186) add (w . Then. curlDP = VV(DP) Thus. . . which. . = VVD.B = SB/fo.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. curl(E-li ) = C + oD/o-* + Ddivq-Dy. (185) and suppose that or that sources move with the medium. because P is On the other hand. (187) The time-variations refer to the same (moving) portion of the medium now. is zero.curlVqB. That VWH = - (189) . The divergence of the curl or divcurlH = 0. iftg of By and qy has been already explained. (d). that is. 201 inean- Here the sum of (183) and (184) gives (181). by (181). But if we wish to indicate the movement of through the medium.

The Characteristic Equation of a Potential. For our present purpose we may conveniently denning the potential at A of a quantity p at />/47ir. to enumerate which would be valueless here. But the scalar product VV. fix its meaning by the rational B to be the quantity is where r is the distance from B to A. When p is distributed throughout space. or v2 . is the Laplacean operator. (191) which occurs frequently. here were a real vector (189) would mean that the of a parallelepiped vanishes when two edges coincide. This potential. V 2 A = VdivA-curl 2A.V has the same effect exactly as taking the curl twice. Thus. Or . If the vector A has no 2 If. curlVP = 0. . Let the operation curl be done twice on a vector.. . or throughout volumes. . of course. it has no divergence.. (193) Thus there are two principal forms.202 If ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. . y volume (g). . CH. (i). V2 = V12 + V2 2 + V 32 . and its Solution. the potential at any . (h). In the case of the operand being a scalar. then V A is the slope of its divergence. 133. 2 the divergence of the slope of the scalar. III. then . . 2 (curl) A = VVVVA = V-VA-V2A. then we have (194) V P = divVP. or over surfaces. whether at points. (190) Vw is zero. There are several senses in which the word potential has been employed. . A somewhat similar case of the curl of a polar force. The Potential of a Scalar or Vector. The last equation brings us to the theory of potentials. 2 hand. Of course or VV-VP = 0. . on the other curl.. . (192) by the transforming formula (52). is presented by the vanishing Thus.

We may connect these potentials with v as follows Given mentionable one. may use the same definition when if it is a vector that has be potted.. where rx is a p. A the potential of (196) . then Thus. For we may construct any unless we subject F to limitations. That . pot means " the potential of. which should. if the vector be explicitly given. is (195) if P is We to 0." or kettle than the trigonometrical sin has to do with the un- The summation " It seems unnecessary to say so." Then. pofntis is. or potentialised. . is now a vector summation. and r 1 /o/47rr unit vector drawn from p towards the point under consideration. be regarded as a direct process. : that divF = that is />.. the potential of p.. 203 the sum of the potentials of all the elements of p.. according to my . . F perhaps. by the manner of construction. since it is derived from F by differentiation. it is clear that p is known definitely.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS... But if it be p that is given... making the resultant F be 1. rather than inverse. the theory of sources already explained Unitarian system of one "line of force" to the unit "pole. But if it be done equally in all directions.. Also. F is not immediately deter minable. so that p/4nr2 is " the intensity of the " force at distance r from the point-source 2 the vector force to correspond.. that the divergence of a vector F is p.. of divergence has been explained more than once. but one cannot be too particular.." and has no more to do with potential. that is. its intrinsic and its vectorial meaning. the resultant F will satisfy (197). number rational of different F's to satisfy (197). Now. whether equably or not. and it will do so independently of the way we choose to let a source send out the flux it generates... (198) . source p of F Let every elementary send out the quantity p of F. .. (197) meaning both The to say.

There are . That there is no other solution may be proved analytically But we do not really need any Theorem. be electric of curl. is zero. I force. (199. curl so that if F = 0. constant throughout all space). would. F + f. the voltage in any circuit The meaning than once observe. has been explained more both its intrinsic and its vectorial meaning. For a constant vector (that is. Green's there could be a second solution. The property (199) source. and also no curl anywhere. Of course this constant solution has no relation to the sources p. If allowed. imply that the vector by had no divergence... we may say that (198) is the solution of (197) and (199). plenty of other things they may concern themselves about perhaps more profitably. The second denies that it is circuital. has no curl and no divergence. It is sources. say. special solution of (197) CH. by summation..204 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. But (198) does not give the only vector which has no curl and a given divergence. . and excluding the constant solution. which has a remarkable viz. and may be wholly ignored. IIL we obtain a property. to analysis of that kind.. or to remember it If is they will not take the trouble to seek of no consequence to them. But the first means that f is entirely circuital... Remembering this.. F would not vanish at an infinite distance from the sources. (200) . where F is the solution (198. and is visibly true in the case of a single therefore separately true for the fields of all the therefore. Those may who seek can find. So f is nonf of these conditions existent. if existent at all. Now observe that or the slope of the scalar l/47rr is the vector with tensor l/4?rr2 and direction Tr It follows from this that -Vpotp = F . F . if the intrinsic meanings of appeal For the admission that divergence and curl are understood. unless we go to the very end of space to find the sources... is true for the com- plete F... by (197) and (199).

and make it (204) div(-VP) = /> we see that Then.v 2 and pot are reciprocal.. 0. if by this we understand slope downwards. The Taking the divergence /o of (201). The consideration of F rather than of P has many advantages for purposes of reasoning. by (190).v 2 are equivalent. is therefore the same vector as was constructed to solve (197) subject to (199).V 2 pot CJ + j ( . even for calculating purposes. tion. is P the potential of in (198). (202) A solution of the characteristic equation of P. or F= -VP= where -Vpotp. and the consideration is sometimes certainly useless and misleading. by (197) and (194).V 2 C 3 ). In another form. . slope of P. . The property has only been proved for a scalar function. Therefore. . the same is true for any distribution of sources. having a scalar potential. as above. so that we have proceed further.V2 pot = . again the two equations (197). 205 when a single point-source is in question. = divF= -V P= -V 2 pot/x .V 2 pot CJ + k ( . to kinetic problems. is (203) therefore (195). it is also true for the vector vector . If we start from (203). for instance. Thus. and F is as /o. we should first use (194). But since any be written iC 1 +jC 2 + kC 3 and the property is may true for the three scalars C lf &c. as distinguished from calculaThis is true even in statical problems. becomes sometimes very questionable.. when F is When we electrostatic force. or V2P=-/o.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.. . .. (199) to consider. or (pot)" 1 and . 2 we have. and it is the solution vanishing at an infinite distance from the sources. by summation. and P the corresponding potential. or vector rate of fastest decrease. - VP has no curl. From (202) we see that . when F can no be wholly expressed as the slope of a potential. (201) as denned by (195). -V~ 2 and pot are equivalent.V2 pot (iCi + jC 2 + kC3 ) pot = i ( . explicitly. the longer utility of considering P at all.

(204). Divergence. . we shall have A = potC. . 134. or wholly divergent. then. . be circuital. let A of be now called A^ (206) be polar. So. 2 (205) (206) -V2 potC = C (207) In short. circuital. from the above point of view. For in (206).V 2 by the also cir- proved by (189). relations if A . . . as well as when it is a scalar. we vector operation curl done twice. by (190).. (208) (209) or curl pot 2 C^Cj Of course. is A . Connections of Potential. by (193). III. (210) (211) Here again we have replaced V2 by a double operation.2 components. C x is Here. as is have replaced the scalar operation . Separation of a Vector into Circuital and Divergent Parts. Series of Circuital Vectors. cuital. <fec. . cuital. and be the potential of C 15 then. the characteristics of the . because 2 we see that the potential of a circuital vector is also Conversely. . . we shall have or -VdivA2 = C 2 -VdivpotC 2 = C 2 . OH. Aj is the potential of C 15 A 2 of C 2 and A 3 of C 3 which makes A be the potential of C. the Again. and Slope.206 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. first This is similar to the passage from (203) to div and then V. . and the potential of C 2 . then the Laplacean y 2 instance. A A But the above gives a very partial of the general theory of potentials. are constant vectors. and that the potential of a polar vector is also polar. according to (196). Curl. only done in the reverse manner. then. so that pot and V are reciprocal when the operand is a vector. In (210). and imperfect view There are numerous other between a vector and its associated functions. the characteristic equation of the vector merely unites. if A x be cirmay. because the reference vectors if i. . by (193). polar. -V A = C. C2 is. curl 2 A! = 0!. be replaced by -(curl) 2 That is.

.. by (212). . then.. . B 1 . (217) .... . . if 2 we have 2 -VdivA = C 2 may .. Let. so be added to the Aj in (208). so it may be added on to the in (210) without affecting its truth. Go over the apart from the mathematics.. 1 giving cur! 2 A = C . A I} is circuital. A 2 is zero. say B2 so that whole field of there is . (212) Similarly.. (213) Here remember that A is the potential of or Oj + 2 These equations supply one way of effecting the division of a vector A of general type (having both curl and divergence) into two vectors. .. is the following.. (214) A l is the potential of C 1? so by (213).. -potVdivA = A 2 separates A.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. whilst the other A 2 is polar. that is. The one most easily understood.. First measure the curl This is the same as the curl of A l because the curl of of A. = -VpotB2 . and from x by a different 2 There are many other ways of splitting into circuital and divergent parts. 2 pot curl ... then we do not need to go further.. Knowing A 2 we know A 1? or A A 2 Or we might vary the process thus... A = A 1} and A 2 = 0. A A = Aj therefore A . Thus. Similarly.. . For A 2 is the potential of 0. one of which. separates method. A 2 has no curl. 207 A A = Aj + A divergent .. If we find that no divergence.2 so. thus. But should there be divergence. A (215) A A and measure its divergence. . (216) A 2 corresponding to the divergence B2 according to the method already explained with respect to (197).. Now Aj has no divergence. from A.. divA = divA 2 = B2 then construct the flux .. (218) . . for we know that A is circuital already. from A. by (198) and (200).

or results.. first the result the circuital part of C. circuital solution of this equation It is given by r CH. .. . Cr from their variety. . as above.. . find A A! = curl pot B! For Aj as thus defined is evidently circuital. and next. A Bp Aj. . Here we use curl pot = the operand is circuital. and any one which is the eurl of the . or both circuital and divergent. . (220) l. since curl Bj = G v A1= pot Op which was our definition of A in terms l (221) is the same as of Cr and curl pot are equivalent when the operand is circuital. regarding .208 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. . 2 pot curl We have also the similar exchange0. But instead of (219) we may write 2 because A 1 =potcurlB 1 . which is the given datum. III.. by taking the curl. We have a series of vectors Dj . either way. that is to Bx as given. we produce curl 2 AJ = curl pot (219) in the first place . (223) is where C These is any vector. . . Thus pot curl pot curl C = curl pot 0. (221) showing an entirely different way of going from B x to A r For A! as thus constructed is circuital . the operation of curl to which it is subjected We therefore have renders its introduction inoperative. as in (209). start = = with any circuital vector r Let B x curl Ap O x curl =cur!0 1 &c. They are. though puzzling at are yet capable of being brought under rapid. however. .. is any vector. because if any divergent vector be added to the B in the right members x of (219) or (221). Thus. B^Bj. and construct the say. which are all circuital. . also equivalent when the operand is general. C = curl 2 pot For. B I} Op Dp of Ep . (222) where ability. and..mental control by bringing them together in a compact form.

. which is the only unproved formula in the con- of the series of circuital vectors. (224) down two steps. (226) combined . Deferring temporarily a vectorial proof of the last formula (229). we can do it in one operation by potting . . 209 preceding. thus. B^potDi If (226) we wish to go up only one step. so far as the circuital vectors are concerned. . we may do it by (224). by means of the operation of curling for example. C 1 = 2(VD 1 r1 )/47rr2. in rational units. (225). first go - ) . that is. and then up two. have now a complete scheme. We A nections Series of Divergent Vectors. thus. But if we wish to make one step up directly. . whereby we pass direct from electric current to its magnetic force. . we do not need and then another. . as in B 1 = pot Dj = pot curl G l or else. 135. without making use of the double step. already used. If we wish to rise up two steps. . Laplacean v however. we wish to go to go first one step...ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. also as above but can make a double step in one operation by means of the 2 Thus. We saw the advantage of the systematic arrangement of the connected circuital vectors . We thus pass down the series one step at a time . -VSB^Dj Now (225) go the other way.. either go down one step first. where G 1 is reckoned. D^curlOi If. (227) up two steps and down one j B x = curl A! = curl pot Or (228) There are other less important combinations. any pair of neighbours which. as above. we must do it by the Amperean formula. D (229) where i^ is a unit vector from the element 1 to the point at distance r therefrom. it will now be convenient to bring together the connections of the divergent vectors and associated quantities.. is (when applied to G l and D x in the above series).

. we tions . vector to the following one. we can do so by means of the Laplacean operator. the divergence of E 2 the slope of D 2 &c. that of slope. 2 C 2 = E2 . . operation were involved six. when now have two distinct we pass from a scalar operato the next vector. then. four kinds of rapid mental control.. But they are separated E2 from one another by two steps instead of one. as was the case .. The advantage is much greater in the divergent series. viz. to carry us from any in the circuital series last treated. also. as in D 2 = div02 (231) But if we wish to go down two steps at once. on account of the less uniform relations involved and the greater need of a system to bring them under In the circuital series. in the circuital series. as in -V circuital series. no curl. be a series of vectors and scalars connected as follows with : Start A 2. The intermediate quantities Instead. D 2 . havinr Let B 2 be its divergence . 2 the slope of B 2 .. and that of divergence. B2 . (233) In this respect.210 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY... we have the same property as in the have also identity of operation in going up two steps at once. . of the single operation of curl which suffices. . though of greater complexity. as in We B2 = potD 2 . be found to be perfect. Thus. C2 . as in -V B = D 2 2 2. The chord let will but in the divergent series there are . (232) or else a vector.. as in C 2 =-VB 2 . III. are scalars. A . E. .. whether from a scalar to the next higher scalar. which is to be any divergent vector . D2 . . whether the operand be a scalar. . are all divergent vectors. . A 2. CH. to be like producing a harmonious chord out of apparently disconnected tones. (234) . that is. Then 2 C 2 2 . . (230) to the next when we pass from a vector scalar.

. B2 = divA2 = divpotC2. if C 2 = (div).C 2 =-2r1 2 /47rr2. we in may utilise the preceding in two ways. . (241) In these formulas (240). (238) when rising from the vector C 2 to the scalar 2 B2 . either up or differ in the single steps. and then by y (down one). without using the double step either up or down. . secondly. (241). but see that they are alike in the double steps. First go up two steps and then down one. the fundamental formula of the inverse. or as in . and also as in 2 = -VB2 = -VpotD 2 . we require to use a different process. rx is a unit vector from the element in the summation towards the place of the resultant . down. as . as in 211 C 2 = potE2 . any member (235) of the series being the potential of the second after. Next. . . as in the circuital series. vector C 2 to the scalar B 2 just above it in the series. There is but one kind of p2 . now have a complete scheme for the divergent vectors we had before for the circuital series. .1 when we rise D 2 = 2r1D 2/47rr2 . Or.square law upon which But in rising from a our potential investigations are based. . . that as We we from D 2 to C 2 in (240). or from a vector to the next higher vector. Finally. .ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. . and then by div (down one step) . . . . namely. to go up one step only. (236) where we pass from the vector C 2 to the scalar B 2 by pot first (up two steps). 1 B2 = (-V). (240) from a scalar D 2 to a vector 2 which is. (237) where we pass from the scalar D 2 to the vector 2 by pot first (up two steps). On comparing them is. we may first go down one step and then up two. (239) from the scalar D 2 to the vector C 2 we wish to rise up one step at once. as in B 2 = potD 2 = potdiv0 2 . . in fact. we can do it by means of when rising . = potE2 = -potVD 2 . . and from C 2 to B 2 in (241).

to the other pvq into that of justification of the process. by the second we to rise from (for ... 2pVq=-2qVp. electrification to electrostatic displacement. may be denoted by (curl)" 1 curl. . the transfer of the symbol v from one operand with change of sign.. 1 1 div. In the divergent series the down steps are done by . instance) or.. whereby we rise from electric current to its magnetic force . the Amperean formula rationalized. (244) work done by a vector-analyst is exhibited in (244) viz. whilst the right member is a volume-summation throughout the Equation (243) is.'. by observing that (242) a formula not previously used.. All the itself. of their product. q be scalar functions. we of the right shall member of (243). If. converts the integral of The previous remarks contain the -gvp. Now integrate through any region. III. step up and but one kind down in the circuital series. their inverses may be denoted by (-v). then. We know that 2Np2 = SV(p2).. if . with pq substituted for p. whereas there are two kinds up and two kinds down in the divergent The down step in the circuital series is always done by the up step.. case of (157).212 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. from intensity of magnetisation to magnetic potential . Let p and and consider the We . in the third we rise from (for instance)..v and by series. The first is (241) that remains to be elucidated vectorially. CH. shown in (229). . a region bounded by the surface. but which is seen to be true it is true for each of the three components of V. (240). the surface- summation vanishes.and (div)It is now the nature of these inverse operations (229). electrostatic force the electrostatic with a slight change (of sign). potential The Operation inverse to Divergence. have space-variation 136. have a simultaneous evanescence and therefore. and .. in fact. .. by (242).. (243) N is region. so that the left the unit normal outwards from the boundary of the member is a surface-summation.

and change the sign.. the potential due to a unit source at distance pot r. has. (246) gence which exhibits the divergent vector in terms of its diver2 B2 It is the same as (240). 2^D 2 = is . . g. Integrating throughout any volume.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. . all the vector-analyst has to do is to shift the operator v from one operand to the other. by 2^divg= -SgV^.) If in (250) we give^? the special value l/4?rr. where N is as before. say The new quantity pg in general. so of our divergent series. (251) . we obtain D 2 = B2 = -2 CW = . itself may be any one becomes B2 Then . then (245) the potC 2 = A 2 = 2B 2 V^.rr .. say C 2 when q . (250) Here the portion 2 G l Vp vanishes because Cj is circuital and yp polar... pq a vector. if (248) as in (159). substitute for q in Slope.. being a vector. 213 Now - vq is a polar or divergent vector. A . . which is one of the important theorems in analysis that become visibly true by following the tubes of the circuital flux in performing the summation.2 GVp = .. let same as .2 G 2Vp . The Operation inverse to 137. . Next. (See 87. The vector g here has no restriction imposed upon .. . since v# ij/lnr2 if rx is the nnit vector from B 2 to 2 .. Lastly. . So. A .. (247). we have SNpg = 2divjpg. .. (249) and. 2^C2 = 2B2V^. viz. the surface-integral vanishes. we have div^?g =p div g + gVp.. we obtain. giving .2 G Vp. both curl and divergence^ Considering the latter first... in this transformation. when the summation is seen to vanish separately for every tube. (247) which is an example of (160). it. It may therefore be of the general type = 0! + C 2 .. 2 . (245) is p have the special value l/4.

g.. . 2^curlg = 2VgVp.VgVp. we obtain . III. . with a change = l/47rr.. argue from this. if we calculate by (255) the magnetic force due to a supposititious current element at a point. is zero. obtain.214: ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. (254) of is where the symbol VV is moved from g to p. then. take > no restriction upon g. provided be the existence of magnetic force. that is to say. that there could not be such a kind of electric current . a system of circuital current resembling the induction due to a magnetised particle. For instance. Curl. we get. taking g = C. as before. since there In this. Br This is to say. CH. from O x to of The divergent part equivalent That contributes nothing. indeed. might.. automatically rejects the want of circuitality. Integrating throughout any region.. . if (253) a case of (162). with pgput for H. we obtain the magnetic force of a rational current element. since the mathematical machinery itself* constructed on old ideas. We and refuses to admit the purely divergent part as contributory to magnetic force. which is . showing how to pass up one step in the divergent a vector to the preceding scalar. which is tantamount to what Maxwell insisted upon. The Operation inverse to 138. This is a perfectly valid the test of the existence of electric current argument. the magnetic force due to a completely divergent distribution of electric current. in another form. for example.) . according to Ampere's formula for the magnetic force of a current element. we have the curl curing =#> curl of pg to consider. (252) by (188). showing how to pass is up one step in the circuital series. Here. 2VN^g = 2curl^g. Thirdly. we by (252). that the current must be circuital. (See 62.. the surface- summation vanishes. . simply by re- moving the sign of summation. So. It is series from the same as (241). (255) which is the companion to (251). to (229). sign.. . remembering the value of Vp.

of lower dimensions than 1/r2 itself attenuates to nothing. The three up-step formulae may. or may not. be transformed so as to involve entirely different operations. or 2 VN>g. of its being. when there is an attenuated quantity to be summed. 215 Remarks on the inverse Operations. it is sufficient. or 2 Npg. owing either to the actual absence of anything to be summed. infinitely .ELEMENTS OP VECTOIUAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. and in (251) the same. which represents g. to include all the 2. The surface-summation then may. will ensure the vanishit which reprethe surface to com- B Now. vanish. This is what occurs space-summation has . in (241). it is sufficient to To mention the case The face is cation of the simultaneously infinitely magnified. the summation may still not vanish. 139. when the quantity to be summed extends to infinity. surface-integral finite always. of a single of the flux it produces is point-source. per The quantity p unit area. in (255). Then we have B2 =-pot(C 2 /r) Do the same in (240).. Now it is obvious that these are true if the surface be taken wholly outside the region occupied by the quantity q or g. The value pq or pg is made zero all over the surface of summation. if they are existent at all at infinity. it will be observed that in every case we base the proof upon the vanishing of a surface-integral. the enclosure by the surface of all 0. In (246) the sents q. Returning to the three single up-step formulae. in general. therefore. so that the space. being the measure of the strength of the source. in the applications made. for pletely enclose all B 2 Again. is usual to imagine the surface to be at infinity. put p for 1/471T. At infinity the flux may be infinitely attenuated. but the surillustrate this. and (256) we obtain (257) C 2 = pot(D 2/r). viz. . by inspection. ing of the surface-integral. This is also most But caution is sometimes necessary convenient. Thus. But in the appliabove processes to practical cases in electro- magnetism it is usually quite easy to see that the integral over the surface at infinity vanishes. according to circumstances. 2 Npq.summations extend over all space. Even if the quantity summed becomes infinitely small at infinity. or else. as well as q or g.

C 2/r. Integration . (259) the summations being throughout space. called integration by parts.. whilst "by parts. and converting the summation on the left to a surface-summation by the introduction of N. the potential there is that of a different distribution from that These quantities. III. and (253). (247). but are definite only when this point is fixed. G1 is circuital. and its methods go straight to the mark at avoid a large amount of quite useless work.. The last three formulae are quantities whose potentials are calculated by the not functions of position. then we shall have 2fcurlg = 2gcurlf. But there is a caution to be mento practical treatment. its dS and dx dy dz. . are belonging to the first point.. The vectorial you keep your attention fixed upon the actual magnitudes concerned." It is usually a tedious and uninforming process. but D 2 /r has curl VDj/r has divergence. of course. of the point where the potential and are independent of the position is reckoned. &c. as in (243). or. (252). The transformations (244)." Energy Equivalences in the Circuital Series. at any rate . and double /'s. which are de- finitely distributed in space. all . and enable n. and their essential relations. with I. expressed by putting the sign of summation before every term in (242). a vector. C 2 is purely divergent. and so on. that is. utilise these formulee for We may tioned. is the following Substitute for p in the preceding. There are. say f. its triple m. very (248). or the more general ones containing the omitted surface-summations. . or. For example. (254). once.. . CH. in Cartesians. nection with the circuital series of vectors. instead of being distracted by a crowd of coordinates and components. (229) gives . 140. in the Cartesian " mathematics.216 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. (249). As you pass to another point. therefore not subject to the various properties of the circuital and divergent vectors already considered. many other cases which arise of this to : " " One of the most important in conby parts integration. Finally. are examples of what is. (258) sometimes purposes of calshould the integrations to be performed be amenable culation.

as usual. . We have.. = 0. In any of these summations we may convert either of the circuital vectors involved to a general vector by adding any For we see. . 2 in a similar D^ = 2 0^ = 2 6^ = 2 A^. 141. A Applying this result to the series of circuital vectors 15 A 2 &c. and the suffix 2 to the = 0! + C2 &c. . Energy and other Equivalences in the Divergent Series. lf and 2 CgFj = 0. their intermediate scalars have properties similar to (262). Operate on one member by curl and on the other by (curl). we obtain various equivalences. for is the same as 2 OF or the same as 2 1 F. and therefore so does the left. through enough of it 217 to include all the quantities summed. we have. 2) 2 OF = 2 (Cj + so that the (F! + F2 ) = 2 0^ + 2 product 2 F2 . (264) diver- summation of the scalar of the two The series of divergent vectors and gent vectors now enters. by space-summation. . 2D 2 = 2C E = 2B F = 2A G 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. divergent vectors. So right summation vanishes. 2fcurlg = 2gcurlf+2divVgf. 2D X 2 is the same as 2DjD. If this vanish. the divergent vector.1 to pass from one form to the next. OF for example. Similarly. It will be understood here that the suffix 1 refers to the circuital vectors entirely. since 2 OjFg = 0. (263). then (259) follows. A 3. . and that But we cannot generalise both vectors at the same time. which is . Thus. . (261) and the third term may be at once turned into the surface-summation 2 NVgf. The proof is that since divVgf=fcurlg-gcurlf. each of which is the curl of the preceding.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. . (263) and so on. Take manner 20^ . . Also all . by (259) that if f is polar. . 20^. . (262) through space. These properties of the space-integrals of scalar products in the divergent series are formally obtainable from the corresponding ones in the circuital series by changing the suffix from . (260) (178) again.

using (249). (268) a case of the theorem (147) or (153). which is .g. analogous to (262).. III. 2. we have 2C 22 = 2B2D 2 = 2A2E2 =. so that the full expression is in the third form. 2 C 2 D 2 = . viz.. depends upon The last transformation 2(Nf)g = 2(Vf)g = 2(gdivf+fv . = . . .g).2 C 2VD 2 = Similarly in all integration.D 2 by by by . (269) . The preceding equations conveniently summarise them. . For by the exchange of rest example. (265) (266) 2D = 2C E = 2B F = . upon (249) . .E 2 2. .2B E 2 2 . . CH. The corresponding transformations do not work so symmetrically as the previous. definition of definition of E2 B2 . 1 to 2 . (267) Here the symmetry breaks down. 2 2 2 2 2 2 .2 div A2 . 2A V. But it will be observed that there is another way of pairing terms in the divergent series. = ... and from These transformations all the square of a scalar in the second.2 VB2 . If the surface-integral vanishes at infinity. starting from the square of a vector in the first set.. . (263). Thus.E2 by .. Note that in the second form V has to differentiate both f and g. = = 2B2 VD . we have 2gdivf= -2fV. . 2 D 22 = 2 D 2 div C 2 . we pass from any form to dhe next v and div between the factors. a vector with a scalar. by integration.. by by by definition of D2 E2 . that is.. at the same time changing the type from clarendon to roman should the quantity typified be a scalar.. For instance. definition of C2 . (244). definition of .218 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.. 2 the E 2 2 rest..

. may. in Let also expansion. .n. (270) Next take DE 2 2 .2 N|D 22 The result is . if the surface-integral at infinity vanishae.2 D 2 VD 2 = . (272) the displacement. We . in speculations relating to ethers they have any values not making the stored energy negative. the elastic theory presents excellent illustrations of the above transformations and the general theory of v. scalar it is . But in the theory of the elastic solid. 142. tion . So it now goes quite differently. by going the other way. The Isotropic Elastic Solid. tive value . multiplied by. besides that. the other Thus. . go down to the nega. whereas in the former case. Relation of Displacement to Force through the Potential. 2 D 2 E 2 = . . then the equation of motion is f + 7iV 2 m Thomson and to compression or Tait's nota- G + wVdivG = /oG. (273) (274) . (271) therefore zero. . and f the impressed force per unit volume. pGy /oG2 . It usually happens that potentials present themselves in physical mathematics as auxiliary functions introduced to facilitate calculations relating to other quantities. m remembering (193). into two equations. .ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.2 VJD 22 = . If the solid be homo- geneous and isotropic. Whatever limitations is where G may may Thus solids as need to be put upon the values of m and n in treating of we find them. there are but two rigidity elastic constants. .C 2 by using the same transformation Here the vector is the slope of the (269). divergent. Thus. one circuital. and the others divergent. . keeping n positive. as we shall see presently. . . f into fx + f2 and G into Gx + G2 where f and G are Split x T Then (272) may be split circuital. . the potential function presents itself in a very direct and neat manner. the divergence of the vector was the associated scalar. 2C 2 D2 = 2C 2 divC 2 =-2C2V. 219 have which also. the Tc n and the coefficient of resistance = k + Jra. is the transformation used in getting (267). whilst p is the density.

III. since they represent "rate of acceleration of momentum" (a long-winded members expression). (277) Symbolically. in the general case. which f2 may be. we must parts. if we take the curl of (272). so that the propagation of circuital disturbances depends only upon the rigidity and density . (278) (279) In the case of incompressibility Jc. In equilibrium. speed. . In the circuital equation Jc does not appear. But when of propagation. We see that nGr l . . whatever For f2 is balanced by difference of pressure. and therefore m. and the speed of disturbances of this class is {(n + m)/p}l. divergent impressed force is its potential divided by n + m . . In the divergent equation both n and k appear. and a complete amalgamation of the two speed m kinds of disturbances. G2 is zero. (n/p)l. the potential of flt and (n + m)G 2 the potential of f2 the displacement produced by circuital impressed force is its and the displacement produced by potential divided by n . so that the curl of G.220 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. is infinite. or the expansion. CH. And if we take the divergence of (272). and the rate of its propagation depends upon both = 0. which is twice the rotation. and is propagated inde- pendently of compressibility. The corresponding speed is infinite. In another form. whilst. (276) is The solutions are visible by inspection. the divergence goes out. we see that the divergence of G. and the displacement is pot fjn. but is set instantly. has the divergence of f for source. That is. has the curl of f for source. when equilibrium is possible. split the impressed force in into circuital different and divergent to and then re-unite them resultant proportions obtain the displacement. there is but one rigidity and compressibility. We therefore have (275) . so that up is there no displacement. the right of the last three equations vanish.

This is the case of Sir W.. and there is but one speed. and (282) (283) F =/tV 2 G + wV 2 G2 .. Calling the first part we have. is m On is the other hand. U 1= -2|wG V G = 2Jn(curlG)2 .ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. (284) . So. Solid. Thomson's contractile ether. G being the final displacement. by (275).2 i(m + w)G V G = 2 \(m + n) (div G) 2 1 2 (280) (281) 2 2 . For correct localisation we need to know the stress and the distortion. 221 = 0. Now by (264). since. in a state of equilibrium. U2 = . We contractile ether and the stored energy is U r energy by the above formulae.. if F is the is in terms of G. in which the wave of normal disturbance is abolished by making the speed zero. an equal amount is dissipated. (274). find the stress itself from the equation of motion ? If not.. We do not correctly localise the distortion known a function of the variation of displacement.. whatever be its type. Thus.. if ra + w = 0.. 2 1 U^ and the second part Ug. . The Stored Energy and the Stress in the Elastic Forceless and Torqueless Stress. but only express the total amounts. if f be put on suddenly. fG is the work then done by f.. the potential (divided by n) of the impressed force. Now the is U2 zero. F + f=0. The We may from the equation also find expressions for the stored energy of motion. as f2 is then employed simply in accelerating momentum on the spot. however. we can come very close to it. (276). The is corresponding speed zero. so is Can we. 143. per unit volume... though. The circuital disturbances are propagated as before. by (273). The work done and stored by the impressed force f is JfG. we see by (274) that there no steady state possible due to divergent force. In the U .. the displacement If. again. force arising from the stress. The transformations here used are (259) for Uj and (249) for see that the energy stored is expressed in terms of 2 the squares of the rotation and of the expansion.

(290). .ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Now let PN We have.NG). of the equilibrium of a unit cube. by (201). Therefore. part only of the stress (287). .n curl XN = ncurlVGN as may be tested in the above manner. Such a stress is (149). (289) a stress-vector giving the correct force and no torque. we may see by remembering that the stress irrotational. . therefore the second We require. applying this to (284). therefore. kPj jP k tt(V3 G2 V2 G3 ) by i component of the torque. Here take M=j and N = k. The or PN= -VpotdivPN PN = ttVGN + mVG 2N. (287) provided divergent. which is But G2 has no curl. . then = = . This brings us from (287) to (288) PN = W (VGN + curl VGN) + mVG2N. . But. which [It is . say with produce no torque. as in (289). to part of (287) produces no torque. Then NPM . III. Here the divergence of P N is given . That we so now.MV. . therefore This gives the G. without interfering with this essential property. we have constructed a stress-vector giving the proper force required. and then by finding that this. or (214). PN is . divPN = 7iV 2 GN + wV 2 G2 N. CH. we might add on to the right side of (287) any circuital vector. . but a torque n curl G. .MPN = 7i(NV. or must do must be To show (287) does give a torque. add to PN in (287) a stress giving no force. immediate answer is. (286) find PN itself. .ni curl G. should be noted here that since (285) applies to an irro- tational stress. the process employed is only justified when we If the stress is finally get rid of the torque. That is. by consideration be the stress on the plane whose normal is N. FN = divPN . consider the first m = 0.MG . (285) to express the relation between an irrotational stress and the force arising from it.

curl VG. 223 rotational. the divergence of P N is really the component of the force due to the conjugate stress. . previously referred to. whilst the fourth term is apparently (so far as force and torque are concerned) like a fifth wheel to the coach. PN = 2curlVG2N It is the case of irrotational displacement in the ether. (293) . which is. The force due The force due to is mvdivG. give no force or torque. (290). (290) differ Yet they can only . but with a torque. remembering the constancy expanded to force. by a stress which produces neither force nor torque. off the ground. which is PN = tt(V-GN + NV. Adding together the three stresses and the three forces we obtain the stress (289).G) + N(m-rc)divG we see that they do not agree. and the torque ncurlGr. with no torque.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. of N. Thus the force due to N nv. on comparing (289).G2 -NdivG 2 ). (292) contractile and is entirely remote from the The noteworthy thing is that we cannot apparently conclude what the stress is. n curl VGN is ncur! 2 G. even when the force real elastic solid. (291) where the first and third terms on the right are sufficient to give the correct force. G= of will do it. And we know already.G 2 nVdivG. be P N = 2w(NV. If we inquire under what circumstances the real stress can assume this singular we shall find that m + n = and curl With these conditions. that if G = G 2 the modified stress will In fact.] But on comparison with the real stress deduced from the is N elastic properties of a solid.GN to ?ftV. .N). by (181). cancelled by the second term . we find that their difference is of this nature. and the torque n curl G. and torque to correspond are everywhere given. form (292) is convenient for showing at sight that there is no It may. P N is now left. with no torque and the correct force. however. . only the circuital part and (291) reduces to form. (290) being equivalent to PN = rc(VGN + curl VGN) + m(VG2N . owing to the The forceless and torqueless stress coming into the formulae. by (288). . .

224 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. stored energy is = . k in turns to get the three stresses on the One-third of the sum of the planes having these normals. j. it is a matter of some importance to select a method of obtaining it which shall not be unnecessarily difficult in execution j for different pro- other forms. But It is the negative of the pressure. (294) where the first line needs no remark.. sufficient for its boundary to be at rest for the same principles to apply. k planes.. CH. it is thereby brought in. III. where put N = i. the sum of the positive amounts in certain parts being equal to the rest. normal tractions on these planes is . shows the correct distribution of the energy in terms of (294) the stress and the distortion.. only that we have no right to ignore it. receive many be desired to find the displacement due to an explicitly given impressed forcive. in the real stress (291) itself. of course. the same. This is the case with the fourth term in (293). and would also be the case with the second term.] sum of the negative amounts in the Other Forms for the Displacement in terms of the Applied Forcive. . the above transformation shows that they contribute nothing on the whole to the energy of distortion. if in the stress PN be included any terms giving rise to no force. on account of the torque If the solid be not unbounded. [The practical meaning is that in the contractile ether the energy of distortion due to any irrotational displacement is zero on the whole. from its having the negative sign prefixed. + Jc div G. and the third by the common transformation (249).J2 (F^ + F2G 2 + F3 G3) div P 2 + G s div ps) P3VG3 ). the fourth part. the second is got by (285)..(4^/3) div G 2 or. which is . 144. correctly associates pressure and But this forceless and torqueless stress does not compression. j. The simple solution If it (279) may. being the stresses on the i. Now. . The amount of contribute anything to the total energy. P p The final form in etc.

(301) But a better one potf2 = 2/v^/87r.. ..f2 then an altertype. . Put tl = t. . . potf2 = Vpot2fVp. cesses leading to the of application. = V2fV? is 7. AND ANALYSIS. then it may be desirable.. . . f is given. (300) n( wherein f alone appears on the right Another form is got by using f2 side. W= which . if we notice that 2/r. we can further con(298) clude that a very curious result... we do not need to modify.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA. if the impressed forcive be either circuital But if of a mixed or divergent. / is (302) where latter. The potential of a radial vector following the inverse-square law of intensity is a radial vector with a constant tensor in all space. s is length measured along This makes f. (295) and now. when development. (296) as before explained. /. we have . Using this result. (297) may be proved by differentiating. (303) generally suitable for practical calculation. 225 same result may vary greatly in readiness Now... . . as . Q . and the tensor of the O-Ipotf n which is n 5/?^Z/v* . native form is * & J* ^ . so that (295) (299) becomes . .. . it is only the part pot f2 that needs We have . . Now.

in fact. the change of size. Notice that an impressed forcive of the divergent type with a single point-source produces not merely uniform radial displacement. or (295). CH. and Distortion. and other kinds of resistance than elastic resistance. the rotation as a whole. It is a very extreme case. 145. III. the translation as a whole. than resistance to compression and distortion.. viz. a disruption. ds r Thomson and Tait's formulae when expanded in But this is a gratuitous complication. known to fairly represent real solids within a certain range. the same as cartesians. These separate themselves from one another naturally. itself. and therefore parallel to f. if it be only we have the equation of motion tially resisted. and the practical choice may lie between it and (303). present themselves to the consideration of searchers for analogies between the propa- gation of disturbances in Maxwell's ether and in the brutally simple elastic solid of theory. simpler still in expression. Expansion. and the change of shape. but an infinite discontinuity. A considerably Tait. . The elastic solid with two elastic constants (k and n) has not been found sufficiently elastic to supply a thoroughly satisfactory analogy with Maxwell's ether. of The Elastic Solid generalised to include Elastic. though partial Other kinds of elasticity analogies may readily be found. and Inertial Resistance to Translation.226 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. making . as per (298). which is. It may more complex form is given in Thomson and be obtained from (303) by means of the identity where s l is unit s. Dissipative. There are four distinct ideas involved in the displacement of a small portion of matter. Rotation. iner- As regards the mere translational motion. at the source course. however. as (303) is Of course (300) is simpler in expression and in application.

one-third of the expansion (vectorised) must be deducted. To exhibit the distortion without expansion.ELEMENTS OP VECTOBIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. with storage of potential energy . . when the stress . with associated kinetic /o 2 The potential energy is J/o G 2 the rate of waste ftG2 . and a force G proportional to the acceleration. distortion. we may proceed thus. Then generalize the above to f +F. First separate the rotation from the strain vector. The displacement from equilibrium calls into action a back force p G proportional to the displacement.IN div G) + iN div G .G means N This strain vector is above analysed into the without rotation. .O.V. however. Thus NV. where is an elastic constant. We have NV. in general. with waste of energy .G = J(NV. this is given by (284). wish to have elastic and frictional resistance to trans8/St is tion lation. This equaWe may.+ V. F tfae force arising from the stress associated with the strain (including rotation. (307) G is the displacement. and the kinetic energy Jp 2 G 2 As regards the force F. and expansion).JVN curl G (309) Q2 . as well as inertial resistance. f impressed force (per unit volume). the velocity. so that by giving all directions (practically only three) the complete state of Ny.G . energy. and the time-differentiator for moving matter. But. strain is known. constructed on simple Newtonian principles. or mere change of shape. which is any unit vector. and the elastic constants are n and k.(ft + ft * +*)<.NG) + J(NV. when small departures from Here p 2 is the p of (306). is irrotational. as well as the disrotation. q.G = (p N . . tortion. and the second part depending upon strain p N But p N includes the expansion.NG) = p N -JVNcurlG Here (308) the variation of displacement per unit distance along N. . 227 (306) where p is the density. the frictionality (Lord Kelvin's word for coefficient of friction). a force /a 1 G- and pQ proportional to the velocity. p l is equilibrium are concerned.

and the k term in (313) by . and which was previously assumed to have the value zero. the expansional part by 3&. (311) With the rotational part of the stress also associated trans- lational force.. (312) Adding this on to the former expression for the force (or deriving the force from (310) directly).. given by . k div G third of the It equals onein (310) represents a uniform tension. which are naturally independent. . PN = 2/t(pN .JN div G) + Nfc div G . medium) intervene between the above strain and the correIf distortion. (314) or one-half the and of the scalar products of the stress vector the strain vector for three perpendicular planes. But their product usually remains So in any case we may replace the k term in (310) by finite.. CH. sum of the normal tractions on any three mutually Its negative represents the pressure. Here n and k are as (310) before. III. k is and div G is zero. . and the rotational part by 2v. we find that F = w(V2 G + JV div G) + &V div G .vVN curl G. when there is incompressibility.. . whilst v is a Compare with (290).curl JS= -v curl2 G. Thus. and rotation are all elastically three independent elastic constants (in an isotropic resisted. .228 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. The corres- ponding torque is S = 2vcurlG . sum . expansion. The energy of the strain is . That is. . P v P2 P3 . To obtain PN multiply the distortional part by 2n. is . and add the results.. there was assumed to be no resistance to rotation.Vp. or perpendicular planes. infinite.Np. Now p = k div G. sponding stress PN upon the plane whose normal is N. and a rotation.v curl2 G (313) represents the translational force to be used in the equation of We should notice here that the quantity motion (307). shows the separation of the strain into a distortion (without change of size). new elastic constant connected with the rotation. an expansion.

and v of (310) thus : . would extend beyond the small range of approximately perfect elasticity. whilst It is. find the energies of expanand that and distortion are all independent. n. if we abolish n and v. (315) where the v term is the energy of rotation ( = \ torque x the n rotation). and the same with respect to expansion. the Jc term is the energy of expansion. Lord Kelvin's experiments on the subsidence of the oscillations of wires tended to show that a different law was followed than that corresponding to the viscosity of fluids.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. Then nQ will be the rigidity and n the viscosity. Now no reason why we should limit the nature of the resistance in this way. k reckoning up. and not only elastic. however. that there is not a complete disappearance of the rigidity in a fluid . To exhibit it. (316) . we On planes respectively. n Q is the important part of n . U their sum. given 2 by U = n[Pl2 + p22 + p3 _ l(div G)2] + J&(div G)2 + 1 v(curl G)'. . by (310). the stress (310) is derived from the strain (309) by There is. (313). is 229 i. or coefficient of frictional resistance to distortion. relating to There may also be dissipative or frictional resistdistortion. (309). These will be brought in by generalising the three elastic constants k. the introduction of elastic resistances only. rotation. Consider the n term only for example. j. but also frictional and inertial resistance to rotation. expected that the expression of the viscosity of solids by n v if true at all. we have the stress It may be in a real viscous fluid according to Stokes's theory. conceivably. and term the energy of distortion. then retain both n and n v When the rigidity is marked. and that elastic fatigue was concerned in the matter. not at all to be in a fluid it is the other part. inertial resistance to distortion. as in a solid. being the stresses on the sion. change n to n Q + n^d/dt) in ance to distortion. and retain n v and k. There may also be. if so. For instance. (310). however.

the dissipative constants. where per unit volume. the second three dissipative constants. by (307). . externally viewed. which. of the rates of waste of energy. Consider. similarly to (307) as Out of these twelve constants only four regards translation. are in use. the first three are elastic constants. or tensor of the Qtf. which additional have been speculatively employed. is the. . if PN is PN q. if v and v.waste of energy. of energy). but sufficient has been said on the subject of generalising the elastic constants to emphasize the fact that there is plenty of scope for investigation in the theory of the motion of media of rotation.. . or seven. its convergence is div (Q l2l + Q2 ?2 + Q3?3 ) = VjtoQ) + V2 (P2q) + V3 (P3q) . III..230 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. The energy activity of the stress vector is (see 68. and 72 distortion. through &2 n 2 v 2 . (318) where P is the force as in (313). &P n v vv and also the rate of increase of the . which may. translational activity.. where of the nine coefficients on the right side. and the flux of q be the speed. the elastic constants involving potential energy. through sum of the kinetic energies.& div Qi + & div Q2 + q3 div Q3 + Q x Vft + Q 2V?2 + Q3V<?3 . expansion unknown internal constitution. U The convergence of the energy flux represents the work done and stored or wasted in the unit volume. also). This does not represent finality by any means . (317) and T are the complete potential and kinetic energies.Q ^ only ing the term g (the rest being the convective flux (310).. velocity. CH. and the inertial constants kinetic energy. the last three inertial constants . Fq. The rest represents the rate of increase of the sum of the three potential energies there is merely elastic resistance but if when we use (316) we obtain also the sum . and p-^ be included.. be employed in increasing kinetic and potential energy or be wasted. and Q N is the stress conjugate to PN to obtain which change the sign of the last (rotational) term in . involve the four elements translation.

dx\ - Ji div G) + M di v G . or the rate of increase of the rotational energy.Jk div G) + k div G . 231 Thus we have. and the rate of waste (the middle term) due to rotational friction.vVi curl G ) / Jj div G) + Jcj div G . The expansion terms give . Finally. + pV + p'3 2 (322) where the first line is the rate of increase of the potential energy. the rotational {}>v (curl term v curl G curl This simply (dldt) G) 2 }. (319) q.vVj curl G + dz\ 2(p s . Similarly as regards the other terms in (319). and the others rates of increase of potential and kinetic energies. by 1 (310). the distortional terms of (319) give 2 (p. + & div G div q + v curl G curl q Take is . (321) where the middle term is the rate of waste. ). when v last of (316) it becomes is a constant. . V1 + P2V 2 + PsV3 )q = ^ ( 2n(p. but when we use the ) + v^curl a) + ^(i" 2 (rl a)*). the second line the frictional rate of waste. for illustration. and the We thus third line the rate of increase of kinetic energy.ELEMENTS OP VECTOBIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. complete the energy relations of the stress with the generalised .vVk curl G/ = 2w(p. (320) showing the rates of increase of potential and kinetic energy. VjCt + P 2V2q + p3V3q) - ^ div G div a .

it will be convenient to take fx and curl e as corresponding.E) = /*pH. 24. or in a homogeneous isotropic dielectric. Example Magnetic Force compared with Velocity in an incompressible Solid with Distortional Elasticity. and so far as small motions are concerned. if p stands for d/dt. the equations are manageable. Electromagnetic : First and Elastic Solid Comparisons. and fx the circuital part of the impressed forcive. and e be finite. as before shown ( 89).. either simple or generalised. q. A few cases will be now considered. 146. whether conducting or not. based on the preceding. Now. curl(H-h) = cpE. may First take the case of a non-conducting dielectric at rest. impressed forcive to be circuital to begin with. In the dielectric we have. and . and compare it with the regular elastic solid made incompressible by infinite resistance to compression. Comparisons between the propagation of electromagnetic disturbances in Maxwell's ether. are the inductivity and the equation of motion in an incompressible //. Let the latter be (temporarily) f. (323) the circuital equations connecting E c H ( 38. be made in a variety of ways. by (273). source of motion in the solid. III. . CH. G the displacement. The incompressibility includes inexpansibility. and permittivity. curl (e . 66). + curl E = /^H + curl 2 H/cp. for convenience. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. (324) where p and n are the density and rigidity. They all break down sooner or later. and fx being the curl e. If it has no curl. it does The source of disturbance is nothing. Then (323) gives (remembering that div f = upB.232 elastic constants. This being the case in the dielectric. . Or we may take the the divergent part being inoperative. f=w - H= ^ 2 -- ' ' (325) . Now. H = 0). the velocity. but are nevertheless useful as far as they go. let h = 0. and the propa- gation of motion in an elastic solid. solid is. where e and h are impressed.

time-integral of H. . equality of f and f1? this with the second of (324). does not mount up. q. the time-integral of H. then G would mount up. (mag. so that Z. if this were allowed. (mag. source) f= curie 2 fp (impd. (permittivity) c l/n. let Z be the H=>Z. 2 . their distributions are entirely different.) (velocity). (inductivity) (density). (2 x rotation). Nor have we any right to is a fatal failure in detail. 8/8t for out of shape to allow us to treat d/dt at a a moving particle as identical. p.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. as far as its account of H and propagated away at speed (/*c)~* are by precisely represented by the velocity generated by similarly distributed impressed Newtonian force. which is propagated in the same manner through the solid at the equivalent speed f in the dielectric (n/p)%.. particularly on directness and ease of application. force) (el. energy). and the elastic solid get too much fixed point and also. displ. expect that a scheme like Maxwell's. an excellent analogy. (326) f=(^2-c-iV which compares with the first of )Z (324). /* density. imperative (in general) that the motions in the The disturbances should therefore be the fluctuating or alternating character. is Observe that the electric energy -JcE 2 not matched by the potential energy of distortion . and on account of the similarity of sources. depending upon rotations. current) H = pZ curl H D = cE /* . The disturbances of generated This is. so that 2 Or. This can be perfectly matched by one which depends on shears. corresponds to G. correspondingly. IL/p means the time-integral of H. 233 Comparing rigidity . (compliancy). and assuming the l we see that is velocity. more then explicitly. c~ H and so on. it goes.) curl G. Of course the correspondence at similar moments also it is applies to the other quantities compared. For. But of solid should be small. curl (2 x spin). although their total amounts are equal. q. (el. force). Thus (spacial displ. energy) J//H |pq (kin. Z = H/p (mag.

234 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. but This want of correspondence as regards one of the energies will be removed (and can only be removed) by doing away with the rigidity and substituting something else. p. c density. q. Third Example 148. . As we of electromagnetic disturbances from the preceding that the propagation through a non-conductor can . ft compliancy. have A = E/p corresponds to G (displacement). E making E = pA.curl E)//*p. Failure. force) E (velocity). between the two Eliminate It is now g that is the source. H equations (323). we see that we representing velocity. : A see Conducting Dielectric compared with a Viscous Solid. be equivalent in its results as regards the propagation of disturbances from place to place. force). and so Thus on. There is a similar failure to before as regards the energy of distortion. We get . (328) A = E/p. 147. CH. H curl racurlG. Or. Thus let e = G in (323). III. (327) divE = (when there is no electrification) g-(q. are similar as regards the generation and The conclusions propagation of disturbances of the two kinds compared. being a general turning over of all the quantities. it is ought to be the magnetic energy J/*H now. since . c (el. Comparing (327) with (324) for the solid. h fx (circuital impd.-2!Wg*-2_V \ \ ftp/ [A/ if .curl h = + g. Another analogy of the same class is got by making the displacement in the solid represent the time-integral of E in the dielectric. Second Example: Same as last. . 2 must. which It not. epE + g = curl (. and . but Electric Force compared with Velocity. however.

possessing the usual distortional rigidity.. if it be possible. curl(e-E)=/xpH. are (H . 229. let us next introduce electric conductivity on the one hand. where Z = H/p. waste of energy associated with the conduction clear that it is some sort of frictional force requires to be introduced into the elastic solid.] in a conducting dielectric (homogeneous. p stands for d/dt. giving < < 331 > But on comparing this equation with (329). stationary). p~\ or qjp means the time-integral of q. we We can only produce a proper correspondence when the coefficients of y 2 are equal. changing n to n^ + We may by derive (329) from (324) by Now curl (306). isotropic. and n^ the associated fricAlso. a notain- J o which is not convenient for manipulative purposes in vestigations of this class. for practical convenience in tionality. which would in the ordinary / notation of the integral calculus be expressed by tion qcft. First try distortional friction. whether direct or inverse. G the displacement. ment. so that the equation of H is got by making this change in (325). or . see that the viscosity in the one case and the conductivity in the other enter into the equations in different ways. Thus. . viz.h) = + (k cp) E. nQ the rigidity. the circuital equations of E and n^ H [See also p. in another form. But there are two extreme cases of agreeOne we know already. 235 be imitated in an incompressible solid. (313). is 146. or. and examine what changes are needed in the analogies of Since there current. 147 to keep them working. The equation of motion of an incompressible viscous 2 solid is fi-^ -(o + Mv 2 ]Gi ' (329) where fx is the impressed force per unit volume. when the operators ! p(k + cp)~ and (nQ + n p) are equivalent in effect. This is not } generally possible. (330) comparing which with (323) we see that the effect of introducing conductivity is to change cp to k + cp. p the density.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSTS. when there is no conduc- . the operations.

we have the electric l resistivity k~ represented by the liquid viscosity. as if they were in the liquid. . It . gives us the equation (333) These admit of immediate comparison. and to the disturbances that the propagation of electrical disturbances in a conductor H is like that of motion iii a viscous incompressible liquid. or a conductor which cannot support elastic displacement. f=(/^-ArV)H. The other is when there is tivity and no viscosity. so that the magnetic energy and kinetic energy are compared.236 ELECTEOMAGNBTIC THEORY. and the current is twice tivity and We the the the the is spin. all idea of permitrigidity being thrown away. It dissipates energy. 149. Fourth Example: A Pure Conductor compared with a Viscous Liquid. the curious fact that whereas in 146 the permithowever. the inductivity ft with density of the liquid. that is to say. Our present analogy must stand by itself. was the reciprocal of the rigidity. though. as in no permittivity and no rigidity. We conclude that the disturbances q generated by f. on the other hand. But now. with q the velocity substituted p&. (331). This emphasises the incompatibility of (329). equivalent. and we have the equation . so that the vanishing tivity of one means the infinitude of the other. in addition. It is compared with an incompressible viscous solid with the rigidity abolished. Put c = in (331). Ill 146. Also the source f = curie in the case of the conductor compared with circuital impressed force in the liquid._ in the liquid are similar in the conductor generated by f. So far is the same as in 146. compare magnetic force H in a pure conductor with velocity q in a viscous liquid . its magnetic storage capacity is retained. which is sufficiently important to be separately considered. CH. yet now both the permittivity and the rigidity vanish together. (332) for and putting n Q = in (329). but does not store it electrically . Useful Analogy. This is the extreme case of a pure conductor. Observe. with an incompressible viscous liquid.

owing to the readiness with which the setting in motion of water by sliding friction can be Two interestfollowed. S/St reduces to d/dt readily enough. In certain symmetrical distributions of magously. ing the latter we may state the analogy thus. will vary similarly under the action of similarly varying impressed forces. in the first place. and the penetration of magnetic induction and electric current into a straight wire when an impressed force acts in its circuit. for the But we are not always limited to small motions. ing cases are the penetration of magnetic induction and (with it) electric current into a core enveloped by a solenoidal coil. with distortion and dissipation of energy by friction. the whole mass is in motion. is followed .ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. later still. that the circumstances should be such that the influence of electric displacement outside the wire is negligible. It is the limiting case of elastic wave-propagation. In the former a moving particle whilst in (332) it means d/dt. and innermost very slowly . so that the analogy is carried on to cases of steadily acting impressed forces. though less rapidly at the axis than at the boundary. Thus. But in the cases of laminar flow referred to. The analogy is an important one. as when a wind blows over its surface. a steadily applied force on the water will first pull the outermost layer into motion. in the latter we keep to jane place. altogether. a little later we have a central core in which the water practically motionless. . in whose circuit an impressed force. this. will pull the next layer. The initial current is purely superficial is . ConsiderUnderstanding. are usually limited to small motions in this analogy. by the viscosity. in the pipe and the electric current in the wire. and so on up to the axis. we may replace the wire by a similar tube of water. so that the impressed forces should not act in one sense continu- We reason mentioned before. and current we may remove this restriction In the liquid case (333) p strictly means 8/8t. acts . 237 takes place by the process called diffusion. and then replace the impressed voltage in the electric circuit by a uniform tangential drag upon the surface of the water in the The current of water direction of the length of the pipe. variable or steady. surrounded by a tubular portion whose outermost layer is moving rapidly. netic force but should fluctuate about the mean value zero.

we obtain a representation of the way the electric current is set up in a wire. done by the conductor not by the currents " induced" in the outer part of the wire or core. there (in sensible amount) is a practical confinement of the current to the skin of the wire (or of the water respectively). passing through the various stages from the initial If surface current to the final uniformly distributed current. The screening action often seems to be merely superficial . and. plus the oscillatory current with superficial concentration. or parallel to the axis. by its skin. that is. so that tive screening it is primarily the conrather conducresult is than magnetic screening.238 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. from the disturbances being communicated to the conductor from without. be noted that the screening itself. But if the mean value of the oscillatory force be not the same as having two impressed forces. III. without any bias one way or the Then we have finally a steady current throughout the other. merely a sign that the screening is taking place. There has since been plenty of confirmatory evidence of a more complete nature . finally. the other periodic. not merely of an approximation towards. the whole mass of water acquires a state of uniform Substituting electric current for current of water. as it were. It is ductivity that causes the screening. therefore. the impressed force be rapidly oscillatory. it is wire. we stop the penetration as above described in its early stage. one steady. motion. When a straight core is magnetised in a solenoid. Comparing this with the current of water in the pipe. In reality. so that if the frequency be great enough. One effect is to is increase the resistance of a wire It will be when the Prof. in the opinion of others. frequency great enough. The that dis- . any and every part of a conductor is screened from the rest by the portion immediately surrounding it. and by that only. but this is accidental. is screening. This action of conductors is sometimes referred to as magnetic It should. that is. it is the magnetic induction which is longitudinal. which are. we have the same state of things as before described. but of an almost complete attainment of surface-conduction. zero. remembered that 1886) brought forward evidence of this increase. however. as regards the penetration of magnetic induction into the core. OH. of the truth of the theory of surface conduction along wires under certain circum- Hughes (in stances which was advanced by me a year previous.

of the viscous fluid analogy. Here. putting c = in brings us to the viscous liquid again. so that although ductivity copper would be the best screener on account of its high conductivity. then we have merely to alter cp in (328) to k + cp to obtain the required modification. and inductivity with the reciprocal of the This is by no means so useful as the previous form viscosity. As in 146. although of the it is fundamentally same nature. But the property of conacts conjointly with the indue tivity. and makes iron take the place as a screener. 147. we had a failure of representation of one of the energies viscous fluid analogies. so now. c 150. on the energy properly. let us try the effect of taking E to be velocity. with the conductivity and frictionality both zero (not the resistivity and frictionality). so we might expect a similar failure. 239 turbances can only pass through a conductor by the (relatively) very slow process of diffusion. and.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. As we were not able to make an analogy with likewise n and n lt when H was taken and to be velocity. first. (334) if = E/p. so unlike that by which they are transferred through a non-conductor. the great inductivity of iron usually far more than compensates for first its inferior conductivity. Thus. the permittivity and the both zero (not permittivity and compliancy). in the we fail to represent the dissipation ol The latter depends. secondly. again. finite. possible. us to (334) brings (335) which compares with (333). we see that distortional friction will not furnish a proper analogy in There seem to be but two special cases the general case. by the energy of distortion. k both 147. . We now compare conductivity with density. on comparison with (329). involving propagation by diffusion. which reproduces A the case in rigidity 147 . Fifth Example : Modification of the Second and Fourth. as shown before. as in Change the source from f to g= -curlh. velocity of distortion. which Thus.

240 Sixth Example ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.. producing the equation (336) operate on (331) by 1 + k/cp. give up the viscosity or distortional friction. But we may ment by taking E easily make a substantial improveto be velocity in the solid. let g= . with frictional But we do not corresistance to displacement superadded. useful ration of disturbances. III. . v is the speed of propagation of So disturbances of H are propagated in the same an way through a conducting dielectric. and substitute translational friction. or &(/xr) 2 . Seventh Example : Improvement of the Sixth. frictionality p1 is . The rate of waste per localise the energy dissipated. This being of against Joule's law renders this form analogy unsatisfactory. H if to velocity. rigidity n and density /o 2 . The circuital impressed force fj_ is replaced. the translational frictionality in the solid has the complex representative pk/c in the dielectric disturbances. Z corresponds to spacial correspondence. still keeping the distortional elasticity or rigidity. where fa is t^(plP + P^-n^)Q. But we can get a working analogy to suit the conducting dielectric in another way. though not on the left. in addition. 151. ju- to density. Thus. . which corresponds to entirely &(/xv) H 2 in the dielectric. and with translational . whilst 2 it is 2 /^q in the solid. as are disturbances in incompressible solid with the usual rigidity. 152. : A Conducting Dielectric compared with an Elastic Solid with Translational Friction. whilst now. Thus. c to com- pliancy (distortional) . . rectly unit volume is &E 2 in the dielectric. awkward for the analogy as regards the geneBut away from the sources. so that we have the equations (334) to consider. This is displacement in the solid. Now circuital impressed force. - < 337 > Comparing this with (336) we see that there is a proper correspondence of form on the right sides. not by f. there is a As in 146. but by f + M/cp. For the equation of motion of an incompressible solid with the usual constants. CH.curl h be the source of disturbance in the dielectric.

. subject to the equation . only the free propagation. density is . c is 2 A compliancy . the frictionality . A As a last example in which use is made of distortional elasticity. where g is the magnetic conductivity. The induction ^H is twice the rotation. let us generalise the non-conducting dielectric by the introduction of magnetic conductivity. there in is makes the analogy be more readily followed. therefore. So. . curl(H-h) = (& + cp)E. (342) .__ Or. curl . and we see at a considerably more simple correspondence than in the case last treated. . (340) curl e = and we eliminate H. the electric is energy JcE kinetic energy and the waste (Joulean) properly localised in the solid by the frictional waste of energy 2 second. . . we have . . this case sources. when k and g are both finite. . (338) (339) (e-E) = for + flp)H. /A . In Pi<l per is the same as in 147. Eighth Example: compared with Case. (341) We see that we cannot. 153. Of course. we eliminate E. We have . and . . Consider. we have if curl h = 0. the source fx of circuital displacement is G- time-integral of E) corresponds to the source g of circuital (the the electric force now means velocity . and the correspondence of fact. "J41 Take the second form and compare once that there is it with (336).ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. Dielectric with Duplex Conductivity an Elastic Solid with Translational The singular Distortionless Elasticity and Friction. get a satisfactory analogy as regards the generation of disturbances by fp circuital impressed force in a solid. with translational fricIt is clear that the tion added without destroying the analogy. if . k itself is . correct localisation of the waste. the same failure as regards the distortional energy as 147. Thus.

may substitute H or E or other electrical quan- we have a term proportional to Z itself (or its substitute). . as in 146 . OH. Thus. . III. and in the attenuative. c. solid in the made merely same way as if it were devoid of frictional and elastic resistance to translation. we may manner. however. 145. in (342). whilst the H frictionality p l is g + kp/c. In the electromagnetic case follow this into detail with ease in a symmetrical It is. (313). we must introduce elastic resistance to displacement in the elastic solid to make an analogy. but in other respects the correspondence is complex. by (307). Since. /* spacial displacement. assisted by elastic resistance to translation. density. we have still the result that disturbances in a dielectric with duplex spondences. for the elastic resistance to translation pQ is kg/c. The singular distortionless case ccmes about when = 4/W>2 In either case the turbances is 2 />i in the solid. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. However unsatisfactory the analogy maybe in details. rather troublesome in the elastic . Now expand (342) and divide by We get which is suitable for comparison with (343). If we take E to be velocity there will be another set of corre- being density and p compliancy. } ^ ' k/c=g/{j.242 where for Z we tities. c compliancy. c conductivity (electric and magnetic) are propagated similarly to motions in an elastic solid constrained in the manner above de- The effect of the two kinds of distortion and waste of energy involved in the existence of the two conductivities are therefore imitated by one kind of frictionality in the elastic solid. j effect of the frictional resistance on the dis- Disregarding the attenuation with the time. (343) if is the equation of motion in the incompressible solid there be elastic and frictional as well as inertial resistance to translation. the propagation takes place in the dielectric in the same way as if it were non-conducting. When Z is the is velocity. in the dielectric. cribed.

The Rotational Ether. due employment of distortional elasticity. rotational by using a instead of a shearing stress. at least as an electromagnetically active influence. especially when put in the duplex form symmetrical with respect to the electric and magnetic sides. construct good all-round analogies for the propagation of disturbances in a 'stationary dielectric (Appendix to chap. But Lord Kelvin found that his Ether enabled him to complete a long-delayed suit the to produce a satisfactory elastic-solid analogy to problem of magnetic induction (" Mathematical and ?hysical Papers. for one thing. and I >ave pointed out that this rotational ether enables us to work. and. art. and for other reasons. and contrasted with an incompressible Jelly. must then be taken by elastic resistance to rotation. and Vol. and with the energy of distortion. to the on account of the want of correspondence in detail. the property of resisting rotation.. distortion.. This rotational ether has mass of course. then. on the other hand. which brings in kinetic energy (of translation) . either the electric or the magnetic energy as the energy of On the other hand. and yet not fail upon the point mentioned.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. called by him simply Ether. 153 A. and consequently stores up energy of the potential kind.. to balance the kinetic. are deficient in one vital property.. But the electromagnetic equations. I. have nothing in them suggestive of distortional forces. As these are the only all-round elastic-solid analogies yet known. 243 solid. If this were all. viz. however good or bad they may be in other respects. 27. it possesses. by means of internal arrangements with elastically which we are not immediately concerned. it is clear that the rigidity must be done away Its place with. we may here consider them again. . art. the equations are fully If. of both energies and of the ante). III. 49) . II. with correct localisation flux of energy." Vol. Compressible or Incompressible. nor can we represent it. All the above analogies. the elastic solid has still suggestive of rotation. inasmuch as they involve the elasticity of distortion. there would be little more to say. This brings us to the medium invented by Lord elastic solid Kelvin. which means with ordinary rigidity. to do duty for purposes of analogy.

that in the divergent equation v does not enter at all. (346) the displacement. also. then referred now. we have curl 2 = V div . rigidity may Observe. cerned in circuital disturbances. then. especially in relation to the previously given analogies. viz. .. (349) v occur Now observe that in the circuital equation. F=n where (V 2 G + JV div G) + JfcV div G . if to. so that equal parts of each have the same effect.V 2. n and additively. and in the same way as in the ordinary compressible rigid solid. (divergent). and Go back to equation (313). So the if propagation of divergent disturbances the same as the rotational elasticity were done away with.v curl2 G. to show where the changes come in. v substituted. CH. the coefficient k + ^n is the same as the former m + n. or make t & = 0. (348) 2. giving the translational force P due to the stress in an elastic solid when there is rotational We have elasticity as well as rigidity. and this . we have already noticed the case in which the speed of the divergent wave is brought down to zero the contractile In an ordinary rigid solid. the divergent equation will contain only k so that to make the speed of the divergent wave zero we need only abolish the resistance to compression. (347) parts. k the compressive resistivity. that the be done away with altogether and equal v substituted. Now. this n be abolished and But requires negative compressibility. In fact. without affecting the propagation of circuital disturbances. III. and either may be replaced by an equal amount of the other. 142. so we may rearrange is G (346) thus. although n does. The medium does not now resist either change or . may be split up into circuital and divergent (circuital). which is not con- We see. which was ether of 143. This is irrespective of the compressibility. Now. and v the new elastic constant connected with the rotation. of 142 and is later. F = ( + v)V 2 G + (& + Jtt-v)VdivG. This is a very remarkable property.244 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. n the rigidity. so that the circuital propagation is unaffected.

by the evanescence pression. (353) So the equation of motion 2 by . whilst the other equation (349) will merely assert that F 2 is balanced by difference of pressure. . from equation (348) and matter in previous we may construct analogies to suit the nonconducting dielectric by abolishing n and using v instead. since our impressed forcive should be circuital The stress (310) is now in the electromagnetic comparisons. The torque accompanying this stress is. and the translational force is . (306).. by (311). is the velocity. which may have any But Lord Kelvin's ether is got by value from zero to infinity. that without concerning ourselves with k at all. the rotational ether. going to the other extreme from the neutral case just mentioned. This we are not concerned with. 2 (352) F= agreeing with (350). (351) where we ignore the uniform pressure for the reason mentioned.. to small motions in general. We now have 154. medium be necessarily circuital.... whether the impressed forcive be circuital or not. made by combining it with the contractile. Take & = oo (with n = 0) making the medium incomand therefore making disturbances in an unbounded pressible.... by (350) (348). . First Rotational Analogy : Magnetic Force compared with Velocity. PN = -vVNcurlG. fi -curljS=i>v G.. . paragraphs. is.. and the potential This is one extreme form of energy is the energy of rotation. quite neutral as regards expansion and compression.. (354) where fj is As before.. we keep the circuital impressed force. . = (^ 2 'vV2)G = (^-^V )q. of the rigidity is and of the resistance to com- The medium it is clear. and q. Now. 245 shape or of size. but resists rotation only.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. S = 2vcurlG.

not counting the convective flux. (inductivity) (density). . if Pq be the stress on the plane whose normal is q. force) B E 2 . (permittivity) c . But if ro- tational. current) displ. This activity means energy transferred from the side of the plane when the stress vector is reckoned. 2 (momentum). q. energy) J/xE (el. by (351). our first example. (326).. . /oq . . (2 D /x. Equation (354) magnetic may be at once compared with the 2 electro- f=(^-V H (^_Vf\ z> \ c/ \ cpJ \ as in (325). so W = qP q is the vector flux of energy . because it is purely a rotational stress. . The activity of the stress PN is P N q per unit area. (kin.) (velocity).vVq curl G... provided the stress is irrotational.vqV^ curl G - . localised The electric energy is correctly by the potential energy of the rotation. /a.. other side. 2 . (rotl. .. (spacial displ. III.. or. (rotl. and that there are now additional correspondences. or The vector expressing the energy flux is against the motion. we need not be surprised to find that the energy-flux has the same distribution. to the. . /oq. by (351). it will be seen that the Referring to the similar list in correspondences there given are repeated here. ) H . (356) . compliancy). present case. force). for G. CH. energy). energy). (energy flux) 146. JS. H curl . energy) JcE 2 Jv(curlG) . (induction) (el. (355) and we therefore deduce the following correspondences : Z = H/p stands (mag. it is conjugate to P. except that the elastic constant changes its meaning. W . curl q. x rotation). (source of H) f= curie flt (impd. (energy flux) VEH VJSq. In our Q is the negative of P. 1/v. which is the same as g-NP^.. as at present.246 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. (mag.. Since the kinetic energy is also correctly localised. .. = .. (2 x spin). (J x torque). force) (el.. ^NQ q where Q is therefore -^Qq . . curlG. (el.

by reason of the circuital indeterminateness. by a knowBut this is surely an inconclusive ledge of the mechanism. q and ^ are the tensor and unit vector of of q. potential and kinetic. which 24? is.) Circuital Indeterminateness of the 155. but is of no moment whatever in the practical use of the idea of a flux of energy for purposes of should only introduce an auxiliary circuital reasoning. it is universal in its application. N is the normal outwards from the surface enclosing it. Thomson first objected to the VEH formula as representative of energy-flux. within the surface. then PN is the pull. so that <?Pq is the flux of energy (per unit area) itself.ELEMENTS OF YECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. table. which is a very difficult notion tivity to grasp. through space seems to require energy to have objecin the same sense as matter. as energy is at For there to be an absolutely definite flux present understood. Flux of Energy in general. useful purpose is served thereby. by the above of energy. The convergence of the vector qP^ expresses the same property for the unit volume. That any circuital flux of energy may be siiperadded. here remark that (speaking from memory) when ProJ. he added that a knowledge of the real flux could only be determined from an actual knowledge of the dynamical connections involved. because the circuital indeterminateness applies even In fact. The total N q. the same as VEH. without making any difference in the transformations of energy. and PN q. which is activity of P N all over the surface is therefore the same as . or the 2P rate of transfer of energy from the outside to the inside . We flux I when some may fessor J. and its equivalent is the rate of increase of the stored energy. on the matter inside the surface.2 N^P^. But it may be easier to follow by taking amIf volume into consideration. the electro- magnetic flux (In the above. across the unit area of the interface . (The small convective flux of energy is ignored here. per unit area. is a fact which is of importance as evidence against the objectivity of energy. But even if it be acof energy . and expresses the work done per second by the matter outside on the matter inside the surface. is its activity.) The above reasoning is applied directly to the unit element volume. real then. and still more difficult to accept. argument. that is to say. of the matter outside.

pG. affairs. obtained from pG by integration Now this is somewhat suggestive of over the cross-section. and the energy distribution and its flux are the same as before.. Although C in VC means the same as in pC. which settle the state of There are. howcurrent-density. some electricians who will be much gratified with the pG flux in steady states.248 cepted. and is entirely against the more simple ideas to which we are naturally led in the study of any useful purpose. or electric potential. other theories. But there are radical differences. because E and H. by the addition of a certain circuital flux to VEH. V has no connection with p the potential. my expression VC for the total flux of energy along a circuit of two conductors. I believe. CII. it greatly complicates the flux of energy in general. where by C we mean the total current. electromagnetic waves. To exemplify. In a recent number of the Phil. the flux of energy in the wire suffers a very remarkable change. there is no change whatever in the electrical state of the interior of the box in the steady state (though there may and must be a transient disturbance in the act of charging it. According to the pG formula. a closed circuit (with battery) supporting a steady current put inside a metal box. Mr. or the gaussage. which is a separate question). The total flux of energy through a wire will be pC. but that is not to the point. is a determinate quantity specifying some definite state of the medium. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. This seems to me to be an idea which It may have place in has no place at all in Maxwell's theory. whether in dielectrics or Conductors. being the circuitation of H. For VC is the integral form of VEH in the dielectric. brings out the when it desired to find result that in stationary states the modified flux reduces to I am. Macaulay. according to the interpretation of Maxwell's scheme which I expound. where p is potential and ever (unless I forget much of what I have learnt in the last 15 years). the action. are unchanged. and electrify the latter from outside. for it (V) is the line integral of E across the circuit from on& wire . by reason of the raising of the potential of the box and its interior. unable to see that the auxiliary flux proposed serves In the first place. it is implied that the function p. But. Mag. Besides that. however. Ill argument is of circuital indeterminateness remains in what is the flux in a given case. electric and magnetic.

Returning to the suppositional Ether. and which is and so stores potential energy . compliancy to But it is 2 its reciprocal multiplied by v~^ making p /v or p/v' better to write them out side by side. since the magnetic energy 2 1 is J/^B we see that it is now. bined with a different interpretation of /A. 156. (mag. (el. . which involves translational inertia. we see 4 That is. since /xcv = 1 = pv~ v . But although I cannot see the utility of the proposed change. whilst the proposed pG holds for steady states only. the induction to mean velocity. and therefore kinetic energy. may be of when value in the electromagnetic field in other ways. but fjr that is the density. Then. when V specializes itself and becomes difference of potential. the conception of an incompressible medium possessing mass. whilst H is momentum. Second Rotational Analogy : Induction Compared with Velocity. I think that Mr. especially cleared of useless and treacherous potentials. energy) (induction) (reluctivity) 1 J/*~ B2 stands for (mag. and we have supposed that the velocity of the medium means magnetic force. and that its density means /x. to 249 the other i. But we may equally well have this comparison of the energies comelastically resists rotation. it remains different from p. the VC formula holds good in variable as well as in steady states. . l 2 2 Also.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. Again. the change of that the new interpretation of c is vy~ from density to its reciprocal involves the change of c from [j. current) displ. the transverse voltage. which is of a strong kind. Take. thus : 1 . so that the kinetic energy and the magnetic energy are compared.e. Even in steady states. force) (el. not /x. (el. for instance. Macaulay's mathematics. force) energy) . which seems to be a retrograde step..) (permittivity) (el.

The potential energy still correctly localising the electric energy. Probability of the Kinetic Nature of Magnetic Energy. l We have . including a magnetic conductionpresentative current with waste of energy. if it were argued from a certain set of relations that the magnetic energy was kinetic. For. it is magnitude has its magnetic reand. in H the above detailed cases. the answer would be. CH. 157. by the formulae for magnetic and kinetic energy. reciprocal. Similarly. arranged in duplex Now. therefore. nor its We shall. If it be asked why. in spite of the other changes. that it has been done in order to make the magnetic energy be kinetic. or with some multiple " of q. we may assume that p but an unstated function not the density. there seems to be a considerable preponderance of evidence in favour of the kinetic nature of the . which may change its dimensions. as matters actually stand. in the previous analogies. same way as before) that But. a preference has usually been shown for the representation of magnetic force (or a constant multiple thereof) by velocity. curl G. for example. fectly abstract electromagnetic true that in a perscheme. in thus comparing magnetic with kinetic energy. say /A =f(p). III. and work of the density. VEH = vp~ V curl G as before. for example. equation (356).vVq." as. substantially. we shall always have compared with q. where H is changed from velocity to momentum. with an imperfect corre- spondence between the electric and magnetic sides of the electromagnetic scheme. when the other is to be potential energy. as of a state of strain in an elastic medium. there would be a perfect form in which every electric balance of evidence as regards the kinetic nature of eiiher the electric or the magnetic energy.250 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. require Of course. the force of the argument could be at once destroyed by picking out an analogous set of relations tending to show (in the the electric energy was kinetic. out the various correspondences that this necessitates. we may expect the flux of energy to be correct. />q = is .

the dynamical ideas will be found to come dynamics in quite naturally. it seems hardly possible to avoid entertaining the idea of the kinetic nature of the magnetic energy. not necessarily mathematical. magnetic energy. however. In this theory. on the assumption that electric energy is kinetic. Although adding . in particular. circuital flux of magnetic induction in the former case would now be currents. On then proceeding to the expe- rimental study of electrokinetics. We do not. but such as may be acquired in practical experience by an intelligent and thoughtful mind. the generalised theoretical will serve to clinch the matter. Therefore. force. in a manner resembling Maxwell's deduction of the laws of electric circuits. supposing the state of things mentioned to really exist. and work. at present. Now. so that electric displacement cannot occur in it. need to go to generalised dynamics to conclusion. on the assumption that magnetic energy is kinetic. there being one degree of freedom for every circuit. It is sufficient arrive at this probable to start with a sound general knowledge of dynamical facts and principles. But this electric energy. Lastly. and the variables being such linear electric circuits. the dielectric in which the conducting circuits are immersed is regarded as unyielding. by using the generalised equations of motion. when expressed in terms of the linear magnetic currents. we could construct a precisely similar theory of conductive magnetic circuits immersed in a medium permitting The displacement.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. 251 We may refer. momentum. just as. but destitute of magnetic inductivity. would possess the property of allowing us to deduce from it the laws of the magnetic circuits. and the currents are confined entirely to the conductors. including the phenomena of self-induction in particular. and how they are practically connected (the Act of Parliament notwithstanding). involving clear ideas about inertia. replaced by a similar circuital flux of electric dis- placement. to the laws of which were shown by Maxwell to be simply deducible by the ordinary equations of motion (generalised) of a dynamical system. we might become impressed with the idea that electric energy is kinetic . that every linear electric current is a (generalised) velocity. the former electric currents becoming magnetic and the magnetic energy becoming electric energy.

we have. and co-ordinate the facts in a compact and systematic manner. the correspondThus. which is the source gj It will be interpreted later. and the magnetic energy the potential energy of the rotation. . . On the other hand. combined with the kinetic suggestiveness of the facts (and the equations embodying them) in which magnetic induction and electric currents are concerned. curl h. suit- able to a dynamical science. as before. little that is novel. ing proposed circuital equations of the rotational ether. We can. immediately under them. fact. to be velocity. or half the torque and - the permittivity is the compliancy v~l . Magnetic q. . and adopt the converse system. if we wish to do it simply. give up the comof magnetic force with velocity and electric force with parison dielectric. H (357) . explains why the association of magnetic with kinetic. is little that is is whilst there much suggestive of that is This suggestive of the potential energy of a strained state. perhaps.. making the electric energy be kinetic. It is. (359) (360) . therefore.. and then. and electric with potential energy becomes natural. (358) Here the terms force H is becoming velocity in vertical are to be compared. most easily see that this plan should be adopted by writing down the two circuital equations of electromagnetism. to express the first taking circuital law in the dielectric and its mechanical companion. III. when Magnetic Energy Kinetic.. Unintelligibility of the Rotational Analogue for is a Conduc- ting Dielectric 158. The other circuital equations are . c a newly-introduced companion to g. to find that in order to extend the last-considered rotational analogy to a conducting we must. torque. somewhat a matter of surprise. CH. it will corroborate former conclusions. . the electric force E becomes |S. there kinetic ideas in electrostatics. .252 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. as well as rather vexing.

some (363) (352). . connecting the torque -with the rotation. g + curl H= (Jc + cp)E. .. rotational friction. (365) .ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.. we require to change cp in the first circuital law (357) to k + cp. . is compared with tv which is impressed translational force per unit volume. . it is suggested that rotational friction should be introduced to cause the waste of energy analogous to that of Joule. But if there were frictional resistance proportional to the spin. whilst the second circuital law needs no change. where ^ is the new coefficient. . 159. according to Maxwell's scheme (including. of course.. the extension to a conducting Put dielectric can be made in a sufficiently obvious manner. thus g + curl H = (k + cp)E. in order to interpret The Rotational Analogy. . which is additional analogues of inductivity and the source curl e. if we wish to extend it to a conducting dielectric. no permittivity). But the right member of (358) needs to be changed to match the modified (357). Electric Energy Kinetic. (360) under (361). density.. choosing the electric energy to be kinetic.. Thus. 253 We now have the and f. we use and we rotational elasticity to obtain the poassociate the rotation with the electric displacement. extended to a Conducting Dielectric by means of Trans- by changing the form of the analogy. (361) (362) its g1 + curU = ft + v-^)(iS). (364) . to interpretation in the rotational be modified to make &x as intelligible as the other constants ? match k. since tential energy. But what is ether.. We cannot do instead of what we want by (362) intelligibly.. But this will not harmonise at all with (362). we should have S = 2(v + Vjjp)ourlG. but require special arrangement. a pure conductor which has. or is assumed to have. and how is the latter to Now. .. whose nature does not appear.. So far relating to a non-conducting dielectric. But. and giving an intelligible dynamical analogy. with lational Friction.

In modern dynamics. k. If we keep away from the sources of energy. The correspondences in detail are as follows : stands for G. and to correct any errors that may have crept in. (permittivity) (el. For (365). expressed by p 1 q. (kin. (el. ( | torque)." . is the transa fit. current) Jv(curlG-) . energy) i/xA (mag. so that 2 P 1 is the frictionality. (spacial displ.) (momentum). These should be studied in connection with the circuital equations (364). compared with the first circuital law. energy). a " force and a " Newton knew that. force) (inductivity) -js. velocity. But the sources require special attention before the electro- magnetic and rotational analogues are intelligible. where we Introduce p l to match to get the other pair. and their matches underneath them. energy). in. and /a^ the rate of waste. ' (rotl. displ. OH. too. lational equation of motion in the rotational ether when there is frictional resistance to translation. (el. force) .< Q. (Joule-heat) (true current) (rate of waste). Pa (frictionality). thus Also put (358) under (359) (366) (367) We have now the new is coefficient that brings in which with an intelligible meaning to be given to waste of energy. Ptt.254 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. We know " that activity is the product of two factors. (induction) B 2 (mag. if " an " it be desired to obtain of the intelligent comprehension true nature of the analogy. (compliancy). energy) (conductivity) (cond. (366). (density). there is little difficulty in understanding the analogy in a broad manner. (velocity).).

" variables " be variously chosen in a surprised if it should sometimes happen that the (generalised) force turns out to be a (primitive) velocity. say is the curl of a torque. and that f and g are the sources of disturbances.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. since the may dynamical system. EC E and HB and H and ED are activities (per unit volume). eO. have the (368) (369) where W = V(E . . We . equation of activity. venience. for one thing. (371) . hB the corresponding " velocities. and the (generalised) velocity to be a (primi- Now. but has a the time-rate of change of some variable is the corresponding force generalised (not a primitive force) " and " velocity " such that the product of " force or activity per unit volume. Now what are the analogues of e and h ? Remember that only their curls appear in the circuital equations. By inspection of (365). being the sum of their activities. Our preforce. (370) H is JS. and its activity is Then. whilst the member represents the rate of supply of energy by the intrinsic sources e and h. gl = - curl q . . . In our electromagnetic equations. according to confor instance. where the velocity generalised still is 255 meaning not a primitive velocity. we need not be tive) Here is food for the scoffer. . &c..e) (H . any and remember the meaning of the activity product. and we call " the " forces (intensities). and are activities (per unit volume understood). therefore. . and the other factors the fluxes. (367). just as the analogue of - -|S . Q the rate of waste. we see that fx of a velocity. rate. At we should be careful not to confound distinct ideas. communicating energy to the system. (-4S )v-X-iS). where e and li are intrinsic. the analogue of h is Impressed magnetic force is. represented by an impressed torque per unit volume. sent rotational analogy furnishes an illustration.h). ." Similarly. is activity. and left T the magnetic energy per unit volume. W is the energy-flux. eD. . U the electric. and gl the curl 2fx = curl S .


of course, plain enough.




But the other

activity is

Qo (ft

+ /*>),

372 )

" where q is the analogue of e. Here the supposed force has and the " velocity " a force. For the factor become a velocity,


q in (372) is the analogue of electric current- density, and means the (primitive) force per unit volume in the rotational

ether, partly employed in increasing momentum, partly workOf course this perversion is rather ing against friction. extreme.


rotational analogues of (368), (369) may be readily down by proper translations in accordance with the above,


Williams, who has recently (Physical Society, 1892) " " published a very close study of the theory of the dimensions of physical magnitudes, on applying his views to the electro-


magnetic equations and the rotational ether, has arrived at the
conclusion that the representation of either E or by velocity leads to the only two systems that are dynamically intelligible.



be remembered, however, that

his conclusion


subject to certain limitations (mentioned in his paper) regarding dimensions, for otherwise the conclusion might seem to be of

must be velocity. In too absolute a nature, as if one of E or any case, I cannot go further myself at present than regard the
rotational ether as furnishing a good analogy, which later to something better and more comprehensive.




sent limitation to small motions (in general) and there are other difficulties.


a serious one,

Symmetrical Linear Operators, direct and inverse, referred to the principal Axes.
160. Linear vector functions of a vector play a very important part in vector-algebra and analysis, just as simple Thus, in the theory of equations do in common algebra. the strain vector is a linear function of the direction elasticity

and the

stress vector is

another linear function of the

direction vector.



In electromagnetism the electric displacea linear function of the electric force, and so is the

conduction current-density ; whilst the magnetic induction is a linear function of the magnetic force, when its range is small




are, therefore, at least five

examples of linear

vector functions to be considered in electromagnetism. In other sciences too, the linear function often turns up, and

frequently in pure geometry, when treated algebraically. Finite rotations may be treated by the method, and in the

algebra of surfaces of the second order the linear connection

between two vectors is prominent. It would be inexcusable not to give some account of linear operators in this chapter on vector-analysis and its application to electromagnetism. The subject, however, is such a large one that it is only possible to deal with its more elementary parts in a somewhat brief manner not, however, so brief as to be useless. The simplest kind of linear connection is that of Ohm's law We have C = E, where E is the in isotropic conductors. of electric force and C the current-density, whilst k intensity
a constant, the conductivity. No specification of direction Bub when vectorised, we have the equation here made. C = E instead, Tc being as before. We now assert that E are parallel, whilst their tensors are in a constant ratio, and
is is

for all directions in space.

Suppose, however, we alter the conductivity of the body in a certain direction, say that of i (e.g., by means of compression parallel to i), making it k v whilst its conductivity is k2 in all
directions transverse to


now have


= /^E^

O x = &}}, when the
transverse to

electric force is parallel to

and also But if it be

parallelism of



&L to




then we have C = &2 E. There is, in both cases, and 0, but the ratio of the tensors changes What, then, is the current when E is neither

The answer is to be obtained by parallel nor transverse to i ? decomposing E into two components, one parallel to i, the other transverse ; then reckoning the currents to match by the above,

combining them by addition.





E 1 +j.

E 2 + k.&2E3 2



where E I} E 2 E3 are the i, j, k scalar components of E. We have here made use of the linear principle. It is that the sum of the currents due to any two electric forces is the current

due to the sum

This principle (suitably of the electric forces. applies in all cases of linear connection between two expressed) treatvectors, and is the ultimate source of the simplicity of

ment that





More generally, let the conductivity be different in the three co-perpendicular directions of i, j, k, being k lt k y kz respectively.

Then we have

= *E-U1 E 1 +J.fc8E 2 + kJfc 8 E s
The current




now coincident with the

electric force in three

directions only, namely, along the principal axes of conductivity. When E has any other direction than that of a principal axis,


we have no longer parallelism expressed by equation (2).

of It

and E, and their relation
the general type of

linear relations of the symmetrical kind when referred to the principal axes, if we remove the restriction which obtains in

the electrical example that the &'s must be all positive. Given, = JcE, with the understanding that is a symmethen, that
trical linear function of

must represent the linear (the conductivity operator in the above example) the full answer to the question, What is the corresponding to a given E? is obtainable in the above
E, so that k

operator connecting them

manner, viz., by first finding the axes of parallelism of E and and the values of the principal &'s, and next, by adding together
the three C's belonging to the three component E's parallel to the axes.


inverse question, Given E, find 0,


similarly answerable.

C = />E, where p


the operator inverse to k (or the

resistivity operator in the case of conduction-current),

we know

that ^ft = 1, if p l is the constant resistivity parallel to i, and = 1 and &3/o 3 = 1 for the j and k axes, so that in similarly k2 p 2



where C v C 2 C 3

are the scalar components of current. similar remarks apply to the permittivity operator Precisely


D = cE,

connecting the displacement


with the electric

force E,

and to the inductivity operator

B = /*H,


ing the induction B with the magnetic force H, when the conIt is not without importance to connection is a linear one.
stantly bear in

mind the above process of passing from E to C and the process of inverting k to /o, because when treated in a general manner, with reference to any axes, the relations become much more complicated, whilst their intrinsic and resultant meaning is identically the same.



Illustrations. The Sphere and Ellipsoid. Inverse Perpendiculars and Maccullagh's Theorem.




the pre tdous.


us obtain some geometrical illustrations of transition from to is like that from a

If a solid be uniformly subjected to sphere to an ellipsoid. what is termed a homogeneous strain, any initially spherical

If this be done without portion of it becomes an ellipsoid. rotation, the state is such that all lines parallel to a certain axis, say that of i, in the unstrained solid, are lengthened or

shortened in a certain ratio in passing to the strained state, without change of direction. The same is true as regards lines parallel to two other axes, say j and k, perpendicular to each
other and to the
first axis,

with different values given to the
directions of

ratio of lengthening or shortening in the three preservation of parallelism.

The equation

of the ellipsoidal surface itself is

when referred to the centre and the principal axes. Here a, 6, c, are the lengths of the principal semi-axes, whilst x, y, z, are the scalar components of r, the radius vector from the centre

any point

of the surface.



be written






from which we see that when r belongs to the ellipsoid, N is a unit vector, the vector radius of a certain sphere from which the ellipsoid r may be obtained by homogeneous strain, the
three ratios of elongation being a, &, c (that is, the co-ordinate x/a in the sphere becomes x in the ellipsoid, and so on).



we square


and divide by

E2 we may




where the C's are the components of Now suppose E is constant, and





the tensor of




surface, whilst

range extremity the end of the corresponding






For we range over an ellipsoidal surface. in (6) to be a, b, c in (4) ; when G I} fe E 3
neously be
x, y,

may take ^E, #2 E, C 2 C 3 will simulta,

The semi-axes

of this current-ellipsoid are






the principal currents in the directions of parallelism of electric

and current.

Similarly to (6),

we have, by squaring

(7 )

from which we see that when C is constant, so that the vector ranges over a spherical surface, the corresponding E simultaneously ranges over the surface of an ellipsoid whose principal semi-axes are the principal E's.

There are other ways of illustration than the above. Thus see from the form of the right member of (4) that it is the scalar product of r and another vector s, thus

we may

rs =




where r and s are given by


Here we see that



a linear function of

and such that


N = <r,

then s = <N = <<r =



terpretation of the new vector s is reciprocal of the vector perpendicular from the centre upon the tangent plane to the ellipsoid at the extremity of r. For if p be this perpendicular, the projection of r upon p is evidently

See equation (5). The inIt is the easily to be found.



because the three vectors

r, p,

and the

line in the

tangent plane joining their extremities form a right-angled Therefore triangle whose longest side is r.



for all r's

of the

dividing by p


comparing which with

rp- -!, (8), which is true


we see that Now we have


= p"1

as stated

= EC

/> 2


/o 3


from which we see that

we construct the



i principal semi-axes are (p 1 EO) and so on, the radius vector will be E and the corresponding reciprocal perpendicular will

be C/EO.




understood to be constant.



we have





so that in the ellipsoid with principal semi-axes (^EC)*, &c., the

radius vector is C and the reciprocal perpendicular is E/EC. In both these methods of representation neither E nor has constant tensor, but their product, the activity, is constant.

In the case



it is




considered constant, the

reciprocal of the perpendicular is ellipsoid of

on the tangent plane to the








an ellipsoid. For E is an ellipsoid, and pE only the principal constants being the reciprocals of those in the former case.


differs in

Similarly, in the case (7),

where C


constant, the reciprocal



and again the extremity
surface. of




ranges over an ellipsoidal

Thus the sphere of E with constant tensor

associated with an

2 1 2 ellipsoid &E, whose reciprocal perpendicular is />E/E or ^r~ E/E , another ellipsoid. It follows that the reciprocal perpendicular

of the latter gives us the former ellipsoid again. This reciprocal relation of two ellipsoids through their in-

verse perpendiculars


an example

dinary theorem Let

of reciprocal surfaces.

of Maccullagh's extraorIt may be stated thus

1^ = 1,


r2 s 2

= l,



be the equations of two surfaces referred to the same origin, T l and r2 being the radius vectors, and s 1} S 2 the reciprocals of the vector perpendiculars from the origin on their tangent If, then, we choose r 2 to be B I} we shall simultaneously planes.



be rr



starting with the surface rlt construct

the surface whose radius vector r2 is B V the reciprocal perpenThen the reciprocal perpendicular s 2 dicular of the ij surface.
of the second surface (s 1 or r 2) will the first surface.

be the radius vector rx of





This admits of simple vectorial proof. For if ijSj = 1 be the equation of a surface according to the above notation, we





s^ =



dil and efSj are simultaneous variations of r x and s r

But di l

in the tangent plane to r15 and therefore at right angles to = But ds 1 or This leaves T l ds l = also. BH so that s^ij 0.
c?r 2

equivalently is in the tangent plane of the surface whose vector radius is S 1} or r2 ; therefore r x is parallel to the perpen, ,

r1 s 1

dicular on the same, or parallel to S 2 say, ij = xs 2 from which = a;s 1 s2 or #r2 s 2 But = 1 and r2 s 2 = l, so ==!, and

which completes the connections. In terms of the perpendiculars, let p l and p 2 be their lengths and r v r2 the corresponding radius vectors, then

= s2






19 )


P! is parallel to

p 2 and r2 to p r

Internal Structure of Linear Operators. Manipulation of several when Principal Axes are Parallel.
162. Leaving now the geometrical illustrations connected with the ellipsoid, consider the symmetrical linear operator by itself. If D = cE, where c is the linear operator, we know by

the above exactly




can, however, write c in such a

operates through the principal o's. manner that it shall state
if c

explicitly its meaning. belonging to the axes of

i, j,


c 2 , c3

be the principal



we have
. .

cE = i.c 1 E 1 +j.c 2 E 2 + k.c3 E3





put the E's in terms of E, producing

cE = i.c 1iE+j.c 2jE + k.c 3kE.
In this form, the operand thus






be separated from .the operator,

cE = (i.c 1 i+j.c2 j+k.cak)E,
so that the expression for c itself is



= i.c1i+j,c2j + k.c3k


In this form, with a vector to operate upon implied, the But the operand need not nature of c is fully exhibited.

follow the operator.
If it




the result


just the


Thus by


EC = Eucji + Ej.Cgj

+ Ek.c3 k

= c1E 1 .i + c2E2 .j + c3 E3 .k = cE.


When, however, the operator is unsymmetrical, the vectors cE and EC are not identical. They are said to be conjugate to
one another, so that in the symmetrical case of identity,
also called a self-conjugate operator.
c is




symmetrical and skew operators will appear later. There are six vectors concerned in c, viz., i, j, k, and ^i, c3 k, which call I, J, K. Thus

2 j,

= i.I+j.J + k,K



the type of a symmetrical operator referred to the principal Now the general form of c referred to any axes and with the symmetrical restriction removed is obtained by turning

these six vectors to any six others; thus,

= a.l + b.m + c.n,

so that

<E = a.lE + b.mE + c.nE

= Ea.l + Eb.m + Ec.n,

...... ..... .....


show the

is conjugate explicitly. a changed notation, however) Prof. Gibbs's way of re(with garding linear operators. The arrangement of vectors in (26)

linear function


he terms a dyadic, each term of two paired vectors (a . 1, &c.,) Prof. Gibbs has considerably developed the being, a dyad.
theory of dyadics. Returning to the simpler form (25) or (22), we may note the effect of the performance of the operation symbolised by c a

or (20),

of times, directly or inversely.

Thus by

(22) or (21),

we have


and so on. Thus cn means the operator whose principals are the nth powers of those of the primitive c, with the same


therefore get a succession of ellipsoids with similarly





directed principal axes, only altering their lengths, starting initial E with constant tensor. (That is, provided the

If some be negative, principal c's are all positive. other surfaces of the second order to consider.)

we have

We may


of operators, a,

manipulate in the same simple manner any b, c, &c., which have the same principal
differ in

though they may

other respects.

Thus, using

the same kind of notation,

aE = i . a 1 E l + j a 2 E 2 + k


a 3 E3



bdE = abE = i

a^Ej + j a2 6 2 E2 + k a3 63 E 3 = a&cE = i a^c^ + j . a 2 6 2c2 E 2 + k a^c^, c&aE






the successive action of any number of symmetrical operators with common principal axes is equivalent to the action of a single operator of the same kind, whose

and so


principals are the products of the similar principals of the set of operators. The resulting ellipsoids have their axes parallel

Next, multiply the equation (20) by any other vector F,


FcE = c 1 E 1 F 1 + c 2 E 2F 2 + c 3 E 3 F3
see that this






identically the same as EcF. We might also conclude this from the fact that cE and EC are the same vector ; or, thirdly, by forming cF, and then

By symmetry we



by E.

We may

therefore regard


as the

scalar product of E and cF (or Fc), or, as the equal scalar product of EC (or cE) and F. This reciprocity is the general characteristic

of symmetrical operators, by which they can be The electrical meandistinguished from the skew operators. in terms of displacement and electric force is that the coming

ponent displacement in any direction N, due to an electric force
acting in any other direction M, equals the component displacement along M, due to an electric force with the same

tensor acting along N.

Theory of Displacement in an Eolotropic Dielectric. Solution for a Point-Source.


We see

force that is given in a dielectric there

from the preceding that when it is the electric is no difficulty in find;

ing the displacement

and conversely, when the displacement



given, the electric force similarly becomes

known through

the values of the principal permittivities. Suppose, however, that the data do not include a knowledge of either the electric
force or the displacement, both of which have to be found to It is then sufficient to find either, the linear suit other data.

connection settling the other. Thus, to take an explicit case which has, for a reason which will -appear, a special interest,

suppose the dielectric medium to have uniform permittivity transverse to the axis of k, but to be differently permittive to displacement parallel to this axis. Further, put a point-charge q at the origin, and enquire what is the equilibrium distribution of displacement.

The statement that there is a charge q at the origin means nothing more than that displacement diverges or emanates from We also understand, of that place, to the integral amount q.
course, that the displacement has no divergence anywhere else. But the manner of emanation is, so far, left quite arbitrary.

Certain general results may, however, be readily arrived at. To begin with, if the medium is isotropic, the emanation of the

displacement must not favour one direction more than another, from which it follows that the displacement at distance r from
2 2 spread uniformly over the area 47rr so that q/lirr Now if we alter the permittivity to disexpresses density. placement parallel to k only, we favour displacement in that direction if the permittivity is increased, at the expense of the

the source




displacement, because the total amount, which measures the strength of the source, is the same. Conversely, if we reduce the permittivity parallel to k, we favour the

The lines of displacement, originally transverse displacement. therefore separate themselves about the k axis spread equably, (both ways), and concentrate themselves transversely, or about


equatorial plane, the plane passing through the charge is cut by the k axis perpendicularly. If we carry this process so far as to reduce the permittivity



to zero, there can be

no displacement at

to k, so that the displacement

must be

all parallel entirely confined to

In this plane it spreads equably the equatorial plane itself. from the source, because of the transverse isotropy assumed at the beginning. The amount q therefore spreads uniformly over
the circle of circumference 2?rr in the displacement sheet, so

of the distance has been replaced by the law of the square inverse distance. except in one respect. the whole of the displacement goes unilaterally We may along the k axis on the other side. the whole of the displacement will be confined to the i axis. with confinement to a single plane. Thus. In the case of the planar distribution of displacement. at the expense of if the displacement parallel to j. We may. however. we abolish Finally. The effect will be to favour displacement on the other side j and. of planar isotropy with zero permittivity perpendicular to the plane. say by reducing the permittivity in direction j. with finite surface-density In the above manner. in the case of the linear distribua finite straight line (part of the will tion of displacement along the i axis. . (32) F be the electric force. we may spread out the source upon a portion of the j. the surface-density is infinite. we cause the displacement in the sheet to concentrate itself about the i axis. Return. therefore. in the limit. go further by introducing heterogeneity. with three different principal permittivities. so that the displacement is cF. and of purely linear displacement due to the vanishing of the transverse permittivity. half going one way and half the other. in the ledge of results without mathematics. CH. The law of the inverse that the density (linear) is now q/2irr. if need be. altogether the permittivity parallel to j. therefore. when the permittivity is altogether abolished on the first side. of displacement inside it. and other extreme cases that may be named. . reduce the permittivity on one side of the equatorial plane. spread out the source along k axis) when the displacement out in parallel sheets. except at the source. to the case of initial isotropy upset by changed per- mittivity parallel to the k axis. we obtain a general knowExcept. that the total displacement must always be the same. III. if we introducs planar eolotropy. we do not obtain an exact knowledge of the results. giving a finite simultaneously spread surface-density. Next. if . when the former line of displacement will become a tube. k plane. however. extreme cases of spherical isotropy. but the linear-density is finite. however. We know that in the state of equi- . or. Similarly.266 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.

then. the potential. To find their nature. (c 1 is V1 + c2V2 + c3V3 )P=P when is . according to (35). . there 267 P must be zero. or the curl of F must be the slope . the equation of any one being .. we obtain (33) (34) div(-cVP) = />.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBKA AND ANALYSIS. P. and equating it to q. r. Now when c's referred to the principal a point-source at the origin. The complete potential in the eolotropic medium due to the point-source q at the origin -is therefore g/47T ( } The equipotential surfaces are therefore ellipsoids centred at the charge.VP of a scalar Furthermore. /0 . from the potential by Then -' (36) gives and the displacement is obtained by operating by which cancels the c~\ and gives c on this. the characteristic of there are equal.. which axes. tric force cut through the equipotential surfaces at right angles. . the divergence of Uniting. because this expression (35) satisfies = 0. librium. . (34) with p The constant / may be evaluated by calculating the displacement passing through the surface of any sphere r = constant.. D is the electrification. or 2 2 2 . (37) so that the lengths of the principal axes are proportional to the The lines of elecsquare roots of the principal permittivities. . it is easy to see that the From this. on account of the eolotropy. away from the source. first derive the electric force differentiation. But the lines of displacement do not do so.. . and the three we know that the potential is q/^irrc at distance squares of 2 remembering that r is the sum of the the components of r. potential in the case of eolotropy is where f is some constant. The result is /= (c^Cg)"*.density p. so that must be no voltage in any circuit. that is to say. these results.

-i The displacement That is. It is also true in any circuit beyond the surfaces. In thus abolishing the electric field beyond the limited region selected. What is left will still be in equilibrium. Also note that Fr is proportional to P . III. we may at the same time change the nature of the medium. terminate abruptly upon the two ellipsoidal surfaces. and reduce c3 the sphere sphere. the density of the energy varies as the fourth . because the electric force is perpendicular to the surface. making it isotropic. only altering their distribution as the medium is made eolotropic. (39). we may. that the scalar product FD varies as that is. Observe. For the voltage remains That This is obviously true between the surfaces. when the equipotential surface is a we keep Cj = c2 constant.. or the component parallel to the displacement.or conducting. there is a total electrification q on surface-density. the lines of displacement remain straight. it is true for any circuit partly force. where the normal component of the displacement measures the That is. like the earth (and other Starting from isotropy. of the potential. if . So the electric of electric The electrification is on the surfaces. do away with the rest of the electric field.q on the outer surface. in passing. Let the common value of ct .268 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. will become an oblate spheroid. the radial component of F. by the two surfaces. or parallel to r itself. for example. or leyden. is the ratio of the voltage between them That is. bodies) flattened at the poles. OH. we may let the displacement and electric force is. varies as P/r. within and partly beyond the region of electric force. because no change has been made there. the coefficient of q in (36) is the elastance beto q. P4 power that is. because of the absence zero in every circuit possible. " condenser." to use Lord Rayleigh's word. The elastance of the the inner and . formed field is self-contained. Any change is permissible that does not introduce sources that will disturb the equilibrium of the electric field between the equipotential surfaces. And lastly. if we please. tween any equipotential surface and the one at infinity. &c. is therefore radial. If we select any pair of equipotential surfaces between which the electric force and displacement are given by (38).

or from one circle to another in the same plane . The displacement is now entirely in the equatorial plane. we obtain a is. an entirely different problem. in which the displacement due to sources situated in any plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry is also in that plane. but c3 an elliptical disc. The Equilibrium Surfaces in General. (40) and the displacement and electric force are given by As c3 is continuously reduced the oblate spheroid of equilibrium becomes flattened more and more. but which involves essentially the same mathematics. let there be a point-source of displacerectilinear motion. then the potential due to the central Qfa _ . we see that the abolition of the permittivity in a certain direction has the effect of converting the usual tridimensional solutions relating to an isotropic medium to bidimensional solutions. one another. from the centre.Source in steady Medium. on the edge of the disc). with the axis of symmetry But they are quite independent of running through them. We may have any number of such planar distributions side by side. We may have the displacement going from the central charge to an equal negative charge spread over the circle. will produce no change. the displacement will usually spread out to The exception is when every suit tridimensional isotropy. plane perpendicular Then the restoration of the permittivity similarly situated. when c3 reduced to a circular disc. the circular Similarly. pass to what is. and is finally. 164. But. and so on. Theory of the relative Motion of Electrification and the The Solution for a Point. If we restore the permittivity parallel to the axis of symmetry. at first sight. without introducing disc is replaced by distance r circular line of electrification (that transverse eolotropy. to the axis has identically similar sources. when c x and c 2 are unequal. Let us now . As before. = 0.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. 269 and c2 be denoted by is c charge q P s __ . so that if we terminate the displacement at = 0.

we tively simple have the two fundamental circuital laws. (42) (43) /t E and H are the electric and magnetic forces. 44. especially as it is not intelligible without close But if we only wish to know the finally-assumed disstudy. By . TIT. p the density of electrification. without bias The displacement one way or another. imagine the medium to from right to left past the charge. It follows that H = VuD. Thus. Also 66. h = VDw. to begin from the foundation. not right way to work. for the motional forces. (2). and e.) in our present is case. where . and D w Now 33 to 70 generally. explicitly in we substitute -u for for future convenience. subsided.270 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. is . . (45) But B is circuital.. we can obtain it by going the But it is complex. so we have no further trouble with the magnetic force. and therefore so H. is The right sides steady. . . and equations (5). and c the inductivity and permittivity. but let the dielectric fully isotropic. or (3). keeping move steadily displacement ? If we desire the solution expressing how the displacement changes from its initial distribution. ment medium be homowill geneous and distributed. (43) are therefore ze/o. . terms of the displacement. curl(e-E) = fipH. h are the motional electric and magnetic forces given by e = VwB. we may obtain and curl(H-h) = cpE + /ou. if (46) H w. and will. (6). supposed to have velocity u . when that is known. E and H are trification at rest. and the elecof (42). tribution of displacement when the initial irregularities have express the result in a comparamanner. This gives . be given here. be radially the charge fixed in space. (42) and the second o~ (44) we obtain curl H = curl h = curl VDw. at the origin. CH... as the medium is brought from rest into steady motion. which a great simplification. (4). How will this affect the Now. and (See equations (1). therefore. velocity of the medium. (44) B the being the induction and displacement.

v being the speed of propagation of disturparallel to k. f = (1 . ax J^ 2 = .. have no curl. . whose principal permittivities are given by (54). is the isotropic medium moves bodily past a stationary charge. (52).. = 0. . . along with the first of curl(E + VuB) or say. (49) since 2 /zc = l. if P is the %=-_-. put the value of if f=E + VuB. but had its permittivity in the direc- . to state the comparison fairly. < 53 > if = C2 = Cj = c(l-u2 /v 2). . when eolotropic medium.. bances.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. the displacement distribution becomes identically the same as if the medium were at rest.dP ay = n -(!-) dz v* } u? dP and the components of displacement are given by *& Ci %' an(j c3 *&' . . (46). supposed to be Expanding by the fundamental formula 114. is Insert in (50). (43) gives. (54) Now observe that (53) express the displacement in terms of the electric force in an eolotropic medium at rest. .tt 2 ' 2 /v )F. . we obtain .b Therefore. (50) Now (1 let 2 ). and divide by - tt 2 /^ The result This vector F must d? also is potential whose slope F. we have . and u the tensor of u. Our present problem of a moving isotropic medium therefore reduced to one relating to a stationary Thus. Now B in f by . when P represents the electrostatic potential. thus. (47) (48) curlf=0. 271 To find the displacement.

and move the charge through way at the same speed. although it is the same function precisely. This is why we put fix t the reverse w= . the displacement is concerned. force F.u.currents and the eolotropic comparison I have given before. whilst the displacement and electric force are not parallel in the stationary eolotropic medium . The above theory of convection.. CIL III. in the moving medium To comthey are parallel. pp. reaches v. above results apply when the charge q moves with velocity u through the stationary medium. therefore. by taking The displacement concentrates itself = c. and is it is now in motion.* I have now to add a some- what important * correction. Instead of moving the medium past a fixed charge. In the eolotropic medium its slope is the electric force F. that the square of u occurs. tion of motion reduced from c to c(l therefore given by (40). and it is its existence which allows the parallel to exist as regards the identical distributions of displacement. 504-516. but there is in the moving medium. w2/v2). 492-499. we see that H reverses itself It should when the direction of motion is reversed. or axis of reduced per- In the limit. But it makes a great difference in the magnetic force which accompanies the lateral concentration of the displacement. which is E instead. when the speed of motion mittivity in the other. as in the eolotropic case when the permittivity c3 vanishes. But it is necessary now to travel with the charge in order to see the same results.272 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. For the opportunity of making II. and c3 about the equatorial plane. we may The the medium. the differences. The c solution is as in (54). ." Vol. "Electrical Papers. but this In the moving medium its slope is the same is no longer the electric force. which is the electrostatic in the eolotropic stationary medium. obtained from F by (51) or (52). be carefully noted that P. in (52). because the origin is taken at the charge. because the medium is isotropic. which way the motion takes place. on the other hand. is not the electropotential static potential in the moving medium. (41) in 163. Again. The preliminary mathematics therefore less easy. Being given by (46). there is no magnetic force in the eolotropic plete case. the displacement is wholly planar. It does not Observe. or plane through the charge perpendicular to the axis of motion in the one problem. so far as matter. the speed of light.

in the problem of a moving medium with charge fixed the same condition for- mally obtains. he has recently (in a private communica- my for former calculations. however. G. T . it is the same as saying that there must be no voltage in any circuit. we see that the sphere of equilibrium when the medium (isotropic) is stationary. That P= perpendicular to an equilibrium surface. circular disc. becomes an oblate spheroid when the medium is set into a state of steady motion. on whose edge only is the electrification. tion) cast doubt upon the validity of the extension of the solution to the case of a moving charged conducting sphere> and has asked the plain question is (in effect) : What justification there for taking distributions of displacement calculated in the above manner. who has been indebted to Mr. needs no fresh investigation. Therefore. In the stationary case of eolotropy. where P is. condition for equilibrium. that F shall have no curl. in the solution for a assumed that the solution was the same for a charged sphere. the vector F must have no curl. But as it is not the electric force E. which surfaces are then surfaces? For example. and since it is the electric force.charge. by 163. this correction I 273 am bridge. that is. I find that there is no pendicularly. constant is the equation to a surface of equilibrium is F (no longer equipotential in the electrostatic sense). exceptions excepted.ELEMENTS OP VECTOUIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. to zero in every circuit.charge. and therefore all results obtained therefrom by integration. and cutting them short by surfaces to which the displacement made equilibrium point. so that F must be normal to an equilibrium surface. I is perpendicular.. because the lines of electric force met it perOn examination. however. F. the spheroid is flattened to a limit. Now. when the speed is v. C. Searle. The electric force should not be for this process. being implicitly contained in the above. In the the shorter axis being parallel to the line of motion. must come is. justification normal to a surface The true boundary of equilibrium. viz. however. the same function as in the eolotropic stationary problem of electrostatics. of Camat the trouble of working his way through Whilst fully confirming my results a point. it is clear that the displacement (which is parallel to E) cannot be perpendicular to an equilibrium surThe voltage calculated by the fictitious electric force F face. The boundary condition therefore.

more generally. CH. we may readily deduce the corresponding results when the sources are of the flux induction. . This applies when the whole dielectric medium is moving It equally past a fixed spheroidal surface of electrification. fall back upon the more abstract theory of electrification moving through the ether. subject to the reservation of the last sentence. 165.. as before. current Thus. relating to the magnetic effects produced by moving the medium bodily past stationary electrification other or equivalently. instead of displace. III. h = VDw. it would seem to be immaterial whether the conductor be a flat disc or a sphere. ment. with the auxiliary equations of motional electric and magnetic force e = VwB.. in (42).274 'ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. . Theory of the relative Motion of Magnetification and the Medium. way through the medium or. or with the rest of the But external medium when the conductor moves through it. and substitute convective magnetic current cm... (43). We can. (57) where w is the velocity of the medium.. then curl(H-h) = cpE. and with the . provided we do not interfere with the free motion of the external medium through it in the one case. when the electrification moves the other way through a applies fixed medium. to which no definite answer can be given at present. We may therefore up with conducting matter. . . (55) (56) (e-E) = /*pH + <ni.. in any case. do away with the convective electric /ou. by moving the electrification the . . is where o- Our circuital equations are volume-density of magnetification (suppositional). Whether it is possible to move matter through the ether without disturbing it forms an entirely different question. by relative motion of the sources of displacement and the medium supporting it. without having conductors to interfere. There fill will it be no electric force in its interior. when only a single circular line of electrification is concerned. in the limiting case of motion at the speed of light. curl . From the preceding.

curl H will be perpendicular Here u is the equivalent to w. are fully known in terms of B. a change of sign. by keeping the sources at and letting only the medium move bodily past them.ELEMENTS OP VECTOIUAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. . or reversal of direction. Comparing E. Thus velocity of the sources. with (46). by making use of the analogies between the electric and magnetic sides of electromagnetism. we have. because. similarly.. whilst that of the induction is or. . we convert the problem rest. Now we really results relating to the do not need to employ the formal mathematics. Using the second of (57) in the other circuital equation (55) produces curl(H-VuD) = = curlf. when the stationary state of induction and displacement is reached. (61) T2 . translating results in the But as our object is to illustrate the appropriate manner. and therefore D. when the medium is stationary. 275 further auxiliary conditions that the divergence of the displacement is zero. by (59). we see that the electric force set up when a magnetic charge moves is related to the induction from the charge in the same way as the magnetic force set up when an electric charge moves is related to the displacement from it. E . however. (58) In the result for a moving point-charge. so now we may write is perpendicular .. especially as the safe carrying out of the analogies requires that they should be thoroughly understood first. (60) where. when united right members of (55) and (56). curl to w. which requires some practice. and so make VBu circuital. to one of stationary waves.u. if First. Knowing the motion of electrification. . curl E = curl e = curl VwB. . it will not be desirable to leave out the mathematics entirely. disappearance of the Then (56) gives... . (59) where w = . . working of vectors as well as electromagnetic principles. we may infer the corresponding ones concerning the motion of magnetification. with. say. with the first of (57).

III.vQ. then. . terminate the electric and magnetic fields. If the same is common to all the elementary sources. remembering. f= H + VkVkH = H + (kH 8 . CH. and there is a definite system of surfaces of equilibrium (ft = constant) where we may. the theory of had the effects produced by relative motion of magnetic sources and the medium is essentially the same as that of moving . permittivity to inductivity. which are known by the above. and that the induction is given by *"' That the is.H) . . if we please. and move the medium But should the motion of source and medium not be the same for every source. as the case may be) to magnetic electric sources potential. the induction distributes itself its same way as if medium were p to /*(! -u?/v z ) inductivity reduced from in the line of motion. therefore. B *=-"S' at rest. since we cannot move the medium bodily more than one way at a time. the change of sign. F = . We motion motion know. but B3 =-. or is derived from a scalar potential fl thus. u is parallel to k. In fact. in the (63. thereby substituting new arrangements of magnetic sources for the old. we reduce the problem to that of magnetic eolotropy without relative motion of the medium and sources. (62) from which we see that the vector F derived from f by 2 2 f=(l -u /v )T has no curl. however. relative rest.d-wf. and the magnetic induction which moving electrification to electric displacement accompanies set up by moving magnetification. if ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. we may imagine it to be stationary. the result of the steady rectilinear of any distribution of magnetic sources. electric potential (real or fictitious.276 or. In this case it is most convenient to keep the sources at alone. and obtain the effect due to the motion of the magnetification by superimposing the separate effects of the elementary sources. translating displacement in the latter case to induction in the former.

equations are now curl (H . B3 = MsF3 . no such thing as magnetifi cation. if the fraction 1 u 2 /v 2 be denoted by s. (67) /s. Abolish o. We divB = That is. in order to come closer to reality. therefore. curl F = curl h /s .in (56). . The induction is the magnetic analogue of electrification. (68) where f and F are the same vectors (in terms of H) as in tho last case. B= is AF.. We see that the vector F has now definite curl.ELEMENTS OF VECTOKIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS.. (64) (65) curl (VwB . . We shall see the limitation of application later. somewhat modify the unipolar magnets. that E = VwB. and ps.. The circuital tion. (70) the induction medium the same as in a stationary eolotropic (according to A).. therefore have to find the steady state from these complete connections. 277 Theory of the relative Motion of Magnetisation and the Medium. (69) to say B= AF. where A the inductivity operator whose scalar principals are /x. however.h ) = cpE. such that sF = f.E) = /^H. 166. p. the right members vanish as before. so (66) so far. curl that the is curl f= F= curl curl h h . conditions assumed to prevail in the above.. This quantity where h is the equivalent intrinsic magnetic force. In the Now assume steady state. provided the intensity of the intrinsic . There is.. instead of magnetificaa distribution of intrinsic magnetisation. and introduce h in (55).VDw . 0. and that the induction is derived from F by B^/iFp that is B2 = ^F 2 is . Increased Induction as well as Eolotropic Disturbance. . is We I = /xh . Next put (66) in (64) and we find. always must. . . Consider. where we have introduced the motional forces (57). the unchanged displacement theory depending on the induction and velocity of the medium in the same way as when the source was magnetification. therefore. . we should have circuital. If it were not circuital.

) . the convergence of Ah not of fihQ the real intensity of magnetisation. .. put . It The likeness is in the shows a likeness and a difference. magnetic force be increased from h important point.. disturbance from the steady distribution produced by moving the the same for h we keep outside the region provided medium would be as for the equivalent of o-. For. nor yet of /*h the same increased in a constant ratio. XV + v 2 2 + v8 8 )fl -/*-Woi + v2A02 + *VAS is (73) /s. magnetification (as of strength of the source. in terms of Cartesians.. This is an We know that there are certain respects in which the theory intrinsic of induction due to magnetic force is identical with that due to magnetification. h /s. But magnetisation. the equation of the potential 12. this in the . along with the reduction of inductivity in the direction of motion. of (70) we obtain do. the above investigation only partly confirms this conclusion. to vt the speed of propagation of disturbances. by the motion. force To exemplify we this. do. reduce the inductivity parallel to the (abolished) motion from to s/x. so as to cause the induction to retreat from this direction and concentrate itself transversely. we require to increase the intensity of the intrinsic magnetic from h to h /s. For instance. Using (71) as see we may first second and by the third of (70). the steady induction outside a magnet due to h is the same as that due to a distribution of cr. measured by the convergence of the intrinsic From this we might hastily conclude that the magnetisation. III.. Remember that s is a proper fraction. or.. we do not alter the But in the case of magnetisation we produce an equivalent result.. (72) Or. to CH..278 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. going from unity to zero as the speed of motion increases fron. at electrification) In the case of any rate. The difference is in the reckoning of the strength of sources. In both cases we may do away with the motion provided we simultaneously eolotropic peculiarity brought in fj. The equivalent magnetification /s.

For (66) to be valid. on account of the symmetry of But if the same filament be held to the axis or line of motion. to make continuity. first let h be parallel 1 s" outside the brackets in (73) cancels the s inside. 27 T There is. resembles that of a pair of oppositely In the signed point-charges. the effective to w or k. and is therefore increased. Then the . with unimpaired effective inductivity parallel to the filament.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. when the speed is raised to v. then.m/s. for example. to an B unknown still extent. whilst continuity is filament itself. our magnet is a straight filamentary magnet. B should be such as to make laterally filament. the other pole. so that the right member becomes simply /xV3 ^03 where A03 is now the tensor of h That is. But if h is perpendicular just as when the medium is at rest. the direction of motion being parallel to it. Suppose. to k. the poles (effective) is made m/s and . It has two poles. magnetification is the convergence of the real magnetisation. They are perpendicular in the example circuital. say parallel to i. and this will. Now let the medium from one and converges to made between them in the by the effective reduced inductivity parallel to the and curl B should be perpenThis requires that dicular to one another. transversely across the line of motion the property stated is no longer true. the right member of (73) becomes l /xs-'V^ou or t*16 effective magnetification is s~ times the con vergence of the magnetisation. then. the strength of to the results. increased total induction as well as concentration about the plane through the filament perpendicular to the . whilst that perSo there is pendicular to the filament is reduced. therefore. if we keep outside the filament. but the induction outside is diverted This case. so that (66) is not true. approximation On this understanding. of strength m and -m say. we have a pair of parallel plane induction-sheets whose cores are joined by the straight filament of induction. however. employ them provisionally to obtain a now an motion. therefore. a remarkable difference between the two cases of motion of the medium parallel to and transverse to the lines of real magnetisation. w with respect just mentioned. . limit. Then the strength of the poles is unchanged. as before. Thus. We first can. upset the later equations. so that induction to the amount m diverges move past the filament.

. CH. The displaceintrinsic electrisation J = ce where e is the . this increased induction. may. t The theory ment due to of an electrised plate is similar. setting the medium moving now the motional electric force The accompanying magnetic force straight through it. that is. and so obtain an exact solution showing the increased induction. Now when the induction is B = I within the plate of any thickness). will be increased from D = J to it D = J/s by being trinsic. We at medium (which there is is rest the thus do away with the poles. equivalent electric force. arrange matters in such a way that the equation (66) shall be still valid when the line of motion is perpendicular to the magnetisation. III. there will be electric It is entirely within the magnetised according to (66). the electrisation being uniform and parallel to the sides of the plate. But if may be the medium be made to move steadily straight across the magnetised region. whilst no displacement. The intrinsic magnetic force h produces the greatest effect that it can produce unaided. we employ actual material plates. be understood that if. be non-conductors. magnetised or electrised as the case may be.280 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Here we have the explana- tion of the previous result relating to the increased effective strength of poles. That is. We exact in the absence of working errors. and zero outside. then. in the first place. It will. assist the intrinsic the motional magnetic force comes in to magnetic force. region. Along with force. although there will still within I to be no induction (or displacement) outside the plate. parallel to the sation I = fih boundaries. after certain transient effects have passed away (which may be readily calculated. however. because they form simply plane electromagnetic waves). As the speed increases up to v the induction and the accompanying displacement in the plate go up to infinity. instead of suppositional impressed or intrinsic forces in a uniform medium. that assists the is in- accordingly given (74) Outside the plate there is no disturbance in the steady state. that it will be increased (without change of direction) from I/s. and the magnetibe uniformly distributed. they must. of course. Let the region of magnetisation be confined between two infinite parallel planes.

. ever. whilst the It will medium is supposed to be at rest. 167. therefore. In the circuital equation (64). howconductors presents considerable difficulties. if either them were this is That to negatived. . We (76) Now (75) only differs from (64) in the expresses the second. possible. and substitute equivalent electric current. . and the are essentially quite a poles matter.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. the new substitution of C here. of let us first abolish the intrinsic magnetisation by Here. for curlh there. That is. expressing the first circuital . . secondary magnetisation is provided we do not alter the curl of the intrinsic force. the resulting induction would be nil. The induction due conditioned solely by the curl of the intrin" " sic magnetic force. we may vary the poles as we like. is a very remarkable property. producing = 0. That is. (75) law . In short. The question then presents itself whether this equivalence continues to hold good when the medium is set in motion past the stationary magnetisation or electric current respectively. the plates may be moved. in our present case. Of course. they must not interfere with the supposed uniform motion of the medium. and introduce a term curl(H-VDw) = C + cpE. without affecting the induction or the associated energy. Thus. put h on the right side. electric intrinsic magnetisation the induction would be everywhere doubled of and then. or curl(VwB-E) = /ijpE . may. whatever may be the distribution of inductivity. get some information relating to the motion of a linear effects of circuit... whilst (65). C and the old curlh are equivalent. equivalent electric current. 281 and next. the reservation is similar to that mentioned in connection with moving charged conductors. Theory of the Relative Motion of Electric Currents and the Medium. be readily seen that the full investigation of the moving practicable electromagnetic arrangements of We can. . . we mean a distribution of current which produces the same induction as the so that if both were to exist together. 166.

namely.C when tively.u2/v*) perpendicular to their planes. curlF = C /s. whilst the eolotropic operator indicate increased inductivity (from p to X/s is such as to /A/*) transverse to the motion.C respecThe induction between them. which is B=//. or when the sources are moving. and unchanged inductivity parallel The vector f is the excess of the magnetic force to it. when the steady state of affairs is reached j subject also to the previous reservation that That is to say. becomes ftC /s when they are in motion with velocity u Here s is the fraction (1 . whilst at the same time the source C effectively increased to C /s. (77) for the determination of the induction in the eolotropic manner previously pursued. another way of making the eolotropic comparison. let there be (to take a very easy example) two parallel plane sheets of electric current of surface-density C and . identical with that due to any distribution of intrinsic magnetisation it is With and the equivalence persists for which we have curlh = C when the medium is moving. . w and is curl B are affected its by the motion in the same way as decreased from /x if the medium had inductivity to fts in the direction of motion. planes perpendicular to the direction of motion.282 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. without any is change transversely. by employing the vector f instead of F. B = AF. Equations (77) are suitable when the electric currents are in For instance. III. (78) as suffering In this way of looking at the matter we regard no change of effective strength. . Then. divB = 0. duction simply the motional electric force. especially in the case of moving electrification. instead of (77) we shall have is There is divB = 0. curlf=C . associated a certain distribution of induction. CH. B = (A/)f. . increased transverse inductivity is rather an unmanageable one in general. Corresponding to (70) we shall have . dismiss the idea of magnetisation. and the electric force accompanying -the changed in as before. the induction perpendicular. and let the source of the induction be any distribution of intrinsic electric current C . way emphasises the fact that the intrinsic sources are really But the idea of constant. at rest. it is not without its advantages. of H Inasmuch as this the flux over the motional magnetic force.

when the relativity of motion is remembered. medium there is no change observable. in ter- now mination of this chapter on vector analysis. still be no more than six independent But it is easy to must involve nine see that the general linear vector operator scalar specifications. Jf the sources 283 translational motion. and the medium have a common uniform it may be seen from the general circuital to their sources travel with the equations that the steady distribution of the fluxes with respect That is. ness of the result is obvious. The General Linear 168. in terms of the i.. We must then have. if we is unaffected by the motion. It is -Operator. the following set of equations : . or of a vector and a linear function thereof. as The naturalwell as divergent sources (as of electrification). there are really only six independent specifications .. and. Three rectangular axes are concerned. but. see that the symmetrical linear operator depends If they were arbitrary. . let D be any linear function of E.. j. being coperpendicular. the nature of linear vector operators. Thus. This applies in the case of circuital sources (as curlh above). = C31 E 1 + C32 E2 + C33 E3>. ratio of the Now. k components. each of which is identified with parallelism of the force and flux. necessary to leave these special cases of eolotropy for fear of being carried away too far from the main subject. this would involve nine scalar specifications . Up to the present only the symmetrical operator has been under consideration. where the nine c's (79) may have any may values we please. moreover. if we transform to any other system of axes (independent or non-coplanar) there can data.ELEMENTS OP VEOTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. three for each of the three independent axes of reference that may be chosen. which is... viz. with nine properly deter- . if we associate the algebraical force to the flux with the three directions of parallelism. The axes any set of of reference are perpendicular only for convenience three independent axes be used. we upon three vectors.

than that. whilst different.284 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. IIL E. obvious enough.. where If c is .. may be conveniently symbolised by D = cE. but is the scalar product of the vectors Ac and c~ 1 B. The constituents of the inverse operator c"1 may be found is a linear function of E. that is. fully given by the set Let become D'. it follows by solution of (79).. Since that E is a linear function of or the E's may be expressed . . Similarly as regards the inverse operator c'" belonging to (81) and (82). like by the single equation D' = c'E .. D D in terms of the D's by means with new coefficients instead of the 1 of a set of equations like (79).. in the set (79) we It is shall usually change D.. then (81) and these relations between D' and (80). E may be symbolised. inasdicated by c" 1 will be precisely canso that cc-1 B = B. (83) .. But there is much is This more duct of the vectors For ActT^B is not merely the scalar proand cc~ 1 B. gives the vector B. ii by the operation in it c.. .. &c. c's there. The vector formed by taking half the sum of the vectors D and D' is a symmetrical function of E. of course.. it (80) the general linear operator. (82) The manipulation of sets of equations like (79) and (81) is By the use of the linear operators. we may to instantly turn much as the operation celled AB Ace^B. of A and B. lengthy and laborious. mined c's to match.. however. with proper attention to the laws governing them.. c 12 we exchange and c 21 . CH.. say AK . the vectors may be manipulated with facility. A c -1 B is the vector which. Thus. to give the first and easiest example that presents itself. when operated upon by c.. which are quite The vector Ac is the same as the vector c'A. The relation between the vectors D and which is fully exhibited in (79).

. On the other hand.. or the scalar product of the force the vector a at all. of three pairs of simple products. in terms of the operators alone. c n and of c.. we may see that (84) where a is the vector given by . and remembering the structure of a vector product. namely.. (90) and the flux does not involve The Dyadical Structure of Linear Operators. whilst A is symmetrical. or is self- con jugate. 285 The C22 C33 constituents of are tne X with two of c same as those equal suffixes. and independent of axes of reference. that . being the sums Observe that the (79). That is.. if it be not already of the symmetrical kind. But the other . The symmetrical operator A involves six scalars.. constituents are half the sum and this c' . where Notice. the vector formed by taking half the difference of D and D' is a simple vector product. (85) see.. (88) (89) c (and therefore c') is general... the vector a three more. c c' = A + Va. that any linear function.. 169.... (86) (87) c'E = D' = AE-VaE .ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. . .. = A-Va. therefore. We by addition and subtraction of (83) and (84) we obtain cE = D = AE + VaE... By inspection of (79) and (81). Thus. by (86).. (87). we see that the operator is its own conjugate. The vector a is quite intrinsic. Now go back to the equations right members. for instance J(c 12 + c21 ) A of the corresponding ones of c in place of c 12 and c21 From .. making AE and A/E identical.. thus making up the full nine. . may be represented as the sum of a symmetrical function and of a vector product. .

It will be seen that fits the above way of writing and working dyadics in precisely with all the previous notation emThe dots in (94) are merely ployed in the vector algebra.E.c 2 + k. . In the symmetrical case. (98) These are identical vectors always.c 1 + Ej. .c E+j. therefore. a.c3 . of course . be understood that when it if already there.c'2 + k. whether it be symmetrical or not. . by putting on the accent. we may do so by simply turning the operator to its conjugate that is. just as D' accented given in (91) by changing was got from D. or by removing It will. and we use the dyadical form of c.c' 1 E+j.c' 9 E + k. 2 D3 = c E. let CH.c 1 +j. it is the first vectors in c that unite : \ Thus Ec = Ei. that is. with it. (97) c'E = i. we produce the one vector equation D = i. of course.. (92) by combining them... if Ec = c'B. the accents may be dropped. It is in fact. = i. Then we see that equations (79) are simply D^^E.c 2 + Ek. . . then EA.c' 1 +j. (94). . = A. (95) where the accented vectors be obtained from the unto cn . (96) we wish to remove an operator from before to behind a vector.. . as in . now easily to be proved that cE = Ec'. . . are themselves scalar products. and.. 3 . -. .286 ELECTROMAGNETIC THSORT Thus.c' 3 E.c'3 may c12 ... . HI. it is if whereas. .c3E. . <fec. (93) thus proving that every linear operator the dyadical form c = i. D2 = c E. vector E follows c. c' The conjugate operator similarly. E only the three second vectors that unite with E precedes c. v&ree new vectors defined by be introduced. . .c3 may be exhibited in (94) is. 1 .c 2E + k.

c being general. cover pages. that is. . due to Hamilton. .ELEMENTS OP VECTOBTAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. by our definition of a vector pro- m duct. Then we have. and cP the same as Fc'. = mVmn. have already pointed out that EAT. association of the vectors Here the brackets are introduced and the operators. when there are many linear operators. . (101) will be sufficient to show the great power gained the use of the operators. . 170. panied. and n be a pair of vectors. by the reciprocal operator l thus . Let there be three. in Cartesians. the transformations are made. then their vector product Let Vmn is perpendicular to both. . of course. not signs of multiplication. so E and cP. to show the We may also introduce anywhere a new operator. The above Hamilton's Theorem. as exemplified. 287 When we put on a separators. . That is. will serve to illustrate the working of vectors. in by dots . as well as another purpose which will appear later. to illustrate how 6. (102) . separated from (98). before or behind. or of same as c'E. The corresponding general or of EA. and T. = nVmn. we therefore obtain the forms agreement with the principles (97). but it is immaterial which it is. enabling one to do almost at sight by algebraical work which would. cE[aF] = cB[db. of notation described in die early part of this chapter. We property is the same . (99) The operator c must be united with one or other of the two vectors E and F. c. EcT is is the scalar product of EC and F. metrical. (the same as AE). (100) and so on. is symmay be regarded as the scalar product of E and AT. accom. provided we always change to the conjugate] = eE[a&-1 (F&')] = &c. The following little theorem. it unites with the vectors it is not vector. where A. The same applies a. we have But EC the EcF = c'EF = EFc' = Fc'E = FEc.

say For zlVmn = IcVc'mc'n = c'lVc'mc'n. = ncc-1 Vmn. 1. In the symmetrical case we may find its value by taking be i. / . a. which. III.. The quantity x appears to depend upon 1. by our property. is statement expressed by c-1 Vmn = Vc mc'n. n to Thus cl = ci = Cji. n.. enter into both the numerator and denominator in such a way that they can be wholly eliminated from x.. if c lf c 2 . parallel to their vector product.288 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. c's. is the state- ment of the little (but important) theorem. perpendicular to the vectors me and nc.Vmn = cVc'mc'n. and the latter to be the principal axes. k. which gives the value of (106) x explicitly. . definition of a scalar product. (108) the continued product of the principal c's. In fact. namely. (105) To find the value of x. This may be seen by expanding the numerator and denominator. and the parallelepipedal introduce cc~ l betwen the V's and the vectors Now preceding them in (102). with x thus settled. m. Thus = mcc-1 Vmn. however. an unknown (or so far undetermined) on both sides by c. m.. operating a. is it is. it) .. In the general case we may put. are the principal scalar So. CH. (104) Or. by (107). or c'm and The last therefore. is a pure constant. c3 c'm = cjj. . (103) These assert (and we cannot but believe that the vector c^Vmn c'n . . 1. These vectors. c'n = c3 k. depending upon the operator c alone.. j. as we know. where x is scalar. < 107 > to be used in (105). we have merely this gives to multiply (105) by a third vector.

which it will (109) be a useful exercise to verify. similarly. therefore. where x is On the other hand (109) contains a quadratias in (88). Therecally. Since c is any linear operator. so that a reversal of its sign makes no difference. fore. He should... Chapter IV. . c lt c .. we . Hamilton's Cubic and the Invariants concerned. Only when the student is well acquainted with the nature of linear operators and how to work them can he tackle Chapter V. Thirdly. conjugate c. such an investigation. made to depend wherein the rules for the multiplication of vectors upon the difficult mathematics of spherical combined with versors... x' is the same as x. to u find . (105) remains true when we substitute its conjugate c'. (110) got from the expression for x by changing c' to its But c and c only differ in the changed sign of a. . to say nothing of the numerous minor sticking-points that present themselves in all mathematical works of any value. c 2 3 the principals of A now. The reader is led to think that the object of the investiga- tion is to invert a linear operator that is. (89). . 171. Tait's profound treatise on Quaternions will probably stick at three places in particular. on the understanding that shall get. there is the fundamental Chapter are conies. find the investigation not so difficult after all. especially if may it be simplified by some changes calculated to bring out the main points of the work more plainly. where the reader may be puzzled to find out why the usual simple notion of differentials is departed from. which might not have been anticipated at the beginning of the evaluation. The reader of Prof. and which may be readily overcome by the reader if he be a real student as well. to obtain On then returning to the cubic he the necessary experience. II. 289 are Using this in (107). given D = cE. although the departure is said to be obligatory. First. Next.. pass on. where the reader will be stopped nearly at the beginning by a rather formidable investigation of Hamilton's cubic. . producing for c aj'Vmn = c'Vcnicn.ELEMENTS OF VECTORTAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. quaternions and metaphysics.

or the equivalent equation (110) last investigated. that x by (112). where xg is (113) is. it would be a remarkable For the inversion of a linear example of how not to do it. The mere inversion is nothing. and therefore (c . gm is a linear function of m. and also the equivalent change in viz. (It is also simplified by not introducing the auxiliary function called x-) The fundamental cubic is derived from equation (105). Now use the form (110). (115) left side is rc >2 the expansion are. Equation (111) then becomes xg Vmn = (c' . not forgetting to c'.. c-g is a general linear operator.. Now if g be a constant. that is. we may readily expand (113) form = c'Vcmcn . E = c~ D. It is the cubic equation itself that is the real goal. to be .. can be easily effected by other far simpler and more operator natural means.g)V(e . Equation (111) therefore c remains true when we substitute -g for c in it.g)m(c .290 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. I should remark that this equation is frequently useful in advanced a function of vector-analysis as a transformation formula. from to c' g. 1 CIL III. But if this were all. what x becomes by the change. (HI) is a known function of c.g)n. of course. make the change in c' x.. viz. . IVmn Here c is any linear operator.#3 Vmn +g'2 (c'Vmn + Vmcn + Vcmn).g (Vcmcn + c Vmcn + c'Vcmn) ... turning Vmn. . or Vcmcn to #Vmn = c'Vcmcn.g)m is any linear function of m. where a. - (c-<7)lV( c IVmn Remembering that g to the is a constant. The process of reaching it is simplified by the omission of inverse operations.. . where the cubic function of g on the The new coefficients x l and of xg .

That the complex function xg is independent of 1. That is.c' Vmn. 291 found by expanding (114). so is (115) . ff of c and g only. . (118) = (a. ~Now. we observe that the coefficients of g But the g and g2 terms give far. we please. . . that the cubic function of c' is of the same form therefore. Observe. as that of g in the expansion of x. (116) . giving x-xlC + x2 c*-c* = Note that Vmn may be any vector by a single letter. may be seen by inspecting (114). . be denoted we may write c . we obtain (111) again. but we do not want their values Since a. and observing the parallel epipedal u2 . (121) This form what we should have arrived at had we started from (105) instead of (110). we have the final result. is a function of c only. we have nothing new. ... so that x l and X2 are functions of c only.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. . the last equation must be identically true for every power of g concerned. which is Hamilton's cubic. it splits into four identities. So larly. and since g may have any value. . 5 are the same. then. m. The one we are seeking is obtained by operating on the first by c' and on the second 2 by c' and then subtracting the second result from the first. instead of c'. Now since (111) is an identity. This eliminates the vector in the brackets and leaves . From these various others may be deduced by elimination or combination. n.-c' 3)Vmn. (117) which are fresh identities. taken one at a time. x is a function immediately. .. also. The value of x is the same in either case.a? 2 c' 2 3 )Vmn = c'Vcmcn .. and may. and it may be inferred from this that xl and x2 do not suffer any change when we pass from a linear operator to is its conjugate. (119) where the transition from (118) to (119) is made by usin& Rearranging. Since (120) is true for all linear operators. on comparing the coefficients Simiof g* on the left and right sides. (111) again.

. actual discontinuity occurs when (for example) 1 is brought and so may n. it directly instead of c to from their general Thus : turn c-g (in 124). vector 1 may be. n. x. The addition made to the numerator vanishes by the parallelepipedal property. n should be independent vectors (that This is not because we can suppose that an is. The value of x being x = CjC^ + aca. of course. xg is the same whatever into the plane m. by the above. namely. substitute c' for c. <3H.292 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. we may turn 1 to any vector by adding to it vectors parallel to 1. but merely because the expression x9 assumes an indeterminate form in the coplanar case. unless 1. and simiThe same invariance obtains when larly in the denominator. 1 form of numerator and denominator. the change of 1 to any scalar multiple of itself alters both the numerator and denominator in the same ratio. . . n are coplanar. but that it only involves a quadratically. For. Also. but that of the others is less plain. . From the invariance of x follows that of the three functions it contains. Thus. m. not coplanar). III. But 1. suppose we alter to 1 + am. because on expansion they are found to each involve three parallelepipedal products in the numerator instead of only one. expanding (114) we obtain 1Vcmcn 4- -mVend + nVclcm -' ' ' / 1 oo\ (122) *2== cl Vmn -f cmVnl + en Vim lVmn~ /1 oQ\ In these we may. of the right size. readily enough. that is. values of x l and X 2 from jxpressions. By the Therefore. where a is any constant. may be ff independently seen by itself. (124) expressed in terms of the principal constants of the symmetrical we may obtain the reduced operator and the rotation vector. turn the linear operator to its conjugate. making it $)* ( 125 ) . x v and x y That of #. m and n same reasoning m may be any vector. But. we change 1 to 1 + an. . This does not mean that xg is independent of the vector a which comes in when the operator is not symmetrical. m.

ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. W-ftVi. The Inversion of Linear Operators. 293 On 2 expansion. This is the case of three perpendicular to r3 mutually perpendicular axes of parallelism of force and flux we started from. > (126) Z2 = Cj+C 2 Thus xz is independent of we concluded previously. . then.m + c. whilst #j involves its square. 172. the coefficients of g and # show that Xl = C2C3 + C3C1 + C 1C 2 + ft2 + C3 . and c2r. and write the general cubic in the form where the g'a are the roots of xg = 0. This is one way of inverting the operator. the principal axes altogether. (132) . Then 1^ = 0.(c^ + c 2 c3 + CgCj + a2 )c *<'. and is fully described by saying that if -1 r c = a. . If. . a.l + b. larly r2 is and or r x then is . there are three directions of parallelism of r and cr. but a very clumsy way. these roots are and different.n . or three r's such that all real i=0A Now multiply the first <**=9f9 <xz =yziy (130) by r2 and the second by T V giving ricr 2 =5' 2r 1 r2 . The left . Hamilton's cubic there- fore reduces to = foc^ + aca) .. but in the are. the right members are Simiperpendicular to r2 . (131) members they are not usually equal. The simple way is in terms of dyads. cr. sym metrical case equalised. as When referred to the principal axes. c If we write c~l for c in the cubic (121) we see that becomes expressed as a function of r. .*><} and in the symmetrical case of vanishing (127) a to But we may disregard Here the axes are coperpendicular.

C)r. c. showing that the dyadic in the brackets is of a very peculiar kind.A + b. . CH.. suppose it is given that so that R is any linear function of and that by the property of R = (a. where the complementary vectors A. III. is c. To verify.B + rc. b.O. . (133) L.-. . (140) . aVbc B = ^i. .C)R.B + N..m + N..1 = L. taken as a whole.A + b. we see that Comparing (140) lr vectors = AR. the dyadic is equivalent to unity.A + M. . B.B + c. b. B.c)r. b.294 is ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.C. (139) that . c. Now. ' (135) v We These equations serve to define the set complementary to a. . . (141) explained the complementary with (139).a + B. b. and M. aVbc 0-U aVbc . where A. (137) (138) . C are got from c by A = I^. B.n)r. C is the set complementary to a.a + rB. C may r r be written .A + rb. r=(L. . any linear operator then its reciprocal . . showed by elementary equations (54) and (55). c in turn. . b. n. nr = CR.b + C. mr = BR.n)r. 114. = (a.b + rC.' (136) in turn. r. . We know R = (a. we have merely and (136) by These equations to multiply (134) a. . by A.B + c. c by any considerations that r in terms of = rA. and disregarding its detailed functions. That is. inasmuch as its resultant effect on any vector is to reproduce the vector. . m. also showed at the same time that the vector r could be expressed in terms of the complementary set by r = ra. . = (A. . . We any vector r could be expressed three independent vectors a. these complementary vectors in the early part of this chapter.c. N We have already used the set complementary to 1.l + M.m + c. .l + b. . in dyadical form. (142) . (134) a. .

. c. . 295 (141). we see that the inversion of the dyadic has been effected in a simple and neat manner. They have some of the properties of reciprocals.B + N. . on the other hand.A + M. we convert it to . too. the vector r only combines with the vectors nearest to it in the dyadic. It is in conflict with the obvious meaning of the recipocal a" of a vector a. It would seem in ciprocal. Thus. r = (L. and so is sVr<. . so as to make direct products with the vectors they are associated with." Skew Product of a Vector and a Dyadic. some other name than rehave provisionally used the word " complementary " the above. that it is the vector whose tensor is the reciprocal of that of a with unchanged ort 1 It will also (or with ort reversed in the quaternionic system).ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. Notice. but upon two others as well. and behave as such in union with vectors. therefore. that whereas the direct product <r of the dyadic </> and a vector r is a vector . b. . to choose I "reciprocal. a. (143) comparing which with (139). . namely. b. the reciprocals of Professor Gibbs calls the vectors A. 173.C)R. B. be observed that Gibbs's reciprocal of a vector depends not upon that vector alone. to avoid confusion with the more natural use of desirable. (U6) Observe that. (144) But it seems to me that the use of the word reciprocal in this manner is open to objection. Thus sV<r is a vector. (145) . . c. as before with the direct products. aA = l. cO = l. Using these in. But there is also the skew product to be considered in a com- plete treatment. bB = l. In connection that we have only employed them with dyadtcs. The Differentia- tion of Linear Operators. . Thus. the first being got by making scalar products of s with a. and not separated from it by the dots. it should be remarked in the manner they usually present themselves in physical mathematics. the skew products V<r and Vr< are themselves dyadics.

l + b. be mentioned. It of cE. in the second term on the right we suppose that that c is con- and in the first is E is constant.... Then we have the (152) where. say the time.. k being a fixed set of rectangular one dyadic i. however. we obtain. so that the result is - JE 2 Vc. Therefore.. The meaning alone varies. Ill direction But to go further in this and the second with Vra. differentiation of linear operators must.. But it may be that our axes of reference are invariable. .. because the process is of frequent occurrence in The electromagnetic investigations. . it and by no means a difficult conception. But consideration will show that it is a perfectly natural.n.m + c.. . &o. Thus.. respect (148) Here stant.296 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the dots over the differentiation.c3 . = i..c2 + k. differential coefficient of If we think its only of the a scalar. if c=a. would be to go beyond the scope of the present treatment. (151) j.c (^cE ) per unit volume. as for example c when . (149) we shall have .. are is the rates of so will be evident on differentiating the set of equations (79).c 1 +j. . a little differential coefficient of might seem at first sight that the a linear operator was nonsense. then. from (147) D = cE. that it is rate of increase with some variable. (150) the sum of two dyadics. by differentiation with to a scalar variable. CH. i and j do not signify any In an isotropic dielectric of variable permittivity the electric 2 stress leads to the force . where the V scalar c alone is differentiated. a linear operator. where c is .. orts. is the rate of increase of D when c the linear operator whose constituents That this increase of the constituents of c. of course.

and treat vector algebra as a ignore branch of pure mathematics. alone. Since we live in a world of vectors.. an algebra or language It will of vectors is a positive necessity. he was supposed to know next to nothing about vectors. In the last paragraph I came dangerously near to overstepping the imposed limits of my treatment of vectors. previous. with. or abstract mathematical theory. First. which to wind up with a few remarks on the and on the nature and prospects of vector analysis. and the reader is recommended to read them again from a more advanced point of view. 1 made some general remarks on the nature of cartesian analysis. 97 to 102. to begin cations. now be convenient At the commencement of this chapter. -VE )(iED). vector analysis. there would be no bounds to the investigation of the subject. whether with regard to physical appliLet us then.. VE that (154) alone is that D and E Summary of Method of Vector Analysis. Now.. it may be presumed that he has acquired a There is general knowledge of the principles of the subject. form the vector algebra should take. the physical applications. the corresponding force This is equivalent to < 153 > where dc/dx. On this point there is likely to be considerable difference of opinion. and quaternions . Then. Nearly everyone nowadays knows and apprecktes the idea. there is the idea of the vector as a distinct entity. no longer any question as to the desirability and utility of The present question is rather as to the vectorial analysis. . It &c. is meant to present the subject merely in the form it If we were to issumes in ordinary physical mathematics. plained. 297 is But if the dielectric be eolotropic. are differential coefficients of c as above ex- means the same as -(V D where V D means differentiated.. 174. summarise the leading points in the algebra given above. although he need not have absorbed all the special applications of vector algebra that have been given since. according to the point of view assumed.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBliA AND ANALYSIS. regardless of practical limitations. .

ignorant man could or would think about the three com- ponents of a vector separately. vector itself is entirely wrong. and Ej whilst the . the ort. but if they think about vectors. Also. .298 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Every vector has its species. in another form. like They may know nothing Faraday. or any very similar neat black type (not block letters). or three scalar components. . and therefore. them to evade vectors. or. or more strictly the displacement from one point to another. namely. The addition and subtraction of vectors is embodied in the assertion (whose truth is obvious) that the sum of any number of vectors making (when put end to end) a circuit is zero . The device is often useful. components referred to rectangular axes are Ej. all the various paths by which we may pass from one point to another are vectorially equivalent. or straight line joining two points. especially but for general purposes of reasoning the manipulation of the scalar components instead of the for calculating purposes. the same letter suitably modified serves for the tensor. Ignorant people. whilst . to the vector straight from point to point. we if we have vectors on both express the circuital property . the ort (signifying the orientation) so that E = EE X scalar and the size. is meant to mark the vector. jf their formal manipulation. . Thus E is the tensor. The one we are most familiar with is the space vector. with zero on the other. facilitate the In order to has its special type. when considered obey the same laws. to enable another. naturally think in vectors. Ill in it is a noteworthy fact that ignorant men have long been advance of the learned about vectors. directed magnitudes. Ctt. But similar in having size vectorially. The properties of the space all kinds of vector therefore supply us with the rules or laws of vector algebra. thus E. with the obvious exception of economise letters. always the vector. headlines that speak for themselves. And No ihey think of them as vectors. E 2 E 3 The physical dimensions may be most conveniently merged in the tensor E. reading of vector work. Every vector equation and if therefore expresses this fact. Every term is a vector all the vectors be put on one side. and disconnected from one That is a device of learned mathematicians. to and ease the strain on the memory. the vector This Clarendon. that is. vector magnitudes are formally and ort. and never anything else.

is In the first as in common algebra. to elementary algebra.. we find they are of two scalar product of of vectors of the nature of kinds. equation the manipulation In the second. scalar and vector.ab. which . Here we have very complex As Prof. and the scalar and vector products of c and Vab re- spectively. the scalar and vector product. The tensor and ort of VEF The justification for the treatment of the scalar and vector is products as fundamental ideas in vector algebra in the distributive property they possess. ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. all respects save one for the re- versal of the order of the vectors in a vector product negatives it. The product by VEF.Vca. Thus c. and those of three are . which are the scalar and vecVdcVab arid VVdcVab. are "incomparably more amenable" to algebraical treatment than the sine and cosine themselves. in all re. and the vector Their tensors are EFcos0 and EFsinfl and F is normal to the plane of are V EF and VjEF. binations of two vectors are universal. thus. The scalar product respectively. When we it is go on to combinations in threes.. (155) which hold good for any number of vectors. fours.. &c. have the reciprocal their tensors are reciprocal to one another. as in dc. and Coming next to combinations products. Any vector A and A" 1 same ort. relations of down geometry brought Gibbs has remarked.Vab. to be found . is directionless . in spects. which is cVab dVcVab and VdVcVab. the product of dc and ab tor times d are is dc times Vab . . 299 we its assert the vectorial equivalence of two paths. 6 being the included angle. d. the ort of the vector product is that of the denoted by EF. Similarly with four vectors. Vac = . sides of the equation.ab and cVab and VcVab define themselves by the above. being ab times c. dc. E and F. . we find the same thing over again in various forms. which products of d and VcVab the scalar and vector products of Vdc and Vab.cVab. thus. Com. which consist of the cosine and sine of trigonometry combined with certain other simple notions.

fictitious vector It only differs well. operation and there is a very good reason an indeterminate one. principles is best studied in the concrete application. As for the linear operator. and divergence. for quite a large ground is covered thereby. with some conventions about A student might learn this by heart. like many other things. because the The lysis. should be noted that the scalar and vector product of two vectors are involved throughout. being little more than explanations of the scalar and vector product. the better for assimilate it He must sit down and work if he wants to He may work with scalar products usefully. for it. and also receives a vast extension vector . slope. that is only the scalar and vector Professor Gibbs's product system again in a special form. dyadic is a useful idea. potentials in its broad sense is also involved in the mathematics of y. but those of four are exceptional. it. But it pretty frequent. CH. When familiarised with the working of vectors by practice so far as the scalar product goes. never require to differentiate a vector with respect We is to a vector. When we pass on to analysis. y is omnipresent in tridimensional anafrom a vector in being a differentiator as follows vector rules combined with other funcare associated the ideas of the slope of a scalar. the further introduction of the product will come comparatively easy. curl.300 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. For vector analysis. of potential. and I have modified his notation to suit the rest. and be little notation. With it and the divergence and curl of a vector. The may be very concisely stated. and the ideas connected with differentials (infinitesimal) and differential coefficients are essentially the same for vectors as for scalars. including the relations. The former knowledge is fully utilised. so that it tions. III. to scalars to make new vectors in the same way as scalars. only to begin with. we find just the same vector Vectors are differentiated with respect algebra to be involved. direct and inverse. It is know use of all neither necessary nor desirable that a student should that is sketched out above before he makes practical it. and from surface to volume summations. no new idea being introduced when more than two vectors are concerned. with corresponding important theorems relating to the transition from line to surThe theory of face.

Tait. Rowan Hamilton discovered or invented a remarkable system of mathematics. important that he should understand the operation of y as a vector. we have I B=A. a few words regarding Quaternions. I It is the operator which For instance. and its meaning in the space variation of functions.. and. who would preserve the quaternionic stream pure and undefiled. is fully capable of working elaborate mathematical analysis in a concise and The student need not trouble about linear systematic manner. It is far more operators at first. Tait in particular emphasises its great power. and on the other tells the physicist that it is exactly what he wants for his phy sical purposes. which. Now. then Prof.AB . and so they go tinkering at it.B + B-A. 175. depends upon the point of view. Prof. trying to make it a little more intelligible. writers who take up the subject of Vectors are (generally speaking) possessed of the idea that Quaternions is not exactly what they want. It is also known that physicists. Tait is right. we put entirely from own is that the answer all aside practical application to Physics. For consider what a quaternion is. Tait right.ELEMENTS OF VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. Tait. and Quaternions furnishes a uniquely simple and natural way of treating Observe the emphasis. quaternions. with great obstinacy. who has repeatedly advocated the claims of Quaternions. and look point of upon Quaternions the quaternionic view. simplicity. or are the defilers right? If My Opinions may differ. thoroughly right. always a Vector. and perfect naturalness. have been careful (generally speaking) to have nothing to do with Quaternions . what is equally remarkable. He will grow into them.A. and that since his death the quaternionic mantle has adorned the shoulders of Prof. is Prof. Axiom : - Once a Vector. companion the scalar product. with its Unsuitability of Quaternions for Physical Needs. turns one vector to another. of application. very much to the disgust of Prof. known that Sir Now. It is W. 301 For the vector product is a powerful engine. on the one hand.

r s. and Prof. and make the quaternion itself the the notation and conventions to suit venience of the vector and the of its it. This amalgamation of the vectorial and quaternionic . identically. the laws of scalar of deduce the laws and a is any vector. (157) and q. That is. of a quaternion is type Here the operator in the brackets. CIT. or turner) in one vector another. say in A B A ? = w. and as the principles are made to suit the quaternion. and another be a quaternion. (158) where w is any scalar. But when Prof. complex of scalar and vector. may be a vector. may be a vector in one place. TIT. above notation. + Va.302 Or. . must displaying the follow Hamilton.. B = qA. thus.VA~1 B)A. serious to drawbacks connected with quaternions. in a given equation. though so well for But we suited shall find that the for vectors. vectors. depends upon to B . It is uniquely simple. To t give a notion power and essential simplicity we may remark that the product of any number of quaternions. . ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. is independent of the manner of association in that order. say. is entirely unfitted To do this we merits of quaternions. Tait vaunts the perfect fitness and naturalof vectors ness of quaternions for use by the physicist in his inquiries. and a quaternion (versor. p. Or the same vector in one and the same equation. q. quaternion. the vector itself becomes a degraded quaternion. B = (A-1 B + V. and behaves as a quaternion. pqrs =p(qrs) = (pq) (rs) = (pqr)s. and arrange regardless of the conscalar. It is a such a way that it turns The general It has a scalar and a vector part. in the order named. The result is the singularly powerful algebra of quaternions. Tait is quite right in his laudations from the quaternionic point of view. For there are some very I think that he is quite wrong. master. That is. Since we know and vector products we may readily quaternions should we desire to do so. (1 59) This remarkable property is the foundation of the simplicity of the quaternionic algebra. No algebra can ever match it. when applied The quaternion is regarded as a. .

always a vector. that calculations. They don't want it. should be a cardinal axiom. Even Prof. Vectors should be treated vectorially. for in his physical applications the quaternion is hardly ever concerned. They have said so by And and quaternions. and so that mutual conversion . goes the wrong way. then the physicist would no doubt have to use If you translate physical investithem. rantal versors. It is vector algebra. and we are permitted to arrange This is a very our notation to suit physical requirements. Not a bit of it. gations into vectorial language. although expressed in the quaternionic notation. and to him the double use of vectors. Common against the quaternionic could be more unnatural. Tait's treatise you get vector algebra instead. as vectors and versors. too. satisfy his requirements. functions is 303 very puzzling. instead of two discrepant ways. The special extensions to tridimensional space involving vectors should therefore be done so as to harmonise with the scalar important matter. Most calculations is.ELEMENTS OP VECTORIAL ALGEBRA AND ANALYSIS. The reciprocal of a vector. is very much concerned with scarcely at all. the vector having to submit to the quaternion. He but not at all. Nothing 1 Are they even convenient Not to the physicist. combined with unnatural properties of vectors to suit quaternions. yet this topsyturvy system their silence. or at any rate with quaternions. The physicist wants. The vector algebra should Let the all. the subject is much simplified. is odious. You never know how things will turn out. sense of the fitness of things revolts doctrines about vectors. you do not get quaternions . Once a vector. and the vector has to follow suit. teaches the same lesson. If the usual investigations of physical mathematics involved quaternions. and always will be. But they do not. scalar calculations. vectors. are. When this is done. merely to accommodate versors is earnestly and seriously recommended to physicists as being precisely what they want. not those of the quaternion. to have clear ideas. according to common algebra. and so that only one way of thinking is required. Again. leads to the extraordinary result that the square of every vector is a This is merely because it is true for quadnegative scalar. above quaternion stand aside.





The system which of scalar aiid vector algebra is facilitated. I expound I believe to represent what the physicist wants, at It is what I have been expounding, least to begin with.
though rather by example than precept, since 1882. There is only one point where I feel inclined to accept a change, viz., to put a prefix before the scalar product, say Sab instead of ab, to Not that the S prefix is of any use in the algebra balance Vab. as I do it, but that mathematical writers on vectors seem to want to put the scalar and vector parts together to make a = general or complete product, say Qab Sab + Vab. The function does not occur in physical applications, which are Qab, however, concerned with the scalar and vector products separately. If I could omit the V as well as the S I would do so ; but some sign is necessary, and the V of Hamilton is not very objectionable. Gibbs denotes the scalar and vector products by a./3 and a x ft In my experience this is not a good way using Greek letters. when worked out. It is hard to read, and is in serious conflict
with the


has to be given up.

use of dots and crosses in algebra, which use I use dots in their common meaning,

either as multipliers or separators. Prof. Macfarlane, who is the latest

vectorial propagandist, denotes the scalar and vector products by cos ab and Sin ab. The trigonometrical origin is obvious. But, on this point, I would refer the reader to the equations (155) (156) above, and
to the very trenchant remark of Prof. Gibbs already quoted, as to the incomparably greater

which I have amenity of the scalar and vector product to algebraical treatment than the

The inference is that trigonometrical functions themselves. vector algebra is far more simple and fundamental than trigonometry, and that it is a mistake to base vectorial notation
upon that of a

special application thereof of a more complicated should rather prefer sea ab and vec ab. Better still, Sab and Vab, with the understanding that the S may be

dropped unless specially wanted. Macfarlane has also a peculiar way of treating quaternions, about which I will express no opinion at present, being doubtful
whether, if the use of quaternions is wanted, the quaternionic system should not be used, with, however, a distinction well preserved between the vector and the quaternion, by
special type or otherwise.




in hopes that the

Chapter which





as a stopgap till regular vectorial treatises come to be written suitable for physicists, based upon the vectorial treatment of vectors. The quaternionists want to throw away the " cartesian

trammels," as they call them. This may do for quaternions, but with vectors would be a grave mistake. My system, so far from being inimical to the cartesian system of mathematics, is

very essence.



Action at a Distance versus Intermediate Agency. Contrast of New with. Old Views about Electricity.
176. It has often been observed that the universe

in an

unstable condition.


is still.

Nor can we keep motion,

once produced, to a particular quantity of matter. It is diffused or otherwise transferred to other matter, either immediately or The same fact is observed in the moral and inteleventually.
lectual worlds as in the material, but this only concerns us so far as to say that it underlies the communication of knowledge

to others

when the


moves, even though the task be of a

thankless nature.
or phenomena which ultimately are transferred, naturally form an importdepend upon motion, ant subject of study by physicists. There are two extreme

The laws by which motions,

main views concerning the
instantaneous action at

There is the theory of between different bodies without an intervening medium ; and on the other hand there is the theory of propagation in time through and by means of an intervening medium. In the latter case the distant bodies do not really act upon one another, but only .seem to do so. They really act on the medium directly, and between the two are actions between contiguous parts of the medium itself. But



in the

former case the idea of a


does not enter at


may, however, somewhat modify the view so that action, though seemingly instantaneous and direct, does take place through an intervening medium, the speed of transmission being so great as to be beyond recognition. Thus, the two




ideas of direct action, and through a yielding medium, may be somewhat harmonised, by being made extreme cases of one For example, if we know that there is a yielding theory. medium and a finite speed, but that in a certain case under









may practically assume the speed to be infinite. But although this comes to the same thing as action at a distance, we need not go further and do away with the medium altogether.

then we

another way of regarding the matter. We may explain propagation in time through a medium by actions at a




But this is useless as an explanation, being at best merely the expression of a mathematical equivalence. Now consider the transmission of sound. This consists,

by waves

physically, of vibratory motions of matter, and is transmitted in the air and in the bodies immersed in it. The

speed through air is quite small, so small that it could not even escape the notice of the ancients, who were, on the whole,
decidedly unscientific in their mental attitude towards natural phenomena. Suppose, however, that the speed of transmission of sound through air was a large multiple of what it is, so that
all, did not present should then have the main facts before us, that material bodies could vibrate according to certain laws, and

the idea of a finite speed, or of speed at


that they could, moreover, set distant bodies vibrating. This would be the induction of vibrations, and it might be explained,
in the absence of better knowledge, by means of action at a distance of matter upon matter, ultimately resolvable into some

form of the inverse square law, not because there is anything essentially acoustical about it, but because of the properties of Furthermore, we should naturally be always associating space. sound with the bodies bounded by the air, but never with the

A deepitself, which would not come into the theory. minded philosopher, who should explain matters in terms of an intervening medium, might not find his views be readily accepted, even though he pointed out independent evidence for the existence of his medium physiological and mechanical and that there was a harmony of essential properties entailed.
Nothing short of actual proof would convince the prejudiced.
of the finite

speed of sound





Now, although there is undoubtedly great difference In detail between the transmission of sound and of electrical disturbances, yet there is sufficient resemblance broadly to make the above suppositional case analogous to what has actually happened in the science of eleetromagnetism. There were conductors and non-conductors, or insulators, and since the finite
speed of propagation in the non-conducting space outside conductors was unknown, attention was almost entirely concen-

upon the conductors and a suppositional fluid which was supposed to reside upon or in them, and to move about upon or through them. And the influence on distant conductors was attributed to instantaneous action at a distance, ignoring an intermediate agency. Again,

a very deep-minded philosopher elaborated a theory to explain these actions by the intermediate agency of a yielding


transmitting at

finite speed.

so he utilised the

same medium


But although in doing whose existence there was

already independent evidence, viz., the luminiferous ether, and pointed out the consistency of the essential properties re-

made even a far

quired in the two cases, and that his electromagnetic theory better theory of light than the old, yet his views

The old views persisted in spite did not spread very rapidly. of the intrinsic probability of the new, and in spite of the large amount of evidence in support of the view that some medium
outside conductors, and


be also inside them as



not particularly conducting matter cerned in the electrical phenomena.

was essentially conThe value and validity

of evidence varies according to the state of


of the judge.

To some who had
evidence in
in it a bit.

theory the favour was overwhelming; others did not believe I am, nevertheless, inclined to think that it would
seriously studied



have prevailed before very long, even had no direct evidence of It was simply a question finite velocity been forthcoming.

But the experimental proof of the finite speed of transmission was forthcoming, and the very slow influence of theoretical reasoning on conservative minds was enforced by
of time. It is now as much a fact the common-sense appeal to facts. that electromagnetic waves are propagated outside conductors

as that

sound waves are propagated outside vibrating bodies.

as legitimate a scientific inference that there





do it in one case as in the other, and there is independent evidence in favour of both media, air for sound It is also so excesand ether for electrical disturbances.








nothing more than very rapid electromagnetic

vibrations, that

I think this view will fully prevail, even if the gap that exists between Hertzian and light vibrations is not filled up ex-

provided perimentally, through want of proper appliances some quite new discovery of an unanticipated character is not made that will disprove the possibility of the assumed

Now, the immediate question here



to propagate a

If we knowledge of the theory of electromagnetic waves. could assume the reader to have had a good mathematical trainOn the other hand, it is ing, that would greatly ease matters. hardly any use trying to do it for those who have no mathe-

matical knowledge least of all for those anti-mathematical attackers of the theory of the wave propagation of electrical disturbances who show plainly that they do not even know intelligibly

what a wave means, and what is implied by its existence. But, between the two, I think it is possible to do a good deal in the way of propagation by means of a detailed exposition of the theory of plane waves, especially in dielectrics. By the use of
plane waves, the mathematical complexity of waves in general

a great measure disappears, and common algebra may be largely substituted for the analysis which occurs in more advanced cases. Most of the essential properties and ideas may
be assimilated by a thinking reader



not advanced in his

mathematics, and what is beyond him he can skip. Besides this, the treatment of plane waves is itself the best preliminary

more general

artificial limi-

The problems that present themselves by the

tation to plane waves are often of an abstract nature.


however, some important exceptions; the most notable being that of propagation along straight wires, of which the theory is essentially that of plane waves, modified by the
resistance of
details of

the wires. Before, however, proceeding to the plane waves, which will form the subject of this chapter (although it will be needless to altogether exclude connected matters), it will be desirable to prepare the mind by an





some general notions concerning electromagnetic

waves, irrespective of their precise type.

General Notions about Electromagnetic Waves.
of Spherical



Waves and Steady


177. Consider a n^n-conducting dielectric, to begin with.

The two properties it possesses of supporting electric displacement and magnetic induction, which we symbolise by and c, the inductivity and permittivity, are, independently of our actual

ignorance of their ultimate nature, so related that the speed of propagation v depends upon them in the way expressed by the 2 = (/AC)-*. Thus, an increase either of the equation /xcv = 1, or v
permittivity, or of the inductivity, lowers the speed of transIn transparent bodies we cannot materially alter the mission. inductivity, but we can very considerably increase the per-

and so lower the speed. If on the other hand, we infinite speed, for some practical purpose of calcu= or else c = 0. lation, we may get it by assuming either p In the latter case, for example, we destroy the power of supporting electric displacement, whilst preserving the magnetic induction. This is what is done in magnetic problems (the theory of coils, self and mutual induction) when we ignore the

wish to have

existence of electric displacement.


the other hand, in the

theory of condensers connected up and in the electrostatic theory of

by inductionless resistances, a submarine cable, it is the

magnetic induction that is ignored, in a manner equivalent to supposing that /* = 0. In either case we have infinite speed or
apparent instantaneous action. Now, consider some of the consequences of the property of Let there be a source of dispropagation with finite speed.
turbance at a point for simplicity. It may be either an electric source or a magnetic source. an electric source we mean By a cause which will, if it continue steadily acting, result in

up a state of electric displacement, whilst a magnetic source steadily acting would result in a state of magnetic In the former case there will be no magnetic induction.
induction along with the displacement, and in the latter case no displacement along with the induction. Now, if the speed
of propagation were infinite in the former case of an electric source, by the non existence of p, the steady state would be



set up instantly, and consequently all variations of the intensity of the source would be immediately and simultaneously accom-

panied by the appropriate corresponding distribution of


placement in the dielectric. Similarly, with a magnetic source, if the speed be infinite by the non-existence of c, all variations in the source will be simultaneously accompanied by the distribution of magnetic induction appropriate to the instantaneous

strength of the source. Now do away with the


both p and




and v therefore
is vt.

assumption made, and let also finite. At the time

after starting a source, the

extreme distance reached by the

of radius vt,


whose centre

ance, whilst within it
cal surface of radius

is to say, beyond the sphere at the source, there is no disturbthere is. The wave-front is thus a spheri-


vt, increasing uniformly with the time. Along with this continuous expansion of the range of action The mere spreadthere are some other things to be considered.

ing causes attenuation, or weakening of intensity as the disturbBesides this, the intensity ance travels away from the source. of disturbance is not the same at a given distance in all directions

from the source, and since the displacement and induction

are vectors, their directions are not everywhere the same. They are distributed in the circuital manner, so that we have expand-

Whether the ing rings or sheets of displacement or induction. source be of the electric or the magnetic kind, it produces both
fluxes initially and when varying, and generally speaking to an This is a main characteristic equal degree as regards energy.

pure electromagnetic waves, a coexistence of the electric and magnetic fluxes with equal energies ; and if the source be in a
alternating variation this state of

state of sufficiently rapid

things continues.

the source, after varying in any way, become steady, the generation of electromagnetic disfinally turbances will speedily cease, and the production of a steady


state will begin

round the source
of induction




of displacement if the source the source be magnetic whilst

the previously generated electromagnetic disturbances will pass In the end, therefore, we have away to a great distance.

simply the steady state of the flux corresponding to the impressed force, whilst the electromagnetic disturbances are out of reach, still spreading out, however and in doing so,




leaving behind them the outside portion of the residual steady flux due to the source, which steady flux, however, requires an infinite time to become quite fully established.

We may take a specially simple case in illustration of the above general characteristics. Let the source of energy be contained within a small spherical portion of the dielectric, of radius a, and let it be of the simplest type, viz., a uniform
distribution of impressed electric force within the sphere. know by static considerations alone what the nature of the



It is a circuital displacement due to such a source is. out from the sphere on one half, and in on the other, connection being made through the sphere itself by a

uniform distribution


being, in fact, of the

same nature

as the

induction due to a spherical body uniformly magnetised in a medium of the same inductivity as its own. Now, we can
describe the setting



up of the final steady state due to the when it is suddenly started and kept constant later, At the first moment an electromagnetic wave is generated

on the surface of the sphere, which immediately spreads both ways and becomes a spherical shell, whose outer boundary
goes outward at speed

whilst the inner boundary goes inward.

At the time


= a/v,

therefore, the disturbance

the sphere

of radius 2a, the centre

being just reached. The steady state then begins to form, commencing at the centre and expandAt the time t = 2a/v, ing outwards thereafter at speed


we have the steady




sphere of radius


moment the immagnetic shell of force has been continuously working not, indeed, in all parts of the sphere it occupies, but in all parts passed by the front of the inward wave from the beginning
until the centre

whilst just outside depth 2a. Up to this

formed within is an electro-

was reached, and

after that, in the parts not

occupied by the already formed steady state. Consequently, at the moment t = 2a/v, when the steady state is fully formed

throughout the region occupied by the impressed force, the latter ceases to work. It has wholly done its work. The amount done is twice the energy of the final complete steady

work is done by the electroFor the subsequent course of events is that the fully-formed electromagnetic shell of depth 2a runs
say 2U. magnetic wave


rest of the


out to



of course

expanding on the way, and in doing

leaves the steady state behind it. That is to say, it drops a part of its contents as it moves on, so that the steady state is always fully formed right up to the rear of the expanding

during the whole of its passage a pure electromagnetic wave, magnetic energies. The magnetic amount ^U, on the whole journey,

to infinity.

This shell



with equal electric and

energy is constant, of but the electric energy


in excess.

state, so that

The excess is employed in forming the steady when the shell has reached a great distance it

becomes appreciably a pure electromagnetic wave, having the


of energy, half magnetic, half electric, with a slight excess in the latter, to be later left behind in forming the


remainder of the steady state. The energy U of the shell wholly wasted if the dielectric be unbounded, for there



nothing to stop the transference to an infinite distance. If we wish to form the steady state without this waste of energy, we must bring the impressed force into action very

In this way the energy infinitely slowly, in fact. wasted in the very weak electromagnetic waves generated will tend to become infinitely small, and the work done by the
impressed force will tend to the value U, the energy of the
steady state. When the sphere of impressed force is not finite, but is infinitely small, so that it may be regarded as a special kind of



by the above, the
say at

simplify matters considerably in some respects. result is that the moment the source

full strength, the steady state also immediately to grow, so that at the time t it occupies the sphere of begins radius vt. Outside it there is no disturbance, but on its surface is


infinitely thin electromagnetic shell, which performs the same That is, it lays down functions as the previous finite shell. the steady state as it expands, and then carries out to infinity


in itself as

much energy



leaves behind.

Notice, however, this peculiarity, that if we had started with what appears at first sight to be the simpler problem, viz., a unable to see and understand point-source, we should be quite
of the steady field.

the functions of the electromagnetic shell on the extreme verge The reader may compare this case with
that of the establishment of the steady state of displacement

Using the same kind of point-source. of the bounding electromagnetic shell is not the same. say. like positive and negative applications of a battery with dead intervals. say. on positively for an interval a. whilst on the inner surface is another wave running after the first. In the case of electrification it harmonics .. this is equivalent to keeping it on. On its outer surface is an electromagnetic wave moving out to infinity. Waves. and destroying them on the other. viz. we suddenly remove it. .H. That is. There is a perfect similarity as relight. then on negatively for an interval a. consecutive shells priate being positive or negative according to the state of the source when they started from it. to divide the spherical space occupied by the disturbances at a given moment into In the concentric shells. then off for an interval /2. IV. latter is tervals. A 178. so that inside the inner wave (just as outside the outer) there no disturbance. no disturbance.314 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. The result is. after keeping on the impressed force at a point for. Within this shell is the steady electric displacement due to the source appropriate to the instantaneous position of the shell. but with the addition of an impressed force which is the negative of the former. it takes up the displacement laid down by the first wave. since they correspond to the dead in- In the former are the steady displacements approto their distance from the source. let it act inter- mittently and alternatingly . and so on recurrently. is Intermittent Source producing Steady States and ElectroTrain of S. as discussed in But the nature spects the uniform growth of the steady state. and generating or laying down the steady electric dis- placement as it goes. by the last case. which runs out to infinity. and undoing its effects. From this we see that the re- sult of putting on the impressed force for an interval T only is to generate a shell of depth VT. in our present problem belongs to the zero degree of spherical it is of the first degree. followed by off for an interval ft. If. magnetic Sheets. On their boundaries are electro- magnetic sheets generating these steady states continuously on one side. OH. due to another kind of point-source. an interval T. electrification suddenly brought to rest at a point after previous motion at the speed of 55. of depths va and v/3 respectively.

but They are being continuously generated and destroyed at their boundaries. but expresses the contact. first positive interval. period of the impressed force. when we proceed to the limit the superimposition of and have continuous simple-harmonic variation of the force. where T is the where. or the reciprocal of the The electric and magnetic forces are simple-harfrequency. with the consequent result that we have our dielectric occupied by quite steady states of displacement separated by infinitely-thin electromagnetic shells. of course.roughly imitate the simple. is an electromagnetic sheet following a different law. namely discontinuities. But only when the impressed force varies is electromagnetic disturbance generated. is no clean separation into steady states and electromagnetic can see this by waves. so that when in the above manner we confine its variations to be momentary. the successive shells of depth va containing steady fields being brought into alternately positive and negative and only separated from one another by the electromagnetic sheets. right up to the extreme wave-front of the disturbance. but without The result is to completely fill up the sphere of disturbance. but are quite steady elsewhere. The latter travel. where. the electromagnetic disturbances are also momentary. and the final result of effects. Our impressed force is periodic. the two being mixed inextricably. the result is less simple. and there is no steady state anyThe wave-length X is given by A = VT. so.harmonic variation. 315 force is like that of of full strength. Next. We We substituting for the simply periodic variation of the force a very great number of constant forces of small duration and of different strengths. But . do not really do The steady states also appear to travel. Every discontinuity in the force will behave in the way described. and is only expressible simple-harmonically by an infinite series of simpleharmonic forces of all frequencies from zero to infinity. any and then negative of full strength. If the impressed force vary simple-harmonically instead of find that there discontinuously. so as to. They are not pure electromagnetic waves. do away with the dead intervals. so that the applied a common reversing key. monic functions of the time everywhere. extremest form of variation.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. is a train of simpleharmonic waves proceeding from the source. This may be considered rather an unexpected result.

Self-contained Forced Electromagnetic Vibrations. there- have to go a great distance to find any sign of waveMoreover. accompanied magnetic force connected with the displacement nearly in the instantaneous manner. source CH. That is. and the momentary of displacement itself is sensibly that of the static theory. then the bounding sheet becomes a shell. Here the frequency becomes a matter of importance. the wave-length is great. The waste of energy increases very rapidly with the frequency. the waves themselves would be weak. appropriate to the by a weak state state of the source. varying as its fourth power with simple-harmonic waves. when the force is removed. and it is practically the steady displacement fore. another effect comes into view of a somewhat striking character. and we should. and then. we shall reduce the ampli- . When the sphere of impressed force is of finite size. of depth equal to the diameter of the sphere. waste the other half. Under these circumstances there is next to no waste of energy. state of things. exceedingly Only round the source is there sensible disturbance. By increasing the frequency sufficiently. In the limit with very great frequency we have nearly pure electromagnetic waves close up to the source. as before described. When very low. propagation. Now the steady fields become insensible at a great distance in the discontinuous case . Contrast 179. and so contract the region in which the displacement was approximately static as much as we please. The extremest case of waste is that of a discontinuity. of which the theory of a point-source gives no information. for one thing. we can bring the region of electromagnetic waves nearer to the source. already mentioned. the timevariation of the displacement is the electric current. But by increasing the frequency we can completely alter this For we increase the rate of change of the impressed force. with Static Problem. Besides this.316 should the ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. as when setting up the steady state we waste half the work done. IV. to correspond with this we have the fact that the simple harmonic waves tend to become pure as they expand. The greatest departure from the pure state is round about the source. and therefore the strength of the electromagnetic waves generated. occupy a finite spherical space.

if the polar axis be parallel to the impressed force . The vibrations are stationary or standing. the second one only reaching to its rear . so that it is inactive on the whole. produces no external effect whatever. and the theory indicates that at any one of an infinite series of of definite frequencies there is complete cancellation externally. acting uniformly within a spherical space in a dielectric. The waves going inward contract. according to relative phase. the electromagnetic waves proceed both ways from the surface at which they originate. tude of the external vibrations. except within the sphere of impressed The waste of energy is not continuous at the critical freforce. We two trains outward waves. or confined to the sphere itself. may be readily conceived. on the other hand. and consequently. as already described for the case of setting up the steady state. then cross at the centre and expand again. By general experience of statical problems would seem to be impossible. There is always an external effect initially. and the external effect may be That they may to be due to their superimposition. That is. (See 87. quencies. The impressed force works continuously. therefore. at a certain frequency. but as much positively as negatively within a period. Effects of the above described kind are principally remark- able from the contrast they present towards more familiar . the initial electromagnetic shell of depth equal to the diameter of the sphere of impressed force. But we must expect to find strange manners when we go into strange lands. but on the inner side of this shell there may be no disturbance. This refers to the simple-harmonic state. its intensity varying as the cosine of the latitude. have. because it consists entirely of the beginning part of the first outward wave. a simple harmonic impressed force. and are purely internal. they will entirely vanish. at any frequency namely.) face of the sphere of impressed force is the seat of its curl. is associated with the In the present case the sursupply of energy. but consists merely of the energy in the initial shell. This strange behaviour arises from the general electromagnetic property that the true source of disturbances due to imthis The pressed force (electric or magnetic) is the curl thereof.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. and on reaching a certain 317 fre- quency depending upon the size of the sphere. imagined sometimes assist and sometimes partly cancel one another. impressed force itself.

viz. in the case of a uniform spread of electrification on a sphere. and sufficient. and is obviously to be preferred to a hypothesis that is only valid sometimes. the law of force in many ways in special cases. Let every element of electrification on the surface send out its . electrification trast. electrification was forEvery element was supposed to exert force equably in round itself. and a mathematical consequence of this is the complete of all directions cancellation of is the internal force when the electrification The same uniformly spread on the surface of a sphere. IV. was applied when the sphere was not of the same reasoning nature as the external wit. CH. especially ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. was a conductor.318 effects. although it seems right in one case. internally as well as externally. to More- over. different every element of electrification. the displacement is partly internal and fication is uniformly spread Only when the electripartly external. does the displacement vanish This internally. The behaviour of on a sphere may be taken as an illustrative conknow that if we have a spherical surface in a uni- form dielectric covered with electrification. by arranging various But independently of this. vary any number Thus. uniform spreading in all directions. and become wholly external. and. is a planar spreading. if we like. that of homogeneity. merly explained by the inverse-square law. it zero whatever be the nature of the internal material sources). So the reason for the absence of internal force is entirely wrong. we might kinds of heterogeneity.. Varying the internal material will make of the law of spreading of force be different in for ways. The true. and the absence of internal force is the satisfaction of the second circuital law when the external electric force is perpendicular to the surface. We those of a statical kind. (without electrical But it is certainly untrue that the electric force due to a point-source of displacement is the same in all directions around it when the medium is not homogeneous. we may imagine the displacement from any that will give particle of electrification to radiate in any symmetrical manner zero displacement inside and a uniformly The simplest case after the usual radial displacement outside. medium is when it Now is the internal force also zero in this case. of the This is independent nature of the internal matter. and comprehensive reason for the equilibrium.

because neither train of waves exists. do so externally. allow it to escape. will not interfere with the effects under To regard the actually due to the coexistence of two trains of waves which cancel one another is merely a mathematical artifice. (See and the resultant 61 and 164. is zero. nature of the external medium that is now indifferent (with a reservation). so that consideration. however. see.THEORY OF i'LANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. netic force due to all the waves. whereas in the static problem we have independence of the nature of the internal medium. . if their periods be properly chosen in relation to their situation. for we can of it by letting the electrified Then the assumed law surface expand at the speed of light. therefore.) Now when we have vibrating electromagnetic sources on a spherical surface producing electromagnetic waves simpleharmonically. we also in general have both internal and external effects. for every element of electrification The resultant magis the core of a plane electromagnetic wave. of relations as single surface electromagnetic source inside it. or absorb it zero external effect as being somehow. kinetic problems bhows a complete reversal regards internal and external. though equally in all directions in that plane. for there is an internal as well as an exter- But whilst they cannot cancel internally. that the whole sphere of impressed force may be filled up with vibratory sources of the most vigorous nature without producing What we can do with a we can repeat with others We any (except initial) external effect. of spread is the actual law. viz. make an electromagnetic problem It is not altogether a fantastic example. If they did exist we should have to vary their nature to suit the constitution of the external medium. This will give the correct static result. and along with it is another. The reservation hinted at is connected with the external initial The medium should it uncancelled electromagnetic shell. electric force is as in the static problem. Here is one contrast with the they may static problem.. which problem admits of This is suggestive as regards the stores o> multiple solutions. that it is the nal train of waves. 319 displacement in the tangential plane only. just as in the problem of static equilibrium we require different laws of force to suit the nature of the The comparison of the static with the internal medium. however. energy bound up with matter.

we obtain magnetic energy is J/*H E and H..vR The is positive or negative sign depends on which way the wave Disregarding this. the electric and magnetic forces going. Preece's little Effect of Self- KR law. and their plane is in the wave-front. the self-induction imparts inertia and stability. more or less approximately. if E is Now the density of the electric the electric force (intensity).. CH IV.320 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY." dis- 180. As already mentioned. showing such a contrast to the forces familiar relations between the electric and magnetic on circuits in general. have a constant ratio. E and H are perpendicular.. Relations between induction. Along with this.. in long-distance telephony over low resistance. Thus (1) Also Therefore 2 /*cv =l . not E and H).. But there is one very important property of pure electromagnetic waves (which also holds good. They are therefore in the same phase. In the above very tribution of electric has been said about the force and magnetic from part This varies greatly an electromagnetic wave. and keeps the waves more . or keep time together in all their variations without lag or lead. energy of the is 2 -JcE . Like a kind of fly-wheel. or the direction of motion of the wave is perpendicular to E and to H... and that . in all parts of a less perfectly copper circuits of per mile we or imperfectly. The above is also the state of things that obtains... . that brings about this state of things.. the electric and magnetic energies are equal in a to part of in different pure electromagnetic wave. more or It is the direction of the flux of energy. in general) which may be described at present. kinds of waves. These properties hold good pure electromagnetic wave. E and H in a Pure Wave. although the magnitudes and directions of the electric and magnetic forces may vary greatly from one part of the wave to another. and cannot be explained without the formulae. " Fatuity of Mr. and by lowering the resistance may approximate as nearly as we please to the It is the self-induction state of pure electromagnetic waves. they have the property of being perpendicular to one another (that is. (2) (3) E= jj. a relation between 2 If we equate these.

That canit. we may always. . knowing no better. spurned with contempt from the Some people thought there was a very absurd fuss made about self-induction. 251. . It is the long-distance telephoner's best friend 321 was. Self-induction came to stay.000. But is it need not stop there. Wetzler. Still keeping to a simple dielectric. Good telephony is P. Preece's figures is interesting. or KR and will stay. That is because we know so little about it. and by Mr. But there is still less of a 5. going. Then we should find out more.000 is for the New York-Chicago circuit of 1. consideration of the fact that the speed of propagation is v. at 10. not who many years since.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.000 KR law in the American than in the English cases. at 31. there can be no question about the stern logic of facts. Wetzler's with Mr.000 excellent by Mr. having great staying power. for data. or 2'06 ohms per mile of wire. W. door. and so on. so. by find the sources. at got by Mr. 181. it was or is called. P. form of the wave-front due to any collection and trace the changes of shape and position of pointit under- * See The Electrician. The 32.000 miles at 4'12 ohms per mile. Y . according to which you could not telephone further than KR = such or such a number. it useless to sneer at at this time What substitute for it are we to have ? Its principal of day. fault is that it is mysterious. Whatever should we think of engineers who declined to take into account the inertia of their machinery? There was also some considerable fuss made about a supposed law of the squares. the critical repeated attempts made to bolster up the number has kept on steadily rising ever since. . so far had to be found out before they became known. they poured much cold water on the idol. Wave-Fronts. at 45. and by Mr. a lot more. in article by Mr. 1892.000. and stayed it has. and that it was made a sort of fetish of . The properties of air. it Make your and it will go up As regards the ether. Comparison of Mr. their Initiation and Progress. I see now that it KR has gone up to 32. But. not be done by ignoring as they are known. or else inversely. Jos. December 30. because the speed of the current varied as the square of But in spite of the the length of the line. W. law as law.* circuits longer. whatever opinions we may hold regarding their competence as judges. p.000.

when the sources send waves one way only from the surface. For. one on each side of the surface. into one another to form a continuous extreme wavethey merge front consisting of portions of spheres. if infinitely long. to be mentioned later. two wave-fronts. consists initially of disconnected spheres. or the any complex source tends to become equivalent. arrangement of surface-sources. at a great distance. Thus the waveprogress front coming from the surface of a sphere is a sphere . if a point P be at a disgoes as It progresses. also a round cylinder . when we have once got a wave-front we may ignore the sources which produced it. and so on. It is easily seen that at a sufficiently great distance from a finite collection of sources of kind. There is an exception. and by continuing its wave-front in initially a cube with rounded corners. gives us the new position of the wave-front. we have a continuous wave-front from the first moment . to a point-source of some complex kind. we have merely to move any element of the surface in the direction of the normal to that element through a small distance a to obtain the new position at the moment a/v later. from a cube. but is a unilateral action obtained by a special observe that Passing over this. This is not the already described case of the cancelling of two trains of waves at particular frequencies. and upon t = the previous state of the source. CH IV. causing residual or cumulaWe therefore know the limiting distance of action of the sources for every one of their momentary states. the wave-front tends to become spherical. from a particular source depends upon its state at the moment r/v earlier (if r be the distance from the source to P). .322 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. this process we may follow the as long as we please. the effect at P at a given moment arising . The wave-front belonging to a set of disconnected point-sources But as they expand. no disturbance can have reached P from it if it started into action after the moment and generally. from a round cylinder. or rather. tive action at P. When the point-sources are spread continuously over a surface to form a surf ace-source. and make the wave-front itself tell us what its subsequent history will be. then a cylinder with rounded ends . tance vt from the nearest source. but becoming more and as it more spherical expands . For obviously. to trace the course of the wave-front from one moment to the next. This being done for the whole surface. but if of finite length.

give rise to a secondary wave when the primary meets it. 323 Effect of a Non-Conducting Obstacle on Waves. The rest part In the same way is thrown back. The interface of the two media becomes the seat of sources of fresh disturbances. Then we have just one wave in the obstacle and viz. Thence Not the whole. The disturbance outside it is then due to the superposition of the primary and secondary waves. Heterogeneous Medium. but only a arises a new effect. for as we may a uniform medium may we trace the course of primary waves from a source in trace the course of the secondary waves set up by the obstacle. of the wave disturbance enters the new medium. whence arises a pair of tertiary waves.. bat it varies and the speed will usually be different. But if there be a second obstacle. away with by making the obstacle infinitely big. the first but each obstacle will act similarly towards the secondary wave from the other. we shall have a succession of infinitely numerous waves crossing the another. Now consider the effect of an obstacle brought into our medium. say a non-conducting dielectric mass of different is The manner of propagation in it inductivity or permittivity. original. two in the medium containing the source. or they in detail. may continues. Then. the primary and (and only) reflected wave. reflection. Also of a 182. viz. might as well not be there. wave does reach it a change occurs. and. until the wave ference.. with Y2 . with a plane boundary. if there be just one obstacle. this state of things Of course the secondary wave. like the first. in contrast with the they do not bring in any fresh energy. not only will it. But immediately the reaches it. reach the interface again at other parts. may be considered fictitious sources. and so on. Thus. similar in kind to that in the external medium.source in the first medium.front may itself be because the disturbances going into the second mecomplex.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. and forms a reflected wave. the presence of the obstacle at first makes no difIt has no immediate action. when we have a wave coming from (say) a point. arising out of and recrossing one action of a point-source. with only two obstacles. and. dium and transmitted therein according to its nature. and there suffer reThis complication is done flection and transmission anew.

and the position of the wave-fronts belonging to a given epoch at the source. it may change its form as it expands. or casting behind of the disturbance as a wave progresses. nevertheless. we have great complications. The process of partial reflection and partial transmission which occurred at the interface now takes place in general wherever the value of c or p changes. The mathematics of the full treatment may be altogether beyond human power in a reasonable time. spherical wave may remain spherical. When the medium is continuously heterogeneous. we can always predict with confidence that the results must have such and such general properties relating to the course of the waves. although its IJL/C speed varies. definitively known. but rather a We can. CH. so that we do not have distinctly separable trains of waves. or the "constants" change in terogeneity. only varying in its speed. so are the results. the important fact that the mere knowledge of the speed of propagation allows us to lay down the whole course of the waves generated. then fully compensates the change in c. The change in or the ratio of induction to magnetic force. It is possible for the inductivity and permittivity to change. be found that the ratio constant.324 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. In the above we were concerned with discontinuous hean abrupt change in the value of one or both of the constants c and /* at an interface. such speed being. either abruptly or continuously. then the speed v is made a function of position. or more likely. and of course must do so if the speed in different parts of the medium vary suitably. either of which changes by itself would cause reflection. without any reflection.. we steady states. or value continuously from place to place. It may become ellipsoidal. But. however. These changes being continuous. IV. for A example. In the latter as we have already . In connection with a heterogeneous medium (including abrupt changes of nature). follow the course of a wave expanding from a point by communicating to the wavefront the speed proper to its position. in may contrast notice its behaviour as regards with that of a thoroughly homocase. is In such a case it will p. besides the properties involved in the persistence of energy. however complex in detail. the ratio of displacement to electric force. as continuous distortion. above. geneous medium.

the medium being homogeneous. or rather in all parts where it changes its through the potential of fictitious nature. 183. If the medium is only eleceolotropic trically eolotropic. some insight Effect of Eolotropy. where. allowing for the variations of permittivity every- Thus. although the displacement and induction in a wave-front (of either wave). When the medium is not isotropic as regards either the displacement or the induction. before we could arrive at the true potential function. owing to the infinitely numerous reactions. There is a similar contrast in the mechanism of the state. after which no change occurs. we have very remarkable effects. But when it is hetero- geneous the case is quite different. Hence double-refraction. and these speeds change when the direction of the normal to the wave-front changes. or as regards both. the electric force is inclined to the wave-front. require to perform not one space-integration. mathematics involved in the calculation of the steady When the medium is homogeneous we may find it matter at the source alone. involving potential functions and assumed instantaneous action at a distance. That is. which modify the final distribution of displacement as well as (usually) the total amount. due to the reflections that take place. there is no reflex action. described. by electromagnetic considerations we obtain of the true nature of transcendental static problems. or the separation of a wave entering an medium into two waves travelling independently of one another at different speeds. in a general or complete solution. we require to have fictitious matter all over the medium. and only comes about as the final result of the infinitely numerous reactions between different parts. When heterogeneous. The steady state of displacement due to impressed voltage depends upon the permittivity in all parts of the medium. and. double refraction. we should. but an infinite series of successive space-integrations. Optical Wave -Surfaces.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 325 the introduction of a steady point-source causes the steady state to begin immediately at and spread around it. known in the science of optics as There can be two distinct wave-speeds for a given position of the wave-front. and are perpendicular to one another. are still . Electromagnetic versus Elastic Solid Theories.

Not only is the theory quite hypothetical in considering the kinetic energy to be the energy of vibrational motions of displacement.326 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. both the electric and the magnetic force are inclined to the wave-front. we arrive at the conception of the wave-surface. We when might anticipate /z/c some peculiarity This constancy the wave-surface is constant. though still in the wave-front. become a very singular double alone. the wave-surface is of a more general and symmetrical character. When the medium is both elecand magnetically eolotropic. IV. including the former two alone. which indicates the direction of the flux of energy. case. for there is no evidence that there is such a change. and their variation according to the direction of motion of the waves. whilst the value of the ratio of the permittivity to the inductivity is the now means same for the three axes. the explanation will . That is./C is constant. and comparing their positions with respect to the point at equal times after crossing it. " " Assuming light to consist of vibrations of an elastic solid refraction is explained by an medium. isotropic medium there is a peculiar behaviour when the ratio P. it is the magnetic force that is inclined to the trically wave front. We have already mentioned that in an except in one case. also another Fresnel surface with magnetic eolotropy But when the medium is eolotropic as regards both the induction and the displacement. It is still a double surface. By imagining plane electromagnetic sheets to traverse the medium in all possible directions about a point. axes of p and those of c are coincident. But when obviously a sphere in an isotropic medium. which is the practical It is surface. The result is to reduce the double wave-surface to a single surface. so that the ray. is inclined to the normal to the wave-front. Similarly. but the alteration of density or rigidity assumed is a further hypothesis on the top of the main one. however. make the wave-surface This is it is eolotropic. CH. Moreover. single or ordinary alteration in the density or the rigidity of the ether. the principal are exactly paralleled by those of c. which is an ellipsoid. the two speeds. and c vary. although in fj. it is With electric eolotropy Fresnel's wave-surface. with magnetic eolotropy alone. are no longer perpendicular to one another. as extreme examples. that the directional properties of //. whilst the displacement and induction.

without. or how they vary if they vary. less much hypothetical than elastic solid theories. But the auxiliary part. Maxwell declared refracting fact too. not without its troubles. Even if it did satisfy them. But we do know a good deal about electric permittivity and magnetic inductivity. These remarks will serve to illustrate what mean by It is the far greater intrinsic probability of the electromagnetic theory. There may be many "mechanical" does not assert so much. that refraction is caused by change of permittivity from one medium to another. is Similarly. is not a hypothesis. But. 327 not work properly. the theory works. Elastic solid theories are a solutions of an abstract theory. being abstract. or by something similar relating to the density. is not the point here. cannot satisfy the electromagnetic requirements. ical. One can imagine that a clear-headed man might be able to the theories of light yet propounded. however. This is also hypothetical. the electromagnetic theory says that light consists of electromagnetic vibrations in the ether. We do not know enough yet about the ether for dogmatising. but this though immensely important in itself. great deal too precise in saying what light consists of. it would probably be less true than the electromagnetic theory. Now I this is a and the theory is a clear one. we are dealing with actual facts. which.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. is a hypothesis. but a fact. Instead of dealing with possibilities. too. was very misleading. More- over. This. or' The old objection that a mechanical theory of light was surely to be preferred to an abstract electromagnetic theory The electromagnetic theory is mechana precise specification of the mechanism. way through assimilate what was useful and true. It failure. An elastic solid theory is merely a special mechanical theory. and on the other hand. apart from the experimental work of late years. in different bodies. and mechanical speculations in general should be received with much caution. On the other hand. than expressions of and regarded rather as illustrations or analogies fact. that double refraction occurs because the doubly is medium electrically eolotropic. We know nothing about the density or the rigidity of the ether. double refraction in elastic solid theories of light explained by eolotropy as regards elasticity. eliminate what was useless work his all .

such as In all the the existence of conductivity (finite) necessitates. A Perfect Conductor is a Perfect Obstructor. It would be so very abstract. and in doing so.A. oust out the most of the result will be to old-fashioned hypotheses. the total remains the same.328 or false. and perhaps his theory would not be very popular. which the B. there in space. free from hypotheses. and finally construct a purified theory. we have not introduced any property causing its local waste. to get rid of the energy the sources by working against impressed that on one side. but still connecting together in a perfectly unobjectionable manner. is be ignored. however it may vary in distribution. then. not professing what light is. should be ignored from the beginning. varied journeys of electromagnetic waves in a (theoretical) nonconducting dielectric with non-conducting obstacles there is no local waste of energy. The have optical theory expressed throughout in To do it properly. The energy is still in exis- . just as if it were a quantity moment. It is hardly likely that the clear-headed man will be found for the purpose. it is hardly language. So far. 184. CH. and. in varying the nature of the medium. and none of matter moving about. Assuming a certain amount of work done up to a certain later. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Committee seem to want to perpetuate. having continuity of existence in time and space. but does not absorb the Energy of Electromagnetic Waves. Putting the waste of energy by dissipation which cannot be stopped. that amount expresses the energy of the electromagnetic field. and of so compliant a nature as to readily adapt itself to future discoveries. will gradually work its right through them to the beginning. to absorb it at forces. and the work done by impressed forces is entirely accounted for by the electric and magnetic energy. electromagnetic necessary to say that the preposterous 47r. and finally settle down to a special to explain form expressing the theory of light. The useless complication introduced by the circuital indeterminateness of the energy flux may is The only way. IV. What is far more likely is that the electro- magnetic theory (itself abstract and possessing many of the desired qualifications). all the principal facts. which has already begun to find its way way into optical treatises at the end.



is still in the electric and magnetic forms, and must be at a finite distance from its source and an infinite always distance from infinity ; but since it gets out of practical reach,



is constantly going out further, it is virtually wasted. Thus, ultimately, the energy of all disturbances generated in a boundless non-conducting dielectric goes out of range and is


To prevent


we may


a reflecting barrier.

Imagine a screen to be introduced, at any finite distance, enveloping the sources, of such a nature as to be incapable of either transmitting or absorbing the energy of waves impinging upon it. Then clearly the dissipation of the energy is stopped, and it all keeps within the bounded region. The waves from the source will be reflected from the boundary, and their subsequent history will be an endless series of crossings and reThe only way to destroy the induction and discrossings.
is to employ artful demons (or impressed forces), so and so timing themselves as to absorb the energy of waves passing them, instead of generating more disturbances.


In the absence of this demoniacal possession of the region, the energy will remain within it in the electromagnetic form and be in constant motion.
in the screen, establishing a connection ether between the inner and outer 'regions, will at through

But any opening

once put a stop to this local persistence of energy. For energy will pass through the opening, and once through, cannot get back again (though a part may), but will escape to infinity. A

mere pinhole

will be sufficient, if time enough be given, to allow the energy to pass through it into the external region, and there go out unimpeded to an infinite distance, in the absence

a fresh complete screen to keep it within bounds. A screen to perform the above-described functions



of that very useful scientific substance, the perfect conductor, which is possibly existent in fact at the limiting zero
of absolute temperature, the latest evidence


being the recent experiments of Profs. Dewar and Fleming, measuring the resistIf a perfect conances of metals at very low temperatures.
it is

also a perfect obstructor, or is perfectly

opaque to






energy superficially.


Conductors at
185. For




this reason, a perfectly conducting mass exposed to electromagnetic radiation in ether cannot be heated thereby,
for heating would imply the absorption of energy. If, then, the law (whose existence has long been suspected) that metals tend to become perfect conductors when their temperature is sufficiently lowered, were absolutely true, it would follow that

a metal,


once brought to zero temperature, would remain

there, provided its only source of heat-energy be electromag At the same time it is conceivable, and, innetic vibrations.

deed, inevitable, that it should receive energy from them to some extent in another way, viz., by the electromagnetic stress producing motion in bulk, even though the establishment of
irregular molecular motions be prevented.

we should expect that a metal which obeys the law

approximately would show very small absorptive power for This refers to the recepradiation at very low temperatures. that is, in vacuo. tion of the energy of true radiation in ether


ways, by the impacts of be present. Prof. De war's late are suggestive in this respect, but it is too soon experiments to draw conclusions from partially-published experiments.
in other air particles, for

body may become heated


But even as regards strongly absorptive bodies, the perfectly black body of the thermal philosophers, for example, we may expect a similar diminution of absorptive and emissive power
with fall of temperature. Stefan's law of radiation asserts that the emissivity varies as the fourth power of the absolute temSince, however, in deriving this law from electroperature.

magnetic principles, as has been recently done by B. Galitzine,* we seemingly require to invoke the aid of reversible cycles and

the second law of thermodynamics, whose range of application sometimes open to question, we may well be excused from
of the of

an overhasty acceptance
lute fact.

The second law

law as the expression of absothermodynamics itself needs to

be established from electromagnetic principles, assisted by the laws of averages, so that we may come to see more clearly the validity of its application, and obtain more distinct notions of
the inner meaning of temperature.
* Phil. Mag., February, 1893.



Equilibrium of Radiation.

The Mean Flux of Energy.

186. As before said, a perfectly conducting screen enclosing a dielectric region supporting electromagnetic disturbances, keeps in their energy, which remains in the electric and mag-

and if there be no sources of energy present, the Some interesting questions energy remains constant. arise regarding the subsequent history of the electromagnetic disturbances, when left to themselves, subject to the obstructnetic forms,

ing and reflecting action of the screen. In certain cases the initial state will continue absolutely unchanged ; for example, when it is the steady state due to
electrification, or

associated therewith.

Similarly as regards


that, for instance, initially steady state of magnetic force associated with a linear current (without resistance) in the enclosed region. Again, in other cases, although the subse-

quent history of an




be one of constant

change, yet there will be regular recurrence of a series of states ; as when a periodic state of vibration persists without

any tendency to degrade. It is sufficient to mention the very rudimentary case of a plane wave running to and fro between
parallel plane reflecting boundaries, without the slightest tensee from dency to change the type of the vibrations.


these examples, which

may be

multiplied, that there



necessary tendency for the initial state, even

vibratory, Neverto break up and fritter down into irregular vibrations. there does appear to be a general tendency to this theless,



the initial states are not so artfully selected as to

Even when we start with some quite simple type of electromagnetic disturbance, the general effect of the repeated reflections from the boundary (especially when


and the crossing of waves is to convert the a highly complex and irregular state of This cannot happen vibration throughout the whole region. universally, as we have seen, and therefore a general proof of
of irregular form)
initial simplicity into

conversion from any initial state to irregularity cannot be given; but there can be little doubt as to the usual possibility of the


the initial state be

itself of

Especially will this be the case an irregular type, such as that
it is

due to ordinary radiation from matter, when



that the irregularity will persist,


and become more


Let us, then, assume that we have got the medium within our screen into this state in its extreme form, without enquiry into the intermediate stages. Then the very irregularity gives rise
to a regularity of a


kind, the regularity of averages.


total energy, which is a constant quantity, will be half electric and half magnetic, and will be uniformly spread throughout

the enclosure, so that the energy density (or energy per unit volume) is constant. As regards the displacement and the
induction, they take all directions in turn at any one spot, quite irregularly, but so that their time-averages show no directional
preference. Similarly, the flux of energy, which is a definite at a given moment at a fixed spot, is constantly quantity changing in amount and direction. But in virtue of the constate

stancy of the mean density and the preservation of the normal by constant exchanges of energy, there is a definite mean

energy flux to be obtained by averaging results. This mean flux expresses the flux of energy per second across a unit area

anywhere situated within the enclosure. To estimate its amount, let the mean density of the energy be U. This is to include both kinds. Now fix attention upon
a unit area, A, fixed in position anywhere within the enclosure, and consider the flux of energy through it under different circumstances.
First of all, if the energy all moved the same same speed v (that of propagation), as in simple plane progressive waves, and the direction of its motion were


at the

perpendicular to the fixed unit area A, then the energy passing through it would belong to a ray (or bundle of rays) of unit This is the section, and the energy flux would be Uv simply.



this is impossible, because

energy would accu-

at the expense of the other. The next approximation, to prevent the accumulation, is to let half the energy go one way and half the other ; still, however, in

mulate on one side of


the same

To go further, line. This brings us down to JUv. we must take all possible directions of motion into account. The original ray conveying Uv must assume all directions in turn, and the mean value of the flux through A must be
so as to

Now, if the ray of unit section be turned round with the normal to A, the effective make an angle



that is, cos 6 is section of the ray is reduced from 1 to cos ; the fractional part of the ray which sends its energy through A, through which the flux per second is therefore Uv cos 0, due

The true flux through the area to the ray at inclination 6. for all directions in space is therefore the mean value of Uv cos
assumed by the
plete sphere





value of cos

for a


through A is This is right, as it asserts that as much goes through zero. one way as the other. To obtain the amount going either way
is zero,

and therefore the mean

we must average over a hemisphere only. The mean value of But we are only concerned with half the total is then J. or JU, when we are confined to one hemisphere. Conenergy, sequently we have
cos 6

to express the flux of any unit area in the enclosure.

W = JU*, ..... energy W per second each way through



of getting this result, which is, however, essenthe same, is to divide the original ray of unit section along which the flux is Uv into a very great number n of equal rays of unit section, each conveying \/n part of the same, and placed at such inclinations to the normal to A that no direction

Another way

This amounts to dividing the surface of a sphere whose centre is that of the area A into n equal parts, the centre of every one of which defines the position of one of
in space is favoured.




Any ray now


Now sum

sends (Uv/n) cos through A per over the whole hemisphere and the up

In the


when n


infinitely great,

we have



as before.


4:r divisor in

able 4?r of the B.A. units.



the integral is not the unspeak the area of the sphere of unit

radius, whilst the other factor sin

ddd<j> is the area of an element of the sphere. As this is an important fundamental result in radiation, it is desirable to establish it as generally and simply, and with as


definiteness of

meaning as







(apart from electromagnetic considerations, which


however, only accidentally involved).




the other hand,


JUfl by considering a special case, viz., that of a cylindrical enclosure with flat ends, one of which is a radiant source (perfectly black) at constant temperature, whilst


and the round surface are perfectly reflecting. would appear, however, from the above method, that the result is general, and is independent of sources of heat, and of Since we made no use of the the emissivity and temperature. screen after introducing it to keep in the radiation, it may be
the other end


dispensed with, provided the stationary condition be still main" Thus, if a portion of the screen be made perfectly black," maintained at constant temperature, the quantity W,

which represents the amount of heat falling upon it per unit But this is area per second, is completely absorbed by it. perfectly compensated by the emission from the black surface

an equal amount of heat. So %Uv measures the sivity under the circumstances.

total emis-

The Mean Pressure of Radiation.
187. Another important fundamental quantity is the mean In a simple ray the electric and magpressure of radiation. netic stresses unite to form a pressure along the ray, with


no pressure or tension

in lines perpendicular to the ray, that 86. in the plane of the wave, as described in But when is, the radiation is balanced as in the last paragraph, there is no

directional preference,

and the pressure is all ways in turn, and on the average, simulates a hydrostatic pressure. Its value may be readily estimated in a manner similar to that employed above concerning the mean flux of energy. When we make the energy U go all one way in a ray of unit section
through the area A situated anywhere, the pressure in the ray is U, and this is the pressure on A if the ray is perpendicular But when the ray is inclined to the normal to A at an to A.
of the ray is concerned in the angle 6, only the fraction cos action upon A. Furthermore, the line of pressure is inclined to the normal to A at an angle 0, so that the effective normal

pressure is still further reduced by the factor cos 6 a second time. The pressure on A is therefore only Ucos 2 0. This

must now be averaged

for all directions in space that

give to the ray, without preference.



we may mean value of

cos 2
for the


complete sphere

is J.

So the pressure, say p,

given by

= JU .....



Notice particularly that we take the mean for the complete sphere, not merely for the hemisphere as in the former calculation. The reason is that whether a ray goes through A from
so right to left or from left to right, the pressure is the same both ways have to be reckoned. Or, we may divide the original ray in which the pressure is


into a great

number n

of n small equal areas into which we may divide the surface of a sphere, and sum up the normal pressures on A. obtain, in the limit,

which the pressure is by the middle points


of rays also of unit section, in Let the axes of these rays be

each of



Galitzine confirms

This result was given by Boltzmann some years ago, and it for the special cae of his straight cylinder

with a radiant surface at one end.
see that the result


the above method


general, resulting from the uniformity of radiation in all directions, as the previous formula for the


flux of

energy did.

Emissivity and Temperature.
pressure p is not only the mean pressure the enclosure, but also the pressure on its envethroughout If it move, then lope, which exerts an equal back pressure.
183. This

the agency of

done by or against the enclosed radiation through its pressure, and the enclosure loses or gains Observe that the idea of temperato an equal extent. energy ture does not enter explicitly when the boundary of the enclois




of ideal perfectly reflecting material.
it, is

But when


absorptive and emissive, the physics of the matter becomes far more difficult and to some extent
or a part of



The notion of temperature comes in, and with it the law of thermodynamics. Assuming its full applicaStefan's law follows easily enough, as Galitzine has

shown. Let the enclosure bo a cylinder of unit section with two pistons A and B. Let A be fixed, and be a perfectly black

body, whilst






movable to and from




a perfect

reflector, as is also


the round cylinder. start with B close to A ; the volume of the enclosure


Draw B very

distance ht keeping


slowly away from at constant temperature


through the
the time,

t all

A keeps with energy to density U, and pressure p, corresponding to the temperature t at which A is maintained. The pressure p does the external work ph. Besides that, there
and then stop


this operation the source

the enclosure


energy UA in the enclosure at the end of the operation. Their sum is therefore the heat lost by A (excess of heat emitted by A into the enclosure over that returned to A).




Now we know p
Now, B

in terms of U, so that

we have, by


H = |TO
fixed, let the cylinder cool



to zero tempera-

The whole

through A. then raise

energy UA in the enclosure goes out Lastly, push B back to A without working, and A to temperature t. A cycle is then completed.
of the

Applying the second law, we have


H is as before,




an element

of the heat lost in

On the left side put (U+p)h or Uh the cooling process. for H, because external work was done in the first operation.


the right side leave out the


term, because during the





So we get

by omitting the we get

factor h.

Differentiate with respect to



5?-*-* t dt



from which we conclude that U, and, therefore, also p and W, vary as the fourth power of the temperature, the result above mentioned as applied to the emissivity W.



We tacitly assume that the ether is able to escape freely from the cylinder through its envelope, or else that it is freely comThis difficulty in connexion with pressible, without resistance.
the ether

a very old one.

Internal Obstruction and Superficial Conduction.
those of


properties of a perfect conductor ara derived


conductors by examining what would happen if the resistivity were continuously reduced, and ultimately In this way we find that a perfect conductor became zero.
a perfect obstructor, for one thing, which idea is singuat variance with popular notions regarding conducBut it is also a perfect conductor literally, though tors.



a different sense to that commonly understood. Ohm'slaw has played so important a part in the development of electrical knowledge, especially on the practical side, that it

really not at all a matter of

wonder that some


should have been so reluctant to take in the idea of a conductor as an obstructor.
Scientific men who can follow the which the functions of conductors follow from reasoning by known facts have no difficulty in pursuing the consequencesfar beyond experimental observation. Again, younger men,, with fewer prejudices to surmount, do not find much troublewith superficial conduction and internal obstruction. But theold established practitioner with prejudices, who could not see the reason, was put into a position of some difficulty If you have got anything new, i resembling chancery. substance or in method, and want to propagate it rapidly,, you need not expect anything but hindrance from the old even though he sat at the feet of Faraday. practitioner Beetles could do that. Besides, the old practitioner is apt

to measure the value of science

by the number of


he thinks it is likely to bring into his pocket, and if he does not see the dollars, he is very disinclined to disturb his

But only give him plenty of rope, and ancient prejudices. when the new views have become fashionably current, he may~ find it worth his while to adopt them, though, perhaps, i
a somewhat sneaking manner, not unmixed with bluster, and make believe he knew all about it when he was a little boy t



a prospect of dollars in the distance, that







perfect obstruction having


try the per-

fect conduction.

You should make your converts out of the rising generation and the coming men. Thus, passing to another matter, Prof. Tait says he cannot understand my vectors, though he can understand much harder things. But men who have no quaternionic prejudices can understand them, and do. Younger men are born into the world with more advanced ideas, on the average. There cannot be a doubt about it. If you had taught the Calculus to the ancient Britons you would not
have found a


to take



amongst the whole




Consider too, what a trouble scientific men used to have with the principle of the persistence of energy. They

could not see
is it

But everybody




The important


to begin early, and train up the young stick as you Now with Quaternions it is different. to grow.
off till to-morrow what you cannot do to-day, commence the study too soon. Of course, I" you the Hamilton-Tait system, where you have to do to reason by making believe that a vector is a

You may put
for fear
refer to


quaternion, and that its square is negative. According to Ohm's law alone, a perfect conductor should be

one which carried an infinite current under a finite voltage, and the current would flow all through it because it does so
ordinarily. manner in

But what is left out of consideration here is the which the assumed steady state is established. If we take this into account, we find that there is no steady state

when the resistance is zero, for the variable period is infinitely prolonged, and Ohm's law is therefore out of it, so far as the usual application goes. In a circuit of no resistance containing
finite steady impressed voltage E, the current would mount up infinitely and never stop mounting up. On the other hand, if we insert a resistance R in the former circuit of no resistance,

there will be a settling to a steady state, for the current in the circuit will tend to the value E/R, in full obedience to Ohm's
law. The current is the same all round the circuit, although a part thereof has no resistance. We conclude that that portion has also no voltage. But this is only a part of the story. Although we harmonise with Ohm's law, we overlook the most interesting part. The

with no resistance. current The uniformly state appropriate to finite conductivity distributed current of the steady becomes a mere surface is when the conductivity finite infinite. the magnetic force stops completely at the surface of the wire. is the current? For. at it all. is zero so again. to a finite value if mounts up there be a finite resistance inserted along with the perfect conductor. and mounts up We recognise the existence of electric current in a wire it. For this purpose the thinnest skin would serve In the usual sense that an electric current is a of matter. it has become quite an abstraction. supporting a steady current. though in one case there is entrance of the magnetic force and waste of energy. whilst in These conthe other there is no entrance and no waste. there is no difference whatever in the external. 339 smaller the resistance the greater the time taken for the current to get into the conductor from its boundary. if the magnetic force outside it remains the same. we can come to a proper understanding and explanation of the phenomenon there is functions of conductors. then. In the limit. but upon the second circuital law of electromagnetism applied to But it is only by means of Maxwell's theory that conductors. then. In the circuit of finite resistance. Therefore.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. equally well. infinitely if there be no resistance. where it is initiated. clusions do not rest upon Maxwell's theory of dielectrics. If. In one case we have a finite volume-density of current. the entrance of any similar manifestations into it being perfectly obstructed by the absence of resistance. a portion of which is a wire of no resistance. whose interior is entirely free from magnetic force. according to this. it never gets in Where. in accordance with electric Ohm's law entirely in The and magnetic phenomena are the dielectric outside the wire. magnetic force outside the resisting and non-resisting parts. there is the same total current in the wire. for no matter concerned in it It is shut out completely. the measure of the current is just the same. the electric force. as we have said. by the magnetic force round and in fact measure the current by its magnetic force. The ductor in reality as well as in sense in which a perfect conductor name is that is it a perfect conallows electro- z2 . and in the other a When the current inside the wire is surface-density.

but is deceptive and delusive physically. and next causes such reflected force waves as to annihilate the tangentiality and the normality of the magnetic force. then. neither that of the external field nor that of the superficial The current sheet itself merely means the abrupt current. say <r of the one. Though perfectly obstrucIt tive internally. required in the B. without waste of energy.. NH = 0. Reflection on External Disturband Conduction of Waves. .A. the latter first of all is free from disturbance. with electric current to match. and in this less technical sense of conduction the idea of a perfect conductor acquires fresh life. of amazing If. with electrification to match . we have electromagnetic disturbances irrationality. thus c= = ND. merely guides the waves. This is usually ascribed to an electric current-sheet induced upon it& surface. such as is given in a dielectric containing a perfect conductor. This is right mathematically. electrification electric force at the is and current are a- superficial. VNH. that is. The Effect of a Perfect Conductor ances. magnetic waves to slip along its surface in a perfectly freemanner.. the induction goes round it tangentially instead of entering it. is Thus. in rational units. of the electric As regards steady states. the influence of a perfect conductor on induction due to foreign sources is to exclude it in the same manner as if the inductivity were made zero . without any useless and arbitrary 4?r constant. There is no internal force. when there boundary entirely normal. system of units. whose internal magnetic force is the negative of that due to the external field. The displacement and the magnetic* measures the surface density force that of the other. Or VNE = 0. and if there is magnetic force it Both is entirely tangential.310 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY CIL IV. The conditions at the interface of a perfect conductor and a dielectric are that the electric force in the dielectric hasno tangential component and the magnetic induction no normal component. it if N be the unit normal from the conductor. 190. c. it is perfectly conductive superficially.

extreme forms of the geneperfect conductor behaves ral behaviour. In the latter case we may illustrate by ima- gining a thin plane electromagnetic sheet. the main current in the circuit itself.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 341 stoppage of the magnetic field. as if it entered it in the manner that would happen were the conductor nonconducting. different with the steady state due to external electric The displacement is just as much shut out from the perfect conductor (which may also be a dielectric) as was the magnetic induction. though not quite in the same way as electric conductors. without magnetic conductivity. there are two extreme ways in which a that is. the It also behaves displacement goes round it tangentially. moving at the speed flush of light. and is a perfect reflector. The incident sheet is at once turned into another plane sheet. that is. The tan- gential magnetic force and the normal electric force are zero. It may wholly conduct them. This magnetic conductor is also per- fectly obstructive internally. but of exceedingly great permittivity. As regards waves. the induction meets it perpendicularly. but in a strikingly different manner. a very far-fetched idea. and cannot really be supposed to be the source of magnetic force in a body which cannot permit its entrance. ism of the sheet and conducting surface. A perfect magnetic conductor behaves towards displacement just as a perfect electric conductor does towards induction . The previously mentioned case of a perfectly conducting wire inserted in a circuit of finite resistance supporting a steady current. actually It is sources. towards induction as a perfect electric conductor does towards displacement . yet it is useful in electromagnetic theory to contrast with the perfect electric conductor. consisting of crossed electric and magnetic forces in the ratio given by E = /*vH. in the absence of knowledge even of a finite degree of magnetic conductivity. by reason of parallelis. to strike a perfect conductor over at the same time. so that it drew in the tubes of displacement. If the conductivity be . which runs away that all from the conductor as fast as it came. Although a perfect magnetic conductor is. that is. or it may wholly reflect them. will serve to bring out this point The supposed induced superficial current is now strongly. ter- minating upon it perpendicularly. as if it possessed exceedingly great inductivity.

or using a double cone. more conveniently here. It is the case of reflection at grazing incidence. doubled during the act of reflection. from the incident no other respect* During the act and reflected sheets partly coin- Both are tangential . in fact. constant speed v. in the first main case of perfect reflection (flush) the incident and reflected sheets are wholly separated from one another. when a plane wave runs along a wire. This occur with a plane reflector. so that the wire is a cone. is of the magnetic from the incident only in when the conductivity differs wave sheet The displacement persists. so the reflector destroys E and initiates the reflected sheet. there can be no tangential E. Now. say. at least so long as the wire continues straight and of unchanged section. where they join together. If the section vary regularly. of reflection. The other extreme occurs when a plane electromagnetic sheet hangs on to a conductor perpendicularly. The wave then runs along the wire at. It then slips along the conductor at the speed of light. or. and without change of type. but in This is perfect reflection with reversal of E. but. but may have any form of section. except just at the reflecting surface. Between these two cases we have the general case of incidence and reflecThere are two plane waves (sheets. the most may striking and useful and practical case is that of a straight cylinder a wire. of course. though it need not be round. OIL IV. whilst the incident cide. we only see one wave. along a plane.342 ELECTROMAGNETIC TEIEORY. in which is the same as in the H H incident sheet. whilst the induction being is then annulled. having its induction reversed. when we have either spherical or plane waves.. whilst On the other hand. This case includes an infinitely fine wire. On the other hand. the reflected E is reversed. or a cone and a plane. where there is a momentary coincidence. of the electric kind the reflected sheet differs in having its displacement reversed. most tion at any angle. and may be considered the limiting case of permanent union of the incident and reflected waves. kind. but E is zero and is doubled. Other interesting may cases may be made up by varying the angle of the cone. with perfect slip. for reasoning and description) one going to and theconveniently other coming from the plane reflector. then it is a spherical wave that is propagated along it without change of type. &c. .

being v at grazing incidence (of rays) and v/cos 6 at incidence angle 0. at all. the displacement due to the union of the twowaves is normal to the surface (that is. when these general notions are got over. of . In both waves. It goes out of existence just as its speed becomes infinite. the H in one wave being directed towards the surface in the plane of incidence. so we are somewhat justified in speaking of the electrification moving . when the incident sheet strikes the surface flush. and in the other away from the surface. close to the plane. is tangential to the and. perhaps. sois that there trification an immensely great speed of motion of the elec- along the surface. leading to a plainer understanding. Details of these simple cases. but the matter is made simple enough by considering the rate of incidence upon the reflecting surface of different parts of the plane sheet. between v and infinity. There is no E within in the incident is E tangential. different parts strike the surface nearly simultaneously. sheet at any angle. its In the case of nearly flash incidence of a sheet. and is what occurs when therefore. But when it reflector. In the overlapping region. therefore. In the limiting case of normal incidence of rays. whilst E is in the plane of incidence. with an electric conductor) which is electrified. It may be. but we may equally well regard it as a case of continuous genera- tion of electrification at one end and of annihilation at the the part of the conducting surface which is momentarily charged. is The electrification is the same in amount always. also in the reflected wave.. will come later. varying. the generation and annihilation being performed by the different parts of the incident sheet and the other end of reflected sheet as they reach and leave tLe surface. and also no electrification .. whilst the H within it is parallel to the reflector. rather a novel idea to some readers that electrification can run through space at any speed greater than that of light. we have quite another kind of composition the overlapping part near the reflector. the electrification is non-existent.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. The above describes one extreme kind of reflection of a plane in the incident. 343" making equal angles with it. is H H and in it wave that is in the plane of incidence. and the electrification runs along the surface at a speed depending upon the angle of incidence. and continuously existent. in the parts of and simply joins together the H's the waves which do not overlap.

or appears to run. instead 0. of electrification. it may be readily conceived that if a con- ductor have only a slight amount of resistivity it may behave approximately the same as if it had none. for example. ductivity difficult The theory of the effect of a finite degree ot conin the medium on electromagnetic waves is far more of the effect of infinite con- and complicated than that ductivity. The Effect of Conducting Matter Induction. and also in this of very important properties conThere are two ways in which we may regard the question of conductivity. runs. as it becomes of great importance when there is some resistivity. If this be done quickly enough. we may examine the effect of introducing a slight amount of resistivity. Nevertheless.344 course. in Diverting External 191. however little. to be then increased more and more until at last way obtain a knowledge cerned. and examine the effect produced upon them of introducing first a small amount of conductivity. The other way is infinite. and likewise reflect and conduct them superficially nearly perfectly. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Both ways are instructive none the less because they give very different views of the same matter. and keep it there. when to start with electromagnetic waves in a perfect dielectric. If in the plane of the wave. in one of which magnetification (the analogue of electrification). First. and may obstruct waves nearly perfectly internally. we may gain a general idea of the nature of the effect by means of the substitution of simple problems for the real ones that present themselves. CH. Suppose. and bring a conductor into it very quickly from a distance. In the first place. instead of quite none. H is a similarity in propagation. but the element of time has to be taken into account. the first effect is nearly the same as if . we come to conductors of high resistivity. or we have dielectrics merely. we have an initially steady magnetic field. IV. that runs along the surface at speed v/cos the reflector be a magnetic conductor. This is true. until we come to perfect conductors again. starting from the theory of perfect conductors surrounded by perfect dielectric non conductors. we have two very similar main cases. along the surface. and in the other a magnetic current. then more and more. In other respects we have It is now a surface current.

As the magnetic force spreads into the conductor. how the magnetic is there is practically no magnetic force or electric current. It is as useless and misleading to say that one electric force is -cancelled There fully obeyed. is As in the -case of a perfect conductor. and then establish a steady magnetic field by some external . if tivity that settles itself. which is the curl of the former. on account of the obstructive action of the high conductivity. in the ultimate state tended to. no internal electric or by another. therefore. which is at first only skin deep. according to a law resembling assume the same distribution as Given time enough. there will weaker parts of the In another form. it being simply the ordinary paraanagnetic attraction or diamagnetic repulsion according as the value of the inductivity of the body exceeds or is less than that of the external medium. we may say that external force must be applied to the conductor to bring it into the field and But this state of things will not continue. it is merely the inducthat of the diffusion of heat. which is now occupied by the conductor. zero inductangentially. will penetrate into the interior in time. and pass round it tivity. That is. be mechanically acted upon by the stress in the field in a manner resembling the action upon a perfect diamagnetic body that force tending to drive it from stronger to field. It will be very much the same thing if we start with the conductor at rest in a neutral state in a neutral field. when the magnetic force has got steady. its total being measured by the difference in the magnetic force just outside and a little way inside the conductor. induction will distribute a skin current. so does the electric current. to hold it there. as if the conductor were of It will. In the end. our assumption is that there is nearly no resistivity although that is. be a is. it will there were no conductivity. in the bulk of which there Initially. the current ceases. They simply have not had time to get in. because there is magnetic force. The magnetic force. the induction of the field will be driven out of the space it previously occupied.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. as it is to ascribe the absence of magnetic force to the counteracting magnetic force of the skin current. 345 the conductor were perfect. is Ohm's law no internal current. but not of the same kind as before. There may now still be moving force on the conductor.

the more so the greater the conductivity. according to Joule's law of the generation of heat by the existence of electric current in conducting matter. conductivity. so that. offered ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. so very rapid an attenuation of intensity in going inward that practically only one wave need be considered (except for short waves. not at all other field is then also excluded. although its conductivity generation. iron is far more obstructive than copper. It is different with the heat- There the inductivity and conductivity act in . and as the square of the linear This refers to the intervals of time required to dimensions. a portion of an incident disturbance being transmitted into Next. conductivity and inductivity. then the internal part of the conductor need never acquire any sensible magnetic force. as before said. imperfectly. At present we may note that if the external field be not steady or do not tend to a steady state. Here the two properties. Thus two things happen when the degree of conductivity is not infinite. Thus. IV. so that the conductor is exposed to fluctuating forces. too. is a necessary waste of energy involved in the process. in the act of transmission and the attenuation involved. only the latter part will penetrate The former alternating part will penetrate fully into it. it. attenuating process. and consequent delay in the assumpIn both cases. action of steady forces and inductivity. but geometrically similar. establish a definite proportion of the steady state under the in bodies of different size. like Of course. which is nearly tangential). First. for example. there is a loss of energy from the electromagnetic We shall see later more precisely the nature of the field. consisting of layers of opposite kinds (as regards direction of the magnetic force. as the inductivity. of retardation of a conductor varies as the conductivity. however. tion of the steady state throughout it. be the same internal obstruction by the conductor. if the external field be the sum of a balanced alternating. with. What The time-constant goes in further does so by ordinary heat diffusion. skin. the heat generation is now confined to the light). and. and of a field which would be steady in the absence of the conductor. There will still CH.346 cause. is much inferior. The alternations the region of sensible penetration is only skin-deep. act conjointly. there the reflection is imperfect at the boundary of the conductor. when the conductivity With rapid is perfect.

whether by This is how it comes about that conductivity or inductivity. owing to the tangentiality of the magnetic force. combined with the fact that it is only the lateral pressure of the magnetic stress that acts on the conductor. and by relatively very slight attenuation when it arises from high conductivity. obstruction be not complete. although. If the resistance. in spite of the fact that the internal obstruction varies as the con- by increasing the by increasing the The point to be attended ductivity and inductivity conjointly. It results that in cases of skin-conduction of rapidly alternating currents. with the same current-density. inductivity. we decrease it by increasing the conductivity. therefore. with a given material. the resistance per unit area of surface varies directly as the square root of the product of the resistivity (not Thus. it is operative to some extent whenever there is a sufficiently rapid alternation of the field for the conductance to cause a sensible departure from the undisturbed state of the magnetic force. when the conductivity is not perfect. strongly operative with ordinary metallic conductors with quite moderate frequency of vibration. with the same electric force. preserving the conductivity Perfect internal obstruction then means infinite constant. frequency. the waste varies as the conductivity. This repulsive force is naturally also operative. The repulsive force which was referred to in the case of a perfect conductor brought into a magnetic field. may increase the resistance and frequency. resistance. and is. or. The . with the effective skin reduced to nothing. as the resistivity. to here is that mere internal obstruction is no necessary bar to effective skin conduction. arises from its obstructive action. In fact. for. of course. though in a less marked form. or when a magnetic field is created outside the perfect conductor. there is still no and the slip of electromagnetic waves along them is tion But it is different when we obtain the internal obstrucby increasing the inductivity. It is greater than if a given case the conduction were more wide- depends upon how it is brought about. 347 opposite senses. and no proper slipping of waves at all. perfect.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. it will be accompanied by very rapid attenuation of waves running along the surface when the obstruction arises from high inductivity. with the complete internal obstruction of a perfect conductor. whilst we conductivity). in the resistance spread. and also inductivity.

When made a disc or a linear circuit we have in special peculiarities. but if brought into a magnetic field the final result would be a state of internal neutrality. is that the ultimate permanent state in the conis a state of perfect neutrality. electric con- magnetic induction. The principle concerned of the temporary diversion of magnetic induction by conducting matter remains in force. in spite of the presence of * This reference to Elihu Thomson's experiments must not be understood as a full explanation. TV. and the theory may be perhaps best done terms of inductances and resistances. it be very low. for there is an actual destruction of the flux displacement by conductivity. which is sometimes complex. when brought into a magnetic field. Maxwell considered perfectly conducting linear molecular circuits in applying his views to Weber 'A theory of diamagnetism. by reason of the infinite conductance and the current " " induced in the ring. permit its full penetration. however.* When a conductor is brought into an electric instead There magnetic field. . whether it be of the electric or the magnetic kind. into Thus. Induction now . in time. It is magnetic repulsion. but would be unable to ductor destroy displacement. If. f a in is any case merely skin conduction. the case is somewhat different. but it cannot destroy induction. Consider first an infinitely conducting disc which completely diverts induction and next. using the word " magnetic " in its general sense. Similarly. electric to zero of the flux appropriate to the conducThe persistence of or magnetic respectively. The final result therefore. remarkable experiments of Prof. followed by subsidence tivity. a magnetic conductor brought an electric field would. As is well known. apart from the special fact of magnetisation when the iiid activity of the conductor is not the same as that of the ether. Electric conductivity destroys displacetivity ment. just as if the conducwere perfect. but its total is zero. total induction through it constant. magnetic conductivity would destroy induction.CIS ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. The idea in the text has been of a lump of metal. Elihu Thomson on this " elec" tromagnetic repulsion will be remembered. CH. however. there will be an initial nearly complete penetration (owing to the removal of the obstruction). however low the conductivity. goes through the circuit. a ring made by removing nearly all the disc except the outer part. whether the matter be in a lump or in a closed In the latter case the tendency of the conductance is to keep the line. rather than electromagnetic. then. of course. The phenomenon has nothing specially to do with electromagnetic waves.

inductivity has a wider 192. and is therefore a mere numeric. together with the misleading connection between the susceptibility and the permeability. dielectric to a conducting one. The present method swamped. and is therefore ignored . We should write if p is the permeability and K the susceptibility. unworthy of scientific ing. such that j/*H is the density of the magnetic We can only make it a numeric by assumption. as usual. it has only a fictitious a forced numerical identity. and there is some on the subject. on the other hand. namely. magnetic force. but we cannot pass the other way without having the permittivity in view all the time. The latter is the ratio of the inductivity of a medium to that of ether. simply nonsense. because in good conductors the dielectric permittivity is altogether proof of 1887-8. on account of the obscure and misleading manner in which the connections between induction. Induetivity and Susceptibility. Magnetisation. men near the end of the nineteenth century. identity with permeability Similar remarks apply to some other quantities. in very bad conductors the permittivity is a factor of the Now we can pass continuously from a greatest importance. which makes the matter difficult. As people's memories are very short. tion were formerly commonly presented (and still are some- times). Even then. but they are particularly necessary in the case of inductivity. On the other hand. of which I shall give a simple proof in a later Section. in amplification of my of passing from perfect to finite conductivity is unsuitable for the purpose. 349 ductivity.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE3. I may repeat here that the sofrequently-used word inductivity is not intended for use as a mere synonym for permeability. and magnetisaenergy. Parenthetical Remarks on Induction. instead of where the suffix letter refers to the common irrational reckon- is. is a very important and significant fact. irrespective of dimensions. up to perfect non-conducting conduction. discussion 2 meaning. whilst. Now introduce The 4?r .

Perhaps. But K is always and essentially a numeric. viz. fluxes. so that the additional part /* KF expresses the effect of the matter present. strictness it should not be called the intensity of magnetisation.. /* KF. but rather the density. = K^i. or intensities therefore so is we properly carry out Maxwell's and densities. But this will not do. therefore. In the case of purely elastic magnetisation (without intrinsic) we have where B is the induction and F the magnetic force. one of the two words should be abolished. ciples about forces and a flux. Here is what the induction would be in ether. 4?r absurdity. and next in making p and K be quantities of the same kind. an of a different kind. apart from the . because magnetisation and In induction are similar. The induced magnetisation if is />t KF. there can. first as regards the obstreperous 47T. naturally expresses the susceptibility for magnetisation of the matter. Maxwell's ether theory. We see that the use of inductivity rather than permeais not. as a matter of logical common sense as well as for the purpose of scientific clearness. the common form is or if i = i + 7r i. and make /? = /V/V where // is the inductivity of ether. -which is bility is necessary in electromagnetic theory. since we have the difference of two flux densities expressed by an 1. hand. But this need not interfere with the use of permea- If. on the other bility in its above-described sense of a ratio. it might be thought that /AO K should express the susceptibility. Now. then takes the place of the common misleading in two respects.350 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. I think. whilst //. be little doubt as to which should go. which becomes magnetised. to be measured per unit prin- B is area. that induction and magirrationality netisation are made identical in kind with magnetic force. IV. CH. Here we have. and p that of some other substance (with the usual reservations). The ratio K-. in passing.

according as they are re" " " " garded as flux densities or force intensities. If done. . of //F into the ether induction the additional part due to matter. same purpose of obtaining and freedom from distressing anomalies. then The other F and If we now amalgamate I and I. namely. Suppose. with reference to length and to area respectively. this may "intensity. MacAulay's recent paper on the There The remedy is easy. what has happened in Mr. to singular and unaccountable anomalies. say. translated into irrational units. This is the best If be split at all. where H is way of exhibiting the induction. I think. Or. the complete force of the flux B. matter very little in practical calculations. is less useful. /x separation. I1} the total magnetisation. The complete induction becomes It is also highly desirable. but it is more than mischievous in theory. if we do not recognise and take account of the radical difference between B. This I is of the same nature as B.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. " that the distinction between " induced and intrinsic magnetisation should be clearly recognised and admitted in the formula. we have which. to make. for example." which is referred to unit length. should be no special limitations imposed upon the quantities concerned such as occur when permeability and inductivity are made the same. 351 Now. intrinsic and induced. In the above there has been no intrinsic magnetisation. Then. we are working with a kind of mathematics that takes explicitly into account the two ways of measuring vector magnitudes. let it be H into the part involving the intrinsic force h and the rest. and Ff in the last equation. for the scientific clearness . Let this now be I An equivalent form is /xh where h is the corresponding intrinsic magnetic force. makes . we may expect to be led This is. theory of electromagnetism.

because of the absence of intrinsic magnetisation. omitting the CH. A complete theory of magnetic Induction. containing three faults. because their applications are of so highly specialised a nature. it is of no consequence. B = /xH still. possibly really like the some like roundabout and misleading way of presenting the magnetic flux relations which I have above criticised? There is no excuse for it. Next elastically magnetised bodies in which the relation we come to and force is linear. There could not be a greater mistake. which is understandable when exhibited in a purified form. freed from 47r's and other anomalies. and the unnatural union of physically distinct magnetisations. Men who are engaged in practical work can hardly be expected to fully appreciate the importance of these things. in the details of which they may become wholly absorbed. before they had assimilated its consequences thoroughly. First of all. tion. and the curl of either is But should there be intrinsic magnetisawhilst then H=h ( + F. the arbitrary 47r. If there is no intrinsic netisation. Then B = /xH. we obtain the common B -F i +47rI li . in which B = /* F or B = /x H. or else (with eolotropy) a linear operator. therefore. and although there may be a certain small range of application of the theory even in iron. including hysteresis. if we can." But can anyone apples. except that it was employed by great men when they were engaged in making magnetic theory. When the rough work of construction is over. " Different men have different opinions some like inions. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. we have the ether. and it is the curl . and put it in a better and more practical form. and is either a constant scalar. where ^ differs between flux from /x being .352 and lastly. We should copy the virtues of great men. because they are concerned with iron. /t* by assuming < it to be unity. F and H are still the . yet they are scarcely concerned with it. IV. either greater or smaller. then it is desirable to go over it again. the equalising of an intensity and a flux. but not their faults. and. mag- the current density. They may even go so far as to say that the paper theory of magnetic induction is not of the least moment. same. must necessarily be so constructed as to harmonise with the limited theory that has already been elaborated.

of 353 P F. in the absence of conductivity or other disturbing causes. We examine the influence of a upon a wave. The next fiF be not a linear. The theory quite insensible. if it be possible to express B 1 which is the free induction. single very thin conducting sheet difficult. is non-conducting. the dielectric medium to possess a uniformly-distributed small conductivity. ing the treatment. and. If we increase their number suffi- ciently. If this little with F. therefore. but some other function to be experimentally determined. Imagine.step is make . Persistence of Induction and Loss of Displacement. as a function of F. AA . the current density. Evidently. Now insert a plane conducting sheet in the path of the wave. The experimental justification of this generalisation is the fact that no unipolar been discovered. it matter be satisfactorily determined. there will be no change. of Of course. This is not Imagine. to replaces. B is zero all through. that to is . B = I + /*F. their action on a wave whose plane is parallel to that of the sheets will approximate. magnets have yet Effect of a Thin Plane Conducting Sheet on a Wave. Or. netic Coming now to the effects produced on electromagwaves by a small amount of conductivity. localise the conductance in parallel number medium substitute for the uniform conductivity a great of parallel plane conducting sheets. with consequent waste of energy. che action of the conductivity on a wave is a continuous and cumulative one. to be afterwards increased. a simple plane electromagnetic sheet to be running through the ether at the speed of light. Then comes the This involves the variation of question of hysteresis. we shall adopt a particular device for simplify193.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. then. first. in the gross. sheets Next. difficult I can be done approximately. to the effect of the uniform conductivity which the conductance of the sheets have. we may expect to have a sound mathematical theory of magnetic induction in an extended form which shall properly harmonise with the The divergence of rational form of the elementary theory. This is the natural state of things . between which the that is. It should be so thin that the retarding effect of diffusion within it is Let the wave strike it flush.

the conthe intensity in the original incident wave. with dissipation of energy. and nothing further happens to it. in spite of conduction and waste of energy. if displacement. may From the fact that the reflected wave runs back. It has merely redistributed it. it would imply equalled that the transmitted wave was of greater amplitude than the unchanged in the transmitted wave. The transmitted wave differs from the incident in no respect except strength.7i)H in Thus. IV.wE in the . we see that the On the other hand. one which is transmitted beyond the plate. the persistence of induction. irrespective of the amount But a much more striking one connects the of conductance. whilst its magnetic force preserves its original direction. OH. This transmitted wave moves on just as the incident wave did. invariably. of the intensities in the reflected and transmitted waves equals That is. It is attenuated in a certain ratio depending upon the conductance of the sheet. The reflected wave. The formulee are reserved. At the same time E in the H incident becomes (1 -?t)E in the transmitted. whilst the other is reflected. So there is a loss of in the incident becomes (1 . then. But as regards the displacement. which then separate from one another.354 BLECTROMAQNBTIC THEORY. and slightly attenof uated when it is small. the case is quite different. travels back the came. ductance. This is The sum intensity of the magnetic force in the three waves. on the other hand. being greatlv attenuated when the conductance is large. But it is smaller. shows that it is immediately split into two similar waves. having its direction of motion opposite to that of the incident and transmitted waves. has had no effect whatever on the total induction. If. The direction of the magnetic force in the three waves same. it is electric force must be reversed. The " number of tubes " in the reflected wave may : be made to bear any ratio we please to the number in the transmitted wave by altering the conductance of the plate but their sum incident wave. is always exactly the number of tubes in the This property exemplifies. and . the transmitted wave. and nothing further happens to it. in a manner which be readily understood. by splitting it into two parts. their sum the electric force in the incident wave. it becomes nH in the reflected wave. where n is some proper fraction. way it is the one general property. incident.

2nE. whilst we simultaneously reduce the waste of energy in the plate and increase the loss of displacement. This loss occurs at the very moment plate the incident wave coincides with the plate. we reduce the transmitted wave reflected. The rate of waste of energy is proportional to the electric stress. or perhaps of permittivity. This occurs when n is greater than \. 355 The 2nD. but with the AA 2 . a conducting dielectric is a dielectric which cannot support displacement without wasting it. and there is no waste of energy. when the plate has no conductance. and therefore without attenuation. amount it complete. When n = J. the plate is of insensible influence. taneously at its The of displacement energy in the plate of there- is simul- of the latter still remains positive. transmitted and reflected. On critical the other hand. whilst the reflected then no transmitted wave and no loss of wave is of full size. The loss the reflected and transmitted differ waves are equally strong. if we increase the conductance above the value making n = J. But it should be carefully noted that the loss of energy and the loss of displacement are entirely distinct things. therefore. and only of in the direction is. The extreme is reached when the plate is a perfect and increase the conductor. and reduce the The waste of energy in it and the loss of displacement. It must then be understood vectorially. we increase the transmitted wave. so that a continuous supply of fresh displacement is needed to keep it up. assuming to be positive in the incident wave. dielectric The itself may be regarded as a different homogeneous with the ether outside. therefore. the permittance of property superposed. or the loss of displacement is By the loss we mean the excess of the displacement in the incident over the sum of the displacements in the two resulting waves. If we reduce the conductance of the plate. There is energy. The extreme is reached Then the incident wave goes right through without any splitting and reflection. which are not proportional . sense. maximum. But strictly. loss fore. reflected wave. the displacement. loss of E is.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. and that the loss of displacement itself may sometimes require to be understood in a somewhat artificial For the loss may be greater than what there is to lose. but with the conducting and dissipating When thin enough. being equal to one-half of the energy of the original wave. and may be disregarded.

so that the transmitted wave emerges from the plate a pure electromagnetic wave. but with displacement reversed. its attenuating effect from these two causes on the . minute portion of the wave traversing them. OH.356 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. is opposite to that in the incident and transthe other band. Its successive layers each cause a minute attenuawave passing. viz. a reduced copy of The successive layers. IV. natural to consider the waste of energy from the field caused by the plate as loss. so that the loss of displacement. but is wholly It seems. the idea an absorption of displacement is not without its inconveniences when the conductance is great. The transmitted wave is an the theory is quite similar. but merely suffers a slight loss.. the plate is infinitely small to have very slight conductance (in the limit an amount). If the plate be a magnetic instead of an electric conductor. and these rejected fluxes make up the reflected wave. and this applies equally to the induc- and displacement. But it is now the induction that suffers reflected because its direction in the mitted. of loss of displacement by conductance becomes useful again. 2D. but these residuals tend to vanish when the plate is thin enough. There are residual effects due to the internal reflections of evidently minute portions of the main reflected wave. This takes place equally from the electric and magnetic energies. The reflected wave is also a copy of the incident. in fact. It will be seen from these details that whilst the absorption or dissolving of induction of by conductance is a myth. The loss of energy takes place as the incident wave is traverschange tion of the tion ing the plate. too. and that this becomes extreme when there is really no loss of energy in the plate. Notice that if the plate be both an electric and a magnetic wave On conductor. attenuated continuation of the incident. then. loss. so that the total displacement cannot Then the idea sign. each cast back a the incident. displacement reversed as compared with the incident. with unchanged sign of the induction. the displacement now fully persists. being merely split into two parts by the plate. in the sense described. when. also reduced. the incident wave does nothing in it. more rejected with its displacement reversed. since they are necessarily equal in every one of the three waves. But in the application made later. is the greatest possible.

357 transmitted wave will be additive. but this does not affect the total induction. and observe how they are. electric and transit. This process may seem cumbrous. there is a Whilst there is no reflection in magnetic. and Also in Cores and in Linear Circuits. consider what happens to the total induction. therefore. It is redistributed constant. we have a peculiar result. The result is that the reflected wave is reduced in magnitude conductance by the addition of magnetic conductance electric conductance. There is a small loss of energy at every This applies split. It therefore applies when the initial state consists . let it be locally condensed into the conductance of any number of parallel plates. though it suffers extra attenua- the explanation of the distortionless propagation of waves in a dielectric medium possessing duplex conducti- This is vity. split by the first plates they meet. but without the least loss. is to reverse the induction whilst keeping the displacement straight . in general. to previously existent With a proper proportioning of the two the reflected wave may be brought nearly to conductances. know that the We effect of any one of them on a thin electromagnetic sheet is to If we like. and so on. whilst that of the electric conductance is to reverse the displacement and keep the induction straight. continuous loss both of displacement and of induction. But as regards the reflected The action of the magnetic wave. to be a little later split into eight. we can split it. So the total induction remains and spreads out both ways. giving rise to four waves.OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. as described. follow each of the resulting waves. Now return to the case of electric conductivity alone. and. The Persistence of Induction in Plane Strata. in their turn. so that it will emerge a pure wave with extra attenuation. reflection. the compensation is perfect. In the limit evanescence from a plate of finite conductance. as previously described. know that it persists in amount and direction when a single split occurs. and the incident wave goes right through without tion. when we start from a single pure electromagnetic sheet moving either way. Thus. but it is also an instructive one. We Now sive split a wave suffers in the same property applies to every succesour dielectric medium containing parallel conducting plates. 194.

ally. It may be merely a cancellation by the union of oppositely-directed inductions. speed is infinitely We conclude from the above that plane sheets of induction in electric conductors always preserve the total induction constant in amount. There is still persistence of the induction. with the proper dissipates their energy. consider a large ring. It may occur. the same applies when we split up the conducting plates themselves into plates of smaller conThe ductance. the final effect will be a complete annihilaShould. Finally. of any strengths. which does not require the induction density to be zero. is. howby mutual cancellations. forming a per- fectly arbitrary initial distribution of induction and displacement in parallel plane layers. and c. this must be due to some other cause. account of its attenuation by spreading.358 of ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. To prevent the attenuation to zero we may interpose infinitely conducting barriers. That is. values of //. in Then the final planes parallel to the sheets of induction. induction density will tend to zero. then the corresponding great. with plane strata of induction. If. but it in addition. it will persist. of CH. equally well except as regards though iron will do some complications connected . The conductivity does not interfere with But observe that this property of propagation at finite speed. not because there is destruction by the conductance or resistance when either any of them is finite. it suffers destruction. ultimate limit of this process is reached when the conductance is quite uniformly spread. but that will be merely on tion of the induction ever. any number such sheets. or whether there is any at all. The the total induction be not zero. induction cannot be destroyed by conductance. the total induction be initially zero. and spread them out at uniform distances. This may be termed a vectorial cancellation. fundament- a dielectric propagating disturbances at speed v . of course. Thus if. one on each side. IV. It is. irrespective of the amount of elastic displacement. if we choose to ignore the displacement. a conductor as well. and distorts the waves and The speed v is (MC)"*. say of copper. To illustrate this property in a somewhat less abstract manner. then. result will be that the induction will spread itself out uniformly between the barriers and maintain a finite density. so that we have a perfectly homogeneous medium under consideration. in an infinitely large conductor.

inner and outer. let the core be hollow tised circularly and be induc- instead of along its length by means of two currents on its boundaries. but the outer skin will not let the induction expand outwardly. in spite of the external skin. When it is steadily set up. When this is done. Let it be inductised by an enveloping coil-current so that the induction goes along the core in a complete circuit. whether we fill up the hollow with finitely conducting matter or leave it nonconducting. with its 359 magnetisation. Then we have a certain flux of induction locked up. we allow The the induction to spread internally and permit cancellation. . To get this effect remove happen the inner skin. It were. oppositely directed. There will be a similar persistence of the induction. preferably for our present purpose) the induction in the core will. which will continue until the whole of the magnetic energy is wasted as heat in the core. induction will That tric now wholly disappear. its tubes now go round the inner boundary There may be an initial settling down.the induction. there will be a continuous passage of the induction out of the initially inductised region. although circularly. and the If the latter could inner skin will not let it contract inwardly. there is a redistribution of skin. which has no can neither be destroyed by the conductance it is get through the perfectly-obstructive clapped on after the induction has partially escaped (which escape begins on the outside. in time. it will not come out. In further illustration. The same property is exemplified. before the interior is sensibly affected). The final induction the mean value original induction across the section of the core. During this process there is electric current in the core and some waste of energy.current (and the coil too. which continues until a new state of equilibrium is reached. remove following the length of the core. the currents and clap on perfectly conducting skins internally and externally. if we remove the coil. Then. to say. But there is is no waste of the of .THEORY OP PLANE! ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. accompanied by elecis current therein. we might have cancellation. it. with a single closed line or circuit of infinite If it embrace a certain amount of Induction it conductance. though in a less easily understandable manner. of the core nor can skin the induction. as effect it upon If it. in a conducting material. all come out of But if we clap an infinitely-conducting skin upon the core.

There is also per- sistence of displacement in spite of a finite degree of magnetic conductivity in a continuous medium. as much positively The resulting induction distribution is to be got as negatively. whilst if it be finite but great. The through. If the conductance of the circuit be finite. zero total induction through it if its conductance be infinite . IV. 195. yet they do pass through a surface bounded by the circuit.conducting circuit to dissipate itself. there is an approximation to this result so long as the motion is kept up. the amount. when of course the current in the circuit will cease. unless it" be electrically conducting as well. if there is initially no induction through the circuit. But the current is there all the same (measured magnetically) when the conductance and there is is infinite. Next consider the effect of a conducting medium upon the total displacement. in OH. in virtue of its impermeability to the magnetic flux. At the same time. The property is a general one.360 will ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. or the external field be kept varying. there will continue to be none when a magnetic field is created in its neighbourhood. always do so. circuit of perfect In a similar manner. We know that the latter decreases . But none is needed. to get past it to the full extent. But although the tubes of induction cannot cut through the infinitely conducting circuit so as to make the induction through it be a finite quantity. by superimposing the external induction and that due rent in the circuit of such strength as to to a cur- make the total induction through it be zero. then it can get The time-constant varies as the conductance. displacement can be locked up by a magnetic conductance. when due to a steady cause. On the other hand. disappearance of the induction is manifested by the waste of energy in the circuit. for if the circuit be moved about in a magnetic field. The induction is steady. if least amount of resistance in the circuit will be time enough be given. to allow the external induction. The induction the absence of impressed force to alter is locked in and cannot pass through the infinitely. The Laws of Attenuation of Total Displacement and Total Induction by Electric and Magnetic Conductance. the electric current in which is supported by the voltage of the decreasing induction through it. no voltage in the circuit. the sufficient. there is always.

where is a fraction nearly Here is the sum of the displacements in equal to unity. If these same conductance as the first. it is easy to see that we have merely to deal with plates of such very low conductance that the loss at each is extremely small. where k is the permittivity of the homogeneous conducting medium. the loss of dis- placement exceeded the original.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. the total displacement becomes m 3 D . the latter being very small and of the opposite sign to the initial D. They any are both going to go.A. which is. In the irrational units of the B. and so on. the total mD is further attenuated by them to w2D when the two waves become four. let the loss at one plate be such as to reduce the initial D in a wave to mD. whilst their conductances are infinitely small. The result is that the constant n has the value c the conductivity and &/c. and D what we have merely (1) it becomes at time t. and proceed to the limit by making the number of plates infinite. observe how it depends on the conductance of one plate. We found that when its conductance exceeded a certain value. and the law of decrease may be readily found from the theory of a single conducting plate. 361 with the time. we shall have the total displacement represented by an exponential function of the time. But. It follows that. Thus. so that the above-mentioned difficulty does not enter. As these waves displacement m mD and are split anew. nonsense. value. they reach other plates plates have each the by the next plates that are reached. to examine the form of the fraction m. These successive displacement totals decrease according to the law of a geometrical series. say by where D is the initial D = D oe-<. when these four waves are split into eight separate. To find the value of n. Next. in the limit. Committee this quantity is represented by 47r&/c. like the quaternionic doctrine about the square of a vector. The above reasoning applies to initial distribution of displacement in plane layers. but which is justified by the results). in regarding the action of a homogeneous conductor upon a wave as the limit (in the gross) of that of an assemblage of parallel plates in which the conductance is localised (which process may not seem unassail- ably accurate beforehand. instead of merely . the transmitted and reflected waves. of course.

" displacement in a conducting condenser (apart from absorption" and hysteresis). whilst its total amount initial A homogeneous medium decreases according to the static law. Returning to the former case. the indue tivity. if the conductivity vary similarly from place to place. which the total displacement remains constant whilst the total induction subsides. and B what it becomes at time t. without magnetic force or flux of energy. Since. containing a static distribution of displacement. it should be noted that when the initial distribution is of the static nature. it retains this property during the sub- For. one elementary sheet. there is also no true electric current. equation (1) shows that the total displacement subsides according to the time-factor ~ c e this represents Maxwell's law of subsidence of Now. That is. A considerable extension may be given to this property. or it remains similar to itself. so that the time-constant cjk is the same everywhere. we shall have (2) where g is the magnetic conductivity and p. The displacement need not be static. there no magnetic force. and may consequently move about in the most varied manner. and with purely local disis There is . Passing next to the analogous case of a magnetic conductor. is converted into heat on the spot. force. unaccompanied by magnetic sidence. its distribution does not alter relatively. but may be accompanied by magnetic induction.362 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. more general meaning. then. is presupposed. IV. the electric energy also no flux of energy. and modifications may be introduced by the action of boundaries. The time-constant cjk of the former case has become p/g. If there be a conducting dielectric in which the permittivity varies from place to place. but is sufficient to point out the law according to If B be the initial total which the subsidence occurs. it is unnecessary to repeat the in argument. since the displacement subsides everywhere according to the same time-factor. the displacement will subside everywhere alike. Therefore. then. induction. CH. or of the static distribution of displace' ' ment associated with electrification in a conducting We see that the law has a far medium.

when there are both conducand both the fluxes displacement and induction and the ference. and the second because E has no curl and k/c is constant. would be different and the distribution with rates of subsidence at of displacement electric change. sipatipn of 363 is the electric energy. there places. and the initial electric force of the static kind. the law (2) of the subsidence of total induction will not be affected by the presence of electric contivities present. but will have no effect on the property in Similarly. of volume. it may be inquired how the property will (1) of the subsidence of the total be affected by the simultaneous existence of displacement This will undoubtedly affect the magnetic conductivity. as we shall see later. If it were not constant then. requires property in a magnetic conductor the constancy of the time-constant fi/g. For the solution repre- sented by E=E where no . E is curl. without inter- These properties have their parallels in the theory of telegraph circuits. would current and transfer of energy. the property considered would not be true different . -**. That is. obviously. alike. ductivity. the first because the true current is the sum of the conduction and displacement currents. The corresponding place a static distribution of induction subsides everywhere and without the generation of electric force.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Thus. equivalently. having E that at time t. in general. present. along magnetic force. it may be that if we go in between the molecules . It should be remembered that we are dealing always with matter in the gross. electrically-conducting Returning again to plane strata of displacement in an homogeneous dielectric. whether p and g are themselves constant or variable from to place. when displacement subsides in an electric conductor without generating magnetic force. Then. in detail. the total displacement subsides according to one law total induction according to the other. we assume a homogeneous constitution of the elements . Both the fundamental circuital laws are satisfied. the possibility and necessity of which are clearly indicated by the two circuital laws. H = 0. and not with molecules at all or. phenomena question.

CH. The Laws of Attenuation at the Front of a Wave. IV. Now. and are perpendicular and in constant ratio. owing to the change of form of the wave-front and other causes. does not belong to the skeleton theory but is rather to be considered as a sideinflu- matter involving physical hypotheses to account for the ence of matter upon the electromagnetic laws. conducting . magnetic force. for Then the mere front of the the shell itself may be complex. that the two the quantities upon which the speed of propagation depends and permittivity are not altered. as has inductivity been already explained in connection with the theory of a thin free introduction conducting plate. whilst the bulk is transmitted. Besides the above simple laws relating to the subsi dence of the total fluxes (sometimes true for the elementary parts) there are equally simple laws relating to the subsidence of the fluxes at the front of a wave advancing into previously undisturbed parts of the medium. as the wave advances through a continuously medium its successive layers are being continuously to a reflecting process. This may be disguised in the case of a thin electromagnetic shell. provided. But taking cases from this complication. shell may be the only quite pure part. This matter. when it is regarded as the front. To understand this it may be mentioned first. 196. a minute portion of every subjected In layer being thrown back. difficult to conceive how of displacement in a heterogeneous tution could be done medium of molecular consti- away with without the generation magnetic force. that the front of a wave in a non-conduct. It is. however. the electric and magnetic the wave-plane. of electromagnetism. which sometimes admit of extension to the body of the wave. in fact. ing dielectric is fluxes are in always pure that is.364 there is ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. considering that the energy of the displacement is converted into heat energy. due to Electric and Magnetic Conductance. The body of the wave need not be of this pure type. of course. we should next note that the of conductivity into the medium makes no difference in the form of the wave-front or its position at a given stage of its progress. but the property of purity always characterises the wave-front.

is that the time-factor of attenuation takes the exponential form. therefore. 365 things. so as to become a homogeneous dielectric possessing finite conand so on. which is the is cess of mixture of reflected waves. its The property electric force and (3) applies to the magnetic as well as to the It does not apply merely to plane flux. locally condense the conductance into that of any number of equal conducting plates. The reflected portions we wholly ignore at limit of this process. a plane wave attenuates to. there is a mixed-up state of At the very front. the total displacement in displacement. or equivalent thereto. (3) t.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. therefore. on the other hand. the disturbance at the wave front has only attenuated to j1^ of original value. initially w w3E. The ductivity. (4) . We may. The result is E=E E and e-*</ 2<. waves. Let any one of these If plates attenuate a wave traversing it from E to wE. constant 2c/k is just double that of the subsidence of total E the value at time Whilst. there is no such mixture. magnetic conductor is that the disturbance at the front of a wave is attenuated in time t according to the time-constant 2p/g. It is time-constant a more fundamental formula than the previous one with the final result of the complex proc/&. but to any waves. in (3) makes its appearance in all investigations of waves in electrical conductors when the permittivity is not ignored. for example. The timebeing the initial.. y^. and passes on to the next plate. where it suffers a second attenuation viz. and again emerges pure. say. when the plates are infinitely closely packed and of infinitely small conductance. pure it emerges a pure wave. To find it. The corresponding property in a Thus. involved. to 2 At the third plate it becomes E.of its initial value. present. for the disturbance consists wholly of what has been transmitted of the front layer. because the superficial layer only is and any elementary portion thereof may be regarded So it comes about that the exponential factor given as plane. fully expect that the law of its attenuation in transit is of a simple nature. the body of a wave.

one an electric. The exponential time-factors concerned in (3) and (4). the easiest way of treating the matter is not to pass from the known to the unknown. where we have recognised that the influence is simply attenuative. telegraph circuit. where the time-factor is the product of the two former time-factors of (3) and (4). or additive. 197. IV. Coming now to the influence of conductivity on a wave elsewhere than at its extreme front. in a certain case. but also with Their ultimate origin may be traced in the the double values. are of oppo- . ones. also make their appearance in connection with the disturbance in the body of a wave. the ratios of inductance to resistance and of permittance to conductance. CH. their attenuative actions at the wave-front are The attenuation is independently cumulative. The Simple Propagation of Waves in a Distortionless Conducting Medium. expressed by : . with the result (5). We have far simpler than that of a real electric conductor. the other a magnetic conductor. mately is twice that of the subsidence of the Like the former formulae. (3) and (4). (5) It is really the attenuative actions of a single conducting plate that are additive.. ductance. though in a less simple manner. electric and magnetic. these modified have their representatives in the theory of a in spite of the absence of magnetic con- In a conductor possessing duplex conductivity. already mentioned that the reflective actions of two plates. and the more complex one in (5).. This of The theory is to be done by a process of generalisation. In the theory of coils and condensers. Here the time-constant total induction. This applies separately to every successive thin conducting layer through which the front of the wave runs. This will be returned to. a conductor with duplex conductivity is.366 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. not only do we meet with the time-constants L/R and S/K. It is replaced by something that produces approxithe same result. but to reverse the process and pick out the cases which theory indicates are most readily understandable. theory of the effect of a thin conducting plate upon a wave.

the time-factor of attenuation is now ~*^ c . which is now of the electric kind.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 367 The first reverses the displacement. To see the full meaning of this. with magnetic conductivity alone. the distortion due to magnetic conductivity alone diminished by introducing electric conductivity. in a homoattenuation but without reflection. we shall. But if we tory. distortion again. electric influ- we shall partly counteract the distorting ence of the latter. The joint action of the two plates when coexistent and coincident. have a profoundly different subsequent his- Again. add on magnetic conductivity to previously existent conductivity. we are reduced to a kind of propagation of unique simplicity. with the same initial state. and becomes completely abolished when there is enough of the latter to is Further increase brings on the equalise the time-constants. or the action of a single plate with duplex conductance. geneous medium. Now. Similarly. This occurs. and the distortion is wholly removed. That is. the course of events following any initial state is precisely the same as in a non-conducting medium. This distortionless state in conducting media furnishes a sort of central basis for investigating the more recondite effects . say electric. but with When a continuous attenuation expressed by equation (5) above specialised to suit the equality of the time-constants. start from any initial distributions of induction tric. This removal of dis- tortion applies to every kind of wave. if we introduce only one kind of conductivity. results in a complete disappearance of the reflected wave when the conductances are in proper ratio and We then have transmission with the plate is infinitely thin. and displacement in a non-conducting dielecImagine that we have obtained the full solution showing the subsequent history of the disturbances. Further increase of the magnetic conductivity will overdo the correction and bring on distortion again. the state of balance occurs. site natures. though of a different kind. and the second reverses the induction when throwing back a portion of the wave. we shall have a course of events different from both the previous. when k/c=g/p. Reflex action being abolished. This counteraction becomes complete when the value of the magnetic conductivity is raised so high as to produce equality of the time-constants of attenuation due to the two conductivities separately.

of course. fj. But they have resistance. which may turn up again later on. theory of magnetic conductivity acting to neutralise the The time-constants distorting effect of electric conductivity. to have distortionless transmission. In the meantime I may remark that if the reader wishes to under- L being inductance. on account of the non-existence of the second kind of conductivity involved. accompanying Nevertheless. and c/k become L/R and S/K in a telegraph circuit.000 (Boston-Chicago) for practical KR . that it is approximately of the kind due to magnetic conductivity in the medium generally. R K leakage-conductance. A short time since. S permittance. and Their equalisation produces the distortionless circuit. were it not for the things which remarkable practical imitation of the distortionless state of is presented in the theory of telephone and other If we abolish the ficticircuits under certain circumstances. KR pointing out. I further pre32. The record is now about 50. being leakage-conductance of the insulating surrounding the wire. in noticing the reached by the New York-Chicago circuit. stand these things.onduc- electric medium generally remains in action. IV. . the true nature of the telephonic " law " applied thereto problem and the absurdity of the generally. he must give up any ancient prejudices he " law " and the consequent may be enamoured of about a impossibility of telephoning when "KR" is over 10./g resistance. distortion.000. or the average effect of other medium the kinds of leakage at distinct and separate spots along the Thus we obtain an approximate reproduction of the circuit. is the distortion of waves produced by the resistance of a wire along which they run? The answer is. we should. tious magnetic conductivity throughout the medium traversed by the waves. of greater or lesser importance according to circumstances. CH. = America. also abolish the electric attained by using wires of This is only to be conductivity. no resistance to guide the waves through a non-conducting medium. I predicted the possibility of telephoning with " " It has since been done. several times as In When KR KR great. the different kind of distortion due tivity in the the effect of On to the other hand.000 It did very shortly after. then. in 1887.368 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Of what nature. dicted that it would go up a lot more. its consideration would possess only a theoretical value.

and continues to act until the plane wave is attenuated to nothing. Distinct Effects of Electric and Magnetic Conductance. not merely in advance of the wave but behind it as well.. let inductivity and permittivity. distance 2vt. Imagine. That can be largely exceeded in an enterprising country. we eliminate that due to other causes by choosing plane waves for examination. half to the right and half to the left of the result initial position. work. to the same laws as the main plane wave. rest of The is that at time t after the introduction of the conthe whole region of disturbance extends over the ductivity.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. but will attenuate as we kt i 2c . and behind it a weak diffused one. The wave-sheet will move on just as before. Since goes.000. 198. The Transformation by Conductance of an Elastic Wave to a Wave of Diffusion. for a What happens to the wave reason that will presently appear. it follows that a great suppose the conductivity it distance may it be traversed before there that is notable attenuation. 3G9 It means a good deal more for possible work. according to the time. due to the conductance alone that is in question. a simple electromagnetic plane wave-sheet of small depth to be running through a dielectric at the natural speed conditioned by its dielectric At any stage of its progress. since these do not suffer any distortion in a homogeneous when it is non-conducting. then. At the advancing right end we have a strong condensed disturbance. what is not in the sheet at any moment is therefore left behind. I believe. the medium become slightly electrically conducting all over. the original wave attenuated. We The also know that the total induction is. We are now prepared to somewhat understand the nature of the changes suffered by electromagnetic waves in It being the distortion transit through a conducting medium. The rejecting process commences the moment the conductivity is introduced.factor e~ to be slight. The rejected But they are themselves subject portions travel backwards. without BB . by the previous. and so get mixed up. We can therefore. remains constant. viz. now that the fresh influence is in operation ? A part of the answer we can give at once. But there is no need to stop at 50. Generation of Tails.

Now the nature of the tail is quite different as regards the displacement and the induction. IV. since the head itself is now so small. without any body to complicate matters. but stops increasing and shows a maximum at or near that place. of course. It is formula.370 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. misunderstanding refer to them as the head and the tail. its is extreme thickest The second stage roughly belongs to the period during which the head further attenuates from 0'75 to 0'5 or 0'4. not from the . made up. and at the end of the stage is nearer to the middle than Of course. this occurs. say. CH. on account possesses. beyond which the tail tapers off both ways tips. The maximum thickness now nearly in the middle the tail is is there to its on the right side. 0*1. third stage occurs during the further attenuation of the head to. whilst the total induction in the tail increases to 0*9. and tapers to a point at end. first - stage is when the attenuation of the head is not whilst the head decreases from 1 to Whilst 75. the total induction in the tail rises from to 0'25. however and nearly symmetrical with respect to its middle. which is situated exactly where the plane wave was when the * As tion of the transition the division into distinct stages is somewhat arbitrary. but by a numerical process of mixture. The The fourth stage and is is all the induction is when the head practically disappears in the tail. at distance 2vt behind the head. which has. or tip. It is alone in the first place. greatly increased in length. and where it joins on to the head.* two The final state is the consummation of the previous. we select the induction. great. The maximum thickness of the tail is now a long way from the head. The The tail is long and thin. to the head. its of We the simple property of persistence that it can distinguish three or four different stages in development. this descripfrom an elastic to a diffusion wave should be under- stood to be only roughly approximate. the additions made to the tail must also become smaller. therefore convenient to regard one of them and. of course. where a swelling. The total induction in the tail then increases from 0"25 to 0-5 or 0'6. During this stage we find that the tail. say. and is one of perfect symmetry with respect to the middle of the tail. does not go on increasing in thickness at the place where it is developed.

Finally. and has fresh addi- the decrease of the density of displacement in passing towards the head continues. and increasingly positive in the remainder. so that the negative displacement in the tail amounts to 0'24. which is not when the head has tail head and much less than the coincident induction. up During the fourth stage. and the total displacement to (0*8) 2 or 0-64. the region of positive displacement now extends itself from the head a good way into the tail. the formation of the tail. so that the total negative displacement in the tail is of amount 0'09. But bead this positive distribution is only three-parts formed. it attenuates in the same manner as the induction which accompanies it. beyond which the positive displacement has a nearly similar distribution. 371 The spreading now takes place according to spreading began. In the first and second stages the displace- wholly negative in the tail. unlike the induction. the displacement increases in the from the head up to not far from the tip. it should be remembered. the total displacement in the has fallen to (0'9) 2 or 0-81. Thus. But as tail the tail stretches out further to the left. we come to a state of perfect symmetry. This node its is the induction has maximum. And when the head has attenuated to 0*8. In the third stage the displacement is negative from the tip to somewhere near and beyond the maximum of induction. as of heat by conduction. But. the pure diffusion law.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. it falls to zero. it becomes zero tions made to it on the right side. until somewhere about the end of the second stage. with one maximum of induction and two BB2 . with the displacement negative in one half and positive in the other. and nearly symmetrical with respect to the middle. At the same time the place of maximum negative displacement moves forward. Now as regards the displacement in the head and tail in the different stages. next the head. There is no tip at the forward end. as the The fifth stage completes is still of some importance. we have the total displacement attenuated to 0*16. assuming it to be positive in the head. is ment fallen to 0'9. approximately at the place where When the head has fallen to 0*4. where. That is. the negative displacement in the tail amounts to 0'16. up to the head. of course. the place of maximum negative displacement shifts itself to nearly the middle of the region between the tip and the node. where. with a maximum.

on the but. The history of the first wave as distorted by the conductance has been That of the second wave is the same. with similar inductions and opposite displacements. Now. the second term finally becomes a small fraction of the first.372 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. of which one moves to the right at speed v. sequent history may. In fact. is closest in the middle of the tail. distributed in the when the tails have vanished. the induction same way as in the former case. whilst the two tails unite to make a stouter kind of tail This tail (referring to the induction) joining the two heads. &E + cE. The sub therefore. The approximation to this At the tips. in a plane sheet. suppose that the though still initial state is one of induction only. if we allow for the changed direction of motion and sense of the displacement. or very nearly so. insensible strength. again. IV. of course. or the current is practically the conduction-current only. the resultant effect being propagation by result diffusion now. tion. be deduced from the preceding. we still have elastic waves. we lose sight of the fundamental property of elastic wave-pro- pagation in a dielectric. is induction and displacement are symmetrical with respect to the initial position from the first moment. This may (or a maximum and be readily understood by considering that in the expression for the true electric current. and the other to the left. initial distribution of induction in a plane sheet splits and spreads. a minimum) of displacement. . CH. the distributions of always thickest in the middle. and therefore the dis- Owing proportional to the space-variation of the inducto the tail being made up of a complicated mix- ture of infinitesimal electromagnetic waves going both ways. is Then B. It may The initial induction splits into two halves. and the accompanying electric displacement. of other hand. In the final state that is is tended to. this generates two oppositely-travelling electromagnetic waves in which the displacements are similar and the The result is therefore to be got by inductions are opposite. in spite phenomena. separating from one another at speed 2v. is of the remarkable difference in the initial If. the initial state one of displacement alone in a plane sheet. be regarded as the coincidence of two plane electromagnetic sheets of half the strength. placement. So we have only to superpose the two systems to show how an given. We have two equal heads.

viz. in bad conductors. except perhaps for very short waves. metals. non-conductors. which arises from the positive reflection and persistence of the latter.. by the ordinary Fourier matheThe most troublesome are the intermediate forms of matics. though with a continuous transition elastic from one kind to the other. with a similar wave of negative induction and positive displacement moving to the left. a mixwaves. if finite. if suitably altered in the relative scale of ordinates and abscissae. and the practical theory At the other extreme are perfect is the theory of diffusion. difficulty. the same phenomena occur during the conversion of elastic waves to diffusion waves. . The next in order of difficulty are the waves of pure diffusion. Thus we have an important practical distinction between the very good and the very bad conductor. may be obtained approximately by easy numerical calculations. and we have seen that there is a great difference between its effects on the electric and on the magnetic flux. and before the propagation has proceeded any notable distance. and the negaThe correstive reflection and subsidence of the former flux. ture of the two kinds. The rest of the story is the spreading by diffusion or mixture. This is explainable without with diagrammatical assistance. and when we come to what are usually considered good conductors. changing type. in which the propagation is entirely by elastic Between the two we have. 53 combining the previous solution for a wave of positive induction and displacement moving to the right. But by increasing the conductivity from the small value which makes the above-described process take place over a considerable interval of time. Whatever be the magnitude of the conductivity. and the full analytical results are best got by But the general nature of the results a generalised calculus. and they may be represented by the same diagrams. then the interval of time is so small that we may say practically that the heads vanish almost at 6nce.THEORY OP PLANE ELECT ROMAGNET1C WAVES. as regards the manner of propagation of induction. when we come to detailed problems. In the former the electric displacement is of no account hardly. la the above the conductivity has been electric only. we make it occur in a small interval only. and may be entered upon later on. The mathematical treatment of waves is the easiest.

electromagnetic sheet in ether must be always perpendicular to one another. On the contrary. In the first place. As time and the head disappears. the in the head. in one half and positive in the other (forward) half. Application to 199. When this Now. being initially all On the other hand. Waves along Straight Wires. second term of the magnetic current ^H + juH is then a first small fraction of the term. in the medium with duplex obtains there is no tailing. IV. the region of posiis considerable. greater than is required to make k/c=g/fjL) there is tailing of the kind de. observe that although the lines of electric and magnetic force in a pure must now endeavour to give a general idea waves when they run along conducting wires. and exhibit analogous differences. whilst the tive induction extends displacement is positive all along it. both the fluxes now attenuate to zero in time. Thus. CH. we may have an infinite . conductivity we must take the distortionless condition for the standard state. ponding effects in a magnetic conductor may be readily deduced by the proper transformations. induction is tion of the head negative in the tail at first and until the attenuaAfter this. and the induc- The proportional to the space-variation of the displacement. of We the tailing of in co-ordination with the previous. although the head (displacement and induction together) attenuates according to the time-factor c~^/c But if tho electric conductivity be in excess (that is. the tailing is of the other kind.374 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. with respect to the tion is initial position of the wave. starting with a pure plane wave sheet moving to the right. in the tail as well as in the head. and finally all in the tail. from the head into the tail. with positive displacement and negative induction But of course the details are not the same. scribed as due to electric conductivity. with the induction positive and the displacement negative in the tail at first. And if the magnetic conductivity is in excess. it is now the displacement that is conserved and divided between the head and tail. yet they need not be straight lines. because at first. with its maximum nearly In the final state of diffusion we have symmetry in the middle. except in their elementary parts. we have negative induction goes on.

in the normal manner. the theory of the propagation of the wave is unaltered. The induction will then go between and round the tubes. however. we shall suppose our arrangement resembles a pair Now the wave will run through the ether of parallel wires. should be moved through the ether or its magnetic analogue. gradual destruction of the wave. so as to exactly keep up with the wave. according to the directions of the fluxes. preferably. upon infinitely-conducting lines. conductors) along Similarly if the tubes be magnetic conductors. The medium outside the tubes through which the wave is moving may be made electrically conducting. 375 variety of distributions of the electric and magnetic fluxes in curved lines in sheets which shall behave as electromagnetic waves. also in the sheet. then. back the electrification will then be done produced by holding away with. ending in the process of diffuThid will be true whether the tubes are perfect electric . without distortion or change of type. But this property may be greatly extended. this is not the case. we may take any distribution of displacement in a sheet that we please. when it is disconout of this difficulty. but. It is sufficient for explicitness to take a single definite case. that the fluxes should have circuital distributions.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. and make it an electromagnetic wave by introducing the appropriate distribution of induction. whilst the displace- ment goes between and round them. positive and the other for the negative electrification. One tube may enclose the other. we have a changed state of things. If the electrification does not move But there is a way thus. if the induction terminates perpendicularly upon them. tinuous. The theory is then identical with that of 198. For if not. so that and with will carry the electrification (on the it. So far. If left to itself it will move through the ether one way or the other at speed v. as regards the distortion produced and the sion. It should be noted. Let the displacement in a plane electromagnetic sheet terminate perpendicularly upon a pair of perfectly-conducting One is for the cylindrical tubes placed parallel to one another. too. Let the displacement. and there is electrification they. terminate of cylinders. or surfaces The interference according to circumstances. Keeping to plane sheets.

is thing practically workable. we then come the theory.hat we do get. whilst the tubes are either perfect electric or mag- The distortion is now netic conductors. more necessary to be allowed for. the waves in the ether outside the tubes are no longer plane . of course. close to the real problem. Now when we practical working theory seemingly impossible of attainment by strictly adhering to the But one is possible by taking advantage of actual conditions. or magnetic conductors. (upon which the penetration usually a very small fraction of the normal com- But the important solutions approximate instead of complete.376 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. is to have a theory that. A the fact that the waves in the ether are very nearly plane under Of this we may assure ourselves ordinary circumstances. First. by considering that the tangential component force at the surface of a wire of the electric depends) is ponent of the same outside it. whilst sufficiently accurate. is to treat the waves in the dielectric as if they were quite plane. This does not prevent our allowing for the distorting effect of It has the effect of making our the resistance of the wires. their conductance be imperfect. according as kfc is greater or less than g/fj. is when solid wires are in question. and next. and harmonises with more rudimentary This is precisely v. when done prebecomes excessively difficult. CH. IV. for two reasons. .. of the electric or of the magnetic kind. the theory holds good. nating the fluxes. Finally. the theory is still true when the medium is a duplex conductor. cisely. But not one of these cases is quite what we want to repreThe nearest approach is sent propagation along real wires. with persistence of the displacement and subsidence of the induction. in the first case we have the displacement and the induction in still Again. provided terminating upon them the second. according to choice. the penetration of the disturbances into the substance of the tubes in time by means of cylindrical waves has The latter is. with the same reservations as regards termi- But now the distortion is of the other kind. The practical course. as done by me in theories. if the medium is magnetically conductive. do this. the case of finite electric conductivity in the medium combined If we make with perfect electric conductance of the tubes. then.

for example. that professes to be a precise theory. whose effects are brought in according to the usual equations of voltage and current in arrangements of apparatus. however.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. we find that the result is to turn in the outer it to the form expressing the existence of magnetic conductivity medium. It is a point that is not altogether easy to understand. we may find the effects netic induction due to the imperfect penetration of the magand electric current into the wires when sub- jected to varying forces at their boundaries. either simple harmonically or otherwise. without resistance in the wires. treat the wires as mere resistances (constant). according as circumstances allow us employ to ignore this or that influence. This. 377 The theory it is brought to such a form that we may in several ways. . That is. 1886. effect in distorting fictitious the resistance of the wires has the same and dissipating the waves outside as the magnetic This is true in the generally. Furthermore. the second circuital law applied to any section of the circuit formed by the parallel tubes. whereas the other. may be noted. however. may. When the tubes are so thin that penetration is practically instantaneous (for the wave-length concerned). using the same equations with more general meanings attached to the symbols. professes to be only approximate so far as the influence of the wires is concerned. Or. because conductivity in the the magnetic conductivity is medium is fictitious. and this is quite suffi- We cient in a variety of applications. although concerning the same problem in most respects. first and most important approximation to the complete theory. whereas the resistance the theory of propagation of plane waves in a medium of duplex conductivity bounded by perfect conductors for slipping purposes. where it And when we incorporate this result in dielectric. real. is the connection between this theory and the general theory of waves in a medium of duplex conductivity. a constant ratio is fixed (assisted by Ohm's law) between the meets the intensities of gential electric force at the magnetic and of tanboundary of the tube. the theory is in such a form that it admits readily and without change of the intro- duction of terminal or intermediate conditions of the kind that occur in practice. What we are immediately concerned with here.

the former starting positive) and ending upon the other (the negative) These lines tube.378 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Transformation of Variables from Electric and Magnetic Force to Voltage and Gaussage. Thus. by the of electric force on the surface of the tubes. . Next consider the magnetic force. for and the connection between the old waves in general. suitable place. 200. is the measure thereof. that the circuitation of the electric force in the reference plane is is zero. but their distribution from one (the in the plane may be varied by section of the tubes by the plane changing the size and form of and the distance of separation. if something more than a superficial knowledge of the subject be desired. magnetic forces as variables rather than these forces themThis transformation of variables involves other necestransformations. But when a tube is embraced the circuitation " It is " the current Call this quantity C. Its circuitation is also zero in the reference plane. we may say the transverse voltage. in the at any rate. It follows. because there is no axial electric current in the dielectric. of course. provided the one tube or the other is not embraced. CH. second circuital law. commencing with a circuit consisting of a pair of parallel straight conducting tubes. These two quantities. Call this constant line-integral V. Now there is no axial magnetic induction induction Nor is there any tangential component parallel to the tubes. and is positive tubes. or. the latter passing between and round them. that the line-integral of the electric force is the same by any path in the It is not the if same terminations that It is same by any path with the we depart from the reference plane. of no resistance in the first sary quantities. but not yet in question. that is. should be thoroughly understood. IV. In the consideration of the transmission of waves along wires. take for reference any plane which crosses the tubes perIt is the plane of the wave at the place. especially. and the new. In another form. for one tube and negative for the other. it is more convenient to employ the line-integrals of the electric and selves. always cross one another perpendicularly. lines of electric and magnetic force lie in it. and the pendicularly. from one tube to the other reference plane. in practical calculations. is finite.

between the Similarly. It is proportional to c. variables. position. as regards the fluxes. stitute the complete circuitation of H. whilst permittance and permittivity involve compliancy or elastic yielding. tivity /*. only to be changed when the dielectric is changed. LSv = 1. Observe that . where E and D vary according to Now. between the reference so we should planes. C. ideas But there and tance.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. unit length axially. where L is the In virtue of the relation 2 /*cv = reciprocal of the permittance. is much more effects are Inductance in it than this. This L varies as the inducinductance per unit length axially. Different physical conditioned by inductance and permitand inductivity involve inertia. the inductance and permit2 tance are reciprocally related. it might appear that the inductance was merely the a constant multiple of H. of the dielectric. This means the total flux of induction passing between and round the tubes. H and B Call reference planes. with a constant multiplier. so is Q a conSay Q = SV. displacement and induction. the transverse voltage They are as definite V and substitute the complete displacement for D. so is Thus P = LC. or the elastance. and involves the geometrical data. Next. we have B = /xH everywhere between the reference But if we subplanes. This S is the permittance (brought in by the tubes) as well. say Q. That is. varying from place to place. the permittivity. stant multiple of V. per unit length axially. The complete displacement is the whole amount leaving the positive and ending upon the negative tube. Anywhere between the planes we have D = cE. are the new as E and H themselves in a given part of the reference plane under the circumstances. Introduce a second reference plane parallel to the first and at unit distance in advance of it along the tubes. whilst V and C are also analogous. the So the ratios L and S axe voltage and gaussage respectively. but of course involves the geometrical data As D " the " charge per unit length of the a constant multiple of E. as we substitute the complete voltage for E. netic P and Q are analogous. we should also substitute the complete integral of B. being the total magand electric fluxes. per it P. Since v is constant. It is the is magnetic momentum As B P a constant multiple of C. it is is tubes. 379 and the current. Thus. 1.

The other view darker. when summed up throughout The the slice. They must be inferential in a greater degree than the external actions. and the electric circuit unclosed. is of amount simply when this is the forces are perpendicular. in a tube. The quantity C may be quite differently regarded when the magnetic field penetrates into the substance of a tube (then to be of finite conductance). The density E and H EH When summed up over the reference plane. . and in the case of inductance round and between the tubes that is. only cality. in all these transformations. is also the nearest to expeis rimental electrical knowledge. also strictly analogous. IV. The magnetic view of C. compare the transformed expressions with the original. or sometimes of displacement current as well. in spite of their quantitative reciproThey are both made up similarly to conductance. But the above method is independent of the penetration. reader should. or the forces in action. we obtain the amount JVQ or JSV2 which is .A. the 4?r factor of the present B. but the above way brings out the analogies between the electric and magnetic sides in a complete manner. amounts to JCP or JLC 2 . The is is VC. duct of of the flux of energy. therefore the electric energy per unit of length axially. The electric energy per unit volume being JED or JrE 2 when this is summed up throughout the whole slice of the medium contained between the reference planes at unit distance apart. as the gaussage. which is the vector proin general. 2 Similarly. to avoid correspondences. the magnetic energy density JHB or J/*H . in the case of permittance it is reckoned across the dielectric from tube to tube.. units. of course. to the guiding tubes. the proflux of energy is parallel the amount for a tube in the dielectric of unit section. that unmitigated nuisance. and EH energy. and note the proper It is all in rational units. whilst VC is the total flux of . as at present. the result duct of the voltage and current. as the total flux of conduction current. holding good whether there is penetration or not. CH. viz. saving small corrections due to the waves not being quite plane. the magnetic circuit is closed.380 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. because we cannot really go inside metals and observe what is going on there. There are other ways of setting out the connections.

we see that and C are the line-integrals of of the dimensions of resistance. and cv of conductance.. curl reduces from Vv. So the " variations concerned in the operator " curl are such as only occur axially. or. curlH=cE. It is now more convenient to use the tensors E and H. in (3) to as and (4). in general. or parallel to the guides. and have in applying these to our plane waves. no axial components. . consider the special forms assumed by the circuital laws.* Transformation of the Circuital Equations to the Forms involving Voltage and Gaussage. 381 The relation E = p>H..variations are in H -^? = cE. Now. We see that Lv is of the dimensions of electric resistance. (1) (2) Now. V E The activity product VC is what engineers have a good deal to do with. or C = SvV.. which means the same. H = cvE... ignoring their vectoiial relations. Similarly. still under the limitation that the guiding tubes have no resistance. and Sv of electric conductance. the ultimate official measure of value. then the circuital laws become at the beginning that E and the reference plane. there must be something in it. and that the dielectric has no conductance. because fjiv is and H.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 201. dx v ' (3) ~=^ dx x ' (4) * See the Presidential Address to the Institution of Electrical Engineers. where y is i\?i +JV^ + kVs in general. 1893. is a marketable commodity. . because it is convertible into dollars." or energy which has been conveyed by electromagnetic means. now that " electrical energy. f Let x be distance along them. we may observe and their time. which obtains in a pure electromagnetic wave. However mysterious energy (and its flux) may be in some of its theoretical aspects. January 26. t That is. %riVi simply. These are. becomes converted to V = LvC.

V + dV/dx. tube together. the reference plane. This is the time-rate of increase of the charge per unit length of the tubes. Shift the line bodily along the tubes to transverse voltage. CH. elucidation. This process may be applied to any closed line in the reference plane. decreases during the shift. still reckoned this circuit. and likewise the ending points on the positive negative tube. having two transNow reckon up the voltage in verse sides and two axial sides. Let The circuitation of H the closed line be shifted to the next reference plane at unit Then dC/dx is the amount by which C distance forward. we make a complete circuit. The meaning of (6) requires a somewhat different. The transverse voltage becomes from the positive tube to the But if we join the two starting points on the negative. there is the total surface current C. IV. Draw a closed line in the reference plane on and embracing the positive guiding tube. though Join the tubes by any line in the first analogous. or the rate of increase of the total displacement outward. The line-integral of E along it is V. we obtain (5) is the By (3) and (4) we see that the space-variation of electric-current density. and is the total transverse current from one tube to the other. and (5) tells us that it is equivalently represented by the time-rate of increase of the charge on the tube between the reference planes. which apply anywhere in the reference plane. because . to Transforming V and C.variation of the magnetic-current density in the dielectric. The axial portions contribute nothing. decreases from the first to the second position measures the displacement current through the strip of the cylinder swept out by the closed line. and the space. that is. distance to the next reference plane. the next reference plane.382 ELECTRO MAGNETIC THEORY. C. the amount by which the circuitation of H. H E We may see the meaning of (5) thus. By (5) and (6) we express the same truths for the totals concerned. provided it embraces When it is shifted bodily forward through unit the tube.

or dNjdx. by -LC. whilst both are controlled by the transverse voltage. simply of the transverse voltage in the other two sides. and we have no further concern slice of with it. Now. viz. which was cE before. of decrease of induction through the circuit. This waste of energy may also be regarded as a storage of energy. K This is per unit length axially. from first to last. it is also measured by the rate that is.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. proportional to the conductivity k. follows equation (6). We have next to consider the total waste in the the medium between verse voltage. in terms of the trans2 It sums up to where is the transverse KV . where the additional &E is the conductionthe current density. Whence "classical" The reader who is acquainted with the (at present) more method of treating the electromagnetic field in fail terms of the vector and scalar potentials cannot to be impressed by the difference of procedure and of ideas involved.. in contact with those quantities which are believed to have physical significance (instead of with mathematical functions of an essentially indeterminate nature). changes. now becomes &E + cE. the two reference planes. therefore. and also with the laws connecting them in their simplest form. Notice that V is not the difference of potential in general. in a perfectly steady state. it is virtually wasted. let still keeping the guiding tubes perfectly conducting.. the difference in the values required is. In the present method we are. medium in which they are immersed be slightly conducting. as heat in the medium. and involves geometrical data in the same way as the transverse permittance. viz. the conduction-current density &E sums up . we cannot express matters in But when the terms of an state electric potential. on considering that the conduction-currrent lines and the displacement lines are similarly distributed. But as it is not recoverable by the same means (reversed) which stored it. Along with this there is waste of energy at the rate E 2 per unit volume. the electric force is 383 The voltage perpendicular to them. The electric-current density. In fact. By the second circuital law. as may be conductance of the medium readily seen without symbolical proof. It sometimes degenerates to difference of potential.

to KV. Finally.. the complete transverse conduction-current. Next. Similarly. where E. (11) .. correspondingly. be represented by KG. let the medium become magnetically conductive as no other change being made. CH. .. and gaussage. form (3) for our plane waves becomes And its modified (8) whilst in terms of the new variables. IV. we have this extended form of the equation dx (9) well. and its distribution resembles that of the induction itself. the rate of waste of energy 2 conductivity is 0rH per unit volume. way as the displacement density cE sums up to the in the same and total trans- verse displacement voltage... which varies as the magnetic conductivity g. whilst its amount is controlled by the quantity G. is the magnetic conductance. The total magnetic-conduction current may therefore. (10) and. SV. in terms of the permittance The first circuital law (1) becomes changed to (7) by the addition of the conduction current. and the total rate of waste in the slice of the medium between the two reference 2 planes amounts to RC correspondingly.. the effect of the magnetic conductivity is to turn the second circuital law from the elementary form (2) to -curlE = #H + /iH. the special form (4) for our plane waves becomes turned to . and involves the geometrical data in the same manner as the due to the magnetic inductance does. the gaussage. The conduction-current density is ^H. voltage (5)..384 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.

consider that if the quantity VC is really the flux of energy across a reference plane. with the two conduc- represented by the vector product of E and H. dx dx dx On the right side it use the circuital equations (9) and (12). We have now to show in what manner nor inconsistency.. We have already remarked that the structure of the permittance and conductance are similar. Therefore. To corroborate this statement. and therefore the total flux is still the activity product VC. no indistinctness anywhere. Now. .. per unit of time.. These equations (9) and (12) are the electric practical working equations. the first term is the total electric waste.. . therefore. in terms of 385 V and C. From this it follows that the time-constant c/k is identically represented by S/K. V(KV + SV) + C(RC + LC). The density tivities. the above is affected by the resistance. of the guides. the third is the increase of total electric energy. (15) By second the previous. with a reservation to be planes. Similarly. . between the two reference This proves our proposition.. flux of energy.. is equivalent to -4^ = RC + LC. oo . and the fourth is the increase of total magnetic energy. &c. . dx which the is . (14) which is the same. and . still of the flux of energy is. the rate of decrease of VC with x is the rate of storage between two reference planes at unit distance apart.. the excess of its value at one plane over that at a second plane further on at the same moment represents the rate of storage of energy between the planes.. the is the total magnetic waste. (12) first circuital the proper companion to the equation (9) expressing law. This. understood concerning the circuital indeterminateness of the There is. becomes . the time. and at the same time show the dynamical consistency of the system..constant njg is identical with L/R. . (13) _i(VC)=-vf-cf.. or.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.

when we admit that there is tangential electric force on the surface of the leads. no longer expressible in terms of V and C simply. By cumulative action. . whereby the wave at any place wave. external disturbance becomes modified. Besides this. V and C when ance. there is what we may term a local modification. is In the dielectric amount of little importance. The Second Circuital Equation for Wires in Terms of Instantaneous. as just referred to. which is conditioned thereby. fold As a further result.386 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. the This occurs in a two- manner. slight inclination to the perpendicular. and a waste of energy follows. as the transverse voltage in the may still regard Whether we go straight across from the reference plane. are of insensible influence. in order to take it into account. But the slight of tangentiality of the electric force at the surface of peculiarity the leads. or leave it We V slightly in order to precisely follow a line of force in estimating the voltage. and eventually through them. keeping in the reference plane. and therefore curves out of the reference itself. Let the parallel conducting tubes be of finite resistAs a result. is of no moment. by attenuating and altering the shape of waves (considered axially). which are associated with the presence of the tangential force. is no longer strictly a plane It is merely with this effect that we are now concerned. the external disturbance penetrates into them. we take advantage of the fact that the departure from planarity is slight. IV. Penetration is 202. But in the construction of a practical theory. because the results The quantity C is subject to a similar slight differ so slightly. the nature of a wave sent along the leads may be profoundly modified as it progresses. but on the assumption that the minor effects in the dielectric itself. to which we have already referred towards the end of 199. CH. is of controlling importance as regards the leads themselves. this plane to a small extent. positive to the negative lead. A line of electric force does not now start quite perpendicularly from the It has a positive lead and end similarly on the negative lead. The departure from planarity requires a considerably modified and much more difficult theory. to the waves in the dielectric. We should now consider what form is assumed by the second circuital law in terms of V and C.

LC. Consider a rectangle consisting of two transverse sides in reference planes at unit distance apart.. This difference we also ignore in the practical theory.. whilst at the same time we take into account the departure from planarity in considering the influence of the leads and what occurs in them. difference. V V + dV/dx. it is ignored. reference plane. cc2 . them aside now. Let lowed in Construct the second circuital equation in the manner fol201. We may. In truly plane waves the electric current in the dielectric is is wholly transverse. complete voltage is The then or dx It + 1 + 2 . as in 101. but reckoned the other way. we now have to make believe that the waves are planar when considering their propagation through the dielectric.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Reckon up the The transverse sides give and voltage in this rectangle. (16) the form assumed by the second circuital law. is also equal to . and of two axial sides of unit length upon the leads themselves. (There conductance of the dielectric now. There really an axial component as well. and 2 The E E E same on the negative tube. then. but being a minute fraction of the transverse current.) So is no magnetic dx is . Ej is the tangential component in the direction of increasing x of the the electric force at the boundary of the positive tube. if and axial sides give x 2 say. In short. magnetic force round either lead upon its surface and in the conduction current in the lead. It is unfortunate to have to refer to small corrections. because this way gives the exact value of the But the circuitation in other paths in the reference plane will not give precisely the same value now that the waves are not quite plane. beginning upon the positive and ending upon the negative lead. set confuses the statement of the vitally important matters. according to the 387 way it is reckoned. permost conveniently reckon it as the circuitation of the haps. in elucidating the meaning of equation (6).. as it us.

As regards the first circuital law.. being expressed by (5) when the dielectric is non-conductive. to continue to be V and C. if R is the resistance per unit length of the two -^ = RC + LC. take the simplest case. Similarly as It is true that. . we require to express E : and E 2 as before functions of C. the transverse electric current from tube to tube. though brought to a particularly simple form by the instantaneous penetration. the equation (16) needs to be specialised If our electromagnetic variables are it can be worked. Then E x is not only the boundary tangential electric force. finally. because it is a small fraction of the axial. and.. . or. of strength ^E x. (17) be it observed. is The current density in the positive tube is therefore axial.. so that the equation possesses a high degree of generality. and the total current in the tube is KjEj. essentially the connections of the electric and magnetic forces at the boundaries. . there is also transverse current in the tubes.. sometimes very To simply. which are. transverse electric force. E2 = R2 C 2 . . But this quantity is also the previously investigated quantity C. let the leads be tubes (or sheets) of so small depth that penetration is practically instantaneous as waves pass along them. IV. leads. that is unchanged. dx (19) . Fortunately this can be done. if ^ the conductivity of the material. CR. Observe that we have made no specification of the nature of the leads. and by (9) when conductive. which is the same. Being general. but is also the axial electric force throughout the substance of the positive tube.. the circuitation of the magnetic force on the boundary of the tube. where Kj is the axial conductance per unit length. therefore. since the minor changes alluded to as regards V and C are not significant.388 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Ej/R^ if R x is the resistance per unit length. The second circuital equation (16) therefore takes the form (18) ax Or. in virtue of regards E 2 for the negative tube. and at other times in a more complicated way. So we have the elementary relations E^R^. but this is to be ignored.

In the present approximately stated problem of very nearly bounded by fore. EjHj of the tangential electric force E x and the magnetic force. circuitation. Observe. But The product the usual formula gives the waste correctly. (15). per unit length axially. the above reasoning. effect. the quantity R is the resistance of What we have to do. The strictly plane two materially their effects. but has a slight slant towards them. The equivalence of effect of magnetic conductance externally . except the doubt that may present itself whether the ignored small effects in the dielectric due to departure from planarity of the waves are really ignorable. It may. and is a direct application of fundamental electrical principles. however. As a matter and plenty of of fact. the quantity R is the external magnetic conductance per unit length axially. and of electric resistance in the leads. that there is an identity of form. in plane waves running through an electrically conducting medium resisting wires. the product EjC is the rate of supply per unit This is the same as the previous RjC 2 length axially. they are not always of insensible problems can be made up and worked out concerning tubes and wires which do not admit of the comparatively simple treatment permissible when V and C are the variables. leads everywhere. (14). at the boundary of the positive lead. instead of in generally due to the (now suppressed) magnetic The flux of energy is now not quite parallel to the medium conductance. but with a changed meaning of the symbol R. cause no misgivings. different properties are nearly equivalent in RC 2 the is Equations (13). In the exactly stated problem of plane waves running through a medium of duplex conductivity bounded by perfect conductors. and the results are exceedingly curious and interest- . is to abolish the resistance of the leads and substitute equivalent magnetic conductance in the dielectric medium outside. which is 389 the practical equation for most purposes. is undoubtedly a somewhat mysterious matter. therethe wires. by supply of energy to the lead per unit surface.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Therefore. comparing it with (12). therefore. still hold good. principally because it is hard to see As regards (apart from the mathematics) why it should be so. order to turn the real problem into one relating to waves admitting of rigorous treatment. is the rate of say 1 H . only now to be the rate of waste in the leads. it is essentially simple.

390 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. alike The earth does not count if the leads be and equidistant from the ground. it course. and have little bearing upon the question of the free propagation of waves along long parallel They do not start as full grown plane waves from the source of disturbance. is And if the variations of current be not the steady resistance. IV. yet any sort of leads will do provided the penetration be sufficiently rapid to be instantaneous " within the meaning of the Act. first go back to (16). The Second Meaning. be increased by a (usually) small amount due to induction in the conductors themselves." ? Is connection between C. L should. Suppose we say E^B^C. under the circumstances. though quite unlike those at present in question. But ing. . . as will be presently should be mentioned that the inductance noted more closely. Although thin tubes for leads were specially mentioned in connection with equation (19). and then follow the laws of straight wires. We should 203. Resistance Operators. Furthermore. regarded as a function or and Ex E2 also regarded in this way ? . when the inertial term disappears and B. and their Definite The next question is what to do when penetration is not instantaneous within the meaning of the Act." It is obviously true for steady currents. the inductance and permittance. to cause a sensible departure from uniformity sufficiently rapid of distribution of current in the conducting wires. meaning to the symbol R. which remains valid. CH. but they very soon fit themselves on to the wires properly. . and inquire whether the tangential electric forces cannot be expressed in terms of the current (or conversely) in some other way than by a linear relation. plane waves pretty closely. these are not practical problems. (19) may still be safely used. (20) possible to give a definite there a definite of the time. as its influence can be embodied in the values of L and S. then. should there be any. Circuital Equation when Penetration is Not Instantaneous. remember that no allowance has been made for the influence of parallel conductors. of At the same time. Is it E 2 = R" 2C.

. varying in some The particular way with the time later. the time. Moreover. mere value of one does not necessitate any particular simultaSo. That is.. means that (22) (23) or in the of E = RC + LC + S/Ccft. and then ceasing. will run through electric force. the total current in the wire.. 's . result is that C. . then the current will have its previous values increased in the same ratio. differential efficients -. cannot say that C is a function of E. we neous value of the other.self.. Consequently the known. So far. Now its to a particular sequence of values. the connection is a definite one.. therefore. To this would be equivalent to the denial of there being deny The full connection definite controlling laws in operation. if we keep to the usual sense meant when algebraists say u =/(#).. Now imagine the march is This implies that the march of to be given. nevertheless. the same for all. so that when the latter is given. strictly C between E and C. C (21) and p stands }0. L. taken by is a function of the differentiator d/dt.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. and. the former is obligatory. . we shall again obtain the same values of C at corresponding moments. true that the march of connected with that of E. but also the values of their first... neutral. involves not merely their values. S. suppose R" = R + LP + ($p)-\ ere R. then. but also as a function of the applied force. Imagine a wire to be free from current. if we make the applied force run through the same values increased in a certain ratio. and likewise that of /Cdt.. trically 391 elec- expose boundary tangential beginning at a certain moment. are constants. But if we change the nature of we the applied force as a function of the time (irrespective of size) shall find that C is not merely changed as a function of the That is. To illustrate by simple example. the symbol R". up to any order. and make it run through the same values in the same manner. common notation of integrals. and then finally cease. third. If we begin again with the applied force. however. <fec. for the differentiator.. is It is. second. or u is a function of #. C also march of .

depends upon the electrical and geometrical E . where p mean? . where IT is the resistance because it reduces to the resistance in operator (so called steady states). makes the above equation (24) not only definite. and the operations contained in R" are performed upon it. and similarly. anything arbitrary. to be afterwards got rid of. indeed. because we do not immediately see how the operation indicated in (24) is to be carried out. nor. That is. where arbitrary constants form a part of the theory but for the practical purpose of representing and obtaining solutions of physical problems. there is no such definiteness. but complete.392 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. IV. CH. It is not obvious. as a function of p. the use of such arbitrary and roundabout methods (which are too often followed. then C. without helping one on. the fact that the march of E. that of citly. it is visible by inspection. = say that E R"C. if C is known as a function not known. E of is explicitly is known. when it is E that is given. Arbitrary constants are brought in to any extent. in the of the time. the function E results. and so on. Returning to the wires. the form of the resistance operator. E given. is of differentiators in R". perhaps. It would not. Nevertheless. can be found without ambiguity. not obvious that when the march known. In the usual treatment of the theory of differential equations. or case of (22). p2 There may be an infinite number n p*. so that the inverse operator (R")"1 (or the conductance operator) acting upon 1 it will produce C. physically considered. Now this is all very well in the general theory of differential equations. work. by the same operator impliby (22) we have It is is C (24) and given E as a function of the time. especially by elementary writers) leads to a large amount of unnecessary itself. whereas. conditions that of C. be going too far to say that such a misuse or inefficient application of analysis often makes rigmarole. d^/df in . But there not a single arbitrary constant involved R"C. as p. we assert a definite connection between E and When we when G is fully given as a function of the time. tending to obscure the subject.

At the same time the inertial term disappears. the wires. R x As already mentioned. when C is steady.. and with a factor introduced. when the conductivity. But besides the above simplification. Then the electric and mag- netic fluxes everywhere vary ultimately according to the same law with the same period. some other expression ^ the value of the steady When not inductivity. It has been 393 and plane sheets. We may take . permit- and inductivity. when this comes to pass. or cylinders of any shape that may be employed. (25) and make the determito of nation of the operators a matter of separate calculation.. for a solid round wire. or (26) for R" 2 . determined for round wires and round tubes.. if the frequency . that is. This J/^ is is required. Simply Periodic Waves Easily Treated in Case of Imperfect Penetration.. . the result is the same function negatived. there is an ex- ceedingly important general case in which a similar reduction This occurs when the sources of disturbance vary takes place. and similarly solid. . both E and C in the equation E = R"C vary simple periodically with the time. Notice that this brings (25) to the elementary form (19). ax as the form of the second circuital law. are constants at any one place. data.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. . 204. Also. then becomes the complete steady inductance (per unit length axially). R"j degenerates and R" 2 to R 2 the steady resistances (per unit length) . it is sometimes sufficient to take into account only the first approximation to the form of the operaThis is.. But when the sine or cosine is differentiated twice. including that due to the dielectric and that due to This usually means only a small increase in the value of L. . tubes. tors. Now. unless the wires be of iron. Thus. because the inductance of the wires may be included in L itself. when C varies. provided the relations of the fluxes to the forces are linear tivity. rods. being its not round. simple periodically with the time. the two wires. which inductance of the wire.

and we reduce them to ll" 2 B'j-B'j + L'ip. should the calculation be impracticable.. . the frequency from zero to a high and end in mere skin . be produced by ignoring the form of the elementary results. (27) where R' and L' are functions of n\ They are. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. dx which . the best way of making extensions of theory. . We simply employ changed values of the constants. which may be independently calculated. valid when the penetration is instantaneous. constants at a given frequency. when it can be effected. and so that they will work together well.. we have the property d 2/dt 2 . whether there be or be not imperfect penetration. with the Do the work in such a way that harmony is produced more rudimentary results. resistance and inductance. CH. the effective resistance (of both tubes per unit length) at the given frequency. but with different values of the constants involved. This is. but the results would be cumbrous. ax or. and L the steady inductance (inclusive of the parts due to the wires) by L'. Put. the effective inductance. so that sin (nt + 0) may be considered to be the timefactor in the expression for either or C. = R'2 + L>. (28) more briefly and clearly.n 2 in the expressions for the E = resistance operators.n 2 . and the new appear as natural extensions of th* old. or left to the imagination. hard to understand. indeed. The steady resistance R is replaced by R'. therefore p 2 = . as it is clear at once that we reduce the equation (25) to the simple form .. (29) is the same as (19). Owing to the reduction of the second circuital equation to the primitive form. we are enabled to express the propagation of simply periodic waves along wires by the same formulae. therefore. IV. and this is a very valuable property. The degree effect of increasing is to first lessen the penetration. An appearance of far greater originality may. and unpractical.394 is ?&/27r. _^I = R'C + L'C.

and is not very important at a frequency three or four times as great. with the size of wire employed. Tesla^ and many others. the case is different. regards the propagation of waves. We know that in the transmission of waves along perfectly conductive leads the waves are continuously distorted if the medium be electrically conductive. Consequently. Long Waves and Short Waves. the quantity L'. it the lower limit of telephonic frequency of current waves. a certain peculiarity showing roughly when we may expect the theory to be admissible. Lodge. medium By replacing fictitious magnetic conductance of the outside the pair of leads by real electric resistance of the leads themselves. the inductance of the dielectric. due to Hertz. need not be great. who were the introducers of longdistance telephony. subject to certain reservations referring to the practical applicability of the theory. so that there is no important variation in the difference value of the inductance possible. distribution of current in a wire changes from that appropriate to the steady state. we have obtained the same results as 205. Also. As the regards the effective resistance. soon found that iron would not do. nor would there be were the But as frequency increased up to that of Hertzian vibrations. and that The reason of the failure is mainly the largely copper would. and is one of the controlling factors that should be constantly borne in mind. If long-distance telephony were carried on along iron wires it would be a very important effect. 395 penetration. Identity of Speed of Free and Guided Waves. It is worth while noticing. In the case of suspended copper telephone wires the inductance of the dielectric is far larger than the rest. and But the finishes at L simply. and the increase is not always a negligible matter. But the Americans. the increased resistance due to imperfect penetration becomes a very important matter. that by introducing magnetic conductivity into the . and when it should fail. in passing.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. on the other hand. the effective inductance. increased resistance of iron. goes from the full steady value L + L^ + L'g. In copper. is an insensible effect at On the other hand. in the numerous experiments with very rapid vibrations of recent years. the resistance increases.

it is sufficient to imagine the case of waves able. We may. therefore. if the small portion of the leads between two close reference planes belonged to and was associated solely with the slice of the medium between the same planes. It is of no moment whatever in the exact theory employing magnetic conductance . observe here that the correcting influence of the magnetic conductivity is exerted precisely where it is required. But. on the other hand. The wave is acted upon in in the body of the wave itself. in other words. as have referred in the above to the action of the resistance due to another cause. we have Making the leads resistive therefore now perfect transmission. when we remove this property from the medium generally. when the external medium non-conductive. whose length is only a small fraction of the distance between the leads. we obtain an exact theory of distortionless transmission. We may now say that in order that this . when it is clear that their correcting influence could no longer be assumed to be exerted laterally and instantaneously. daries. or parallel to the leads. the correcting in- the correction fluence is not exerted uniformly throughout the body of the but outside the wave altogether . Nevertheless. Thus. and (virtually) concentrate it at the leads. IV medium we may reduce it when the magnetic Now this distortion. we should at the same time keep the wave-length a considerable multiple of the distance between the leads if the practical theory is to be applicTo see this. But the same reasoning is applicable when the of the leads as a correcting one. when we employ the resistance of the leads to perform the same functions. so that is performed exactly . and ultimately abolish conductivity reaches a certain value. every part by two counteracting distorting influences. neutralising the distortion is not of this nature. for reasons before stated. we virtually assume that the correcting influence of the leads id transmitted influence of the resisting leads. CH. if we still treat the waves as they preserved their planarity under the Whilst. and the leads are non-resistive. at its lateral bounwave. laterally outwards instantaneously. namely. perceive that the wave-length is a matter of importance in determining the applicability of the practical theory. therefore. in fact. We action is brings on distortion.396 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. we fully recognise and employ the finite speed of propagation of disturbances axially. but.

it is obvious that light waves are totally out of the question. it is clear that the size of the waves must be considered in relation to the size of If the instrument were one decimetre across. distortion should occur in the of 397 same way as under the influence magnetic conductivity in the external medium. because there no hard and fast distinction." some judgment may be and other matters. then it is plain that several waves would be acting at once on the apparatus in different parts. being immensely too short. But it is somewhat curious that the electromagnetic waves investigated by Hertz are sometimes so short as to come within the scope of the above reservatioDal remarks. say the air at a certain place (just as we have thermometric and barometric recorders). and that this instrument is so immensely quick in its action as to take cognisance of changes happening in very short intervals of time. and the resultant effect recorded would not represent the history of the waves by any means. . in fact though they are short compared with telegraphic waves. then waves of one kilometre in length could as well be regarded But if only one metre in length. their shortness in relation to the apparatus employed may sometimes vitiate the results of approximate theories. and in the interpretation of the word "long. imagine that we have got an ingeexercised as regards the leads is nious instrument (not yet made). To illustrate this point. the wave- The praclength should not be too small. or their transmission along leads. or their effect on a resonator.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Now as regards waves sent along parallel leads. Whether the generation of waves by an oscillator be considered. and render For example. the plane-wave theory indicaution nec r ssary. there would be no longer the same accuracy of application. or of others of a similar nature. On the other hand. it could still be used. tical theory is therefore the theory of long waves. Now state of air traversed in applying this instrument to register the by electromagnetic waves. say one thousand-millionth of a second. the instrument. though as of infinite length. for continuously recording the electromagnetic state of a non-conducting medium. telephonic waves are to be treated as long waves very long. and what may be a long wave under some circumstances may be a short one under others. And if of only a centimetre in length. as specified above.

yet made a distinc" in wires. electromagnetic disturbances at the speed by showing their transmission across a room and reflection by a metallic screen. are nevertheless only secondary. CH. there is not left any notable differreduced. the full acceptation of Maxwell's theory was considerably hindered for a time by his finding that the speed of waves sent along wires was much less than The discrepancy was a large one. we cannot expect it to continue true on shortening the waves to the transverse distance of the leads. which seat of admitting the truth of Maxwell's theory. then we stants. which makes out that the wires. But not much has been done yet in the quantitative examination of Hertzian waves.1"/ 21 in the This is when R and L are conequivalent time of transit t. and gated cylindrical waves are meant. whilst to the wires. And it came to pass that people. though of great importance as On the other hand. should not expect more than results of a similar kind." This was tion between waves in free space and thoroughly out of harmony with Maxwell's theory. we are ignorant of the precise type of the waves. When Hertz opened people's eyes and made them see the reality of Maxwell's ether as a medium propagating of light. the function of wires.Ra. due transmission. matter has been explained by the discovery that an erroneous made of the permittance of the oscillator in the experiments which apparently showed that the speed was largely When corrected. and the waves be simply periodic. But if this be true for long waves. IV. If not. may cates that the attenuation parallel leads is ' use the same formula with the effective values of R and L at the frequency concerned. guides./2Lt> in the distance x. unless the laterally-propaThese are secondary. . or c. however. In one respect. a formerly very strange anomaly has been cleared up satisfactorily. for sufficiently obvious reasons.398 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. " in wires " should not be dropped. that of free waves. more especially if we At the best. it should be mentioned that Lodge found no such large de- But the parture from the speed of light in his experiments. and gave support apparently to the old view regarding made the wires the primary and effects outside secondary. there is no reason why reference to waves wires. factor for waves running along e. estimate was ence between the speed of a free wave and of one guided by Of course.

with the angle of the cone made infinitely small. within a Single Tube. already referred Its to. The case is then that of a spherical wave-sheet with conical boundaries. though with Loss. and as it expands. 206. or something equivalent. the other to the weakened as But not being pure plane waves they are they progress. we make it the core of a plane electromagnetic sheet. is infinite under the circumstances. and containing electric and magnetic forces of finite intensity. (To be perfectly spherical.) centre is at the origin of the wave. as a pair of parallel wires . or if but one wire be used. and cause a wave to travel along wherever we wish it to go. the wire should be infinitely fine. to make another. We could not. Possibility of Guidance ficient. therefore. But it is still much the same. even though of finite depth. they will subsequently expand and dissipate. as regards guidance. 399 have no essential connection with the propagation of the primary waves through the external dielectric. to centres or axes. The quantity L. But the energy of such a sheet. To prevent this we require conducting guides or leads. would be infinite. if we choose to imagine the case of If a single infinitely-long straight wire alone by itself in ether. set up such a wave from a finite local source. One sufThe Guidance of Waves. We can stop the expansion in a great measure.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. the portions of the wave-sheet nearest the wire become approximately left parallel plane waves. there is the earth. Practically there are two leads. Now this usually involves dissipation in the leads . If we cause an impressed voltage to act axially for a very short interval of time across any section of the guide. the result is an approximately spherical wave. this sheet will run along the wire just as well and in the same way as if there were a second guide. say in a reference plane. along the wire. by the continuous expansion of the . Usually Two Guides. When waves are left to themselves in ether without the presence of conductors. the inductance per unit length of guide. but the point at present under notice is the property of guidance only. although modifying their nature. one going to the right. they expand and dissipate themEven if they are initially so constituted as to converge selves. when there is but one wire.

To see this. in a manner resemWe can certainly do so if we have a bling a beam of light ? second guide within the first tubular one. which again cross one another The shape of the section of the beam by a perpendicularly. But we want the process to be automatic.400 spherical ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. this takes place outside the conducting guide. or rather. and fix attention upon a tube of the flux of energy. . for when it is taken away we have nothing left upon which the tubes of displacement can terminate internally. in which the lines of dicularly through electric and magnetic force lie. so that the result will be an external as well as an internal wave. so to speak. reference plane may be arbitrary. itself and the electro- question presents whether we cannot transmit an magnetic wave along the interior of a tube. Now let the two sides upon which the displacement terminates perpenbe electrically conductive thin sheets. upon which the induction terminates perpendicularly. if we make the displacement start from one portion gf an electrically conducting tube and terminate upon the rest. imagine any kind of purely wave being transmitted in the normal manner through plane the ether. This beam cuts perpenor a beam. or of a perfectly plane wave-sheet of infinite energy. But let it be quadrilateral. for this does not differ substantially from the case of two parallel wires. Now. we must insulate the two portions from one another. CH. is and along which they can run. along a single guide. IV. two sides. hence convec- tion will not do. the reference planes. and the other If the conduction be perfect. A theoretical expedient to carry the electrification forward at the proper speed. Nevertheless. and then there will be a division of the charges between the interior and exterior. Again. wave of which they form a part. It would appear that the only way of completely solving the problem of the automatic transmission of plane waves within a single tube is a theoretical one. each outside the other. and by electric lines of the tube dicularly. we have the propagation of nearly plane waves of finite energy. one wave occupying both regions. But it does not seem possible to do without the inner conductor. using optical language. and so that it is bounded by magnetic lines on two opposite sides. be magnetically conductive sheets. employing magnetic as well as electric conductance. on the other two.

we may do away with the diffused conductances. and the same applies to the external region. We may Interpretation of Intermediate or Terminal Conditions in the Exact Theory. we have solved the problem stated. the theory of official representatives of practice. We may also notice that the external portion of the wave is But the interposition of the not intrvfered with by the tube. or both together. electrically or magnetically. though they are decidedly getting on). also to of be abolished. the resistance taking the place of the magnetic conductance in the interior . or of shunts across them. return to the practical theory concerning wires and its connection with the exact theory involving magnetic conductance. in the same way as we replace magnetic conductance of the external medium by equivalent electric resistance of the wires in passing from the exact plane-wave theory to the practical and C. That is. 207. Leaving these somewhat abstruse considerations. Nor will the interior and exterior regions be quite independent of one another now that the tube is only finitely conductive. if the interior region be made finitely conductive. if the interior electric conductance then express the propagation waves in the tube in a manner resembling the practical theory of wires. not interfere with the transmission of the beam That is. whilst the other two plates should be made magnetically is resistive. the two plates theory of wires in terms of V on which the displacement ends may be made electrically resis- tive. and either of them Similarly. and concen- trate equivalent resistances in the plates bounding the tubes. DD . of one another. independently of the internal. though it will no longer be an exact theory. shall within the tube. tube in the manner described renders the external and internal waves quite independent may be suppressed. we can still investigate the transmission of waves along it in the same way as previously described for complete plane waves in a homo- geneous medium made conductive. In the working out of the practical theory (which is not yet. and other modifications. 401 we . we have often to consider the effects due to intermediate insertions of resistance in the circuit of the leads.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Going further. however.

arrange the leakage conductance so that to suit plane waves. so that the total magnetic conductance of the equi- valent plate inserted equals the electric resistance which it We may then investigate the action of the plate on replaces. resistance. the effect of an electrically conducting bridge across the circuit is equivalent to that of an electrically con- Their conductances are ducting plate at the reference plane. Similarly. or H V and C negatively. IV. H This maintains E and V perpositively and V negatively. And a terminal disconnection in the exact theory. Plainly. thus maintaining C permanently different A somewhat kind of transformation is required in connection with impressed forces. it shall act uniformly. How is it the whole plane. or. if we insert an electrical resistance in a lump in the circuit of the leads at any we should. in the exact theory. Now we know that when the leads have we make the transformation to the exact theory by magnetic conductivity of the external substituting uniform medium place. of the proper amount. then.402 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. reflecting positively and E negatively. perfectly magnetically conpositively and negatively. We merely rehere not only equal. what do these insertions represent in the first a pair of parallel leads of no resistance. reflecting positively zero at the disconnection. That is to say. we insert an impressed voltage in the circuit of the leads at a given reference plane. manently zero at the short-circuit. the waves traversing it in the manner described in a previous paragraph ( 193 and after). provided there be either no leakage or the external medium be uniformly con- Consider will ductive electrically. or with reversal of sign . Thus. but of the same kind. This admit of the application of the exact theory. or to that part of to be equivalently transferred to it outside the leads. transfer it equivalently (changed to magnetic conductance) to the whole of the corresponding reference plane. E may be represented. which is the same. unless there be impressed C force there. Suppose. we must make the reference plane (outside the leads) uniformly conductive magnetically. so that . OH. The question now exact theory ? is. by a terminal ductive plate. for instance. a terminal short-circuit should be replaced by a terminal perfectly conductive plate.

the sources so distributed as to generate plane waves of the required type on the spot. to is be able to decide whether this or that influence negligible or paramount. First. it is not impressed electric force e. say f. that is effective. would lead us into technical complications which would be out of place in the present stage of DD 2 . The Spreading of Charge and Current in a long their Attenuation. Circuit. it how to distribute it properly. and be always in contact with a possible state of things. but its curl. in such a way as to exactly copy the natural distribution of the magnetic lines in plane waves having the given leads for cores. and The detailed application of the principles already 208. acting opposite ways. If the latter their half in each wire. viz. The distinguish advantage of a precise theory is its definiteness. But in making applications exercise of judgment it is another matter. when the generation of disturbances is concerned. discussed to the data which occur in practice. then the curl of e. It requires the and knowledge of things as they are. 403 it may generate plane waves of the precise type belonging to the given leads ? This is by no means so easy to follow up as the previous plate substitutions . them. If. we may elaborate it as far as we please. following the lines of f. the first effect to generate induction This will be made clear later. between a theory and the application thereof. most telephonic and telegraphic problems may be converted to problems in an But we must always be careful to exact plane-wave theory. If it be dynamically sound. situated on the boundaries of the wires. To may be mentioned that when a distribution of is f starts into action. and uniform across sections by the reference plane. and encloses Having ascertained the arises Then the question answer this. we shall obtain what we want.. it must be transferred to the whole reference plane outside the wires. we distribute the lines of f over the reference plane therefore. We must there- fore find the curl of the given impressed is force. is integral amount of f.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. or which may occur in later practice. By means of the above and similar devices. but the following may suffi- ciently describe the essence of the transformation.

IV. inductance. and have been employed experimentally to see how they would work.404 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. development of this work. in honour of the man who knew something about self-induction. or the difference of potential (in an extended sense) of the leads in a reference The words voltage and plane. but none critic so good as mac. that one seems to me to be. Some made etymological objections. external conductance. but I observe that they are not generally or universally approved of. which fundamentally control the propagation of " signals " or disturbances along a circuit. the right word in the right think it possible that some of those place. The teachis the grammar book. of course. for learned savage forefathers men who are inclined to verbal finnicking. symbolised by R. But they made far . I think the best name is mac. not by unutterably dull and stupid and inefficient The science of grammar should come last. and S. Many other And names have been proposed. They work very well for theoretical purposes. of current-elements upon one another is played as regards the name of the practical unit of inductance." fully appreciate the vital significance of inductance in a theory of The idea of the direct intermediate action of a medium. Only a few general considerations can be taken up here in connection with the theory of plane We have seen that there are four distinct quantities waves. the transverse voltage V and the circuital gaussage C. and the current in the leads. and I am bound to the old " coefficient of do not who prefer self-induction. CH. were proposed in 27 to represent electromotive force gaussage and magnetomotive force. to any- one to find names which shall be more suitable or meet with general approval. But I stick to inductance. mutual action out. But what has etymology got to do with it 1 The proper place for etymology I always hated grammar. perhaps on account of " the termination age. the resistance. whilst there are two distinct variables. Our knew no grammar." or because of the commencements volt and gauss being unitary names. of grammar to children is a barbarous practice. more than any other except impedance and conductance. They should be taught to speak correctly by has example. K. Of all the words which I have proposed. It is open. as a study rules. L. of course. and should ing be abolished. and permittance .

forms . of two kinds. Nothing is more admirable than the simplicity of the old style of short words. at time t after the spreading to find the charge. 405 better words than the learned grammarians. It cannot inIf the insulation be perfect. charge Q at time well-known exponential law. But it will do so in widely diverse to itself. The speed of propagation of disturbances is v = (LS)~*. say Q = SV on unit length only at the place. or by Then we have . of the leads. to express the t.. acting differently on the electric and magnetic Now. on each side of the Beyond this region there is no disturbance. the Thus. are dissipation constants. Q . although there are some common characteristics. It is unaffected by the resistance them. say Left Or. although the former property does not affect the total amount of displaceWe see.. by the external conductance.. although energy is wasted in It only decreases equivalent leakage. either with or without the subsidence. but it may diminish.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Next as regards the amount of the charge. is occurs when the time constants L/R and S/K are equal. ? of the spelling book. being vt begins. fluxes. Consider an infinitely long circuit of parallel and equal resisting leads under uniform external conditions. as in the A sad lad. which ment. which crease.. at a given moment. this will spread. Let it be. what is left of it. (1) decreasing according to the As regards the manner of spreading. wholly free from charge or cur- rent except at one place. transform these to A A bad dog. we bound within the region of length origin. that the distortionless case. where is the improvement as we have already explained the characteristics of distortion of plane waves by conductance in the medium generally. means that K = 0. the corresponding relations in a long circuit of leads need be only briefly mentioned. and governable by the relations laid down. or 2vt. manners under different circumstances. independent of the values of R and K. the charge remains constant. If you lugubrious juvenile. this is represented in the exact theory by the spreading and subsidence of displacement in a medium which magnetically as well as electrically conductive. where there is merely a charge.. therefore. A vicious canine.

the KHiQo^"8 The energy was wholly electric to begin with. when the resistance of the leads is in excess. of course.. half in each. As they attenuate. the But charge is positive between the waves as well as in them. In the exceptional case of no resistance and no leakage. the charge (or the remains of the original charge) is only partly in the plane waves at the two ends of the disturbed region. (3) reducing to (2) doubled in the distortionless case..K '/s (l-e-(R/2i--K/2S)*) ) (4) and is positive or negative according as R/L is greater or less than K/S. attenuation of the two charges to zero. a natural division between two distinct kinds of resultant distortion. wasted. as the magnetic force. In the present circumstances we may say that an intermediate resist- .e. -(B/2L+K/28X f . is This The final result is necessary in order that a pure wave shall remain pure.. In all other cases but the distortionless one. there is. because they are pure waves. In this neutral halves which at once separate t speed 2v. At time charge Q splits into two from one another at relative later they are each attenuated to case. (2) but in each of the resulting waves it is half electric and half magnetic. But this may happen in two ways.. . CH. They go out of range. It is Q . when they are infinitely widely separated. and this occurs so that half is wasted by the resistance and half by reason of the external conductance. Therefore the excess of (1) over (3) is the amount of the diffused charge. the rest being diffused between them. is given by Q .. but not out of existence. the terminal waves. is in excess the intermediate charge is negaThis happens equivalently when the inductance is in How this reversal comes excess. and with this a complete simultaneous disappearance of the other characteristics. their energy is of the leads. IV.406 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. That is. The total But the charge in charge at time t is expressed by (1) above. about has been already explained in the exact theory. when the leakage tive. or the permittance in deficit. an everlasting persistence of the two charges and of the waves of which they form a feature..

This also splits immediately into two plane waves. (7) (3).. where the plane waves are to be found. the spreading of P is represented by that of C. So far regarding the spreading of a charge. -(K/2S-R/2LX) . may be instructively compared their analogues. is (5) in the terminal waves. half in P . ance in the circuit of the leads reflects 407 V positively and C whilst an intermediate leak reflects C positively and negatively. this follows the reversal of V and from excess. (5). where. charge momentum per unit length of circuit. Notice that in .. So. which only differ from those arising from a charge in having similar C's C's. we have In general decreases. is. there left may be nearly all the charge when the terminal waves have become of insensible sigBut if the leakage be in excess. c -(*/2L+K/2S)e . spreading of induction. unless it has attenuated similarly. Suppose initially there be current C in unit length at the = LC and no charge there or elseorigin. (6) The amount between the terminal waves excess of (5) over (6).. (7). negatively. When they have at- tenuated to practically nothing. V when leakage is in tailing be of the usual positive or of the negative kind (referred to the charge).. the maximum or minimum density is in the middle .. because the total is always positive. the p o -R/L(l_ These equations with the set (1). so that at time P = P . next consider the The magnetic analogue of Q is P = LC. at the origin. which is e therefore.-**0At the same time the amount each. and opposite V's instead induction remains of similar V's and opposite if The total constant it only the leads t have no resistance. (4). there is left merely the widely With the diffused charge. the disappearance nificance.. The same applies to the elements of the circuit. (6). that is. of the terminal waves is accompanied by a similar disappearance of the intermediate negative charge. as L constant.. resistance largely in excess. The Whether the density decreases symmetrically both ways to the two ends.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. with momentum P the magnetic is .

sheet. One case is specially noteworthy. R and K. the equivalent magnetic conductance by externally.. just as the resistance of the leads has no attenuating effect on the total charge. assumed to be positive. IV.. the resistance of the leads by its destruction is represented. But we require the leakage to be in excess for the intermediate induction to be positive. of course. travelling initial in There is. attenuated to V where for t -K</L.. we exchange V and C. the positive and the wave just goes on. this. which is to be expected. transmitted without spreading out behind. but now. To what extent this will continue depends upon the relation the constants of the circuit bear to the When the latter obtains. of course. Also observe that leakage by itself has no effect on the total induction except to redistribute it. CII. if existent over unit length. In all other and the reflected portions travel back. no splitting. the charge in the tail is positive is negative. will be found over unit length at distance vt to the right. the maximum or minimum excess for density of induction is at the origin. as before described. so that at time t the initial state. . If and the current the resistance be in excess. half on each side of the origin. This means a pure plane wave direction. Take V = L^C^ initially. (8) may is be substituted its cases there reflection in transit. and conversely the resistance must be in left is in Of course. L and S. the initial induction is it to be negative. Putting together the preceding results. Q and P. the wave is distortionless state. at least initially . whilst if the . without a head at the negative end to balance the one at the positive end. As before. equivalent x/v. in the exact theory.. we may readily see the effect of having both V and C initially at any spot. thus making a tail of length Zvt.408 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. By (7) we see that in the distortionless case all the induction the terminal waves. transforming from one set to the other. though. therefore. the terminal inductions may have greater or smaller density than according to the extent of attenuation at the moment Remember that the destruction of induction by concerned. In the exact theory the R in these formulae would also be a conductance. besides getting mixed together.

and decrease it by a tendency to equalisation. provided the changes of charge and current are made slowly enough. understood with caution. by increasing this process is a tortionless state whilst the first is kept constant. however. then we shall increase by making the time-constants more unequal than they are. the current is positive and the charge 195 to 199 for more details. and a length to work with. 209. If. L^CQ. in each of which there is continuous distortion Given time enough. The total charge subsides according to equation (1) above. is with ulti- mate unlimited distortion. according as the ratios R/L and But this needs to be K. The attenuation a separate matter in this connection. we are only concerned with the distortion produced in a finite interval of time. which may be quite small. generally speaking.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. for obviously there may be next to no matter distortion of signals even when the distortionless state is widely departed from. though itself of great importance. which may initially negative. Furthermore. is it continuous one. bring on continuously increasing distortion of one kind. this means a negative wave (going This needs no separate notice in The Distortionless Circuit. But when this is not the case. detail. If initially V = - to the left) to start with. starting from the disconnected with equal time-constants. so that./S are nearly equal or widely different. then the may be differently regarded. by continuously increasing one time-constant. There is much or little distortion. The distortionless state forms a simple and natural boundary between two diverse kinds of propagation of a complicated nature. and the total induction according to (5). 409 leakage be in excess. No limiting Distance set is by it when the Attenuation ignored. See be readily translated to suit the present case. and there marked distortion of waves in transit. bring on conAnd this is increasing distortion of the other kind. the least departure from the distortionless condition would be sufficient to allow which is ultimately unlimited. infinite circuit of all the natural changes to be gone through. we may. or else. Similarly (3) represents the charge in the one terminal wave (instead of both. and (6) shows the induction in the terminal wave. tinuously the other. as there). .

and permittance. Even if a circuit were constructed with constant R. would -serve to prevent the attainment of the clean-cut perfection of the theory which ignores them. CH. But it may be a very good imitation of the theoretical ideal. accord- ing to this theory. and with R/L = K/S exactly. IV. by variation of any one of the four quantities concerned. several disturbing causes. tion. the train of disturbances will run out to infinity. There are though they might not be of much importance in general. which. If the circuit be infinitely long. inductance. then arbitrary signals of any size and manner of variation. will and in doing so suffer cession of values will faithfully repeat those at the origin. and S. it is not only possible. it is practically only a distortion that is attainable. disregarding the attenuaof possible signalling. originated at the beginning of the run along it at the speed of light. But there is no perfection in this world. the attenuation due to resistance and leakage. L. Of what use would it be to have a distortionless circuit if it took nearly all the life out of the current in the first 100 miles. when you want it to go 1. attained. But there is an influence in full action in the practical theory itself which must not be overlooked. and attenuation were of no importance. then. practical theory. so that it it should be truly distortionless in this reality. to prove which we need only remark that with any values given to these constants we can equalise the time-constants and abolish the distortion altogether by altering any one only of the four. of course. though it may be still from infinity when the attenuation no limiting distance is so great as to a long way make the disturbances insensible. no alteration save a weakening according to the exponential law given above. but perfect signalling.000? Now. on paper nothing is easier than to increase the . there is Therefore. leakage. and the succircuit. The voltage and gaussage at any spot will be always in the same phase. namely. would not be so in state of minimum Instead of zero distortion. It is unnecessary to enlarge upon the necessary failure of a professedly approxiIt is sufficient to say that the ignored disturbing influences alone would serve to set a practical limit. the resistance.410 true ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. When a circuit has been brought to this state. K. More than that. even if the condition R/L = K/S were truly mate theory when pushed to extremes.

led to examine the very serious distortion. so that. The two Extreme Kinds of Diffusion in one Theory. a study of the nature of their propagation on either side of the distortionless state is as desirable as on the other side . and leak- age is detrimental to this consummation. till. are of a symmetrical character. and a source of We are. at the receiving end.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. S. In a normal state of things fix we interferences should be only a small fraction of the principal or working current. say a thousandfold. therefore. It is in all cases desired to get plenty of received current. Nor can any limiting distance by consideration of distortion alone. it is imIt is not merely enough possible to overlook the attenuation. we see at once that one side only presents itself actively. yet when we examine the conditions prevailing in practice. with the exceptional case of an excess of . If an Atlantic present type were made distortionless by the addition of leakage. through the line constants R. abstractedly considered. and L. And even if we could magnify very weak currents. up But practically there would usually be strong reasons against this process. Although the equations connecting the voltage V and gaussage 0. Nor can we say that telephony is possible on a circuit of given type to this or that distance merely because a certain calculable and small amount of distortion occurs at that distance. Thus it comes practical inconveniences connected with leakage. we should simultaneously magnify the foreign interferences. There are. 210. But if the latter be too much attenuated. but they must cable of also be big enough to be useful. 411 fraction battery power to any extent you want. The reason is easily to be seen. the minute which got to the desired distance became magnified to a recognisable size. about that we are mainly concerned with the state of things existing when K/L is and scarcely at all greater than. compared with their influence on the distortion. or at the least equal to. K/S. in fact. the interferences become relatively important. that signals should arrive without being distorted too much . K. besides. as influence of the different circuit constants on the attenuation. At any rate. there would be no sign of any signals at the the distant end with any reasonable battery power. because that is the working agent.

its Now external dielectric. is propagation of plane-wave theory R stands for the magnetic conductance of the external medium. dielectrics as well. so that R/L is the same as g//j. and for the sake of theoretical connection with other electromagnetic problems. and perhaps. on account of their being very ductors. we have a curious exchange of active properties between the dielectric and the conductor. then. then. (equivatheory.. k and \^ are zero. as in the slow and C is working of long cables . however. the resulcontrolled . whereas in the guides g/p is zero and k/c The distortion of the external plane waves by the resistance of the guides is. also discussing the upon the plane waves of the fictitious property of magnetic conductance..412 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Here. remember that in the exact being zero. R/L) finite. therefore. and therefore we are. It is. Suppose. the quantity K/S (or equivalently k/c) Now. which are electrical conductors. good conand may be ignored we have the theory of pure diffusion (as of heat according to Fourier). controlled by since both g and c are now zero. and controls matters. CH. of the opposite kind to that of the cylindrical waves in the guides. Now. in the external dielectric. somewhat remarkable that the other side of the propagation problem does actually present itself actively.. the permittivity is swamped. the two constants k and //. Similarly. for E and change H places when the form in the guides. then the propagation of V by the two constants g and c (or actually and equivalently by R and S). In both. in the guides themselves. and R/L finite. This gives one extreme form of V and C. zero. and most probably. for example. leakage. since the latter is Here. it may happen that the influence of fj. there effect of no external conductance. which result from the passage over them of the plane waves in the external dielectric. influence when considering V and C. of the distortion is discussed. when we regard the important secondary the propagation into the guides of the cylindrical waves. (or equivalently of L) is insensible. IV. we have the other extreme form of the In the external dielectric k/c is zero and g/jj. unless it be as a curiosity. On the other hand. whilst the other two. Then in calculating resultant effects. this concerns the propagation of The influence of V and C through the R prevails over that of K. lent to finite. it is k/c that is greater than g/fj.

even in one and the same actual problem. and it is rather important to understand them. wholly prejudicial. so to speak. As. By increasing resistance of the guides effect of varying the line-con- Thus the increase both p and <r. observe the stants. So. we are not immediately concerned with the internal state of the guides. exceed it in the limit. provided it be treated different ways. /n \ 2L-2S the (9) attenuation of the front of an advancing wave depends upon the sum o = A+ 2L JL. of course. [R]. tant propagation follows the diffusion law. however. is 413 controlled by V E outside outside is is like like H H E We of see by the above illustrations that in spite of the absence magnetic conductivity in reality.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. but never increased. one at a time. if the object be to facilitate signalling. a fundamental notion that the resistance of the guides should R we is be reduced if possible. since it not only weakens signals in transit. we are. that of inside. we may now dismiss its and return to V and C only. remembering that the first term of the right members of (9) and (10) is bigger Both a- four line-constants act than the second. It is. The upon p and o. and. eliminate it and L as constants. . therefore. or does not by treating R consideration. The Effect of varying the Four Line-Constants as regards Distortion and Attenuation. Now we upon the have shown that the distortion in transit depends difference R whilst K. on our understanding that the quantity K/S is always less than R/L. but distorts them. 2S (10) and p should be as small as possible. The propagation of or that of and the propagation of C or inside. but different properties. obliged to consider both sides of the wave-theory it involves. 211. nevertheless.

though obviously true enough as deductions from (9) and (10). Thus leakage and prejudicial. tortion in transit. more known and understood from correctly. . Thus the [L]. great extent. S increases cr and reduces p. The practical import of varying one quantity when three others are upon the actual immediate values of all four.414 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. it simultaneously inThis action is most procreases the attenuation in transit. inductance of the circuit (other things being equal) is wholly beneficial. and likewise the frequency of the waves. general reasoning. fail. depends circumstances this or that variation of the line constants is important in a special case. according to circumstances. is the prejudicial one of distorting the signals. By increasing L we decrease both p and or. when the making and reception occur a We may to instrumental peculiarities. IV. [S]. Increasing But practically the therefore. whose names it is needless to mention. who combined enough * Every rule is said to have an exception. is [K]. Some of these effects have been the earliest times.* Now the above statements. since the time when and. the above properties are important. nounced when the signalling is slow. It is. important effect of S. notably on cables. Nevertheless. at any rate. as well as in the detailed examination of for instance. but may be very large when applied to very rapid vibrations on a long circuit. are merely qualitative. It may be. since although it reduces the distortion. both prejudicial and beneficial. and should be most usefully borne in mind in formulae. to a in quite a William Thomson taught telegraph-cable engineers the principles their business (in its electrical aspects). CH. generally speaking. possible for the above rules to fail. The length of the line also comes in as an important factor. or appear to of the signals is not of a simple kind. since it diminishes both the attenuation and the displainer. though there were a few. which is a large effect. They were previously benighted state. the important solutions for simply periodic waves. the practice too. An example will then attribute the failure little later in which K reduces working speed largely. or makes the received signals both larger and These are not necessarily insignificant effects. Increasing both beneficial K increases p and reduces or. of or. to settle under what constant.

on the other it might be more fairly done at second hand. and against all reason. that R and S are prejudicial. the law of the squares being again seized. Perhaps. this failure. was good for telephony. complete history of the subject of the rise of Atlantic telegraphy. and it may be very large allowance. This is embodied in Lord Kelvin's theory and gave rise to a rather neat law of the squares. The fact still remains. it As . preferably with personal knowledge. could not effectually discriminate. and grasped more firmly than ever. and in later times the law has been most grossly abused and misapplied. and devoid of personal bias. But there was really no warrant for such a conclusion. march of knowledge in the several preceding years that is hand. especially as he had so little practical experience with cables. But. there is a somewhat bulky volume. very curiously. view turned out manifestly was followed by a precipitate rewrong by practical vulsion. supposed that high. and not being a mathematician. there has been an exception to the rule. wrong as well as right. This was giving up the law of the squares with a vengeance. In the meantime. But when once grasped they could not let go. either efficiency of of 1855. important. This law soon became matter of common knowledge amongst cable engineers and electricians generally." so that both R and S should be reduced to improve the electrical a cable. I do not mention Faraday in this connection. The fact that R theoretical or practical. when telephony was extended to circuits containing underground work. however. But allowance has to be made for other influences. something that practicians could grasp. It will not be very long before A no contemporary will be left to do it. for that great genius had all sorts of original notions. written by a man fully and accurately acquainted with the facts. the Report of the Submarine Cable Committee of 1859.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. would be of great value and of permanent utility. There have not been wanting electricians who. The two effects referred to are that resistance and permittance (R and S) act conjointly in producing "retardation. including the scientific side. 415 electrical science with their practical knowledge to have fairly correct ideas about retardation in submarine cables. not low resistance. which serves to show the But it is the history of the state of knowledge at that date.

lessens the distortion. remembering the state . The former is beneficial. though I do not know the practical merits. My extended theory opened out a wide field for possible The in improvements in signalling over long circuits advance of what could be possible were R and S the only controlling factors. But. and is capable of very ready explanation. or the reduced permittance may be bought too dearly. They completely remodel the subject. it should be something very good and trustworthy. that K K shall not practical way of insulating the wires which the permittance be so great as it is at present with gutta-percha or india-rubber. but it is prejudicial in the But if we simultaneously inattenuation it causes in transit. and their laws investigated. Now. especially the latter. and consequences worked out by myself. CII. Be liberal with the copper. ideas There has been some difficulty in getting people to grasp the embodied in [K] and [L]. Something of this sort has for Look out some make been done for telephone underground cables. and so far as it goes. and were mostly discovered. as it K may be crease L. This is corrobora- tive of the preceding remark as to the unreserved benefit to L. for one thing. of course.416 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. more- we further lessen the distortion. therefore. over. we counteract the attenuation caused by still K . R and S must be the only controlling electrical factors. and L. inascounteracted by L. and S are prejudicial does not make the law of the squares. for example) be reduced as cheaply as particular L could be carried out. see. modern telephony already goes far beyond the supposed restrictions of the law of the squares. We much should not only consider the effects of line-constants one at a time. that be by means of increasing the distance through which signalling can be carried on with a cable of given type as regards R and S. in their proper application. as regards Atlantic cables. but also of combinations. bub have a very limited application in general. that [K] and [L] above point the due We way to salvation. But let it not be forgotten in studying if R and S themselves might perhaps (in some and scheme. as in modern telephony particularly. IV. old views remain right. varying the four Thus. [L] was the trouble. whilst [K] was already partially recognised by knowing ones. on account of its novelty . All the other effects are of later recognition. To have that.

thereto. leakage does is to increase the attenuation of but at the same time to lessen the distortion EB . Nevertheless. how can they expect to understand it 1 Now I find that there has been too latter. recoils upon its authors with great force. Beneficial Effect of Leakage in Submarine Cables. in attempted first elucidation of former work. the fact that various students have understood me (as I know by my correspondence).THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. I do not hesitate now to add some more remarks in connection therewith. and moreover. there is the very notable promulgators of the false idea (which must be most discouraging to students) have evidently not taken the trouble to examine my writings to see what my views really are. 417 of fog that prevailed in the fifties as regards the effects of 11 and S alone. in the elementary parts as well as in the advanced. Letting alone the fact that some physicists have understood me. the royal road to an inner understanding of the subject in general. and then and finally both [K] and [L]. The 212. there is no reason for wonder that more recondite effects. unaccompanied by prior experience. and that I have not been above pointing same time so the moral by numerical examination of results. especially the to be studied to be understood. should not be readily recognised when pointed out. and leading fact that the up [S]. I have advertised the distortionless circuit so often that I have become ashamed of doing so. but have only made acquaintance with fragments thereof. and have made some dogmatic and paradoxical statements about the conse" " Electrical Papers will show quences. and from many points of view. We should consider [K] alone. on account of its casting much light upon the subject generally. or in conjunction with [R] and [L]. as of L. [K] and [L]. What waves in transit. as I have often pointed out. that I cannot make myself understood by physicists. though that was no excuse for burking the matter. since it is. The notion that has been promulgated. require will much of an idea that I have merely given some very complicated formula which no fellow can understand. But if people not take the trouble to study the matter. whilst at the I have been particularly careful in elaborating the theory of the distortionless circuit. But a reference to my that I have treated the matter of propagation very fully.

the resistance acts conjointly with the permittance in causing " retardation " in cables. Now a cable is a condenser. . and so does a well-insulated cable. that is not quite It does not present itself for consideration at so elementary. or leyden. or for dis- tributed leakage. Even when it is earthed (or grounded. though in different parts. if also insulated at the ends. and the manifest evils of faults. in spite of the fact that the strength of the current sent is increased by the leakage. and so does its too. only the portions close to the end can discharge at once. as the Americans say) at both its ends. In the extreme. by elementary knowledge. As regards the lessening of the distortion. CH. with all the similar poles joined to a varying extent This is how it comes about that together by resisting wires. no difficulty in seeing why leakage on the line should diminish the strength of the received current. and there is manifest distortion of signals. Now there is. when we regard the long cylindrical condenser as a collection of small condensers side by side in parallel. The discharge of a condenser against resistance takes time. however. and the greater the resistance the greater the time needed. so that the electrostatic time-constant is proportional to their product. the influence thereupon of leakage becomes an obvious matter of may do it on the basis of the electrostatic theory. inquiry. the discharge has to take place through resistance. in his do not think there was any development of the matter in his The obvious attenuating effect of leakage. and possibly caused the full effect of leakage to be overlooked. though it was merely in passing. charge. It is obvious. Lord Kelvin did insert a term in the differential equation to express the effect on the potential of uniform leakage. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. and the principle is the same for any number of faults. all in common telegraph circuits. We telegraph theory. and In fact. or RS/ 2 . a cable is in question. and a very big one I later papers. Away from the ends. and its theory to remain uninvestigated. then. When. Ohm's law applied to a simple circuit with a shunt attached will suffice to give the reason so far as one fault is concerned . although its permittance is so widespread that the permittance of a yard or so is very small.418 they suffer. caused high insulation to be aimed at. IV. a perfectly insulated charged condenser keeps its charge unchanged.

but the very lowest possible consistent with getting work with. That is. in fact. be desirable to as above. either distributed or in detached lumps. Whilst the possible speed of signalling can be raised apparently ad lib. substantially may.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. which. it and does not need elaborate mathematics to make it at least probably accurate. represents a part of is the charge coming out. of course) simply by throwing away most of the current. Therefore. were there no other effect produced. name for leakage conductance). that is. moreover. in working speed. in making signals from end to end. viz. and by sufficiently reducing the insulation resistance. This other effect is the extra attenuation. it lessens the distortion at a given There is. or. no limit to this process. which is the same. not necessarily or usually complete charges or discharges. mechanical and com- mercial. the electrostatic theory. of course. without any appeal to self-induction. and so expedites the signalling. should not have high insulation resistance. and utilising the small residuum that manages to survive the ordeal. enough current through to and other considerations. that you can signal as fast as you like through an Atlantic that the influence of cable of the present type (with leakage added.) It is important to recognise that it is a consequence or natural extension of the old electrostatic theory. by the use of the highest insulation EE2 . increasing the leakance (which L is not now in question. to expedite changes in the charge in the cable. there is (Remember only an infinitesimal current left to do it with. is a sufficiently clear one. It is now about 23 years since I came to see. a proper Atlantic cable. &c. The theory. the operation of charging the cable is necessarily precedent to that of receiving current at the distant end. that 410 we can facilitate the discharge by lessening the resistance to discharge. by leakage in the cable. perhaps. Thus. At the same time the charging similarly facilitated or expedited. Now.. results in expediting changes in the current at the distant end. we might signal through the cable as fast as we pleased. the theoretical absurdity of a system of signalling which deliberately and seemingly of purpose places in the way the greatest possibly hindrance to the efficient transmission of signals. though thoroughly verify the consequences mathematically.. suitable for rapid signalling. an admissible short is.

to say nothing of their sometimes dying of inanition. the effect of leakage presented itself to me at that time in practice on real live cables in a surprisingly different manner.K. easy in wet weather to get a good magnetic storm. the earth and line-currents are opposed. "earth-currents "(meaning currents in the Line occurring during magnetic storms.M. and mutilated. Incidentally. whereas when a battery is But it is not used.F. Short History of Leakage Effects on a Cable Circuit. causing them to be regularly strangled. As a matter of fact. though assisted by contacts with wet foliage. this had gone on for a few hours the insulation resistance fell so low. This was usually But it was also the case in the U. such currents being a manifestation thereof. as regards long land lines. so that close influence of leakage on dismiss them. and sum up that. But this was mere theory. The opposition between plausible theory and live practice was so glaring that it will be instructive to briefly describe it next. perhaps because their E. was not like that of a battery at one end of a line. in the magnetic force in the air surrounding the " earth-current " goes the same way in Probably the in the earth (provided the line is not set at right the line as earth. was during a continuous soaking rain all over the country. OH. IV. choked. possible. although not so many lines were invalided. it may be mentioned here that the so-called itself). . and L. leakage does not seem to have a single observations can be earth-currents. the received current (even with increased battery power) being too small for practical use with the instruments concerned. the same in effect in the E. continuous slow change going on in the earth's magnetic force. rather. that many of all When the important circuits were completely invalided. angles to the real earth-current). as regards land-lines.420 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. made regarding the We may redeeming feature. nor did they break down so quickly. 213. by leakage over the dirty wet insulators mostly. by a or. but acted continuously along the circuit. did not seem to mind the leakage much. First. on any very wet day.. of say 400 miles in length (which is a long distance in this small country). leakage The worst case of presented itself as an unmitigated nuisance. &c.

always to lower the speed.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. especially on the long one. perhaps down to 15 words per minute. It was a cable of about 400 or 450 miles running east and west. the speed was much The effect of rain was lower. and did not last long. and the working was done without condensers. of course. highest. A leakage fault on the land line or a contact with another wire had a similar effect. of properly shaped for making dots and dashes. . The next best was in any very dry weather. main cause of the wide variations of speed was on the land lines. abundance but it did not come out at the receiving end the condenser action so case. But in the latter a cable with terminal land lines upon which similar leakage occurred. leakage next presented themselves to me on and were exceedingly There were two circuits of the kind. provided it was a bad fault. The working speed. The best results were obtained in fine dry weather with a hard frost (east) the harder the better. But in ordinary average fair weather. but one in parhad a varied history as regards leakage. an automatic transmitter and a polarised receiver. a superattenuation. and one of 20 miles at the west end. by utilising the earth direct to complete the circuit. and the signalling could to 30 words per minute or a little more from west though considerably less the other way. though relatively fast. that is. say 24 or 20 words per minute. having a land line of 120 miles at the east end. but there was no doubt or less. in a Now it is possible that the extra good results obtained hard dry frost arose partly from the reduced resistance of the east land line (the usual iron wire). ticular effects of cable circuits with land-lines attached. except at a It should also be understood that the greatly lowered speed. and the speed would go down to 10 words per minute reason. its The insulation of the long land line was then at be done up to east. the prejudicial effect was not due to the There was plenty of current in fact. only worse. recording dots and dashes. was too slow for any notable distortion of signals in transit by marked in cables. 421 The curious. leakage Now it is to be noted here that in the former case of long land lines the leakage was prejudicial by the attenuation it caused. for a peculiar But this was quite exceptional. not rainy or damp. whereby the received currents were made too feeble to at all that the suit the apparatus. The apparatus used was the Wheatstone automatic.




actual speed of working was always pushed


to the greatest

possible (the press of business being such as to

make 25


too short), and that the automatic character of the signalling made the fixation of a limiting speed, without complete failure of any marks, quite definite at any particular

work per day



Practically, however, the working speed was pushed a good deal higher than this limit by making regular use of mutilated signals. Now it was proved by daily experience that

there was a remarkable sensitiveness to damp, or leakage of any kind, the speed of working, conditioned by the reception of good marks, going up and down like the barometer, though

The east land with a far wider range than that instrument. was so manifestly the offender that it came in for a great Yet it was not a bad line by any means, and deal of blame. its leakage would have passed unnoticed, had there not been

such a peculiar lowering


on the speed connected there-

But how about leakage in the cable itself, seeing that the above results were so out of harmony with what they should have been, by general reasoning regarding retardation ? This
question was soon answered by the automatic development of a first-class leakage fault in the cable. Its effect on the speed

was substantially the same as that of leakage on the land-line. and since it was always on, the effect was permanent. The ordinary fluctuations disappeared in a great It was measure, as of course did the fine weather high speeds. like continuous heavy wet. As the fault got very bad the speed went down to 10 words per minute or less, in spite of
It lowered the speed,

increased battery power.

On describing this prejudicial effect of leakage to the electrician of the cable ship which came to remove the fault (it was the late Mr. S. E. Phillips, of Henley's), he assured me I was
quite wrong.

was impossible

for a leak to act like that.


said the captain, too. It was known, said they, that a leak was an excellent thing. It had been found so on the French Atlantic not long before, and in other cases. I fully believed

because it seemed theoretically sound, and I had heard similar statements before. But they did not assist me to an

understanding of the patent fact that leakage could be highly In corroboration of this, when prejudicial instead of beneficial.

the fault was removed, the speed went
state of things




and the normal



The next stage in this history was the arrival of that wonderful instrument, Thomson's recorder, which had been recently brought out. It was the original Atlantic cable pattern, with
20 big tray cells for the electromagnets, and a batch of smaller ones for the mousemill and driving gear. This instrument
simplified matters greatly, for the current could be considered as and seen to be a continuous function of the time, whereas

with the polarised recorder of Wheatstone (an instrument quite unsuitable for cable work) the variations of the current could
be only roughly guessed. Now, a peculiarity of the siphon recorder was that no definite If one person thought 40 words limiting speed was fixable.
per minute fast enough for good marks ; another, more practised, would as easily read them at 50 or 60, and even manage to make them out at 70 words per minute, though the last was

undoubtedly rather troublesome.
used, the dashes little ones, on the recorder

The automatic transmitter



became big humps, and the dots slip, and at 70 words per minute,

although the big humps were plain enough, the little ones were mostly wiped out, though it could be seen where they ought to

have been, so that some reading was possible. The absence of a definite limiting speed under given circumstances introduced a fresh complication. Nevertheless, a careful study of the recorder slips taken at various speeds, but particularly in the neighbourhood of the critical speed for the polarised recorder,
proved that the plain result of general reasoning that leakage should be beneficial in general was certainly true, and, moreover, furnished a partial explanation of the anomalous behaviour
of the polarised recorder.

The siphon (Thomson) recorder, with its shifting zero, was sublimely indifferent to the vagaries of the current which were so destructive of intelligible marks in a dot and dash instrument,
so that ordinary leakage passed quite unobserved as a rule. Nevertheless, it was plainly to be seen that when there was


leakage the result was to improve the distinctness of the marks by reducing the range of variation of the current from the zero line, and improving the dots, or small humps, relatively to the dashes, or big humps, which were reduced in size.




in the cable

But, to clinch the matter, a second leakage fault appeared whilst the siphon recorder was on, and rapidly

Now, it was only at the west end that there was a developed. siphon recorder ; at the east end was the polarised recorder.

was that the speed from west to east went down

greatly as the fault developed, in accordance with prior knowBut the other way, from east to west, receiving with ledge. The the siphon recorder, the working was greatly improved.

ultimate result was that

when the

fault got very

bad no marks

at all could be got at the east end, even by key-sending, owing to the great attenuation, whilst we could receive first rate on

the siphon recorder at the west end.


the very last day,

when communication from west to east had to be done by a roundabout course, we were able to receive a long batch of, I
think, 150 messages at high speed (about 55 or 60 words per minute) by using 80 Leclanche cells at the sending end, and

putting on the electromagnets all the tray batteries available, Now including most of the small ones, to magnify the marks.

might seem to be merely a testimony to the sensitiveness But the significant point was that although the marks were very small, in spite of magnification by increased
of the instrument.

battery power at both ends, they were exceedingly clear. They were the best ever got at the speed. We were practically working past a fault of no resistance, for the cable soon gave
ghost. The tail end of the big batch finally degenerated to a straight line, indicative of a very dead earth. On the removal of this fault, the received current was largely

up the

increased of course.

But, simultaneously, the distortion of the

marks on the siphon recorder became huge at the speed 60.

needed to be


lowered to give conveniently readable


Explanation of Anomalous


Artificial Leaks.


the above facts gave a decisive and cumulative

proof that leakage was beneficial even when concentrated at a single spot, provided the current-variations were recorded in a

But a complete explanation of the very large simple manner. decrease in the speed possible when the polarised recorder was used, turned out to be rather a complicated matter in detail,
although sufficiently simple in



effect, so


mixed up with another one,

detrimental to an efficient use of the cable, was viz., a difference in the working

speed according to direction, of say 25 per cent, (with the same This effect, instruments), but variable with circumstances.

seemed to have two causes, one depending upon the and the uncentrical position of the cable in it, indepenwhilst the other was dent of the kind of instruments used special and peculiar to the automatic transmitter and receiver when combined with the uncentrical position of the cable. It may be readily imagined that the resultant effect on the working speed requires some study to be understood. It will be sufficient here to mention the instrumental peculiarity in


relation to the detrimental effect of leakage.


original automatic transmitter of

Wheatstone was con-

dots only upon the slip of a special receiver ; there were two rows of dots, one set being for the dots, and the
structed to


other for the dashes of the Morse code.

But when the inventor

wanted the E. and I. Co. to take it up, they demanded dots and dashes, as usual. So the instruments had to be modified. Now I have personal reason to know that a few years later the inventor was quite at sea as to the reason of the peculiar effects observed in working his instruments on composite circuits and It is therefore pretty safe to assume that previously, cables. when the conversion was made, the manner of the conversion, from making double dots to dots and dashes, was dictated purely by considerations of mechanical convenience, and
this conclusion may be made nearly certain by a comparison of the original with the modified transmitter. But Mr. Stroh knows all about it. At any rate, the peculiar way of making

the dash and the long space was the cause of all our trouble with leakage, which cost the Company an immense sum of


viz., what they might have gained otherwise, for they were blocked with work, and might have had much more. To make a dot, a short positive current was sent, immediately

followed by a similar short negative current. To make a dash, after sending the first short positive current, there was an
interval of no current lasting twice as long as the first current, followed by a short negative current which terminated the


Similarly, to


make a long space, a short negative current then an interval of no current, and finally a short




positive current. sending end of the line

in these intervals of no current, the was insulated. When sending current, on the other hand, the line was to earth, through the battery. Two distinct electrical arrangements were therefore operative in turn, viz., a cable with both ends earthed, and a cable with If the former sysonly one end (the receiving end) to earth.


tem always

prevailed, the manner of transmission of electrical changes would follow one law. If the latter system prevailed, it would follow another law, and would give much greater


In real fact, the two ways were in alternate action This has to be considered carefully in examining

the influence of the uncentrical position of a cable in a composite circuit,

and also of leakage. the practical effect worked out thus. There was a real positive and material advantage in making the dash and long


space of the Morse code by a short initial current instead of a
I estilong one, as in ordinary working with reversing keys. mated the gain as amounting to from 100 to 125 per cent, under favourable circumstances. This implies that the limiting

But it was vitally necessary speed is really worked up to. to secure this advantage, that the insulation should be very A peculiar balance had to be preserved between the good.
and the negative currents. The currents were of equal duration and of alternate signs, but necessarily not equidistant in time. Now, with exceedingly good insulation, the short*

current sent at the beginning of a dash was sufficiently prolonged in reception as to not merely make a good dash firmly, but to

keep the balance for the next currents. But if you put a fault on the line, and let the charge leak out during the dead interval of the dash, then the next following negative current, terminating the dash, would be too strong, so that an immediately succeeding positive current (with a negative current after Similar remarks to make a dot would miss fire altogether. it)

apply to the space. If the negative current that initiated the space were allowed to die away by the action of a leak, the next following positive current would be too strong, and cause an

immediately following negative current to miss fire. Remember that the reception of the signals was with a polarised recorder,
the zero of which could not be continuously altered to catch the missing currents except by a very artful person who knew what



was coming, and was quick enough to alter the regulation exactly It will, by the above, become roughly how a leak, actually quickening signals in a remarkintelligible
at the right moments.

able degree, can yet be most prejudicial in a special system of If signalling requiring the preservation of a sort of balance.

the siphon recorder be substituted the necessity of the balance disappears ; but the marks would be very hard to read at the

same speed.

at least doubled.

To make them readable the speed should be The dashes will then become well-formed
desire to pursue the subject of leakage be referred to my "Electrical Papers," 53 for continuous leakage, p. 61 for more

The reader who may



especially p. details relating to the above-described case,




71 for the

general theory of leaks, which is fully worked out in several cases to show the expediting effect. I also there propose artificial leaks. The following extract (p. 77) is easy to read, and

may be worth quoting


" When a natural fault, or local defect in the insulation, is developed in a cable, it tends to get worse a phenomenon, it may be observed, nob confined to cable-faults. Under th action of the current the fault is
increased in size and reduced in resistance, and, if not removed in time, ends by stopping the communication entirely. Hence the directors and
officials of submarine cable companies do not look upon faults with favour, and a sharp look out is kept by the fault-finders for their detection and subsequent removal. But an artificial fault, or connection by means of a coil of fine wire between the conductor and sheathing, would not have the If properly constructed it would objectionable features of a natural fault. be of constant resistance, or only varying with the temperature, would contain no electromotive force of polarisation, would not deteriorate, and would considerably accelerate the speed of working. The best position for a single fault would be the centre of the line, and perhaps ^5 of the line's resistance would not be too low for the fault."

The effect of one leak is marked, perhaps 40 per cent. What does this represent in How many thousands or sterling ? tens of thousands of pounds' worth of copper and g.p., &c. would be equivalent ? If one leak would not quite do it, then

two would. But to have only one or two leaks is to look upon the leak as a dangerous nuisance. Although the best position for a given amount of leakance in a lump is in the middle of the

cable, yet to




have the given leakance





the worst

arrangement as regards its accelerative efficiency. The best arrangement is uniformly-spread leakance, as much as possible,

with, however, a thoroughly useful residual terminal current work with, which current could be varied far more rapidly


possible with a single leak. impossible to find an insulator of comparatively low Teleresistance which should be suitable in other respects ?

graph cable manufacturers would probably say, No. That, however, need not be considered conclusive, because, as is well known, when an industry or institution is once established, it always gets into grooves, and has to be moved out of them by external agency, if at all. But should such an insulator be unthen the only alternative is to have artificial leaks, attainable, as many as possible. The theory is, I think, quite plain, and


that the practice




to a certain point.



be grooves again. For people working in established ways have their own proper work to do, and have no time to " fads." So much is this the case that it often waste


happens that they have exceedingly little knowledge of how things would work out if they departed from the ruts they are accustomed to run along. That is to say, the spirit of scientific research, which was to some extent present in the industry in

early stages, has nearly all evaporated, leaving behind I am no wild enthusiast, regular rules and a hatred of fads.

having been a practician myself, but it has certainly been a matter of somewhat mild surprise to me that cable electricians,
opportunities in the last 20 or 30 years, say, should have done nothing in the matter of leaks. Perhaps there may turn out to be objections at present unThe same could be said of anything untried. thought of. Several cases of resistance to change of established practice, where the changes ultimately turned out to be of great benefit, have come under my personal observation. The proposed changes were (I believe quite honestly) first scouted as fads, and the innovator was snubbed ; next, under pressure, they were reluctantly tried ; thirdly, adopted as a matter of course, and the innovator snubbed again. But this is the nature of things, and can be seen everywhere around very notably in

who have had such unexampled

the political world.



Self-induction imparts



Momentum to Waves, and that Analogy with a Flexible Cord.



have now to consider in what way self-induc-

tion comes in to influence the transmission of waves along wires. The first step in this direction was made by Kirchhoff
it is only in recent years that selfinduction has become prominent as an active agent, and its real resultant effect worked out and understood, more or

as long ago as 1858, but

on first acquaintance, a somewhat suris, and paradoxical one. Everyone knows the impeding prising

This effect

How, then, in the name be beneficial in a telegraph or telephone To answer this, circuit, and make signals bigger and clearer ? it will be convenient to make use of an analogy in the first
effect of self-induction in apparatus.

of Faraday, can


There is, in a great measure, a formal resemblance between the problem of a telephone circuit along which electromagnetic disturbances are being propagated, and the mechanical problem
of the transverse motions of a stretched flexible cord.



make the formal resemblance be

also a practical resemblance,

several little things have to be attended to, and reservations made. Now there are a great many mechanical problems con-

cerning wave-motion subject to friction which make better analogies for the use of the mathematical inquirer ; but the
case of a flexible cord



or less familiar to everyone,


up to a certain point, easily The commonest knowledge

of the transverse motions of a

stretched cord

mental mode

concerning its normal vibrations, the fundaand its harmonics. But we do not want them in

our analogy. For although we may have something similar with short waves, and especially Hertzian waves, it would not be easy to set up such a state of things on a telegraph circuit,

which is usually so long as modes by reflection at the


to prevent the assumption of normal For the normal vibrations of

a cord are complex affairs, depending not only upon propagation of motion along it, but also on the constraints to which it is
desire the propaBut if we disturb a gational effect to show itself distinctly. stationary stretched wire at one end, the pulses produced run

terminally or intermediately subjected.





to and fro too quickly for practical observation. Take, then, a long india-rubber cord, suspended from a height, as is sometimes done by lecturers. The speed of transmission of pulses

be made small enough to allow the disturbances to be Then, if the cord hang vertically at rest to begin with, and its lower end be momentarily jerked, bringing it immediately back to its original position, a hump is


conveniently watched.

generated, which runs along to the fixed end.

It is not


and is reflected back, and re-reflected many times. But we only want to consider the passage of a hump one way. Properly speaking, then, we should have so long a
changed in
is Per(by frictional loss) insignificant. a very long cord laid upon a surface of ice would be more haps suitable for the purpose. But if the " fixed end " be movable

cord that reflection

transversely, and its motion be resisted by a force proportional to its velocity, their constant ratio may have such a value

given to it (depending upon the mass and tension of the cord), that the arriving disturbances do not produce any reflected
waves, but areabsorbed by the terminal resistance.

The cord

theory, of course, but I dare say a sufficiently good practical imitation could be got by means of a terminal block sliding upon a wire

then behaves as


were infinitely long.






imperfect cancellation of the reflection


easily got.

so that there

Disregarding the slow change of type and the attenuation, is undistorted propagation of a hump, or of a

succession of

humps making a

train of waves going one


only, this case is analogous to the transmission of waves along a uniform circuit of no resistance. The two constants L and

by another two, viz., the or mass divided by length) and tension of the density (linear, cord. Thus, large permittance, that is, small elastance, means
in the electrical case are replaced


small tension, or a slack cord ; and large inductance means a " massive cord. If I said a " heavy cord, it might be thought that its weight was concerned in the matter in question, but
it is

not, save as a disturbing factor.
of the cord

The transverse



may be compared

with the transverse voltage

the electrical the

Other comparisons (theoretically


may be made, but this is perhaps the most motion of humps be actually watched.




to imitate the action of the resistance (assumed to be

constant) of an electrical circuit, the transverse motion of the cord must be frictionally resisted, and the frictionality (or











be proportional


The motion of the cord is frictionally resisted, both and externally. It is very unlikely that this should internally give rise to a constant frictionality, but there is a similarity insofar as the waves sent along the cord do attenuate and are

distorted as they progress.

But the

friction is not

anything like enough in the case

of a

cord in air to imitate the submarine cable
too great, and likewise the

besides that, the ; tension. Even to copy

telephonic waves going along very long copper wires of low resistance, we should increase the friction in the mechanical
if we desire to have an equal amount of attenuation wave length. The cord should, therefore, be in a viscous medium, and the viscous resistance to the cord's motion should be so great as to produce a marked attenuation during the

in a

transit of a

hump, though


should not be so great as to

distinct propagation as a hump, without great disprevent tortion of shape and spreading out. Under these circumstances

we may exemplify

low-resistance, long-distance, overland tele-

is relatively large and the small. permittance relatively But to imitate a submarine- cable we should have a slack




send a

cord of small mass in a highly viscous medium. We can then hump only a little way along it as a hump, for it

becomes greatly distorted and diffused. Consequently, if we compared the displacements at a great distance along the cord
with those impressed upon

at the free end,

we should

find a

state of things quite different from what occurs in the case of an india-rubber cord in air. The main features of the originated

disturbances might be recognised, unless the attenuation were too great, but they would be out of all proportion. In particular, there is a tendency to obliterate small humps, or ripples whilst

the big ones persist.

The propagation


of the sluggish kind

characteristic of diffusion, quite unlike that of purely elastic If the slack cord could have no mass at all, we should waves.

then imitate a submarine cable wholly without inductance.

associating L with inertia. by a continuous increase of density. The soundness this dynamical explanation (made by me some years since in asserting and proving the fact concerned) was endorsed by Lord And I am proud to add. there be 1. But these are not immediately question. reducing the frictionality. IV. cause the nature of propagation to pass continuously from the sluggish. Under these circumstances we could convert the diffusive waves to something like elastic waves by giving mass to the Without changing either its tension or the frictionality. may that I excuse themselves from understanding me by the plea am a Schopenhauer (!). and to emphasise the possible suppose we have the power of continuously increasing the inductance of an Atlantic cable from a small quantity up to a very large one. bringing the tance). that Lord Kelvin expressed his appreciation of the very practical my theory to practice.000 and without introducing any be controlled by resistance. So it is in the electrical case. Starting with L = 0. or equivalently the inertia of the cord. for the benefit of those who Kelvin. way in which I had reduced other dynamical arrangements might be alluded to. exemplifying the power of inertial momentum to overcome Many frictional resistance. effect. independent of the particular mechanical It is may be employed for illustration. we could. We might also do the same by -increasing the tension and small in (like. but it is not easy to get a good one exhibiting elastic waves plainly. By increasing the inductance we impart momentum This statement analogy that is to the waves. and that carries them on. diffusive kind to the elastic kind with approximate preservation of form of waves. cord. in spite of the little tension. keeping the density by reducing the permittance and the resistance inductance into imporin an electrical circuit.432 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. without altering illustrate To the nature.000 . and LC with momentum. By increasing the mass. probably of representative of the actual dynamics of the matter. magnitude of the its other actions resistance or permittance. and making. and inductance. than those to permittance. we impart momentum to the waves. say. which allows them to be carried forward. against the resistance of the surrounding medium. CH. will waves per second \t one end. 1.

Some Self-induction combined with Leaks. The region of practical waves will continuously extend miles itself right through the cable. Circuit. Heaviside. the illustration serves its purpose in showing the action of selfinduction. lines were only a few miles So condenser action was out of practical question then. with the use of longer and longer lines and underground lines. except for mere local lines. originally. But let waves of the same size (which will need greater battery power to produce) be kept up at the sending end whilst L is continuously increased all along the cable. and suggested Distortionless 216. So permittance and inductance usually pp . Self-induction came in with the telephone. The Bridge System W. 433 waves per second of workable magnitude only in a small part of the cable near the sending end . of telephones is a magnetic affair when the lines are short enough. not exactly in the shore-end. to examine the influence of their permittance in In hardly any case of conjunction with their inductance. just as if they were lines in a laboratory. and that makes inertia important. the frequency of the currents concerned is So the theory very great. to all that. The resistance would need to be so large that the lines would be wholly unsuitable for telephony. In the meantime. At any rate. by a partial conversion to elastic With very big waves. reflection. inductance the waves would reach the distant end nearly in full size. and it became necessary. however. with little attenuation in transit. of Mr. On the other hand. later. and take the permittance alone. long. wholly beneficial. a mere house-to-house affair. That was. but before 100 is traversed.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAQNBTIC WAVES. increases the amplitude and lessens the remarks on increasing inductance will come distortion. the amplitude will attenuate to insignificance. as it reason. which is. A. as before stated. Even then they could be doubled in size by the though there would be no useful purpose served by of inductance required. some few remarks on self-induction combined with leakage should come in here. The amount produce these results would be out of Nevertheless. telephony can we ignore the self-induction. But the telephone soon got beyond that.

434 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. Anyhow. It seems very easy and obvious now. But when this was done with telephones. I believe). Why was this done? Simply because they knew no generally. the telephone soon stopped their The exchange referred to was then turned into a telephone exchange. especially when underground wires were included. which very soon set a limit to the admissible number of intermediates on a circuit and to the length of the circuit. first at Newcastle. but. it was found that the intermediates had a very deleterious influence. CH. with local intercommunication a sort of family arrangement. however. and became known as the Bridge System. so to speak . though. it was demonstrably a wonderful improvement it was adopted. and that an immense improvement was made by taking them out of the circuit. not being understood. example. there was the complete removal from aspect. But it is not so easy to conceive the state of mind of old stagers. in fact. . the proposition to put the instruments in bridge was pooh-poohed at first. and then elsewhere. Heaviside. These were beautiful instruments mechanically manufacture. Now. or with call-instruments replacing them. Like lamps in parallel. in certain cases it was needed to have many instruments in one circuit. for . being It was the custom to do so in the telegraphs an obvious arrangement not so much in England. called in series) In the circuit. A. whereof the manipulation resembled that of the hurdy-gurdy. As. My brother. a number of coal pits and colliery offices belonging to one firm. exchange before telephones. better. found by experiment that it was quite unnecessary to put the instruments in sequence according to old practice. it presented itself in a double First of all. When this system was brought to my knowledge. had an intercommunication exchange at Newcastle. W. as shunts or bridges. IV. go together in considering telephony. Mr. as elsewhere. and putting them across it. The custom was to set all the intermediates in sequence (otherwise. using alphabetical indicators. of course. but perhaps not so well. who took up the telephone with ardour from the first (making the first one made in England. But there was an Following the telephone came exchanges. the circuit of intermediate impedance in big lumps. and I was asked for theoretical explanation. My brother. This was . and if one of them is ignorable it is the permittance rather than the inductance.

a recent proposal of Prof. Considering that the bridge system consists electrically of a circuit with a number of leaks on it. It will be observed here that the expediting considered before ( leakage 213. b*ut My doubtful in others. and is. The other aspect of the matter was this. but on it. the bridges caused a weakening of the intensity of the speech received when many bridges were passed. This point will The investigation to me of this bridge system of telephony suggested the distortionless circuit. of Atlantic cables the bridge system. The shunts are in order to mitigate the attenuative evil. though it may be remarked would make very little difference with the slow signalling if they were inductive.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. This tended to prevent the currents passing along the line from entering the shunts. intentionally very much inductive. and why a far greater number of intermediates co^ld be put on. in certain It appeared. On the other hand. inductive shunts. non- that it and intentionally so. of not much importance compared with the major Besides. leaving ? insulation cases. For they were not put in the circuit. 435 manifestly the main reason of the increase in working distance possible. certainly. st> to speak. far more than would be needed or desirable for their natural use. effect. Silvanus Thompson is to use inducThe arrangement is electrically as in tive shunts on cables. and especially so as regards the currents of high frequency. brother's answer was Yes. but the object be returned to. not merely than if the intermediates were in series in the circuit. but better than if the shunts or bridges were removed altogether. is different. 214) is merely incidental. Was not the articulation better. I inquired whether the intermediates were not actually beneficial to through communication. To prevent this weakening becoming inconveniently great. my proposed leaks (214) for submarine cables were inductive. the inter- mediate call-instruments in bridge were purposely made to have considerable resistance and inductance. and allowed them to be transmitted in greater effect of magnitude. partly destroyed by the large impedance of the bridges. to be only a minor one. in fact. Now. independently of the previous effect. as I have before acknowledged FP2 . however. and bearing in mind my old investigations concerning leaks.

when the self-induction of the line was not negligible ? Now the influence of the bridges can be very readily stated for There is no difficulty. We now have perfect compensation with this one. therefore. or increases the current and reduces the charge behind the A resistance and a leak leak. 197. 209. to state how it came about. of the line and of the . since it is not presented to one by the above-described experiences with the bridge system. or any number of successive resist- ances and leaks of the same kind. and the conductance a part of the leakage. the current positively On the other hand. It may be of interest ("Electrical Papers. effect produced by a leak on a wave passing it of the" elastic This implies that the resistance of the line is sufficiently type.436 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. namely. or increases the charge and reduces the current behind the resistance. low for waves of the frequency concerned to retain that type approximately." Vol. 402). as well as a set when one knows how to do it. led to examine the readily interpretable. it becomes perfect when they are infinitely small. leaving only an attenuating effect on the transmitted wave. (Ln should be greater than R. The question was. of course. in this sense : A resistance in the circuit reflects the charge positively and the current negatively. the resistance and perly chosen. or of a succession of bridges. the resistance a part of the resistance of the line. IV. II.) (See also at the same place therefore tend to counteract one together another in producing a reflected wave..) Now this was an easy problem. in steady currents. of leaks. CH. This led to the distortionless circuit. They may then be a part of the circuit itself. conductance per unit length of circuit. p. But the general formulae thus obtained are altogether too complicated to be I was. a leak reflects and the charge negatively. either. finding the full formulae required to express the voltage and current and their variations in any part of the system when the inductance and permittance are operative. For although the compensation of the resistance in the circuit and the conductance across it is im- perfect when they are finite. provided their ratio is proThis occurs when R and K. and the result was to show that comparatively a leak (or conductance in bridge) had the opposite effect on a wave passing it along the line to that of a resistance inserted in the circuit at the same place. What was the effect of a bridge.

mainly by laboratory work followed by mathematical inves- . L and S. This was not because the circuit was made distortionless. Condition of First-Class Telephony. This brings us round is very big. and have finite distortionless sigGiven R and S nals. when L/R = S/K. the smaller need K be. mentally different. indicating of the electric and magnetic time-constants. would be to increase L. II. if L should be so small that the introduction of K of the proper amount to reach the distortionless produce unreasonable attenuation. only the former is more indirect than the latter. and S. and when it will serve. But there are two sorts of evidence. then. L. now. 437 leakage respectively." Vol.THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. and S. are taken in the same ratio as the two other constants. and since we see now that very little leakage is needed to bring about the distortionless condition. now ask what is the evidence in favour of the beneficial action of self-induction. Let us Importance of the Magnetic Reactance. Or. Evidence in Favour of Self-induction. pp. it is There was plenty in 1887. then one condition should way of curing this For then a smaller amount of leakage The bigger L. 119 to 168. it follows that it can be made distortionless by the addition of leakage alone of a certain amount. (See Electrical Papers.. or distortionless to the extent permitted by the ap" proximate constancy of R. fluence of self-induction shows that we can do the same with a finite leakage conductance. We have certain electrical laws established. however . 217. And since every circuit has R.) In 213 we saw that even in the electrostatic theory leakage would allow us to signal as fast as we liked provided we could do it with an infinitesimal current. to the case at the end of 215. overwhelming The two are not fundathe theoretical and the experiential. L. we conclude that it is approximately distortionless without the leakage. due to waves of the purely elastic type. but on account of the infinitely Now the inclusion of the inrapid charge and discharge. where we had elastic waves with little attenuation on an Atlantic cable got without any leakage. for detailed theory of the distortionless circuit. then very little K is needed. There is equality now an undistorted transmission of any kind of signals.

or have no interest in it. CH. the theory itself must be re-examined. " Then. or not have time to examine it . quite enough to make the theoretical conclusions practically certain. and have confidence in your investigations. by the confirmation they afforded. all rigidly connected together by pure reasoning. But the electrostatic shows such very considerable distortion even when theory . there waa never any sufficient warrant) we can calculate its consequences. even though Discoveries are frequently evidence." (Oliver Lodge. thing is to correctly recognise the prevailing conditions and determine their results. How big it may be is questionable. or not have the energy . IV. you must Call him louder!" tricity Now. The important tigation. but not have suffi- cient acquaintance with the subject . however. then you there may consider may be no direct this way. and there is no reason whatever to suppose that they do not hold good out of doors as well as inside. the foundation of fact is the experimental facts of elecand the laws deduced therefrom. all conclusions must sooner or later be brought to the test of experiment . but upon this a great structure of theoretical deduction can be based. Assuming the electrostatic theory to be true in telephony (for which. provided no mistake is made.) made in must be " A foundation of experimental fact there But to convince other people is quite another matter. Now. RSJ2 of the total resistance They indicate that the product and the total permittance limits the distance I through which telephony is possible. and the flaw discovered. and if disagreeing therewith. though these laws are sometimes more comprehensive than the facts upon which they But there was. or else the theory must be abandoned. . We cannot say certainly beforehand how much distortion is permissible before the human will fail to recognise certain sounds as speech. evidence. especially oversight. if you can be pretty sure that you have done this. that you prove a thing. and all necessarily as true as the premises. in 1887. To guard against the possibility of mistake and oversight. They may not be competent to understand the Or they may be fully competent.138 BLBCTROMAGi^ExiC THEORY. a certain amount of direct are based. evidence as well. on account of the very complicated nature of the problem when the human is taken in as a part of the mechanism. as Elijah said to the priests of Baal.

. ance. RSI 2 is 439 it is as low as 5. and when it is negative. lately proposed in France. the ratio of the resistance to the reactance. being then the effective induct- apart from the permittance. positive or negative. the value of Lrc.000 or 7. and It may be generalised to to be a practical word.000 ohms x microfarads. and without the inconvenience of the leakage needed to remove the distortion. in this country with circuits including underground cables. but not in proportion to the inverse square of Z.000. where long-distance telephony had already made a good beginning. " was term " reactance The seems to me L and the reactance are positive. When L .000 might be taken as the practical limit for rough purposes. the impedance of unit length of circuit. Any if long circuit may be the magnetic side of the made approximately distortionless phenomena can be made important. The useful guide in considering telephony is the size of the quantity R/Ln. the two terms appear2 ing in (R + L 2 tt 2 )*. of any combinasignify tion of coils and condensers. as well as in America. that of telephony could be practicable if it were much bigger. side prevails the electric side prevails and the current leads. and So there was sufficient direct evidence then to satisfy anyone competent to judge who considered it fairly without being pre- judiced by the amount and of this direct evidence 2 law of the squares. which may be about ten times as great as the probable value under purely electrostatic conditions.000 for example. Perhaps 5. reduce R when we increase Z. the magnetic and the current lags .000 and higher. which leakage.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.000 if the circuit were long enough. scarcely credible that any sort But experience showed that good telephony was got up to 10.000. by directing us to lower 2 R L in order to increase the value of RS possible. or anything like it. But there is nothing critical about 50. is essential when the magnetic side cannot be made important. the has been greatly multiplied. RS has got up to 50. Now the inclusion of the influence of self-induction in the theory explained these results (and also the failure of iron wires and the success of copper) and pointed out how to improve upon them. It might We may need to be 500. Since that time. however. Manifestly the electrostatic theory was erroneous by direct as well as indirect evidence. increase viz. as 10.

000.. which admits of a is not less but is greater at the low frequencies and less at the higher. the American electricians * See may " be able from their extended . and Lra. that is. then R is 50. IV. 339. The most suitable state is when R/Lw. and the element of frequency tends to disappear altogether. present. Perhaps Committee want to consecrate. then R/Lra Divide n by 2?r upwards. Vol. CH. per centim. when R is less than the smallest value of Im. has nothing to do with the ridiculous than 1 from to obtain he frequency. and the five successive octaves. and we shall have something like the electrostatic theory. usual considerable amount Then R/Lw. and observing that when R/Lw. when high. 1.250 This 2?r which the B. C. The significant point in calculations of this kind is the position of n in the scale of frequency which produces equality of R and distance telephony.* For example. and L = 20 (centim. At R and L are as before. if the lowest value of n be 625. II. If also the resistance 5 ohms per kilometre. excellent state of things from only at the low frequencies does n= 20.500.440 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. however. and formula to the above type. less 4?r = 1. n. R/L is then 4 at the lowest frequency. or L be doubled is (for is indifferent which done).000. the influence of L is small. the last being at The value 2. R/L/7& may be very small we have nearly the same attenuation in a given distance at all frequencies (not too low). provided the range of n be such as to make the ratio always But this state of things is quite unsuitable for longlarge. sarily we reduce the is Practice shows. then relatively bad. Now the ratio If so. so that there is little distortion. than 1 throughout the whole range of units). J. that this state of things unneces- good for commercial telephony. .A. . my " Electrical Papers for details especially App. the least value of is IM is 12. however. n= 2. of distortion.500 up to R prevail over it J at Here If is R be halved.000. a proper fraction throughout the whole range of n . We shall then have approximately distortionless propagation of the type as may be seen by examining the solution for simply periodic waves. When it is low we have good quality . of we have an 20. p.

It is for practicians to find out practical ways of doing things and whether the conversion not am much concerned that theory proves to be possible. On the other hand. the magnetic time. and to open their eyes to the part played by self-induction. but otherwise serious And with very short lines we modification may be needed. it may be. so arrange matters that at least in general. indeed. Nevertheless. here is one way of doing it. 218. that we should aim practically. Now. or not to find them if they should be impracticable. Supposing. with given kinds It should be of instruments for transmission and reception. Various Ways. good and bad. understood that the above remarks do not apply to short lines. I For is practicable.THEORY OP PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. he. The ideal is the distortionless circuit. the above type is still preserved (with R/Lw. myself. as big as possible. small. or not at all 217. less than 1) by practical annihilation of reflected waves. It is clear. or at least need not be small. now. of increasing the Inductance of Circuits. requiring both self- induction and leakage.constant. if the existent induct- ance in make R/Lw. being that it under the belief that R should be high. in this part of the question. If. that practicians have come to discard the supposed limitations so persistently asserted by official electricians in England. 441 experience to give practical information on this and other points concerned in telephony. an old practitioner was asked to put up a long-distance telephone circuit. We may. a few years ago. may apply a purely magnetic theory. they will naturally recognise the wide possibilities that are suggested in future developments. in the sense described we do not want the leakage particularly. then the needed leakage may be too great by far in many cases. I add a few remarks on the applicational side. and want to know whether such possibilities can be converted into actualities. and that L should be as small as . then. is big enough to at making L/R. If we utilise the present existent inductance only. since I am responsible for these views concerning the parts played by self-induction and leakage. of course. and construct an empirical formula of a sound character for determining the limiting dis- tance roughly in terms of the electrical data.

merely a wire with a concentric tube for return. fine wires.). consisting of a pair of put quite close together. and on decreasing the radius of . several hundred miles long. and R kept low. so that practical limitations are soon set to the process. for simplicity. without separating the wires so much as ratio as the inductance is increased. Now. showing that this quantity was made a minimum when the radii of the tube and wire bore a certain ratio. Also. Then R/L is nearly proportional to RS. but only to be immediately It is. a may tenfold magnification. for that makes L the smallest. he would use larger wires. but for the purpose required there could not be a worse arrangement. IV. Now Lord Kelvin gave a formula long ago. possible. would probably carry out his principles by putting up a circuit. per cm. But although L increases very fast on initial separation of wires. We can increase L to any extent by using finer and finer wires. being under the belief that the permittance of the circuit of two wires of either with respect to the earth. x CH. approximately. and faster still . consider this to be bad as regards S. the permittance. rejected. so that R/L increases instead of diminishing. Or.442 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. so that their proximity did no harm in increasing condenser action. This would be admirable if it were all. to require a double line of poles. in order to prevent the deleterious action of self- induction. if he was free from the But still close error as regards R. reduce R as The permittance will also be reduced in about the same By this simple process L be largely multiplied. L is made important. The above example shows how a very bad line may be turned into a very good one by increasing Another way is the inductance. say from 2 to 20 (cm. suggested. Consider. since it involves be quite easy. nevertheless. Then L/R is a maximum. This way of doing it is the secret of the success of the long-distance telephony which arose in America when iron was discarded. this process alters R. instructive to study failures. he would not together. unfortunately. Increase the inductance by separating the wires as widely as possible or convenient. it does not continue to increase fast on is further separation. If necessary. whilst it destroyed the deleterious self-induction. The cure would the carrying out of official views thoroughly. The supposed case is not an extravagant one. But. well. such was just one half that a circuit might do very well for local telephony.

or imperfect penetration. and it was said that they were successful for long-distance telephony. and partly prevent the utilisation of the conductance of the copper. As regards the interior iron core. becomes It does two with telephonic currents in iron wires. both harmful. if it be thick enough to make the increased L important. the wire reverse of it 443 is falls is off. counteractive influence. but will act injuriously with rapidly oscillating currents. and we do get a lot of extra resistance that should particularly be avoided. as Iron wires are failures for long-distance telephony. a sort of non-conducting iron of low In this way L. however. if iron be introduced to increase the inductance should not be in the main circuit. There it. It is like multiplying the p in ether. the copper is very important in giving conductance. But then the skin do not get the large increase of L suggested at first. as it very attractive from the results in the production of a strongly magnetic insulator. being.O^^ THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. may be multiplied greatly. to load the dielectric itself and plenty of This is theoretical point of view. This plan is interesting. then. what ultimately very rapidly. in view of the wave theory. as compared with the same withpermeability. it must be considered very questionable tvhether it can be so good as an amount of copper of the same resistance (steady). was found long ago. two principal ways sugwith finely-divided First. therefore. but only a comparatively small one with currents of great frequency. but at the and lowering the speed of prosame time allowing waves to keep up . which is practically homogeneous in bulk. the A third iron wires way must also be immediately rejected. iron. which wanted. but external to gested. and the imperfect penetration will operate injuriously. Such wires were used in America. pagation. It is not well placed for increasing the inductance. due to increased permittance. By using we can increase L largely with steady currents. But here. The case of copper-coated iron or steel wires is doubtful. out the There is a partially iron. The above considerations it show that are. it. things. important So we It lowers L and increases R. If we put the iron outside the copper the iron will be better situated for increasing L for steady currents (which is no good). effect. evidently.

increased resistance due to the sheath not being properly divided to prevent it. cables of the present type. as it consists The magnetic conand the permeance is much reduced. obtained. but in the way well known to dynamo and transformer people. is ticularly the case with telephonic currents. But as regards the practicability of this plan I say nothing. Hughes pointed out (equivalently) some years ago. of spirally laid separate stout iron wires. besides that. A least value is readily mixed one. The case is therefore a considerably Whilst we can say with confidence that with the very slow signalling which obtains through an Atlantic cable the sheath cannot make much difference. we do not utilise This is parthe iron even in the above imperfect manner. marine cable under the circumstances. and the idea of telephoning through a core resembling a poker with a copper wire run through the middle. having cores surrounded by a large quantity of iron. If the iron was in inductance already. when the current is not steady. The other way is to put the divided iron outside the working Then it had better not be divided into particles. whilst being non-conducting transversely thereto. except that I have often smiled at this ironic insulator (in more than one sense ironic). cut up so as to facilitate the flux of induction. that although there is plenty of evidence of the beneficial (and very important) influence of this principle when it is . It may be well deserving of attention to change the type of the iron Remember sheathing. here. so as to increase L and keep down R. dielectric. But it is not a solid tube. have large But it does not follow. when imperfect penetration will still further reduce the effective inductance. against the resistance of wires they may be running along.444 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. though it would be if there were no increased It is not even easy to say what is the L of a subresistance. then undoubtedly L would be much magnified with steady currents. there is the the large quantity of iron might suggest. electrically Now it may be said that submarine a solid tube. tinuity But Prof. So the increased L due to the sheath must be far less than Again. but the magnitude of the increase due to the iron and the outside return current is rather speculative. CH. it is not easy to decide whether its action is beneficial with telephonic currents to any great extent. IV. as interrupted.

no direct evidence of category of those the beneficial action of inductance brought in in this way. . Another indirect way is this. and may be worth working out and development. employing a properly closed magnetic circuit properly divided to prevent extra resistance and cancellation of the increased inductance. to make coils having large time-constants. To get large inductance with small resistance. and have large distributed inductance together with inductance in isolated lumps. That is to say. But it would seem to be sufficient if the effect of the extra resistance be of minor importance compared with the This means using coils of effect of the increased inductance. leakage may The more length /. This means the insertion of inductance coils at intervals in the main circuit. only of course in a more imperfect manner. and plenty of iron to get the inductance. is ohms per kilom. combine the two. there is. more generally. This will raise the average largest possible time-constants. coils in the points the better. carried out in a direct 445 and natural manner. having a resistance of 1 ohm. and there be one coil per kilom. .THEORY OF PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. requires the use of plenty of copper to get the conductance. try to get a large average inductance. This plan does not belong to the mentioned before. or. is that inductance coils have electrical difficulty resistance as well. of course. m therefore each of half the inductance or mn coils each of one here 7i th the inductance of the first. the natural resistance. and if the time-constant be the extra inductance may far more than nullify big enough. and if this The be too great the remedy is worse than the disease. But I should add that there is. low resistance and the For suppose 4 ohms per kilom. which a moment's conIt is a straightsideration showed to be worse than useless. so we should try to imitate the inertial effect of uniform inductance by concentrating the inductance at distinct points. no experimental evidence yet published of the equivalent success of indirect ways involving the use of iron. forward way of increasing L largely without too much increase of resistance. and . Instead of trying to get large uniformly spread inductance. Or. the resistance evil. Say or 2m coils of the same total inductance. so far as I am aware. just as the effect of uniform be imitated by leakage concentrated at distinct points. The same reasoning applies to coils at resistance to 5 greater intervals. so far.

the current lags. in a simply periodic state of frequency n/'2irt ni. Thus.446 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. CH. Leakage can be very influence of the frequency in conjunction with the beneficial when self-induction does next to nothing. where resistance and inductance. as before described. Inductive shunts involve some other considerations. which is the theoretical ideal. owing to the self-induction. which. the resistance and L are its operator of the coil being R + L^. . But remember the inductance. Or we may say that magnetic inductances tend to neutralise electric permittances. when the two combination is are in sequence the resistance operator of the Z = R + Lp + (Sp)-i. and may be reversed or converted into a lead. any approach to which is desirable if it be done without too much loss . that we should increase L first in preference to putting on leaks first. bearing in mind. In lag is The the result coil diminished. when a coil is under the action of an impressed simply periodic voltage. and p is the differentiator djdt . and a modified theory. IV. . Thus. and Effective Conductance and Permittance when regarded as a Condenser. that the effects of elastic compliance and of inertia tend to neutralise one another. more generally. the 219. R . The combination with leaks does not need any particular mention in detail after what has been already said relating to the distortionless circuit. on the current is the same as if we substituted for another of the same resistance and of reduced in- ductance. or even of negative inductance.* I have confined myself so far entirely to my theory of 1886-87 and results thereof. But if a condenser be introduced in sequence with the coil. too. Effective Resistance and Inductance of a Combination when regarded as a Coil. electric any electromagnetic combination the effects of and magnetic energy are antagonistic in some respects. and that of the condenser being (Sp)"1 where S is its permittance. Or. (1) making becomes R+ * /L-AV .

and being negative. a condenser whose conductance and permittance are those the combination. reduces the effective inductance of the combination from L to L . 355. or partly controlled by subsidiary arrangements.(S/& 2 )" 1 . we Y to YR from which we se