The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition.

2001

World History Encyclopedia

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Reference > Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History
Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Sixth Edition
Simply put, this is a volume that has always intended to convey the key features of world history.
—Preface to the Sixth Edition.

Renowned historian Peter N. Stearns and thirty prominent historians have combined their expertise over the past ten years to perfect this comprehensive chronology of more than 20,000 entries that span the millennia from prehistoric times to the year 2000.

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Preface Contributing Editors Bibliographic Record

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Maps

Genealogical Tables

BOSTON: HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY, 2001 NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2002

Table of Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Prehistoric Times Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. The Postclassical Period, 500–1500 The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 The Modern Period, 1789–1914 The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000

Appendixes

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition. 2001

I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

Roman Emperors Byzantine Emperors Caliphs, to 1256 Roman Popes Presidents of the United States Members of the United Nations in Order of Admission

Subject Index

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Preface to the Sixth Edition. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Preface to the Sixth Edition

The history of this encyclopedia is one of the most interesting in American (and German) publishing, with a lineage going back well over a century. My colleagues and I, as editors of this new edition, have been conscious of our responsibility in dealing with probably the most revered reference work in our discipline. I myself knew and used what we called the “Langer encyclopedia,” after its distinguished editor, William L. Langer, throughout my professional education and career. My copy was a gift from my father, and all the more cherished as a result. The present edition takes up the encyclopedia's heritage with that combination of change and continuity that any historian will recognize as a standard of human endeavor. We have kept the style of most references, as well as many specific entries from what was a marvelous compendium. We have retained the emphasis on periodization as an organizing device for the historian's craft. But in seeking to match the earlier editors' commitment to thoroughness and to an up-to-date rendition of history as a discipline, we have also made significant changes. Two of these warrant brief comment by way of orientation, and two others deserve more complete explanation. First, the present edition changes the format a bit, in that it sets out highlights before taking up the major periods and areas in detail. This arrangement is partly for convenience and partly to help readers see the forest before they engage the trees. Not all major developments, after all, fall into neat year-by-year categories, yet they must be conveyed. Purely event-based history is less satisfactory now than it was a generation ago. Second, the book has been updated chronologically from the early 1970s, where the previous edition left off, to the end of the second millennium in the Christian, or Common Era, calendar. This update captures a host of specific developments, but particularly the unfolding of history in the many new or renewed nations of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific; the trends of increasing globalization; the revival of key religions; and the end of the cold war around 1989. Two other changes, each of which required a major recasting of the encyclopedia and some reduction of previous coverage of Western Europe, reflect the twin revolutions in historical study during the past generation. The past has been redefined, and now this venerable encyclopedia has been as well.

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Preface to the Sixth Edition. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Historians now take very seriously the history of ordinary people and of facets of life apart from the great events of politics, diplomacy, and high culture. Shifts in the relationships between men and women, developments in leisure, demographic currents, and many other topics are now part of the historical mainstream. They draw attention both because they are important in their own right — workers, minority groups, and crime patterns have serious histories of their own, without which current social patterns cannot be understood — and because they have major impacts on politics, war, and high culture. Groups of ordinary people are historical actors, not just acted upon. Social and cultural history, largely ignored in the previous editions, is now given consistent attention, so that major trends can be traced and evaluated alongside the more familiar parade of statesmen and scientists. Aspects of this newer approach to history are still a knowledge frontier, and major discoveries continue to occur; but there is abundant material that can be conveyed in a standard reference work of this sort. The final change in the new edition reflects the explosion of knowledge about the histories of regions outside of Western Europe and North America and about larger, crosscutting global trends. The sections dealing with Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America are almost unrecognizable when juxtaposed with their counterparts in the previous edition. They are much more extensive, with a host of data included that was absent before. And their tone is different, in conveying significant histories that go well beyond the chronicling of the impact of the West. The histories of the world's regions outside of Europe are elaborate and complex, in premodern centuries as well as in modern times. A related change is the focus on trends that cannot be captured through the coverage of a single nation or even a single region, particularly in the sections on international patterns that preface each major chronological divide. Here are details about the diffusion of technologies or the impacts of migration, disease, and trade; and here, in the more contemporary eras, is coverage of international governmental and commercial organizations. Simply put, this is a volume that has always intended to convey the key features of world history. The world we know historically has greatly changed. The revisions that animate this edition celebrate this change, benefiting from the labors of countless venturesome scholars over the past several decades. — Peter N. Stearns, 2001

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Contributing Editors to the Sixth Edition. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Contributing Editors to the Sixth Edition

Joshua A. Fogel Sandria Freitag William Harris Bennett Hill Brij V. Lal Abraham Marcus Richard Roberts Joseph W. Trotter John Voll Barbara Weinstein

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Contributing Editors to the Sixth Edition. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Maps Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Maps
Greek City States The Roman Empire The Arab-Muslim Empire, 632 C.E.–750 C.E. The Mongol Empire Expansion of the Ottoman Empire India Before the Muslim Conquest The Byzantine Empire in the Sixth Century The Growth of the Kingdom of France Italy in the 15th Century Eastern Europe c. 1430 Europe about 1520 Growth of Russia in Europe to 1796 Europe in the 17th Century The Partitions of Poland, 1772–1795 Colonial Latin America, 1500–1750 Early Settlements on the Continent of North America The United States during the Revolution The Arctic Regions Territorial Claims in the Antarctic Napoleon‘s Empire, 1812 Europe in 1815 Central Europe, 1815–66 The Unification of Italy, 1860–1870 Europe in 1871

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Maps Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Balkans, 1878–1914 The Growth of British Power in India Asia in 1900 Australia and New Zealand The Partition of Africa&151;1914 The United States During the Confederation Period The Expansion of the United States The Civil War, 1860–1865 Dominion of Canada, Formed 1867 Latin American States after the Revolutions The Western Front The Eastern Front The Italian Front The Middle Eastern Theater of War, 1914–1918 Territorial Changes Following World War I The German Advance in France, 1940 The German Attack on the Soviet Untion, 1941–1943 South America in 1930 The Middle East between the World Wars The Pacific Theater of War, 1941–1945 Africa in 1939 Europe in 2000 The Russian Federation (Eastern Europe and Central Asia), 2000 India and Pakistan, 1970 India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, 2000 Southeast Asia in 1970 Southeast Asia in 2000 Africa 2000

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD

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Maps Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Genealogical Tables Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Genealogical Tables
The Julian-Claudian House Muhammad and the Descent of the Caliphal Dynasties The Successors of Chinggis Khan (1227–1336) The Merovingian Kings The House of Pepin (640–814) The Carolingian Dynasty (768–987) The Saxon and Salian Emperors (919–1125) The Anglo-Saxon Kings of England (802–1066) The Danish Kings of England (1013–1066) The Macedonian Emperors (867–1056) England: The Norman and Plantagenet Kings (1066–1377) Kings of Scotland (1034–1390) France: The Capetian Kings (987–1328) The Welf and Hohenstaufen Families (1056–1268) The House of Tancred (1057–1287) Spanish Rules (970–1285) Portugal: The Burgundian House (1112–1325) The Grand Princes of Kiev (862–1212) The Arpad Dynasty of Hungary (907–1301) and the Premyslid Kings of Bohemia (1198–1378) Seljuk Sultans (1055–1194) The Comneni and the Angeli (1057–1204) Kings of Jerusalem (1099–1489) Latin Emperors of Constantinople (1204–1373) The Houses of Lancaster and York (1377–1485)

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Genealogical Tables Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The House of Stuart (1370–1625) The French Succession (1328) The House of Castile (1252–1504) The House of Aragon (1276–1516) Kings of Portugal (1248–1521) The House of Anjou (1266–1435) The Medici Family (1434–1737) The Visconti and Sforza Families (1310–1535) The House of Habsburg (1273–1519) Luxemburg Rulers (1308–1437) Scandinavian Rulers (1263–1533) Rulers of Hungary, Poland, and Lithuania (1205–1492) Grand Princes of Moscow (1176–1505) The Paleologus Family (1260–1453) The Last Valois Kings (1498–1589) The House of Habsburg (1493–1780) The House of Hanover (1714–1837) The French Bourbons (1589–1883) The House of Hohenzollern (1701–1918) Russian Tsars (1645–1917) Ottoman Sultans (1451–1648) Ottoman Sultans (1640–1922) The Safavid Dynasty The Mughal Emperors (1526–1858) The Manchu (Qing) Dynasty (1644–1796) The Tokugawa Shoguns (1603–1867) The House of Bonaparte The House of Saxe-Coburg-Windsor (1837– ) Belgium: The House of Saxe-Coburg (1831– ) The House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1800– ) The House of Bourbon-Orléans (1700– ) The Spanish Bourbons (1814– ) The House of Bernadotte (1818– ) Descendants of Queen Victoria Kings of Greece: Danish Line (1863– ) Rulers of Serbia (Yugoslavia, 1804–1945) The Qajar Dynasty in Iran (1796–1925) The Barakzay Dynasty in Afghanistan (1747–1929)

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Genealogical Tables Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Saudia Arabia: The Wahhabi Dynasty (1735– ) Rulers of Egypt (1811–1953) The Manchu (Qing) Dynasty (1796–1912) Japanese Emperors (1867– )

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD

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Table of Contents Page 1. I. Prehistoric Times. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Table of Contents Page 1
I. Prehistoric Times A. Introduction 1. History and Prehistory 2. The Study of Prehistory a. Archaeology as Anthropology and History b. Culture and Context c. Time and Space d. Finding and Digging up the Past e. Analysis and Interpretation f. Subdividing Prehistoric Times g. Theoretical Approaches to Prehistory B. Prehistory and the Great Ice Age C. Human Origins (4 Million to 1.8 Million Years Ago) D. Homo Erectus and the First Peopling of the World (1.8 Million to 250,000 Years Ago) 1. Homo Erectus 2. Fire 3. Out of Africa E. Early Homo Sapiens (c. 250,000 to c. 35,000 Years Ago) 1. The Neanderthals F. The Origins of Modern Humans (c. 150,000 to 100,000 Years Ago) G. The Spread of Modern Humans in the Old World (100,000 to 12,000 Years Ago)

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Table of Contents Page 1. I. Prehistoric Times. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1. Europe 2. Eurasia and Siberia 3. South and Southeast Asia H. The First Settlement of the Americas (c. 15,000 Years Ago) I. After the Ice Age: Holocene Hunter-Gatherers (12,000 Years Ago to Modern Times) 1. African Hunter-Gatherers 2. Asian Hunter-Gatherers 3. Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in Europe 4. Near Eastern Hunters and Foragers 5. Paleo-Indian and Archaic North Americans 6. Central and South Americans J. The Origins of Food Production K. Early Food Production in the Old World (c. 10,000 B.C.E. and Later) 1. First Farmers in the Near East 2. Early European Farmers 3. Egypt and Sub-Saharan Africa 4. Asian Farmers L. The Origins of Food Production in the Americas (c. 5000 B.C.E. and Later) M. Later Old World Prehistory (3000 B.C.E. and Afterward) 1. State-Organized Societies 2. Webs of Relations 3. Later African Prehistory a. Egypt and Nubia b. West African States c. East and Southern Africa 4. Europe after 3500 B.C.E. 5. Eurasian Nomads 6. Asia a. South Asia b. China c. Japan d. Southeast Asia 7. Offshore Settlement in the Pacific N. Chiefdoms and States in the Americas (c. 1500 B.C.E.–1532 C.E.) 1. North American Chiefdoms 2. Mesoamerican Civilizations a. Olmec b. Teotihuacán

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Table of Contents Page 1. I. Prehistoric Times. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

3. Andean Civilizations a. Beginnings b. Chavin c. Moche d. Tiwanaku e. Chimu O. The End of Prehistory (1500 C.E. to Modern Times)

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents Page 2. II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Table of Contents Page 2
II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. A. Global and Comparative Dimensions 1. Origins of Civilizations, 4000–2000 B.C.E. a. Emergence of First Civilizations b. Later Primary Civilizations c. Early, Complex Nonurban Societies d. Comparisons 2. The Growth of Civilizations, 2000–300 B.C.E. a. The Creation of Regionally Unified Societies b. Civilizations and Nonurban Societies c. The Axial Period 3. Classical Civilizations, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. a. The Middle East b. The Mediterranean Basin c. Chinese Imperial Unity d. Indian Empires e. Expansion of the Ecumene 4. The Spread of Religions, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. a. The Spread of Hellenism b. Buddhism c. Hinduism

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Table of Contents Page 2. II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

d. The Expansion of Christianity B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. 1. Periodization 2. Mesopotamia, c. 3500–539 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. The Sumerians and the Akkadians d. The Amorite Kingdoms e. The Kassites, the Hurrians, and the Arameans f. The Neo-Assyrians and the Neo-Babylonians 3. Egypt, c. 3500–332 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. The Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period (1st–11th Dynasties) d. The Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period (11th–17th Dynasties) e. The New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period (18th–24th Dynasties) f. The Late Dynastic Period (25th–31st Dynasties) 4. East Africa, c. 2000–332 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. Kush and Punt d. The Kingdoms of Napata and Meroë 5. Syria-Palestine, c. 3500–323 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. Ebla and Mari d. The Land of Canaan e. Israel and Judah f. The Land of Aram (Syria) 6. Phoenicia, Carthage, and the Phoenician Colonies, c. 1200–322 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. Phoenicia d. Carthage and the Western Phoenician Colonies 7. Asia Minor, c. 3000–333 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. The Hattians and the Hittites

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Table of Contents Page 2. II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

d. The Phrygians and the Lydians e. Persian Asia Minor 8. Armenia, c. 1300–331 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. Urartu (Van) d. Armenia 9. Iran, c. 2700–330 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. The Elamites d. The Medes and the Persians e. The Persian Empire 10. Arabia, c. 850–332 B.C.E. a. Geography b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture c. Northern Arabia d. Southern Arabia C. Early Civilizations and Classical Empires of South and East Asia 1. South Asia, to 72 B.C.E. 2. South Asia, 72 B.C.E.–500 C.E. a. North India: Punjab and the Gangetic Plain b. The Deccan c. South India d. Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 3. Southeast Asia, c. 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. a. Funan b. Champa c. Burma (Pagan) 4. China, to 221 B.C.E. a. Schools of Classical Chinese Thought 5. China, 221 B.C.E.–589 C.E. 6. Korea, to 540 C.E. 7. Japan, to 527 C.E. a. Geography b. Ethnology c. Religion d. Early Civilization

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Table of Contents Page 2. II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

e. Japanese Historical Mythology D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World 1. The Bronze Age, 3000–1200 B.C.E. a. Geography b. The Minoan Civilization c. Mainland Greece: The Early and Middle Helladic Periods d. The Late Helladic Period: The Mycenaean Age e. The Greeks in Asia Minor 2. The Dark Ages, 1200–800 B.C.E. a. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture b. The Dorian Invasion c. The Aeolian and Ionian Migrations and the Greek Renaissance 3. The Archaic Period, 800–510 B.C.E. a. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture b. Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands c. Sparta and the Peloponnese d. Athens e. Central and Northern Greece f. Sicily and Magna Graecia 4. The Classical Age, 510–323 B.C.E. a. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture b. The Rise of Athenian Democracy and the Persian Wars c. The Rise of the Athenian Empire d. The First Peloponnesian War e. The Second (Great) Peloponnesian War f. The Spartan Hegemony g. The Theban Hegemony h. The Macedonian Empire 5. The Hellenistic World, to 30 B.C.E. a. Economy, Society, and Culture b. The Wars of the Diadochi c. Macedon and Greece, to 146 B.C.E. d. The Seleucids and Pergamum e. Parthia f. Bactria g. Ptolemaic Egypt to the Roman Conquest h. Sicily E. Rome

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Table of Contents Page 2. II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1. The Monarchy and the Early Republic, 334 (338)–264 B.C.E. a. Geography and Climate b. The Peoples of Italy c. Economy, Society, and Culture d. The Regal Period e. The Early Republic f. The Conquest of Italy 2. The Republic, 264–70 B.C.E. a. Geography and Climate b. Economy, Society, and Culture c. The Punic Wars d. Conquest of the Mediterranean e. Domestic Strife f. War and Politics, to 70 B.C.E. 3. Civil War and Renewal, 70 B.C.E.–14 C.E. a. Economy, Society, and Culture b. Military Dynasts and Civil Wars c. Augustus and the Principate 4. The Roman Empire, 14–284 C.E. a. Geography and Climate b. Economy, Society, and Culture c. The Julio-Claudians d. Early Christianity e. The High Empire f. The Third Century g. The Rise of Christianity 5. The Later Empire, 284–527 C.E. a. Economy, Society, and Culture b. Diocletian and the House of Constantine c. From the Death of Julian to the Death of Valentinian III d. Christians and Pagans e. The Later Fifth Century F. The Neo-Persian Empire of the Sassanians, 223–651 C.E. a. Economy, Society, and Culture b. Ardashir I to Shapur II c. Shapur II to the Reforms of Khusrau I d. Hormizd IV to the Muslim Conquest

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Table of Contents Page 2. II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents Page 3. III. The Postclassical Period, 500-1500. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Table of Contents Page 3
III. The Postclassical Period, 500–1500 A. Global and Comparative Dimensions 1. Periodization, 500–1000 a. Transformation of Regional Civilizations b. Comparisons c. Interregional Relationships d. Continued Spread of Religions e. The Global Picture 2. The High Postclassical Period, 1000–1500 a. Major Interregional Expansions b. Interregional Exchanges c. The Religious Context d. The Global Picture B. The Middle East and North Africa, 500–1500 1. The Rise and Expansion of Islam, 610–945 a. Overview b. Muhammad and the Rise of Islam c. The Umayyad Caliphate d. The Abbasid Caliphate and Its Breakup 2. The Muslim Middle East and North Africa, c. 945–1500 a. Overview

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Table of Contents Page 3. III. The Postclassical Period, 500-1500. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

b. Iran, Iraq, and Anatolia c. The Mongol Empire and Its Successors d. The Ottoman Empire e. Egypt and Syria f. North Africa C. South and Southeast Asia, 500–1500 1. South Asia, 500–1199 a. North India b. Deccan and Western India c. South India 2. Southeast Asia, 500–900 a. The Malay Archipelago and Peninsula b. Mainland Southeast Asia 3. South Asia, 1000–1500 a. North India and Deccan b. Bengal c. South India d. Ceylon 4. Southeast Asia, c. 900–1557 a. The Malay Archipelago and Peninsula b. Mainland Southeast Asia D. Africa, 500–1500 1. Historical Trends, 500–1000 2. Regions, 500–1000 a. Sudanic West and Central Africa b. Forest West Africa c. Northeast Africa (Horn) d. East Africa e. West Central Africa f. Southern Africa g. Madagascar 3. Historical Trends, 1000–1500 4. Regions, 1000–1500 a. Sudanic West and Central Africa b. Forest West Africa c. Northeast Africa (Horn) d. East Africa e. West Central Africa

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Table of Contents Page 3. III. The Postclassical Period, 500-1500. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

f. Southern Africa g. Madagascar E. East Asia, to 1527 1. China, 589–960 a. Periodization and Events b. Political, Social, and Cultural Patterns 2. China, 960–1521 a. Periodization and Events b. Political, Social, and Cultural Patterns c. The Mongol Period d. The Early Ming 3. Korea, 540–918 4. Korea, 918–1392 a. Major Events b. Political, Social, and Cultural Patterns 5. Japan, 552–1185 6. Japan, 1185–1493 a. General Characteristics b. Major Events 7. Vietnam a. Origins to 1009 b. 1009–1527, Independence and Its Defense F. Europe, 461–1500 1. Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 461–1000 a. Conditions of Life b. The Early Church c. Invaders of the West d. The Ostrogoths in Italy e. The Frankish Kingdom f. The Lombards and the Popes g. The Empire of Charlemagne and Its Disintegration h. The West Franks under the Carolingian Kings i. Germany under the Carolingian and Saxon Emperors j. Spain k. The British Isles l. Scandinavia 2. Eastern Europe, 500–1025 a. The Byzantine Empire

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Table of Contents Page 3. III. The Postclassical Period, 500-1500. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

b. The First Bulgarian Empire 3. Western Europe and the Age of the Cathedrals, 1000–1300 a. Overview b. The British Isles c. France d. Germany e. Scandinavia f. The Papacy and Italy g. The Iberian Peninsula 4. Eastern Europe, 1000–1300 a. The Slavs b. Bohemia and Moravia c. Poland d. Kievan Russia e. Hungary f. Serbia g. The Second Bulgarian Empire 5. Christian States in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1000–1300 a. The Byzantine Empire b. The Crusades c. Latin and Greek States in the Middle East 6. Western Europe, 1300–1500 a. Overview b. The British Isles c. France d. The Iberian Peninsula e. The Papacy and Italy f. The Holy Roman Empire g. Scandinavia 7. Eastern Europe, 1300–1500 a. Poland b. Lithuania c. Russia d. Hungary e. The Serbian States f. The Byzantine Empire G. The Americas, 1000–1525 1. Pre-Columbian South and Central America and the Caribbean, 1200–1530

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Table of Contents Page 3. III. The Postclassical Period, 500-1500. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

2. Pre-Columbian Explorations by Europeans, 1200–1530 3. The Voyages of Columbus, 1492–1504 4. Post-Columbian Discoveries, 1497–1522

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents Page 4. IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500-1800. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Table of Contents Page 4
IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 A. Global and Comparative Dimensions 1. New-Style Empires and States, 1500–1700 a. Gunpowder Empires b. Other Emerging States c. European National Monarchies d. The New Context of the 18th Century 2. Transformations of Major World Societies, 1500–1800 a. Commercialization b. Worldview Reformations 3. Global Interaction Networks a. The Emerging World Economy b. The Exchange of New Products c. The Spread of Diseases B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 1. Europe, 1479–1675 a. Overview b. England, Scotland, and Ireland c. The Netherlands d. France e. The Iberian Peninsula

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Table of Contents Page 4. IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500-1800. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

f. Italy g. The German Empire h. Scandinavia i. Russia j. Poland-Lithuania k. Bohemia l. Hungary 2. Science and Learning, 1450–1700 a. Science b. Inventions and Technology 3. Europe, 1648–1814 a. Economic and Social Changes b. Intellectual Developments c. Culture and Popular Culture d. Science and Technology 4. European Diplomacy and Wars, 1648–1795 5. National Patterns, 1648–1815 a. England, Scotland, and Ireland b. The Dutch Republic c. France d. The Iberian Peninsula e. Italy and the Papacy f. The Swiss Confederation g. The Holy Roman Empire h. Scandinavia i. Poland j. Russia C. The Middle East and North Africa, 1500–1800 1. Overview 2. The Middle East, 1501–1808 a. The Ottoman Empire b. Iran c. Afghanistan d. Arabia 3. North Africa, 1504–1799 a. Morocco b. Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya D. South and Southeast Asia, 1500–1800

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Table of Contents Page 4. IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500-1800. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1. India, 1500–1800 2. Southeast Asia, 1500–1800 a. The Malay Peninsula and Archipelago b. Kedah c. Aceh d. Malaysia, 1509–1790 e. Maluku (Eastern Indonesia), 1500–17th Century 3. Mainland Southeast Asia, 1500–1800 a. Burma b. Siam (Ayutthaya) c. Cambodia E. East Asia, c. 1500–c. 1800 1. Overview 2. China, 1522–1796 a. The Remainder of the Ming Dynasty b. The Qing Dynasty 3. Korea, 1392–1800 4. Japan, 1542–1793 5. Vietnam, 1527–1802 F. The Pacific Region, 1513–1798 1. The Pacific Islands in Pre-European Times 2. European Exploration, 1600–1800 3. The Philippines, 1500–1800 G. Africa, 1500–1800 1. Overview 2. Regions a. Sudanic West and Central Africa b. Forest West Africa c. Northeast Africa (Horn) d. East Africa e. West Central Africa f. Southern Africa g. Madagascar H. Latin America, 1500–1800 1. The Spanish Conquest 2. The Caribbean and the Isthmus, 1499–1531 3. Venezuela and Nueva Granada, 1521–1549 4. Peru and the West Coast, 1522–1581

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Table of Contents Page 4. IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500-1800. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

5. The Río De La Plata 6. New Spain, 1518–1574 a. The Conquest of Mexico b. Expansion to the South c. Expansion to the North and the Pacific Coast d. The Gulf Coast, Florida, and the Carolinas 7. Foreign Encroachments and Territorial Changes, 1580–1800 8. The Spanish Colonial System, 1550–1800 a. Population Development b. Administration c. The Church and the Missions d. Economic Conditions e. Social and Cultural Evolution f. Insurrections 9. Portuguese America, 1500–1815 10. The Portuguese Colonial System I. North America, 1500–1789 1. Overview 2. Exploration and Settlement, 1500–1719 a. The French in North America b. The English in North America c. Dutch and Swedish Settlements 3. Colonial History, 1641–1737 a. New England b. New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania c. Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland d. The Southern Colonies 4. Wars of England with France and Spain, 1651–1763 5. Reform, Resistance, and Revolution, 1763–1789

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents Page 5. V. The Modern Period, 1789-1914. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

john lennon

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Table of Contents Page 5
V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 A. Global and Comparative Dimensions 1. European Global Domination, 1800–1914 a. Developments in Major Empires b. Intensified Imperial Competition c. Major Land-Based Empires d. Spread of Modern Industrialism e. Development of Modern Political Systems f. Cultural Patterns 2. Intensifications of Global International and Economic Relations, 1860–1914 a. International Agreements b. The Redefinition of the World Economy c. International Diplomacy 3. Technological Developments, 1800–1914 a. Energy and Power Sources b. Materials and Construction c. Machines and Industrial Techniques d. Agricultural Production and Food Technology e. Transportation and Communication 4. Polar Explorations a. Early Explorations

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Table of Contents Page 5. V. The Modern Period, 1789-1914. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

b. Early Modern European Expeditions c. 19th-Century Explorations d. 20th-Century Explorations B. The French Revolution and Europe, 1789–1914 1. Overview 2. The French Revolution, 1789–1799 a. Causes of the Revolution b. The National Assembly c. The Legislative Assembly d. The National Convention: The Revolution's Most Radical Phase e. The Directory 3. The Napoleonic Period, 1799–1815 a. The Consulate b. The First Empire 4. Western and Central Europe, 1815–1848 a. Social, Cultural, and Economic Trends b. European Diplomacy c. The British Isles d. The Low Countries e. France f. The Iberian Peninsula g. The Italian States h. Switzerland i. Central Europe j. Scandinavia 5. Revolutions in Europe, 1848–1852 a. France b. Hungary c. Austria and Bohemia d. Italy e. Switzerland f. Germany 6. European Diplomacy, 1848–1914 7. Western and Central Europe, 1848–1914 a. Social, Cultural, and Economic Trends b. Britain c. The Low Countries d. France

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Table of Contents Page 5. V. The Modern Period, 1789-1914. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

e. The Iberian Peninsula f. Italy and the Papacy g. Switzerland h. Central Europe i. Scandinavia 8. Eastern Europe and the Balkans, 1762–1914 a. Russia b. Poland c. The Balkans C. The Middle East and North Africa, 1792–1914 1. Overview 2. The Middle East and Egypt, 1796–1914 a. The Ottoman Empire b. Iran c. Afghanistan d. Arabia e. Egypt 3. North Africa, 1792–1914 a. Morocco b. Algeria c. Tunisia d. Libya D. South and Southeast Asia, 1753–1914 1. India, 1800–1914 2. Southeast Asia, 1753–1914 a. Mainland Southeast Asia b. Peninsular and Island Southeast Asia E. East Asia, 1793–1914 1. China, 1796–1914 2. Korea, 1800–1910 3. Japan, 1793–1914 4. Vietnam, 1802–1902 F. The Pacific Region, c. 800–1914 1. The Pacific Islands, 1794–1914 2. The Philippines, 1800–1913 3. Australia, 1788–1914 4. New Zealand, c. 800–1913 G. Africa, 1795–1917

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Table of Contents Page 5. V. The Modern Period, 1789-1914. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1. Overview 2. European Exploration, 1795–1895 3. Regions a. Sudanic West and Central Africa b. Forest West Africa c. Northeast Africa (Horn) d. East Africa e. West Central Africa f. Southern Africa g. Madagascar H. North America, 1789–1914 1. The United States, 1789–1877 a. Overview b. The Early National Period c. The Civil War d. Reconstruction 2. The United States, 1878–1914 a. Overview b. New Political, Social, and Diplomatic Issues 3. British North America, 1789–1914 a. Overview b. The Dominion of Canada, 1789–1877 c. Newfoundland, 1855–1878 d. Canada, 1878–1914 e. Newfoundland, 1878–1914 I. Latin America, 1806–1914 1. Periodization 2. The Wars of Independence, 1806–1872 a. Causes b. The Río De La Plata c. Paraguay d. The Banda Oriental (Uruguay) e. Chile f. Peru and Upper Peru (Peru and Bolivia) g. Venezuela, Nueva Granada, and Quito (Gran Colombia) h. New Spain (Mexico) i. Guatemala and Central America j. Brazil

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Table of Contents Page 5. V. The Modern Period, 1789-1914. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

3. Latin America, 1820–1914 a. Overview b. South America c. Central America d. Mexico e. The Caribbean

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents Page 6. VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Table of Contents Page 6
VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 A. Global and Comparative Dimensions 1. Emerging Global Relationships a. Developing Global Institutions and Structures b. Globally Competing Ideologies 2. Nationalist Options a. Globalization of Culture 3. International Relations a. The Post–World War I Era b. The Era of the Great Depression 4. Science a. Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy b. Chemistry, Biology, Geology 5. Technological Developments a. Energy and Materials b. Materials and Construction c. Machines and Industrial Techniques d. Agricultural Production and Food Technology e. Transportation and Communication B. World War I, 1914–1918 1. The Western Front, 1914–1915 2. The Eastern Front, 1914–1915
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Table of Contents Page 6. VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

3. The War at Sea, 1914–1915 4. The Balkan Situation, 1914–1915 5. The Intervention of Italy, 1915 6. The Middle East, 1914–1918 7. The Western Front, 1916–1917 8. The Eastern Front, 1916–1917 9. The Italian Front, 1916 10. The Balkan Front, 1916–1917 a. Greece b. Romania 11. The War at Sea, 1916–1917 12. The War in the Air, 1914–1918 13. The War in the Colonies, 1914–1918 14. Peace Negotiations, 1916–1917, and the Intervention of the United States, 1917 15. The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917–1918 16. The End of the Habsburg Monarchy 17. Operations in the West, 1918 18. The Peace Settlements a. The Treaty of Versailles b. The Treaty of Saint-Germain c. The Treaty of Neuilly d. The Treaty of Trianon e. The Treaty of Sèvres Military Summary The Western Front, 1914–1915 The Eastern Front, 1914–1915 The War at Sea, 1914–1915 The Balkans, 1915–1916 The Italian Front, 1914 The Western Front, 1916–1917 The Eastern Front, 1916–1917 The Italian Front, 1916–1917 The Balkan Front, 1916–1917 The War at Sea, 1916–1918 The Western Front, 1918 C. Europe, 1919–1945 1. Economic and Social Changes 2. Intellectual and Religious Trends

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Table of Contents Page 6. VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

3. Culture and Popular Culture 4. European Diplomacy and the Depression, 1919–1939 5. The British Isles a. Great Britain b. Ireland 6. The Low Countries a. Belgium b. The Netherlands 7. France 8. The Iberian Peninsula a. Spain b. Portugal 9. Italy and the Papacy 10. Switzerland 11. Germany 12. Austria 13. Czechoslovakia 14. Hungary 15. The Scandinavian States a. Overview b. Denmark c. Norway d. Sweden e. Finland f. Iceland 16. Russia (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) 17. The Baltic States a. Overview b. Lithuania c. Latvia d. Estonia 18. Poland 19. The Balkan States a. Yugoslavia b. Albania c. Greece d. Bulgaria e. Romania

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Table of Contents Page 6. VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

D. North America, 1915–1945 1. The United States 2. The Dominion of Canada 3. Newfoundland E. Latin America and the Caribbean, 1914–1945 1. Overview a. Regional Diplomacy b. Cultural Developments 2. South America a. Argentina b. Chile c. Paraguay d. Uruguay e. Bolivia f. Peru g. Ecuador h. Colombia i. Venezuela j. Brazil 3. Central America a. Overview b. Panama c. Guatemala d. El Salvador e. Nicaragua f. Costa Rica g. Honduras 4. Mexico 5. The West Indies a. Cuba b. Puerto Rico c. The Virgin Islands d. The Dominican Republic e. Haiti F. The Middle East and North Africa, 1914–1945 1. Overview 2. The Middle East a. The Ottoman Empire and Turkey

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Table of Contents Page 6. VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

b. Iran (Persia) c. Afghanistan d. Egypt e. Syria f. Lebanon g. Palestine h. Transjordan i. Iraq j. States of the Arabian Peninsula 3. North Africa a. Morocco b. Algeria c. Tunisia d. Libya G. South and Southeast Asia, 1914–1945 1. India 2. Southeast Asia a. Mainland Southeast Asia b. Peninsular and Island Southeast Asia H. East Asia, 1902–1945 1. Overview 2. China, 1914–1945 3. Mongolian People's Republic, 1911–1926 4. Korea, 1910–1945 5. Japan, 1914–1945 6. Vietnam, 1902–1945 I. The Pacific Region, 1914–1945 1. The Pacific Islands 2. The Philippines 3. Australia 4. New Zealand J. Africa, 1914–1945 1. Overview 2. Regions a. Sudanic West and Central Africa b. Forest West Africa c. Northeast Africa (Horn) d. East Africa

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Table of Contents Page 6. VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

e. West Central Africa f. Southern Africa g. Madagascar K. World War II, 1939–1945 1. The Campaigns in Poland and Finland, 1939–1940 2. The Invasion of Denmark and Norway, 1940 3. The Conquest of the Low Countries and the Fall of France, 1940 4. The Battle of Britain, 1940 5. The Balkan Campaigns, 1940–1941 6. The Campaigns in the Soviet Union, 1941–1944 7. Defense of the Western Hemisphere, 1939–1945 8. Naval Warfare and Blockade, 1939–1944 9. The Campaigns in the Middle East and Africa, 1939–1943 10. The Invasion of Italy, 1943–1944 11. The Liberation of France and Belgium, 1944 12. The Battle of Germany, 1945 13. The War in Asia, 1939–1941 14. The War in the Pacific, 1941–1945 15. The Organization of Peace

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents Page 7. VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Table of Contents Page 7
VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 A. General and Comparative Dimensions 1. Changing Global Patterns a. Changing Structures of Global Power b. Globalization of Material Life c. Globalization and Special Identities 2. International Relations a. Rise of the Cold War and End of Empires b. New Global Relationships B. Europe, 1945–2000 1. Economic and Social Changes 2. Religious and Philosophical Thought 3. Culture and Popular Culture 4. Science and Technology 5. Diplomatic Relations and European Pacts 6. Western Europe, 1945–2000 a. Britain b. Ireland (Eire) c. The Low Countries d. France e. The Iberian Peninsula

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Table of Contents Page 7. VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

f. The Italian Region g. Switzerland h. Germany i. Austria j. The Scandinavian States 7. Eastern Europe, 1945–2000 a. Poland b. Czech Republic and Slovakia (Czechoslovakia) c. Hungary d. Yugoslavia and Successor States e. Albania f. Greece g. Bulgaria h. Romania i. Russia (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Successor States) C. North America, 1946–2000 1. The United States, 1946–2000 2. Canada, 1946–2000 D. Latin America, 1945–2000 1. Overview a. Cultural Developments b. Regional Diplomacy 2. South America, 1945–2000 a. Argentina b. Chile c. Paraguay d. Uruguay e. Bolivia f. Peru g. Ecuador h. Colombia i. Venezuela j. Brazil k. Surinam 3. Central America, 1945–2000 a. Panama b. Guatemala c. El Salvador

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Table of Contents Page 7. VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

d. Nicaragua e. Costa Rica f. Honduras 4. Mexico, 1946–2000 a. Cuba b. Puerto Rico c. The Dominican Republic d. Haiti e. British Caribbean Territories and Guyana (British Guiana) E. The Middle East and North Africa, 1945–2000 1. Overview 2. Military, Diplomatic, and Social Developments 3. The Middle East and Egypt, 1943–2000 a. Turkey b. Cyprus c. Iran d. Afghanistan e. Syria f. Lebanon g. Palestine and Israel h. Jordan i. Iraq j. Saudi Arabia k. North and South Yemen 1. The Gulf States m. Egypt 4. North Africa, 1945–2000 a. Morocco b. Algeria c. Tunisia d. Libya F. South and Southeast Asia, 1945–2000 1. South Asia, 1945–2000 a. Overview b. British India, to Independence and Partition c. The Republic of India d. Pakistan e. Bangladesh

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Table of Contents Page 7. VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

f. Sri Lanka (Ceylon) g. Maldives h. Nepal 2. Southeast Asia, 1941–2000 a. Overview b. Mainland Southeast Asia c. The Malay Archipelago and Peninsular Malaysia G. East Asia, 1945–2000 1. China, 1945–2000 a. The Civil War b. The People's Republic of China (PRC) c. The Republic of China (Taiwan, Nationalist China) 2. The Republic of Mongolia (The Mongolian People's Republic), 1945–2000 3. Korea (North and South), 1945–2000 4. Japan, 1946–2000 5. Vietnam, 1945–2000 H. The Pacific Region, 1944–2000 1. The Islands, 1946–2000 2. The Philippines, 1945–2000 3. Australia, 1944–2000 4. New Zealand, 1945–2000 I. Africa, 1941–2000 1. Overview 2. Regions a. West Africa b. Northeast Africa (Horn) c. East Africa d. West Central Africa e. Southern Africa f. Madagascar

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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I. Roman Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

1963

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

I. Roman Emperors

27 B.C.–14 C.E. Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) 14–37 Tiberius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar) 37–41 Caligula (Gaius Claudius Nero Caesar Germanicus) 41–54 Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus) 54–68 Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus Claudius Drusus) 68–69 Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba) 69 Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho) 69 Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus) 69–79 Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) 79–81 Titus (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) 81–96 Domitian (Titus Flavius Domitianus) 96–98 Nerva (Marcus Cocceius Nerva) 98–117 Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus) 117–38 Hadrian (Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus) 138–61 Antoninus Pius (Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius) 161 (146)–80 Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus) 161–69 Lucius Aurelius Verus (Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus) 180 (177)–92 Commodus (Lucius Aelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Commodus) 193 Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax) 193 Didius Julian (Marcus Didius Salvius Julianus Severus) 193–211 Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus) 211 (198)–17 Caracalla (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Bassianus Caracallus) 209–11 Geta (Publius Septimius Geta)

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I. Roman Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

217–18 Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus) 218–22 Elagabalus (Marcus Varius Avitus Bassianus Aurelius Antoninus Heliogabalus) 222–35 Alexander Severus (Marcus Alexianus Bassianus Aurelius Severus Alexander) 235–38 Maximin (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus “Thrax”) 238 Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus) 238 Gordian II 238 Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus) 238 Balbinus (Decimus Caelius Balbinus) 238–44 Gordian III (Marcus Antonius Gordianus) 244–49 Philipp “Arabs” (Marcus Julius Philippus “Arabs”) 249–51 Decius (Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius) 251 Hostilian (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus) 251–53 Gallus (Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus) 253 Aemilian (Marcus Julius Aemilius Aemilianus) 253–59 Valerian (Gaius Publius Licinius Valerianus) 259 (253)–68 Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) 268–70 Claudius II (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus) 270 Quintillus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus) 270–75 Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) 275–76 Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus) 276 Florian (Marcus Annius Florianus) 276–82 Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus) 282–83 Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus) 283–84 Numerian (Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus) 283–85 Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus) 284–305 Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocles Jovius) 286–305 Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius) 305 (293)–306 Constantius I (Flavius Valerius Constantius Chlorus) 305 (293)–311 Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus) 306–7 Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus) 306–8 Maximian (second reign) 306–12 Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius) 308–13 Maximinus Daia (Galerius Valerius Maximinus Daia) 311 (307)–24 Licinius (Gaius Flavius Valerius Licinianus Licinius) 311 (306)–37 Constantine I, the Great (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) 337–40 Constantine II (Flavius Valerius Claudius Constantinus) 337–61 Constantius II (Flavius Valerius Julius Constantius) 337–50 Constans (Flavius Valerius Julius Constans) 361–63 Julian, the Apostate (Flavius Claudius Julianus)

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I. Roman Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

363–64 Jovian (Flavius Jovianus) 364–75 Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus, in the West) 364–78 Valens (in the East) 375 (367)–83 Gratian (Flavius Graatianus Augustus, in the West) 375–92 Valentinian II (Flavius Valentinianus, in the West) 379–95 Theodosius, the Great (Flavius Theodosius, in the East, and, after 392, in the West) 383–88 Maximus (Magnus Clemens Maximus) 392–94 Eugenius 395 (383)–408 Arcadius (in the East) 395 (393)–423 Honorius (Flavius Honorius, in the West) 421 Constantius III 423–25 Johannes 408 (402)–50 Theodosius II (in the East) 425–55 Valentinian III (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus, in the West) 450–57 Marcian (Marcianus, in the East) 455 Petronius (Flavius Ancius Petronius Maximus, in the West) 455–56 Avitus (Flavius Maecilius Eparchus Avitus, in the West) 457–61 Majorian (Julius Valerius Maioranus, in the West) 457–74 Leo I (Leo Thrax, Magnus, in the East) 461–65 Severus (Libius Severianus Severus, in the West) 467–72 Anthemius (Procopius Anthemius, in the West) 472 Olybrius (Anicius Olybrius, in the West) 473 Glycerius (in the West) 473–75 Julius Nepos (in the West) 473–74 Leo II (in the East) 474–91 Zeno (in the East) 475–76 Romulus Augustulus (Flavius Momyllus Romulus Augustus, in the West)

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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I. Roman Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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II. Byzantine Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

II. Byzantine Emperors

474–91 Zeno 475–76 Basiliscus 491–518 Anastasius I 518–27 Justin I (Flavius Justinus) 527 (518)–65 Justinian the Great (Flavius Justinianus) 565–78 Justin II (Flavius Justinus) 578 (574)–82 Tiberius II (Flavius Constantinus Tiberius) 582–602 Maurice (Maurikios) 602–10 Phocas I 610–41 Heraclius I 641 Constantine III (Constantinus) 641 Heracleon (Heracleonas) 641–68 Constans II 668–85 Constantine IV (Pogonatus) 685–95 Justinian II (Rhinotmetus) 695–98 Leontius 698–705 Tiberius II (Apsimar) 705–11 Justinian II (restored) 711–13 Philippicus 713–15 Anastasius II 715–17 Theodosius III 717–41 Leo III (the Isaurican 741–75 Constantine V (Kopronymos)

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II. Byzantine Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

775–80 Leo IV 780–97 Constantine VI (Porphyrogenetos) 797–802 Irene (empress) 802–11 Nicephorus I 811 Stauracius (Staurakios) 811–13 Michael I (Rhangabé) 813–20 Leo V (the Armenian) 820–29 Michael II (Balbus) 829 (820)–42 Theophilus I 842–67 Michael III 867 (866)–86 Basil I (the Macedonian) 886–912 Leo VI (the Wise) 912–13 Alexander II 912–59 Constantine VII (Porphyrogenetos) 920–44 Romanus I (Lekcapenus) 959–63 Romanus II 963 (976)–1025 Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) 963–69 Nicephorus II (Phocas) 969–76 John I (Tzimisces) 1025 (976)–28 Constantine VIII 1028–50 Zoë (empress) 1028–34 Romanus III (Argyropulos) 1034–41 Michael IV (the Paphlagonian) 1041–42 Michael V (Kalaphates) 1042–55 Constantine IX (Monomachus) 1055–56 Theodora (empress) 1056–57 Michael VI (Stratioticos) 1057–59 Isaac I (Komnenos) 1059–67 Constantine X (Dukas) 1068–71 Romanus IV (Diogenes) 1071–78 Michael VII (Parapinakes) 1078–81 Nicephorus III (Botaniates) 1081–1118 Alexius I (Comnenus) 1118–43 John II (Comnenus) 1143–80 Manuel I (Comnenus) 1180–83 Alexius II (Comnenus) 1183–85 Andronicus I (Comnenus) 1185–95 Isaac II (Angelus) 1195–1203 Alexius III (Angelus)

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II. Byzantine Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1203–4 Isaac II (restored) 1203–4 Alexius IV 1204 Alexius V (Dukas) Latin Emperors 1204–5 Baldwin I 1205–16 Henry 1216–17 Peter of Courtenay 1217–19 Yolande 1219–28 Robert of Courtenay 1228–61 Baldwin II 1231–37 John of Brienne (co-emperor) Nicaean Emperors 1204–22 Theodore I (Lascaris) 1222–54 John III (Dukas Vatatzes) 1254–58 Theodore II (Lascaris) 1258–61 John IV (Lascaris) 1259–61 (1282) Michael VIII (Paleologos) The Paleologi 1261 (1259)–82 Michael VIII 1282–1328 Andronicus II (the Elder) 1295–1320 Michael IX (co-emperor) 1328–41 Andronicus III (the Younger) 1341–47 John V (Paleologos) 1347 (1341)–54 John VI (Kantakuzenos) 1355–76 John V (restored) 1376–79 Andronicus IV 1379–91 John V (restored) 1390 John VII 1391–1425 Manuel II 1425–48 John VIII 1448–53 Constantine XI

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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II. Byzantine Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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III. Caliphs, to 1256. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

III. Caliphs, to 1256

622 (570)–32 MUHAMMAD IBN ABDALLAH The Orthodox Caliphate 632–34 Abu Bakr 634–44 Umar ibn al-Khattab 644–56 Uthman ibn Affan 656–61 Ali ibn Abi Talib The Umayyad Caliphate 661–80 Mu’awiya I (Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan) 680–82 Yazid I 683 Mu’awiya II 684–85 Marwan I 685–705 Abd al-Malik 705–15 Walid I 715–17 Sulaiman 717–20 Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz 720–24 Yazid II 724–43 Hisham 743–44 Walid II 744 Yazid III 744 Ibrahim 744–50 Marwan II The Abbasid Caliphate

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III. Caliphs, to 1256. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

750–54 Abu al Abbas al-Saffah 754–75 Al-Mansur 775–85 Al-Mahdi 785–86 Al-Hadi 786–809 Harun Al-Rashid 809–13 Al-Amin 813–33 Al-Ma’mun (Mamun the Great) 833–42 Al-Mu’tasim 842–47 Al-Wathiq 847–61 Al-Mutawakkil 861–62 Al-Muntasir 862–66 Al-Musta’in 866–69 Al-Mu’tazz 869–70 Al-Muqtadi 870–92 Al-Mu’tamid 892–902 Al-Mu’tadid 902–8 Al-Muqtafi 908–32 Al-Muqtadir 932–34 Al-Qahir 934–40 Al-Radi 940–44 Al-Muttaqi 944–46 Al-Mustaqfi 946–74 Al-Muti 974–91 Al-Ta’i 991–1031 Al-Qadir 1031–75 Al-Qa’im 1075–94 Al-Muqtadi 1094–1118 Al-Mustazhir 1118–35 Al-Mustarshid 1135–36 Al-Rashid 1136–60 Al-Muqtafi 1160–70 Al-Mustanjid 1170–80 Al-Mustadi 1180–1225 Al-Nasir 1225–26 Al-Zahir 1226–42 Al-Mustansir 1242–56 Al-Musta’sim The Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba 756–88 Abd ar-Rahman I

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III. Caliphs, to 1256. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

788–96 Hisham I 796–822 Al-Hakam I 822–52 Abd ar-Rahman II 852–86 Muhammad I 886–88 Al Mundhir 888–912 Abdallah 912–61 Abd ar-Rahman III 961–76 Al-Hakam II al Mustansir 976–1009 Hisham II al Muayyad 1009–10 Muhammad II al-Mahdi 1009–10 Sulaiman al-Mustain 1010–13 Hisham II (restored) 1013–16 Sulaiman (restored) 1016–18 Ali ben Hammud 1018 Abd ar-Rahman IV 1018–21 Al-Qasim 1021–22 Yahya 1022–23 Al-Qasim (restored) 1023–24 Abd ar-Rahman V 1024–25 Muhammad III 1025–27 Yahya (restored) 1027–31 Hisham III The Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt 909–34 Al-Mahdi 934–45 Al-Qaim 945–52 Al-Mansur 952–75 Al-Muizz 975–96 Al-Aziz 996–1021 Al-Hakim 1021–36 Az-Zahir 1036–94 Al-Mustansir 1094–1101 Al-Mustadi 1101–30 Al-Amir 1130–49 Al-Hafiz 1149–54 Az-Zafir 1154–60 Al-Faiz 1160–71 Al-Adid

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III. Caliphs, to 1256. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD PREVIOUS NEXT

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

IV. Roman Popes

33–?67 *Peter ?67–?76 *Linus ?76–?88 *Anacletus I ?88–?97 *Clement I ?97–?105 *Evaristus ?105–?15 *Alexander I ?115–?25 *Sixtus I ?125–?36 *Telesphorus ?136–?40 *Hyginus ?140–?55 *Pius I ?155–?66 *Anicetus ?166–?75 *Soter ?175–89 *Eleuterus 189–99 *Victor I 199–217 *Zephyrinus 217–22 *Calixtus I 222–30 *Urban I 222–35 Hippolytus 230–35 *Pontian 235–36 *Anterus 236–50 *Fabian 250–51 (Vacancy) 251–53 *Cornelius

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

251–?58 Novatian 253–54 *Lucius I 254–57 *Stephen I 257–58 *Sixtus II 258–60 (Vacancy) 260–68 *Dionysius 269–74 *Felix I 275–83 *Eutychian 283–96 *Caius 296–304 *Marcellinus 304–8 (Vacancy) 308–9 *Marcellus I 309–10 *Eusebius 311–14 *Miltiades 314–35 *Sylvester I 335–36 *Marcus 337–52 *Julius I 352–66 *Liberius 353–65 Felix II 366–83 Damasus I 366–67 Ursinus 384–99 *Siricius 399–401 *Anastasius I 401–17 *Innocent I 417–18 *Zosimus 418–22 *Boniface I 418–19 Eulalius 422–32 *Celestine I 432–40 *Sixtus III 440–61 *Leo I 461–68 *Hilarius 468–83 *Simplicius 483–92 *Felix III 492–96 *Gelasius I 496–98 *Anastasius II 498–514 *Symmachus 498–505 Laurentius 514–23 *Hormisdas 523–26 *John I

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

526–30 *Felix IV 530–32 Boniface II 530 Dioscurus 533–35 John II 535–36 *Agapetus I 536–37 *Silverius 537–55 Vigilius 556–61 Pelagius I 561–74 John III 575–79 Benedict I 579–90 Pelagius II 590–604 *Gregory I 604–6 Sabinian 607 Boniface III 608–15 *Boniface IV 615–18 *Deusdedit 619–25 Boniface V 625–38 Honorius I 638–40 (Vacancy) 640 Severinus 640–42 John IV 642–49 Theodore I 649–55 *Martin I 655–57 *Eugene I 657–72 *Vitalian 672–76 Adeodatus 676–78 Donus 678–81 *Agatho 681–83 *Leo II 684–85 *Benedict II 685–86 John V 686–87 Conon 687 Theodore II 687–92 Paschal I 687–701 *Sergius I 701–5 John VI 705–7 John VII 708 Sisinnius 708–15 Constantine

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

715–31 *Gregory II 731–41 *Gregory III 741–52 *Zacharias 752–57 Stephen II 757–67 *Paul I 767 Constantine 767 Philip 767–72 Stephen III 772–95 Adrian I 795–816 *Leo III 816–17 Stephen IV 817–24 Paschal I 824–27 Eugene II 827 Valentine 827–44 Gregory IV 844 John VIII 844–47 Sergius II 847–55 *Leo IV 855–58 Benedict III 855 Anastasius III 858–67 *Nicholas I 867–72 Adrian II 872–82 John VIII 882–84 Marinus I 884–85 Adrian III 885–91 Stephen V 891–96 Formosus 896 Boniface VI 896–97 Stephen VI 897 Romanus 897 Theodore II 898–900 John IX 900–903 Benedict IV 903 Leo V 903–4 Christopher 904–11 Sergius III 911–13 Anastasius III 913–14 Lando 914–28 John X

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

928–29 Leo VI 929–31 Stephen VII 931–35 John XI 936–39 Leo VII 939–42 Stephen IX (VIII) 942–46 Marinus II 946–55 Agapetus II 955–63 John XII 963–64 Leo VIII 964 Benedict V 965–72 John XIII 973–74 Benedict VI 974–83 Benedict VII 983–84 John XIV 984–85 Boniface VII 985–96 John XV 996–99 Gregory V 996–98 John XVI 999–1003 Sylvester II 1003 John XVII 1003–9 John XVIII 1009–12 Sergius IV 1012–24 Benedict VIII 1012 Gregory VI 1024–33 John XIX 1033–45 Benedict IX 1045 Sylvester III 1045–46 Gregory VI (John Gratian Pierleoni) 1046–47 Clement II (Suitgar, Count of Morsleben) 1048 Damasus II (Count Poppo) 1049–54 *Leo IX (Bruno, Count of Toul) 1055–57 Victor II (Gebhard, Count of Hirschberg) 1057–58 Stephen IX (Frederick of Lorraine) 1058 Benedict X (John, Count of Tusculum) 1058–61 Nicholas II (Gerhard of Burgundy) 1061–73 Alexander II (Anselmo da Baggio) 1061–64 Honorius II 1073–85 *Gregory VII (Hildebrand of Soana) 1080–1100 Clement III

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1086–87 Victor III (Desiderius, Prince of Beneventum) 1088–99 Urban II (Odo of Chatillon) 1099–1118 Paschal II (Ranieri da Bieda) 1100–1102 Theodoric 1102 Albert 1105 Sylvester IV 1118–19 Gelasius II (John Coniolo) 1118–21 Gregory VIII 1119–24 Calixtus II (Guido, Count of Burgundy) 1124–30 Honorius II (Lamberto dei Fagnani) 1124 Celestine II 1130–43 Innocent II (Gregorio Papareschi) 1130–38 Anacletus II (Cardinal Pierleone) 1138 Victor IV 1143–44 Celestine II (Guido di Castello) 1144–45 Lucius II (Gherardo Caccianemici) 1145–53 Eugene III (Bernardo Paganelli) 1153–54 Anastasius IV (Corrado della Subarra) 1154–59 Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear) 1159–81 Alexander III (Orlando Bandinelli) 1159–64 Victor IV 1164–68 Paschal III 1168–78 Calixtus III 1179–80 Innocent III (Lando da Sessa) 1181–85 Lucius III (Ubaldo Allucingoli) 1185–87 Urban III (Uberto Crivelli) 1187 Gregory VIII (Alberto del Morra) 1187–91 Clement III (Paolo Scolari) 1191–98 Celestine III (Giacinto Boboni-Orsini) 1198–1216 Innocent III (Lotario de’ Conti di Segni) 1216–27 Honorius III (Cencio Savelli) 1227–41 Gregory IX (Ugolino di Segni) 1241 Celestine IV (Goffredo Castiglione) 1243–54 Innocent IV (Sinibaldo de’ Fieschi) 1254–61 Alexander IV (Rinaldo di Segni) 1261–64 Urban IV (Jacques Pantaléon) 1265–68 Clement IV (Guy le Gros Foulques) 1268–71 (Vacancy) 1271–76 *Gregory X (Tebaldo Visconti)

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1276 Innocent V (Pierre de Champagni) 1276 Adrian V (Ottobono Fieschi) 1276–77 John XXI (Pietro Rebuli-Giuliani) 1277–80 Nicholas III (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini) 1281–85 Martin IV (Simon Mompitie) 1285–87 Honorius IV (Giacomo Savelli) 1288–92 Nicholas IV (Girolamo Masci) 1294 *Celestine V (Pietro Angelari da Murrone) 1294–1303 Boniface VIII (Benedetto Gaetani) 1303–4 Benedict XI (Niccolò Boccasini) 1305–14 Clement V (Raimond Bertrand de Got) 1316–34 John XXII (Jacques Duèze) 1328–30 Nicholas V (Pietro di Corbara) 1334–42 Benedict XII (Jacques Fournier) 1342–52 Clement VI (Pierre Roger de Beaufort) 1352–62 Innocent VI (Étienne Aubert) 1362–70 Urban V (Guillaume de Grimord) 1370–78 Gregory XI (Pierre Roger de Beaufort, the Younger) 1378–89 Urban VI (Bartolomeo Prignano) 1378–94 Clement VII (Robert of Geneva) 1389–1404 Boniface IX (Pietro Tomacelli) 1394–1423 Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna) 1404–6 Innocent VII (Cosmato de’ Migliorati) 1406–15 Gregory XII (Angelo Correr) 1409–10 Alexander V (Petros Philargi) 1410–15 John XXIII (Baldassare Cossa) 1415–17 (Vacancy) 1417–31 Martin V (Ottone Colonna) 1423–29 Clement VIII 1424 Benedict XIV 1431–47 Eugene IV (Gabriele Condulmer) 1439–49 Felix V (Amadeus of Savoy) 1447–55 Nicholas V (Tommaso Parentucelli) 1455–58 Calixtus III (Alonso Borgia) 1458–64 Pius II (Aeneas Silvio de’ Piccolomini) 1464–71 Paul II (Pietro Barbo) 1471–84 Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere) 1484–92 Innocent VIII (Giovanni Battista Cibo) 1492–1503 Alexander VI (Rodrigo Lanzol y Borgia)

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1503 Pius III (Francesco Todoeschini-Piccolomini) 1503–13 Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) 1513–21 Leo X (Giovanni de’ Medici) 1522–23 Adrian VI (Hadrian Florensz) 1523–34 Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici) 1534–49 Paul III (Alessandro Farnese) 1550–55 Julius III (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte) 1555 Marcellus II (Marcello Cervini) 1555–59 Paul IV (Gian Pietro Caraffa) 1559–65 Pius IV (Giovanni Angelo de’ Medici) 1566–72 *Pius V (Antonio Michele Ghislieri) 1572–85 Gregory XIII (Ugo Buoncompagni) 1585–90 Sixtus V (Felice Peretti) 1590 Urban VII (Giambattista Castagna) 1590–91 Gregory XIV (Niccolò Sfondrati) 1591 Innocent IX (Gian Antonio Facchinetti) 1592–1605 Clement VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini) 1605 Leo XI (Alessandro de’ Medici-Ottaiano) 1605–21 Paul V (Camillo Borghese) 1621–23 Gregory XV (Alessandro Ludovisi) 1623–44 Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini) 1644–55 Innocent X (Giambattista Pamfili) 1655–67 Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi) 1667–69 Clement IX (Giulio Rospigliosi) 1670–76 Clement X (Emilio Altieri) 1676–89 Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi) 1689–91 Alexander VIII (Pietro Ottoboni) 1691–1700 Innocent XII (Antonio Pignatelli) 1700–21 Clement XI (Gian Francesco Albani) 1721–24 Innocent XIII (Michelangelo dei Conti) 1724–30 Benedict XIII (Pietro Francesco Orsini) 1730–40 Clement XII (Lorenzo Corsini) 1740–58 Benedict XIV (Prospero Lambertini) 1758–69 Clement XIII (Carlo Rezzonico) 1769–74 Clement XIV (Lorenzo Ganganelli) 1775–99 Pius VI (Gianangelo Braschi) 1800–1823 Pius VII (Barnaba Chiaramonti) 1823–29 Leo XII (Annibale della Genga) 1829–30 Pius VIII (Francesco Saverio Gastiglioni)

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IV. Roman Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1831–46 Gregory XVI (Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari) 1846–78 Pius IX (Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti) 1878–1903 Leo XIII (Gioacchino Pecci) 1903–14 Pius X (Giuseppe Sarto) 1914–22 Benedict XV (Giacomo della Chiesa) 1922–39 Pius XI (Achille Ratti) 1939–58 Pius XII (Eugenio Pacelli) 1958–63 John XXIII (Angelo Roncalli) 1963–78 Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini) 1978– John Paul II (Karol Jozef Wojtyla) * Names marked with an asterisk indicate popes sainted by the Church. Names in italics are those of anti-popes.

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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V. Presidents of the United States. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

V. Presidents of the United States

George Washington, 1789–97 John Adams, 1797–1801 Thomas Jefferson, 1801–9 James Madison, 1809–17 James Monroe, 1817–25 John Quincy Adams, 1825–29 Andrew Jackson, 1829–37 Martin Van Buren, 1837–41 William Henry Harrison, 1841 John Tyler, 1841–45 James Knox Polk, 1845–49 Zachary Taylor, 1849–50 Millard Fillmore, 1850–53 Franklin Pierce, 1853–57 James Buchanan, 1857–61 Abraham Lincoln, 1861–65 Andrew Johnson, 1865–69 Ulysses Simpson Grant, 1869–77 Rutherford Birchard Hayes, 1877–81 James Abram Garfield, 1881 Chester Alan Arthur, 1881–85 Grover Cleveland, 1885–89 Benjamin Harrison, 1889–93

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V. Presidents of the United States. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Grover Cleveland, 1893–97 William McKinley, 1897–1901 Theodore Roosevelt, 1901–9 William Howard Taft, 1909–13 Woodrow Wilson, 1913–21 Warren Gamaliel Harding, 1921–23 Calvin Coolidge, 1923–29 Herbert Clark Hoover, 1929–33 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933–45 Harry S. Truman, 1945–53 Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953–61 John F. Kennedy, 1961–63 Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963–69 Richard M. Nixon, 1969–74 Gerald Ford, 1974–77 Jimmy Carter, 1977–81 Ronald Reagan, 1981–89 George Bush, 1989–93 Bill Clinton, 1993–2001 George W. Bush, Jr., 2001–

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD PREVIOUS NEXT

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c. The Spread of Diseases. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

c. The Spread of Diseases
A tragic dimension of early modern global interactions was the exchange of diseases. Populations in the Western Hemisphere lacked established immunities to diseases that were common in the Eastern Hemisphere. As a result, epidemics of SMALLPOX, measles, and other diseases killed whole populations in some regions and more than half of the total population of the hemisphere. In global terms, the increasing levels of contact and population movements created a more uniform level of contact with diseases and immunity. Great plagues like the Black Death of postclassical times became less common, and by the end of the 18th century, pandemic diseases had less ability to destroy entire populations. (See Global and Comparative Dimensions)
1

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 A. Global and Comparative Dimensions
Global relationships changed significantly during the 19th century. Western European states and world-views came to dominate and frequently to control directly most of the rest of the world. In this way, the transformation of western European societies in the previous centuries extended to much of the rest of the world. The new patterns of global relationships can be seen in two very broad areas: (1) the West's power over the rest of the world in military, economic, and political spheres, and to some extent the cultural spheres as well, and (2) the intensification of international and interstate relationships in diplomatic and political terms by the beginning of the 20th century.
1

1. European Global Domination, 1800–1914
The changing relationships involved in the growing global dominance of Western societies can be seen in three important developments: (1) Western imperialist expansion, (2) the spread of industrialism, and (3) the development of modern state systems in all of the major regions of the globe.
2

a. Developments in Major Empires
During the 19th century, major European empires expanded (especially the British, French, and Russian empires, along with the new United States) while older empires, both European and nonEuropean, experienced significant losses.
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1800–70

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V. The Modern Period, 1789-1914. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

BRITISH EMPIRE. Following the conflicts of the Napoleonic era, the British Empire emerged as the strongest global imperial force, with different manifestations. SETTLEMENT COLONIES were consolidated in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and they received increasing rights of selfrule within the British imperial system. These rights were defined for Canada following a major rebellion in 1837 by the Union Act (1840) and the British North America Act (1867), for Australia by the Australia Colonies Government Act (1850), and for New Zealand by the Constitution of 1852. As they emerged as virtually independent commonwealths in the 20th century, they, along with the United States, were basically parts of the extended European world. INDIRECT CONTROL through commercial and naval domination was the basis for British imperial authority in many parts of the world. The Ottoman Empire was protected by British policies from Russian, Austrian, and French expansion as well as from internal challengers like Muhammad Ali in Egypt (See 1831–41) (who had revolted and invaded Syria in 1831), and British commercial interests expanded in the region. Britain similarly became the dominant force within Iran, ruled in the 19th century by the Qajar dynasty. British domination of foreign trade in China was confirmed by British victory in the First British War of 1841–42 (often called the Opium War) (See 1841–42) and the Treaty of Nanking (1842). British naval power similarly ensured British domination in coastal regions of the Indian Ocean and Africa. DIRECT IMPERIAL RULE emerged as an important style of domination in INDIA by the middle of the 19th century, when control by the East India Company was formally replaced by making India a Crown colony. Direct imperial rule was, however, only one of many different forms of British world power in the 19th century.

4

1800–70
FRENCH EMPIRE. France had lost much of its global empire in the world wars of the 18th century and the final defeats in the Napoleonic era. In the first half of the 19th century, France reemerged as a major global force, both through its growing economic power and its military forces. It was Britain's major rival for influence in the Mediterranean region and had expanding commercial and cultural influences in the Middle East. France also developed settlements, trade stations, and military posts in Senegal and elsewhere along the coasts of West Africa and Central Africa. In the Indian Ocean basin and Asia, France gradually expanded in control in Madagascar and other island areas and, by 1874, gained full control of Indochina. Direct French rule in North Africa began in 1830 with the French invasion of Algeria, where European settlement was encouraged.
5

1800–70
OTHER OVERSEAS EMPIRES. The other major European overseas empires remained relatively stable or declined. The DUTCH consolidated their control in the islands of Southeast Asia, where they developed a system of direct colonial rule by the end of the century. The Portuguese Empire in Africa expanded inland from coastal trading settlements, especially after the formal suppression of the slave trade in 1836 transformed the nature of commerce in Angola and Mozambique. The commercial ports of Goa in India and Macao in China remained under Portuguese control, but Brazil was lost in the Latin American wars of independence. These wars also brought an end to most of the SPANISH EMPIRE in the Americas, and Spain was only a minor global force by the middle of the century.
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The Middle Eastern Theater of War, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Muhammad and the Descent of the Caliphal Dynasties. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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d. The Abbasid Caliphate and Its Breakup

MUHAMMAD AND THE DESCENT OF THE CALIPHAL DYNASTIES For a complete list of the Abbasid caliphs, see Appendix III.
1

749–54
ABU AL-ABBAS AL-SAFFAH, FOUNDER OF THE ABBASID DYNASTY. The first Abbasid ruler, a descendant of the Prophet's uncle al-Abbas, was proclaimed caliph publicly in the mosque in Kufa on Nov. 28, 749, just months before the forces of the Abbasid Revolution brought a final end to Umayyad rule. His regnal title, al-Saffah, “the Shedder of Blood,” announced his promise to avenge the Shi’ites and Abbasids killed by the Umayyads. He set up the initial Abbasid capital at Kufa.
2

751
Abbasid forces triumphed over the Chinese at the Battle of Talas in central Asia (See 747). Chinese papermakers were captured after this largely symbolic victory. Paper manufacture then spread westward throughout the Islamic world, and factories were founded in Baghdad (c. 800), Egypt (c. 900), Morocco (c. 1100), and Spain (c. 1150). The advent of readily available paper increased the rate of manuscript production throughout the Islamic world.
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754–75

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d. The Abbasid Caliphate and Its Breakup. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

AL-MANSUR consolidated Abbasid authority, turned the troops of Khurasan—the mainstay of his support—into a professional army, and created a highly centralized bureaucracy that employed many mawali. The opening of this new avenue of social mobility was one aspect of the general improvement in the status of non-Arab converts to Islam. The new policy speeded up the process of conversion, especially in Iran, where the estimated Muslim population increased from 8 percent in 750 to some 80 percent in 950. Some tensions remained between Arabs and Iranians, and they prompted a court-centered literary movement called the Shu’ubiyya, which championed the Persian language and Iranian cultural values above those of the Arabs. The pre-Islamic Iranian ideas promoted by the Shu’ubiyya shaped Arabic literature, Abbasid court ceremony, and notions of kingship and social hierarchy.

4

755
Abu Muslim, the former leader of the Abbasid Revolution in Khurasan, was killed by order of the caliph, who feared his power in the province.
5

755–56
Revolt of Sunpadh (Sinbad) in Khurasan. Sunpadh was a Zoroastrian who preached that Abu Muslim had not died, but would return again in the company of the Islamic Mahdi, or redeemer, to institute a reign of justice. He fomented rebellion in the cities of Nishapur, Rayy, and Qum.
6

c. 757
Death of Ibn al-Muqaffa, a Zoroastrian convert to Islam who became a secretary in the Abbasid administration and translated many works from Pahlavi (Middle Persian) into Arabic, including the famous fables Kalila wa Dimna.
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757–960
THE MIDRARID DYNASTY. Centered in Sijilmasa in Morocco, the dynasty was founded by Midrar (Sam'un ibn Yazlan), a Khariji Muslim and Zanata Berber from Meknes, after a revolt against the Abbasid governor of Qayrawan. The Midrarid state signaled that the egalitarian message of Kharijism continued to appeal to Berber groups who resented Arab elitism and discrimination. The capital of Sijilmasa was founded during the reign of Abu Mansur al-Yasa (790–823), who consolidated the dynasty's territory. He married one of his sons to the neighboring Rustamid dynasty to ensure peaceful relations. Sijilmasa became a major point on the gold trade route with Sudan and attracted refugees from Muslim Spain (c. 818) as well as Jews interested in commercial opportunities. The Midrarids sided with the Umayyads of Spain, along with other Zanata Berber groups, but were vanquished by Fatimid forces in the 10th century.
8

758
Muslim armies destroyed parts of the Chinese city of Canton.
9

761–909

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d. The Abbasid Caliphate and Its Breakup. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

THE RUSTAMID DYNASTY. The second Khariji state in North Africa was founded by an Iranian Muslim named Ibn Rustam, who had come to North Africa to serve as the Abbasid governor of Qayrawan (758–61). He won Zanata Berber military backing and founded his own theocratic state, where he took the title of imam and ruled as both a spiritual and a political authority. The Rustamid state was significant as a center of Khariji scholarship and was a focus of allegiance for other Khariji communities scattered throughout North Africa. The capital of Tahert attracted many Khariji Muslims from Iraq and flourished as a northern point on the trans-Saharan trade route. The Rustamids failed to organize an effective army and lost Tahert to the Fatimids in 909. The survivors escaped to the southern oasis of Wargala. Kharijism has survived to the present day in the oasis of Mzab, on the island of Jerba, and in Jabal Nafusa.

10

762
FOUNDATION OF BAGHDAD, the new Abbasid capital, by al-Mansur. This first truly Islamic imperial city, situated 18 miles north of the Sassanian capital of Ctesiphon, was designed on a circular plan and was known as the City of Peace (Madinat al-Salam). Canals were dug to make the site accessible to both the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Riverine access to Baghdad attracted traders from as far away as China, India, and northern Europe. By the 9th century, the city's population had reached more than 300,000.
11

762
Unsuccessful revolt of the Shi’ite Muhammad ibn Abdallah, known as the Pure Soul (al-Nafs alZakiyya), in Medina. His brother Ibrahim led an uprising in Iraq in Feb. 763 that briefly captured Basra and Wasit but was soon thereafter quashed by Abbasid troops.
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2. Early European Farmers
Near Eastern cereal grains like emmer and bread wheat and domesticated animals were introduced into southeastern Europe and Greece by at least 6000 B.C.E. The local people were already heavily dependent on wild cereal grasses and may have been planting some of them. The first farmers lived in compact villages on river floodplains, occupying the same sites for many generations. After 4500 B.C.E. farming based on cattle herding combined with spring-sown crops like wheat and barley spread over enormous areas of continental Europe. The expansion of farming was a stop-andgo process, coinciding with favorable rainfall cycles and dependent on the distribution of lighter soils easily turned with stone and wood artifacts. These cultivators, known to archaeologists as the Bandkeramik Complex, lived in hamlets of rectangular houses, made of timber and thatch. As each settlement grew, companion villages were founded nearby, gradually filling in vacant land. By 4000 B.C.E., cereal crops and domesticated animals were widely used throughout much of Europe, including Britain. Eventually, farmers settled on heavier soils, and indigenous hunter-gatherer groups gradually adopted the new economies. This was a time when more elaborate burial customs developed throughout Europe, as ancestor cults came into fashion, with their close ties to ancestral farming land. In western Europe, groups of villages built communal stone tombs, often called megaliths, where important kin leaders and people with genealogical ties to kin group ancestors were buried. Those who supervised the building of shrines and communal tombs, and led the rituals conducted there, assumed increasing political and social power in new, nonegalitarian European societies.
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1) b. Buddhism. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...b. Buddhism Buddhism (See South India) spread both north and south from India. Official support from the Mauryan ruler Ashoka in the 3rd century B.C.E. and the active... 2) b. Bengal. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...b. Bengal From an area marked by strong adherence to Buddhism and Brahman-dominated Hinduism, Bengal began to change in this period into a culture marked by Islam-oriented... 3) d. Ceylon (Sri Lanka). 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...d. Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Ceylon traditionally received Buddhism from Ashoka under 1 ?247-?207 B.C.E Devanampiya Tissa, who founded the Mahavihara or Great Monastery... 4) 5. Japan, 552-1185. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...5. Japan, 552-1185 (See Geography) 552 It is traditionally believed that in this year Buddhism was introduced to Yamato Japan from Paekche. Although there were probably... 5) d. Continued Spread of Religions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...religions expanded far beyond the boundaries of the classical regional civilizations. 1 BUDDHISM became firmly established in both the mainland and island societies... 6) 1224. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1224 Shinran Shonin (1173-1262), a disciple of Genku, founded the True Pure Land sect of Buddhism, as an offshoot of the Pure Land sect of his master. The True Pure... 7) 4. Southeast Asia, c. 900-1557. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...civilizations that can be divided into three main patterns: those based on Theravada Buddhism (See c. 78-96+ C.E) (the present-day countries of Myanmar, Thailand,... 8) 2. Burma (Pagan). 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1044 Anawrata (d. 1077) seized royal power at Pagan and by his patronage of Hinayana Buddhism and conquests, both north and south, made it the political, religious,... 9) c. Hinduism. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...in the face of social change in India and competition from other world-views, especially Buddhism. By 500 C.E. Hinduism was the dominant world-view in India (See...

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10) b. Mainland Southeast Asia. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...authority of the state, and the dissemination of a normative value system (from Theravada Buddhism) that began to supplant local custom. 1 Similarly, the movement...

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b. Buddhism. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 4. The Spread of Religions, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > b. Buddhism PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

b. Buddhism
Buddhism (See South India) spread both north and south from India. Official support from the Mauryan ruler Ashoka in the 3rd century B.C.E. and the active sending of missionaries encouraged the spread of Buddhism.
1

200 B.C.E.–500 C.E
THERAVADA BUDDHISM was the early Buddhist form, and it spread to southern India, Sri Lanka, and ultimately to the mainland territories and islands of Southeast Asia.
2

1st Century C.E
MAHAYANA BUDDHISM developed as a distinctive form of the faith in central Eurasia and later China (See 200). Buddhist merchants and teachers interacted with Greeks and Persians in central Asia and the Middle East, and Buddhism spread through diaspora communities of merchants in many regions along the Silk Roads. It was brought to China by the 1st century C.E., gradually winning converts and becoming very powerful following the collapse of the Han dynasty. By 500 C.E., Buddhism was an important force throughout more than half of the Eastern Hemisphere.
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c. South India. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > C. Early Civilizations and Classical Empires of South and East Asia > 2. South Asia, 72 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > c. South India PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

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c. South India
The whole Indian peninsula south of the Vindhyas, save for a part of Maharashtra (Nasik and Pratishthana) easily accessible from Malwa and already Aryanized, was occupied by Dravidians: Canarese-speakers on the northwest, Telugu-speakers on the east, and Tamil-speakers in the Carnatic. Jainism, brought to Sravana Belgola in Mysore under Chandragupta (end 4th century B.C. E.), flourished in the Digambara, “naked clergy,” form which the north rejected. Buddhism with its stupas and sculpture was brought to Amaravati and Mysore under Ashoka. Sanskrit culture and Hindu culture were carried from the south to Cambodia about the opening of our era. Sanskrit influence is clear in the early Tamil grammar Tolkappiyam and in the Kural of Tiruvalluvar, lofty songs of a priest of pariahs (2nd–3rd centuries C.E.). Brahman colonies with Saivite and Vaishnava sectarianism and the caste system were at various periods imported from the Ganges Valley and endowed by local rulers, as was done also in Bengal. The south, however, placed its own impress on what it received and developed linga-worship, bhakti devotion to Vishnu and Siva, organization of Saiva monasteries and laymen, occasional violent religious intolerance, especially between adherents of Vishnu and Siva, and municipal and corporate life with a sacrificial spirit of personal loyalty. In search of the great profits on spices sold to the Romans, merchants on west and south coasts began to sail eastward to Java, Sumatra, and Bali. Their sharply increased wealth helped to fund expanding urbanism and the spread of Buddhism and Jainism. 2nd century C.E. Ashoka's inscriptions name three Tamil states in the Carnatic: Pandya (extreme south), Chola (southeast), and Chera or Kerala (southwest coast, chief port Muziris). These competed with Maesolia at the mouth of the Kistna and especially with the rich western port of Barygaza (Broach) in thriving trade with the Roman Empire. An embassy to Augustus (c. 22 B.C.E.) was sent by a king “Pandion” who may have been a Pandya. Strabo (d. 21 C.E.) speaks of fleets of 120 ships from Egypt to India, and Pliny (23–79) values annual imports from India at 50 million sesterces.
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100–200

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c. South India. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

King Karikalan of early Tamil poems is credited with construction of a great irrigation dam on the Kaveri River, east of Trichinopoly.

5

c. 225
Breakup of the Satakani Empire led to establishment, in Maharashtra near Nasik, of a
6

c. 250–c. 500
Traikutaka dynasty, probably founded by chiefs of the pastoral Abhira tribe.
7

c. 300–888
The Pallava warrior dynasty of foreign (Pahlava?) origin, using Prakrit and later Sanskrit, held from Kanchi (near Madras) hegemony of the Deccan, which it disputed with the Chalukyas of Vatapi (550–753), the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed (753–973), and the Chalukyas of Vengi (611–1078).
8

c. 300–c. 500
The Vakatakas, extended their power from the fortress of Gawilgarh in northern Berar to Nagpur, Bundelkhand, and Kuntala, probably limiting Gupta expansion to the south. Farther south the Chutu branch of the Satakani, called Andhrabhrityas in the Puranas, ruled at Banavasi (c. 200–c. 250) where they were succeeded by
9

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c. 350–c. 500
The Kadamba dynasty, founded by a Brahman rebel from the Pallava. His great-grandson Kakutsthavarman (c. 435–475) married his daughters to a Gupta, a Vakataka (445), and a Ganga of Mysore. In the Telugu lands, the Andhras were succeeded by the Ikshvaku dynasty (3rd century), notable for donations to a Buddhist stupa on the Nagarjunikonda (hill), on the Kistna above Amaravati; by the
11

12

c. 300–450
Salankayana of Vengi; and by the
13

c. 400–611
Vishnukundins, a dynasty of at least ten kings at the same place. (See South India)
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c. Hinduism
Hinduism successfully transformed itself in the face of social change in India and competition from other world-views, especially Buddhism. By 500 C.E. Hinduism was the dominant world-view in India (See c. 274–c. 236). Although it was not formally a missionary religion, its concepts and rituals spread with Indian merchants into Southeast Asia where by 500 C.E. it became an important part of the world-views of royal courts in Cambodia, Java, and elsewhere in the region (See Southeast Asia, c. 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.).
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d. The Expansion of Christianity. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 4. The Spread of Religions, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > d. The Expansion of Christianity PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

d. The Expansion of Christianity
Christianity began in the eastern Mediterranean at the heart of the Hellenistic world among Jewish communities and in the context of the Roman Empire. It spread throughout the Mediterranean basin and in Roman western Europe, competing with a variety of other popular religions. As Christianity spread, it took a number of distinctive forms.
1

312–395 C.E
ROMAN WESTERN CHRISTIANITY received official toleration and support from emperors, leading to the Roman Empire becoming formally Christian. The Western Church was centered in Rome where the Bishop of Rome as Pope claimed authority over all Christians. The Roman-led Church expanded into western Europe and became the dominant world-view in the whole region by the 7th to 8th centuries.
2

330–451 C.E
EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY developed in the older cities in the eastern Mediterranean and had its center in Constantinople, proclaimed the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 330 C.E. The Eastern Church did not accept the primacy of the Bishop of Rome and developed doctrinally distinctive positions. It was the official church of the Byzantine Empire and spread through missionary activity into the Middle East and the Balkans. By the 6th century C.E. the Eastern Church was the dominant church in those regions.
3

451 C.E

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d. The Expansion of Christianity. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

NESTORIAN CHURCH emerged as the independent tradition after the Council of Chalcedon. This was part of the development of distinctive Christian church traditions in Egypt and Ethiopia in Africa, in the territories of the Sassanid Empire, and eventually in central Eurasia.

4

200 C.E.–500 C.E
THE CLASSICAL ECUMENE developed as an interacting set of empires, religious communities, trade networks, and migrating peoples. Although imperial systems collapsed in many areas by 500 C. E., the broader ecumene continued to expand.
5

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1) 1945, April 30. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1945, April 30 ADOLF HITLER COMMITTED SUICIDE. (See Germany) 1... 2) Aug. 24. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...Aug. 24 President Roosevelt appealed to King Victor Emmanuel, to Hitler, and to President Moscicki of Poland, suggesting direct negotiations between Germany and Poland,... 3) 1938, Feb. 12. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1938, Feb. 12 Schuschnigg paid a visit to Hitler at Berchtesgaden, and under pressure was obliged to promise an amnesty to Austrian Nazis who had been imprisoned,... 4) 1938, March-May. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1938, March-May The first German-Czech crisis. Hitler's speech of Feb. 20 promising protection to German minorities outside the Reich was answered by Premier Hodza... 5) 1934, June 30. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1934, June 30 The GREAT BLOOD PURGE, in which, according to Hitler's own admission in the Reichstag (July 13), 77 persons, many of them leaders high in the party,... 6) 1939, June. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1939, June By an agreement signed by Hitler and Mussolini, German inhabitants of the Tyrol were forced to decide whether to stay in the province and accept full Italian... 7) 1945, May 2. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1945, May 2 De Valera expressed formal condolences to German embassy on death of Hitler. 1 June 16 SEAN T. O'KELLY was elected president of Ireland. 2 Dec. 13 The... 8) 1933, Jan. 28. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...had failed and Hindenburg had rejected a demand for another dissolution. 1 Jan. 30 ADOLF HITLER, CHANCELLOR. Papen, vice chancellor; Hermann Goering (Nazi), without... 9) 1936, March 7. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...THE LOCARNO PACTS of 1925 and reoccupied the Rhineland (See 1936, March 7). 1 Nov. 14 Hitler denounced the clauses of the Versailles treaty providing for international... 10) Dec. 16-25. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Subject Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Locke

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Subject Index
Aachen Addled Parliament, England Akmola Allersheim, battle of Andrés Rodríguez, Paraguayan leader Arabian Sea Ashida Hitoshi, Japanese leader Azeris Banqueting Hall, Whitehall Bayle, Pierre, French historian Béziers Bonapartists, France British North America Cabrera, Manuel Estrada, Guatemalan leader Carlos I, king of Portugal Chaillu, Paul du, explorer Childe, Vere Gordon, archaeologist Clement VIII, pope Conféderation Générale du Travail, CGT Cotton Control Act, U.S. Dalin, Olof, writer demographics, demography Dorchester, England to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to Addis Ababa Akko Allenstein, Germany Andreotti, Giulio, Italian leader Arabian Peninsula Asherah Azerbaijani Popular Front Banque Royale, France Bay Islands Bezabde Bonaparte, Pierre British Navigation Acts Cabral, Pedro Alvares, Portuguese explorer Carloman, son of Charles the Bald Chahar, Chinese province Chikunda Clement VII, pope Confédération Générale des Travailleurs Tunisiens cotton Dalian Democritus, Greek philosopher Doorn Kop, battle of Eck, Johann, German theologian

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Subject Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Eckardt, Tibor, Hungarian leader Era of Good Feeling Farmer's Party, Sweden Focsani French Union General Intendant of the Court and Kingdom Police, Portugal Gonatas, Stylianos, Greek leader Groningen Halberstadt, German plane Heine, Heinrich, poet Hochhuth, Rolf, writer Hungarian Democratic Union, Romania Indian Territory Isma‘il Mazhar, scholar Jingdezhen, imperial Chinese kiln Kalelkar, Kaka, Indian leader Khafre, king of Egypt Komagatu Maru, ship Ladislas of Transylvania Lazica, Colchis Liberals, Spain Louis VII, the Young Macta River, Battle of the Manolov, Emmanuil, composer Massey, William F., New Zealand leader Melos Minamoto no Yoritomo, Japanese leader Monzaemon, Chikamatsu, Japanese playwright Mulla Muhammad Amin Astarabadi, Iranian religious leader Naram-Sin, king of Babylon National Union Party, Portugal Nezib Novi, battle of Oranyon, of Benin

to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

Eran Farm Credit Administration and Act, U.S. Focke, Heinrich, inventor French Sudan General German Workers' Association, ADAV Gomulka, Wladyslaw, Polish leader Gröner, Wilhelm von, German commander Hakuseki, Arai, Japanese scholar Heimwehr, Austria Hoche, Louis Lazare, French general Hungarian Democratic Forum Indian Socialist Party Ismailiyya Jin dynasty Kaledin, Alexis, Cossack hetman Khadija bint Khuwaylid, wife of Muhammad ibn Abdallah Kolubara, battle of Ladislas V Posthumus, king of Hungary and Bohemia Lazarites Liberals, Prussia Louis VI, the Fat Mactan Manoel (Manuel) II, king of Portugal Massey, Vincent, Canadian diplomat and leader Melo, José María, Latin American leader Minamoto Noriyori Monza Mulla Husayn Kashefi, Iranian writer Naram-Sin, king of Assyria National Union Party, Costa Rica Ney, Michel, duke d'Elchingen and prince de La Moskova Novgorod Orang Suku Bulang Pakistan

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Subject Index. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Pakistan Day Patriot Party, Holland Peru Pisano, Vittorio, Venetian commander Poulenc, Francis, composer Pyrrhic War Ras Shamra Richard I, Coeur de Lion Roxane, Bactrian princess St. Mihiel Sapienza, battle of Secularization Campaign Sharma, Shanksar Dayal, Indian leader Sinminhoe, Korea Sonnino, Sidney Stephens, James, Fenian leader Susa Tao Yuanming, Chinese author Theutberga, wife of Lothair II Torre, Miguel de la, Venezuelan leader Tung Chee-hwa, Hong Kong leader United National Party, UNP Veii Vranje West Africa World War I Young Ireland Movement Zumbi, Brazilian rebel

to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Pertini, Alessandro, Italian leader Pisa Poujadists Pyrrhic victory Rassemblement Walloon, Belgium Richard, duke of York Roxana, mother of Alexander IV, king of Macedonia St. Menehould São Vicente secularization Sharki dynasty Sinking Fund Act, England Son Ngoc Thanh, Cambodian leader Stephens, Alexander H., Confederate leader Sus Taormina Thessaly Torralba Tungasuca United National Independence Party, UNIP Vegilharxhi, Naum, Albanian leader Vranitzky, Franz, Austrian leader West, U.S. World Trade Organization, WTO Young Hegelians Zulus Zworykin, Vladimir, inventor

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1) 1690, May 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...supporters of James II except those in treasonable correspondence with him. 1 1690 John Locke's Two Treatises on Government and Essay Concerning Human Understanding.... 2) d. The Southern Colonies. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...2 1669 Adoption of the Fundamental Constitutions, drawn up for Carolina by John Locke, which provided for an archaic feudal regime totally unsuited to the needs of... 3) b. Intellectual Developments. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...form of cultural nationalism. In political thought, Enlightenment thinkers built upon John Locke (See 1690), arguing for a government that rested on a contract among... 4) 1919-20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...Innocence (1920); African Americans launched the Harlem Renaissance, which the critic Alain Locke promoted in an anthology, The New Negro (1926); William Faulkner...

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1690, May 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 5. National Patterns, 1648–1815 > a. England, Scotland, and Ireland > 1. England and Scotland > 1690, May 20 PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1690, May 20
Act of Grace indemnified all supporters of James II except those in treasonable correspondence with him.
1

1690
John Locke's Two Treatises on Government and Essay Concerning Human Understanding. These two works advocated, respectively, government by contract and the belief in the mind as a tabula rasa, or blank slate, at birth.
2

1691, Aug
Government offered indemnity to all highlander chiefs who declared allegiance to William by the end of 1691.
3

1691
Society for reforming manners founded. It marked the beginning of moves to become more “civilized” during the 18th century.
4

1692, Feb. 13
Massacre of Glencoe. Highlander chief MacIan MacDonald and clan massacred because they did not take the oath by the end of 1691. MacDonald had actually taken the oath on Jan. 6, but this fact was suppressed by William's agent.
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5

1690, May 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1693, Jan
Beginning of the national debt. £1 million borrowed on annuities at 10 percent.
6

1693
Recoinage of English money. Values of money fixed. This helped create a monetary system favorable to trade.
7

1694
Rural working class allowed to legally participate in the manufacture of woolens for market. This law eliminated town monopolies on textile production and opened the countryside up for protoindustrial development in the 18th century.
8

July 27
Bank of England chartered. It lent the government £1.2 million in exchange for specific privileges.
9

Dec. 22
Triennial Act required that Parliament meet every three years.
10

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. Intellectual Developments. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > B. Early Modern Europe, 1479–1815 > 3. Europe, 1648–1814 > b. Intellectual Developments PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1697 )

b. Intellectual Developments
The 18th-Century Enlightenment dominated western thought, a product of the Scientific Revolution with its emphasis on inductive reasoning and rationality. Though most intense in France, enlightenment thought affected most parts of Europe to some degree. Enlightenment thinkers critiqued existing government, society, and economic development. In all aspects, they emphasized reason and frequently embraced notions of the perfectability of people and progress. Some, notably Malthus (See 1798) and Burke, rejected some notions, while in Germany some reaction against Enlightenment universality occurred in the form of cultural nationalism. In political thought, Enlightenment thinkers built upon John Locke (See 1690), arguing for a government that rested on a contract among individuals, in some cases including women, and those established laws which were reasonable. These ideas threatened the basis for absolutism but also encouraged notions of enlightened absolutism in which the monarch claimed to rule for the good of all based on reason. They also gave rise to a radical enlightenment whose thinkers demanded equality for men, and sometimes women, in political and economic terms. The Enlightenment thinkers were particularly influential in shaping economic policies. Many monarchs followed the dictates of mercantilism in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Mercantilists argued that the world contained a fixed-size market and that each country had to secure as large a portion of this market as possible, through tariffs and colonization. Mercantilism was gradually replaced by laissez faire capitalism. The Physiocrats stressed agricultural bases for wealth but also discouraged government intervention as counter to natural economic law. However, Adam Smith provided the most advanced formulation of this law. He argued that division of labor in an unregulated market would secure high profits and maximum prosperity for all concerned because it would be controlled by the invisible hand of commerce, that is, regulated by supply and demand. The Enlightenment interest in science and human society set the basis for formal study not only in economics, but also in political science and psychology. Among the major thinkers of the Enlightenment were (see also individual countries):
1

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b. Intellectual Developments. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Political: Montesquieu, L'Esprit des lois (1748); William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765–69); Johann Gottfried Herder, Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784-91); Jeremy Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789); Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790); Thomas Paine, The Rights of Man; Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792); William Godwin, Enquiry concerning Political Justice (1793). Social and Religious: Bishop George Berkeley, Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710); David Hume, Treatise on Human Nature and Philosophical Essays (1739); Emanuel Swedenborg, De Nova Hierosolyma (basis for the Church of the New Jerusalem—1758); Johann P. Süssmilch, Die göttliche Ordnung in den Veränerungen des menschlichen Geschlechts aus der Geburt, dem Tode, und der Fortpflanzung desselben erwiesen, pioneering statistical and demographic work (1761); Cesare Beccaria, Tratto dei delitti e delle pene (1764); Thomas Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population (1798); Friedrich Schleiermacher, Reden über die Religion (1799). General Philosophical and Historical: Pierre Bayle, Dictionnaire historique et critique (1697); Giambattista Vico, Principi di una scienza nuova intorno alla commune natura delle nazione (1725); Voltaire, Lettres anglaises ou philosophiques (1734); Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alembert, ed. L'Encylopédie (1751–72); Jean Jacques Rousseau, Le contrat social and Émile (1762); Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–88); Immanuel Kant, Die Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1781); Marie-Jean Condorcet, Tableau historique des progrès de l'esprit humain (1795). Economic: Richard Cantillon, Essai sur la nature du commerce en général (1755); François Quesnay, Tableau économique (1758); Pierre Dupont de Nemours, La physiocratie (1768); A. R. J. Turgot, Réflexions sur la formation des richesses (1766); Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). (See Intellectual and Religious Trends)

2

3

4

5

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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B. World War I, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > B. World War I, 1914–1918 PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Aug. 6 )

B. World War I, 1914–1918
1

Declarations of War 1914 July 28 Aug. 1 Aug. 3 Aug. 4 Aug. 5 Aug. 6 Austria on Serbia Germany on Russia Germany on France Germany on Belgium Great Britain on Germany Montenegro on Austria Austria on Russia Serbia on Germany Aug. 8 Aug. 12 Montenegro on Germany France on Austria Great Britain on Austria Aug. 23 Aug. 25 Aug. 28 Nov. 4 Japan on Germany Japan on Austria Austria on Belgium Russia on Turkey Serbia on Turkey Nov. 5 Great Britain on Turkey

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B. World War I, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

France on Turkey 1915 May 23 June 3 Aug. 21 Oct. 14 Oct. 15 Italy on Austria San Marino on Austria Italy on Turkey Bulgaria on Serbia Great Britain on Bulgaria Montenegro on Bulgaria Oct. 16 Oct. 19 France on Bulgaria Russia on Bulgaria Italy on Bulgaria 1916 March 9 Germany on Portugal March 15 Austria on Portugal Aug. 27 Aug. 28 Romania on Austria Italy on Germany Germany on Romania Aug. 30 Sept. 1 1917 April 6 April 7 U.S. on Germany Panama on Germany Cuba on Germany April 13 Bolivia severs relations with Germany April 23 Turkey severs relations with U.S. June 27 July 22 Aug. 4 Aug. 14 Oct. 6 Oct. 7 Oct. 26 Dec. 7 Dec. 8 Dec. 10 Dec. 16 1918 April 23 Guatemala on Germany May 8 Nicaragua on Germany and Austria Greece on Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, and Turkey Siam on Germany and Austria Liberia on Germany China on Germany and Austria Peru severs relations with Germany Uruguay severs relations with Germany Brazil on Germany U.S. on Austria Ecuador severs relations with Germany Panama on Austria Cuba on Austria Turkey on Romania Bulgaria on Romania

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B. World War I, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

May 23 July 12 July 19

Costa Rica on Germany Haiti on Germany Honduras on Germany

1. The Western Front, 1914–1915

THE WESTERN FRONT IN WORLD WAR I (MAP) GERMAN STRATEGY was based on the Schlieffen Plan, which provided for the concentration of the main German forces on the French front, the passage through Belgium, and a huge wheeling movement to encircle Paris. This plan required a massing of forces on the German right flank, but even before the outbreak of war the German chief of the general staff, Gen. Helmuth von Moltke (1906–Sept. 14, 1914), had transferred some divisions from the right to the left (Lorraine) wing in order to block an invasion of south Germany. The Germans concentrated about 1.5 million men organized in seven armies. On the eastern (Russian) frontier, German forces were relatively few in number and were intended merely to delay the invaders until a decisive victory could be won in the west. The French plan of campaign (Plan 17) had been drawn up in 1913by Gen. Joseph Joffre (chief of general staff, July 28, 1911–Dec. 12, 1916) under the influence and teaching of Gen. Ferdinand Foch. The plan ignored the danger of a great German advance through Belgium and depended entirely on a vigorous French offensive on the right wing and center. The French reckoned on a Russian advance in the east with about 800,000 men on the 18th day of mobilization. Britain was expected to contribute about 150,000 men.
2

3

1914, Aug. 4
In the night the Germans crossed the frontier of Belgium, forcing Belgian troops back to Brussels and Antwerp. The French offensive (five armies) developed in the region between Mézières and Belfort, Joffre hoping for a breakthrough on either side of Metz.
4

5

Aug. 14–25
Battle of the Frontiers. French forces met with failure in their invasion of Lorraine.
6

Aug. 23
Battle of Mons. First contact between Germans and British resulted in the latter's retreat. A German advance forced the French and British to fall back to the Marne River. The French government moved to Bordeaux (Sept. 3–Dec. 1914). Joffre hastily formed a sixth army on his left, to outflank the German fifth army. Meanwhile Moltke, believing a decision had already been reached by August 25, detailed six corps from the second and third armies to serve on the Russian front.
7 8

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B. World War I, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Aug. 30
Kluck gave up his advance to the west of Paris in order to keep contact with Bülow's second army. By September 4 Kluck realized the danger threatening him from the sixth French army before Paris. On the same day Moltke ordered Kluck and Bülow to turn southwest to meet this danger. In the course of the operation a gap was allowed to open between the first and second German armies.
9

Sept. 5–12
BATTLE OF THE MARNE. The opposing armies tried to outflank each other, resulting in a German withdrawal west of Verdun and a cautious British and French advance.
10

Oct. 10–Nov. 10
THE RACE FOR THE SEA. The Germans failed to push through to the Channel ports. By the end of 1914 the line on the western front had become fairly well fixed and the war had become a war of position, confined largely to trench warfare. All but a tip of Belgium was in the hands of the Germans. The Belgian government was established at Le Havre, while the occupied area was governed successively by Gen. Colmar von der Goltz (to Nov. 1914), Gen. Moritz von Bissing (to April 1917), and Gen. Ludwig von Falkenhausen (to the end of the war). The Germans also retained about one-tenth of the territory of France (21,000 square kilometers), including many of the most valuable coal and iron mines and several important industrial areas. The line, which in the course of the next three years did not vary by more than ten miles, left to the Allies Verdun, Rheims, and Soissons and thence turned northward between Noyon (Ger.), Montdidier (Fr.), Peronne (Ger.), Albert (Fr.), Bapaume (Ger.), Arras (Fr.), Lens, La Bassée (Ger.), Armentières, Ypres (Brit.), Passchendaele, Dixmude (Ger.), Nieuport (Brit.), Ostend (Ger.). The operations in France in 1915 were devoid of broader interest. The commanders on both sides persisted in the belief that a decision was to be won in this area, and consequently devoted as many men and guns as possible to renewed efforts to break through the opponents' line. None of these “offensives” had a notable effect. All were characterized by appalling loss of life.
11 12

13

April 22–May 25
SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES.
14

May 9–June 18
SECOND BATTLE OF ARTOIS. After an unprecedented bombardment, the French succeeded in breaking through on a six-mile front north of Arras and facing Douai. The western front was unusually quiet during most of the summer, the Allies using this period for preparation of a “great offensive” for the autumn.
15

16

Sept. 22–Nov. 6
SECOND BATTLE OF CHAMPAGNE. After many weeks of desperate fighting the French offensive revealed little gain.
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17

B. World War I, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Sept. 25–Oct. 15
THIRD BATTLE OF ARTOIS. The failure of the great offensive of the French and British, which Joffre had hoped would work like a pair of pincers to force the German withdrawal from northern France, left the situation in the west substantially where it had been a year previously. (See The Western Front, 1916–1917)
18

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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2. The Eastern Front, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

2. The Eastern Front, 1914–1915

THE EASTERN FRONT IN WORLD WAR I (MAP) The Russian plan of campaign (Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich, commander in chief, Aug. 3, 1914–Sept. 5, 1915) was concerned primarily with Austria; large forces were therefore concentrated on the Galician frontier. The Austrians (Archduke Frederick, commander in chief, Gen. Conrad von Hötzendorff, chief of staff, 1912–17, commander in chief, 1917–July 16, 1918) on their part had drawn plans that depended on German support through an advance on the Narev River. Pressure elsewhere prevented the Germans from keeping this engagement, but the Austrians, unable to abandon eastern Galicia, with its valuable oil wells, decided to advance from Lemberg toward Lublin and Cholm to cut the railways to Warsaw.
1

1914, Aug. 26–Sept. 2
The Austrians won a great victory over the Russians (Battle of Zamosc-Komarov), but at once the Russians, with much larger forces, began to drive back the Austrian right wing.
2

Sept. 13
The Russians took Lemberg, obliging the Austrians to abandon eastern Galicia. At the same time the Russians launched an attack upon the passes of the Carpathians leading into northern Hungary (Sept. 24).
3

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2. The Eastern Front, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

On the Serbian front the Austrians were able to concentrate fewer forces than originally intended. They bombarded Belgrade (July 29) and crossed the Drina River (Aug. 13) to begin the invasion of Serbia. After months of advances and reverses, the Austrians captured Belgrade (Dec. 2). The decisive battles on the eastern front in 1914, however, were won by the Germans. In response to French appeals for action against the Germans, the Russians formed two armies to invade East Prussia from the east and the south. Russian successes led to the appointment of Gen. Erich von Ludendorff, who had distinguished himself at Liège and was recognized as an outstanding staff officer, as junior officer and chief of staff to Gen. (later Field Marshal) Paul von Hindenburg, a retired officer of no great distinction.

4

5

Aug. 23
Hindenburg and Ludendorff arrived at Marienburg. The essence of this joint plan was to concentrate the German army against the second Russian army (Gen. Alexander Samsonov), which was beginning the invasion of East Prussia from the southeast. Throughout these and later operations the Germans were aided greatly by the interception of unciphered Russian messages, and by the unreadiness of Rennenkampf (leader of the first Russian army) to do much to relieve Samsonov.
6

Aug. 26–30
BATTLE OF TANNENBERG. The Germans completely defeated Samsonov's army. The Germans then turned on the first Russian army (Gen. Paul Rennenkampf), which was obliged to fall back.
7

Sept. 6–15
BATTLE OF THE MASURIAN LAKES. The Germans advanced to the lower Niemen River and occupied the gouvernement of Suvalki. Early in October most of the German troops on this front had to be withdrawn for operations farther south, so that the Russians were able to invade East Prussia for the second time. Meanwhile it was necessary for the Germans to do something to relieve the Austrians. Hindenburg was made commander in chief of the German armies in the east (Sept. 18). The plan, as worked out by the German and Austrian staffs, was for a great combined attack on Poland. The Austrians took the offensive in Galicia (Oct. 4), relieved Przemysl, and forced the Russians to withdraw from the Carpathians. Meanwhile the Germans (Mackensen), advancing on the Austrian left, pushed on toward the Vistula.
8

9

10

Oct. 9–20
BATTLES OF WARSAW AND IVANGOROD. Russian forces pushed back Austrian advances. To relieve the pressure in the south, Hindenburg and Ludendorff planned a great offensive, which, it was hoped, would knock the Russians out before the onset of winter. They appealed to the high command for the transfer of large forces from the west, but the demand was rejected by Gen. Erich von Falkenhayn (minister for war, 1906–Jan. 21, 1915; chief of the general staff, Sept. 14, 1914–Aug. 29, 1916), whose attention at this time was concentrated on the drive for the Channel ports.
11 12

Nov. 16–25
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2. The Eastern Front, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

THE BATTLES OF LODZ AND LOWICZ. After initial setbacks, Lodz fell to the Germans (Dec. 6). On the Galician front the Austrians attempted an offensive to coincide with the German advance.

13

14

Dec. 5–17
BATTLE OF LIMANOVA. The Austrians failed to break the Russian position before Cracow. Throughout the winter the Russians were within 30 miles of the city. In Serbia the Austrians met with even less success as the Serbs forced them out of Serbia (Dec. 3–6). During the winter months the fighting on the Russian front was inconclusive.
15

16 17

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1915
The idea of Hindenburg and Ludendorff was to concentrate more and more troops in the east, in the hope of enveloping the Russians by an advance from East Prussia. But Falkenhayn insisted on the attempt to reach a decision in the west. This difference of view led to acute tension and a threat by Hindenburg to resign. Ultimately the emperor decided that the newly formed tenth army should be sent to the east, but Falkenhayn had it sent to the Galician front, partly to relieve the Austrians, partly to act as the southern shear in a movement to force the further withdrawal of the Russians from Poland.
1

April 2–25
The Austrians, with the aid of a German South Army (Gen. Alexander von Linsingen), drove the Russians back from the Carpathians. An 11th army, under Mackensen, was then formed to cooperate with the Austrian forces from the region southeast of Cracow, in the direction of Przemysl.
2

May 2
Beginning of the great Austro-German offensive in Galicia. By the end of June the Austro-German forces had advanced almost 100 miles, had liberated Galicia and Bukovina, and had taken huge numbers of prisoners. The Russian armies on this front were completely demoralized. The failure of the British at the Dardanelles (See Aug. 10–11) enabled the Germans to postpone a projected campaign in Serbia designed to make direct contact with the Ottomans, and to exploit further their great successes against Russia. They now planned to organize a much greater operation in northern Poland as part of a pincer movement to trap the Russians.
3

4

July 1

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1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Beginning of the second great offensive. When the German and Austrian advance came to a stop in September the Russians had lost all of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland, along with almost a million men. The line in September ran from west of Riga and Dvinsk almost due south to Baranovici (German) and Pinsk (Russian) and thence farther south to Dubno (Austrian), Tarnopol (Russian), and Czernowitz (Austrian).

5

Sept. 5
The Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich was relieved of the supreme command and sent as viceroy to the Caucasus. The supreme command was taken over by the tsar in person. (See The Eastern Front, 1916–1917)
6

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3. The War at Sea, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

3. The War at Sea, 1914–1915
The British Grand Fleet (Adm. Sir John Jellicoe, commander, Aug. 4, 1914–Nov. 29, 1916) consisted of 20 dreadnoughts and a corresponding number of battle cruisers, cruisers, destroyers, and other craft. The fleet was based on Scapa Flow, Cromarty, and Rosyth, with Harwich as base for destroyers and submarines. A second fleet, consisting largely of pre-dreadnought types, guarded the Channel. The Germans had a High Seas Fleet of 13 dreadnoughts, based in the North Sea ports. The Germans remained in port, despite the efforts of Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz to bring about a more active policy.
1

1914
The Germans devoted their attention to mine-laying and submarine work. After an attempted German submarine raid on Scapa Flow (Oct. 18), the Grand Fleet was withdrawn from that base and concentrated, for a time, on the west coast of Scotland. Apart from occasional sinkings, the war in the North Sea was restricted to raids. The largest naval battles occurred between German ships in foreign stations and the Allied fleets assigned to hunt them down (Nov. 1: naval action off Coronel; Dec. 8: Battle of the Falkland Islands). From the very beginning of the war the question of neutral shipping had arisen. Both the British and French governments issued new and more rigorous interpretations of contraband (Aug. 20, 25, 1914), adding greatly to the list of contraband goods. To this the U.S. government replied (Oct. 22) that it would insist on the observance of the existing rules of international law. Nevertheless the British continued to revise the list of contraband and to modify the Declaration of London of 1909. On Nov. 2 they declared the North Sea a military zone, and on Jan. 30, 1915, the British admiralty ordered British merchant ships to fly neutral ensigns or none in the vicinity of the British Isles.
2

3 4

5

1915, Feb. 4

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3. The War at Sea, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The German government announced that a submarine blockade of Great Britain would begin on Feb. 18. To this the London government replied with an order in council (March 11) ordering the seizure of all goods presumably destined for the enemy. Cotton was declared contraband on March 18.

6

May 7
LUSITANIA SUNK off the coast of Ireland, with a loss of 1,198 lives, including 139 Americans. The sinking of the Lusitania brought the U.S. and Germany to the verge of war and created much greater tension than had developed between the Americans and Allied governments over questions of contraband and blockade. In a speech on May 9 President Wilson publicly denounced the sinking, but the note of protest to Berlin (May 13) was somewhat milder in tone, demanding reparations and abstinence from such practices in the future.
7 8

June 8
William J. Bryan resigned as U.S. secretary of state because of unwillingness to follow the president in his policy. Bryan was succeeded by Robert Lansing. On the very next day a much stronger note was dispatched to Berlin, without eliciting a disavowal or assurance for the future. A third note was sent on July 21.
9

10

Sept. 1
The German government gave assurances that no liners would be sunk in the future without warning and without some provision for the safety of noncombatants, provided the ship made no effort to offer resistance or to escape. This resulted from a second period of acute tension after the sinking of the Arabic (Aug. 19), which claimed two American lives. The German ambassador at Washington, Count Johann von Bernstorff, had finally convinced his government of the real danger of war. These assurances were reasonably well observed during the remainder of the year, and so the first phase of the submarine crisis came to an end. (See The War at Sea, 1916–1917)
11

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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4. The Balkan Situation, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

4. The Balkan Situation, 1914–1915
The three Balkan states, Greece, Bulgaria, and Romania, all exhausted by the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 (See June 29–July 30), proclaimed neutrality at the beginning of the European conflict. The Russians entertained high hopes of securing the aid of Romania, which would have been an important factor in the Galician campaign. On various occasions (July 30, Sept. 16) they attempted to bait the Bucharest government with promises of Transylvania, but so long as King Carol lived (d. Oct. 10, 1914) there was no hope of Romanian intervention, since the king strongly regretted Romania's failure to side with its Austrian and German allies. King Ferdinand felt morally less bound, but the prime minister, Ion Bratianu (premier and foreign minister, Jan. 14, 1914–Feb. 6, 1918) was determined to drive a hard bargain.
1

1914, Dec. 6
Bratianu rejected Allied suggestions that Romania guarantee Greece against Bulgarian attack or make concessions in the Dobrudja to secure Bulgarian support.
2

1915, Jan. 25
Bratianu refused to join Greece in support of Serbia.
3

May 3
The Romanians asked not only for Transylvania, but also for part of Bukovina and the Banat.
4

July

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4. The Balkan Situation, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Russians were prepared to concede most of these demands, but Bratianu was then unwilling to act unless the Allies had 500,000 men in the Balkans and the Russians 200,000 in Bessarabia (Nov. 1915). The POSITION OF BULGARIA became crucial after the entry of Turkey into the war in Nov. 1914.

5

6

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1914, Nov. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1914, Nov. 9
In order to secure Bulgarian help the Allies offered Bulgaria the Enos-Midia line in eastern Thrace and, after the war, the (1912) uncontested zone of Macedonia, this territory being in the possession of Serbia. It was clear almost from the outset, however, that such an offer would not prove attractive, since the Bulgarians aspired not only to part of Thrace, but also to most of Macedonia, the Kavalla-DramaSeres region of western Thrace, and that part of Dobrudja lost to Romania in 1913.
1

2

1915, Jan
As the Dardanelles campaign was being decided on, the Allies offered to Greece the Turkish city of Smyrna and its hinterland, on condition that the Greeks cede the Kavalla region to Bulgaria and join a Balkan bloc in support of Serbia. Venizelos favored this policy strongly, but King Constantine preferred the sparrow in the hand to the pigeon on the roof (Jan. 24, 29).
3

March 6
Venizelos fell from power when the king refused to adopt his policy of aiding the Allies at the Dardanelles (See April 25). His successor, Demetrios Gounaris March 9–Aug. 22), was less favorable toward the Entente.
4

April 12
Gounaris rejected a second offer of the Smyrna region, on the plea that the Allies would not guarantee Greek territory (i.e., against Bulgaria).
5

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1914, Nov. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

May 7
The Allies, more eager than ever to secure the aid of Bulgaria in view of their failure at the Dardanelles, gave Serbia a conditional guarantee of the eventual acquisition of Bosnia and Herzegovina and “a wide access to the Adriatic,” as compensation for the part of Macedonia required to bring in Bulgaria.
6

May 29
A definite offer along these lines was made to Bulgaria. The Sofia government treated these advances dilatorily, and was already leaning to the Central Powers, which were prepared to promise whatever Bulgaria wanted, in view of the fact that Bulgarian aspirations were directed chiefly to Serbian and Greek territory.
7

July 22
The Germans persuaded the Turks to cede to Bulgaria a strip of territory along the Maritza River (definitive agreement Sept. 22). On Aug. 8 the Bulgarian government secured from Germany and Austria a loan of 400 million francs.
8

Sept. 6
Bulgaria concluded an alliance and military convention with Germany and Austria, providing for mutual aid against attack by a neighboring state, for a German-Austrian campaign against Serbia within 30 days, and for Bulgarian participation five days later. Bulgaria was to receive Macedonia, and, if Romania joined in the war, Dobrudja also; if Greece proved hostile, Bulgaria was to receive the Kavalla region as well.
9

Sept. 21
The Bulgarians began to mobilize. The Serbs, being directly threatened, appealed to Greece for aid under the terms of the treaty of May 1913. Venizelos, who had returned to power on Aug. 22, was as eager as ever to intervene, but made it a condition that the Allies furnish the 150,000 troops that Serbia was required to supply under the treaty terms.
10

Sept. 24
The British and French governments gave a promise to this effect. Venizelos then secured the secret consent of the king to the landing of the Allied forces at Saloniki, but publicly the request of the Allies to land was rejected (Sept. 28).
11

Oct. 3–5

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1914, Nov. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

One British and one French division were landed at Saloniki, followed by two more French divisions at the end of the month. King Constantine now refused to support Venizelos to the extent of joining in the war; the prime minister resigned (Oct. 5, 1915) and was succeeded by Alexander Zaimis (Oct. 6–Nov. 5, 1915).

12

Oct. 6
Beginning of the great Austro-German campaign in Serbia (Gen. von Mackensen). Belgrade fell (Oct. 9), and then Semendria (Oct.11).
13

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Oct. 14. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Oct. 14
Bulgaria and Serbia declared war on each other. Britain and France declared war on Bulgaria (Oct. 15, 16), and so did Russia and Italy (Oct. 19). The Allies made great efforts to induce Greece to join, the British offering them the island of Cyprus (Oct. 16), but this offer too was rejected (Oct. 20).
1

Oct. 22
The Bulgarians began a string of victories, forcing the British and French to remain on Greek territory. The British were, by December, prepared to give up the whole Saloniki adventure, but the French, under Gen. Maurice Sarrail, insisted on staying. The result was that ever greater forces were tied up at Saloniki.
2

Nov. 5
Zaimis resigned and was succeeded by Stephanos Skouloudis (Nov. 6, 1915–June 21, 1916). The Greek government then declared its benevolent neutrality (Nov. 8) and agreed not to interfere with the Allied forces at Saloniki, in return for the guarantee of the eventual restoration of Greek territory (Nov. 24).
3

Dec. 2
The Austrians took Plevlje and the Ipek (Dec. 6). Mt. Lovchen, guarding Montenegro, was stormed (Jan. 10, 1916) and Cettinje taken (Jan. 13). King Nicholas laid down his arms and retired to Italy.
4

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Oct. 14. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1916, Jan. 11. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1916, Jan. 11
The French occupied Corfu as a refuge for the Serbian troops. The Greek government refused its consent, but the Serbs were landed nevertheless (Jan. 15).
1

Feb. 24
The Albanian provisional government, under Italian protection at Durazzo, left for Naples. Mountain warfare between the Austrians and the Italians in Albania continued until the end of the war. (See The Italian Front, 1916)
2

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5. The Intervention of Italy, 1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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5. The Intervention of Italy, 1915

THE ITALIAN FRONT IN WORLD WAR I (MAP) On the plea that the Austrian action against Serbia was an offensive action and therefore incompatible with the terms of the Triple Alliance, the Italian government in July 1914 refused to join the Central powers and declared neutrality (Aug. 3). But almost from the outset the Italian government maintained that under Art. VII of the Triple Alliance, Italy was entitled to some compensation to counterbalance the Austrian gains in the Balkans. These claims were advanced the more persistently when the foreign ministry was given to Baron Sidney Sonnino (Nov. 3), following the sudden demise of Marquis Antonio di San Giuliano (Oct. 16). The necessity of making some concession to Italy in order to keep it neutral was fully recognized in Berlin, but the Austrian foreign minister (Baron Leopold von Berchtold) refused to entertain suggestions of territorial cessions.
1

2

1914, Dec. 20
Prince Bernhard von Bülow, former German chancellor, arrived in Rome on a special mission. He admitted the Italian claim to the Trentino, and the German government made every effort to persuade the Austrians to give in (mission of Count Betho von Wedel to Vienna, Jan. 16, 1915).
3

1915, Jan. 13

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5. The Intervention of Italy, 1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Count Stephen Burian appointed Austro-Hungarian foreign minister to replace Berchtold. Burian finally agreed to the cession of territory (March 9) but was willing to cede the Trentino only after the conclusion of peace. This was not enough to satisfy the Italians, who were already negotiating with the Entente powers. Sonnino demanded of Austria the immediate cession of the South Tyrol, the district of Gorizia and Gradisca, the establishment of Trieste and its neighborhood as a free state, the cession to Italy of the Curzolari Islands off the Dalmation coast, and full sovereignty over the island of Saseno and over Valona on the Albanian coast (Italian occupation of Saseno, Oct. 30, 1914; “provisional” occupation of Valona, Dec. 26, 1914). These demands were exorbitant, from the Austrian point of view, but the Germans finally (May 10) induced their allies to agree to substantially all the Italians were holding out for. As it turned out, the Austrians yielded too late.

4

April 26
Britain, France, Russia, and Italy concluded the secret Treaty of London. Antonio Salandra, the Italian prime minister, had envisaged Italian intervention on the Entente side almost since the beginning of war, but the noninterventionists, led by Giovanni Giolitti, were too strong to make that at first a practicable policy. During the winter, however, the interventionist movement gathered strength (Mussolini broke with the Socialist Party and became an active proponent of intervention). The western powers, meeting with failure on the western front, were ready to offer much. Negotiations were embarked upon in Feb. 1915 but were delayed by the opposition of the Russian foreign minister, Sazonov, to the assignment of the Dalmatian coast to Italy, in view of Serbian aspirations in that region. Under the terms of the treaty as finally concluded, a military convention was to be drawn up to protect Italy against the full force of Austrian attack. The political clauses promised Italy the South Tyrol and Trentino, Gorizia, Gradisca, Trieste, Istria, the most important Dalmatian Islands and the southern part of the province of Dalmatia, Saseno and Valona, and full sovereignty over the Dodecanese Islands (occupied since 1912). Moreover, in the event of the partition of Turkey, Italy was to have the province of Adalia; and in the event of Britain and France enlarging their empires by the addition of German colonies, Italy was to receive extensions of its territory in Libya, Eritrea, and Somaliland. Italy was further to receive a loan, and ultimately part of the war indemnity. The Entente powers were to support Italy in preventing the Holy See from taking diplomatic steps for the conclusion of peace. Italy was to commence hostilities within a month of the signature of the treaty.
5

May 3
The Italian government denounced the Triple Alliance.
6

May 10
Conclusion of a naval convention among Britain, France, and Italy.
7

May 23
Italy mobilized and declared war on Austro-Hungary. Germany at once severed diplomatic relations (May 24), but for various financial reasons Italy did not declare war on Germany until Aug. 28, 1916.
8

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5. The Intervention of Italy, 1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1915
FIRST FOUR BATTLES OF THE ISONZO. The first two years of Italy's participation in the war were taken up with the fighting of 11 successive battles on the Isonzo, along a front of only about 60 miles. The Italians never advanced more than 10 or 12 miles. (See The Italian Front, 1916)
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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6. The Middle East, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

6. The Middle East, 1914–1918

THE MIDDLE EASTERN THEATER OF WAR, 1914-18 (MAP)

1914, Aug. 2
Conclusion of a secret Ottoman-German alliance by top-ranking officials, including prime minister Said Halim and minister of war Enver Pasha. A majority within the Ottoman cabinet, however, favored neutrality and delayed the empire's entry into the war.
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Aug. 10–11
Arrival of the German warships Goeben and Breslau at the Dardanelles after a long chase through the Mediterranean by the British navy. The Ottoman government allowed the ships into Istanbul and later purchased them.
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Oct. 29–30
BOMBARDMENT OF RUSSIAN PORTS in the Black Sea by Ottoman warships. The OTTOMANS thereby ENTERED THE WAR on the side of the Central powers.
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Nov. 1

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6. The Middle East, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Declaration of neutrality by the Iranian government.

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Nov. 2
RUSSIA DECLARED WAR ON THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. Great Britain and France followed on Nov. 5. The British immediately annexed Cyprus.
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Nov. 7
Proclamation of a jihad (holy war) against the Entente by the Ottoman sultan in his capacity as caliph. The announcement had no material effect on the course of the war.
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Nov. 22
British occupation of Basra in Iraq.
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Dec. 17
Beginning of the Ottoman offensive in the Caucasus against the Russians.
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Dec. 18
Imposition of a British protectorate over Egypt, which was officially detached from the Ottoman Empire. The British also deposed the khedive, Abbas Hilmi II, and replaced him with his uncle, Husayn Kamil, who assumed the title of sultan.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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6. The Middle East, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1915, Jan. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1915, Jan
Defeat of the Ottomans in the Caucasus at the Battle of Sarikamish. The victorious Russian forces advanced and took the fortress of Erzurum on Feb. 15.
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Feb. 3–4
Failed Ottoman attack on the Suez Canal.
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March 4–April 10
The Constantinople Agreement. Britain and France formally promised that in the event of a complete Entente victory, Russia would receive Istanbul and the Straits.
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April
Armenian revolt in Van. Russian forces reached the city in May.
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April 25
Opening of the BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI, which the Entente eventually lost. The British and French landed troops in the Straits with the goal of capturing Istanbul. After suffering heavy losses from fierce Ottoman resistance, they were forced to withdraw (Dec. 1915–Jan. 1916).
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April 26
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1915, Jan. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Treaty of London. The British recognized Italian claims to the Dodecanese Islands and the province of Adalya in Anatolia.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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July-March 1916. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

July–March 1916
THE HUSAYN-McMAHON CORRESPONDENCE. Husayn, sharif of Mecca, offered to revolt against the Ottomans if, after the war, the British would recognize him as the ruler of all Arab lands in the Fertile Crescent and Arabia. Sir Henry McMahon, British high commissioner in Egypt, welcomed Husayn's overtures, but with several reservations. Within the future Arab state, he demanded “special administrative arrangements” for the regions of Baghdad and Basra to protect British interests in the Persian Gulf. McMahon further excluded Alexandretta and Mersin and the lands west of the “districts of Damascus, Hama, Homs, and Aleppo” from the proposed state. Within Arabia, all existing political arrangements would be preserved. Finally, McMahon warned Husayn that Britain would not commit itself to any actions that compromised French interests. The British treated all their promises as mere declarations of intent, but Husayn—and later many Arab nationalists—viewed them as binding agreements.
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July
Russian occupation of Erzinjan, which marked the farthest penetration of Russian arms into Ottoman territory.
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Aug
Ottoman recapture of Van.
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Aug. 21
Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
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July-March 1916. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Sept. 22
Ottoman territorial concession to Bulgaria. Under pressure from Germany, the Ottomans ceded all claims to Thrace west of the Maritsa River so that the Bulgarians could have a direct outlet to the Aegean Sea. This concession was Bulgaria's price for entering the war (Oct. 1915) on the side of the Central powers.
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Nov
Movement of Russian forces toward Tehran in response to German-Iranian talks.
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Nov
Raids from Libya into Egypt by Sanusiyya tribes, penetrating as far as Marsa Matruh. The tribes were receiving advice and supplies from the Ottoman military. British counterattacks drove them back to Libyan territory by March 1916.
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Nov. 22–24
Defeat of the British army in Iraq at the Battle of Ctesiphon. British forces retreated to Kut and eventually surrendered to the Ottomans on Apr. 29, 1916. The Ottomans then sent troops into Iran during the summer of 1916.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1916. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1916
Organization of the South Persia Rifles by Sir Percy Sykes. The unit operated under British command and purely in the service of British interests.
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Jan. 7
Creation of the Arab Bureau in Cairo. Originally conceived as a center for the development of war policy, the agency quickly became the heart of the British intelligence network in the Middle East.
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April 26–Oct. 23
THE SYKES-PICOT AGREEMENT. Secret negotiations between Britain and France prepared for the partition of the postwar Middle East. France received Cilicia, Lebanon, coastal Syria, and a sphere of influence stretching from the east of these territories to Mosul. Britain secured the areas around Baghdad and Basra, the ports of Haifa and Acre, and a sphere of influence between Palestine and Iraq. Palestine itself, however, was to be placed under an international administration. The agreement assigned the remaining lands, as well as the territory within the European spheres of influence, to one or several Arab states. Arab nationalists later charged that, after the promises of an independent state contained within the Husayn-McMahon correspondence, the British betrayed them in these negotiations. The Arabs were particularly sensitive over the question of Palestine. Since Palestine did not lie to the west of the “districts of Damascus, Hama, Homs, and Aleppo,” they believed that it ought to have been included in an Arab state as the HusaynMcMahon correspondence provided.
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May 22

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1916. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Departure of the Niedermeyer mission from Kabul. Niedermeyer, a German agent, sought Afghan support for the Central powers in World War I. Despite German overtures, Amir Habibullah maintained Afghanistan's neutrality for the duration of the war.

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June 5
THE ARAB REVOLT. The sharif of Mecca, Husayn, proclaimed independence and attacked Ottoman garrisons in the Hijaz. Jedda surrendered on June 16, and Mecca on July 4. Medina, however, held out for the duration of the war.
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Aug
Failure of the second Ottoman attack on the Suez Canal.
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Dec
Advance of the British army into the Sinai Peninsula to establish a forward defensive position. By early January, it had reached Rafah.
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Dec
Formal British recognition of Husayn as king of the Hijaz.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1914, June 28 )

VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 A. Global and Comparative Dimensions
Two world wars and a worldwide economic depression of great magnitude provide the global background and foundation for developments in the first half of the 20th century. The globalization of political, economic, and cultural life intensified in a context of the continuing relative domination by the West. However, the core of the West itself spread beyond Western Europe and increasingly, Western Europe became a less central part of the modern industrialized world. By midcentury, world affairs came to be dominated by the two great superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union. The changing dynamics of world relationships can be seen in two different areas: (1) the emergence of significant patterns of global connections in political, ideological, economic, and sociocultural structures; and (2) the further intensification of international and interstate relationships on a global scale.
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1. Emerging Global Relationships
Important changing patterns of global connections developed in three areas in the first half of the 20th century: (1) the development of global structures of interstate, economic, and sociocultural relationships; (2) the emergence of globally competing sociopolitical ideologies for shaping the nature of societies in the modern era; and (3) significant experiences with global dimensions in economic life, social transformation, and culture.
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a. Developing Global Institutions and Structures

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VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

From the beginning of World War I to the end of World War II, many different types of global relationships developed. Three important types of structures emerged: (1) political organizations and relationships among states; (2) multinational economic and business structures; and (3) nongovernmental organizations for cultural, religious, and humanitarian purposes. In all of these areas, foundations had been laid before 1914, but during the era of the two world wars and the “interwar period” there was a significant development of global institutions and relationships in many different areas.

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1. 1914–1946. Interstate Institutions
At the beginning of the 20th century, relations among the major states primarily represented alliances based on treaties and agreements reflecting relatively temporary arrangements among blocks of powers rather than continuing international institutional structures. Few permanent interstate organizations existed. However, the destructiveness of World War I led to major efforts to create permanent international organizations for the regulation of interstate relations or conflict resolution, as well as for the coordination of international services. World War I negotiations. In 1914, there was no permanent organization for assembling the prospective antagonists. The existing International Court of Justice in The Hague had neither jurisdiction nor power. During the war, occasional efforts at mediation were made, but the war came to an end with a series of armistice agreements that were negotiated often on a bilateral and temporary basis. The major agreements were the armistices between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire (at Mudros, Oct. 1918), Austria-Hungary (Nov. 3, 1918), and Germany (Nov. 11, 1918). The PEACE CONFERENCE AT VERSAILLES (See 1919, Jan. 18) began in January 1919 and defined the main lines of international relations for the world war settlement. The Treaty of Versailles (signed June 1918) defined the conditions of the peace settlement. The LEAGUE OF NATIONS (See April 28) was created by the Treaty of Versailles to deter war and provide an administrative structure for managing international relations and conflict resolution. The League came into being with a permanent secretariat in Geneva in 1920 (Sir Eric Drummond, first secretary-general). In the context of the operation of the League, a number of interstate organizations for coordinating important services were created, including the International Labor Organization (ILO), created in 1919 as a part of the League of Nations to improve global labor conditions, and the International Commission for Air Navigation, created in 1919 to assist in international civil aviation. The Permanent Court of International Justice was created in 1921 in accord with the League's Covenant and established in The Hague as a continuation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Existing international institutions like the Universal Postal Union, the International Institute of Agriculture, and the International Meteorological Organization worked in collaboration with the League of Nations in the continuing process of coordinating important international services. MULTINATIONAL CONFERENCES continued to be an important instrument for international relations. These enabled major powers to act without the constraints imposed by League of Nations procedures. One major theme for such conferences was arms control and the possible renunciation of war. Some of the most important of these were: Washington Conference (1921–22), which defined Great Power relations in the Pacific basin and in China, as well as set limits on naval armaments. Locarno Conference and Treaties (1925) provided for border guarantees in Europe (See Oct. 5–16). KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT, signed in Paris in 1928, involved renunciation of war but made no provision for sanctions. London Naval Conference (1930) (See 1930, Jan. 21–April 22) dealt with submarine warfare and other naval armament agreements signed by Great Britain, the U.S., Japan, France, and Italy.
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VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914-1945. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Disarmament Conference in Geneva (1932) was attended by 60 states and produced no effective agreements. By the mid-1930s, such major conferences were effectively replaced by the Great Power negotiations that were part of the buildup to World War II. Other major conferences were held on a variety of subjects. Many were held in the context of European powers' working out the economic implications of the Versailles Treaty and German war reparations. Others defined international cooperation in many nonpolitical areas. Important examples of these are the Madrid Conference (1932) of the International Telecommunication Union, which merged the Telegraph Convention (1865) and the Radiotelegraph Convention (1906), and the Havana Conference (1928), creating the Pan American Convention on Air Navigation.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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2. Regional Interstate Institutions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

2. Regional Interstate Institutions
During the interwar period, some groups of states developed important permanent interstate structures. The British Empire made significant steps in the direction of the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS. The earlier extension of dominion status to Canada (1867), Australia (1901), New Zealand (1907), and the Union of South Africa (1910) laid the foundation for the establishment by the Imperial Conference in 1926 of the association of equal states united by “common allegiance to the crown.” In the Western Hemisphere, conferences had been held by the independent republics throughout the 19th century. PAN-AMERICANISM was institutionalized with the creation of the International Union of American Republics in 1890. Four International Conferences of American States were held before World War I, and the Fifth International Conference of American States, held at Santiago, Chile, in 1923, reorganized the structures, establishing the Pan-American Union as the permanent organization for the association of American republics. The Eighth International Conference (Peru, 1938) issued the Declaration of Lima affirming solidarity in defense of the hemisphere against foreign intervention. At the Ninth International Conference (Colombia, 1948), the organization was restructured as the ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES as a regional grouping under the United Nations. World War II negotiations. The structures for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts did not prevent significant fighting in the 1930s leading up to World War II. The Japanese occupation of Manchuria (1931–32) and invasion of China (1937), the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, and the German reoccupation of the Rhineland (1936) and steady expansion through negotiation and attack were signs of the failure of institutions of international political cooperation. Following the declarations of war by the world's major powers in 1939–41, structures of international political coordination were organized for the efforts of a world war. Two major groupings of powers emerged: the AXIS POWERS, led by Germany, Japan, and Italy; and the ALLIED POWERS, led by Great Britain, France, the U.S., and China. Axis international cooperation was defined by the German-Italian-Japanese Treaty of 1940. However, Germany and Japan did not coordinate efforts significantly, and Japan never attacked the Soviet Union.
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2. Regional Interstate Institutions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Allied international coordination was more intensive, and a series of conferences during the war defined the foundations for the postwar international system. Among the most important of these were: Atlantic Conference of Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill (Aug. 1941), which issued the ATLANTIC CHARTER (See Aug. 14) as a declaration of British and American peace aims.1943 SUMMIT CONFERENCES (See The Organization of Peace) of heads of major Allied states to define war aims and goals: Casablanca (January; Britain, the U.S., and France); Quebec (August; Churchill and Roosevelt); Cairo (November; Britain, the U.S., and China); Tehran (November–December; Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin).1945 CONFERENCES coordinated the final Allied war efforts and established a new international organization to succeed the League of Nations. Summit conferences of heads of the governments of Great Britain, the U.S., and the Soviet Union took place at Yalta (February) and Potsdam (July–August). The San Francisco Conference (April–June) completed the charter of the UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION, which succeeded the League of Nations, and the first session of the U.N. General Assembly took place in January 1946. A peace conference in Paris in 1946 drafted treaties of peace between the Allies and Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland, but the Allies could not agree on the major treaties with Germany and Japan. The creation of the United Nations represented the beginning of a new era of global interstate institutions.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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3. Multinational Economic Institutions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

3. Multinational Economic Institutions
The worldwide experiences of the two world wars and the Great Depression provided the framework for the development of interstate and private economic institutions whose operations were increasingly global in nature. International financial institutions became increasingly important for economic life. In the 19th century, a truly global market had developed for goods and services and was based on an increasingly integrated financial and monetary system. The common acceptance of the gold standard meant that the major currencies were convertible. By 1914, Europeans had substantial investments throughout the world. World War I forced major changes in economic organization. Governments became increasingly involved in the operation of economies through control of production, trade, and labor. Following the war, international economic issues like German reparations payments and repayment by European powers of war loans made by the U.S. had important effects on world economic activities. In this context, financial operations became more globally integrated. Major stock markets became more closely interconnected, with the result that the crash on the New York Stock Exchange in October 1929 had an impact throughout the world. Similarly, in banking, the failure of the Austrian Credit-Anstalt in 1931 began a series of major bank failures throughout the world. The Great Depression of the 1930s caused many governments to institute policies of economic nationalism and protectionism. The impacts of these policies moved in waves across the globe, emphasizing the integrated nature of the global economy even in contexts of conflict. Great Britain went off the gold standard in 1931 and was followed by more than 20 other countries. The United States did so in 1933, and by 1937, no country in the world was on the full gold standard. Economic nationalism resulted in the imposition of high tariffs on internationally traded goods. The U.S. enacted the very high Hawley-Smoot tariff in 1930, and rapidly countries throughout the world, even traditionally free-trade-oriented Great Britain, enacted similar protective tariffs. The London International Economic Conference of 1933 attempted to develop arrangements for stabilization of currencies and regulation of international debts but failed.
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3. Multinational Economic Institutions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World War II arrangements. The outbreak of World War II brought an end to the conditions of the 1930s, and during the war, Allied negotiators worked on establishing less anarchic international economic conditions as a part of the postwar reorganization. Major international economic institutions were established in the chief problem areas of international finance, monetary issues, and trade. At the BRETTON WOODS CONFERENCE in 1944, representatives from 44 Allied states met to establish rules for trade and international economic relations in the postwar period. As a result of conference recommendations, the International Monetary Fund was created in 1945 and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “World Bank”) began operations in 1946 as institutions to stabilize currency and international financial relations. Nongovernmental economic associations. Private international associations and organizations developed in the 19th century as an important part of global economic activities. However, it was in the first half of the 20th century that such structures grew rapidly in number and became more institutionalized. In 1907, the first comprehensive listing by the Union of International Associations named 185, and by the middle of the 20th century, more than a thousand international organizations were in operation. Their activities were especially important in the economic and scientific areas. The International Chamber of Commerce had roots in 19th-century structures but was created as a permanent organization in 1920 as a confederation of national commercial associations and other business groups. It played an important consultative role in economic conferences in the interwar period and, after World War II, received consultative status with the UN. INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITIONS, or World's Fairs, were important events in the 19th century, beginning with the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851 in London. They provided major international opportunities to exhibit new trade goods and the most advanced technologies of the time. Throughout the 19th century, they were organized by individual countries. In 1928, a convention signed by 35 countries created the Bureau of International Expositions to regulate the holding of world's fairs. The New York World's Fair (1939–40) was the last major fair before World War II, and the next did not take place until the Brussels Exposition of 1958. Individual industries coordinated standards and activities through organizations like the International Hotel Alliance (1921), the International Wool Textile Organization (1929), the International Broadcasting Union (1925), and the International Shipping Conference (1921). A large number of other associations reflected the increasing globalization of all significant areas of human activity. Multinational corporations. The interwar period was an important time in the development of global business structures. International companies have existed since ancient times, but truly multinational corporations are recent creations. In the 19th century the major international companies were generally involved in import-export trade or exploitation of raw materials. Possibly the first truly multinational corporation was Singer, an American company that manufactured and mass-marketed a product (sewing machines) internationally. By 1914, the idea of a multinational corporation was established through the development of a number of major companies, but their share in the economic activity of industrialized societies was still limited. In the first half of the 20th century, this situation was transformed. In those industries involving production of mass consumer goods or new advanced technologies, there was a significant internationalization of enterprise. Ford and General Motors led in internationalizing the automobile industry, and other important examples of emerging multinational corporations were Philips Electrical (originally Dutch), Courtaulds in synthetic fibers, and the German I. G. Farben chemical trust. In some major industries, CARTELS, groups of large companies that coordinated their efforts, emerged as an important form of multinational economic enterprise. Major cartels emerged in the chemical, steel, and synthetic fibers industries. The most successful was the oil cartel, in which the seven largest oil companies in the world, led by Standard Oil (New Jersey), Royal Dutch–Shell, and Anglo-Persian (now British Petroleum), set conditions of pricing and production for most of the world's oil industry. Cartels flourished in the first half of the 20th century but became less important as a result of the transformations of the global economic context created by World War II and postwar developments. However, by mid-century, the large multinational corporation had emerged as a very important part of the global economy.

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3. Multinational Economic Institutions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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4. Multinational Cultural Institutions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

4. Multinational Cultural Institutions
Nongovernmental organizations for cultural, religious, and humanitarian purposes have long been internationally active. Religious communities like the Roman Catholic Church have been significantly transnational institutions since the classical period of world history. However, in the 19th century, modern associations began to emerge as important international agents. During the first half of the 20th century, these organizations joined the more traditional structures in becoming a major element in the globalization of modern societies. Religious organizations. During the 19th century, the intensification of global relationships also involved religious groups. In the era of Western domination, this frequently involved Christian missionary activities in non-European areas. In the first half of the 20th century, the interactions became more cosmopolitan. In the Roman Catholic Church, especially under Pope Pius XI (1922–39) and Pope Pius XII (1939–58), there was a significant effort to create local clergies and indigenous hierarchies in the mission lands. The ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT was especially strong among Protestant Christians. Competition among Christian missionary bodies led to a world conference of missionary societies in Edinburgh in 1910 which laid foundations for the modern ecumenical movement. In 1921 the International Missionary Council was created for global coordination of missions, and it held five major international conferences that redefined the ecumenical Protestant understanding of mission in multinational terms. The Commission on Life and Work and the Faith and Order Commission were established in the 1920s. In a conference at Utrecht in 1938 they voted to merge in order to create a World Council of Churches, a process that was completed following World War II at a meeting at Amsterdam in 1948. Individual church organizations also became more explicitly global in the first half of the 20th century with the creation of organizations like the Lutheran World Federation in 1947.
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4. Multinational Cultural Institutions. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

HINDU organizations of a modern multinational style also emerged. During the late 19th century, the Ramakrishna Mission gained international prominence through the travels and lectures in the West of Vivekananda (1863–1902) and the establishment of Vedanta Societies. The teachings of Aurobindo Ghose (1872–1950), presented as Integral Yoga, gained followers throughout the world organized in special meditative communities or ashrams. BUDDHISM was also a source of new movements in many different areas. A number of Buddhist missionary organizations were active in the West, and Buddhism became a fully global religion during the first half of the 20th century. ZIONISM emerged in Judaism during the late 19th century in a distinctively modern organizational format. The first Zionist Congress was held in 1897, and it created the World Zionist Movement, whose goal was to create an independent Jewish state. During World War I, the Zionist movement secured international recognition. The interwar period saw the development of a formal Jewish community in British-controlled Palestine and the development of Zionism as a significant global movement. Following World War II, Zionism achieved its goal with the creation of the State of Israel in 1948. Humanitarian organizations. Nongovernmental organizations were established to deal with humanitarian issues in many different fields. The more prominent of these associations often worked closely with interstate and national governments. During the first half of the 20th century, the Red Cross continued to grow as an international force. In 1919 the various national societies joined together in what came to be called the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, which provided relief in disaster situations. The Society of Friends (Quakers) also formed a number of humanitarian agencies in the first half of the 20th century. Although they were nationally organized, like the American Friends Service Committee, established in 1917, they worked internationally. The American committee and the Service Council of the British Society of Friends shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947 in recognition of this worldwide activity. Women's associations grew in international importance during the first half of the 20th century. Ten of the first 32 organizations admitted to “category B” consultative status at the UN in 1946–47 were explicitly international women's organizations, including the International Federation of Business and Professional Women.

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b. Globally Competing Ideologies
The first half of the 20th century was a time when major modern comprehensive ideologies were developed as the basis for sociopolitical identities and political systems. In the social, economic, and political transformations framed by the two world wars and the Great Depression, world visions and broad programmatic perspectives were an important part of the global scene. The most comprehensive statements of the emerging ideologies were made by movements and thinkers in more industrialized societies. These helped to shape the options defining transformations taking place outside of Europe and North America. Two important lines of experience shaped the developing global competition of ideologies in the first half of the 20th century: (1) the definition and conflict of explicitly modern ideologies in the Western world, and (2) the evolution of options for guiding transformations in the emerging nationalist context of societies dominated by the major powers.
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1. Western Ideological Competitions
At the beginning of the 20th century in Europe, comprehensive ideological positions defining the basic nature of society tended to be politically marginal. The nationalist unifications of Italy and Germany had avoided becoming ideologically liberal, and Great Britain and France maintained a practical adherence to parliamentary liberalism. Democratic liberalism, in an explicitly capitalist format, as it was emerging in the U.S., was also pragmatic in orientation. World War I destroyed the stability of the politically evolutionary acceptance of change, and following the war, the alternatives were more sharply defined in ideologically programmatic terms.
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b. Globally Competing Ideologies. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The victorious powers in World War I were committed to differing forms of democratic liberalism. The World War I settlement reflected this ideological position. The global terms were set by the U. S. president WOODROW WILSON, in an ideological liberal internationalism committed to the selfdetermination of peoples, democratic political systems, relatively capitalist market economies, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts by public negotiation. The League of Nations was the manifestation of this ideology. Although Great Britain and France were less committed to the international aspects, they maintained their own democratic parliamentary systems and supported efforts to create and maintain them elsewhere in Europe. Germany was reconstituted in the Weimar Republic, and in the other new states established in Central and Eastern Europe, parliamentary systems were established. Significant economic difficulties in all of the democracies and growing political divisions among the parties led to increasing pressures for more authoritarian leaders, and in a number of countries dictators came to power. In the continuing democracies, the Depression forced major changes involving significant government intervention in the economy. Democratic socialism became a major force in Britain and France, and the New Deal of President Franklin Roosevelt, beginning in 1933 in the U.S., was a major transformation of the economy of the U.S. The economies of the liberal democracies were increasingly mixed economies, combining aspects of capitalism and socialism in an emerging democratic welfare state system. During World War II, the Axis powers represented the authoritarian alternative to liberal democracy. When they were defeated, the Allied powers established constitutional democratic systems in Italy, Japan, and the parts of Germany under occupation by American, British, and French forces. In the Western world, after major setbacks during the interwar period, liberal democracy, in modified capitalist and socialist economic systems, emerged after World War II as the dominant sociopolitical ideology.

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b. Communism
The philosophy and sociopolitical ideology of Karl Marx (1818–83) provided the basis for the major ideological alternative to liberal democracy in the 20th century. Building on a materialist interpretation of history, Marxists developed a vision of a society in which production and distribution were controlled by the community in a collectivized economy. The working class was to be the major vehicle for achieving this goal, and class interests rather than national identities were seen as primary. When the member parties of the Second International supported their national governments in World War I, the International was dissolved. An explicitly communist alternative was defined by LENIN (Vladimir I. Ulianov), who led a radical faction of the Social Democratic Party that had been formed in Russia in 1898. In the Russian Revolution of 1917, Lenin's faction, the Bolsheviks, came to power and was reorganized as the Communist Party in 1918, which was the sole party in the emerging Soviet Union. Lenin created the THIRD INTERNATIONAL (Comintern) in 1919 as the structure for organizing global revolution and coordinating efforts of Communist parties around the world. Parties of the extreme left from 37 countries attended the second congress of the Comintern in 1920. During the 1920s, formal Communist parties were founded in many countries of Asia, including Turkey, Iran, India, China, and Japan, in Latin America, in the Middle East, and in most European countries. Although no other countries became Communist systems in the interwar era, the Soviet Union emerged as a major world power. Leninist communism became a major alternative to and competitor with Wilsonian liberal democracy.
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Communist-democratic conflicts quickly developed. Great Britain, France, and the U.S. intervened militarily in the Russian civil war in 1918–19 to prevent the consolidation of Bolshevik rule of Russia but failed. In the efforts to establish new states and create a new international system at the end of World War I, there were important but unsuccessful Communist efforts to gain control in many places. In Germany, the Spartacist group, which advocated a Communist state, led a series of uprisings in 1919–20 against the emerging Weimar Republic and was defeated. Communist attempts to gain power in the new republic of Austria (1919) and Bulgaria (1923–25) were unsuccessful. The Communist dictatorship of Béla Kun in Hungary lasted only a few months in 1919. In Iran (Persia), Persian nationalists and social democrats received support from the Bolshevik regime in establishing a short-lived Soviet Republic of Gilan in 1920. The new Communist Party in China cooperated with the Kuomintang regime until a major split in 1927, and the Communists went into revolutionary opposition. Communist “threat.” Although Communist parties did not succeed in winning control of any countries in the interwar era, they represented the most visible global opposition to democratic liberal regimes. This led at times to periodic waves of fear of Communist revolutions in democratic countries. In the U.S. during the Red scare of 1919–20, thousands of people were arrested as suspected Communist revolutionaries. In Great Britain, the publication of the so-called Zinoviev letter in 1924, exposing an alleged Communist conspiracy, contributed to the overwhelming electoral victory of the Conservatives over the more socialist Labour Party. Fear of communism was an important reason why many people supported the emergence of the authoritarian regimes of Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany. In 1933, Hitler charged the Communists with setting the Reichstag fire (See Feb. 27), which partly destroyed the German parliament building. The alleged danger of a Communist revolution was the rationale for the suspension of constitutional liberties and the granting of special powers to Hitler. The most effective response to Communist threats, real and imagined, was thought by many, even in the liberal democracies, to be more authoritarian policies. By the 1930s, the real ideological competition was frequently seen as being between communism and various forms of fascism, with liberal democracies believed to be in decline. This situation was strengthened by the economic conditions of the Great Depression.

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c. Fascism
Fascism developed as the third major competing ideology of the first half of the 20th century. It was not simply an assertion of dictatorial or military rule, nor was it a socially conservative perspective, although many conservatives preferred it to either communism or democratic liberalism. Fascist movements that emerged after World War I took a number of different forms, but they shared an ideological perspective that subordinated the individual to the state, opposed class struggle, and affirmed nationalist identities and a corporate state. Structures were elitist rather than egalitarian, and there was an emphasis on the role of the great leader. The first major Fascist leader to come to power was MUSSOLINI in Italy, who became prime minister in 1922 and seized full power by 1926. Other states came under the control of dictators in the interwar period, including Poland (1926), Lithuania (1926), Portugal (1932), and Estonia (1934). The most important Fascist-style regime was established in Germany during the 1930s by the NAZI MOVEMENT led by HITLER. Fascist-style governments also came to power in Greece in 1936 under General Johannes Metaxas, and in Spain with the victory in 1939 of the Falange led by Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. In Argentina, a group of military officers impressed by Nazi achievements seized power in 1943, and their dominant leader, Juan Perón, established a Fascist-style dictatorship in 1945. In JAPAN a distinctive statist authoritarian regime developed in the interwar era, and it established ties with the major European Fascist states in the late 1930s. Fascist-style movements also developed in a number of countries: the Iron Guard, founded in Romania in 1927; the “Black Shirts” of Oswald Moseley in Great Britain (formed in 1932); Young Egypt (the “Green Shirts”), formed in Egypt in 1933. Elsewhere, including in the U.S., many people became convinced that some form of authoritarian fascism was necessary in the face of the Communist challenge and the difficulties of the Depression.
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d. Victory of Democratic Liberalism
The defeat of the Axis powers in World War II brought an end to the appeal of Fascism, as the major examples of Fascist-style regimes were defeated and were forced to experience the establishment of liberal democracies. While authoritarian dictatorships continued in many parts of the world, only Franco in Spain and Perón in Argentina advocated Fascist-style ideologies on which to base their legitimacy. Most dictators after World War II appealed to popular sovereignty and the concepts of democracy. This created the conditions for the main ideological conflict of the second half of the 20th century, the competition between democratic liberalism and communism, which took the concrete form of the COLD WAR between the emerging superpowers of the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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2. Nationalist Options
In the areas dominated by the major powers and empires, the first half of the 20th century was a time when nationalist movements began to be important throughout the world. In the 19th century, nationalist movements had been most effective and active in Europe. The advocacy of the right of self-determination which was part of the World War I settlement created a number of new nationally identified states in Europe but maintained imperial control in much of the rest of the world. MIDDLE EAST. Movements for assertion of national identities had developed in the late 19th century in Egypt and Persia (Iran), and among Turks in the Ottoman Empire. In the Arab lands of southwest Asia and French North Africa, there was little Arab nationalism until World War I. Following World War I, major nationalist movements developed in Turkey under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (See 1919, May 19), in Persia under Reza Shah Pahlevi, and in Egypt under the Wafd Party of Sa'd Zaghloul. In French North Africa, the Destour Party and then the Neo-Destour Party in Tunisia and less well structured efforts elsewhere presented nationalist programs, as did intellectuals in the states that had been created as League of Nations mandates in the Middle East—Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine. All of these nationalist movements tended to express their goals in terms of Wilsonian liberal democracy. They sought self-determination, recognized popular sovereignty, and tried to create independent parliamentary political systems. All also advocated programs of rapid modernization following explicitly Western European models. Fascism and communism had limited appeal or support. The real conflict was between nationalist aspirations and imperialist power. Only in the new Turkish republic under Atatürk, and, to a lesser extent, in Persia (Iran), were nationalists able to achieve effective political independence and implement modernization programs of their own rather than an imposed definition.
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2. Nationalist Options. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

AFRICA. The interwar period was from some perspectives the heyday of European imperialism in Africa. Major concepts of imperial governance like Indirect Rule were developed by the British, and there was little expectation that imperial rule would end before a long period of time had elapsed. The units of imperial control had been created by the processes of European imperial expansion and had little relationship to the ethnic and cultural identities of the subject peoples. In the interwar period there were, however, small groups of educated Africans who began to call for independence and did so in nationalist terms, calling for the independence of the existing imperialist-created state. In the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan a Graduates Congress was formed in 1938 and advocated nationalist aims, presenting a list of demands to the British in 1942. In Kenya during the 1920s there was the Kikuyu Central Association, which sought the return of land taken by British settlers, but its leaders, like the later nationalist Jomo Kenyatta, were not actively nationalist in the interwar era. In general terms, educated Africans in all colonies expressed desires for self-determination and effective political participation, but effective nationalist movements did not emerge until after World War II. PAN-AFRICAN movements did not have much support in Africa itself, but in the U.S., AfricanAmerican organizations supported various types of Pan-Africanism and possible return to Africa. The most important advocates of these ideas were W.E.B. DuBois early in the century, and Marcus Garvey in the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s. A religious form of American black nationalism was formulated by Elijah Muhammad in the organization of the Nation of Islam in the 1930s. SOUTH ASIA. In India, there was a well-established nationalist movement by the beginning of the 20th century. The Indian National Congress had been founded in 1885 with the goal of securing for Indians a greater role in their government. In the interwar period, especially under the dramatic nonviolent leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the nationalist movement gained great strength. The Muslim League, founded in 1906, originally worked closely with Congress to secure Indian selfgovernment. During the interwar period, Indian Muslim feelings of identity and fear of Hindu domination in an independent India led the Muslim League to advocate establishing an independent Muslim state in South Asia to be called Pakistan. Following World War II in 1947, when British India became independent it was partitioned into Pakistan and the Republic of India. EAST ASIA. In the colonial areas of East Asia there were some beginnings of modern nationalism. In the Philippines, the period of rule by the U.S. began with a bloody war of Philippine resistance (1898–1901) and ended with the establishment of commonwealth status in the late 1930s and the Japanese conquest during World War II. Nationalist resistance to French rule in Indochina, Dutch rule in Indonesia, and British control in various southeast Asia lands began to be expressed in the interwar era but with only limited success until World War II, when the defeat of the imperial powers by Japan inspired local nationalists. Japan's role. Japan had an important international role in the development of nationalist movements during the first half of the 20th century. The success of the program of rapid modernization set in motion by the Meiji Revolution in the 19th century inspired reformist nationalists like Atatürk in Turkey. Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905 had a major impact in showing that European imperial powers could be defeated. In World War II, the Japanese conquest of the French, British, Dutch, and American possessions in East and Southeast Asia opened the way for wartime puppet states to set precendents for later demands for independence. In addition, the expansion of Japan's own imperial strength aroused the fears of Japan's historic rivals, China and Korea, and provided a negative impulse for the development of nationalism in China under the Kuomintang led by Jiang Jieshi. In Korea, following its annexation by Japan in 1910, nationalist resistance took a number of forms, including the establishment of a Korean provisional government in exile whose president in 1919 was Syngman Rhee, who became the first president of South Korea in the republic created by the U.S. following World War II. Nationalist ideologies in the first half of the 20th century tended to be based on the Wilsonian liberal democratic vision of the world. It was not until the time of the Cold War following World War II that more Communist-style perspectives became important in developing nationalist movements and visions.

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a. Globalization of Culture
The period between the two world wars was a time when many aspects of human life and experience became more global in style or mode of operation. The Great Depression showed the global nature of important economic aspects of life, but this was also part of many aspects of social and cultural life. These tendencies could be seen in sports, entertainment, and literature.
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1. Sports
The organizational and social context of sports became significantly globalized in the first half of the 20th century. The sports involved the establishment of significant international organizations both of athletes and of competitions. The International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) (founded 1913) became a major global institution by mid-20th century. THE MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES became major global events in the interwar era. The Berlin Olympics of 1936 were an attempt by Hitler to glorify the new racist Nazi state but this failed when an African-American athlete, Jesse Owens, won four gold medals. The Olympics were extended to include winter games in 1924. The London Olympics of 1948 were a celebration of the Allied victory in World War II as well as an athletic event. Major individual sports also became globalized, with the world's most widely viewed sport of SOCCER, or Association Football, reflecting the broader history. Following World War I, association football became a major feature of social recreational life, especially in Europe and Latin America. The first World Cup competition was held in 1930 and was won by Uruguay. International competitions were interrupted by World War II but quickly resumed following the war.
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2. Cinema
The development of the technology of motion pictures and the large movie industry is an important global phenomenon of the first half of the 20th century. The ability to present “moving pictures” was the result of work by people in a number of different countries in the 1890s. Louis and Auguste Lumière in France developed equipment using machines made by Thomas Edison, and the Lumières first presented motion pictures to a paying audience in a Paris café in 1895. The film industry developed rapidly in the U.S., with D.W. Griffith making more than 400 films between 1908 and 1913, transforming the art and the business. World War I inhibited the development of the film industry in Europe, but in the interwar period cinema spread rapidly throughout the world, both in terms of audience and film production. In the 1920s, large film companies grew in the U.S., especially in Hollywood, California, and major film industries developed in Germany, France, and Sweden. In the new Soviet Union, major directors like Sergei Eisenstein created films like Potemkin (1925), which had an international impact. Cinema sometimes became an important medium for political propaganda, as in the films of Leni Riefenstahl in Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Outside of Europe and the U.S., important film industries also developed, showing the global impact of the new medium. In Egypt, film shows for Allied troops during World War I created great local interest, and local production efforts began after the war. The first full-length Egyptian film was produced in 1927, and in 1934 the large Studio Misr was founded. World War II stimulated further interest and opportunity, so that the Egyptian film industry emerged as an important part of the postwar Arab world. Other major film industries producing large numbers of films began in the interwar era in JAPAN and INDIA, and after World War II movies like Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon (1950) and Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali (1955) gained major international recognition. The expansion of the movie industry was a part of the Westernization and industrialization of the modern world. It also provided modern means for the expression of distinctive cultural identities in the context of increasingly global means of presentation and communication. The globalization of human experience in the first half of the 20th century is seen in the development of political institutions, economic structures, ideological competitions, and cultural areas. This shows the continuing influence of Western forms and structures but also the expansion beyond the traditional West of modern forms and ideas. In the process, the modern world emerged from the Western-dominated world.
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2. Cinema. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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3. International Relations
The era between the two world wars was a period of complex interrelations among states and involved a variety of other institutions. The major dividing point in the two decades is the beginning of the Great Depression, which can be dated from the collapse of the New York stock market in 1929. The interwar period may be divided chronologically into two phases: (1) the postwar period of adjustment and building, and (2) the era of the Great Depression.
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a. The Post–World War I Era
The main lines of development of international relations during the 1920s were to implement the Versailles Treaty, to organize international relations among the major powers in the changing global context, and to adjust to the globalization of many different types of activities.
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1919
Creation of the International Labor Organization and the International Commission for Air Navigation as a part of the development of the League of Nations organizational structures. Creation of the International Federation of Red Cross Societies, joining the various national societies into a single world federation. The formation of the Third International (Comintern) by Lenin.
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1919, Nov. 19
U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Versailles Treaty (See July 10–1920, March 19) and the defensive treaties among the U.S., Great Britain, and France. This significantly weakened the whole structure of the international peace structure established at Paris.
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1919–24
Conflicts over borders of peace settlement (See 1919–22). Numerous disputes in Eastern Europe took place, contesting control of Vilna (between Poland, Lithuania, and Russia), Teschen (Poland and Czechoslovakia), Bergenland (between Austria and Hungary), Fiume (between Italy and Yugoslavia), and Upper Silesia (between Germany and Poland). In the Middle East, there was a Turco-Greek War (1919–22) for the control of Western Anatolia, which the new Turkish nationalist movement won, driving Greek forces completely out of Anatolia.
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1920
Creation of the International Chamber of Commerce. Olympic Games resumed, after eight-year break, in Antwerp. Finnish distance runner Paavo Nurmi was major star.
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1920, Jan. 10
Official birth of the League of Nations. The assembly met for the first time Nov. 15.
8

April 19–26
The San Remo Conference of the Allied powers to discuss territorial arrangements and to assign League of Nations Class A Mandates.
9

June 19–22
Conference of Hythe and Boulogne to discuss the Middle Eastern situation and reparations issues.
10

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1921. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1921
Establishment of the International Hotel Alliance and the International Shipping Conference. Christian church organizations established the International Missionary Conference.
1

1921, Aug. 24, 25
U.S. peace treaties with Austria and Germany made separately.
2

Oct. 20
The Aaland Islands convention signed in Geneva providing for the neutralization and nonfortification of the islands.
3

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1921, Nov. 12-1922, Feb. 6. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1921, Nov. 12–1922, Feb. 6
The WASHINGTON CONFERENCE, which met at the invitation of the U.S. government to consider naval armaments and East Asian questions. Great Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, China, Japan, and Portugal were represented. Soviet Russia, not yet recognized by the U. S., was not invited, despite its major interests in East Asia. The conference resulted in (1) the fourpower Pacific Treaty, Dec. 13 (the U.S., Great Britain, France, and Japan), by which the signatories guaranteed each other's rights in insular possessions in the Pacific and promised to consult if their rights were threatened. The Anglo-Japanese alliance came to an end; (2) the Shantung Treaty (Feb. 4), by which Japan returned Kiaochow to China; (3) two nine-power treaties (Feb. 6), guaranteeing the territorial integrity and administrative independence of China and reiterating the principle of the “Open Door”; (4) the naval armaments treaty (Feb. 6), providing for a ten-year naval holiday during which no new capital ships (defined as ships over 10,000 tons with guns larger than eight-inch) were to be built, and establishing a ratio for capital ships of 5–5–3–1.67–1.67. This meant that Great Britain and the U.S. were each allowed 525,000 tons, Japan 315,000, and France and Italy each 175,000. Total tonnage of aircraft carriers was restricted and a maximum size fixed for capital ships, aircraft carriers, and cruisers.
1

1922, Feb. 15
The Permanent Court of International Justice was opened at The Hague.
2

April 10–May 19
Genoa Conference, including Germany and Russia, called to consider the Russian problem and the general economic questions of the world. The conference broke down on the insistence of France that Russia recognize its prewar debt.
3

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1921, Nov. 12-1922, Feb. 6. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

April 16
Rapallo Treaty of alliance between Germany and Soviet Russia in which both renounced reparations (See April 16).
4

June 30
The new Danube statute went into effect.
5

Aug. 1
Lord Balfour, the British foreign secretary, sent a note to the Allied powers indebted to Great Britain offering to abandon all further claims to payment and all claims to reparations, provided a general settlement could be made that would end the “economic injury inflicted on the world by the present state of things.” If the U.S., which had not demanded a share of reparations payments, should refuse to cancel the debts owed by European governments, then Great Britain would have to insist on receiving enough from its debtors to pay its own obligations to the U.S. The American attitude was that reparations and interallied debts were not connected problems, so that German default on reparations would not excuse default on Allied payments to the U.S.
6

Aug. 7–14
London Conference. Poincaré demanded, as conditions for a moratorium, a series of “productive guarantees,” among them appropriation of 60 percent of the capital of the German dyestuff factories on the left bank of the Rhine, and exploitation and contingent expropriation of the state mines in the Ruhr. The British rejected Poincaré's scheme, and Poincaré refused to grant a moratorium.
7

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1922, Nov. 20-1923, Feb. 4. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1922, Nov. 20–1923, Feb. 4
First Lausanne Conference, to conclude peace between Turkey and Greece (See 1922, Oct. 11).
1

Dec. 9–11
Second London Conference. The British offered to cancel Allied debts to Great Britain even if Britain had to continue to pay the U.S. Poincaré refused, since the reparations expected from Germany were theoretically greater than the French debt to Great Britain.
2

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11. The War at Sea, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Sept. 1 )

11. The War at Sea, 1916–1917
The second half of 1915 and the first half of 1916 were not marked by any striking events of naval warfare. The Germans continued their efforts to reduce British preponderance by submarine and mine destruction, and at the same time extended their operations against merchant shipping.
1

1916, Feb. 21
The German government notified the U.S. government that thenceforth armed merchantmen would be treated as cruisers. The “extended” submarine campaign began March 1.
2

March 24
The Sussex sunk by torpedo in the English Channel with the loss of American lives. Acrimonious debate between Washington and Berlin, culminating in an American ultimatum. The Germans agreed to give up unrestricted submarine warfare for the time being (May 10). Meanwhile (Jan. 1916) Adm. Reinhardt Scheer had succeeded Adm. Hugo von Pohl in the command of the German High Seas Fleet. The famous minister of the navy, Adm. von Tirpitz, resigned (March 14) in protest against the emperor's unwillingness to make full use of German sea power. He was succeeded by Adm. Eduard von Capelle.
3

4

May 31–June 1
BATTLE OF JUTLAND (SKAGERRAK).
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5

11. The War at Sea, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The German high command reckoned confidently on winning the war through the destruction of the British food supply. The prospects were indeed excellent. Already in the last months of 1916 German submarines had destroyed 300,000 tons of shipping a month. By the beginning of 1917 the Germans had about 120 submarines, the number being increased to 134 by Oct. 1917.

6

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1917, March 11. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, March 11
The British capture of Baghdad. British forces would move another 80 miles north to Samarra by late April. Meanwhile, the Ottoman army in Iran had to fall back.
1

April
The British capture of Gaza.
2

April 19–Sept. 26
St. Jean de Maurienne Agreement. In return for recognizing the Sykes-Picot Agreement, Italy was to receive the Anatolian territories of Izmir, Adalya, and Konya in the postwar settlement.
3

April 20
The Ottoman Empire severed diplomatic relations with the U.S.
4

June 16
British Declaration to the Seven, issued to a delegation of seven Syrians resident in Cairo on the future of the Arab Near East. The British promised to uphold the principle of self-determination in all Arab lands located within the Ottoman Empire which British troops were occupying.
5

June 29
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1917, March 11. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Sir Edmund Allenby replaced Sir Archibald Murray as commander of British forces in the Middle East.

6

July 6
Capture of Aqaba by an Arab force, assisted by Col. Thomas E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia). Operations began against the now vulnerable Hijaz railway. The Ottomans withdrew all forces from Arabia except their garrison at Medina.
7

Nov
Russian withdrawal from Iran after the Bolshevik seizure of power. In December, the Russians renounced all claims to Ottoman territory. Through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 3, 1918), the Ottomans regained the districts of Kars and Ardahan (which Russia had annexed in 1878), and Russia renounced its capitulatory privileges.
8

Dec. 9
British occupation of Jerusalem.
9

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1923, Jan. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1923, Jan. 9
Germany declared in default on coal deliveries.
1

April 23–July 24
Second Lausanne Conference. The TREATY OF LAUSANNE (See 1923, July 24) replaced the harsh Treaty of Sèvres (1920), which had been imposed on the defeated Ottoman Empire, while the Lausanne negotiations were with the new Turkish Republic. The treaty brought an end to Allied (including Greek) occupation of Turkish republican territories and abolished the old Capitulations privileges of Europeans in Turkey.
2

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1924, March 3. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1924, March 3
The office and title of CALIPH, which had been assumed by the Ottoman sultans, were abolished by the new Turkish Republic.
1

April 9
THE DAWES PLAN. The committee chaired by the American Charles G. Dawes presented its report. The plan provided for a reorganization of the German Reichsbank under Allied supervision. Reparation payments of 1 billion gold marks were to be made annually, increasing by the end of five years to 2 billion 500 thousand. Germany was to receive a foreign loan of 800 million gold marks.
2

April 16
The Germans accepted the Dawes Plan.
3

July 16–Aug. 16
A conference in London adopted the Dawes Plan, and the Reichstag passed the necessary legislation. The U.S. took up $110 million of the loan.
4

Oct. 2

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1924, March 3. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Geneva Protocol for pacific settlement of international disputes was an attempt to strengthen international institutions and overcome the problems caused by the absence of the U.S., Germany, and the Soviet Union in the League of Nations. The British dominions opposed the compulsory arbitration aspects, and the British ultimately rejected the protocol.

5

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1924
Britain, France, and Spain signed the Tangier convention, providing for permanent neutralization of the Tangier zone and government by international commission.
1

1925, Feb. 9
The German government proposed a Rhineland Mutual Security Pact. The British supported the idea as a replacement for the failed Geneva Protocol, and Aristide Briand, who became the French foreign minister in April 1925, accepted the suggestion on the condition that Germany join the League.
2

Feb. 11, 19
International opium convention provided more effective control of production and trade in opium.
3

June 17
Arms traffic convention dealing with international trade in arms and munitions. A protocol was signed that prohibited the use of poison gas.
4

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1924. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1926, May 16-18. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1926, May 16–18
First meeting of the Preparatory Commission for a Disarmament Conference. The U.S. was represented. The commission held many meetings in the next few years.
1

Sept. 8
Germany admitted to the League and given a permanent seat on the Council.
2

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1927, May 4-23. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1927, May 4–23
Geneva economic conference attended by representatives of 50 countries.
1

June 20–Aug. 4
Three-power naval conference in Geneva attended by Great Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The conference failed to reach an agreement.
2

Nov. 30–Dec. 3
Russian proposal to the preparatory committee on disarmament by Maxim Litvinov for complete and immediate disarmament was rejected as a Communist ploy.
3

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1928, April 13
Frank B. Kellogg, U.S. secretary of state, submitted a plan for the renunciation of war to the Locarno powers.
1

April 21
Aristide Briand, for France, presented a draft of a treaty for outlawing war.
2

June 23
An explanatory note on the proposed Kellogg-Briand Pact was circulated among major powers, and all supported the concept.
3

July
RED LINE AGREEMENT among the major oil companies participating in the Iraq Petroleum Company, a consortium established as the boundaries of the British mandate of Iraq were determined. The companies agreed to coordinate all oil exploration in the former Ottoman lands.
4

Aug. 27
The KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT was signed in Paris. It involved renunciation of aggressive war but had no provisions for sanctions. The League of Nations passed resolutions implementing the pact, with an optional clause for compulsory arbitration.
5

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1928, April 13. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Dec. 6
Beginning of conflict between Bolivia and Paraguay over the Chaco region (See 1928–30)). Mediation efforts by the League of Nations and the Pan-American Union were not successful in resolving the dispute, although open hostilities were avoided until 1932.
6

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1929, Jan. 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1929, Jan. 5
General act of Inter-American arbitration similar to the optional clause for compulsory arbitration in the Kellogg-Briand Pact signed at the Pan-American conference in Washington.
1

June 7
The Young Plan. The Young Committee (appointed Jan. 1929) revised arrangements for German reparations. Germany was to assume responsibility for transferring payments from marks into foreign currency, to be done under a new institution, the Bank for International Settlements in Basel. All principal central banks were represented in the new bank's directorate. The total proposed annuities to be paid by Germany were less than what Germany had been paying under the Dawes Plan, so diplomats thought that the Young Plan represented a permanent settlement.
2

June 3
The dispute between Chile and Peru over the districts of Tacna and Arica, which had lasted for more than two decades, was settled. The U.S. had aided negotiations.
3

Aug. 6–31
Hague Conference on the Young Plan. The Germans accepted the plan, and it was agreed that the Rhineland would be evacuated by June 1930.
4

Oct

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1929, Jan. 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

STOCK MARKET CRASH in New York began a series of economic difficulties, creating the worldwide Great Depression.

5

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b. The Era of the Great Depression
During the 1930s, the major themes of global history were the continuing efforts to resolve the problem of war, first in terms of continuing the effort to find ways of eliminating war, and then in terms of limiting actual prospects of the major war that was clearly looming; and the efforts to cope with the economic conditions of the global depression.
1

1930, Jan. 21–April 22
LONDON NAVAL CONFERENCE. It led to a treaty signed by Great Britain, the U.S., France, Italy, and Japan, regulating submarine warfare and limiting the tonnage and gun caliber of submarines. The limitation of aircraft carriers, provided for by the Washington Treaty, was extended. Great Britain, the U.S., and Japan agreed to scrap certain warships by 1933 and allocated tonnage in other categories. Increased tonnage was allowable under specified conditions. The agreements were to operate until 1936.
2

Nov. 6–Dec. 9
Final meeting of the Preparatory Commission on Disarmament. It adopted by a majority vote a draft convention to be discussed at a disarmament conference called by the League Council for February 1932. German and Russian representatives did not approve, and Swedish and American delegates had strong reservations. The major problems involved clauses preserving obligations from previous treaties, especially those barring German equality in armament.
3

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1931, June 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1931, June 20
President Hoover proposed a one-year moratorium on all intergovernmental debts as a way of easing the crisis. This followed the failure of the Austrian Credit-Austalt (See May 11) and worldwide fears of government and corporate bankruptcies. French opposition caused a significant delay.
1

July 6
Acceptance of the moratorium by all major creditor governments was announced by President Hoover. European leaders saw the moratorium as an American acknowledgment that inter-Allied debts and reparations were closely connected.
2

Aug. 19
The Layton-Wiggin report by an international committee of bankers meeting in Basel called for a six-month extension of all foreign credits to Germany. After this, Germany did not become fully solvent in international transactions.
3

Sept. 21
The Bank of England went off the GOLD STANDARD despite credits from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the Bank of France and the formation of a national coalition government to balance the budget. Great Britain experimented with a managed paper currency, and all of this created significant instability among those currencies that had been tied to the pound sterling. Eventually almost all countries were forced into currency devaluation. International trade greatly contracted in the absence of a major fixed medium of exchange.
4

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1931, June 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Sept. 18
Japanese occupation of the Manchurian towns of Mukden, Changchun, and Jilin (See 1931–32) took place in the context of the world economic disorder and Chinese internal instability. This was the informal beginning of a long war between Japan and China.
5

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1932-35. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1932–35
The Chaco war between Bolivia and Paraguay broke out despite efforts by the League of Nations and the Pan-American Union to resolve the conflict. Paraguay announced its withdrawal from the League of Nations in 1935, and a truce was finally arranged in 1935 by the U.S. and five South American governments.
1

1932, Jan 4
Occupation of Shanhaikwan by Japanese troops completed Japanese military control of southern Manchuria.
2

Feb. 2–July
Meeting of the Disarmament Conference at Geneva, with 60 states represented, including the U.S. and the Soviet Union. France proposed a system of international police and insisted that security must precede disarmament. Germany demanded equality. Various other plans were proposed but none accepted.
3

June 16–July 9

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1932-35. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Lausanne Conference on German reparations. Representatives of Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, and Japan reached an agreement that set aside the German reparation debt and substituted for it 5 percent bonds for Rm. 3 billion to be deposited with the Bank for International Settlements and issued when and if it became possible to market them at an appropriate price. Ratification was contingent upon acceptance by the U.S., the major creditor of the associated powers. The U.S. refused to accept the new plan, which technically meant a return to the Young Plan. In practice, Germany made no payments, and the Nazi government repudiated what it termed “interest slavery.” Britain and France made small token payments to the U.S. until the U.S. Congress ruled against such payments. Only Finland paid the full installments.

4

Oct. 4
The Lytton Commission of Inquiry of the League of Nations determined that the Japanese occupation of Manchuria was not an act of self-defense and that the creation of an independent Manchukuo under Japanese domination was not a case of genuine self-determination. The report recommended nonrecognition by the League and urged Japanese withdrawal.
5

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1933, Feb. 25. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1933, Feb. 25
The Lytton Report was adopted by the League of Nations despite Japanese protests. Japan gave notice of withdrawal from the League (May 27), and the effect was to weaken the prestige of the League as a peacekeeping force.
1

Feb. 2–Oct. 14
Meeting of the Disarmament Conference following the No Force Declaration (Dec. 11, 1932), in which Germany, France, Great Britain, and Italy promised not to attempt to resolve any future disagreements among them by resort to force. The coming to power of Hitler in Germany (Jan. 20) changed the framework of disarmament discussions. The issue of German armaments was central to discussions, with Britain, France, Italy, and the U.S. insisting on postponing German equality in arms and the Germans insisting on having at least defensive weapons at once.
2

June 12–July 27
International Economic Conference at London. Discussions disregarded war debts and reparations and tried to secure agreement on currency stabilization. This was blocked by President Roosevelt's repudiation of it in his message to the conference (July 3). The conference failed.
3

Oct. 14
Germany announced its withdrawal from the disarmament conference and the League of Nations (Oct. 23).
4

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1933, Feb. 25. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1934, Feb. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1934, Feb. 9
The Balkan Pact among Turkey, Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia (See 1934, Jan. 26) concluded.
1

May 29–June 11
The disarmament conference had a brief and fruitless session.
2

Sept. 18
The Soviet Union joined the League of Nations, reflecting growing fear of the new Germany.
3

Dec. 19
Japan renounced the naval agreements of 1922 and 1930.
4

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1934, Feb. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1935, Jan. 7. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1935, Jan. 7
Franco-Italian agreement granted concessions to Italy in Africa, opening the way for the invasion of Ethiopia, in return for possible Franco-Italian cooperation against Germany.
1

March 16
GERMANY FORMALLY DENOUNCED THE CLAUSES OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES CONCERNING GERMAN DISARMAMENT (See March 16).
2

April 17
The League formally condemned Germany's unilateral repudiation of the Versailles Treaty.
3

October–1936, May
THE ETHIOPIAN CRISIS (See 1934, July). The Italian invasion of Ethiopia began on Oct. 3 and was condemned by the League of Nations. The League voted to impose sanctions on Italy (Oct. 11). The sanctions had little impact, especially since the states could not agree to apply the oil sanction (February 1936). Italian forces occupied Addis Ababa (May), and Ethiopian resistance collapsed.
4

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1935, Jan. 7. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1936, March 7-12. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1936, March 7–12
DENUNCIATION OF THE LOCARNO PACTS. Germany denounced the Locarno Pacts and reoccupied the Rhineland area. Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Italy denounced the German action, but Britain was unwilling to invoke sanctions, so the League of Nations' response was limited. The reaction was also influenced by developments in the Ethiopian crisis.
1

March 25
London naval agreement among Britain, France, and the U.S.
2

July 18
BEGINNING OF THE CIVIL WAR IN SPAIN (See July 18)). Foreign powers intervened, with Italian and German support for the “Insurgents” and Liberals and Communists supporting the “Republicans” in a battleground of the major international ideological forces.
3

July 20
The Montreux Conference approved the Turkish request for permission to fortify the Straits.
4

Oct. 25
The BERLIN-ROME AXIS established by a German-Italian pact.
5

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1936, March 7-12. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Nov. 25
A German-Japanese agreement followed by an Italian-Japanese agreement (Nov. 6, 1937) completed the alliance structure of the Axis powers of World War II.
6

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1937, July. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1937, July
Undeclared war between Japan and China began with a major Japanese military campaign in northern China.
1

Sept. 10–14
The Nyon Conference and agreement to deal with piracy in the Mediterranean in connection with the Spanish civil war. Nine powers adopted a system of patrol zones, with Britain and France assuming major responsibilities.
2

Nov. 3–15
Conference of the powers in Brussels failed to find a way to settle the war in China.
3

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1937, July. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1938, Dec. 24. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1938, Dec. 24
The Declaration of Lima was adopted by 21 American republics. It reaffirmed their solidarity and opposition to any foreign intervention or activity that might threaten their sovereignty.
1

April 7
Italian invasion of Albania.
2

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1938, Dec. 24. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1939, June 23. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1939, June 23
Treaty between France and Turkey allowed Turkey to take control of the Alexandretta district of northern Syria (Hatay) in return for a pledge of mutual aid in case of aggression.
1

Aug. 23
Russo-German pact (See Aug. 23).
2

Sept. 1
GERMANY INVADED POLAND (See 1939, Sept. 1).
3

Sept. 3
BRITAIN AND FRANCE DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY, and the European phase of World War II began. (See World War II, 1939–1945)
4

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1939, June 23. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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4. Science. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1911 )

4. Science
Science and technology became increasingly international but major developments were concentrated in Europe and the U.S. Throughout the interwar years, physics remained the center of most scientific activity, illuminating a universe that lacked any absolute reality. In 1919 Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937) showed that the atom could be split. By 1944 seven subatomic particles had been identified. Although few nonscientists understood the revolution in physics, the implications of the new theories and discoveries, as presented by newspapers and popular writers, were disturbing to millions of men and women in the 1920s and 1930s. The major benchmarks in scientific inquiry follow.
1

2

a. Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy 1915
Einstein announced his general theory of relativity, which explained the advance of Mercury's perihelion and predicted the subsequently observed bending of light rays near the sun.
3

1918
Harlow Shapley (1885–1972), from an extensive study of the distribution of globular clusters and cepheid variable stars, increased the estimated size of our galaxy about ten times. He envisioned the galaxy as a flattened lens-shaped system of stars in which the solar system occupied a position far from the center.
4

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4. Science. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1919
Rutherford found that the collision of alpha particles with nitrogen atoms resulted in the disintegration of the nitrogen and the production of hydrogen nuclei (protons) and an isotope of oxygen. He was the first person to achieve artificial transmutation of an element.
5

1919
Arthur S. Eddington (1882–1944) and others, by studying data obtained during a total solar eclipse, verified Einstein's prediction of the bending of light rays by the gravitational field of large masses.
6

1919–29
Edwin P. Hubble (1889–1953) detected cepheid variable stars in the Andromeda Nebula, a discovery that allowed him to determine the distances between galaxies.
7

1924
Louis-Victor de Broglie (1892–1987) determined from theoretical considerations that the electron, which had been considered a particle, should behave as a wave under certain circumstances. Experimental confirmation was obtained in 1927 by Clinton Davisson (1881–1958) and Lester H. Germer (1896–1971).
8

1925
Wolfgang Pauli (1900–1958) announced the exclusion principle (in any atom no two electrons have identical sets of quantum numbers). This principle was an important aid in determining the electron structure of the heavier elements.
9

1925–26
Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901–76) and Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961) independently, and in different ways, laid the theoretical foundations of the new quantum mechanics, which, though violating classical notions of causality, successfully predicts the behavior of atomic particles.
10

1927
George Lemaître (1894–1966), in order to explain the red shift in the spectra from distant galaxies, introduced the concept of the expanding universe. Eddington pursued research in this subject from 1930.
11

1928

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4. Science. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Paul A. Dirac (1902–84), by combining quantum mechanics and relativity theory, devised a relativistic theory of the electron.

12

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1930. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1930
Vannevar Bush (1890–1974) and his associates placed into operation a “differential analyzer,” the first modern analog computer.
1

1931
Ernest O. Lawrence (1901–58) invented the cyclotron, a device for accelerating atomic particles, which has become the fundamental research tool in high-energy physics and has made possible the creation of transuranium elements.
2

1931
Kurt Gödel (1906–78) published Uber formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme, showing that in any formal mathematical system in which elementary arithmetic can be done, there are theorems whose truth or falsity cannot be proved.
3

1932
Karl Jansky reported the reception of radio waves from cosmic sources, making radio astronomy possible.
4

1938–39

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1930. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Otto Hahn (1879–1968) and Otto Strassmann bombarded uranium with neutrons and found an isotope of barium in the product (1938). Lise Meitner (1878–1968) and Otto Frisch (1904–79) explained this result by assuming the fission of the uranium nucleus (nuclear fission).

5

1939
Nicolas Bourbaki (pseudonym assumed by a group of mathematicians) published the first of a long series of expository works on modern mathematics.
6

1939
Hans A. Bethe (b. 1906) and Carl von Weizsäcker (b. 1912) independently proposed two sets of nuclear reactions to account for stellar energies: the carbon-nitrogen cycle and the proton-proton chain.
7

1939–45
World War II research needs stimulated the formation of large groups or teams of research workers to concentrate effort on single problems, such as radar and the atomic bomb. Such group research has become a common feature of postwar science.
8

1940
Gödel, in The Consistency of the Axiom of Choice and of the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis with the Axioms of Set Theory, proved that transfinite methods could not introduce inconsistencies into mathematics.
9

1942
Enrico Fermi (1901–54) and associates built the first controlled self-sustaining nuclear reactor. Fermi was one of the chief architects of the theory of the atomic nucleus.
10

1944
Mark I, the Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, was put into operation at Harvard University. This was the first large-scale digital calculating machine.
11

1945
Vannevar Bush issued the report Science: The Endless Frontier, recommending the creation of a U. S. foundation for the support and encouragement of basic research and education in science. In 1950 the U.S. Congress established the National Science Foundation to implement this recommendation.
12

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1930. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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b. Chemistry, Biology, Geology. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

b. Chemistry, Biology, Geology 1915
Alfred Wegener (1880–1930) gave the classic expression of the controversial theory of continental drift in Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane.
1

1921
Hans Spemann (1869–1941) postulated an organizer principle that was responsible for the formative interaction between neighboring embryonic regions. He stimulated contemporary embryologists to search for the inductive chemical molecule.
2

1927
Hermann J. Muller (1890–1967) announced that he had successfully induced mutations in fruit flies with x-rays. This provided a useful experimental tool, yet in retrospect gave warning to the generations of the 1940s and 1950s of a danger in the release of atomic energy.
3

1929
Alexander Fleming (1881–1955) announced that the common mold Penicillium had an inhibitory effect on certain pathogenic bacteria. It was not until 1943 under the pressures of World War II, however, that the first antibiotic, penicillin, was successfully developed.
4

1930

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b. Chemistry, Biology, Geology. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Ronald A. Fisher (1890–1962) established in The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection that superior genes have a significant selective advantage, thus testifying that Darwinian evolution was compatible with genetics.

5

1941
George W. Beadle (1903–89) and Edward L. Tatum (1909–75) described an experimental assay that evaluated the exact relationships between specific mutant genes in mold and particular stages in the metabolic process.
6

1944
Ostwald T. Avery (1877–1955) and collaborators announced they had transmuted one type of pneumococcus bacteria into a second type by the transfer of DNA molecules. (See Science and Technology)
7

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5. Technological Developments. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1913 )

5. Technological Developments
The major achievements in technology follow.
1

a. Energy and Materials 1921
Tetraethyl lead, gasoline antiknock additive, produced by Thomas Midgley (1889–1994).
2

1930–35
Development of first commercially practicable catalytic cracking system for petroleum by Eugene J. Houdry (1892–1962).
3

1930–37
Development of gas turbine unit for jet propulsion in aircraft by Frank Whittle.
4

1942

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5. Technological Developments. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

DAWN OF THE NUCLEAR AGE. The first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction achieved at Stagg Field, Chicago, by Enrico Fermi (1901–54). The first full-scale use of nuclear fuel to produce electricity occurred at Calder Hall (England) in 1956.

5

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b. Materials and Construction. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

b. Materials and Construction 1928
The first steel-frame, glass-curtain-wall building completed. By 1960 this technique was practically universal for high buildings; developed particularly by L. Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969).
1

1941
Shell molding, a revolutionary process producing more accurate castings cheaply, invented by Johannes Croning. Powder metallurgy, although known since Wollaston's work at the beginning of the 19th century, achieved extensive application in mid-20th century.
2

1945
Industrial development of silicones proceeded apace for a wide variety of applications, including lubricants for exceedingly high and low temperatures; binding of fiberglass; water-repellent agents; etc.
3

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. Materials and Construction. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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c. Machines and Industrial Techniques. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

c. Machines and Industrial Techniques

1914
Conveyer-belt mass production employed in the U.S. most dramatically in Henry Ford's assembly line for Model T Ford automobile, which became the symbol for American industrial technique.
1

1915
Development of tank in warfare by British (Sir Ernest Swinton).
2

1920
J. C. Shaw developed a sensing device, controlled by a servomechanism, for a milling machine. Hydraulic trace of J. W. Anderson (1927) allowed the reproduction of complex shapes. Machine tools further supplemented by electrolytic and ultrasonic machines, and cutting machines guided by an electron beam. Development of laser (light amplification by simulated emission of radiation) by Theodore N. Maiman (1960); laser also used for precision cutting.
3

1920 Ff
Managerial techniques improved through development of “scientific management,” whose principles were first enunciated by Frederick W. Taylor (1856–1915) in the first decade of the century. Taylor concentrated on time-motion studies. Other proponents of “rationalized” production were Frank Gilbreth and Charles Bedaux. Quality control developed 1926 ff.
4

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c. Machines and Industrial Techniques. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1923
First mill for hot continuous wide strip rolling of steel, based on work of John B. Tytus.
5

1938
Ladislao J. and George Biro patented the ballpoint pen.
6

1941–45
Development of rockets and missiles during World War II.
7

1944
Harvard IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, the first automatic general-purpose digital computer, completed, ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and calculator), the first electronic digital computer, built in 1946. Development of special-purpose computers and data processors (1950 ff.), including programmed teaching machines.
8

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d. Agricultural Production and Food Technology. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

d. Agricultural Production and Food Technology

1917
Clarence Birdseye (1886–1956) began development of method for quick freezing of foods in small containers; placed on market in 1929.
1

1939
Paul Muller synthesized DDT for use as an insecticide. Othmar Zeidler had prepared DDT in 1874, but its insecticidal qualities had not been suspected.
2

1940 Ff
Development of artificial insemination to improve livestock breeding.
3

1945 Ff
Unit packaging of foodstuffs improved by development of plastic packaging films. Trend toward prepared “convenience” foods for household use.
4

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d. Agricultural Production and Food Technology. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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e. Transportation and Communication. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

e. Transportation and Communication

1920
Frank Conrad (1874–1941) of the Westinghouse Co. began broadcasting radio programs in Pittsburgh, marking the beginning of radio as a mass communication medium.
1

1922
Herbert T. Kalmus developed Technicolor, the first commercially successful color process for motion pictures.
2

1926
Sound Motion Pictures. Although Edison had attempted to put together his phonograph and motion picture inventions for sound movies as early as 1904, it was 1923 before de Forest successfully demonstrated his phonofilm system for recording sound on the motion picture film. The first motion picture with sound accompaniment was publicly shown in 1926, the first talking picture in 1927.
3

1926 Ff

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e. Transportation and Communication. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

John L. Baird (1888–1946) successfully demonstrated television in England. His mechanical system of television, similar to that of C.F. Jenkins in the U.S., was based on Paul von Nipkov's rotating disk (1886) but had technical limitations; modern electronic television developed from the cathode-ray tube (1897) of Ferdinand Braun and A.A. Campbell-Swinton's proposals (1911) for use of a cathode ray to scan an image. The crucial invention was the Iconoscope of the Russian American Vladimir Zworykin (1889–1982), the device that transmits television images quickly and effectively. Philo Farnsworth of the U.S. contributed the image dissector tube (1927). General broadcasting of television began in England in 1936, in the U.S. in 1941, but languished until after World War II. Peter C. Goldmark of Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) demonstrated (1940) a sequential method of color television, which gave way to a compatible electronic system developed by RCA in the 1950s.

4

1932
Edwin H. Land (1909–91) invented the first practical synthetic light-polarizing material (polaroid glass), found useful in sunglasses, cameras, and scientific optical instruments. In 1947 he invented the Polaroid Land camera, which developed the film inside the camera and produced a photograph print within one minute; in 1962 he introduced color film for his camera.
5

1933
Fluorescent lamps introduced for floodlighting and advertising. Developments leading up to this included experiments by George Stokes (1852) and Alexandre Becquerel (1859) to excite fluorescent materials by ultraviolet rays or in a discharge tube; Peter Cooper-Hewitt's invention of the mercury vapor lamp (1901); the introduction of the Neon lamp by Georges Claude and the work on cathodes by D.M. Moore and Wehnelt in the 1900s; and J. Risler's application of powder to the outside of tubular discharge lamps (1923). Subsequent developments have included increased cathode life and improved fluorescent powders.
6

1933
Edwin H. Armstrong (1890–1954), pioneer radio inventor (regenerative, that is, feedback, circuit, 1912, and superheterodyne circuit, 1918), perfected frequency modulation (FM), providing staticfree radio reception.
7

1937
Chester Carlson patented a new dry photographic process (Xerography) based upon principles of photoconductivity and electrostatics.
8

1939
Igor Sikorsky (1889–1972) flew the first helicopter of his design. The first helicopter capable of flight was the work of Ellehammer of Denmark (1912), based on C. Renard's articulated rotor blade (1904) and G. A. Crocco's cyclic pitch control (1906). Juan de la Cierva invented the autogiro (1922), differing from the helicopter in that its rotor autorotated and the engine drove a normal propeller. Further development work was done (1934–36) by Louis Breguet and Heinrich Focke.
9

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e. Transportation and Communication. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1939
First test flight of a turbo-jet airplane (Heinkel) with an engine designed by Hans von Ohain. Simultaneous and parallel work on jet airplanes in Britain, based on turbo-jet engine designed by Frank Whittle (1930). In 1958 jet-powered transatlantic airline service was inaugurated by BOAC and Pan-American Airways. In 1962 the British and French governments announced plans to cooperate on the production of a jet-propelled supersonic transport plane (the Concorde), and the U. S. government proposed American production of a supersonic commercial plane the following year. The first plane to exceed the speed of sound in level flight was the American rocket-propelled Bell X1, which reached Mach 1.06 (approximately 750 m.p.h.) on October 14, 1947.
10

1940–45
Development of radar (“radio-detection-and-ranging”) stimulated by World War II, for detection of aircraft, blind-bombing techniques, and naval search equipment. Based on Heinrich Hertz's demonstration (1887) that radio waves are reflected similarly to light rays, the technique was first applied by Edward Appleton in Britain (1924) and G. Breit and M. A. Tuve in the U.S. (1925) for investigating ionization in the upper atmosphere. Robert A. Watson-Watt showed the possibilities of employing radio waves to detect aircraft (1935); J.T. Randall and H.A.H. Boot developed the cavity magnetron for high-power microwave transmission. Simultaneously, radar development had been going on in Germany and the U.S., including the development of equipment by Robert H. Page of the Naval Laboratory. After 1940 Britain and the U.S. cooperated in radar development, much of the work being done at the Radiation Laboratory in Cambridge, Mass.
11

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1941-45. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1941–45
Construction of 2,500 miles of large-diameter (20-inch–24-inch) pipelines to deliver petroleum from oil-producing regions in southwest U.S. to East Coast depots. Development of welding of steelpipe sections (1913–14) cut leakage and made possible large-scale pipeline construction. (See Science and Technology)
1

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1918, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1918, April
Creation of the Federated Transcaucasus Republic (including Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) for joint defense against the Ottomans. The federation collapsed in May as a result of internal differences and an Ottoman offensive in the Caucasus. Throughout the summer of 1918, the Ottoman army made extensive gains in Azerbaijan.
1

Sept
The Battle of Megiddo, which opened Britain's great offensive in Palestine. The Ottoman lines broke, and the British advance into Syria, supported on its right flank by the Arab army, quickly gained pace.
2

Sept. 14
Ottoman occupation of Baku.
3

Oct. 1
Occupation of Damascus by Arab troops under the leadership of Husayn's son, Faysal (the British arrived two days later). Homs fell on Oct. 15 and Aleppo on Oct. 26.
4

Oct. 30

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1918, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

THE ARMISTICE OF MUDROS. By the terms of this ceasefire, the Ottomans demobilized their armies, severed relations with the Central powers, and opened their territory, especially the Straits, to the Entente powers for military operations.

5

Nov
Deployment of British troops in northeastern Iran to block possible Russian encroachment. Meanwhile, a British flotilla drove the Ottomans out of Baku.
6

Nov. 7
British occupation of Mosul.
7

Nov. 13
Arrival of the British fleet at Istanbul. (See The Ottoman Empire and Turkey)
8

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7. The Western Front, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Sept. 25–Oct. 15 )

7. The Western Front, 1916–1917
Both Joffre and Falkenhayn were still convinced, at the end of 1915, that a military decision could be reached only on the French front. Joffre planned for a great Anglo-French offensive to begin in the summer, to be supported by simultaneous Russian and Italian offensives. Sir Douglas Haig (who succeeded Sir John French as commander in chief of the British forces, Dec. 19, 1915) would have preferred to arrange for an offensive in Flanders, but Joffre insisted on operations in the Somme area, where the British and French could collaborate more easily. Meanwhile Falkenhayn, having disposed of the threat from the east, was able to bring almost half a million men to the western front. The plan was not so much for a breakthrough as for mere attrition. The French were to be bled white at Verdun, a salient with poor communications and hard to hold and yet a place that, for sentimental reasons if for no other, would have to be fought for to the end. The French, having lost faith in forts, had taken away most of the guns about Verdun, and Joffre, intent on preparations for the Somme offensive, ignored the warnings of danger in that area.
1

2

1916, Feb. 21
THE BATTLE OF VERDUN. The immediate effect of the assault on Verdun was felt in the preparation for the Somme offensive. The French were obliged to reduce their contribution from 40 divisions to 16 and their front attack from 25 miles to 10, so that the operation was in the main a British one.
3

July 1–Nov. 18

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7. The Western Front, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME. The Allies conquered about 125 square miles of territory but nothing of prime strategic importance. The maximum advance was about seven miles. British losses were over 400,000, and French almost 200,000. The German losses were between 400,000 and 500,000. The British first used tanks (Sept. 15). These had been suggested long before, but the military authorities had been hostile to the idea, and even when they were finally used there were far too few (only 18 on the field) to gain the fullest advantage.

4

5

Oct. 24–Dec. 18
The French counterattacked at Verdun, making a total advance of about two miles. The operations of 1917 were prefaced by important changes in the German and French high commands. On Aug. 29, 1916, Hindenburg succeeded Falkenhayn as chief of staff of the German field armies, with Ludendorff as quartermaster-general. Despite their constant advocacy of a concentration of forces on the eastern front, both Hindenburg and Ludendorff now came to share the opinion of Falkenhayn that a decision could be reached only on the French front. On Dec. 12 Nivelle succeeded Joffre as commander in chief of the French armies. Nivelle had distinguished himself in the fighting at Verdun. His energy and dash made a profound impression, and it was hoped that his appointment would lead to a more fruitful campaign. Nivelle, like his predecessor, hoped to effect a breakthrough and planned a great French offensive in the direction of Laon, to be introduced by a preliminary Franco-British advance on both sides of the Somme. The execution of this plan was delayed by disagreement between Nivelle and Haig, who himself would have preferred an offensive in Flanders and resented being put more or less under Nivelle. In the interval Ludendorff had decided that the western front could be made stronger and more defensible if some of the bulges were eliminated. A strong new position was therefore constructed, which became known as the Hindenburg Line. After completely destroying the area between, and after mining the roads, the Germans withdrew.
6 7

8

9

10

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1917, Feb. 23-April 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1917, Feb. 23–April 5
The Germans abandoned Bapaume, Péronne, Roye, Noyon, and Chauny. Though this move on the part of the Germans dislocated the French plans, Nivelle was still optimistic. The new cabinet of Alexandre Ribot (succeeded Briand, March 20) and Paul Painlevé (minister of war) brought pressure upon him to give up the plan but yielded when Nivelle threatened to resign.
1 2

April 9–May 4
BATTLE OF ARRAS. Despite some advances, a breakthrough eluded Allied forces.
3

April 16–20
SECOND BATTLE OF THE AISNE and THIRD BATTLE OF CHAMPAGNE. Heavy losses for the French with only minor territorial gain spread discontent. Mutiny became widespread, affecting 16 corps (May–June).
4

May 16
Nivelle was dismissed and replaced by Pétain, who did what he could to redress the grievances of the troops and wisely decided to stand on the defensive until American reinforcements could make themselves felt. At the same time the government proceeded with the greatest rigor against socialist and pacifist agitators. Twenty-three leaders were executed.
5

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1917, Feb. 23-April 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The collapse of the Nivelle offensive gave Haig greater freedom to act. In view of the great destructiveness of the submarines, based on the Belgian coast, Haig was more determined than ever to start an offensive in Flanders and to roll up the German right flank. The French command was not enthusiastic about the plan, and pointed out that it could cooperate only to the extent of launching lesser attacks on the Verdun and Champagne fronts.

6

July 31–Nov. 10
THIRD BATTLE OF YPRES (Passchendaele). Despite the opposition of Lloyd George and the skepticism of some of his subordinates, Haig proceeded hopefully to the main offensive. No breakthrough was effected, costing the British about 400,000 men. The British forces were almost as demoralized by this operation as the French were by the Nivelle offensive. (See Operations in the West, 1918)
7

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8. The Eastern Front, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Sept. 5 )

8. The Eastern Front, 1916–1917

1916, June 4
The great BRUSILOV OFFENSIVE, initiated somewhat prematurely in order to meet the Italian appeals to distract the Austrians in the Trentino. Brusilov (appointed to the command of the Russian southern front, April 4) had planned the offensive for June 15, to coincide with Joffre's great offensive on the Somme. But the Brusilov offensive was meant to be followed by an even larger operation farther north. After heavy fighting and initial gains, the Russians failed to reach either Kovel or Lemberg. Their losses were about a million men, and the whole operation left the army demoralized and discontented. The situation in the east was dominated, in 1917, by the developments of the Russian Revolution (See 1917, March 8). The provisional government (Paul Miliukov, foreign minister, March 15–May 16, 1917) was strongly in favor of prosecution of the war in the hope of realizing the national aspirations. The same was true of Alexander Kerensky (minister of war, May 16, prime minister, July 20), who hoped to combat disruptive tendencies and galvanize the country by a new military effort.
1

2

1917, July 1
Brusilov began a great offensive on the Galician front.
3

Aug. 1

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8. The Eastern Front, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Brusilov was succeeded by Gen. Lavr Kornilov.

4

Sept. 8–14
Kornilov marched on Petrograd as leader of a counterrevolutionary movement, which failed.
5

Nov. 7 (Oct. 25 Old Style)
BOLSHEVIK COUP D'ÉTAT IN RUSSIA.
6

Nov. 28
The new Bolshevik regime offered the Germans an armistice and peace.
7

Dec. 15
ARMISTICE CONCLUDED ON THE EASTERN FRONT. (See The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917–1918)
8

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9. The Italian Front, 1916. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1915 )

9. The Italian Front, 1916
The Austrian chief of staff, Conrad von Hötzendorff, had for some time been urging upon the German high command the desirability of massing troops in the Trentino for an attack upon the Italian rear and flank, but Falkenhayn had flatly refused to contribute forces that he needed for the operations at Verdun. The Austrians decided to make the try alone. As many troops as possible were withdrawn from the Russian front and prepared for an advance on the Asiago plateau.
1

1916, May 15–June 3
The Austrian offensive in the Trentino. After initial setbacks, the Italians recovered lost territory, but at a cost of 150,000 men. During the first part of 1917 the Italian effort continued to center on the Isonzo (tenth battle (May 12–June 8) and eleventh, and last, battle (Aug. 17–Sept. 12)). As result of two years of operations the Italians had advanced only about ten miles, or halfway to Trieste. In part the Italian failure was due to inadequate artillery and ammunition. Gen. Luigi Cadorna had urged Britain and France to send supplies and men in large numbers, so that a knockout blow might be delivered against war-weary Austria. Foch and Lloyd George favored this plan, but Haig had his way and proceeded to the offensive in Flanders. Meanwhile Ludendorff decided to follow the annihilation of Serbia and Romania with a similar assault on Italy. Six divisions of German troops were sent to reinforce the nine Austrian divisions on the Isonzo front. It was decided to attack on the Upper Isonzo, near Caporetto, in the hope of breaking through and advancing as far as the Tagliamento River.
2

3

4

5

Oct. 24–Dec. 26

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9. The Italian Front, 1916. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

THE CAPORETTO CAMPAIGN. After a complete rout of the Italians on the first day, Italian forces, bolstered by British and French troops, held firm at the Piave River. The Italians had lost almost 300,000 men taken prisoner and even more than that in deserters.

6

Nov. 7
Cadorna was replaced by Gen. Armando Diaz, who devoted himself to establishing a defensive position and above all to restoring the morale of the troops.
7

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10. The Balkan Front, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Feb. 24 )

10. The Balkan Front, 1916–1917

a. Greece
Throughout the summer and autumn of 1916 the Greek situation continued to be most unsatisfactory from the Entente viewpoint.
1

1916, May 26
A Bulgarian-German force occupied Fort Rupel in Greek Macedonia, this action enhancing the suspicion that King Constantine was secretly bound to the Central powers.
2

June 6–22
The “pacific blockade” of Greece by the Entente powers. France and Britain sent Greece an ultimatum (June 21) demanding demobilization of the Greek army and the institution of responsible government. The Greek government yielded. The Skouloudis ministry resigned and a Zaimis cabinet was organized. The army was put on a peace footing (June 27) and new elections were arranged for.
3

July 25

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10. The Balkan Front, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The reconstituted Serbian army, which had been shipped from Corfu to Saloniki, came into action on that front. Russian troops from France and an Italian contingent also arrived (July 30, Aug. 11).

4

Aug. 30
A Venizelist, pro-Ally movement, fostered by Gen. Sarrail, took place at Saloniki.
5

Sept. 29
Venizelos and Adm. Paul Condouriotis established a provisional government in Crete. Venizelos then (Oct. 9) went to Saloniki, where the provisional government declared war on Germany and Bulgaria (Nov. 23).
6

Oct. 10
The Entente powers, incensed by the surrender of the Greek forces at Kavalla, submitted an ultimatum to Athens demanding the surrender of the Greek fleet. The Athens government (Lambros ministry, Oct. 10–May 3, 1917) yielded (Oct. 11), whereupon the Entente powers demanded (Nov. 19) the dismissal of the representatives of the Central powers at Athens and the surrender of war materiel. These demands were rejected (Nov. 30), and in consequence French and British landing parties debarked at Piraeus. They withdrew again on Dec. 1 after conflicts with the Greeks.
7

Dec. 8
Blockade of Greece. The Allies demanded (Dec. 14) the complete withdrawal of Greek forces from Thessaly. The Athens government once more gave in (Dec. 15), but on Dec. 19 the British government decided to recognize the provisional government of Venizelos. The Macedonian front was quiet during the winter of 1916–17.
8

9

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10. The Balkan Front, 1916-1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, May 5-19. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, May 5–19
Battle of the Vardar (or Doiran). These engagements were inconclusive but served to convince the Allied powers that success on this front hinged on the Athens government.
1

June 11–12
The newly arrived French envoy (Charles Jonnart) presented an Allied ultimatum, demanding the abdication of King Constantine and the renunciation of the claims of the Greek crown prince. At the same time Allied troops invaded Thessaly and a French force occupied the Isthmus of Corinth.
2

June 12
Constantine abdicated in favor of his second son, Alexander.
3

June 26
Venizelos became premier, replacing Zaimis.
4

June 27
The Greek government severed relations with the Central powers and entered the war on the Allied side.
5

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1917, May 5-19. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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b. Romania
Since the spring of 1916 the Russian government had been redoubling its efforts to bring Romania into the war. The success of the Brusilov offensive and the readiness of the Russian government and its allies to recognize the Romanian claims to the Bukovina and Banat as well as to Transylvania resulted in the conclusion of a political and military agreement (Aug. 18).
1

1916, Aug. 27
ROMANIA DECLARED WAR ON AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. Germany declared war on Romania, and Italy finally declared war on Germany (Aug. 28). Turkey and Bulgaria declared war on Romania a few days later (Aug. 30, Sept. 1, respectively).
2

Dec. 1–5
The Romanian government was hastily moved to Jassy, and the capital, Bucharest, fell into the hands of the enemy (Dec. 6).
3

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b. Romania. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, Jan
By the middle of the month the Romanians had reached the Sereth River, where the campaign came to a stop. Most of Romania, with important wheat- and oil-producing areas, was in the hands of the Central powers. (See The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917–1918)
1

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1917, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, April
Submarine warfare reached the high point. In this month alone 875,000 tons of shipping were destroyed, more than half of it British. This figure exceeded the German estimates (600,000) and brought the British admiralty to the point of despair. Finally, owing largely to the insistence of Lloyd George, the admiralty agreed to try convoying merchant ships (first convoy, May 10). The system proved to be an unqualified success. At the same time the British increased the numbers of their destroyers and submarine chasers, and developed the depth bomb and the system of scouting with hydroplanes. Shipbuilding was pushed to the very limit. By Oct. 1917 the Germans had destroyed about 8 million tons of shipping, but they had lost 50 submarines and their campaign was becoming less and less effective. By the beginning of 1918 the Allies were building more new tonnage than was being destroyed. The German gamble on the submarine had failed. Naval operations during the years 1917–18 were confined largely to submarine and destroyer activities.
1

2

3

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1917, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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12. The War in the Air, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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12. The War in the Air, 1914–1918
Although only France had done much before the war to develop the military use of the airplane, throughout the war the British and the Germans were the main antagonists.
1

1914, Aug. 30
The First German airplane raid on Paris.
2

Sept. 22, Oct. 8, Nov. 21
British airplanes raided the German flying-fields at Düsseldorf, Köln, and Friedrichshafen.
3

Dec. 21
The first German air raid on England (Dover). On the western front, and on other fronts to a lesser extent, the airplane was used for reconnaissance, but almost immediately (Sept. 1914) experiments were made by the British in wireless communication between airplanes and artillery, in aerial photography, and in bomb-dropping. There was not much aerial combat until the middle of 1915.
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1915, Jan. 19
First German airship raid on England.
1

Oct
The Germans began the use of the Fokker plane, equipped with a device allowing the pilot to shoot through the propeller. This gave the Germans mastery of the air, though the British, with a greater number of planes, kept carrying the fight over the German lines. Renowned German fighters of this period were Oswald Boelcke (d. Oct. 28, 1916) and Max Immelmann (d. June 1916).
2

Oct. 13
The worst of the Zeppelin raids on eastern England and London. There were 19 such raids in 1915 and 41 in 1916. But by the end of 1916 the British had elaborated a fairly good defense against airships (fighting planes, antiaircraft guns, searchlights, sirens, etc.).
3

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1915, Jan. 19. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1916, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1916, April
Battle of Verdun, including heavy air fighting between Germans and French. The French, with the Nieuport 3 and the Spad 3, succeeded in securing mastery of the air. Great French fighters were René Fonck and George Guynemer (d. Sept. 1917).
1

July
Battle of the Somme. The British, with the new De Havilland and Farman Experimental planes, definitely put an end to German Fokker supremacy. Great British fighters: Albert Ball (d. May 7, 1917), J. T. B. McCudden (d. July 1918), W. A. Bishop, and Edward Mannock (d. July 1918).
2

Sept
The Germans introduced the Albatross and Halberstadt planes and developed formation flying. This reestablished something like a balance on the British front, though the British had a distinct superiority in numbers and continued to take the offensive.
3

Nov. 28
First German airplane raid on London. There were a great many of these in the course of 1917–18, first by daylight, then by night. There was a considerable loss of life and property, but the raids do not appear to have achieved any marked strategic results.
4

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1916, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917
The British began to use the Scouting Experimental and Bristol Fighter. This period was marked by the spectacular achievements of Manfred von Richthofen (d. April 21, 1918) and by the development of ever larger formations and more intricate tactics.
1

1918
The Allied superiority became more marked, and American air squadrons began to take part (April). The British did much in the development of large-scale bombardment, especially of munitions centers. At sea much use was made of the airplane for scouting and submarine-chasing. During these years the Germans continued their raids on England, first with Zeppelins, then with airplanes, with the object of drawing back British air forces from France, of interrupting industry, and of demoralizing the civil population.
2

3

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1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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13. The War in the Colonies, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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13. The War in the Colonies, 1914–1918
Most of the German colonies were seized by the British and French during the first months of the war (See Overview).
1

1914, Aug. 8
The British opened hostilities in German East Africa by bombarding the coast towns of Bagamoyo and Dar-es-Salaam. Indian forces were then brought to East Africa for the campaign. But the German commander (Gen. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck) defeated a greatly superior landing force in the Battle of Tanga (Nov. 2–5, 1914). The campaign remained desultory until in Nov. 1915 the British secured naval control of Lake Tanganyika, and landing forces took Tanga (July 7, 1916) and Bagamoyo (Aug. 15, 1916). Gen. Jan Smuts, with a force of Afrikaners and Portuguese, now began to push the operations. Dar-es-Salaam fell (Sept. 4), then Lindi (Sept. 16) and Tabora (Sept. 19). LettowVorbeck and his troops were obliged to fall back to the southeast corner of the colony. The campaign was resumed in 1917, when the Germans defeated their enemies at Mahiwa Oct. 15–18, 1917) and began the invasion of Portuguese East Africa. Lettow-Vorbeck advanced almost to the mouth of the Zambezi but then fell back to Lake Nyasa. On Nov. 2, 1918, he began the invasion of Rhodesia. The armistice went into effect on Nov. 14, 1918, at which time the Germans were still in the field.
2

Aug. 23
Japan declared war on Germany and began to land forces in Shantung for an attack on the German position at Tsingtao. The Japanese were joined by a British detachment. The bombardment of Tsingtao was begun in October, and was accompanied by an attack from the land side. On Nov. 7 the fortress was obliged to capitulate. During this same period the Japanese naval forces occupied a number of the German islands (Marshall Islands, Marianas, Palau, Carolines).
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13. The War in the Colonies, 1914-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Aug. 26
Togoland defense force capitulated to an Anglo-French force. The colony was divided between the British and the French in agreements of Aug. 26, 1914, and Dec. 27, 1916.
4

Aug. 30
A New Zealand expeditionary force occupied Samoa.
5

Sept. 11
An Australian force landed on the Bismarck Archipelago. German forces in New Guinea surrendered to Australians (Sept. 21).
6

Sept. 7
A British force from Nigeria invaded the Cameroons and took Duala (Sept. 27). The French invaded the colony from the south and east. The Germans were obliged to fall back and ultimately crossed into Spanish territory (Feb. 9, 1916).
7

Sept. 19
A British force landed at Lüderitz Bay, German Southwest Africa. The Union of South Africa decided to prosecute the war in the German colony, and Gen. Louis Botha crossed the Orange River, taking Swakopmund (Jan. 14, 1915). He defeated the German forces at Riet and Treckkopje (April 26, 1915), took Windhoek (May 12, 1915), and finally forced the 3,500 German and colonial troops to capitulate at Otawi (July 9, 1915).
8

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14. Peace Negotiations, 1916-1917, and the Intervention of the United States, 1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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14. Peace Negotiations, 1916–1917, and the Intervention of the United States, 1917
From the very outbreak of the war, President Wilson appears to have believed that ultimately the opportunity would present itself for the U.S. government to step in as mediator.
1

1916, Jan.–Feb
The president's close friend and intimate adviser Col. Edward M. House visited Europe and consulted with leading statesmen. His conferences with Sir Edward Grey resulted in the so-called House memorandum of Feb. 22, which stated that the president was ready, whenever Britain and France thought the time opportune, to propose a peace conference. If the proposal were accepted by the Allies but rejected by Germany, the U.S. would probably enter the war on the Allied side. The terms on which the U.S. would mediate would include the restoration of Belgium and Serbia, the retrocession of Alsace-Lorraine to France, the acquisition of Constantinople by Russia, and the transfer of the Italian-speaking parts of Austria to Italy. Poland was to be independent. Germany would retain some colonies and perhaps be given more. Public opinion in the U.S. was still distinctly divided, but sentiment for peace was prevalent except in the eastern states, where there was some feeling for intervention on the Allied side (influence of British propaganda, etc.). The president was re-elected (Nov. 7, 1916) very largely on a platform of peace, but he applied himself almost at once to the resumption of his mediatory efforts.
2

3

Dec. 12
The German government appealed to the U.S. to inform the Entente governments that the Central powers were prepared to negotiate peace. Failure of the Germans to mention any specific terms, and the fact that all the advantages were on their side, made it relatively easy for the Allied governments to reject the German advances (Dec. 30).
4

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14. Peace Negotiations, 1916-1917, and the Intervention of the United States, 1917. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Dec. 18
President Wilson transmitted his own proposals to the warring powers. He suggested that the belligerents state their terms for peace and for arrangements to guarantee the world against renewal of conflict. The German, Austrian, and Turkish governments replied (Dec. 26) in an appreciative way, but reiterated their opinion that the best method would be to call a meeting for exchange of views. No definite terms were mentioned. The Allied powers in their reply (Jan. 10, 1917) named specific terms. These included the restoration of Belgium, Serbia, and Montenegro; the evacuation of French, Russian, and Romanian territory, with just reparation; the reorganization of Europe on the basis of nationalities; the restoration of territory previously taken from the Allies; the liberation of Italians, Slavs, Romanians, and Czechoslovaks from foreign rule; the freeing of subject nationalities under Turkish rule; and the expulsion of the Turks from Europe. The far-reaching nature of the Allied terms, at a moment when the military situation was by no means in their favor, estranged even Wilson, who still stuck by the idea of “peace without victory” (speech to the Senate, Jan. 22). The first step, however, was to elicit from the Germans a concrete statement of aims. These were confidentially communicated to the president on Jan. 29: restitution of the part of Alsace occupied by the German forces; acquisition of a strategic and economic zone between Germany and Poland on the one hand and Russia on the other; return of colonies and the granting to Germany of colonial territory in accord with its population and economic needs; restoration of occupied France; renunciation of economic obstacles to normal commerce; compensation for German enterprises and civilians damaged by the war; freedom of the seas, and so on. Though this program was anything but hopeful, the president and the German ambassador, Count Johann von Bernstorff, continued to negotiate. But these discussions were cut short by the decision of the Germans to begin unrestricted submarine warfare.
5

6

7

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1917, Jan. 8. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, Jan. 8
A meeting of the highest military and civil officials of Germany, at Pless, finally concluded that the unrestricted use of the submarine was the only method by which Britain could be brought to its knees. It was understood that the decision would probably mean war with the U.S., but it was felt that the conflict would be over before the full weight of America could be thrown in. The chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, and men like Helfferich were not convinced of the soundness of the policy but offered no other solution. To counterbalance the hostility of the U.S., the foreign minister, Arthur von Zimmermann, sent instructions to the German minister in Mexico to work for an alliance with Mexico and Japan directed against the U.S. (Jan. 19).
1

Jan. 31
The U.S. was notified that unrestricted submarine war would begin on Feb. 1 (See 1917, Jan. 8).
2

Feb. 3
The U.S. government severed relations with the German government. In response to an appeal from Wilson, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, and other Latin American states followed suit. So did China (March 14). The president had decided not to declare war until the Germans had committed an overt act. Several American ships were in fact sunk during February and March. At the same time the British secret service intercepted and deciphered the Zimmermann note, revealing German plans against the U.S.
3

4

April 6
The U.S. DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY, following the president's war message to the Senate (April 2). War was not declared on Austria-Hungary until Dec. 7, 1917.
5

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1917, Jan. 8. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, Feb.-June. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, Feb.–June
Secret negotiations between Emperor Charles of Austria and his foreign minister, Count Ottokar Czernin, and the French and British governments. The emperor seems to have been determined, from the time of his accession (Nov. 1916), to make peace, even without Germany. The negotiations were carried on through his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon, who was serving in the Belgian army. After several secret meetings in Switzerland, Prince Sixtus went to Vienna, with the full knowledge and approval of the French foreign office, and had a conference with the emperor and Czernin. He returned to Paris with a letter from Charles (dated March 24) in which the writer promised to use his influence with his allies to support “the just French claims relative to AlsaceLorraine.” Belgium was to be restored, with compensation for its losses; so also Serbia, which was to have access to the Adriatic. The emperor was also not opposed to Russia's acquisition of Constantinople. This offer was well received by Poincaré and Briand and also by Lloyd George. The one flaw was the failure to offer adequate gains to Italy. In the ensuing negotiations, which continued until June (second visit of Prince Sixtus to Vienna, May 6–8), it became clear that the Austrians were willing to turn over the Trentino to Italy but not Trieste, and that the Italians (statement of Sonnino at the St. Jean de Maurienne conference, April 19–21) were unwilling to accept anything short of the full terms of the Treaty of London (See April 26). Efforts continued to be made by Poincaré and Lloyd George, but the French prime minister, Alexandre Ribot (succeeded Briand, March 20), took a hopeless attitude, and indeed the Italians made no move in the direction of concessions.
1

2

Aug. 1
Outline proposals for peace submitted to the warring parties by the pope. These included disarmament, arbitration, freedom of the seas, renunciation of indemnities, evacuation and restoration of occupied territories, and examination of conflicting territorial gains. Prolonged negotiations proved futile. (See Operations in the West, 1918) (See The Peace Settlements)
3

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1917, Feb.-June. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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15. The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Dec. 15 ) (See 1917, Jan )

15. The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917–1918
While discussion of peace among the western powers led to an impasse, the winter of 1917–18 produced a settlement in the east.
1

1916, Nov. 5
The Germans, in occupation of Poland, announced the formation of an independent Polish state. The object of this move, inspired by the military men, was to win over the Poles and induce them to enlist on the German side. This hope was sadly disappointed.
2

1917, March 30
The Russian provisional government recognized the independence of Poland.
3

April 5
The British government adhered to the principle of an independent and united Poland.
4

Sept. 12

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15. The Settlements in Eastern Europe, 1917-1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Central powers granted a constitution to what was formerly Russian Poland and appointed a regency council (Oct. 15).

5

Nov. 7
The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (See Nov. 7). Lenin and his followers, who regarded the war as a capitalist and imperialist venture, were in favor of a peace without annexations or indemnities, and were determined to make peace, which the Russian people yearned for. The old Russian Empire, indeed, was already dissolving.
6

Nov. 20
The Ukrainians proclaimed the Ukrainian People's Republic.
7

Nov. 21
The Bolshevik government, having invited all belligerents (Nov. 8) to make peace on the basis of no annexations and no indemnities, and having elicited no reply, opened separate discussions with the Central powers.
8

Nov. 28
The local Diet proclaimed the independence of Estonia.
9

Dec. 3
Opening of peace conference at Brest-Litovsk. Germany (Kühlmann), Austria (Czernin), and their allies negotiated an armistice with Russia (represented by Leon Trotsky).
10

Dec. 6
Finland proclaimed its independence.
11

Dec. 23
Proclamation of the Moldavian (Bessarabian) Republic.
12

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Dec. 25. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Dec. 25
The Central powers accepted the principle of no annexations and no indemnities on condition that the Allied powers accept it within ten days. Trotsky's appeals brought no response, and there was nothing to moderate the German demands (these were laid down by the German general staff and were regarded as too extreme by Kühlmann).
1

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1918, Jan. 4. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1918, Jan. 4
Beginning of the peace discussions at Brest, after a suspension of ten days. Trotsky refused to recognize the new Baltic states without a plebiscite, and much acrimonious discussion ensued.
1

Jan. 12
Latvia declared its independence.
2

Feb. 1
The Central powers recognized the independence of the Ukraine.
3

Feb. 9
TREATY OF PEACE between the Central powers and the Ukraine signed at Brest-Litovsk.
4

Feb. 10
Trotsky declared the war ended, without peace having been made.
5

Feb. 18

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1918, Jan. 4. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Germans at once resumed hostilities. They took Dvinsk (Feb. 18), Dorpat (Feb. 24), Reval (Feb. 25), Pskov (Feb. 25), and Narva (March 4), advancing to within 100 miles of Petrograd.

6

Feb. 28
The Russians, at the insistence of Lenin, renewed negotiations at Brest.
7

March 2
At the request of the Finnish government the Germans occupied the Aaland Islands.
8

March 3
The Russians signed the TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK, abandoning Poland, Lithuania, the Ukraine, the Baltic provinces, Finland, and Transcaucasia.
9

March 3
In order to clear the Bolsheviks out of the Ukraine, the Germans and Austrians sent an expeditionary force. They occupied Kiev (March 3), Odessa (March 13), Nicolaiev (March 17), and Kharkov (April 8), and then invaded the Crimea, taking Sevastopol (May 1). The Ukraine henceforth became an important granary for the Central powers, though the returns were never as great as anticipated. Under German direction Gen. Paul Skoropadski was proclaimed hetman of the Ukraine (April 29).
10

April 3
German forces landed in Finland itself. They took Helsingfors (April 13) and Viborg (April 30). After a five-day battle the Whites, supported by the Germans, defeated the Reds and the Finnish civil war came to an end (May 7).
11

June 4
The Lithuanian assembly elected Duke William of Württemberg king.
12

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1918, Jan. 4. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Oct. 8. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Oct. 8
The Finnish assembly proclaimed Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse king. German troops remained in Finland until Dec. 16, 1918. ROMANIA was likewise obliged to make peace in the winter of 1918.
1

2

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1917, Aug. 6-Sept. 3. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1917, Aug. 6–Sept. 3
Battle of Putna. After the failure of the Brusilov offensive (See 1916, June 4) the Germans and Austrians began the invasion of northern Moldavia. Though it had been reorganized by the French general Henri Berthelot, the Romanian army was forced to fall back.
1

Dec. 6
Truce of Focsani. Hostilities between the Central powers and Romania ceased.
2

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1917, Aug. 6-Sept. 3. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1918, Feb. 6. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1918, Feb. 6
A German ultimatum demanded the opening of peace negotiations at once. Bratianu resigned and was succeeded by Alexander Averescu as premier and foreign minister.
1

April 9
The Moldavian Republic (Bessarabia) proclaimed its union with Romania. The Russian government protested against this (April 23), but the union was recognized by the Central powers in the treaty of Bucharest.
2

May 7
TREATY OF BUCHAREST. Romania was obliged to cede Dobrudja to Bulgaria and to turn over the Carpathian passes to Austria-Hungary. The Germans took a 90-year lease on the Romanian oil wells. (See The Treaty of Trianon)
3

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1918, Feb. 6. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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16. The End of the Habsburg Monarchy. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

16. The End of the Habsburg Monarchy
By the summer of 1918 the Habsburg Monarchy was already in full process of dissolution. Disorders were common in the larger centers, parliamentary government had had to be given up, and desertions from the army had reached a large scale. In Russia, in France, and in Italy there had been formed Czech, Polish, and Yugoslav legions that were fighting for the Allies, while national councils of these subject nationalities were springing up not only in the provincial capitals but also in Paris and London.
1

1918, April 10
Meeting of the Congress of Oppressed Austrian Nationalities in Rome. Here the Czech, southern Slav (Yugoslav), Polish, and Romanian representatives proclaimed the right of self-determination, denounced the Habsburg government as an obstacle to free development of the nations, and recognized the need for fighting against it.
2

April 21
The Italian government recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as a de facto government.
3

May 29
Secretary Lansing declared the sympathy of the U.S. for the Czechoslovaks and Yugoslavs.
4

June 3

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16. The End of the Habsburg Monarchy. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Allied declarations were made supporting the national aspirations of Poles, Czechoslovaks, and Yugoslavs.

5

June 15–24
Battle of the Piave. The Austrians crossed the river but were unable to maintain their position. They withdrew again after losing some 100,000 men. From this time on there was steady demoralization of the army.
6

June 30
Italy and France officially recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia. Britain followed suit on Aug. 13, and the U.S. on Sept.3. In view of the rapid disintegration of the monarchy, the Austrians made a last bid for military victory.
7

8

Sept. 15
The Austrian government appealed to President Wilson to call an informal conference to discuss peace. This plea was rejected by Wilson.
9

Oct. 4
The Austrians joined the Germans in appealing for an armistice (See Oct. 4).
10

Oct. 16
Emperor Charles proclaimed the reorganization of the non-Hungarian part of the monarchy as a federal state, with complete self-government for the subject nationalities. This move was patently belated.
11

Oct. 24–Nov. 4
BATTLE OF VITTORIO VENETO. Diaz attacked the Austrian front all the way from the Trentino to the Adriatic. The Austrians held out for a week on the Monte Grappa, but on the lower Piave they collapsed completely. The Italians advanced to Vittorio Veneto (Oct. 30), by which time the Austrian armies were in a state of dissolution, several hundred thousand men being captured and the remainder streaming back toward home. The Italians took Trieste (Nov. 3) and Fiume (Nov. 5).
12

Oct. 27
Count Julius Andrássy (succeeded Burian as Austrian foreign minister, Oct. 25) notified Wilson that Austria was willing to recognize the rights of the subject nationalities and to make a separate peace.
13

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16. The End of the Habsburg Monarchy. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Oct. 28. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Oct. 28
THE CZECHOSLOVAKS DECLARED THEIR INDEPENDENCE.
1

Oct. 29
The YUGOSLAV NATIONAL COUNCIL at Agram (Zagreb) proclaimed the independence of the Yugoslavs.
2

Oct. 29
The Austrians offered to surrender unconditionally to the Italians. Meanwhile disorders in both Vienna and Budapest had resulted in revolutionary changes.
3 4

Oct. 30
Formation of a German National Council in Vienna, for the German provinces.
5

Nov. 1
Establishment of an independent Hungarian government, under Count Michael Károlyi.
6

Nov. 3

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Oct. 28. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

CONCLUSION OF AN ARMISTICE between the Allied powers and Austria-Hungary: complete demobilization of the armies and withdrawal of troops fighting with the Germans; surrender of half the equipment; evacuation of territories still occupied and of territory in dispute among Austrians, Italians, and Slavs; Allied occupation of strategic points; surrender of the fleet; and so on.

7

Nov. 7
A Yugoslav conference at Geneva decided for the union of Croatia and Slovenia with Serbia and Montenegro.
8

Nov. 11
Emperor Charles stepped down but never formally abdicated.
9

Nov. 12
PROCLAMATION OF THE AUSTRIAN REPUBLIC.
10

Nov. 16
PROCLAMATION OF THE HUNGARIAN REPUBLIC.
11

Nov. 24
PROCLAMATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF THE SERBS, CROATS, AND SLOVENES at Zagreb. King Peter of Serbia became king, with Prince Alexander as regent.
12

Dec. 1
King Nicholas of Montenegro, having opposed union, was declared deposed by the parliament, which then voted for union with the new kingdom. A national assembly of the Romanians of Transylvania and the Banat at Alba Julia voted for union of these regions with Romania. (See The Treaty of Saint-Germain)
13

14

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17. Operations in the West, 1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See July 31–Nov. 10 ) (See Aug. 1 )

17. Operations in the West, 1918
The tremendous gains made by the Germans in the east did not serve to improve the situation with respect to the Western powers. On the contrary, it was generally felt that the terms imposed on Russia and Romania were irrefutable proof of Germany's expansionist aims. In the West the demands for peace died away and the allied governments were able to take a stronger line than ever.
1

1917, Nov. 27
The Supreme War Council had been established, consisting of the leading statesmen, with their military advisers (first Sir Henry Wilson, Foch, Cadorna, and Bliss). Even this new board was unable to establish harmony. The Germans, now disillusioned about the submarine campaign, fully cognizant of the war-weariness of their allies, and feeling acutely the pinch of the blockade, decided to stake everything on a decision in the west, which it was hoped could be reached before the Americans arrived in great force. Ludendorff planned a series of crushing blows to be delivered against the British on a 60-mile front south of Arras, by which he hoped to break through, roll up the opposing forces, and drive them westward to the sea. The British expected an attack but not along the southern part of their front, so that the fifth army (Gen. Sir Hubert Gough) was left holding an extensive front with relatively few forces.
2

3

4

1918, Jan. 5

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17. Operations in the West, 1918. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Lloyd George, in an address to the Trades Unions Congress, formulated the British war aims. These included the restoration of Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, and the occupied parts of France, Italy, and Romania. In addition, a “reconsideration” of the great wrong done to France in 1871; the establishment of an independent Poland “comprising all those genuinely Polish elements who desire to form part of it”; genuine self-government of the nationalities in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy; satisfaction of the Italian national claims, and of Romanian aspirations; and “recognition of the separate national conditions” of Arabia, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine. Lloyd George envisaged further some future organization to limit armaments and prevent war.

5

Jan. 8
In an address to Congress President Wilson outlined a peace program consisting of Fourteen Points, as follows: (1) Open covenants openly arrived at. (2) Absolute freedom of navigation alike in peace and war, except as the seas might be closed by international action to enforce international covenants. (3) The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers. (4) Adequate guaranties that armaments would be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. (5) An impartial adjustment of all colonial claims on the principle that the interests of the population must have equal weight with the claims of the government. (6) The evacuation of Russian territory and the free determination of its own political and national policy. (7) Evacuation and restoration of Belgium. (8) Evacuation and restoration of French territory and righting of the wrong done to France in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine. (9) Readjustment of the frontiers of Italy along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. (10) Opportunity for autonomous development for the peoples of Austria-Hungary. (11) Evacuation and restoration of Romanian, Serbian, and Montenegrin territory, together with access to the sea for Serbia. (12) The Turkish parts of the Ottoman Empire to be given a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities to be given an opportunity for autonomous development, and the Dardanelles to be permanently opened to the ships of all nations under international guaranties. (13) An independent Poland, to include territories indisputably Polish, with free and secure access to the sea. (14) A general association of nations to be formed to afford mutual guaranties of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. The Allied war aims could be realized only through military victory, and prospects for this were not very good at a time when the Germans were able to transfer troops from the east to the west and when the American forces were not yet numerous enough to make much difference. Some efforts had been made, however, to establish greater coordination of effort among the Allies.
6

7

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1918, March 21-April 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1918, March 21–April 5
THE GREAT MARCH OFFENSIVE. In a few days the Germans drove the British line to a depth of 40 miles. The hasty and generous supply of reserves by the French helped to check the advance.
1

March 26
In the midst of the crisis a conference at Doullens named Gen. Ferdinand Foch to coordinate operations on the western front.
2

April 14
Foch named commander in chief of the Allied armies in France. In practice the national commanders (Haig, King Albert, Pershing) retained extensive control.
3

April 9–29
Battle of the Lys.
4

May 27–June 6
(THIRD) BATTLE OF THE AISNE. Taking the French by surprise, the Germans reached the Marne River, only 37 miles from Paris.
5

June 9–14
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1918, March 21-April 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Battle of the Matz. Ludendorff, astounded at his own success, gave up the idea of an offensive in Flanders and undertook to join up the Soissons and Noyon salients by an attack toward Compiègne.

6

June 4
The American forces at Château-Thierry, collaborating with the French, managed to break the German advance. In this engagement the Americans first played a substantial role.
7

July 15–Aug. 7
(SECOND) BATTLE OF THE MARNE. The Allied counteroffensive was of importance because it frustrated Ludendorff's plan for a great attack in Flanders, and because it enabled Foch to take the initiative in the months to come. After the second battle of the Marne the Allied forces, together with the Americans, gradually went over to a sustained offensive, consisting at first of a series of local attacks but later merging into a general movement. The resulting blows, together with the news of the surrender of Bulgaria, shook the nerve of Gen. Ludendorff, who, in something of a panic, demanded (Sept. 29) that the government initiate armistice and peace negotiations while the army could still hold out.
8

9

10

Sept. 30
Hertling and his fellow ministers resigned.
11

Oct. 4
Prince Max of Baden, a Liberal, named chancellor and foreign minister, with support of the Center, Progressive, and Socialist Parties. On the same day the German and Austrian governments appealed to President Wilson for an armistice, accepting the Fourteen Points as a basis for peace. There followed an exchange of notes between Berlin and Washington extending over several weeks, Wilson demanding evacuation of occupied territories, insisting that the Allies could negotiate only with a democratic government, and so on. In the interval Ludendorff regained some of his composure and began to talk of resistance, renewal of the war in the spring, and so forth. The home situation, however, was bad and the democratic tide strong. The government (Oct. 27) accepted Ludendorff's resignation. He was succeeded as quartermaster-general by Gen. Wilhelm von Gröner. During October the British continued to advance in the north. By that time the American troops also resumed the advance. The Germans began to withdraw rapidly, and by Nov. 10 the Americans were at Sedan. Foch was then planning still another thrust east of Metz and arranging for the mission of a force through Austria to attack Bavaria.
12

13

Oct. 28
Mutiny broke out in the German fleet at Kiel, the crews refusing to put to sea on a series of cruiser raids planned by Adm. Scheer. The mutiny spread rapidly to Hamburg, Bremen, and Lübeck and thence to the whole of northwestern Germany.
14

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1918, March 21-April 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Nov. 7–8
Revolution broke out in Munich. The king abdicated. In Berlin the ministry convinced itself that the abdication of William II was imperative if the monarchy was to be preserved. The emperor, who was at Spa, resisted the suggestion, but Prince Max, feeling unable to wait, made the announcement.
15

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Nov. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Nov. 9
THE ABDICATION OF WILLIAM II ANNOUNCED IN BERLIN BY PRINCE MAX. Philipp Scheidemann, the Socialist leader, then proclaimed the German Republic.
1

Nov. 10
William II, having been told by Hindenburg and Gröner that they were unable to guarantee the loyalty of the army, took their advice and fled to Holland.
2

Nov. 8
The German armistice commission, headed by Matthias Erzberger, the leader of the Center Party, was received by Foch in his railway coach near Compiègne. The terms submitted by the Allies were designed to make Germany helpless and to ensure the acceptance of the peace terms. The armistice provided for immediate evacuation of occupied territory on the western front and of all territory west of the Rhine, which was to be occupied by Allied forces. The treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest were to be renounced and German troops were to be withdrawn from Romania, AustriaHungary, Turkey, and eventually Russia. Germany was to surrender 5,000 locomotives, 5,000 trucks, and 150,000 freight cars. It was to turn over 160 submarines and a large number of other warships. The armistice, harsh though the terms were, had to be accepted. It was concluded for a period of 30 days, but was periodically renewed until peace was signed.
3

Nov. 11

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Nov. 9. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

AT 11:00 A.M. HOSTILITIES CEASED ON THE WESTERN FRONT. The Allies at once began to take over the occupied and western German territories. French troops occupied Strassburg on Nov. 25, while British and American troops began the occupation of Germany on Dec. 1.

4

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World War I Losses. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

World War I Losses
The number of known dead has been placed at about 10 million men, the wounded at about 20 million, distributed among the chief combatants as follows (round numbers): Dead Great Britain France Russia Italy United States Germany 947,000 Wounded Prisoner 2,122,000 192,000
1

1,385,000 3,044,000 446,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 460,000 115,000 947,000 206,000 530,000 4,500

1,808,000 4,247,000 618,000

Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 Turkey 325,000 400,000
2

The total direct cost of the war has been figured at $180.5 billion, and the indirect cost at more than $151.6 billion.

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World War I Losses. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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18. The Peace Settlements. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Aug. 1 )

18. The Peace Settlements

TERRITORIAL CHANGES FOLLOWING WORLD WAR I (MAP)

a. The Treaty of Versailles 1919, Jan. 18
The peace conference was formally opened at Paris, with 70 delegates representing 27 of the victorious powers. The Germans were excluded until the terms were ready for submission. The German request for a peace on the basis of Wilson's Fourteen Points (See Jan. 8) had been granted by the Allied note of Nov. 5, 1918, with two reservations, but the Fourteen Points receded into the background as the conflict of views and interests developed at the conference. President Wilson, received with the wildest enthusiasm when he arrived in Europe in mid-December, represented the new idealism in international relations and was intent primarily on securing the adoption of a plan for a League of Nations, to be included in the peace treaty. Lloyd George, the chief representative of Great Britain and the empire, was disposed to make a moderate peace, but was deeply committed by promises made in the general election recently held, to the effect that the war criminals would be brought to justice and that Germany would be made to pay for the war. Clemenceau, in turn, was frankly the exponent of the old diplomacy, being intent on the interests of France, and on provisions for the security of France. Both Britain and France were bound further by their agreements with Italy, by commitments in the Near East, and so on. The Italian prime minister, Vittorio Orlando, played a secondary role, but the foreign minister, Sidney Sonnino, stood forth as an unbending champion of
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1

18. The Peace Settlements. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Italian claims against Austria and against the new Yugoslav state. The plenary sessions of the conference were of little significance, for the decisions rested from the start with the Supreme Council, the Big Ten, composed of President Wilson and the prime ministers and foreign ministers of the five chief powers (Wilson, Lansing, Lloyd George, Balfour, Clemenceau, Pichon, Orlando, Sonnino, Saionji, Makino). Russia was not represented, though the Russian situation was of vital import. The wars of the counterrevolution were in full swing and the fate of the new states on Russia's western frontiers depended on the outcome. Clemenceau having refused to invite delegates of the warring parties to Paris, a conference was arranged for at the Prinkipo Islands. The Bolshevik government was apparently anxious for some kind of adjustment, but Kolchak and Denikin, the two leading generals of the counterrevolution, refused to enter into discussion, and the whole project fell flat. Public opinion in both France and Britain was violently anti-Bolshevik, and it seems hardly likely that an agreement could have been reached.
2

Jan. 25
The conference unanimously adopted a resolution for the creation of a League of Nations. A committee was appointed to draft a constitution, and other committees were organized to deal with reparations and various territorial questions.
3

Feb
In the middle of the month President Wilson returned for a time to the U.S. and Lloyd George to London.
4

March 25
After the return of Wilson and Lloyd George to Paris, the statesmen devoted themselves to the working out of the German treaty. The Council of Ten was replaced by the Council of Four, for the expedition of business.
5

April 28
The Covenant of the League of Nations (See 1914–1946. Interstate Institutions) (worked out by a committee consisting of Wilson, House, Cecil, Smuts, Bourgeois, and Venizelos) was presented in final form. The League was to consist of the signatory states and others admitted by two-thirds vote. The members were to afford each other mutual protection against aggression, to submit disputes to arbitration or inquiry, and to abstain from war until three months after a ruling. All treaties between members which were incompatible with these obligations were declared abrogated; all subsequent treaties were to be registered with the League. The League was to devote itself to problems of disarmament, labor legislation, health, international administration, and so on.
6

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18. The Peace Settlements. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The drafting of the peace terms was marked by violent conflict among the members of the Council of Four. Clemenceau insisted on the separation of the left bank of the Rhine from Germany, and desired also the annexation of the Saar Basin to France. These demands were opposed by Wilson and Lloyd George, and French security was finally arranged for otherwise, Wilson having ordered preparations for his return home (April 7). Other disputes arose from the demands of Britain and France that Germany be required to meet the costs of the war, a proposition to which Wilson objected. The Polish claims, supported by France, also caused friction, as did the Japanese pretensions in Shantung and the Italian claims in Dalmatia, neither of which Wilson was prepared to recognize. All these questions were finally settled by compromise in order to keep the conference together (the Italian delegates left the conference on April 23 and did not return until May 6).

7

May 7
The treaty was submitted to the German delegation, which had arrived on April 29. The Germans (Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, chief of the delegation) protested vigorously that the terms were not in keeping with the conditions on which Germany had laid down its arms and that many of the clauses were impossible to fulfill. Nevertheless the victorious powers made only slight modifications in the draft, and the Germans, after an acute domestic crisis, decided that they were unable to resist and that their only possible course was to sign.
8

June 21
The German fleet (ten battleships, nine armored cruisers, eight smaller cruisers, 50 torpedo boats, 102 submarines, totaling about 500,000 tons) was scuttled by the crews under the command of Adm. Ludwig von Reuter, at Scapa Flow, where the fleet had been interned. This act of defiance made the victors more determined to enforce the terms of the treaty draft.
9

June 28
SIGNATURE OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES at Versailles. The treaty provided for the League of Nations and for the following territorial cessions by Germany (see TERRITORIAL CHANGES FOLLOWING WORLD WAR I (MAP)): Alsace-Lorraine to France; Moresnet, Eupen, and Malmédy to Belgium, with a plebiscite in Malmédy after cession; the Saar area to be under international administration for 15 years, after which a plebiscite was to be held, France exploiting the coal mines in the meanwhile; northern and central Schleswig to decide their allegiance by plebiscite; in the east, Germany to cede the larger part of Posen and West Prussia to Poland; a plebiscite to be held in Upper Silesia; Danzig to be a free city within the Polish customs union; plebiscites to be held in parts of East Prussia to decide whether they should go to Poland or remain with Germany; Memel ceded to the Allies; and the German colonies to be ceded to the Allies, to be organized as mandates under supervision of the League. Germany, in Article 231, accepted sole responsibility for causing the war. It was henceforth to keep an army of not more than 100,000 men, was to have no large guns and only a limited number of smaller ones. The navy was limited to six warships and a corresponding number of other craft; Germany was to have no submarines or military aircraft; the fortifications of Heligoland were to be dismantled; the Allies were to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years, and longer if necessary, and a belt 30 miles wide on the right bank of the Rhine was to be demilitarized. The Kiel Canal was opened to the warships and merchant shipping of all nations, and the German rivers were internationalized. The former emperor and other offenders were to be tried. The Germans were required to pay for all civilian damage caused during the war, the final bill to be presented by May 1, 1921; in the interval Germany was to pay $5 billion, the rest to be paid in 30 years. Germany was to hand over all merchant ships of more than 1,600 tons, half of those between 800 and 1,600 tons, and a quarter of its fishing fleet. It was to build
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18. The Peace Settlements. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

200,000 tons of shipping for the victors annually for five years. Large quantities of coal were to be delivered to France, Belgium, and Italy for ten years. Germany was to bear the cost of the armies of occupation. It bound itself further to agree to the sale of German property in Allied countries.

July 7
The German government ratified the treaty, as did France (Oct. 13), Great Britain (Oct. 15), Italy (Oct. 15), and Japan (Oct. 30). The U.S. government never ratified it, the Senate having first proposed amendments, which failed of the necessary votes. The U.S. government also refused to ratify the treaty of alliance signed with Great Britain and France (June 28) (See July 10–1920, March 19) providing for assistance in case of attack by Germany. This treaty thus also failed of effect. (See European Diplomacy and the Depression, 1919–1939)
11

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b. The Treaty of Saint-Germain. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

b. The Treaty of Saint-Germain 1919, Sept. 10
Austria signed the treaty that had been submitted on July 20. This merely registered the breakup of the Habsburg monarchy, at the same time penalizing the new Austrian Republic as the representative of the old regime. Austria recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Hungary, these states being obliged to give guaranties of protection of minorities. Eastern Galicia, the Trentino, South Tyrol, Trieste, and Istria were ceded by Austria. The army was limited to 30,000 men, and Austria, like Germany, was to pay reparations for 30 years. The union of Austria with Germany was forbidden, except with consent of the Council of the League. (See Czechoslovakia)
1

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b. The Treaty of Saint-Germain. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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c. The Treaty of Neuilly. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

c. The Treaty of Neuilly 1919, Nov. 27
The Bulgarians signed the treaty of peace, which deprived them of a seaboard on the Aegean and gave them only an economic outlet. Bulgaria recognized the independence of Yugoslavia. It agreed to pay reparations of $445 million. Its army was reduced to 20,000 men, and it was obliged to surrender most of its war materiel. (See Bulgaria)
1

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d. The Treaty of Trianon. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

d. The Treaty of Trianon 1919, March 21
The Hungarian government headed by Count Károlyi was overthrown by a Bolshevik coup, headed by Alexander Garbai and Béla Kun. This government became involved in war with most of Hungary's neighbors when it became known that territory was to be assigned to them. Ultimately the Romanians invaded and took Budapest (Aug. 4) just after the Bolsheviks had been overthrown (Aug. 1). The monarchists then regained control and appointed Adm. Miklos Horthy as regent (March 1, 1920). The Romanians were finally induced to withdraw (Nov. 14, 1919), under pressure from the Allies, but only after they had carried away most of what was movable.
1

1920, June 4
The Hungarians signed the treaty of Trianon, by which the old Hungary was shorn of almost threequarters of its territory and two-thirds of its inhabitants. Czechoslovakia was given Slovakia, Austria received western Hungary, Yugoslavia took Croatia-Slavonia and part of the Banat of Temesvar, and Romania received the rest of the Banat, Transylvania, and part of the Hungarian plain. Hungary agreed to pay reparations, to keep an army of only 35,000 men, to assume part of the old Austro-Hungarian debt, to hand over war criminals, and soon. (See Hungary)
2

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d. The Treaty of Trianon. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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e. The Treaty of Sevres. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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e. The Treaty of Sèvres
In the settlement of the Turkish question the Allies were much hampered by the downfall of the tsarist regime in Russia, the withdrawal of Russian claims to Constantinople, and the publication by the Bolsheviks of the secret treaties revealing the Allied plan of partition. President Wilson in particular opposed the former program, while American opinion showed little interest in assuming responsibility for either the Straits area or Armenia. The question dragged on through 1919, while in Turkey a nationalist movement under Mustafa Kemal (See 1919, May 19) was building up a strong opposition to the Allied plans.
1

1919, May 15
The Greeks, with the support of the Allies, landed troops at Smyrna, acting as agents for Allied interests. The Italians also landed troops in southwestern Anatolia.
2

1920, April 18
At a conference of the Allied prime ministers at San Remo the main lines of the Turkish treaty were agreed upon.
3

Aug. 10

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e. The Treaty of Sevres. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The feeble and helpless government of the sultan, protected by an international force of occupation at Constantinople, signed the Treaty of Sèvres. By this treaty the sultan's government renounced all claims to non-Turkish territory. The kingdom of the Hijaz was recognized as independent. Syria became a mandate of France, and Mesopotamia (with Mosul), as well as Palestine, became British mandates. Smyrna and its hinterland were to be administered by Greece for five years, after which a plebiscite was to be held. The Dodecanese and Rhodes went to Italy, while Thrace and the remainder of the Turkish islands in the Aegean were assigned to Greece. Armenia was recognized as independent. The Straits were to be internationalized and the adjoining territory demilitarized. Istanbul and the strip of territory to the Chatalja lines remained Turkish, as did the remainder of Anatolia. This treaty was not recognized by the Turkish nationalists, who, under Mustafa Kemal's leadership, continued to build up a military force in Anatolia and to organize a government in defiance of the sultan and the victorious Allied powers. As a result of nationalist successes the Treaty of Sèvres was ultimately replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne. (See The Ottoman Empire and Turkey)

4

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Military Summary. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Military Summary The Western Front, 1914–1915 1914 Aug. 4
The Germans crossed into Belgium. Armies one and two were obliged to pass through a narrow strip between the Netherlands and the Ardennes, heavily guarded by the fortifications of Liège. The Germans got past the forts in a night attack (Aug. 5–6), which were then reduced by heavy artillery (Aug. 6–17). The Belgians fell back on Brussels and then Antwerp, destroying the bridges on the Meuse.
1

Aug. 20
Gen. Kluck entered Brussels after the battle of Tirlement (Aug. 18–19).
2

Aug. 14–15
Battle of the Frontiers (Lorraine). The French invasion was checked almost at once and the French armies driven out of Lorraine with heavy losses. The third and fourth armies were also driven back from Luxembourg. Germans captured Namur (Aug. 25), Longwy (Aug. 27), Malmédy (Aug. 30), Soissons (Sept. 1), Laon (Sept. 2), Rheims (Sept. 3), and Maubeuge (Sept. 7).
3

Aug. 23

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Military Summary. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Battle of Mons. First contact between Germans and British. The latter were obliged to fall back with the French fifth army. Further delaying action fought by the British (Gen. Horace Smith-Dorrien) at Le Cateau (Aug. 26).

4

Sept. 5–12
Battle of the Marne. The opposing armies tried to outflank each other (battle of the Ourcq). Strongly urged by Gen. Joseph Gallieni (military governor of Paris), Joffre (commander in chief of the French armies) decided to order a general counteroffensive (Sept. 5) in the hope of breaking in on the right and rear of Bülow's second army. Sept. 6–9, no decision. Kluck's efforts to outflank the French increased the gap between the German first and second armies, but the British and French failed to take full advantage of this. On Sept. 9, Kluck and Bülow began to fall back (oral instruction of Col. Hentsch, from German headquarters). The whole German line began to withdraw west of Verdun. The British and French advanced cautiously.
5

Sept. 15–Oct. 10
All efforts to dislodge the Germans from north of the Aisne River ended in failure: battle of the Aisne (Sept. 15–18), battle of Picardy (Sept. 22–26), battle of Artois (Sept. 27–Oct. 10).
6

Sept. 22–25
Repeated German assaults at Verdun. Germans captured St. Mihiel.
7

Oct. 1–9
Germans forced the Belgian army and a small British force to evacuate Antwerp.
8

Oct. 10–Nov. 10
The Race for the Sea. The Germans captured Ghent (Oct. 11), Bruges (Oct. 14), and Ostend (Oct. 15), but failed to reach the Channel ports as the Belgians flooded the district of the Yser (battle of the Yser, Oct. 18–Nov. 30). The Germans also captured Lille (Oct. 12), but failed to take Ypres (first battle of Ypres, Oct. 30–Nov. 24).
9

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Dec. 14-24. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Dec. 14–24
The Allies launched a major offensive along the whole front from Nieuport to Verdun, but no substantial gains.
1

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1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1915 Feb. 16–March 30
After bombarding the German positions in Champagne, the French attacked but made no significant advances.
1

March 10–13
British attacks near Neuve Chapelle succeeded in breaking through the German line for a short distance.
2

April 22–May 25
Second Battle of Ypres. The original Allied plans for a major offensive were more or less frustrated by the use of gas (chlorine) by the Germans (April 22). Though the French had advance information of what was coming, they had made no preparation for it. The troops fled, leaving Ypres exposed. The Germans gained some ground at first, but were apparently themselves skeptical of the effect of the new weapon and were unprepared to take full advantage of the situation.
3

May 9–June 18
Second Battle of Artois. After an unprecedented bombardment, the French (Gen. Henri-Philippe Pétain) succeeded in breaking through on a six-mile front north of Arras and facing Douai.
4

Sept. 22–Nov. 6

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1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Second Battle of Champagne. This was the key operation in Joffre's great offensive. The French attacked on a front between Rheims and the Argonne. The Germans, however, held their own on the heights between Rheims and St. Menehould, so that after many weeks of desperate fighting Joffre had little to show.

5

Sept. 25–Oct. 15
Third Battle of Artois. This was the British contribution to the great offensive in Champagne. The British here first used gas. Greatly outnumbering the Germans, they succeeded in driving the enemy back toward Lens and Loos, but then failed to capitalize on this advantage.
6

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The Eastern Front, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

The Eastern Front, 1914–1915 1914 Aug. 17–21
Battle of the Tser and the Jadar. Serbian forces repulsed an Austrian invasion.
1

Aug. 19–20
Battle of Gumbinnen. The first Russian army defeated Gen. Friedrich von Prittwitz's eighth German army, resulting in a German retreat to the Vistula. On learning of this, the German high command dismissed Prittwitz.
2

Aug. 26–30
Battle of Tannenberg. German forces led by Gen. Hermann von François surrounded Gen. Samsonov's Russian forces from the west and defeated them. The Germans took over 100,000 prisoners. Samsonov, in desperation, shot himself.
3

Aug. 26–Sept. 2
Battle of Zamosc-Komarov. Under Gen. Moritz von Auffenberg-Komarow, the Austrians won a great victory over the Russians (Gen. Alexei Brusilov).
4

Sept. 6–15

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The Eastern Front, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Battle of the Masurian Lakes. The Germans (Gen., later Field Marshal, August von Mackensen) drove the enemy into the difficult lake country and succeeded in capturing 125,000 men. Completely demoralized, the Russians fell back, while the Germans advanced to the lower Niemen River and occupied the gouvernement of Suvalki.

5

Sept. 8–17
Battle of the Drina. Austrian forces again crossed the Drina into Serbia as the Serbs invaded Syrmia. The Serbs captured Zemlin (Zemun) on Sept. 10, but were unable to continue the advance into Austrian territory. The two opponents fought a long series of desultory engagements on the heights along the river. The Serbs were ultimately forced to retreat and surrender Belgrade (Dec. 2).
6

Sept. 8–12
Battle of Lemberg. Austria abandoned eastern Galicia. The Russians also captured Czernowitz in the Bukovina (Sept. 15) and Jaroslav (Sept. 21). At the same time the Russians invested the key fortress of Przemysl (Sept. 16) and launched an attack upon the passes of the Carpathians leading into northern Hungary (Sept. 24).
7

Oct. 9–20
Battles of Warsaw and Ivangorod. Mackensen advanced as far as Warsaw (Oct. 12), but was obliged to fall back when the Russians counterattacked farther east. The Austrians retreated to Cracow, while the Russians commenced the second investment of Przemysl (Nov. 10) and renewed the invasion of northern Hungary (Nov. 15). Heavy fighting also continued around Cracow (Nov. 16–Dec. 2).
8

Nov. 16–25
Battles of Lodz and Lowicz. For a time the Russians, having brought up reinforcements, threatened to surround the Germans, but in early December the Germans were themselves strengthened by the arrival of new divisions from the western front. Lodz fell to the Germans on Dec. 6.
9

Dec. 3–6
Battle of Kolubara. The Austrians were forced to recross the Serbian frontier as Serbs recaptured Belgrade (Dec. 15), ending the second invasion of Serbia.
10

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Dec. 5-17. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Dec. 5–17
Battle of Limanova. The Austrians failed to break the Russian position before Cracow.
1

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1915 Feb. 4–22
Winter battle in Masuria. The Germans advanced and took Memel (Feb. 17), but a further German offensive in East Prussia (battle of Augustovo Forest, March 9–10) met with strong Russian resistance.
1

March 22
The Russians captured Przemysl and were in a position to break through the Carpathian passes into northern Hungary, but Austrian forces drove them back (April 2–25).
2

May 2
Beginning of the great Austro-German offensive in Galicia. The Russians, already suffering severely from lack of rifles, artillery, ammunition, and clothing, gave way at once (battle of GorliceTarnow). The Austro-German armies crossed the Dunajec (May 3–5) and took Jaroslav (May 14). By May 15 they had reached the San and forced a crossing (battle of the San, May 15–23). Przemysl was retaken (June 3), and gradually the whole Russian south front collapsed. Lemberg fell (June 22), and farther east Zuravno (June 5) and Stanislav (June 8). The Dniester River was crossed on June 23–27. By the end of June the Austro-German forces had advanced almost 100 miles, had liberated Galicia and Bukovina, and had taken huge numbers of prisoners.
3

July 1

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1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Beginning of the second great offensive. The Austrians (Archduke Joseph Ferdinand) took Lublin and Cholm (July 31) and stormed Ivangorod (Aug. 4). In Courland the Germans took Windau (July 18) and Mitau (Aug. 1), while in northern Poland they (Gen. Max von Gallwitz with the 12th army) advanced to the Narev and took Warsaw (Aug. 4–7). The Germans took Kovno (Aug. 18) and stormed the key fortress of Novo-Georgievsk (Aug. 20). Brest-Litovsk fell into their hands (Aug. 25) and Grodno (Sept. 2). In the south the Austrians took Lutsk (Aug. 31) and Dubno (Sept. 8). The capture of Vilna (Sept. 19) marked the end of the great offensive.

4

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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The War at Sea, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

The War at Sea, 1914–1915 1914 Aug. 28
British cruisers, supported by battle cruisers (Adm. Sir David Beatty), raided Heligoland Bight. The German cruisers came out and drove the British fleet off, but Beatty was able to sink three enemy ships.
1

Aug.
When the war broke out, there were eight German cruisers on foreign stations, mostly on the China station. When Japan declared war (See Aug. 23), the German commander, Adm. Maximilian von Spee, left for the South American coast with the cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Nürnberg. He bombarded Papeete (Sept. 22) and destroyed the British cable station at Fanning Island. At Easter Island (Oct. 12–18) Spee was joined by the cruisers Dresden (from the West Indies) and Leipzig (from the California coast). Together they proceeded to the Chilean coast. Meanwhile Adm. Sir Christopher Cradock, with three old ships, had been ordered to hunt down Spee.
2

Sept. 10–Nov. 9
The Emden (Capt. Karl von Müller) left the China station for the Indian Ocean, bombarding Madras (Sept. 22) and capturing several ships before being sunk at Cocos Island.
3

Sept. 22
The U.9 sank three old cruisers, Hogue, Cressy, and Aboukir.
4

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The War at Sea, 1914-1915. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Oct. 18
After an attempted German submarine raid on Scapa Flow, the Grand Fleet was withdrawn from that base and concentrated, for a time, on the west coast of Scotland.
5

Nov. 1
Naval action off Coronel. Spee destroyed two of Cradock's ships (the Monmouth and the Good Hope; the Glasgow escaped). To meet the danger from the German squadron, all available Allied warships were assembled off the southeast coast of South America. Three battle cruisers were hastily dispatched from the Grand Fleet to the South Atlantic.
6

Nov. 3
Adm. Franz von Hipper raided Yarmouth.
7

Dec. 8
Battle of the Falkland Islands. Spee made the fatal decision to attack the Falklands on his way homeward. The British squadron (Adm. Sir Frederick Sturdee) came upon the Germans unexpectedly and sank four of their five ships (Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Leipzig, and Nürnberg). A total of 1,800 men died, including Spee and his two sons. The Dresden, having escaped from the Falklands, engaged in commerce-destroying until cornered at Juan Fernandez, where the ship was blown up by its own crew (March 1, 1915).
8

Dec. 16
German forces bombarded Scarborough and Hartlepool.
9

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500-1800. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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byzantine

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See The Global Picture )

IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 A. Global and Comparative Dimensions
During the early modern period, the context of human affairs was changing dramatically. Within the globalization of life, three major changes were of special significance. 1. The development of newstyle empires and large state systems that came to dominate global political and military affairs. 2. The internal transformation of the major societies, but especially the transformation of society in western Europe. 3. The emergence of networks of interaction that were global in their scope. These developments reoriented the global balance of societal power. In 1500 there were four predominant traditions of civilization in the Eastern Hemisphere in a position of relative parity, but by 1800, one of these societies, the West, was in a position to assume political and military control over the whole world.
1

1. New-Style Empires and States, 1500–1700 a. Gunpowder Empires
These empires established strong centralized control through employing the military potential of gunpowder (naval and land-based siege cannon were particularly important). The major states of the Western Hemisphere were destroyed by European gunpowder empires while throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, regional empires developed on the basis of military power and new centralized administrations.
2

1453–1699

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IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500-1800. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

OTTOMAN EMPIRE. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 brought an end to the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans emerged as one of the strongest empires in the world, employing artillery to support their cavalry and then creating the Janissary Corps, an infantry using firearms. The new and expensive military was supported by the development of an effective bureaucracy. This centralized gunpowder empire rapidly expanded, conquering most of the Arab Middle East and the Balkan Peninsula. Ottoman forces laid siege to Vienna in 1529 and 1683 but did not capture this central European capital. However, in both eastern Europe and the Middle East the Ottomans remained essentially dominant until the war ending with the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) (See 1699, Jan. 26).

3

1492–1700
THE IBERIAN EMPIRES. Large maritime empires were created by the emerging monarchies on the Iberian Peninsula. European ship design enabled ships to carry cannons, giving them a military advantage over other ships in the 15th and 16th centuries. The PORTUGUESE EMPIRE expanded rapidly in the Indian Ocean basin but its largest stations in Goa, Malacca, and Macao were soon integrated into the local trade networks. Territories in Brazil and southern Africa were the only major territorial units within the Portuguese empire by the end of the 16th century. This overseas empire remained intact despite the problems of homeland, which included a forced union with Spain between 1580 and 1640. However, by the 17th century, the Portuguese empire had ceased to be a major world power. The SPANISH EMPIRE expanded rapidly in the Western Hemisphere and gained control of all of Central and South America except Brazil (See The Spanish Conquest). Despite setbacks in Europe, Spain's overseas empire remained intact as the largest in the Western Hemisphere until the early 19th century. In the European context, Spain was joined with the Netherlands and Austria in the HABSBURG EMPIRE of Charles V (1519–58) (See 1519–56) (See 1516–56). This empire, though vast and powerful, lacked an effective central administration and geographic core, and soon divided. The Spanish Habsburgs, especially during the reign of Philip II (1556–98), were a major power on the European continent but were weakened by a long series of wars with France; the Treaty of the Pyrennes (1659) marked the end of Spanish dominance. The last Habsburg king of Spain died in 1700, and the long disintegration of the Spanish Empire was hastened by the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14) (See 1701–14).
4

5

1526–1707
MUGHAL EMPIRE. India was conquered by the Mughals, Muslim invaders from central Asia led by Babur (1483–30), a military adventurer. Small Mughal armies defeated huge Indian armies through effective use of firearms. Artillery enabled Mughal rulers to control local notables, and after the conquest of all of India, significant administrative reorganization during the reign of AKBAR (1556–1605) established a major centralized gunpowder empire. Dynastic disputes and attempts to impose a standard form of Islam along with drastic limitations on the practice of Hinduism led to growing conflict, and, following the death of Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707), Mughal power rapidly declined, though the empire technically lasted into the following century.
6

1501–1722

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IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500-1800. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

SAFAVID EMPIRE. In the instability following the disintegration of the empire of Timur-I Lang (See Major Interregional Expansions), various tribal and religious groups competed for power. The Safavids, under the leadership of SHAH ISMAIL (r. 1502–24), conquered most of present-day Iran and established a state whose official religion was Shi'ite Islam. The early state had a traditional military structure, but SHAH ABBAS I (r. 1587–1629) created a gunpowder-based military force that enabled him to further centralize control. However, internal conflicts arose between the imperial and traditional military forces, and under the weak leadership of Shah Abbas's successors, the Safavid state disintegrated by 1722 and was replaced by the rule of a warrior-adventurer, Nadir Shah (r. 1736–47), who was a successful conqueror but was unable to establish an effective centralized state (See 1737–38).

7

1462–1725
RUSSIAN EMPIRE. In central Eurasia, the huge Russian Empire began to emerge in the 15th century under the leadership of the Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III (r. 1462–1505), who created an effective artillery and a centralized absolutism that enabled him and his successors to conquer the other Russian city-states and, by the end of the 16th century, free them from the old Mongol domination. By the early 18th century, the military power and centralized absolutism of the Russian Empire brought the superiority of nomadic cavalry to an end and the Eurasian steppes into the ecumene. The modernizing efforts of PETER THE GREAT (r. 1689–1725) brought Russian power to near parity with its European and Ottoman neighbors and superiority over the central Asian Muslim and Chinese states to the east.
8

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1) 692. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...692 The Byzantine forces were severely defeated by the Arabs in the Battle of Sevastopol in the Crimea. 1 695 A revolt against the emperor, led by Leontius and supported... 2) f. The Byzantine Empire. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...f. The Byzantine Empire (See 1261)THE PALEOLOGUS FAMILY (1260-1453)After the recapture of Constantinople by the Greeks in 1261, the empire of the Paleologi was still... 3) 2. Eastern Europe, 500-1025. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...2. Eastern Europe, 500-1025 a. The Byzantine Empire (See 527-565)THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE IN THE 6TH CENTURY (MAP)THE MACEDONIAN EMPERORS (867-1056)For a complete list... 4) II. Byzantine Emperors. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...474-91Zeno475-76Basiliscus491-518Anastasius I518-27Justin I (Flavius Justinus)527 (518)65Justinian the Great (Flavius Justinianus)565-78Justin II (Flavius Justinus)578... 5) 502-506. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...502-506 FIRST WAR WITH ROME (Byzantium). The Byzantine emperor's failure to support Kavad led to an indecisive war in which the Persians took Amida. Peace was made,... 6) 5. Christian States in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1000-1300. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...5. Christian States in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1000-1300 a. The Byzantine Empire (See 1020) THE COMNENI AND ANGELI (1057-1204)For a complete list of the Byzantine... 7) 981-82. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...981-82 Otto's campaign in southern Italy, to expel the Saracens and reduce the Byzantine power, ended in defeat. 1 983-1002 Otto III (an infant of three years). Rule... 8) 1461. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1461 The Ottomans conquered the Jandarid principality in Kastamonu and the last Byzantine possession around Trebizond (Trabzon), thus gaining virtual control of the... 9) g. The Second Bulgarian Empire. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...of the First Bulgarian Empire in 1018, Bulgaria was, for 168 years, an integral part of the Byzantine Empire. The replacement of taxation in kind with taxation in...

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10) Christmas. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...at Hagenau in Germany of King Philip of Swabia, Boniface, and Alexius, son of the dethroned Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus. Diversion of the crusade to Constantinople...

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f. The Byzantine Empire. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History III. The Postclassical Period, 500–1500 > F. Europe, 461–1500 > 7. Eastern Europe, 1300–1500 > f. The Byzantine Empire PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1261 )

f. The Byzantine Empire

THE PALEOLOGUS FAMILY (1260-1453) After the recapture of Constantinople by the Greeks in 1261, the empire of the Paleologi was still a relatively small domain, consisting of the former Nicaean Empire, the city of Constantinople and its immediate surroundings, the coastal part of Thrace, Salonika (Thessalonica), and southern Macedonia with the islands of Imbros, Samothrace, Lesbos, and Rhodes. The northeastern part of Anatolia was still held by the Greek empire of Trebizond, which, in the course of the 13th century, had managed to hold a balance between the Seljuk Turks and the Mongols and had become the great entrepôt of the eastern trade coming to the Black Sea by way of Persia and Armenia. The city and the court reached their highest prosperity and brilliance under the Emperor Alexius II (1297–1330), whose reign was followed by a period of dynastic and factional struggle. The reign of John Alexius III (1350–90) marked a second period of splendor, but the 15th century was one of decline. The empire of Trebizond ended with the Ottoman conquest in 1461 (last ruler, David, 1458–61). The European territories of the earlier empire were divided between the Greek despotate of Epirus and the Greek duchy of Neopatras (Thessaly, Locris), the Latin duchy of Athens, the Latin principality of Achaea, and the Venetian duchy of the Archipelago.
1

2

1259–82
MICHAEL VIII (Paleologus). He was the ablest of the Paleologi, a man who devoted himself to the restoration of Byzantine authority throughout the Balkan area, persisting despite many setbacks.
3

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f. The Byzantine Empire. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1261
Michael established a foothold in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese (Morea). Mistra (Misithra) became the capital of a flourishing principality and one of the great centers of lateByzantine culture.
4

1262
Michael II of Epirus was forced to recognize the suzerainty of the Constantinople emperor. In a series of campaigns, much of the despotate was regained for the empire (Janina taken, 1265).
5

1264–65
Constant raids of the Bulgars into Thrace led to a formidable campaign against them and the reconquest of part of Macedonia.
6

1266
Charles of Anjou became king of Sicily. He made an alliance with Baldwin II, the last Latin emperor, and, through the marriage of his son with the heiress of the Villehardouins, extended his authority over Achaea. He soon became the most formidable opponent of the Greeks, for by the Treaty of Viterbo (1267), he took over the claims of Baldwin II.
7

1271
Death of Michael II of Epirus. Charles of Anjou had already taken Corfu (1267) and now undertook the conquest of the Epiran coast, the essential base for any advance on Thessalonica and Constantinople. Durazzo was taken in 1272. John Angelus, driven out of Epirus, set up as lord of Neopatras (to 1295). Nicephorus I was the titular ruler of a much-reduced Epiran state (to 1296). Charles of Anjou proclaimed himself king of Albania and entered into alliance with the Serbs, who had begun the construction of a large state by advancing down the Vardar Valley.
8

1274
The Council of Lyons. Michael, to escape from the Angevin danger, accepted the Roman creed and the primacy of the pope, thus effecting the reunion with Rome. This purely political move met with vigorous resistance on the part of the Orthodox Greeks.
9

1274
Campaigns of Michael against the Angevins in Epirus had varying success.
10

1278

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f. The Byzantine Empire. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The death of William of Villehardouin, prince of Achaea, gave the Greeks an opportunity to expand their holding in the southeastern part.

11

1281
Michael VIII won a great victory over the Angevins at Berat. Thereupon Charles made an alliance with the papacy and with Venice, with which the Serbs and Bulgars were associated. Michael, in reply, effected a rapprochement with Peter of Aragon.
12

1282
The Sicilian Vespers (See 1268–85) served to relieve the pressure on the Greek Empire.
13

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1941–45 )

VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 A. General and Comparative Dimensions
In the second half of the 20th century, the rivalry of two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, dominated world political affairs. Within this political framework, the globalization of virtually all aspects of human life continued. Yet the intensification of global interactions resulted in neither a peaceful “one world” society nor a world filled with identical technological dictatorships. Instead, local anarchies and assertions of special identities coexisted with global communications and economic networks and new transnational and regional structures. The major global dynamics of the second half of the 20th century can be seen in two broad dimensions: the evolution of global relationships in political, economic, social, and cultural structures, and in scientific and environmental interactions; and the intensification and diversification of concrete international relationships of institutions and movements.
1

1. Changing Global Patterns
Global relationships evolved in a number of important ways in the second half of the 20th century. The developments were reflected in three important areas: the changing nature of global power structures and conflicts; the impact of globalization on economics, science, and technology, and responses to the environment; and the emerging complex relationships among global, regional, and local aspects of culture and society. By the 1990s, there was considerable awareness of many different possibilities for the formation of “new world orders.”
2

a. Changing Structures of Global Power

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VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The basic nature of global power structures, and even the nature of the most important conflicts, changed significantly during the second half of the 20th century. Such changes were clearly visible in 1) the transformation of imperialisms and the development of nationalisms; 2) the evolution of the cold war and the basic framework for world politics; 3) the development of international institutions for conflict management and resolution.

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1. Imperialisms and Nationalisms
At the end of World War II, a number of major European states still controlled significant overseas empires. In the postwar years, the main transformation was the decline of the older empires and the emergence of two superpowers that replaced them as the major world powers. During the war, Allied promises and Axis conquests had raised hopes of national independence in many areas. After the war, growing nationalism and European weakness, sometimes furthered by cold war rivalries for Asian and African allegiances, led to decolonization.
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1945–54
Reestablished empires and new states. In the immediate postwar era, the major empires attempted to reestablish control in many areas but also granted independence to particular states. The empires faced movements of armed opposition and growing political nationalism. Armed opposition to empires. In many of the areas that had been conquered by the Axis powers during World War II, there was armed nationalist opposition to attempts to reestablish European imperial control. In INDOCHINA, the Viet Minh, originally a movement of resistance to Japanese control, declared Vietnamese independence in 1945 (See 1945, Sept. 2). However, the French attempted the reconquest of its Indochinese colonies; in the long first Indochina war, the French ultimately lost and withdrew after their defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. In INDONESIA, the Dutch attempted to reestablish control after the Japanese defeat, in opposition to the independence declared in 1945 by nationalists led by Sukarno (See 1945, Aug. 17). After a costly war, Indonesian independence was recognized in 1949. In SYRIA and LEBANON, French attempts in 1945 to reverse wartime agreements giving independence to the two countries were met with nationalist opposition. Under pressure from the United States, Great Britain, and the United Nations, French troops were withdrawn in 1946. Negotiated independence in the immediate postwar era. The imperial powers and local leaders in a number of countries were able to negotiate arrangements for independence. In SOUTH ASIA negotiations led to independence for Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from the British in 1947, and for Burma in 1948. INDIA was partitioned and, in 1947, became the independent states of Pakistan and India. Britain also withdrew from PALESTINE, where a United Nations–defined partition resulted in the establishment of Israel in 1948 and in the emergence of a Palestinian nationalist movement seeking to create an Arab Palestinian state. Both partitions resulted in bloody conflicts, but Great Britain was not involved directly in either postindependence war. However, Jewish guerrilla warfare during and immediately after World War II had put added pressure on the British to withdraw from Palestine. JORDAN received formal independence from its mandate status in 1946, although it maintained a special treaty relationship with Britain until the 1950s. The Philippines were proclaimed independent in 1946, shortly after their reconquest by the United States from Japan. Former Italian colonies were special cases. After considerable disagreement among the major powers, the United Nations established the independent Kingdom of LIBYA in 1951, and voted in 1950 to affirm the independence of SOMALIA under the trusteeship of Great Britain and Italy. Eritrea was included in the newly liberated Ethiopia with some autonomy, which was later lost in the 1950s.
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1954–69
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VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Victory of nationalism. In the 1950s and 1960s, the classic struggles between nationalism and imperialism reached a climax. By the end of the 1960s virtually every major colony in the large European overseas empires had gained its independence, and only smaller dependencies remained. This was achieved both through costly wars of nationalist revolution and continuing negotiations. The end of the European empires was often overshadowed by the tensions of the cold war, which threatened nuclear global destruction rather than costly local conflicts. Nevertheless, the end of the old empires marked a major transition, and the newly independent states became important members of the emerging THIRD WORLD, between the communist world and the West. Wars of nationalist liberation. In a number of countries, independence came only after a fierce fight. In contrast to the nationalist wars of the late 1940s, these later wars did not build on structures developed as a result of World War II so much as they were the products of distinctive local developments involving imperial policies and nationalism. In ALGERIA, there was a large French settler community, and the French claimed that Algeria was part of France, not a colony. The Algerian war for independence (See 1954–62) began in 1954, under the leadership of the Front de libération nationale (FLN). The war involved counterrevolutions by conservative French Algerians and a transformation of the French political system itself. Finally, in 1962, after perhaps more than one million war deaths, Algeria became independent under an FLN government. The British faced three major colonial conflicts in the 1950s. In CYPRUS, Greek Cypriot nationalists sought union with Greece and engaged in sometimes violent opposition to both the British and Turkish Cypriots. After negotiations that included Greece and Turkey, Cyprus became independent in 1960. In KENYA, local Kenyan resistance, especially to British settlers, led to the violent Mau Mau uprising, which was suppressed in 1955 (See 1952–59). However, the uprising increased pressures for negotiations, and Kenya achieved independence in 1963. In MALAYA, the British reestablished control at the end of the war, but a communist revolt began in 1948 among some Chinese Malayans. This conflict was costly, but it encouraged the British and the Malayan nationalists to move toward agreement on independence. The suppression of the revolt by 1955 was followed by Malayan independence in 1957 (See Aug. 31) and the formation in 1963 of the Federation of Malasia which included Singapore, Sarawak, and North Borneo, as well as Malaya. The achievement of independence in the PORTUGUESE COLONIES involved wars of national independence following the revolution of 1974 in Portugal itself. In ANGOLA, a number of nationalist groups with essentially regional identities emerged by the 1960s. In 1961 a multisided conflict began in which three major groups fought against the Portuguese and each other. Negotiations after the 1974 revolution resulted in the proclamation of Angolan independence in 1975. Agreement among the liberation movements was brief, and the Movimento Popular de Liberataçâo de Angola (MPLA) formed a regime that received much international recognition. A postindependence civil war followed, which continued into the 1990s. In MOZAMBIQUE, the Frente de Libertaçâo de Mozambique (FRELIMO) began a revolution in 1964 against the Portuguese that resulted in independence in 1975. In the small Portuguese colony of Guinea-Bissau, a remarkable, ideologically radical movement led by AMALCAR CABRAL, who was murdered in 1973, began a guerrilla war in 1963. By 1973, the movement controlled much of the territory and declared independence, which was recognized by the Portuguese after the 1974 revolution. In SOUTHWEST AFRICA (NAMIBIA) a long war of national liberation was begun by the SouthWest African Peoples' Organization (SWAPO) in 1966. The Republic of South Africa received a League of Nations mandate granting control over the former German colony at the end of World War I, and it continued to control the area in defiance of the United Nations after World War II. SWAPO received considerable international support, but Namibia became independent only in 1990, after almost 24 years of nationalist guerrilla warfare.

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VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Negotiated independence. During the 1950s and 1960s an extraordinary transformation took place, especially in Africa. In the 1950s, a few countries were the harbingers of a flood of new countries to come. Sudan (1956); Ghana, the former Gold Coast (1957); and Malaysia (1957) received independence from Great Britain. France agreed to the independence of Morocco and Tunisia in 1956. In 1958, GUINEA, under the leadership of Sékou Touré, voted to become independent rather than to be a member of the French Community. Then, 1960 was a year of independence in Africa. Thirteen former French colonies became independent members of the French Community; Nigeria, Togo, and Somalia received independence from Great Britain, and the Belgian Congo (Zaire) became independent and almost immediately was plunged into civil war. By 1969, another 15 African states had become independent, including Southern Rhodesia, whose white regime made a unilateral declaration of independence that received little international recognition. In the Caribbean region, four dependencies had become independent by 1969; elsewhere there were also the new island states of Malta (1964), the Maldives (1965), and Mauritius (1968). Newly independent states became a significant feature in global affairs. In 1945, 51 states had signed the Charter of the United Nations. Then, between 1954 and 1969, 53 newly independent states also became members of the United Nations. This reflected the triumph of nationalism and the end of the age of the European overseas empires.

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1970–90s
Changing nature of new states. In the final decades of the 20th century, the status of the remnants of the European overseas empires was defined, with a number of newly independent ministates being established. However, additional new states emerged as nationalist movements developed in response to other types of multinational and multiethnic structures, such as the Soviet Union. By the 1990s, a new process of national state formation had replaced decolonization as the major source of new state structures. The remnants of overseas empires. In the 1970s and 1980s, most of the last small colonial holdings of European powers gained independence. Island groups in the PACIFIC BASIN that had come under imperial control in the 19th century had their political status defined. Some had been colonies; the former German colonies had been League of Nations mandates and United Nations trusteeships placed under the control of various powers. Among the first to gain permanent status were Hawaii, which became the fiftieth state of the United States, and Western New Guinea, which became a part of Indonesia in 1963. Independence was gained by Western Samoa, a New Zealand trusteeship, in 1962, and by Nauru, an Australian trusteeship, in 1968. Between 1970 and 1990, eight additional independent Pacific basin states were established. East Timor was annexed by Indonesia in 1976, following the Portuguese withdrawal, but a guerrilla movement fighting for independence emerged. In the 1990s, some island groups remained under the control of the United States, France, Australia, and New Zealand. In the PERSIAN GULF region, Kuwait had already become independent in 1961, and Britain formally withdrew from Bahrain, Qatar, and the small states that joined together in the United Arab Emirates in 1971. In the CARIBBEAN, nine new independent states emerged from British and Dutch control, though some islands, like the Caymans, opted for continued colonial status qualified by local autonomy. Between 1970 and 1990, 34 more new states joined the United Nations.
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Postcolonial new states. In the final decades of the 20th century, SEPARATIST MOVEMENTS had little success in many areas, but the establishment of independent Bangladesh in the former East Pakistan, as a result of a civil war in 1971, was an important exception. Before the late 1980s, there had been a number of civil wars in newly independent states in which regions attempted to secede. In AFRICA, the newly independent nations maintained their imperially defined boundaries, despite their often arbitrary nature. As a result, there were regional factions that wished to break away from countries they did not feel themselves to be a part of. Regions that attempted to secede in unsuccessful wars included Katanga in Congo (1960–63), Biafra in Nigeria (1967–70), and southern Sudan (1955–72, 1981–90s). The only successful African secessionist movement was in ERITREA, where the Eritrean liberation movement fought against a series of different Ethiopian regimes and finally succeeded when a dictatorial Marxist regime collapsed in 1991; a referendum confirmed its independence in 1993. Elsewhere, KURDS failed to create an independent state from the Kurdish areas of Iraq, Turkey, and Iran, although a short-lived Kurdish republic was created by the Soviet Union in northern Iran (1945–46) and an autonomous Kurdish region in northern Iraq received international protection after the Persian Gulf War of 1990–91. TAMIL separatists in Sri Lanka began a revolt in 1983 that continued into the 1990s, and Philippine Muslims fought for autonomy or independence in some southern islands throughout much of the second half of the 20th century. REDEFINED STATES. In the early 1990s, there was another burst of new states. Most of this activity was the result of a redefining of the political status of ethnic and national groups in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European empire, and of the new ways in which existing political identities were recognized. From 1990 to the end of 1993, 28 states were admitted to the United Nations. Eighteen new members were former republics of the Soviet Union, four had been part of Yugoslavia, and two new states emerged out of the former Czechoslovakia. The other new members were two Pacific island groups, North and South Korea, and the two African states whose wars of liberation were finally successful, Namibia and Eritrea. In addition, four old European ministates that had been dependent on larger neighbors for representation (Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino) became independent members of the United Nations. The new states reflected the end of centralized, multinational empires of the old style, even the continental empire of Russia, and the emergence of a new era of smaller ethnic states and larger unions of states of a Common Market or confederation type. At the same time, larger structures of international coordination were being built. Not only the European Common Market but also the Confederation of Independent States, loosely linking most former states in the Soviet Union, and the North American Free Trade Association (1993), suggested new regional coordination. The domination of global affairs by European empires or by the two great superpowers had come to an end by the 1990s.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

2. The Rise and End of the Cold War
The United States and the Soviet Union had been allies in World War II but by the end of the war, the two strongest powers in the world were already in competition in many different areas. This competition was both a military-security rivalry and a continuation of the ideological competition between Leninism and the Wilsonian worldview, or between communism and capitalism, which was first visible after World War I. Because the two superpowers avoided a world war, their competition came to be called the COLD WAR. The conflict affected all parts of the world, often in different ways. On a global scale, the conflict can be seen as having three major phases: the initial phase of an actually bipolar world (1945–60); a phase of superpower competition in an increasingly diversified global arena (1960–75); and a phase of declining relevance and importance of the cold war to basic issues of global affairs (1975–90), leading finally to the end of the cold war.
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1945–62
Cold war in a bipolar world. In the years immediately following World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union were the only major powers capable of effective independent action. The old European empires were being dismantled and the Axis powers were destroyed. The global nature of the U.S.-Soviet rivalry was already emerging in 1945. In EUROPE, the Soviet Union established a position of dominance in the east, taking control of the Baltic states and establishing communist regimes, with the aid of the Soviet armies of occupation, from Poland to Bulgaria. By 1947 the United States had instituted the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of noncommunist Europe and helped to reduce the influence of large communist parties in France and Italy. GERMANY was divided and occupied by the four Allied powers of the war. The Berlin blockade by the Soviets in 1948 increased tensions. In 1949 the zones occupied by U.S., French, and British forces were combined in the new Federal Republic of Germany, and the German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, thus splitting postwar Germany into two countries. The United States established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 for the coordination of Western military forces against the Soviet Union. Rapidly, the European continent was divided into two parts by what Winston Churchill, in 1946, had called the IRON CURTAIN.
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2. The Rise and End of the Cold War. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The rivalry between the emerging communist world—referred to in cold war terms as the East—and the West extended far beyond Europe, even at the beginning of the cold war. In the Middle East, Soviet forces in northern IRAN at the end of World War II established autonomous republics and evacuated the areas only under strong pressure from the United States in the Azerbaijan crisis of 1945–46 (See Oct). Soviet pressures on TURKEY for new rights in the Straits and the cession of some territory in the Caucasus, as well as Soviet aid for communist guerrillas in GREECE, were important factors leading to the articulation of the Truman Doctrine (See March 12) of 1947 and the U.S. policy on the containment of communism. The Soviet Union was seen as providing support for the communist insurgency in Malaya. In CHINA, the long conflict between the nationalists, supported by the United States, and the communists led by MAO ZEDONG came to an end with the communist victory in 1949, and the establishment of the People's Republic of China. In KOREA, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in 1945 to a temporary Soviet occupation of the north and a U.S. occupation of the south. It was expected that a unified Korea would soon be established, but Soviet-American disagreements led to the creation of the Republic of Korea in the south and the People's Democratic Republic in the north. North Korean armed forces attacked the south in 1950, initiating the KOREAN WAR (See June 25), in which the United States, through the United Nations, and the People's Republic of China intervened. The bipolar division of the world became relatively fixed by the middle of the 1950s. The Soviet Union was able, without significant Western response, to crush major anti-Soviet demonstrations in East Berlin in 1953 and the HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION OF 1956. At the same time, the United States established a series of regional military pact organizations, including the Central Treaty Organization in the Middle East (See 1959, March 24) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (See Sept. 8) as a part of its broad policy of containment. The Soviet Union became a nuclear power in 1949 and developed a hydrogen bomb by 1953, so the balance of terror of a global nuclear war helped to enforce the stability of the bipolar world. The FOUR-POWER SUMMIT CONFERENCE in Geneva in 1955 showed that some efforts at tension management were possible. Occasionally, as in the Suez Crisis of 1956, when both the Soviet Union and the United States opposed the Anglo-French-Israeli invasion of Egypt, the interests of the superpowers would coincide, but this was rare. Soviet advances in missiles and space technology were shown in the launching of Sputnik I (1957), the first satellite to orbit the earth. By the early 1960s, cold war tensions reached a climax. In central Europe, the communists built the BERLIN WALL in 1961, emphasizing the EastWest conflict. Soviet support for the revolutionary regime of Fidel Castro, who came to power in CUBA in 1960, brought the cold war openly to the Western Hemisphere. The placing of Soviet missiles in Cuba in 1962 brought the two superpowers to the brink of war in the CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (See Oct. 22–Nov. 20). However, the general framework of the cold war changed significantly soon after the resolution of the Cuban crisis.

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1962–75
Cold war in a diversified global arena. By the early 1960s, many changes had taken place in the broader global context of the cold war. In both the West and the East, new centers of power emerged, altering the bipolar structure of the cold war. The communist world had appeared to be united under Soviet leadership, but it became clear that regimes could be communist in ideology and reject Soviet domination. Yugoslavia had broken with the Soviet Union as early as 1948, for example. But the major break in communist unity came with the SINO-SOVIET SPLIT, which became visible through mutual public condemnations and the abrupt withdrawal of Soviet economic and military advisers from China in 1960. In 1961, Albania followed China in its opposition to the Soviets. In the nationalist and radical movements and the new states of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, a major competition for followers developed between MAOISTS and more Soviet-oriented leftists. This undermined Soviet influence in many areas.
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2. The Rise and End of the Cold War. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Decentralization of power was also visible in the West by the early 1960s. France withdrew its troops from NATO's combined forces in 1966, although it did not withdraw from NATO itself. The beginnings of the European Common Market (1957) provided a rival for U.S. economic domination, and by the 1970s, West Germany and Japan emerged as major economic powers. In broad global terms, the newly independent states and powers that were not directly allied with either the United States or the Soviet Union began the NONALIGNED MOVEMENT. This group represented a Third World, which had limited military or economic power but, in the context of the cold war, represented a major arena for competition between the Soviet Union and the United States. The precursor of the more formal nonaligned movement was the Bandung Conference in 1955, which was attended by representatives of 29 states. The next major conference was hosted by Marshal TITO in Yugoslavia in 1961, and major conferences of the nonaligned movement were held occasionally in the following years. Major figures in the movement included prominent leaders in Africa and Asia, such as Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, and Nasser of Egypt. Chinese communist leaders also played an important role in the early years of the movement. During the 1960s the nonaligned forces were important on the global political scene, because they emphasized the diversification of power. The Soviet Union and the United States engaged in a major competition to win the support of the nonaligned nations, using military and economic aid to do it. During the 1960s Egypt, for example, was closely tied in military and economic terms to the Soviet Union, but Soviet advisers were expelled in 1972, and the United States emerged as Egypt's primary patron. In Ethiopia, the United States gave strong support to the conservative emperor, Haile Salessie, until he was overthrown in 1974. His radical successor, Mengistu Haile Miriam, received aid from the Soviet Union. In many areas, the superpower rivalry provided a way for smaller countries to obtain arms and economic aid, and this competition set the tone for the second era of the cold war. Superpower negotiations between the Soviet Union and the United States were also an important part of the global politics of the 1960s and 1970s. Soon after the Cuban missile crisis, the two powers negotiated and ratified the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Despite regional wars of competition between the United States and communist powers, such as the Vietnam War, negotiations continued in the era of DÉTENTE, leading to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and the arms reduction agreements of 1972 and 1974. In this same time, U.S. president Richard Nixon extended formal diplomatic recognition to the People's Republic of China and, in 1972, made a highly publicized trip to China, emphasizing the mood of the new era. While their major conflicts had not been resolved, normalization of relations between Western and communist states was still possible. A culmination of these developments was the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe held in Helsinki (1973–75). The HELSINKI ACCORDS, signed by the Soviet Union, the United States, Canada, and 32 European states, recognized the validity of the existing borders in Eastern Europe, especially the post–World War II borders of Germany and Poland. The signatories also pledged to respect human rights, giving human rights organizations and Helsinki Watch Committees a legal basis for protesting violations of human rights in all of the countries involved. By the late 1970s, relations between the superpowers became strained again, but the old cold war concerns were increasingly irrelevant to the major global issues.

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1975–90

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2. The Rise and End of the Cold War. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Declining relevance of cold war concerns. In the final decades of the 20th century, the old power conflicts between the Soviet Union and the United States and the ideological competition between the ideologies of Lenin and Wilson no longer dominated global affairs. The rise of economic superpowers like Japan and Germany, the resurgence of ethnic nationalism and religious revivalism in many areas, the global pressures for democratization, and other developments transformed the global scene from the early days of the cold war. The United States and the Soviet Union were still powerful rivals. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 aroused old fears of Soviet expansionism, but the successful response of the Mujahidin, the Afghan religio-national resistance fighters, and the eventual Soviet withdrawal in 1989 showed the weakness of the Soviet military force. In the 1980s, there were Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (1982) but the U.S. movement toward a major arms buildup through the Strategic Defense Initiative and Soviet support for groups like the Sandinistas in Nicaragua revealed a continuing high level of mistrust and tension. The situation changed significantly with the coming to power in the Soviet Union of MIKHAIL GORBACHEV in 1985. His vigorous efforts for internal reform in the Soviet Union and openness in foreign relations helped to set in motion the transformation of the communist world of Eastern Europe and the end of the Soviet Union. In these efforts, the United States became the ally rather than the enemy of the leadership of the Soviet Union. Between 1989 and 1992, the communist world was transformed. The Berlin Wall was destroyed (1989) and Germany was unified (1990). In every communist state in Eastern Europe, the regime was overthrown and the Communist Party formally disbanded. In the Soviet Union itself, 15 independent states emerged from the structures of the old communist state. In the new state of Russia, elections were held, and the United States made significant efforts to provide economic support in an era of difficult transition. By 1992, the one remaining major communist state was CHINA, where the preservation of administrative stability and economic growth were more important than ideological concerns. Economic liberalization and a greater openness in foreign affairs raised expectations of political liberalization in China. Large student demonstrations in 1986 and 1987 were suppressed, and then a movement for democratic reform erupted in the spring of 1989 with huge demonstrations in a number of cities. The largest, which lasted for a number of weeks, was in Beijing in TIANANMEN SQUARE. Although the prodemocracy movement received much international visibility and sympathy, the government forcibly crushed the demonstration in June 1989, with many casualties. Despite some international protests, the Chinese government soon resumed normal diplomatic and economic relations with the major world powers. The success of efforts to encourage Western investment in China in the 1990s and China's continued most-favorednation status for trade with the United States, despite U.S. protests about human rights abuses, along with the transformed nature of U.S.-Soviet relations, proved that by the early 1990s the world had witnessed the end of the cold war. The final phase of the cold war also saw the increasing spread of democracy beyond its previous centers in Western Europe, North America, India, and Japan. Democratic regimes began to spread in Latin America from the late 1970s onward, becoming the standard political form for the first time. Democratic shifts also affected the Philippines and South Korea, and then the states of Eastern Europe from 1989 onward. An increasing move toward democracy reached sub-Saharan Africa in the early 1990s, though it remained incomplete. The major regions resisting the democratic trend were China, Vietnam, North Korea, and some of the Middle East.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1965-66. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > C. North America, 1946–2000 > 1. The United States, 1946–2000 > 1965–66 PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1965–66
The drug culture. Drugs became a prominent part of student culture in the late 1960s, and marijuana seemed to be the students' drug of choice. Others began experimenting with drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
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1966
After 1965, the antiwar movement and draft protests increased in intensity. The most explosive expressions of unrest came in 1970 after Pres. Richard Nixon ordered American troops to invade Cambodia. Betty Friedan and 27 other professional women started the National Organization for Women (NOW). Formed by women radicalized by civil rights and student protests, the women's liberation movement soon gained momentum. Black power movement. Stokely Carmichael, head of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), helped to usher in a new African-American movement when he proclaimed the need for “black power.” The Black Panther Party was only one of the many black power organizations that soon emerged. Building upon the legacy of Malcolm X, the Panthers urged African Americans to take pride in their blackness and to take up arms and defend themselves “by any means necessary.”
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May 5
Sen. J. W. Fulbright, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, began to attack the administration's Vietnam policy.
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June 5–26

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1965-66. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

African Americans marched on the capitol at Jackson, Miss., in a drive to induce African Americans to register to vote.

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July
Race riots occurred in Chicago, Brooklyn, Cleveland, and in other cities.
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July 1–4
At the convention of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) at Baltimore, the organization endorsed the objective of black power, rejected the doctrine of nonviolence, demanded the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam, and supported resistance to the draft.
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July 4–9
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) convened in Los Angeles and rejected black power as a separatist movement.
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Oct. 15
The Department of Transportation was created to exercise control over air, rail, and highway transportation.
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Oct. 19–Nov. 2
Pres. Johnson visited New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, South Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Korea. At a conference in Manila (Oct. 24–25) leaders of the allied nations pledged support for the war in Vietnam.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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C. North America, 1946-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > C. North America, 1946–2000 PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Nov.–1946, March )

C. North America, 1946–2000 1. The United States, 1946–2000
The post–World War II era brought a plethora of changes to American life. The country claimed leadership of the “free world” and entered a sustained period of cold war with the Soviet Union and its allies. In order to combat the spread of communism, the government embarked upon an unprecedented period of peacetime military expansion. Federal support for the development of advanced military technology played a role in research development that undermined the old bluecollar sector of the economy. The increasing application of computer technology helped to transform the nation from a predominantly goods-producing society to a mainly service-producing one. The postwar baby boom (See 1943), increasing suburbanization, and the continuing spread of American consumer culture all reflected as well as reinforced these trends. Following the end of the Vietnam War, the economy deteriorated, unemployment increased, and Republicans returned to power with a firm determination to end the New Deal social welfare order. By the early 1990s, with the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, the nation sought to craft new policies for a post–cold war world. The cold war not only influenced American foreign policy and the economy, but also helped to transform domestic social and political relations as well. The nation's aggressive posture toward communism abroad was accompanied by equally vigorous attacks on suspected Communists at home. Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy's investigations, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and wiretaps on the phones of civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., all reflected the destructive impact of the cold war at home and abroad.
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C. North America, 1946-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Beginning with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and culminating in the March on Washington for “freedom and jobs” in 1963, civil rights emerged as the most pressing domestic issue facing the nation. By the late 1960s, the U.S. had moved to dismantle the system of Jim Crow, to enfranchise African Americans, and to address the “unfinished revolution” of full citizenship rights for African Americans. Women, Hispanics, Native Americans, and eventually gay rights and environmental activists accelerated their assault against various forms of injustice and inequality, including racial, ethnic, gender, and sexual-preference barriers. Until the late 1960s, the Democratic Party remained committed to the New Deal welfare state and helped push provisions for social services beyond the limits established during the 1930s. During the 1970s and1980s, however, the U.S. undertook a dramatic reordering of its national priorities. Following the election of 1968 and the nation's defeat in and retreat from Vietnam, the U.S. entered a prolonged crisis of economic and political restructuring. This period also signaled the end of American dominance in the world economy. The U.S. experienced the painful transition from a creditor to a debtor nation, with the world's largest foreign debt and a rising foreign trade deficit that peaked at $171 billion in 1987. The nation's increasing dependence on Middle Eastern oil played a major role in the eruption of the Persian Gulf War in 1990. Beginning with Republican president Richard M. Nixon in 1968, and accelerating with the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980, the nation turned away from its commitment to social welfare spending and undercut measures for translating civil rights laws into social practice. Dubbed “Reaganomics,” this movement caused the federal government to disband the Office of Economic Opportunity (1971), weakened support for affirmative action in Bakke v. University of California–Davis (1978), and enacted a vigorous policy of tax cuts with the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 and the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under the Republican administrations, numerous groups—labor unions, women, racial and ethnic minorities, and environmentalists—experienced the impact of increasingly conservative policies. Despite strong reactions against social programs and grassroots social movements, however, the U.S. continued to witness vigorous forms of activism during the period. The environmental movement and the gay rights movement (with intensified motivation after the outbreak of AIDS) represented important centers of activism. At the same time, African Americans increasingly channeled their efforts into the electoral arena. Civil rights activist Jesse Jackson mounted important challenges to the established Democratic Party with his “Rainbow Coalition” in the elections of 1984 and 1988. With the presidential election of Democrat William “Bill” Clinton in 1992, the nation seemed prepared to reassess the desirability of Reaganomics. Yet Clinton's first year in office revealed the nation's deep resistance to social change, including the lifting of bans on gays in the military. The conservative tide of the Reagan years would turn only slowly. The postwar economy. Both founded in 1944, two institutions—the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development, or World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund—fueled the nation's postwar economic growth. Along with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades (GATT), a multinational trade agreement, these economic arrangements represented what became known as the Bretton Woods system of postwar economic development.

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1946–60
The baby boom generation. During these years the nation's birth rate soared. The 20 percent population growth rate in the 1950s resulted particularly from an increase in middle-class birth rates. The boom peaked in 1957. Because of their numbers, the children, called “baby boomers,” greatly influenced U.S. public, private, and cultural behaviors. Dr. Benjamin Spock published his bestselling Baby and Child Care (1946) and influenced a generation of baby boom mothers. Technological changes continued to transform American life and promote the expansion of consumerism. Consumer credit rose from $8.4 billion in 1946 to $45 billion in 1958. At the same time, the emergence of the first McDonald's restaurant in San Bernardino, Calif. (1954) and the Holiday Inn motel chain in Memphis, Tenn. (1952), signaled the rise of the fast food, vacation, and recreation industries. Although fewer than 7,000 television sets existed in the entire nation in 1947, by 1955, 66 percent of American families owned one.
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C. North America, 1946-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

1946, March
Winston Churchill delivered his “iron curtain” speech in Fulton, Mo., which helped set the tone for the cold war.
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April–May
The U.S. labor movement could claim a greater membership than at any other time in its history; nearly 40 percent of the labor force was unionized. A second wave of strikes hit the soft-coal mines and the railroads. Before the strikes were settled, the government had taken control of the railroads (May 17) and the coal mines (May 20). Pres. Harry Truman angered labor leaders by threatening to draft striking workers into the armed forces. Congress passed the Employment Act to initiate federal fiscal planning on a permanent basis, to ensure economic growth as well as to curb inflation.
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June 25
The Senate passed a measure extending Selective Service until March 31, 1947. Prior to this, public pressure had brought about the hasty demobilization of close to 9 million men.
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July 1–25
Scientists at Bikini in the Pacific demonstrated the effect of an atomic explosion in experiments detonated on warships and under water.
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July 15
Pres. Truman signed a bill extending a credit of $3.75 billion to Great Britain.
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Sept. 20
Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace was asked to resign following his criticism of the government's increasingly firm policy toward the Soviet Union.
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Nov. 9
Following a futile battle with Congress to maintain price and wage controls, Pres. Truman removed virtually all controls except those on rent and some foods.
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1) 1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963 Outlawing of the MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD. Over the next 20 years, Muslim groups (mostly factions of the proscribed Brotherhood) emerged as the most active and vocal... 2) 1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963 Founding of the National Liberation Front (NLF) in South Yemen. This party originally was an alliance of tribal groups and members of the radicalized urban population.... 3) 1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963 Cold war developments included the agreement by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain on a Limited NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY (Aug.) A UN Observation... 4) 1963, March 8. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963, March 8 Khrushchev declared that de-Stalinization policies did not permit individual political liberties or artistic deviations from socialist realism. 1 Aug.... 5) 1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963 Betty Friedan kicked off the modern movement for women's rights with her book The Feminine Mystique, which debunked the assumption that homemaking and childbearing... 6) 1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963 At the behest of the U.S. Southern Command, presidents of Central American countries established the Central American Defense Council (CONDECA), a joint military... 7) 1963, May 2. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963, May 2 An OAS commission began investigating the Haitian-Dominican conflict, which concerned the violation of diplomatic immunity after armed soldiers surrounded... 8) 1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963 Turkey won associate membership in the European Economic Community. 1 Founding of the National Action Party (NAP), a reorganized version of the Republican Peasants... 9) 1963-75. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963-75 A tribal revolt in Dhafur, in the interior of Oman. As it came under the South Yemeni influence in the early 1970s, the movement acquired a revolutionary...

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10) 1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History ...1963 Nationalization of French estates in the countryside. 1 1964, April 16-21 First congress of the FLN, the only legal political party. Pres. Ben Bella was elected...

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1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > E. The Middle East and North Africa, 1945–2000 > 3. The Middle East and Egypt, 1943–2000 > e. Syria > 1963 PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1963
Outlawing of the MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD. Over the next 20 years, Muslim groups (mostly factions of the proscribed Brotherhood) emerged as the most active and vocal opponents of the Syrian government.
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March 8
MILITARY COUP. The regime that succeeded it was controlled mainly by members of the BA`TH PARTY. The early years of the regime were a time of rapid growth for the Ba‘th Party, which had only about 400 civilian members in 1963. Another significant development unfolding during the remaining years of the decade was the gradual eclipse of the Sunni Muslims as a political force and the ascendency of the Alawi community. Overall, the men who ruled Syria were no longer drawn from the class of urban notables from Damascus and Aleppo. The new political elite, besides its marked military component, tended to incorporate men of a younger and more radical generation whose social roots lay in the countryside.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > E. The Middle East and North Africa, 1945–2000 > 3. The Middle East and Egypt, 1943–2000 > k. North and South Yemen > 1963 PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1963
Founding of the National Liberation Front (NLF) in South Yemen. This party originally was an alliance of tribal groups and members of the radicalized urban population. Its ideology was panArab, socialist, and anti-imperialist. From the time of a rural uprising in Radfan in 1963, the NLF was able to establish itself as the dominant political group in the countryside.
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1964
British promise of independence to South Yemen by 1968. In Feb. 1966, the British reaffirmed this pledge and promised also to close their military base in Aden.
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1966
Formation of the Federation for the Liberation of South Yemen (FLOSY), a brief alliance between the NLF and the Organization for the Liberation of the Occupied South. FLOSY's main goal was the independence of South Yemen. The NLF left the alliance at the end of 1966.
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1967–86
Growth of the South Yemeni population from 1.5 million to 2.4 million. Aden was the biggest city and held some 350,000 inhabitants by the mid-1980s. About 38 percent of the total population was urban, and another 10 percent remained nomadic.
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1967–80

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1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Expansion of the educational system in South Yemen. The number of schools increased from 65,000 to 270,000. General literacy similarly improved from 20 percent to 40 percent of the population.

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1967–73
Severe drought in North and South Yemen.
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1967
During the summer and autumn, the NLF essentially seized power in the countryside and militarily defeated its main rival, FLOSY. On Nov. 6, negotiations began between Britain and the NLF over the terms of withdrawal.
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Nov. 5
A MILITARY COUP in North Yemen ousted Pres. Abdallah al-Sallal. Abd al-Rahman alIryani seized power as the new president.
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Nov. 29
Completion of British withdrawal from South Yemen. On the next day, THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF SOUTH YEMEN was founded. The first president was Qahtan al-Sha`bi, leader of the NLF.
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Dec. 28
Publication of South Yemen's first newspaper, al-Thawri.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1963. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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3. International Conflict Resolution. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > A. General and Comparative Dimensions > 1. Changing Global Patterns > a. Changing Structures of Global Power > 3. International Conflict Resolution PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

3. International Conflict Resolution
At the end of World War II, the victorious Allies created a system of international organizations roughly combined under the aegis of a central structure, the UNITED NATIONS. Some of the organizations, like the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the International Court, were continuations of earlier bodies that had been part of the League of Nations. The United Nations itself was viewed as the successor to the League of Nations, and its primary political bodies were the General Assembly, in which all members participated, and the Security Council, on which the major powers served as permanent members with veto power along with rotating participation by other member states. The primary organization for crisis resolution was the Security Council. Economic, health, social, and cultural matters were handled by separate agencies that had varying degrees of autonomy. In the second half of the twentieth century, the United Nations was an active global political force with an important role in a number of areas, including conflict-resolution negotiations, creating multilateral military responses to aggression, and organizing peacekeeping forces to help stabilize conflict situations. In addition, the International Court of Justice provided an effective forum for resolving disputes involving international law. In these activities, the United Nations proved to be more effective than the League of Nations had been. Conflict-resolution mechanisms. The United Nations provided mechanisms for dealing with conflicts and either avoiding war or assisting in bringing it to an end. These mechanisms were less effective, however, with conflicts involving the major powers, which had the veto in the Security Council. The United Nations also had only limited jurisdiction to become involved in civil wars and the internal affairs of member states. Nevertheless, within these limits the United Nations performed important services in conflict resolution. At the end of World War II, there were issues that needed resolutions based on international agreement. When the four Allied powers were unable to agree on the disposition of the former Italian colonies, the matter was referred to the United Nations and was resolved by the creation of an independent Libya, trusteeships for Somalia, and the inclusion of Eritrea within liberated Ethiopia. When the British were unable to resolve the question of the future of the PALESTINE MANDATE, the issue was referred to the United Nations, and the General Assembly, after study and debate, approved a partition plan in 1947. Following the establishment of Israel in 1948, there was an Arab-Israeli War. The armistice agreements at the end of the war were negotiated by United Nations officials. The United Nations was not able to resolve the ARABISRAELI CONFLICT, but it provided structures for negotiating cease-fires and interim agreements
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to prevent fighting. The ending of the Arab-Israeli wars of 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973 involved significant United Nations mediation. United Nations agencies also played important roles in many of the conflicts that emerged in the process of decolonization. UN officials worked in the Congo conflict (1960–63) and in Cyprus (1964), and played an important role in coordinating international responses to white regimes of control in southern Africa. When the white government of Southern Rhodesia made a unilateral declaration of independence in 1965, the United Nations helped to define sanctions and to bring about the end result of multiracial elections in 1980. When the white regime in South Africa maintained its control over southwest Africa, the United Nations took the lead in providing the legal basis for an independent Namibia in 1968 and in organizing the negotiations that ultimately led to South African withdrawal from the country (1988) and the formal independence of Namibia in 1990. Although the United Nations was active in helping to resolve many conflicts, critics noted that its effectiveness was limited by the ability of the superpowers to restrict UN actions. As the cold war came to an end, the United Nations emerged as an increasingly effective force, aiding in the end of the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s; mediating conflicts in Cambodia, Angola, and the western Sahara in 1988; assisting in the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989; and monitoring the elections that brought an end to the civil war in Nicaragua in 1990. FORMAL OBSERVER GROUPS were among the most important mechanisms created by the United Nations to help monitor agreements. Major United Nations observation missions played a role in Palestine (1948), India and Pakistan (1949), Lebanon (1958), Yemen (1963), the Dominican Republic (1965), Afghanistan (1988), the IranIraq cease-fire (1988), and Kuwait (1991). Multinational responses to aggression. The United Nations was the organizational framework for two major military mobilizations in response to aggression. This function was limited by the cold war rivalries, which meant that either the United States or the Soviet Union could prevent UN responses to attacks. However, in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea, the Soviet Union was temporarily boycotting the United Nations. This enabled the Security Council to pass without veto the appropriate resolutions calling on member states to contribute forces for a UN police action to stop the aggression, with the United States providing the major source of military power for the action. The second major United Nations military response was in 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait. In the PERSIAN GULF WAR of 1990–91, the United States again provided the major source of military power, and the United Nations provided the international authority for the multinational response to Iraqi aggression. Such a multilateral action had become possible by the end of the cold war. UN peacekeeping and security forces. In a number of conflict situations, the United Nations created multinational military forces to supervise a truce or administer arrangements that had been established as part of the conflict's resolution. Such peacekeeping forces were an important part of many efforts at conflict resolution, and by the 1990s they had become an accepted resource for conflict management in global affairs. United Nations peacekeeping forces were sent to the Sinai Peninsula following the Suez crisis (1956–67); the Congo (1960–64); West Irian, New Guinea (1962–63); Cyprus (1964–90s); the Sinai again (1973–79); the Golan Heights in Syria (1974–90s); southern Lebanon (1978–90s); territories in the former Yugoslavia (beginning in 1992); Cambodia (beginning in 1992); Mozambique (beginning in 1992); and Somalia (beginning in 1993). International Court. The jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice was limited, but in its rulings and advisory opinions, the court played an important role in resolving some conflicts and further defining the rights and obligations of states under international law. Some of the rulings that reflect the wide variety of issues dealt with by the Court include the Corfu Channel case (1949), in which a settlement was reached between Great Britain and Albania concerning damages resulting from mining the Corfu Channel; the case dealing with the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company nationalization (1951–52), in which the court declared its jurisdiction was limited and affirmed Iran's right of nationalization under specified conditions; and the case brought by New Zealand and Australia in 1974 to prevent nuclear testing in the Pacific by France. The court had difficulty imposing its decisions on major powers, but it provided an important forum for international debate even in issues involving a superpower, as was seen in Nicaragua v. the United States (1984), in which it declared that the mining of Nicaraguan harbors by the United States was a violation of Nicaraguan sovereignty. The court played an important role in resolving border disputes, as in its decisions defining the U.S.-Canadian maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine (1984) and resolving a dispute in
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1992 between Honduras and El Salvador that dated back to 1839 and had been the cause of considerable conflict. By the 1990s it was clear that international organizations still could not prevent wars, but that the international conflict resolution mechanisms of the United Nations were more effective than those that had been available to the League of Nations. At the end of the 20th century, such mechanisms were an accepted part of the structure of global political power.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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4. Terrorism. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

4. Terrorism
A variety of conditions from the 1950s onward promoted acts of terrorism in various parts of the world. Opponents of colonialism often used terror because they lacked the power to confront established military forces outright; terrorism in some of these cases grew out of guerrilla warfare tactics. Brutal police responses sometimes encouraged further terror. Left-wing movements of various sorts, particularly after the failure of the 1968 uprisings in Europe, sometimes used terror to dramatize their cause. Terrorist acts included bombing buildings and vehicles; hijacking and planting bombs on airplanes; kidnapping and hostage taking. Major terrorist movements included the Irish Republican Army's attacks on Great Britain; Algerian rebels' campaign against France in the 1950s (with bombings both in Algeria and in France); Arab, particularly Palestinian, attacks on Israelis and Americans after the defeat in the 1967 war (murder of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics); larger Muslim attacks on the West during the 1980s, with the involvement of governments such as Libya's (explosion of French passenger plane over Africa, 1989; American jet exploded over Scotland, 1988; frequent hostage taking in Lebanon). Antiterrorist measures had some impact, particularly tighter airport inspections. UN action against terrorism was hampered by the frequent unwillingness of communist countries and former colonies to condemn the movements too vigorously.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. Globalization of Material Life. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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b. Globalization of Material Life
During the second half of the century, many important aspects of individual and societal life developed patterns of global interaction. This was visible in a number of important areas: in the evolution of state and private economic structures; in developments in science and technology; and in response to the changing physical environment.
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1. Evolution of International Economic Structures
Major changes took place in the international structures of economic life. These were visible in the institutions regulating international finance and international trade and in the further development of nongovernmental multinational economic institutions. International finance: The Bretton Woods system (1945–71). A conference of the Allied powers was held near the end of World War II in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. At that meeting, the major institutions for the management of the international monetary and financial order were agreed on, and the result was the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1945 and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), which began operation in 1946. The Bretton Woods system involved the easy convertibility of the major currencies, with the foundation being the U.S. DOLLAR and the guarantee by the U.S. government that dollars could be exchanged for gold at a rate of $35 per ounce. The U.S. dollar became the major medium of international financial exchange. A large U.S. balance-of-payments deficit resulting from transfers of funds to support reconstruction and development in programs like the Marshall Plan (1947) and direct U.S. investment overseas provided the liquidity necessary for rapid global economic development and growth. However, by the 1960s this system began to have difficulties: dollar holdings outside of the United States began to exceed the total value of U.S. gold reserves, creating a destabilizing dollar overhang; in 1971, for the first time in the century, the value of U.S. imports exceeded that of its nonmonetary exports; while the U.S. economy was still clearly the world's largest, other major economies had developed as powerful rivals or partners. In an effort to supplement the role of the dollar, a new reserve asset called special drawing rights (SDR) was developed in 1969, but a major change in the international system was required.
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International finance: Post–Bretton Woods. A series of measures significantly changed the international monetary system. The United States ended its commitment to exchange gold for dollars in 1971, and the Smithsonian Agreement (1971) began the process of international monetary reform. In 1973, the United States ended fixed exchange rates between the dollar and other major currencies; the most important feature of the post–Bretton Woods system was flexible exchange rates among all major currencies. Instability of currency values was lessened by the efforts of major governments to coordinate their economic policies. This was aided by the meetings of financial policy leaders from the GROUP OF SEVEN (G-7), the seven largest Western economies (the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Italy, and Canada). These meetings began in 1976 and became annual events that ranged over a host of international issues, including currency. In this new system gold had a less important role, and SDRs, defined as a weighted mixture of major currency values, became by the 1980s an important unit of accounting; the system as a whole was more volatile and more openly related to politics as well as economics. By the 1990s, JAPAN emerged as a major international financial center, with nine of the world's ten largest banks in terms of assets; in 1987 it had surpassed the United States as the world's major creditor. The post–Bretton Woods system was not as centralized as the earlier system, but global interactions were of increasing importance to all levels of economic life throughout the world. Both the IMF and the World Bank also played recurrent roles in providing investment aid to developing (not yet fully industrial) nations. In return for investment capital, both organizations typically tried to require more stringent national fiscal policies, including less government expenditure, which posed potential political problems for the nations involved—as in parts of Latin America and Africa in the 1980s and 1990s (See 1970s–The Present). International trade regulation, 1945–93. At the end of World War II, the Allied powers were anxious to avoid the trade wars and protectionism that had been an important part of the Great Depression of the 1930s. Following the war, the UN Economic and Social Council convened a committee to draft a charter for a proposed International Trade Organization. That organization was not created, however; instead, the preliminary GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT) was adopted by 23 states and became the basic instrument for regulating international trade in the second half of the 20th century. With a secretariat in Geneva, the GATT supervised eight “rounds” of multilateral trade negotiations to reduce tariffs and encourage international trade. The first were held in Geneva (1947); Annency, France (1949), Torquay, England (1951–52); and Geneva (1955–56). The Dillon Round (1961–62) was named for U.S. secretary of the treasury Douglas Dillon, and the Kennedy Round (1963–67) for President John F. Kennedy. The Kennedy Round involved across-the-board industrial tariff reductions, and in 1965 the signatories added a new section to the agreement addressing positive encouragements for the international trade of less-developed countries. The TOKYO ROUND (1973–79) dealt with a major restructuring of trade in response to the transformation of the international monetary system with the end of the Bretton Woods arrangements in 1971, and a comprehensive set of agreements was approved. The eighth round, the URUGUAY ROUND, began in 1986 and dealt with many new areas. Negotiations were suspended in 1990 as a result of disagreements relating to agricultural subsidies in the European Community. Discussions were resumed in 1991, and a major new pact was completed in 1993 that was signed by officials from 125 states at a meeting in Morocco in 1994. The agreement represented a significant further liberalization of global trade regulations. It also established the WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION as the successor to GATT, with increased powers to mediate trade disputes and enforce adherence to existing agreements. GATT began in 1947 with 23 members, and by 1994 its membership had grown to 117. At that time, reflecting the end of the cold war, Russia was seeking formal membership along with China, whose membership had been suspended in 1950. GATT negotiations had transformed the conditions of international trade. They had succeeded, for example, in reducing average tariffs on industrial goods from about 40 percent in the years following World War II to about 5 percent of their market value in the 1990s. The globalization of trade regulation helped the world economies to avoid a repeat of the economic crises of the era between the two world wars. This was accomplished in the context of a profound expansion of international trade and of its importance in the life of every society.

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Multinational corporations. In the second half of the 20th century, private corporations became an increasingly important part of global economic life. Following the lead of older commercial trading companies and the relatively small number of large internationally active companies in the first part of the century, companies of all sizes began to participate in international investments and enterprises after World War II.

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1945–71
Era of American predominance. Following the war, multinational corporations based in the United States tended to dominate global international business. This reflected the importance of the U.S. dollar and the strength of the U.S. economy in the era of the Bretton Woods system in international finance. American corporations were a major mechanism for the circulation of dollars in the global economy, and they made significant investments in many different countries, especially in Europe. The book value of direct foreign investments by U.S. companies rose from $7.2 billion in 1946 to almost $71 billion in 1969. Much of the U.S. international investment in this period was made by large, already internationally established corporations like Ford, General Motors, and Standard Oil (New Jersey), and in such industries as the auto industry, oil, and chemicals, where a few large companies dominated the market. The international nature of much of the corporate activity was in finance and management rather than in actual production. Multinational corporations would buy or establish subsidiaries or establish production facilities in other countries, and these organizations would then operate as they might have in the “home country” of the corporation. By the late 1960s, this situation was changing. Growing numbers of smaller U.S. companies were establishing overseas facilities, and investment by European companies in the United States increased. In 1969, the merger of British Petroleum (BP) with Standard Oil (Ohio) and the takeover of Wyandotte Chemicals by the German chemical giant BASF signaled the beginning of an era of major foreign corporate involvement in the U.S. economy. As the Bretton Woods system came to an end in the early 1970s, the world of multinational corporations was also changing significantly, with many new participants becoming involved in the global economy. Transformation of the petroleum industry. The evolution of the petroleum industry in the second half of the 20th century illustrates the changing nature of the global world of business. In the first half of the century, the industry was dominated by a cartel of seven large oil companies that set global prices and production levels while competing actively among themselves. These companies were among the largest multinational corporations, and direct foreign investment in petroleum industries was a major part of global business. Following World War II, this domination continued. When one member of the cartel, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), half owned by the British government, was nationalized by the Iranian government in 1951, the cartel was able to respond successfully through sanctions and a boycott. It reestablished control over Iranian oil through a consortium arrangement in 1953, and AIOC was reorganized as British Petroleum. The real challenge came with the creation of the ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC) in 1960, whose initial goal was to limit the ability of the major companies to reduce oil prices. By 1970, OPEC members began to work together to coordinate production and thus control supply and, ultimately, prices. For a short period (1971–73), prices were set by consultation between OPEC and the oil companies. The Arab-Israeli War of 1973 and changing market conditions were the occasion for an Arab oil embargo on sales to allies of Israel and a significant increase in oil prices. By the end of the crisis, basic prices were no longer set by the companies. In terms of investment, in 1960 more than 40 percent of U.S. direct foreign investment was in petroleum industries, but this was reduced to 14 percent by 1990. These changes coincided with a significant restructuring of the international oil industry. In the first half of the century, oil companies had been granted concessions by governments to explore for and produce petroleum. Governments were paid royalties on a per-barrel basis. After World War II, there was a change to profit-sharing arrangements in the 1950s and then to the gradual assumption of ownership of production facilities by the governments of the producing countries. In SAUDI ARABIA, the original exploration and production concession was granted to Standard Oil of California (SOCAL) in 1933. SOCAL's concession became the basis for Arabian American Oil Company
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(ARAMCO), a consortium of four major American oil companies, which developed the Saudi oil industry. In 1950, ARAMCO agreed to the shift from per-barrel royalties to profit sharing. In the early 1970s, participation was accepted by ARAMCO; the Saudi government acquired 25 percent of ARAMCO in 1973, 60 percent in 1974, and became the full owner in the early 1980s. The major oil companies maintained close relations with the Saudi-owned company and became global distributors for its products. This evolution of control occurred in most other oil-exporting countries as well. It reflected the broader trends of the final decades of the century, with a clear globalization of activity but a decentralization of control. The old cartel of oil companies was replaced by an organization of governments that had less control over the dynamics of the world markets but was operating in a more globalized economic situation.

1971–93
New world of multinational corporations. In the final decades of the century, the nature of multinational business operations changed in significant ways. INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION reflected the globalization of economic enterprise. Increasingly, multinational corporations developed diversified production facilities in which parts were made in many different places and then assembled, rather than setting up comprehensive production facilities in different countries. In the multinational automobile industry, for example, by 1980 cars like General Motors' J-car were built of parts produced in many different countries, and by the 1990s virtually no automobile could be said to have been completely produced within one country. This integration was seen in many different types of multinational operations; as major fastfood companies like McDonald's became global in operation by the 1980s, French-fried potatoes were prepared and frozen in one country and shipped to another for consumption. The GLOBAL SPREAD OF MULTINATIONAL OWNERSHIP was another important feature of the changing nature of multination business operations. The business world went from being dominated by a few large companies in the United States and Western Europe involved in a small number of industries to a global distribution of companies large and small in virtually every industry. By the 1980s there were more than 10,000 significantly multinational corporations, including important firms from developing countries, such as India, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Brazil, as well as the older industrial states. This is reflected in the automobile industry, where U.S. companies produced more than two-thirds of the world's motor vehicles in 1950 but barely one-fifth in 1980. In the 1950s, Britain was the second largest producer; it was displaced by West Germany in the 1960s; and Japan became the second largest producer in the 1970s and passed the United States in production in the 1980s. Other countries—such as South Korea, Brazil, and Mexico—became important producers in the 1980s. By the 1990s, ownership of production was also more diversified, as was seen in many different countries. More than 10 percent of the production capacity in North America was owned by non-U.S. corporations, and an important factor in the revitalization of the British auto industry was the establishment of production facilities in Britain by Japanese companies like Toyota, Nissan, and Honda. In Iran, an auto industry was developing around Iran Khodro, a joint venture with the French company Peugeot, and a second joint venture was established with Daewoo, the third largest automaker in South Korea. The NORMALIZATION OF GLOBALIZED ECONOMIC ENTERPRISE was firmly established by the 1990s. Significant foreign participation in or ownership of local enterprises around the world became an accepted fact. Complex interconnections on both very large and very small scales created global economic networks that became a normal part of local and multinational business enterprise. In a typical situation, Kirin Brewery, a Japanese corporation, became the parent company of a Coca-Cola Bottling Group in a small northeastern state in the United States. Multinational corporations had a growing impact on daily life, as can be seen in the expansion of consumer food companies. Soft drink firms became highly visible participants in the expansion of multinational business enterprise in the second half of the century. COCA-COLA was an early multinational corporation, and its soft drink products could be found in many countries even before World War II. By 1994, with the establishment of a bottling plant in Albania, Coca-Cola was made in 197 countries. By the 1990s, the rivalry between Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola was strong in Russia
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and Vietnam as well as in most of the rest of the world. Fast-food chains had a significant impact on world eating habits by standardizing products and expectations and providing new concepts of service. McDonald's became an economic power, encouraging some countries to reorganize agricultural production to provide potatoes and meat for the chain. By 1994, McDonald's had more than 4,700 overseas stores in 71 countries (having doubled its total in about five years). The Kellogg Company, a U.S. producer of breakfast cereals, opened a plant in Latvia in 1994 and began an effort to transform the concept of breakfast in the former communist world. The diversity of multinational economic affairs was reflected in the changing topics of debate in the GATT rounds. Important debates in the final Uruguay Round involved not only the usual discussions of tariffs on industrial and agricultural products, but also talks on opening domestic markets to foreign legal services, accounting, and computer software concerns. U.S. officials were disappointed that there was no agreement on opening audiovisual markets, especially in television programming and videocassettes, since entertainment had become the second largest U.S. export industry in terms of dollar value. The world of multinational business was global in nature and had become an important factor in the daily life of every society, reflecting the complex, interconnected nature of human life at the end of the 20th century.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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2. Science and Technology. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History VII. The Contemporary Period, 1945–2000 > A. General and Comparative Dimensions > 1. Changing Global Patterns > b. Globalization of Material Life > 2. Science and Technology PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

2. Science and Technology
Scientific discoveries and the development of technologies emphasized the globalization of material life during the second half of the century. Global communication networks and the exchange of ideas, ranging from espionage to formal associations of scholars and international institutions, played an important role. The worldwide nature of scientific enterprise and technological development was reflected in many fields, including the development and use of nuclear power, the exploration of space, world health and disease control, and in communication and information technologies themselves. NUCLEAR POWER. The immense amounts of energy created by atomic processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion had long been recognized. During World War II, the major combatants worked to develop atomic bombs. The United States succeeded, testing the first successful major nuclear military device in 1945, and then dropping atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of HIROSHIMA and NAGASAKI in an effort to hasten the end of the war. The U.S. action was subject to much international debate, but the ATOMIC AGE, both in military and in civilian terms, had begun. The development of nuclear weapons and efforts to prevent nuclear war were very important aspects of global life in the second half of the 20th century. Spread of nuclear weapons. For a short period, the United States was the only state with employable nuclear weapons. Efforts to create international structures to control nuclear weaponry interacted with the development of the weaponry itself. In 1946 the United Nations worked to establish an Atomic Energy Commission, and the United States, in the Baruch Plan (1946), proposed the creation of an international atomic development authority with a virtual monopoly over all forms of nuclear energy production, military or civilian. Developing cold war tensions made international control impossible, and other countries gained nuclear weapons capacities: the Soviet Union in 1949, Great Britain in 1952, France in 1960, and the People's Republic of China in 1964. By the 1970s, a number of other countries were believed to have fission weapon capacities, including India, Israel, South Africa, and Brazil. Concern over nuclear proliferation resulted in many conferences, negotiations, and some success in global nuclear arms limitation and agreement on broader issues of disarmament. The United Nations established the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957 to promote the peaceful uses of atomic power. In 1963 a nuclear test ban treaty was signed by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain, and more than 100 states subsequently adhered to it, and in 1968, 62 states ratified the NUCLEAR NONhttp://www.bartleby.com/67/2641.html (1 of 6)12/2/2003 8:07:13 AM

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PROLIFERATION TREATY, which limited the spread of atomic weapons. Other treaties banned nuclear weapons in space (1967) and on the ocean floor beyond the 12-mile national limit (1971). The major reduction in the threat of nuclear war involved the changing conditions of the cold war. The United States and the Soviet Union began serious arms reductions negotiations in the 1970s with the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) in 1972 and SALT II (1972–79), which resulted in an agreement that was largely implemented although never formally ratified. In the 1980s, the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) moved beyond limiting the arms race to an actual reduction in the existing weapons arsenals of the superpowers. The resulting treaty was signed in 1991. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the major concern regarding nuclear weapons was no longer global nuclear war so much as the possible development and use of nuclear weapons by smaller powers in regional wars. Some of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, such as Ukraine and Kazakhstan, came into possession of substantial nuclear arsenals, and after 1992 engaged in long negotiations, with support from the U.S., for denuclearization and the implementation of their areas of the START treaty. The possible development of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan was a long-standing dispute that assumed new importance in the post–cold war world. And one of the major areas of tension in the Middle East following the Persian Gulf War of 1990–91 was monitoring Iraq for the production of weapons of mass destruction. By the 1990s, nuclear weapons and their control had, however, lost much of their importance as a source of international concern. Nuclear power for both military and civilian use became very significant. Energy produced by nuclear facilities came to be used in many different ways, from providing power for running large ships to producing electricity. The United States developed the first nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus, by 1954. Nuclear submarines, capable of remaining submerged for many months, transformed the nature of underwater warfare. Also nuclear submarines undertook important explorations under the Artic ice cap in 1958, demonstrating their utility. A nuclear-powered merchant cargo ship, the Savannah, was launched in 1959, and the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Enterprise was launched in 1960. The most important use, in global terms, of nuclear power was in the production of electricity. Nuclear power plants were built in the Soviet Union (1954), Great Britain (1956), and France (1957), and the first commercial nuclear power plant was opened in the United States in 1957. By the early 1990s, almost one-fifth of the world's electricity was produced by nuclear power plants. Although nuclear power had many advantages in terms of cost of fuel, efficiency, and availability, by the end of the century, there was a growing awareness of important risks. Problems of disposing of radioactive waste had not been solved by the early 1990s as some of the early plants were beginning the decommissioning process. Accidents and malfunctioning equipment posed major dangers as well. The first serious accident was at a British weapons production facility in 1957. A more serious accident occurred at the Three Mile Island reactor in 1979 in Pennsylvania. The worst known nuclear accident took place at the CHERNOBYL REACTOR in the former Soviet Union in 1979. The radioactive pollution from this event illustrated important international dimensions of nuclear power and its management. SPACE EXPLORATION. The exploration of the earth's upper atmospheric regions and of outer space represented an important part of global affairs in the second half of the century. Many things, like space travel in general and human travel to the moon in particular, which had been the subject of science fiction and were believed even at midcentury to be in the distant future, were accomplished by the 1990s. Initially space exploration was associated with the development of military capacity, especially for building more effective rockets and space station technology. Space programs were national in organization but by the 1990s had become significantly multinational and increasingly civilian in nature. Orbiting satellites became essential not just for military surveillance but also in global communication networks. Following World War II, most major powers undertook programs for rocket development and possible space exploration. Important events in the history of human activity in space include the launching of the first successful human-made satellite, the Soviet Sputnik I, in 1957, and the first human orbit of the earth, by Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin, in 1961. By the 1960s, both the Soviet Union and the United States were involved in serious efforts to explore the earth's moon and other parts of the solar system. Soviet and U.S. probes of Mars and Venus were begun in 1960–64, and rockets were sent to other planets as well during the 1960s and 1970s. A climax of these efforts was the first landing of humans on the moon, in 1969, as a completion of
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the priority program set by U.S. president John Kennedy in 1961. Other important specific U.S. SPACE PROGRAMS were the Mariner spacecraft (ten flights between 1962 and 1973 exploring Mercury, Venus, and Mars), the Pioneer program (Pioneer 10, launched in 1973, was the first human-made object to leave the solar system, which it did in 1986), and the Voyagers (launched in 1977 for exploration of the outer planets of the solar system). SOVIET SPACE PROGRAMS, in addition to the early Sputniks, included the Lunas, which in 1959 sent the first space vehicle to reach the moon; the VEGAS, which were deployed on Venus in 1985; and the SALYUT program of large space stations (1971–91) for human operation in earth's orbit. Orbiting space stations and satellites were major parts of the developing programs. In 1958, the first attempt at establishing a communications receiver and transmitter in space was made, and by 1963 the United States established the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT) to utilize the new communications technologies. In 1964 the United States provided the initiative for the formation of the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) as a vehicle for providing access for all countries to space communications satellites. Initially the consortium had 12 members, but by the 1990s there were more than 100 states involved in INTELSAT. The Soviet Union also established a multinational network, utilizing its MOLNIYA satellite systems. By the 1980s satellites played an increasingly important role in virtually all aspects of global communications. A U.S. shuttle mission in 1983, for example, deployed or worked with communications satellites from West Germany, Canada, and Indonesia, and in 1985 a consortium of Arab states established a special Arab-world communications satellite system. By the early 1990s more than 200 countries relied in some significant way on satellites to meet their needs for communications services. HEALTH AND DISEASE CONTROL. The globalization of human life in the 20th century had an important impact on issues of health and disease control. Humans have always been subject to interregional outbreaks of disease that have spread across continents. The Black Death plagues seen in postclassical Eastern Hemisphere societies are important examples, as is the spread of smallpox into the Western Hemisphere in the early era of European expansion. However, by the second half of the 20th century, conscious human activity on a global scale had transformed the world health situation, as had the involuntary consequences of intensified human interactions. Conscious disease control made important advances in the 20th century. Expanded research facilities made it possible to lessen and sometimes even eliminate major historical illnesses. Research on the crippling disease poliomyelitis resulted in the development of vaccines by Jonas Salk in 1953–54 and of an oral vaccine by Albert Sabine in 1960, significantly reducing the incidence of this disease. In the case of SMALLPOX, a vaccine had already been developed in the 19th century, but the disease was still relatively common in the 20th. In 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the beginning of a program aimed at the total eradication of smallpox, and in 1979 WHO officially declared that the world was smallpox free. This represented a notable turning point in the world history of human health, since smallpox had been one of the most deadly diseases in history. Other major historic diseases have also been affected by 20th-century developments. MALARIA is an ancient and widespread disease whose causes were discovered in the late 19th century. It is transmitted by mosquitoes, so mosquito control was an important part of combatting the disease. Following World War II, the development of the highly effective insecticide DDT, and its extensive use in regions with a high incidence of malaria, lead to a reduction in the number of people infected. On the basis of the growing effectiveness of insecticides, the World Health Organization announced in 1955 the initiation of a program for the worldwide eradication of malaria. Throughout Africa, Asia, and Latin America, extensive use of insecticides was part of the eradication program, and there was a reduction in the incidence of malaria. However, migrations of people, especially in Africa, the emergence of DDT-resistant strains of mosquitoes, and the discovery of the disastrous environmental consequences of using DDT were important factors in making the total eradication of malaria impossible. The modern history of other major diseases also involves the development of powerful drugs for effective treatment and the subsequent emergence of drug-resistant variants of the disease. Effective drug treatment of TUBERCULOSIS (TB) had been readily available in the industrialized world since the 1950s. However, in the 1980s the number of cases of TB rose significantly. While much of this increase could be attributed to increasing poverty in many areas and to the rise of AIDS, which made people more susceptible to TB, the number of drug-resistant strains
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of TB had doubled within the decade as well. Overuse and misuse of the powerful drugs created by medical research had the potential to create dangerous versions of many ancient diseases. New diseases also were encouraged by the globalization process. Great continental pandemics are a part of world history, but throughout most of history, the spread of diseases, even in pandemic conditions, was a relatively slow process tied to the speed of the transportation facilities available. In a globalized world of high-speed transport, diseases can spread around the world in remarkably short time periods. FLU VIRUSES develop new strains rapidly, and this makes immunization and treatment difficult. The great influenza pandemic in 1918–19 began as a result of the coming together of soldiers from North America, Europe, and Africa in northern France at the end of World War I. The disease spread rapidly throughout the world, killing possibly as many as 20 million people. Such great flu pandemics are always possible, because of the constant interaction of global populations, but modern research facilities enable a rapid response in recognition of new virus strains and the creation of appropriate vaccines. In the second half of the century, there have been many instances of the rise and spread of a new flu virus followed by a relatively rapid global response, so the catastrophe of the influenza epidemic of 1918–19 has not been repeated. There have, however, been widespread epidemics, like the epidemics of Asian flu in 1957 and the Hong Kong flu in 1968. The development and spread of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV), which causes ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS), was the single most important new disease epidemic in the second half of the 20th century. The disease spread widely in parts of Africa (See Overview). The first cases were reported and identified in the United States in 1981, and by mid-1993 almost 200,000 deaths from AIDS had been reported in the United States alone. World Health Organization estimates in mid-1993 were that more than 25 million cumulative AIDS cases had occurred in the world by that date. More than 80 percent of the estimated cases were in developing countries, but the disease had spread throughout the world. Despite major efforts, vaccines and cures had not been found by the end of the century. On June 23, 2000, the U.S. announced that its Human Genome Project scientists had completed a draft of the entire sequence of the human genome. AGRICULTURE AND FOOD RELIEF. Agricultural production remained a regional issue for the most part, though food exports continued to increase. International food aid, developed in response to famine conditions in Europe after World War I, increased after 1945. The United States provided food relief to postwar Europe. Private organizations and governments organized food relief in a number of subsequent famine situations, such as that in Somalia in 1993. The agricultural arm of the United Nations, the Rome-based Food and Agriculture Organization, sponsored many studies and development projects to promote greater agricultural productivity in many areas. As part of the cold war rivalry, the United States and its allies provided agricultural experts to promote food production in many areas. Agricultural experts from the United States contributed greatly to the GREEN REVOLUTION that improved food conditions in India and other parts of Asia by the 1960s. Highyield Mexican wheat (Sonora 64) and Taiwanese and Philippine rice (Taichung Native I and Tainan II and IR 8), developed by the United States, greatly increased India's food grain production. Greater food production helped account for a longer life expectancy (to 51 years in India by 1969) in many Third World countries. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES. The development of new means of communication and information management created a revolutionary transformation of virtually every aspect of human life in the second half of the 20th century. The wireless radio and the telephone were already widely used by the middle of the century, changing the way people around the world gained information and communicated with each other. Motion pictures had already begun to transform entertainment. Following World War II, technologies in these media developed significantly. Telephones became increasingly automated and mobile, with the handheld, wireless telephone of the 1990s being representative of the changes. New technologies rapidly became available for mass public use in virtually every part of the world. TELEVISION was conceived during the 19th century, and the first public broadcasts in black and white were made in the 1930s. However, it was in the post–World War II period that television rapidly became a major medium for communication. In the United States in 1949, there were approximately 1 million TV sets in use. By 1951 that number was 10 million, and in 1975, the number of TVs in use had risen to more than 100 million. The first television transmissions in Japan were made in 1953, and by 1975 television reached more than 90
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percent of all Japanese households. Similar expansions of television took place throughout the world. By the 1990s, a global network of television stations, such as the Cable News Network (CNN), could broadcast via satellite to any country in the world. Direct, live broadcasting of events made them known immediately around the world. The beginning of the U.S. bombing of Baghdad in 1991 during the Persian Gulf War was viewed by the worldwide CNN television audience as it happened. In 1992 it was estimated that even in relatively isolated countries, like Papua New Guinea, there were ten thousand TVs, or 1 for every 383 persons, while in countries like Panama, there was 1 for 12 and in Poland, 1 for 7. In the United Kingdom, the ratio was 1 television receiver for every 2.9 persons, and in France, 1 per 1.9 persons. The immediacy of the visual images of television was an important force in the increasing sense in the 1990s that the world is a “global village.” The technologies for duplication and transmission of documents also created important new conditions for communication. A special method of xerography, a form of electrostatic printing, made possible the rapid reproduction of exact copies in a convenient dry-printing process. This process was developed by Chester Floyd Carlson in the 1930s and was commercially developed by the Xerox Corporation by the late 1950s. The ease of the reproduction process transformed many administrative, business, and scholarly activities. Another important development was in fascimile, or FAX TRANSMISSION, of exact copies over telephone lines. Basic transmission methods had been developed early in the 20th century and were used by newspapers and police forces. However, these were slow and inefficient until they were combined with computer technology and digitalization processes. In 1980 common standards for transmission methods and equipment were established, and the fax machine rapidly became an important vehicle for international communication. In the rise of revolutionary movements in the late 1980s, fax technology was important in that it provided an uncensorable vehicle for communication. The ELECTRONIC COMPUTER is in many ways the symbol of the new technological age of the second half of the 20th century. For centuries, people had developed various calculating machines and other mechanical devices, and in the early 20th century “business machines” performed accounting and calculating functions. However, during World War II the first truly electronic digital computers were designed. By the 1950s, the first commercially available computers were the UNIVAC, produced by the Sperry Rand Corporation, and the EDVAC. Through the 1950s and 1960s, computers were large and expensive, and only highly trained experts could operate them. Even at this stage, the great magnitude of calculations that could be performed meant computers had a major impact on military technology and scientific research. By the 1970s, important changes were taking place. Miniaturization of component parts and greater sophistication of theory and design meant that corporations like Cray Research and Control Data could produce small SUPERCOMPUTERS capable of very large numbers of operations. At the same time, small PERSONAL COMPUTERS began to be developed, and companies like Apple Computer and Commodore led the field in creating computers for home use and computer games. By the 1990s, in most industrialized countries the computer had transformed important aspects of daily life and had become a powerful tool for military defense and scientific research. New modes of international communication, along with larger international business organizations, produced more intense global cultural interactions. Most of these built on previous trends in Western Europe and the United States. Western-based political groups like Amnesty International (founded in London, 1961) monitored human rights violations in many countries and tried to mobilize world public opinion. The “international” architectural style, implemented by practitioners from many regions, created similar kinds of buildings in various cities. Western rock music, disseminated through cable television and world concert tours, had a strong impact in Africa, Latin America, and parts of Asia. Popular culture also changed under the influence of U.S. exports of films, television shows, fashions (such as blue jeans) and fast-food chains. AMERICANIZATION affected Western Europe as well as other parts of the world. Called “coca-colonization” by French critics in the 1950s, it brought new-style supermarkets to many areas, reduced the filmmaking industries of many countries, particularly at the popular level, and gave rise to imitations—like the spread of television game shows—even where American products were not directly used. English increased in importance as the most commonly learned second language. Yet no single world culture formed. Western influences were variously used—Japanese game shows, for example, involved a distinctive level of shaming—and rejected. The rejection of these influences played a role in nationalist and religious revivals by the 1970s.
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2. Science and Technology. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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3. Environmental Issues. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

3. Environmental Issues
During the second half of the century there was an increasing awareness of changes in the physical environment caused by industrialization and other aspects of the modern era. This development tended to transform basic economic life and enterprise from seeking to exploit natural resources to seeking to preserve resources being destroyed by the normal activities of modern life. In the years immediately following World War II, concern for environmental preservation was limited. International environmental problems increased nevertheless. Industrial pollution (acid rain) from Germany's Ruhr Valley and the United States' industrial Midwest worsened water quality in Scandinavia and Canada, respectively. Shoreline pollution in major oceans spread beyond national boundaries. The twin sources of growing global pollution were rapid population growth, with attendant increases in human waste, and heightened industrialization (including automobile emissions) both in established industrial nations and in developing newcomers like South Korea, China, Mexico, and Brazil. A major turning point came in the 1960s when some environmental issues reached crisis levels and events like the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring increased broader public awareness of problems. By the 1960s, serious problems had become apparent in many areas. The dangers of radioactive atmospheric pollution from the extensive testing of nuclear devices first aroused the concerns of popular organizations and then played a role in providing incentives for intergovernmental actions like the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963. The dangers of extensive use of DDT, even when used for benevolent purposes such as malaria prevention, led to the banning of its use in the United States in 1972. In the second half of the century, voluntary and private organizations played an important role in environmental action. Some were long-established groups, like the Sierra Club in the United States, which had been established in 1892 to encourage wilderness activities and preservation and by the 1960s was a major political activist group. New groups ranged from small, single-issue associations to international activist organizations. Greenpeace was founded in 1969 by a group of Canadians, to take direct nonviolent action against threats to the environment, the hunting of whales and baby seals, and nuclear testing in the Pacific. In 1985 the sinking of Rainbow Warrior, a Greenpeace ship, by French agents in New Zealand caused a major international incident. In Europe, the GREEN MOVEMENT became a visible political force in a number of countries. In the 1980s there were formal Green parties in at least six European countries, and the Green Alliance was an important force in the European Parliament. INTERGOVERNMENTAL
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ACTIONS also played an increasingly important role. By the 1970s, conferences were held regularly to deal with both specific issues and more general concerns. The UN CONFERENCE ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT (1972) in Stockholm was important in this development. Specific conferences and conventions often created administrative structures to implement international agreements, as was the case with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1973). Other organizations, like the International Whaling Commission, were involved in environmental affairs but represented particular industrial or economic interests. By the 1990s, regular international conferences dealing with environmental issues and involving high-level officials had become an accepted part of international affairs. Limitations on global environmentalism included national sovereignty, resistance by major private companies, and the concern that established industrial powers were trying to impose expensive environmental measures on poorer, developing nations. Nevertheless, many groups recognized the international dimensions of pollution problems. Conventions and multinational treaties regulating activities ranging from the use of seabed resources to use of outer space became established parts of international law. The UN CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCED), or the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, was a symbol of the globalized environmental context. Leaders of 178 countries attended, making it the largest summit meeting ever held. Representatives and observers from more than 2,000 nongovernmental organizations at the meeting revealed the global scope of private activity as well. Major conventions relating to biodiversity, global warming (including the much-discussed destruction of tropical rain forests), forestry, and environmental policy principles were adopted, and later the UN General Assembly created the Sustainable Development Commission for implementation of the agreements.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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4. Population Trends and Migrations. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

4. Population Trends and Migrations
World population grew at an unprecedented rate after 1945, though regional trends varied: Estimated population (in thousands) 1900 North America Latin America, Caribbean Europe Asia Africa World 106,000 — 400,000 932,000 — 1950 166,000 166,000 392,000 1991 279,000 458,000 502,000
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1,368,000 3,046,000 180,000 293,000

1,600,000 2,564,000 5,423,000
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Massive population growth resulted from improved public health measures and successful attacks on many traditional diseases. Infant mortality generally declined, which also meant more people reached childbearing age, and life expectancy rose (despite major regional variations). Food supplies largely kept pace. Most regions saw a decline in the rate of population growth by the 1980s, and there were some dramatic demographic transitions (Japan in the 1950s, Mexico in the 1960s). Overall however rapid growth is expected to continue into the 21st century. By the 1990s, the annual natural population increase (births over deaths) averaged 2.1 percent in developing countries and .5 %percent in industrial countries.

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4. Population Trends and Migrations. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Concern about world overpopulation gained ground. Many Western experts in the 1950s and 1960s argued that population control was essential for industrialization (lest too many resources be expended on sheer survival). Some remnants of racist concern about the growth of nonwhite populations may have entered in to this view. United Nations agencies largely accepted the argument that population control was an essential goal, and worked to distribute birth control information. By the 1980s, concern about the environmental effects of population growth exceeded the older focus on the impact on industrial development. A concerted international approach to population issues was hampered, however, by the opposition of the Catholic Church and, under Republican administrations, of the United States; these factors limited United Nations action by the 1980s. Most birth control policies were national; they varied by region and time period (China's policy changed several times) and also varied in effectiveness. Population issues relating to public health, birth control, and family planning became major subjects of international debate. Early international conferences on population—World Population Conference in Rome (1954) and the Second World Population Conference in Belgrade (1965)—dealt with scientific and technical issues. The United Nations designated 1974 as WORLD POPULATION YEAR, and the first major intergovernmental World Population Conference was held in Bucharest. The debates involved in drafting the World Population Plan for Action reflected international differences. China, the Soviet Union, and a number of developing countries, despite their own domestic policies, opposed international commitments to birth control as a new form of imperialism. The Roman Catholic Church and many predominantly Catholic countries opposed birth control and population planning on ideological grounds. The UN International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984 reached greater agreement on general issues. The issue of abortion was heatedly debated, and funding for population programs that allowed abortion was opposed by the U.S., reflecting the position of the Reagan administration, and the Roman Catholic Church. The final conference statement involved support for a commitment to global population control. The draft of the action program of the 1994 UN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION in Cairo reflected the continuing evolution of population concerns. While older ideological reservations about abortion remained in the debate, of greater concern were emerging global issues relating to improving the role of women, and the relationship among population, environmental conditions, and development, in achieving sustainable development that does not do irreparable environmental damage. Population problems varied in intensity in different regions. FAMINES resulting from natural causes and civil wars resulted in major loss of life in the Sahel region in Africa in the 1970s, in Ethiopia and Sudan in the 1980s, and in other parts of the world. Refugees from famine, poverty, and wars grew in number by the 1990s. In mid-1993, it was estimated that there were more than 18 million international refugees and an additional 24 million who were displaced within their own country. World population and economic trends created new patterns of emigration (though some of these had begun to take shape between the world wars). After the postwar dislocations (including movement of European Jews to Israel), emigration from Europe became insignificant. Africa (particularly North Africa), Central America and the Caribbean, Pakistan, Turkey, Thailand, China, the Philippines, and the Koreas became the largest sources of international migration, both legal and illegal. Destinations were most often the United States and Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and, to a limited extent, Japan—centers of industrialization. Changes in U.S. law (See June 26) facilitated non-European immigration, which came mainly from Asia and Central America; overall, 6 million Mexican workers, both legal and illegal, entered the country. By the 1970s the United States was experiencing the highest absolute rate of immigration in its history. By 1990, immigration had brought more than 12 million non-European people into the European Community. Japan had received about 600,000 foreigners, mainly from the Koreas and Southeast Asia. In all cases, most immigrants were unskilled laborers and were often badly treated, though there was an important if small outpouring of professionals (doctors, engineers) from places like India as well. An important subsidiary pattern of immigration involved oil-rich states in the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, which received migrants from other parts of the Middle East (Egyptians, Palestinians) and also from Pakistan, India, and parts of Southeast Asia. International migration plus ongoing rural-tourban migration increased city size. Several predominantly rural areas in 1945 had a majority urban
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population by the 1990s. MEGACITIES with huge populations developed; by the 1990s, 14 metropolitan areas had a population above 10 million, 9 of them in the Third World. A rough periodization described the new international migration patterns. Rapid industrial growth in Europe and the United States prompted favorable reception, and in some cases active recruitment, of immigrants during the 1950s and 1960s. Slower growth, more frequent recessions, and a tendency toward growing unemployment, particularly among the unskilled, produced new hostility to immigration from the 1970s onward. This new environment included legislative limits, attempts to force some migrants to leave, and increased racist incidents.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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c. Globalization and Special Identities. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

c. Globalization and Special Identities
During the second half of the 20th century, a complex relationship developed between two major historical dynamics. One was the intensification of the globalization of all aspects of human life and the other was the continuing affirmation of special human identities. By the 1990s, globalization had not resulted in the emergence of either a single, global society or a network of fundamentally similar societies. Instead, special identities coexisted with global communications and economic networks and new transnational and regional structures. These developments are clearly visible in two major areas: 1) the development of ethnic and national identities, and 2) the evolution of identities based on particular ideologies and religions. ETHNIC AND NATIONAL IDENTITIES. The emergence of nationalist opposition to the old empires in the period following World War II was an important factor in the nature of nationalist identities. Old ethnic and special cultural identities were associated with particular languages or historical traditions. However, the state boundaries that had been created by the imperial powers often did not match the regional boundaries of those old identities. When NATIONALISM developed, it did so within the framework of the imperially created political units, and it was those states that became nationally independent; existing state identities were the basis for the most effective nationalist movements. Movements for broader unity had only limited success. ARAB NATIONALISM developed in the first half of the 20th century as a broad regional sentiment, but nationalist movements in the Arab world were identified with the individual imperially created states, such as Algeria, Syria, and Palestine. The formation of the Arab League in 1945 was an important manifestation of Arab unity, but it was a coordinating organization of sovereign states. During the 1950s, enthusiasm for substantive Arab unity was encouraged by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and resulted in the creation of the United Arab Republic (UAR), joining Egypt and Syria. However, the UAR only lasted for three years (1958–61), and other projects for Arab political unity remained unimplemented. PAN-AFRICAN NATIONALISM had roots in movements in the first half of the 20th century, and as many African states became independent, there was a hope of greater African unity. When the British colony of the Gold Coast became independent as Ghana, under the leadership of KWAME NKRUMAH in 1957, it assumed a leading role in African unity. Nkrumah was host to two pan-African congresses in 1958, but when the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was formally created in 1963, its charter affirmed the independence and territorial integrity of the individual member states. The OAU was effective in mediating disputes between African nations,
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and it coordinated expression of African views in international bodies, but the pan-African vision of a unified Africa was not realized. In the period from 1945 until the early 1970s, state-based identities remained the most effective, even when the states had been arbitrarily created by imperial and political settlements. Along with broader unification efforts, separatist movements also generally failed, as was the case in Congo (Kinshasa) (1960–64), Nigeria (1967–70), and among the Kurds in the Middle East. States created by partitions that were assumed to be temporary following World War II were still in existence at the beginning of the 1970s: the two Germanies, the two Koreas, and the two states in Vietnam.

1970–93
Ethnic revival and nationalism. In the early 1970s, increasing attention began to be given to culturallinguistic sources of identity, and ethnic groups in new forms emerged as important elements in individual societies and on the global scene in general. The development of groups like the Black Panthers in the United States during the 1960s was an early signal of the change. Movements affirming black identity in the U.S. were not necessarily separatist or nationalist, but they strongly affirmed a distinctive ethno-cultural identity in the face of pressures for uniformity in modern society. In countries where there was a strongly established “national” identity, there was a rise in the importance of local ethnic traditions. In Great Britain, Welsh nationalism succeeded in achieving parity for Welsh with English in governmental matters in Wales in 1967. The Scottish National Party had been organized in the interwar period but remained unimportant until the 1960s. By the 1990s, the party had become a small but important part of the British political scene, regularly electing members to Parliament. In Canada, there was a major revival of French-Canadian separatism in Quebec. In many countries, activist—and sometimes violent—movements of ethnic identity gained strength after the early 1970s. A number of cultural-linguistic groups began to have more success asserting their identity in political ways. In 1971 the Bengali eastern part of Pakistan seceded and formed the new state of Bangladesh, and Vietnam was reunited by the communist victory in 1975. In the late 1980s a major political reorganization of countries based on historic cultural identity began as the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia broke up into their constituent republics, and the reunification of Germany also took place. By the 1990s, throughout the world there were active movements affirming their cultural and linguistic identity in many different ways. These included continuing separatist movements among the Tamils in Sri Lanka, the Basques in Spain, on Timor in Indonesia, and among many groups in the former Soviet Union, such as the Abkhazians in Georgia. Tensions between Hutu and Tutsi peoples in Rwanda resulted in 1994 in one of the bloodiest of these conflicts. Other groups affirmed their special identity in other ways—by reviving older customs or seeking cultural autonomy—as was seen among some Native Americans in the Western Hemisphere, the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, and in the continuing definition of the relationship between the Flanders and Wallonia in Belgium. By the 1990s it was clear that the social and technological globalization of the second half of the 20th century had not dissolved culturallinguistic boundaries between peoples. Instead, through new media for communication and interaction, the conditions of the new, globalized world societies seemed to encourage affirmations of special identity and made such affirmations more effective. IDEOLOGICAL AND RELIGIOUS IDENTITIES. Some of the major global conflicts in the 20th century were drawn along lines of ideology and worldview. The competition between the world visions of Wilson and Lenin and the rise of fascism in the interwar era are part of this. In the era of the cold war, the conflict had a major ideological dimension as a conflict between communism and democratic capitalism. The main ideologies of the 20th century were global in their scope and vision. As nationalism developed, it reflected the different ideological frameworks; nationalism emerged in democratic, liberal forms or in Marxist, radical forms in the era following World War II.
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c. Globalization and Special Identities. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Global political ideologies. In the era of the active cold war, the framework for ideological competition was the conflict between Marxist radicalism and Western liberalism. Movements asserting distinctive national identities expressed their nationalism in terms of these conflicts. As the Third World emerged by the 1960s, the Nonaligned movement developed, at the core of which was a group of nationalists strongly influenced by Marxist political radicalism. The new and most visible Third World leaders of the 1960s were Nasser in Egypt, Sekou Touré of Guinea, Nkrumah of Ghana, Fidel Castro of Cuba, and Sukarno of Indonesia, all of whom developed and advocated an ideologically radical nationalism. Their more conservative rivals, like Muhammad Reza Pahlavi in Iran, Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines, and Houphouët-Boigny in the Ivory Coast, also expressed their visions in terms of politically ideological nationalisms. Leninism, Wilsonianism, Maoism, radical nationalism, and conservative nationalism all shared the character of being political ideologies of modernization. They were not clearly identified with existing religious traditions and accepted many of the modern assumptions about progress, modern science, and rationalism that were the basic characteristics of Western European thought as it emerged from the 18th century. By the early 1970s, the cold war entered the full détente stage, making the Soviet-U.S. rivalry less acute in the Third World, and important new ideological changes took place in many areas. The student demonstrations in Paris in 1968 (See May–June), the antiwar movement in the U. S., and other demonstrations in the late 1960s reflected the growing disillusionment with all of the major ideologies. The New Left rejected much of Soviet-defined Marxism; radical nationalisms in the Third World had created repressive states; modernization and economic “progress” was beginning to be recognized as disastrous for the environment; leaders like the Shah of Iran and Marcos of the Philippines, who received support from democratic liberalism, were creating oppressive dictatorships. There was a gradual shift in worldview to a less ideological pragmatism and also to activist approaches more explicitly tied to the major religious traditions.

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1970s–93
Global religious revival. In many areas of the world, changing conditions and attitudes supported a revival of religions. Some of this took the simple form of increased adherence to existing rules and greater sensitivity to the message of religion in the modern context. The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH was an early leader in this revival of religious activism. The great Ecumenical Council, VATICAN II (1962–65) (See 1962, Oct. 11), issued many important documents defining the Roman Catholic Church and its role in the modern world. Vatican II had a worldwide impact and was especially important in the development of political ideology in Latin America. A 1967 papal encyclical, Populorum progressio, and a major conference of the Latin American bishops in 1968 in Medellin, Colombia, clearly defined a position of opposition to social injustice and oppression. Building on this foundation, a movement of LIBERATION THEOLOGY developed that presented a clearly defined theological position in the writings of people like Gustavo Gutierrez and advocated and worked for significant social change. This brought some Catholic leaders into open conflict with social and political conservatives, and in the civil war in El Salvador, Archbishop Oscar Romero was murdered in 1980. Priests like Ernesto Cardenal in Nicaragua were active in developing new structures, such as “base communities,” and participated in the Sandinista revolutionary movement. Movements of religious activism and revival developed in virtually all major religious traditions. Many of these took a form that is frequently referred to as fundamentalism, calling for a return to traditional beliefs and moral codes. Fundamentalists were not always literally traditional—for example, many were less tolerant than their religions had previously been—and they often used new methods of propaganda. Protestant fundamentalism became more assertive in the United States in the 1980s, and also spread rapidly in Latin America; after 1989 there was also growing missionary activity in Russia. In the ISLAMIC WORLD, many revival movements developed. Some, like the Muslim Brotherhood (See 1928) in Egypt and the Jamaat-i Islami in South Asia, already had a long history. Others emerged as important forces in the 1970s, and by the 1990s, explicitly Islamic organizations were either the largest opposition group or an important part of the government in virtually every country where the majority of the population was Muslim. The ISLAMIC REVOLUTION IN IRAN (See 1978–79) in 1978–79 overthrew the Shah and established a republic
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that became the most visible Islamic government in the world. An Islamic movement also came to power in Sudan through a military coup in 1989. In Algeria the Islamic party was about to win the parliamentary elections of 1991–92 when a military coup prevented the completion of the elections. A HINDU religious revival became an important part of Indian history by the 1980s. In the early 1990s, the Bharatiya Janata Party, which supported an actively Hindu program, emerged as the largest opposition group in the Parliament. In 1992, Hindu extremists destroyed a mosque in Ayodhya, and hundreds of people were killed in the subsequent Hindu-Muslim rioting. Also in India, the SIKHS experienced a revival. In its militant form, the revival involved the demand for an independent Sikh state in the Punjab. The formation of Akali dal in 1980, an organization advocating Sikh independence, began an era of conflict. BUDDHISM experienced revivals in a number of areas as well. In the conflicts in Southeast Asia, Buddhist priests were sometimes involved, and with the disintegration of the communist world, some areas, such as Mongolia and Laos, experienced a revival of interest in Buddhism. In Japan, Soka Gakkai, a major Buddhist organization, grew significantly as did Buddhist groups in North America. At the same time that some aspects of the religious revival emphasized distinctive identities, globalization of religious organizations also occurred. The Roman Catholic Church had long been a global organization, but its most rapid expansion has been outside of the West. In 1974, less than 15 percent of the world's Roman Catholics were in Asia and Africa, but by 1994, more than 25 percent of the estimated membership in the Church was on those two continents. Among the other Christian churches, the formation of the World Council of Churches in 1948 created a global organization that continued to be a voice throughout the rest of the century. The global nature of religious life, as well as the continuing importance of the distinctive traditions, was emphasized by the convening of the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1993. This was held on the centennial of a similar parliament convened during the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, emphasizing that the processes of globalization were long-standing in religion. The parliament was basically a gathering of representatives of different traditions rather than a convention of believers sharing a common creed, reflecting the complex interactions between the processes of globalization and maintenance of distinctive identities in the 20th century.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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2. International Relations. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1947, Feb. 10 )

2. International Relations
International relations in the 50 years following World War II were dominated by the cold war between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. The half century was a time of increasing globalization in all areas of life, so international relations also reflected those transformations in social and religious life, changes in the networks of economic relations, the rise of nationalism and decline of the old empires, and many other developments. The period can be divided into two eras, with the beginning of the 1970s marking a time of transition in the cold war, a change in the global economic system, and a shift from the old empires to newly transformed nationalisms.
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a. Rise of the Cold War and End of Empires
The main lines of development in the period following World War II involved the organization of international institutions to manage global affairs, the U.S.-Soviet rivalry, the rise of nationalism, and the growing globalization of human life.
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1945, April 25–June 26
SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE. Drafted the Charter for the United Nations Organization, an international body that would be the successor to the League of Nations as the main organization for international relations on a global scale.
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July 17–Aug. 2

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2. International Relations. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

POTSDAM CONFERENCE. The leaders of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, met to discuss postwar arrangements in Europe. These involved the disarmament and occupation of Germany and trials of war criminals.

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Sept. 2
FORMAL SURRENDER OF JAPAN with the signing of terms on the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay. The Japanese home islands were placed under U.S. military occupation, but the emperor remained as the head of state. Korea was placed under Soviet and U.S. occupation, pending the establishment of a democratic government. The Kurile Islands and the southern part of Sakhalin Island were ceded to the Soviet Union.
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Oct. 24
United Nations formally came into existence when the twenty-ninth member government ratified the Charter. New York City was chosen as the site for the permanent seat of the organization.
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Dec. 27
The International Monetary Fund was established (See Evolution of International Economic Structures).
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1946. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1946
Cold war tensions involved Soviets' continued occupation of northern Iran. Soviet troops withdrew by May. The Nuremberg Tribunal for Nazi war criminals reached its verdicts, sentencing ten Nazis to death.
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Feb. 1
Trygve Lie of Norway was elected secretary general of the United Nations for a five-year term.
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June
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development began operation.
4

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1947
Cold war developments included the initiation of the Marshall Plan and the direct commitment by the United States to oppose Soviet expansion in Greece and Turkey. The Dead Sea Scrolls, manuscripts dating back two thousand years, were discovered in Khirbat Qumran in Jordan. These proved to be of major importance for the understanding of Jewish and Christian history at that time. The Kon-tiki expedition led by the Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl provided that it had been possible for ancient peoples to travel by raft from South America to the Pacific Islands.
1

2

3

Nov
The UN General Assembly approved a plan for the partition of Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state.
4

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1948
Cold war tensions involved the Soviet restrictions on transport to Berlin and the resulting Berlin blockade and airlift (See July 24). The World Council of Churches held its organizational meeting in Amsterdam. Representatives of 147 churches in 44 countries attended. The Olympics in London revived major international athletic competitions after the interruptions caused by World War II. The publication of Alan Paton's novel Cry, the Beloved Country brought the problem of relations between blacks and whites in South Africa to a worldwide audience. The murders of Mahatma Gandhi (the Hindu nationalist advocate of nonviolence) in January by a Hindu extremist and Count Folke Bernadotte (the UN mediator in the Arab-Israeli war) in September by a Zionist extremist emphasized the violence accompanying the partitions of Palestine and British India.
1

2

3

4

5

Dec
The UN General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Prevention of Genocide.
6

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1949
Cold war developments included the victory of communist forces in China and the establishment of the People's Republic of China under the leadership of Mao Zedong. The Roman Catholic primate in Hungary, Cardinal Mindszenty, was sentenced by the communist government there to life imprisonment for treason. The treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was signed in Washington. The publication of George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-four articulated the growing fear of bureaucratic totalitarianism aided by modern technology. The publication of Simone de Beauvoir's Le Deuxième Sexe (The Second Sex) provided a major statement for women's rights movements and feminism.
1

2

3

April
The International Court of Justice issued its first decision as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice, ruling against Albania and awarding damages to Great Britain in the Corfu Channel case.
4

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1950
Cold war developments included the invasion of South Korea by North Korean forces, initiating the KOREAN WAR. Akira Kurosawa, the noted Japanese film director, received his first major international recognition with the release of Rashomon.
1

2

July
The UN established a unified command of armed forces from 16 member countries to defend South Korea.
3

Nov. 3
UN General Assembly passed “Uniting for Peace” resolution allowing for emergency action if Security Council failed to achieve unanamity.
4

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1951
Cold war developments included the continuation of hostilities in the Korean War. In the United States, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were sentenced to death for espionage; executed in 1953. The IRANIAN OIL NATIONALIZATION CRISIS (1951–53). Mohammed Mossadegh became premier of Iran in April 1951, and the Iranian government nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. The International Court of Justice ruled (1952) that it did not have jurisdiction because this was an internal matter. The matter was not resolved until the shah, Mohammad Reza, was restored to full power by a military coup aided by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in 1953.
1

2

1952
Cold war developments included the announcements that Great Britain had produced an atomic bomb and that the United States had tested hydrogen bombs. The Soviet Union vetoed admission of Japan and three Indochinese states to UN. Cold war vetoes, particularly by the Soviets, frequently marked UN debates.
3

July
EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION brought to power a group of young military officers advocating radical reforms; the most important of such revolutions in the Middle East.
4

Oct
The Mau Mau revolt in Kenya began with attacks on white settlers, and a state of emergency was declared by the British.
5

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1953
Cold war developments included the successful explosion of a hydrogen bomb by the Soviet Union, the suppression by Soviet forces of major demonstrations in East Berlin, and the end of the Korean War.
1

April
DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD elected secretary general of the United Nations.
2

Oct
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was established to unify the major British territories in central Africa and begin the transition to a multiracial, independent political system.
3

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1954
Cold war developments included the agreement of the Western powers on the rearmament of West Germany and its admission to NATO, and the establishment by the United States of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). The second meeting of the assembly of the World Council of Churches was held in Evanston, Illinois. Jonas E. Salk, developer of an antipoliomyelitis serum, begins inoculation program in Pennsylvania. Nautilus, the first nuclear-powered submarine, was launched by the United States.
1

2

3 4

May
Defeat of the French at Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam brought an end to French rule in Indochina. The Geneva Agreements (July) defined the partition of Vietnam.
5

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1955
Cold war developments included the FOUR-POWER SUMMIT MEETING IN GENEVA (July) in which U.S. president Eisenhower met directly with Soviet premier Bulganin for discussions on Germany and other matters.
1

Feb
The BAGHDAD PACT, which created the basis for the Central Treaty Organization in the U.S. system of regional alliances, was signed by Turkey and Iraq. Great Britain, Pakistan, and Iran soon joined as well.
2

April
The BANDUNG CONFERENCE OF ASIAN-AFRICAN STATES was attended by leaders from 29 countries, including Tito of Yugoslavia, Nehru of India, Zhou Enlai of the People's Republic of China, and Nasser of Egypt. The conference was the effective beginning of the nonaligned movement in world affairs.
3

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1956
Cold war developments included the anti-Soviet HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION (Oct.) which was crushed by Soviet armed forces (Nov.) SUEZ CRISIS. The Egyptian government under Nasser (See 1956, Oct. 29) nationalized the SUEZ CANAL following the announcement by the United States and Britain that they would not participate in financing the Aswan High Dam (July). Egypt took control of the operation of the canal (Sept.) following the withdrawal of foreign technicians. A series of international conferences failed to resolve the issues. A coordinated invasion of Egypt by Israeli, French, and British forces resulted in the occupation of Sinai and the canal zone. U.S. and Soviet opposition to the invasion resulted in the creation of a UN Emergency Force (Nov.), which supervised the withdrawal of forces (completed by Jan. 1957).
1

2

1957
Cold war developments included the promulgation (Jan.) of the Eisenhower Doctrine on the use of U.S. armed forces in the event of communist aggression in the Middle East, and the test explosion of a hydrogen bomb by Britain. SPUTNIK, the first successful artificial satellite, was launched by the Soviet Union. UN International Atomic Energy Commission established to encourage the peaceful use of atomic power.
3

March
The Treaty of Rome established the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, creating a major new economy in the global markets.
4

June

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1956. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The International Geophysical Year began. Thousands of scientists from more than 60 countries engaged in a massive coordinated research effort coinciding with a period of maximum solar activity. Among the achievements was the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts around the earth.

5

Dec
The Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Conference convened in Cairo and established a permanent secretariat in Egypt. It worked to define the principles of positive neutralism in the cold war but was viewed in the West as being procommunist.
6

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1958
Cold war developments included extensive discussions on discontinuance of nuclear weapons testing, leading to the opening of a Geneva conference on the issue. Russian author Boris Pasternak received the Nobel Prize for Literature. The nuclear-powered submarine Nautilus undertook major Arctic explorations and passed under the ice cap at the North Pole. The First UN Conference on the Law of the Sea produced four major conventions dealing with the use of the seas and their natural resources.
1

Jan
The Federation of the West Indies was established, bringing together ten British territories in the Caribbean. The federation was dissolved in 1962, following the withdrawal of Jamaica and TrinidadTobago.
2

Feb
The UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC (UAR) was created, joining Egypt and Syria in a major experiment in pan-Arab nationalism under the leadership of Nasser. Syria withdrew in 1961.
3

Oct
Cardinal Roncalli elected as Pope, taking the name of JOHN XXIII, beginning an era of major change in the Roman Catholic Church.
4

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1959, Feb
FIDEL CASTRO became premier of Cuba following the victory of the revolutionary forces, and Cuba became a radical force in the Western Hemisphere.
1

Sept
The Soviet rocket Luna 2 became the first space vehicle to reach the moon.
2

Dec
The ANTARCTIC TREATY reserved the Antarctic for scientific and other peaceful activities in an important action of international cooperation among all interested major powers. The UN established a permanent committee for the peaceful uses of outer space.
3

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1960
Cold war developments included plans for a summit meeting between Eisenhower and Khrushchev; it was cancelled when a U.S. high-altitude spy plane, a U-2, was discovered and shot down by the Soviets. Independence achieved by 17 countries in AFRICA during the year. UN peacekeeping force deployed in the newly independent Congo following the outbreak of severe civil strife. The force was finally withdrawn in 1964. The Second UN Conference on the Law of the Sea added to existing agreements on the use of ocean resources.
1

2 3

4

1961
Cold war developments included the VIENNA SUMMIT CONFERENCE (June) between U.S. president Kennedy and Soviet premier Khrushchev, at which many issues were discussed; the construction of the BERLIN WALL (Aug.) revealed the continuing tension over Germany and Soviet concern about the large numbers of refugees fleeing to the West. The World Food Program for dealing with problems of hunger and famine relief was established. The Assembly of the World Council of Churches met in Delhi, India, and the International Missionary Council was formally integrated into the organization.
5

6 7

April
Yuri Gagarin, Soviet astronaut, became the FIRST HUMAN TO ORBIT THE EARTH.
8

Sept

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The Conference of Non-Aligned Nations in Belgrade was attended by 25 states and established a continuing organizational structure. UN secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld was killed in an airplane crash in the Congo.

9

Nov
U THANT OF BURMA named acting secretary general of the UN and subsequently elected (1962) to a four-year term.
10

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1962
Cold war developments included the CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (Oct.–Nov.), a major U.S.-Soviet confrontation over the Soviet placement of missiles in Cuba that brought the superpowers close to war. A 17-nation Disarmament Conference opened in Geneva (March) but was finally adjourned (Aug. 1963) without reaching any agreements.
1

2

July
The completion of the DILLON ROUND of tariff negotiations in Geneva under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) resulted in significant reductions in obstacles to international trade.
3

Oct
Pope John XXIII opened the Twenty-first Ecumenical Council (VATICAN II) of the Roman Catholic Church in Rome. By the time the council finished in 1965, many major decrees had been issued that changed the life of the Church.
4

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1963
Cold war developments included the agreement by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain on a Limited NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY (Aug.) A UN Observation Mission was sent to Yemen when a civil war developed there with possible involvement of foreign forces. The mission was ended in 1964.
1

June
Valentina Tereshkova, a Soviet astronaut, became the first woman in space as the prime pilot of Vostok 6.
2

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1964
UN Peacekeeping force for CYPRUS established as fighting developed between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Martin Luther King, Jr., civil rights leader in the United States, received the Nobel Peace Prize. The Olympic Games were held in Tokyo.
1

2 3

Jan
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved. Northern Rhodesia became independent Zambia, Nyasaland became independent Malawi, and Southern Rhodesia came under the control of an all-white government.
4

March
The Afro-Asian Solidarity Council met in Algiers.
5

March–June
UN CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD) met in Geneva, attended by 120 states. It established a permanent organization with special concern for the trade needs of developing countries.
6

Oct

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Conference of Non-Aligned Nations met in Cairo with 47 members and 10 observers represented. Declarations affirmed opposition to foreign bases and Western colonialism.

7

Nov
Special UN committee report on South Africa called for total economic sanctions.
8

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1965
RHODESIA became a problem area, with the white government of Ian Smith demanding independence and then issuing a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (Nov.). The UN Security Council called for nonrecognition, and international economic sanctions against the white government were organized.
1

Feb
Malcolm X, a major American Muslim leader, was murdered in New York.
2

Aug.–Sept
Second World Population Conference met in Belgrade.
3

Sept
UN Security Council and U Thant were able to implement a cease-fire in the India-Pakistan fighting in the continuing conflict over Kashmir.
4

Nov
The UN General Assembly established the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to merge a variety of activities and organizations.
5

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Dec
The UN General Assembly recommended mandatory sanctions against South Africa.
6

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1966
SOUTHERN AFRICA. The UN Security Council authorized the British use of force to maintain an oil embargo on Rhodesia (April), and the General Assembly terminated the South African mandate for Southwest Africa (Namibia). Soft landings on the moon were successfully made by the Soviet Luna 9 and the U.S. Surveyor 1.
1

2

Jan
The first block from the ancient Egyptian temple of Abu Simbel was placed in its new location to avoid flooding by the Aswan Dam. The huge temple-moving project was coordinated by UNESCO and was the result of a global effort to preserve major historic monuments.
3

March
The Archbishop of Canterbury visited Pope Paul VI, initiating efforts to reconcile the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches.
4

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1967
ARAB-ISRAELI CRISIS. Tensions between Israel and its neighboring Arab states increased significantly in the early months. The UN Emergency Force was withdrawn from Sinai. The SIXDAY WAR in June between Israel and the Arabs resulted in a major victory for Israel and the Israeli occupation of Sinai, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank territories. United Nations played a major role in organizing international discussions. At the Khartoum Conference, Arab heads of state agreed on a position of “no negotiation” with Israel. UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 242 provided an agreed-upon base, with international support, for a general peace settlement. Little progress was made in actual peace negotiations undertaken by the UN special envoy Gunnar Jarring in 1967–69. EXPO 67, the world exposition in Montreal, celebrated the centennial of Canada's dominion status. The People's Republic of China exploded its first hydrogen bomb.
1

2 3

Jan
Treaty of Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space was negotiated by the United States and the Soviet Union and signed by 62 states. It prohibited orbiting weapons of mass destruction and forbade separate claims to celestial territories.
4

May
The completion of the KENNEDY ROUND of negotiations under the GATT provided for significant tariff reductions and greater awareness of the trade problems of developing countries.
5

July

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1967. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

French president Charles de Gaulle promised French support for the separatist movement in Quebec during a state visit to Canada.

6

Nov
UN General Assembly unanimously adopted a declaration on the elimination of discrimination against women.
7

Dec
Dr. Christiaan Barnard in South Africa performed the first human heart transplant operation. The patient lived for 18 days. In 1968 another heart transplant patient of Barnard's lived for 19 months.
8

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1968
MAJOR STUDENT AND URBAN UNREST surfaced in many countries. In the United States, there were student demonstrations in many cities in opposition to U.S. involvement in Vietnam, and in the summer there were urban riots in Cleveland (July) and violent street demonstrations during the Democratic National Convention in Chicago (July). There were civil riots in Northern Ireland (Oct.) and a near revolution in FRANCE following violent student outbreaks and strikes by workers in a number of industries (May–June). Similar disturbances took place in West Germany (April), Poland, Mexico (Sept.), Brazil (March–April), Pakistan (Oct.), and Japan. The “Prague Spring,” involving political liberalization in Czechoslovakia, was crushed by a Soviet invasion (Aug.). Yusanari Kawabata, the Japanese novelist, received the Nobel Prize for Literature. The Olympic Games were held in Mexico City.
1

2 3

June
The UN General Assembly approved the NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY submitted by the UN Disarmament Committee, and 62 states ratified the agreement.
4

July
Pope Paul VI issued the encyclical Humanae vitae, which upheld the Church's traditional opposition to artificial methods of birth control, despite recognition by the papal advisory commission of the problems of global overpopulation.
5

Dec
The U.S. spacecraft Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft in circumlunar orbit.
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1969. July
The U.S. spacecraft Apollo 11 landed a lunar module on the surface of the MOON. Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the FIRST HUMANS TO WALK ON THE MOON. Apollo 12 completed the second manned lunar landing mission (Nov.).
1

Nov
United States and Soviet Union ratify the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The United States also unilaterally pledges not to utilize germ or chemical weapons, except in self-defense.
2

Nov.–Dec
STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATIONS TALKS (SALT) between the United States and the Soviet Union began.
3

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1970. Jan
The International Monetary Fund announced the completed allocation of special drawing rights (SDR), as part of a major revision of the Bretton Woods system.
1

Feb
Surrender of Biafra brought an end to the Nigeria civil war.
2

March
EXPO 70, the World Exposition, opened in Osaka, Japan. Foreign ministers from 24 Islamic countries held their first conference on cooperation in Jiddah and laid the foundation for the ISLAMIC CONFERENCE ORGANIZATION.
3

May
South Africa was expelled from the International Olympic Committee.
4

July
Pope Paul VI met with three leaders of independence movements in Portuguese African territories, and Portugal recalled its ambassador to the Vatican in protest.
5

Sept
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1970. Jan. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

UN Conference of the Committee on Disarmament approved a draft treaty banning nuclear weapons from the ocean floor. Conference of Non-Aligned Nations at Lusaka, Zambia, attended by delegates from 54 states. Resolutions were passed supporting liberation movements and in opposition to South Africa, Israel, and U.S. policy in Vietnam. Soviet unmanned spacecraft Luna 16 returned from the moon with rock samples. Death of Gamal Abdel Nasser removed a major figure from Arab and Third World international politics.

6

Oct
The Twenty-fifth session of the United Nations General Assembly reflected the significant changes taking place: a majority (but not the necessary two-thirds) approved the membership of the People's Republic of China; resolutions condemning colonialism dealt with small remnants of empires and were approved by many newly independent states and postindependence white regimes in southern Africa. Economic discussions were focused on the new world of developing countries, and the issues were those of development and neocolonialism rather than imperialism.
7

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b. New Global Relationships. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

b. New Global Relationships
By the 1970s, the continuing processes of globalization had taken many complex forms. At the same time that the networks of relationships in all areas of life were increasingly determined by global contexts, several older international structures were breaking down. The clearly structured world of the Bretton Woods system was replaced by a more global but anarchic international monetary system (See Evolution of International Economic Structures); the old bipolar world of the early cold war was rapidly being replaced by a polycentric world order. These trends were visible in culture and society as well.
1

1971
Bangladesh became an independent state in place of East Pakistan after postelection fighting brought the Pakistan army into conflict first with Bengali followers of Mujibur Rahman (May) and then with invading Indian armed forces (Dec.). U.S.-Chinese relations transformed. Informal contacts like the visit of the U.S. table tennis team to China (“Ping-Pong diplomacy”) were combined with the U.S. announcement that it was lifting the embargo on trade with China (June). In October, the United States supported the admission of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations, and in November it was announced that U.S. president Richard Nixon would visit China. Petroleum industry changes. Representatives of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) met with major oil companies to discuss oil prices (Jan.–Feb.). Algeria took control of 51 percent of French oil companies' operations in Algeria. West German chancellor Willy Brandt received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in lessening EastWest tension.
2

3

4

5

June

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International Court of Justice declared that South Africa's administration of Namibia was illegal and should be surrendered to the UN.

6

Oct
The changing context of global politics was revealed in the state visits of the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie to China, where he was welcomed by Mao Zedong, and of Soviet premier Kosygin to Morocco, where he was welcomed by King Hasan II.
7

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1972. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1972
Reduction of East-West tension continued. U.S. president Nixon visited the People's Republic of China (Feb.). In May Nixon made the first official visit of a U.S. president to the Soviet Union, giving an unprecedented televised address directly to the Soviet people and negotiating a number of agreements with Soviet leader Brezhnev. Important international monetary system modifications. In April the U.S. dollar was officially devalued, and discussions continued throughout the year regarding modifications of the international system. The IMF Committee of Twenty opened formal negotiations on reforming the monetary system (Nov.).
1

2

May
The Third UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) met in Chile and reached little agreement.
3

June
The UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm adopted a declaration of 26 international environmental guidelines; an important landmark in international environmental policy.
4

Aug.–Sept
The Olympic Games were held in Munich. “Black September” Palestinian terrorists seized 11 Israeli athletes as hostages. All were killed, and a West German police attack ended the incident.
5

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1973, Jan
VIETNAM PEACE AGREEMENT was signed in Paris by representatives of North and South Vietnam, the United States, and the Viet Cong. Considerable fighting continued in the broader region, but a second agreement strengthening the cease-fire was signed in June. International monetary instability continued throughout the year. Japan permitted the yen to float (Feb.)
1

2

March
Treaty outlawing trade in endangered species is signed by 80 countries in Washington.
3

Mar.–May
American Indian Movement occupied Wounded Knee in South Dakota, protesting the U.S. government's treatment of Native Americans and demanding rights and recognition.
4

Sept
Fourth Conference of Non-Aligned Nations, in Algiers, urged the establishment of a new world economic order.
5

Oct.–Dec

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1973, Jan. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

FOURTH ARAB-ISRAELI WAR. Egypt and Syria attacked territories occupied by Israel during the 1967 war in a new war that was costly to both sides and ended in an unstable cease-fire established under pressure from the Soviet Union and the United States. Arab petroleum-exporting countries placed an EMBARGO ON OIL SHIPMENTS to the United States, Western Europe, and Japan in retaliation for their support of Israel. The unstable oil situation resulted in shortages and price increases throughout the world. The immediate crisis ended with the convening of a peace conference between Israel and Arab states in Geneva (Dec.).

6

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1974
ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT continued to be an important international issue. With the aid of the “shuttle diplomacy” of U.S. secretary of state Henry Kissinger, Egypt and Israel signed a disengagement agreement for the Suez Canal zone (Jan.), and Syria and Israel signed a disengagement agreement for the Golan Heights (May). The Palestine Liberation Organization was recognized by the UN as the representative of the Palestinian people (Oct.) and granted observer status (Nov.). WORLDWIDE ENERGY CRISIS began with the Middle East conflict. OPEC did not reduce prices. A conference of 13 oil-consuming states in Washington (Feb.) agreed that the countries would cooperate in dealing with the energy crisis. In March, seven major oil-exporting countries agreed to lift the oil embargo on the United States. International monetary adjustments. International financial instability continued with the devaluation of the yen and franc (Jan.). The final meeting (June) of the IMF Committee of Twenty was able to adopt only interim rules, because of global inflation and balance-of-payments problems.
1

2

3

Feb
Islamic summit conference in Lahore was attended by representatives from 38 Islamic countries.
4

May
India exploded a nuclear device, making it the world's sixth atomic power. Portuguese Revolution overthrew the government, opening the way for democratization in Portugal and the independence of its colonies. Guinea-Bissau became independent in Sept.
5

June

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THIRD UN LAW OF THE SEA CONFERENCE convened in Caracas, with delegates and observers from 148 countries attending.

6

Sept
Haile Selassie was overthrown in the ETHIOPIAN REVOLUTION. The radical regime that ultimately came to power transformed Ethiopia from an ally of the United States into an ally of the Soviet Union.
7

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1975
Separatist movements. A number of countries saw the rise of important regional and ethnic separatist movements. In CYPRUS, Turkish Cypriots declared the northern part of the island to be a separate state (Feb.). Although the new state received no international recognition, it was supported by the Turkish Army, which controlled the area. In ETHIOPIA, the movement for the liberation of Eritrea continued, despite the change of regimes, and fighting intensified in some areas. In ANGOLA, rival liberation movements representing regional-ethnic groups fought each other as Portugal sought to grant independence to the country. ARAB-ISRAELI NEGOTIATIONS. As a result of the first Egyptian-Israeli disengagement agreement, the Suez Canal was reopened for shipping (June). A second disengagement agreement was signed by Egypt and Israel, expanding the area of Sinai from which Israeli forces withdrew. End of the Portuguese empire was virtually complete as independence was gained by Mozambique (June), São Tomé and Principe (July), the Cape Verde Islands (July), and Angola (Nov.).
1

2

3

Aug
CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE adopted a charter that was signed in Helsinki by the leaders of 33 European states, the United States, and Canada. It represented formal acceptance of the territorial changes at the end of World War II, and all signatories agreed to support human rights in their countries.
4

Nov
Meeting of the Assembly of the World Council of Churches in Nairobi, Kenya. The Assembly took strong positions on racism and sex discrimination, and elected two women, a Ghanaian jurist and a U. S. psychologist, to the six-member presidium.
5

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1976
Southern Africa. International actions regarding white regimes in Rhodesia and South Africa continued. U.S. secretary of state Henry Kissinger attempted to mediate, and a conference of Rhodesian leaders in Geneva (Oct.–Dec.) failed to produce agreements. Riots in Soweto (June) spread to other black townships in South Africa, drawing international attention. Transkei became the first independent black homeland in South Africa (Oct.), but it did not receive international recognition.
1

Jan
International monetary reform. Finance ministers from countries belonging to the IMF met in Jamaica and agreed on an arrangement in which values of currencies would “float” in the world market according to supply and demand.
2

June
ECONOMIC SUMMIT of the leaders of the seven major industrial countries (United States, Japan, West Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Canada) met in Puerto Rico to coordinate policies. This was the first meeting of what was to become the GROUP OF SEVEN (See Evolution of International Economic Structures).
3

July

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1976. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Indonesia launched a communications satellite, Palapa, into permanent orbit over the country. Indonesia joined the United States, Canada, and the Soviet Union as the only countries with domestic satellite systems for coordination of national communications systems. The summer Olympic Games were held in Montreal. Thirty-one countries did not participate, in protest against apartheid in South Africa, and the Canadian government excluded athletes from Taiwan.

4

Aug
Fifth Conference of the Non-Aligned Nations was held in Colombo. The major emphasis was on the economic world order, demanding better economic terms for developing countries.
5

Oct
Arab League summit conference in Cairo approved the establishment of an Arab peacekeeping force to assist in implementing a cease-fire in the growing civil war in Lebanon.
6

Dec
OPEC, meeting in Qatar, was divided over the prices to be set for oil for the first half of 1977. The deliberations showed that the producing countries, rather than the major companies, set global oil prices.
7

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1977. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1977
SOUTHERN AFRICA continued to be a focus of global attention. The Roman Catholic Church defied apartheid in South Africa by admitting blacks into previously all-white schools (Jan.), and South African bishops denounced government policies (Feb.). A UN-sponsored conference in Mozambique (May) urged self-determination for Zimbabwe and Namibia and an end to regimes of racial separation. The death of Steven Biko, a South African black leader, while in police custody (Sept.) led to major demonstrations and international protests, and 13 official representatives of Western states attended his funeral. ENERGY CRISIS. The global energy crisis was dealt with in many different ways. U.S. president Jimmy Carter announced a national energy program that aimed at, among other things, reducing U. S. reliance on imported oil. Nuclear power was an important subject discussed at the Group of Seven meeting in London.
1

2

May
Meeting of the Group of Seven in London was attended by the heads of the member governments and confirmed the plan to hold such meetings regularly.
3

June
The sixth assembly of the LUTHERAN WORLD FEDERATION was held in Tanzania. Bishop Josiah M. Kibira of Tanzania became the first African elected president of the federation. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) dissolved itself; members agreed that it had outlived its usefulness as a cold war weapon.
4

Sept

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1977. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Panama Canal Accords signed by the United States and Panama, arranging for Panama's eventual control of the canal and the Canal Zone.

5

Nov
The United States formally cancelled its membership in the International Labor Organization (ILO) because of the ILO's political positions. (The United States returned to the ILO in 1980.) A major Arab-Israeli peace initiative began when Egyptian president ANWAR SADAT traveled to Israel and addressed the Knesset. Active Egyptian-Israeli negotiations began following the address. Other Arab states opposed the Sadat initiative.
6

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1978. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1978
MIDDLE EAST PEACE NEGOTIATIONS between Egypt and Israel continued throughout the year. When they became deadlocked, U.S. president Carter intervened and hosted intensive negotiation sessions at CAMP DAVID (Sept.). The accords provided the basis for a later peace treaty. SPACE MILESTONES included the successful docking of Soviet spacecraft with the Salyut 6 manned space laboratory (Jan.) and a new endurance record of 139 days and 14 hours in space, set by two Soviet astronuats (Nov.). ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH experienced changes in leadership. Pope Paul VI died (Aug.) and Cardinal Luciani was elected his successor as Pope John Paul I. The sudden death of the newly elected Pope in Sept. led to the election of Cardinal Wojtyla as Pope John Paul II. Wojtyla, the archbishop of Kraków, was the first non-Italian to be elected pope since 1522. ISLAMIC REVOLUTION IN IRAN began with a series of antigovernment demonstrations throughout the year. By the end of the year, the shah, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, had clearly lost control, and power passed to the revolutionary movement led by AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI. This revolution marked the emergence to global prominence of Islamic revivalist forces and a major change in Middle Eastern and global power relationships.
1

2

3

4

May–June
Special session of the UN General Assembly convened to consider DISARMAMENT. UN organizations dealing with disarmament were restructured.
5

July

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1978. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The first documented birth of a “test-tube baby,” a human conceived outside of its mother's body, occurred in England. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) met in Khartoum. The presence of foreign troops in African conflicts dominated discussions, with radical states supporting Cuban and Soviet military involvement in Ethiopia, Angola, and elsewhere.

6

Nov
A religious commune in Guyana led by Jim Jones came to an end with the mass suicide of more than 900 followers. The San Francisco–based sect had established the commune, called Jonestown, in the mid-1970s.
7

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1979. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1979
Middle Eastern peace negotiations continued, and a PEACE TREATY between Egypt and Israel was signed in March. Other Arab states continued to oppose the Egyptian action, imposing an economic boycott on Egypt and severing diplomatic relations. The ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN was established with the departure of the shah (Jan.) and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini from exile (Feb.). The international effect was increased when militants seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran and held U.S. diplomats hostage. The UN Security Council and then the International Court of Justice called for the release of all hostages. Pope John Paul II made a series of international trips and affirmed a more conservative vision for the Church. He visited Latin America (Jan.), Poland (June), Ireland (Sept.), and the United States (Oct.).
1

2

3

March
A major accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the United States, reflecting the potential dangers of utilizing nuclear energy for electricity production.
4

April
The TOKYO ROUND OF NEGOTIATIONS UNDER THE GATT was completed, with agreement on significant reductions of tariffs. Rhodesian elections were held on the basis of universal sufferage, and Bishop Abel Muzorewa's party won a majority of seats in the Parliament. The election was repudiated by the UN Security Council (May). International negotiations continued, and a peace agreement allowing for political participation by the Patriotic Front was signed by all parties in December.
5

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1979. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

May
A draft treaty resulting from the seven years of SALT II negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union was completed and signed by Carter and Brezhnev in Vienna (June).
6

July
The International Whaling Commission banned all whale hunting in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, and much of the Indian Ocean.
7

Sept
The Sixth Summit Conference of the Non-Aligned Nations was held in Havana. Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia and foreign troops in Africa were important areas of disagreement.
8

Dec
The price of gold bullion on the London exchange closed the year at $524 per ounce. This reflected the transformation from the Bretton Woods system (which came to an end in 1971), in which gold was fixed at $35 per ounce.
9

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1980. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1980
U.S.-Soviet Relations entered a period of increased tension following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (Dec. 1979). The United States limited grain sales to the Soviet Union (Jan.) and led a boycott of the Olympic Games in Moscow (July). The Soviet invasion was also condemned by the UN General Assembly (Jan.) and the Islamic Conference Organization (May).
1

March
ROBERT MUGABE and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) won the new national elections in ZIMBABWE. Zimbabwe became the one hundred fifty-third member of the UN in August. Archbishop Oscar Romero, a major defender of human rights in El Salvador, was murdered while saying mass.
2

May
The World Health Organization announced the total eradication of SMALLPOX. The Mediterranean Action Plan of the UN Environment Program was expanded by a protocol in which all bordering states agreed to limit pollution from land sources.
3

Aug.–Oct
Labor unrest in POLAND led to the creation of independent unions and a national federation called SOLIDARITY, which advocated a program of political and economic reforms. The United States, NATO, and the European Community warned the Soviet Union not to intervene militarily in Poland. The formation and success of Solidarity was a major turning point in the end of communist rule in Eastern Europe.
4

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1980. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Sept
Saudi Arabia became full owner of Aramco, the largest company producing Saudi oil.
5

Nov
The U.S. spacecraft Voyager 1 sent important photographs and data about Saturn.
6

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1981. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1981
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) first identified and diagnosed as the cause of a deadly illness. Originally it was identified with homosexual males, but it was soon recognized that all elements of the population around the globe were susceptible. AIDS resisted all attempts at cures. Drug Trade. Under the Reagan and then Bush administrations, increasing attempts were made to intercept drug traffic and shut down drug growing and processing centers in Latin America. Space shuttle. The United States launched the first space shuttle, Columbia, in April, and then successfully relaunched it in November.
1

2

3

Jan
U.S. hostages were released by the Iranian government after 444 days in captivity.
4

May
The World Health Organization voted overwhelmingly to discourage the use of baby formulas in Third World countries.
5

July
The leaders of the G-7 countries held a summit in Ottowa to coordinate economic policies.
6

Sept

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1981. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

After 300 years of British control, Belize (former British Honduras) became independent.

7

Oct
ANWAR SADAT was killed by Muslim terrorists in Cairo because of his peace initiative and his secular policies. His successor, Hosni Mubarak, affirmed his dedication to continuing the policies of Sadat.
8

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1982. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1982
REGIONAL WARS were an important part of international affairs. The FALKLAND ISLANDS/ MALVINAS WAR (March–June): Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands (March), asserting its claim to the British colony. In response the British sent a major military force, which defeated the Argentine forces and recaptured all territories. The LEBANESE WAR: In the course of a continuing civil war in Lebanon and continuing Israeli-Palestinian conflict across the southern Lebanese border, ISRAEL invaded southern Lebanon (June) and rapidly gained control of the region. The invasion and then bombardment of Beirut aroused large-scale international protest. After many incidents, Israel pulled back from Beirut but maintained an occupation force in much of the south at the end of the year. IRAN-IRAQ WAR: the war that had begun with Iraq's invasion of Iran in 1980 entered a new phase in 1982 with a successful Iranian counteroffensive and a shift in the balance of fighting. International meetings of many different types showed some of the difficulties in developing coordinated policies and actions on a global scale. A conference on East-West cooperation in Madrid (March) adjourned when discussions reached an impasse. The Second General Assembly Special Session on Disarmament (July) was unable to reach any agreement. Despite a meeting at the ministerial level of OPEC regarding prices and production quotas (July), the states remained strongly divided. The regularly scheduled summit conference of the Organization of African Unity was canceled because of a dispute over Chad's representation.
1

2

May
The completion of the LAW OF THE SEA TREATY was a major success for international negotiations. The Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea drafted the treaty, which represented eight years of negotiations (1973–82) and was a comprehensive agreement governing the use of the seas and their resources.
3

June

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1982. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The eighth summit of the leaders of the G-7 countries dealt with political issues, like the wars in the south Atlantic and in Lebanon, as well as economic issues.

4

Sept
Conestoga 1, the first successful privately developed launch vehicle, completed a suborbital flight.
5

1983
SEPARATIST MOVEMENTS were important elements in international affairs. In INDIA, Sikh militants in Punjab, Muslims in Kashmir, and activists in Assam all mounted serious opposition to the government. An Armenian militant group, the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia was responsible for a series of bombings, including one in a Paris airport that killed five people (July). Violence involving Tamil separatists in Sri Lanka resulted in nearly 400 deaths in July and August. The French banned the Corsican Liberation Front, a separatist group that had taken credit for many bombings during 1982.
6

Feb
U.S. and Soviet negotiators resumed Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) in Geneva.
7

March
Summit Meeting of the Conference of the Non-Aligned Nations in Delhi reflected the lessening influence of pro-Soviet radicals.
8

June
The U.S. spacecraft Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Neptune and became the first human-made vehicle to pass out of the solar system.
9

July–Aug
The Sixth General Assembly of the World Council of Churches met in Vancouver. Deliberations gave attention to matters of shared worship and approved a document on war and peace.
10

Sept
Soviet fighter planes shot down a South Korean commercial airliner, Korean Air Lines flight 007. An international diplomatic incident followed.
11

Oct

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1982. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Lech Walesa, the leader of Poland's Solidarity movement, received the Nobel Peace Prize.

12

Dec
The United States gave formal notice of its intention to terminate its membership in UNESCO by the end of 1984.
13

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1984. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1984
The U.S. Goddard Spaceflight Center estimated there were 1,462 spacecrafts and satellites in space.
1

Jan
The summit meeting of the Islamic Conference Organization in Morocco voted to invite Egypt to return to the organization. Egypt's membership had been suspended when it signed peace accords with Israel.
2

May
The International Court of Justice ruled on a complaint brought by Nicaragua that the United States should cease and refrain from mining Nicaraguan ports.
3

July
The summer Olympic Games were held in Los Angeles. Athletes from a record 140 countries participated.
4

Aug
The UN International Conference on Population convened in Mexico City with representatives from 149 countries. The most disputed subject was abortion. The United States actively opposed proposals including abortion and had announced (June) that it would not provide aid for international population programs that included abortion.
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1984. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Oct
Soviet cosmonauts set a new record, spending 237 days in space. The famine in Ethiopia aroused a global relief effort led by governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Violent Sikh separatism continued throughout the year, and in October a Sikh extremist murdered INDIRA GANDHI, the prime minister of India.
6

Nov
Morocco withdrew from the Organization of African Unity because of its recognition of the Western Sahara nationalist group.
7

Dec
A toxic gas leak from a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India, killed 2,500 (or more) people. The catastrophe initiated much debate about the role of multinational corporations and their responsibilities in developing countries.
8

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1985, Jan. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1985, Jan
Pope Shenuda III was allowed to return to Cairo to resume his duties as leader of the COPTIC CHURCH. In 1981 he had been ordered by the Egyptian government to go to a desert monastery. The United States announced that it would cease to participate in the case brought against it by Nicaragua in the International Court of Justice.
1

Feb
New Zealand refused to allow a U.S. warship to visit New Zealand unless the United States certified that it did not carry nuclear weapons. This was viewed by the United States as weakening the ANZUS ALLIANCE.
2

April
A special meeting of nonaligned states was held in BANDUNG, Indonesia, to mark the thirtieth anniversary of the original conference of nonaligned states. Representatives from 80 countries attended, in contrast to the 29 at the original conference.
3

July

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1985, Jan. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

LIVE AID CONCERTS in London and Philadelphia were watched on television by more than 1.5 billion people worldwide and raised more than $71 million for the Band Aid Fund to combat starvation in Africa. The show was arranged by rock musician Bob Geldof. A meeting of OPEC oil ministers was unable to agree on prices or production quotas. OPEC's share of the world market had gone down in the past decade, from 53 percent to 30 percent, because of increased competition from non-OPEC producers in the North Sea and Mexico. In a later meeting (Dec.) the oil ministers agreed to abandon quotas and compete directly in the world market. Rainbow Warrior, a ship belonging to the activist environmental group GREENPEACE, was sunk by French agents in an effort to prevent protests against French nuclear testing in the Pacific. The UN Conference to mark the end of the UN DECADE FOR WOMEN was held in Nairobi. The record of the past decade was assessed, and goals were set for future action.

4

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1986. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1986
Wole Soyinka, Nigerian playwright and poet, received the Nobel Prize for literature.
1

Jan
The U.S. space shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after it was launched. All seven persons aboard were killed, including S. Christa McAuliffe, a schoolteacher who was the first private citizen to fly on a shuttle.
2

Feb
The Dalai Lama, exiled Tibetan Buddhist leader, met with Pope John Paul II in India. The U.S. Senate ratified the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 37 years after it had been submitted by President Truman.
3

Mar
The Giotto spacecraft launched by the European Space Agency sent back data about the nucleus of Halley's Comet.
4

April
U.S. warplanes bombed Libya in retaliation for terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens. The CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT in the Soviet Union (Ukraine) experienced a major accident. Severely high levels of radioactivity were detected throughout northern and eastern Europe.
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5

1986. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

May
The annual economic summit of the leaders of the G-7 countries was held in Tokyo.
6

June
The UN General Assembly approved a Program of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development. It was the first time that such action had been taken for a specific region.
7

July
The leader of the Turkish republic in northern Cyprus rejected UN efforts to unseal the border that divided the island.
8

Sept
Summit meeting of the Conference of Non-Aligned Nations in Zimbabwe. It issued a call for selective sanctions against South Africa.
9

Sept.–Oct
The U.S. Congress overrode a veto by President Reagan, legislating strict U.S. economic sanctions against South Africa.
10

Oct
World Day of Prayer for Peace in Assisi, Italy, was attended by leaders of 12 different religious traditions.
11

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1987. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1987
The UN secretary general declared a Yugoslavian boy born in 1987 to be the world's five billionth inhabitant.
1

June
Thirteenth annual summit meeting of the leaders of the G-7 countries was held in Venice. There was some discussion of the need to protect oil tankers in the Persian Gulf, because of the continuing IranIraq War.
2

Aug
UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) discussed debt problems of developing countries and the need for encouraging trade.
3

Sept
La Francophonie, a new organization of 41 French-speaking states and territories, met in Quebec. The province of Quebec was recognized in a Canadian constitutional revision (May) as a distinct society within the confederation.
4

Oct
The Commonwealth of Nations, meeting in Vancouver, remained divided over the issue of sanctions on South Africa.
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5

1987. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Dec
Summit meeting between U.S. president Reagan and Soviet general secretary Gorbachev in Washington. They signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, providing for demolition of intermediate-range missiles and continuous mutual verification inspections. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) held its first summit meeting, in Manila, in more than a decade and only the third in its 20-year history.
6

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1988. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1988
Naguib Mahfouz, the Egyptian novelist, received the Nobel Prize for literature. United Nations peacekeeping forces received the Nobel Peace Prize. A new novel, The Satanic Verses, by Salman Rushdie was banned in some Muslim countries because censors thought it dealt blasphemously with the Prophet Muhammad.
1 2 3

May
U.S. president Reagan and Soviet leader Gorbachev held their fourth summit meeting, during Reagan's visit to Moscow. U.S. and Soviet representatives signed nine different agreements on subjects ranging from student exchanges to fisheries to arms control. The formal documents of ratification of the INF TREATY were exchanged.
4

June
The G-7 summit met in Toronto and discussed farm subsidies and the economic needs of developing countries.
5

July
U.S. missiles mistakenly shot down an Iranian commercial airliner in the Persian Gulf during U.S. naval escort operations to protect oil shipping. Ayatollah Khomeini accepted the UN Security Council cease-fire resolution relating to the Iran-Iraq War. Hostilities came to an end on August 20 in a war in which more than one million people had been killed.
6

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1988. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Sept
Growing global interest in environmental affairs was reflected in Sweden. In national elections, the Green Environmental Party won 20 seats in the 349-seat Swedish Riksdag. It was the first new party to win representation in 70 years.
7

Oct
The U.S. government formally charged the Bank of Credit and Commerce International with conspiracy to launder drug money in a huge global financial network. BCCI operated in more than 70 countries, with assets of more than $20 billion. The charges had an impact on financial institutions around the world.
8

Dec
Southern African agreement signed by Angola, Cuba, and South Africa. The accord granted independence to Namibia. South Africa agreed to withdraw from Namibia in return for Cuba's withdrawal from Angola.
9

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1989. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1989
YEAR OF POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION. In a remarkable series of rapid changes, many of the established political systems and seemingly permanent networks of relationships experienced significant alterations. END OF COMMUNIST SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPE. In the countries of Eastern Europe, popular demonstrations brought an end to the rule of the Communist Party. In East Germany, the old rulers were out of power by October, and by the end of the year the Berlin wall was being torn down. Hungary had its first free, multiparty elections in 42 years (Nov.). In Czechoslovakia, communist leaders stepped down, and in December, the dissident playwright Vaclav Havel was elected president. Solidarity won a decisive victory in the elections in Poland in June. Communist regimes also came to an end in Bulgaria (Nov.) and Romania (Dec.). In the SOVIET UNION itself, the Baltic republics were beginning to assert their independence, and the core political system was being rapidly reformed by Gorbachev.
1

Feb
Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran issued a ruling condemning Salman Rushdie, the author of The Satanic Verses, to death for blasphemy. Many Muslims around the world opposed the sale or display of the book. Other groups defended Rushdie's freedom of expression.
2

April–May
Pro-democracy demonstrations in CHINA brought thousands of students and workers to Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The demonstrations were suppressed by military force after they had captured the world's attention for a number of weeks.
3

May

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1989. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Egypt resumed its membership in the Arab League; it had been suspended after the signing of a peace treaty with Israel in 1979.

4

Sept
Summit meeting of the Conference of Non-Aligned Nations held in Belgrade. Declarations were less radical than in previous years.
5

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1990. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1990
Tim Berners-Lee, a British engineer, launched what became the WORLD WIDE WEB for information retrieval.
1

1990 Ff
Intensification of economic globalization.
2

1990
POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS CONTINUED. Dramatic political change continued to be a major theme in global affairs during 1990. Significant changes in rulers or in political systems occurred in widely different areas. In SOUTH AFRICA, steps were taken to end the apartheid system. Nelson Mandela, the leader of the African National Congress, was freed from prison (Feb.) and began significant negotiations with the government. Following the end of communist rule in East Germany, GERMANY WAS REUNITED (Oct.). Previously authoritarian regimes agreed to significant democratization in Nepal (April), Chile (March), Mongolia (March), Zambia (Oct.), and Bangladesh (Dec.). Free elections were also held in Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Haiti (Dec.), although subsequent events made democracy short-lived in these countries. Throughout the year, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia continued to break up into their constituent parts.
3

March
Japan became the third country, after the United States and the Soviet Union, to place a satellite in orbit around the moon.
4

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1990. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

April
EARTH DAY celebrated by an estimated 200 million people from 140 countries in a major global expression of concern for the environment.
5

Aug
PERSIAN GULF WAR began when Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait. An international response led by the United States and coordinated through the United Nations developed. By the end of the year, a large multinational force was set to enforce UN resolutions calling for Iraqi withdrawal.
6

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1991. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1991
NEW STATES EMERGING. In the Soviet Union, the process of disintegration was relatively orderly. Early in the year, power-sharing arrangements were developed and these were quickly passed. By September the Baltic republics were already new members of the United Nations. The remaining republics signed an agreement of economic cooperation (Oct.), and in December created the Commonwealth of Independent States. In YUGOSLAVIA, the disintegration involved conflict. Croatia and Slovenia declared independence by the end of the year, and open civil war among the various ethnic groups began in some areas. Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the democratic opposition in Myanmar, received the Nobel Peace Prize. Nadine Gordimer, South African novelist and opponent of apartheid, received the Nobel Prize for literature.
1

2

3

Jan.–Feb
In January the UN forces, led by the United States, attacked Iraqi positions in Kuwait and bombed targets throughout Iraq. The military victory of the UN forces came rapidly, and at the end of February U.S. president Bush declared the war to be over.
4

Feb
The Warsaw Pact states voted to dissolve the organization's military structures.
5

Aug

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1991. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Ontario Native Americans and Ontario provincial officials signed an agreement recognizing the right of self-government for the Native Americans in the province.

6

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1992. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1992
Divisions of states. The breakup of existing states was an important aspect of world affairs. The Soviet Union completed its transformation into a group of independent states that had been republics in the former union. Yugoslavia experienced increasingly violent conflict among the constituent parts of the former federation. Serbian opposition to the other groups was a main theme, and Serb forces attacked Bosnia and Herzegovina, which voted for independence in February. Czechoslovakia peacefully moved toward becoming two separate republics, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, by the beginning of 1993. Throughout the year, CANADA debated constitutional changes that included self-government for Native Americans and special status for Quebec, but the issues were not resolved by the end of the year.
1

Jan
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, an Egyptian, became the sixth secretary general of the United Nations. An agreement bringing peace to El Salvador after 12 years of civil war was signed in Mexico City. Outgoing UN secretary general Javier Pérez de Cuéllar had successfully mediated the resolution to the conflict.
2

Feb
U.S. president Bush and Russian president Yeltsin signed a statement of general principles that brought a formal END TO THE COLD WAR.
3

June

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1992. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro. Leaders from 178 countries attended, signing agreements that emphasized the necessity of global approaches to environmental issues.

4

July–Aug
Summer Olympic Games were held in Barcelona. They were the first summer games since 1972 to be unaffected by a political boycott, and South African athletes competed for the first time in 32 years.
5

Sept
Meeting of the Conference of Non-Aligned Nations was held in Jakarta. Delegates from 108 states discussed the role of the nonaligned movement in the post–cold war era. It was concluded that the movement still had an obligation to represent the poorer countries of the world. The International Court of Justice resolved a border dispute between Honduras and El Salvador that had lasted more than a century.
6

Dec
U.S. troops acting in the name of the United Nations arrived in Somalia to assist in the distribution of emergency famine relief. Because of anarchic civil war conditions, there was no functioning government in Somalia.
7

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1993. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1993
The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to NELSON MANDELA and F. W. DE KLERK for their achievement in bringing about a peaceful transition to nonracial democracy in South Africa.
1

Jan
U.S. president Bush and Russian president Yeltsin initialed the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, which called for significant reductions.
2

Feb
The World Trade Center in New York City was bombed by terrorists. A group of people from a number of Muslim countries were arrested.
3

April
Eritreans by referendum overwhelmingly approved of total independence from Ethiopia.
4

May
The International Whaling Commission rejected Japanese proposals for limited whaling in its coastal waters.
5

June
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1993. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

A UN-supervised election in CAMBODIA brought Norodom Sihanouk, the former monarch, to power at the head of a coalition government as a part of the ending of the long-lasting civil war.

6

July
Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, an Egyptian Muslim cleric, was detained by the United States for possible involvement in the bombing of the World Trade Center and a major terrorist plot for other attacks.
7

Sept
ISRAEL and the PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION, with the assistance of the U. S., signed a peace agreement bringing a formal end to decades of conflict and beginning a process of creating structures for peaceful coexistence.
8

Nov
The TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (Maastricht Treaty) officially took effect following ratification by each of the twelve members of the European Community, which was transformed into the EUROPEAN UNION.
9

Dec
The Uruguay round of negotiations in GATT was concluded with an agreement by 117 states which transformed the structure of GATT into the WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION as well as making major changes in trade regulations.
10

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1993. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1994, Jan. 25. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1994, Jan. 25
International talks began in Geneva on banning the testing of nuclear weapons. The five nuclear powers of Great Britain, China, France, Russia, and the U.S., as well as 32 other states, participated.
1

Feb. 1
The UN appointed its first human rights chief, Jose Ayala Lasso of Ecuador. This position is responsible for monitoring human rights violations and discussing them with relevant governments.
2

April 15
One hundred twenty-five countries of GATT signed a pact to liberalize international trade regulations in hopes of boosting international trade; environmental and labor groups opposed these initiatives.
3

Aug. 7–11
The tenth International Conference on AIDS was held in Yokohama, Japan. Participants discussed the lack of an imminent cure, the importance of preventive measures, and the increased threat posed by the disease in Asia.
4

Sept. 5–13
The UN held its third International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt, discussing the threat of overpopulation, particularly in developing countries. Major abortion debates occurred. In the majority report emphasis was placed on improving women's access to education.
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5

1994, Jan. 25. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1995, Jan. 3. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1995, Jan. 3
The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that there were more than a million AIDS cases worldwide.
1

Feb. 26
The Bank of England announced the bankruptcy of Barings PLC, Britain's oldest merchant bank, founded in 1762. A force in international banking and, earlier, in imperial finance, the bank failed because of unauthorized speculation by Nicholas Leeson, an employee in Singapore.
2

March 6–13
The UN held its first World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Discussion centered around the eradication of poverty and the hoped-for achievement of full employment. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali urged patience. An action plan for upholding workers' rights was created.
3

March 14
Norman Thagard became the first U.S. astronaut to go into space on a Russian rocket, showing the commitment of Russia and the United States to a new joint exploration of space.
4

March 28–April 7

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1995, Jan. 3. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The UN held a summit on global warming called the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. More than 120 countries attended the conference, which took place in Berlin, agreeing to set specific goals for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2000.

5

Aug. 4
For both environmental and peace reasons, the UN set an international pact to lower fishing rates and decrease conflicts over fishing areas.
6

Sept. 4–15
The UN held its fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. The delegates endorsed a “Platform for Action” to work on stopping violence against women, giving women economic and political power, and funding programs to support these initiatives.
7

Oct. 22–24
The largest gathering of world leaders convened at UN headquarters to celebrate the UN's 50th anniversary. Crime and conflict were discussed.
8

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1996, March 1-2. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1996, March 1–2
The first trade summit of 25 European and Asian nations met in Thailand to discuss strengthening trade ties; they avoided any conversation on human rights.
1

June 27
United Nations International Criminal Tribunal in The Hague indicted eight Bosnian Serbs on charges of rape. This was the first time that rape was officially identified as a war crime.
2

July 7–11
The 11th International Conference on AIDS was held in Vancouver, Canada. Discussions centered around significant research gains and new drug treatments recently discovered, as well as the growing threat of AIDS in India.
3

July 30
The G7 countries, the world's seven largest economies, met to discuss increasing measures to prevent terrorism on an international basis and to impose punitive measures on terrorists.
4

Sept. 24
The U.S., Great Britain, China, France, and Russia signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, forbidding any testing of nuclear weapons.
5

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1996, March 1-2. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1997, Jan. 1. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1997, Jan. 1
Kofi Annan, a native of Ghana, was sworn in as the UN's new secretary general, replacing Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who was not reelected due in large part to pressure from the United States.
1

Feb. 13
Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland announced the first successful cloning of an adult mammal, a sheep named Dolly.
2

Feb. 15
More than 65 countries agreed to a global telecommunications accord that opened their markets to foreign competition.
3

April 27
The G7 met and expressed concern over the continuing rise of the U.S. dollar, especially in relation to the Japanese yen. The group threatened to intervene in international currency markets to stabilize the dollar.
4

May 11
Deep Blue, a computer program developed by IBM, defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in a highly publicized match by a score of 3½ to 2½ games.
5

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1997, Jan. 1. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

June 23–27
Sixty heads of state and delegates from 180 countries attended a UN conference on the environment called Earth Summit. Considerable tension between richer and poorer nations heightened divisions, however, and little was actually decided.
6

July 16
Kofi Annan announced a reform package restructuring the internal organization of the UN.
7

Sept. 17
Eighty-nine countries met in Oslo and agreed to a treaty banning the use, production, transfer, and stockpiling of landmines.
8

Dec. 1–11
The UN held a global warming summit in Kyoto, Japan, setting the first global limits on greenhouse gas emissions to standards below then-current levels.
9

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1998. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

1998
In Angola, war raged between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). Although the UN had spent some $1.6 billion between 1994 and 1998 in peacekeeping funds, the terrible fighting continued, and the UN withdrew its forces.
1

Feb. 13
Nigerian troops defeated the Sierra Leonese military government, previously led by rebel militant Lt. Col. Johnny Paul Koromah, and ousted him from power. This Nigerian intervention helped restore Pres. Kabbah to power after ten months of exile. However, Sierra Leone remained a problem for the UN and other international organizations, because the two main rebel forces continued fighting government forces in Sierra Leone's civil war.
2

Feb. 23
Former ANC leaders P. W. Botha and F. W. de Klerk appeared before the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, created by Pres. Nelson Mandela, to be questioned concerning their roles in the old apartheid system.
3

April 19

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1998. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Leaders of the Western Hemisphere signed a joint declaration regarding the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), originally brokered in 1994. In addition to trade issues, human rights, education, and drug trafficking, the conference agreed to give greater agency to the Organization of American States (OAS) to monitor the progress of efforts to control the illegal drug trade and passed measures to strengthen Latin America's weak judicial systems.

4

May 6
A brutal border war broke out between Ethiopia and Eritrea as conflicts over the 150-mile border area known as Badame carried over from struggles surrounding Eritrean independence in 1993.
5

May 11–13
India caused international controversy by conducting five successful nuclear-weapons tests. Meanwhile, many of the world's other nuclear powers were engaged in negotiations to gradually disarm and to ban the testing of nuclear weapons. India faced reproach and sanctions from the UN and the United States.
6

May 11 and July 13
The Organization of American States (OAS) was successful in intervening as an outside observer in elections in Paraguay and Ecuador, respectively. Argued as fraudulent by opposition parties within each country, both elections met OAS standards for fairness.
7

May 28–30
Pakistan conducted atomic-weapons testing (See 1998, May 28–30).
8

June 21
A temporary cease-fire was called in Burundi's five-year-old civil war (See 1998, June 21). The death toll by late 2000 rose to over 200,000. On Aug. 28, 2000, a short-lived peace accord was witnessed by former South African president Nelson Mandela and U.S. president Bill Clinton.
9

Aug. 20
In response to the Aug. 7 bomb attacks on U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, the U.S. sent cruise missiles and destroyed a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility in Sudan that was allegedly producing chemical weapons. Simultaneously, the U.S. attacked military targets in Afghanistan.
10

Sept. 4
A UN tribunal sentenced former prime minister of Rwanda Jean Kambanda to a life sentence for his role in the Rwandan genocidal killing of nearly half a million people between 1994 and 1999.
11

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1998. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Oct. 23
In a historic peace agreement, Israeli prime minister Netanyahu, Palestinian National Authority (PNA) president Yasir Arafat, King Hussein of Jordan, and U.S. president Bill Clinton convened to sign the Wye River Peace Accords. The agreement established a preliminary plan for the gradual transfer of the West Bank to Palestinian control and the freeing of some 750 Palestinian prisoners in the process.
12

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Oct. 26
A long-standing border dispute between Peru and Ecuador was resolved through the signing of a treaty.
1

Nov. 2
A two-week-long environmental conference opened in Buenos Aires, attended by delegates from over 160 nations, most of them members of the UN. Aimed at implementing the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, the conference ended on Nov. 14 with the “Buenos Aires Action Plan.” This was a proposal in which industrialized nations agreed on worldwide strategies for carrying out emissions reductions for vehicles with internal combustion engines.
2

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Oct. 26. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1999, Jan 1. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1999, Jan 1
Pres. Charles Taylor of Liberia was internationally exposed by the UN as a supporter of rebels in Sierra Leone's civil war through his illegal diamonds-for-arms trading (See 2000, Dec. 20).
1

Jan. 13
In a huge international human rights advance, Senegal banned female circumcision.
2

March 11
In a UN summit, U.S. president Clinton announced equalization plans for immigration restrictions on Central Americans wishing to enter the U.S. This plan would allow for about 240,000 additional legal refugees to reside in the U.S.
3

April 5
The international embargo of Libya was ended as Pres. Qaddafi handed over two men suspected of perpetrating the 1988 bombing of a Pan American World Airways plane during flight 103. The aircraft exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland, leaving at least 270 persons dead.
4

April 21

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1999, Jan 1. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The U.S. Congress accused China of stealing nuclear secrets from its classified reports over the past twenty years. Sino-American relations further deteriorated when on May 7 U.S. forces mistakenly bombed the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, killing 3 and wounding 27 more. The U.S. had been engaged in an attack on Yugoslavia.

5

April 23–25
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) celebrated its 50th anniversary.
6

April 30
The Organization of African Unity (OAU) imposed diplomatic and economic sanctions on Comoros, a nation of small African islands, after a military coup led by Col. Azzaly Assoumani overthrew the government (See 1999, April 30).
7

May 26–June 10
The India-Pakistan conflict that had prompted recent nuclear displays escalated as international peace talks concerning Jammu-Kashmir stalled. The Indian Air Force launched air strikes, and the army sent in ground troops to Jammu-Kashmir. By July 26 Pakistan was forced to withdraw the troops it had supplied to the Kashmiri rebels. Intermittent fighting between Indian troops and Islamic rebel forces in Jammu-Kashmir continued.
8

June 2
Nelson R. Mandela retired from the presidency of South Africa, establishing himself as one of the world's most recognized and revered statesmen.
9

June 29
A two-day international summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representatives met from Mercosur (South American Common Market) and the European Union to discuss gradual free-trade efforts between the two continents. A tentative objective was to establish some sort of free-trade agreement by the year 2005.
10

July 9
Japan reached a comprehensive trade agreement with China, lowering duties on various important commodities and securing Japanese backing for China's application to join the World Trade Organization (WTO).
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July 10

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1999, Jan 1. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Pres. Lee Teng-hui of Taiwan announced the island's abandonment of the longstanding “One China” policy in a declaration of Taiwanese autonomy. Lee now held that Taiwan would deal with China on a “state to state basis” (See July 10).

12

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Aug. 30. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Aug. 30
In a UN-led referendum, the people of East Timor voted by an overwhelming majority for independence from Indonesia.
1

Aug. 31
After the signing of a weak peace accord by the six involved nations (Rwanda, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Angola, and Zimbabwe), the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo intensified when conflict erupted between the previously allied nations of Uganda and Rwanda on Congolese soil. The violence and military occupation did not end until UN peacekeeping intervention was successful on July 19, 2000 (See Aug. 31).
2

Sept
Australia was the leading military force when the UN intervened in East Timor to prevent violence by pro-Indonesian forces against the East Timorese in reaction to independence votes.
3

Sept. 12–16
Zambia hosted the Eleventh International AIDS Conference in the capital city of Lusaka. Southern Africa continued to be the region most devastated by HIV/AIDS in the world, with UN estimates citing Botswana as the world's most afflicted country, 36 percent of the country's population being infected with HIV/AIDS. One-fifth to one-fourth of the populations of Zambia, Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland were also infected, according to UN estimates.
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Aug. 30. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Sept. 14
The Pacific island nations of Nauru and Kiribati were admitted to the UN. Tuvalu attained UN membership the following year.
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Oct. 12
The UN applied heavy sanctions and showed great disdain as Pakistan's government was taken over in a bloodless military coup. This occurred after Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attempted to dismiss his army chief of staff, Gen. Pervez Musharraf. In a situation that would soon lead to charges of terrorism and hijacking against Sharif, Musharraf took control through martial law and suspended the powers of the Pakistani constitution. This takeover marked the first time in world history that a military regime had gained control over an affirmed nuclear power.
6

Nov. 6
In a national referendum, voters in Australia elected to cut the last ties with Britain and become a completely independent republic.
7

Nov. 14
Refusing to turn over ex-Saudi millionaire and terrorist leader Osama bin Laden to the U.S. for prosecution, Taliban-led Afghanistan faced increased UN and U.S. economic sanctions.
8

Nov. 30
Riots against World Bank meetings in Seattle, Washington united environmental, labor, and other protesters against globalization. In the following year disruption also occurred in Switzerland, Washington, D.C., and the Czech Republic.
9

Dec. 20
Macao was returned to Chinese sovereignty after 442 years as a Portuguese colony.
10

Dec. 31
Panama formally took control over the Panama Canal from the U.S.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Aug. 30. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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2000, Jan. 21. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

2000, Jan. 21
In Ecuador, an Indian-supported army coup overthrew Pres. Jamil Mahuad Witt, who was replaced by V.P. Gustavo Noboa Bejarano the following day. This was the first military coup to overthrow a government in Latin America in almost ten years (See 2000, Jan. 21).
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Jan. 20
Turkish foreign minister Ismail Cem and Greek foreign minister George Papandreou signed six peace accords, greatly improving foreign relations between Turkey and Greece. This marked the first visit by a Greek foreign minister to Turkey in 38 years.
2

March 2
After extradition from Britain, former Chilean leader Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, who faced charges of torture, murder, and other serious war crimes, was returned to Chile. Pinochet was stripped of his immunity from prosecution by the Chilean Supreme Court on Aug. 8, and preparations for his internationally awaited trial were made. In addition to facing fourteen charges in Chile alone, Pinochet was sought for prosecution by Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, and Paraguay.
3

May 7
The RUF rebel forces in Sierra Leone's civil war took 500 UN peacekeeping troops hostage; it was not until July 15 that the last of these hostages were rescued. The UN created an international tribunal to begin trying war criminals in Sierra Leone on Aug. 14.
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2000, Jan. 21. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

May 24
Southern Lebanon suddenly came under Hizbollah control when Israeli forces and 3,000 Christian militiamen withdrew from the area after 22 years of occupation.
5

June 13–15
South Korean president Kim Dae Jung and North Korean president Kim Jung Il met for peace and unification talks in Pyongyang. Greatly calming tensions between the two nations, the summit marked the first meeting of the leaders of those countries.
6

Aug. 15–18
Peace conferences throughout the summer allowed dozens of families that had been separated since the war to be reunited in Seoul, South Korea. As a result of his efforts to promote peace, Kim Dae Jung was awarded the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize.
7

July 8–14
The Thirteenth International AIDS conference was held in Durban, South Africa.
8

Aug
The U.S. government approved aid of $1.3 billion to Colombia in order to fund efforts to constrain drug trafficking in that nation.
9

Sept. 6–8
More than 150 world leaders met at the Millennium Summit, marking the largest gathering of international heads of state in world history.
10

Sept. 28
After Palestinian-Israeli talks had failed in late July due to disagreement over problems in East Jerusalem, the worst violence seen in the region since 1996 erupted and continued through the end of the year.
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Nov. 20
In Peru, the internationally criticized president Alberto Fujimori finally resigned and was replaced by Valentin Paniagua Corazao (See Nov. 20).
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2000, Jan. 21. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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Dec. 10. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Dec. 10
Pursuing the goals of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, delegates from 122 nations met in Johannesburg, South Africa to discuss a treaty that would ban 12 highly toxic chemicals that have historically proved detrimental to humans and the environment. Clean-up funds were pledged. The meeting was considered by some to be an unsuccessful reiteration of the Kyoto Protocol, but it was agreed that the resultant proposed treaty would take effect only when 50 or more nations had ratified it.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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B. Europe, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Economic and Social Changes )

B. Europe, 1945–2000 1. Economic and Social Changes
As in 1918, Europe after the Second World War was in ruins. Estimates of the dead range as high as 50 million, although national tolls varied greatly, from 20 million Russians to 460,000 British and Commonwealth subjects. Overall, the losses in Central and Eastern Europe far outnumbered those in Western Europe. As for the survivors, roads and major cities were clogged with displaced persons, resulting in great migrational flows. Throughout the Continent material costs were also staggering: cities had been reduced to rubble, transportation networks had been destroyed, and farms and coal mines were wastelands. Finally, the war left a divided Europe in its wake. The course of reconstruction and the features of the postwar economy and society thus differed between Western and Eastern Europe. Despite such destruction, Western Europe experienced virtually unprecedented prosperity within 15 years; by 1963 it was producing more than two and a half times as much as it had before the war. Economic growth rates soared for almost two decades, particularly in Germany, France, and Italy, and standards of living reached unprecedented levels. France, for example, attained an 8 percent annual growth rate by the end of the 1950s, continued at a somewhat slower rate during the 1960s, and rose again, to 7 percent, in the early 1970s. Meanwhile real wages in France experienced a sixfold increase between 1950 and 1980. The base of this growth was consumer goods—cars, radios, televisions, and the like—prompting many to label this period in European history the consumer society. Much of this economic growth developed out of the European Recovery Program, or the Marshall Plan. The plan, announced by the United States in June 1947, provided billions of dollars to European nations to help them rebuild their economies. By 1959, the United States had spent more than $74 billion in aid. This represented both a desire to avoid the errors of post–World War I Europe and an acceptance of Keynesian economics (See Intellectual and Religious Trends). Governments became more active in economic planning, and a number of key industries were nationalized. Moreover, as a precondition to receiving U.S. aid, Western European nations began to coordinate their economic activities for maximum effectiveness. This led to the establishment of the Organization of European Economic Cooperation, the first step toward European unity.
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B. Europe, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Not all of Europe benefited from the Marshall Plan, however. The nations of Eastern Europe, those under Soviet domination, followed Stalin's lead and refused U.S. aid. Instead the Soviet Union and its allies founded COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) in 1949 (See 1949, Jan. 25). Designed to align socialist economies, in reality the satellite economies of Eastern Europe were all geared to the reconstruction of the Soviet Union first, and then of their own country. In keeping with socialist thought, Eastern Europe witnessed mass nationalizations of private industry. Agriculture was also collectivized, with the exception of Poland. While a measure of prosperity did rise in Eastern Europe, unlike in Western Europe, it was not built on consumer goods. The economies of the Soviet Union and its allies remained predominantly geared for heavy industry and defense. The devastation of two world wars within 30 years brought forth new ideas about the state, especially about its relations with other states and with its citizenry. The end of the war ushered in a new push toward European unity, especially in Western Europe. The first steps were taken with the OEEC and the Council of Europe, but such attempts at attaining European federalism via a direct political approach foundered. The economic approach was more successful. Under the auspices of the French politicians Jean Monnet (1888–1979) and Robert Schuman (1886–1963), six European nations (France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) began to integrate their economies through the European Coal and Steel Community, founded in 1951, and, with the Treaties of Rome signed in 1957, through the European Economic Community (See March 25). The goal of the Common Market, as it became known, was just that, the creation of a single freetrade area, with free movement of goods, capital, and workers. This goal was attained in 1992, after the Common Market had grown to 12 member states. The rise of European unity brought with it a decline in the power of individual states to control the hearts and minds of their citizens. Nationalism, seen as a major cause of destruction in European history, began to wane. Indeed, most Europeans gave up their old dreams of glory and empire as a wave of decolonization swept through Asia and Africa. Instead, what bound citizens to their state was the vast array of services the new welfare states provided for their citizens in need. These services ranged from old-age pensions and unemployment insurance to free health services and lowincome housing. In demanding such services, citizens came to accept not only larger government bureaucracies, which also provided many white-collar jobs, but also the fact that government was a much larger presence in their lives. In a short time, Europeans came to expect the government to provide services deemed necessary to daily living, making it difficult in the 1980s for those governments forced to implement austerity plans and for the citizens of Eastern Europe, who had come to expect a greater range of social services from their now-defunct communist states. In all of Europe these economic and political changes accompanied social change. In Western Europe the class structure changed significantly as the importance of the nobility declined due to high taxes, and the peasantry virtually disappeared with further urban migration and new, commercial practices among the remaining farmers. The middle classes grew more diversified, open, and democratic as bureaucracies developed, and education, rather than property, became the basis of social and economic position. Thus, while businesses and governments became more complex, allowing middle-class managers to rise to positions of importance, the middle class lost the ability to pass these positions on to their children like capital. Meanwhile the traditional manufacturing working classes ceased to expand, due to technological change. Instead, the number of workers in service and white-collar positions grew rapidly, creating a large segment of the working class that had many similarities to members of the middle classes. Overall, Western European society became more mobile and more democratic as rigid social divisions softened.

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B. Europe, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

There were limits on mobility, however. Education, the key to mobility, fell short of the egalitarian ideal. Although the number of university students had risen sharply to 24 percent of the 20 to 24 age group in Western Europe in 1978, up from less than 4 percent in 1950, children from the lower strata continued to be underrepresented in higher education. In France the proportion of university students from working-class families actually fell from 13 percent in 1974 to 9 percent in 1979. A similar division could be found in secondary education. Despite increasing enrollments, in most countries secondary education remained sharply divided into vocational and academic tracks. Immigrants were another group for whom mobility was difficult. In the 1950s and 1960s, at the height of economic prosperity, Western European nations welcomed immigrants (from Turkey, North Africa, Pakistan, the West Indies), but this came to an end in the 1970s. The children of these immigrants, not immigrants themselves, often faced the prospect of poverty, underemployment, discrimination, police harassment, and inadequate housing and schooling. They also became the object of a renewed xenophobic, anti-immigrant movement on the far Right. In Eastern Europe, the social structure was altered by communist policy. The nobility lost its influence and property, as did all property owners, while most peasants became either collectivized agricultural workers or industrial workers. Officially, the middle class ceased to exist. Yet even in the presumably classless society, social distinctions developed. Instead of property, the distinguishing factor became relation to the party. Party members became the new elite, while government bureaucrats became a quasi-middle class. Europeans also experienced alterations in their family life. From 1945 to the early 1960s Europe experienced a baby boom, with populations growing by 1 percent to 1.5 percent per year in many countries. These rates dropped sharply in the 1960s, however, and most countries experienced zero population growth. On the other side of the aging spectrum, Europeans were urged to think of their later years as a “third age,” in which they expected to be healthy and to engage in a host of activities they had been too busy to enjoy during their working years. This became possible as life expectancies rose and the old-age pensions provided a measure of security. But rising numbers of elderly citizens burdened the welfare state. Women became more central to the economy, as both consumers and workers. Whereas it used to be that working-class women left the workforce after childbirth, taking only work they could do at home, women in postwar Europe remained in the workforce. This was due mainly to the fact that women were marrying and having all their children earlier than their mothers and grandmothers had. By the late 1960s the age at marriage for European women had dropped to 23. At the same time, women were having 80 percent of their children before they were 30. This helps to account for growing feminist dissatisfaction by the late 1960s and 1970s; women found that their traditional role as mother no longer absorbed the energy of a lifetime, yet new roles in the male-dominated world outside the family were slow to open. Nevertheless, even for middle-class wives, work outside the home became more common. These economic and social developments in Western and Eastern Europe brought, for the most part, a period of stability and prosperity that lasted throughout much of the 1950s and 1960s. By the late 1960s new forms of protest began to emerge, however. Older protest movements, such as trade unionism, had periodically mounted large (and usually short) strikes to win concessions from business and government, and left-wing parties led demonstrations, but none of these forms of protest did much to disturb a Western Europe remarkable for its political stability and rapid economic recovery. Class divisions ceased to be a major source of protest. Disaffection grew, however, in the late 1960s, blossoming into student protests, feminist demonstrations, and, in the 1970s, terrorism. Student movements called into question the structure of authority and the materialism of advanced industrial societies. Feminism rejected conventional assumptions about gender. By the 1970s an environmentalist movement had gathered considerable strength in several countries, as had a surprising new wave of regional and ethnic activism, which disputed the authority of central governments and in some cases even long-standing assumptions about the immutability of existing nation-states. Racial and ethnic conflict also gave rise to riots, racial attacks, antiracist demonstrations, and divisive debate over citizenship rights and immigration, especially in the 1980s.

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B. Europe, 1945-2000. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

While none of these developments led to the kind of general political crisis that toppled regimes in the interwar years, they signaled the end of a period of postwar complacency. This was followed shortly by economic crises in 1973 and 1979 caused by European dependence on foreign, especially Arab, oil. Most Western European nations suffered from a combination of economic stagnation and rapid inflation dubbed “stagflation.” Unemployment rose while productivity and living standards declined. Governments responded at first by borrowing, to maintain the vast systems of social services implemented after the war, but in the 1980s they turned increasingly to austerity measures. It is important to note, however, that the welfare measures implemented after the war were effective, by and large, in preventing the mass suffering that might have occurred earlier in similar circumstances. After a brief economic upswing in the mid-1980s, Europe continued to deal with sluggish national economies and their social implications. In Eastern Europe, protest came earlier, and while it had economic and social undercurrents, it remained primarily political in nature. The overriding focus of discontent was Soviet domination. To be sure, not all nations experienced Soviet-brand communism similarly. After its 1956 uprising, Hungary, for example, experimented with an economy based more on consumer goods. Poland, too, took a separate path, with little collectivized agriculture and a strong Roman Catholic presence. Yet discontent emerged regularly. In Poland, the Soviet-supported government faced popular demonstrations in the 1950s and, more seriously, in the 1980s. Troops were called on to quell protests in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968. Despite such protest, real change came only after the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in 1985 (See 1985, March 10). His policies of glasnost and perestroika led to far-reaching economic, social, and political reforms. By 1989 these policies had given the satellite nations of Eastern Europe enough security to break their bonds with the Soviet Union. One by one, they toppled their communist-led governments and instituted democratic reforms. Most of these revolutionary transformations were peaceful; Romania was the notable exception. This period of “revolution” came to an end in 1992 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Europe clearly entered a new and uncertain period in 1989. East and West Germany were unified, but many former East Germans lost their jobs. The other nations of Eastern Europe sought economic aid in building market economies. Meanwhile, old national and ethnic rivalries long suppressed by the communists resurfaced; these caused the most damage in the former Yugoslavia. In Western Europe, economic problems muted the promise of 1992, when the 12 member nations of the Common Market became one free-trade zone and curtailed their ability to help the struggling states in the East. Finally, immigration became a problem as unemployment spurred discontent among European nationals who competed for jobs with the descendents of immigrants who had first arrived in Europe in the 1950s, when governments had eagerly accepted this needed influx of labor.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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2. Religious and Philosophical Thought. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

france

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See 1934–54 )

2. Religious and Philosophical Thought
In the realm of religious thought, secularism continued to make great strides as divorce and contraception, for example, became more commonplace. But the churches did not stand still in this period. Pope John XXIII (1881–1963) convened Vatican II (1962–65), the world Catholic council that updated the Church. Later popes, while remaining traditionalists in matters like priestly celibacy, the ordination of women, and birth control, continued to campaign for social justice. In the Protestant churches, two theological movements emerged. Under the leadership of the Swiss theologian Karl Barth (1886–1968), some Protestants dismissed the notion that reason could save the soul, arguing instead for the primacy of revelation and the powerlessness of humans without God's grace. Others, following the British theologian John Robinson, built on 19th-century liberalism to argue that the Bible must be interpreted in a modern context. Robinson believed modern Christians had to extract the inner meanings from the old biblical myths and apply them to each situation of modern life, a stark difference from Barth's fundamentalism. For many, however, the notion that God was dead was as true after World War II as it had been after World War I. Indeed, philosophical thought in postwar Europe continued along trends established in the interwar period that highlighted the absurdity and meaninglessness of life. The philosophical school that best expressed this view was existentialism, led by French philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–80), Simone de Beauvoir (1908–86), and Albert Camus (1913–60). These theorists argued that there were no absolutes or eternal truths for humankind. In the 1960s a new school of thought, known as structuralism, rose to challenge this view (See Nov. 3). Major figures, including anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss (b. 1908) and literary critic Roland Barthes (1915–80), grounded their theories on structural linguistics and the science of signs to assert that human consciousness was the helpless victim of objective structures implied in the laws of language syntax. In the late 1960s and early 1970s other intellectuals, such as Jacques Derrida (b. 1930) and Michel Foucault (1926–84) challenged the linguistic stability and systematic function of structuralism. Their emphasis on textual analysis and relativist positions was instrumental in the formation of poststructuralism and deconstruction in the post-1968 intellectual community.
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e. Expansion of the Ecumene. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 3. Classical Civilizations, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > e. Expansion of the Ecumene PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

e. Expansion of the Ecumene
The zone of urban societies, trade networks, and large states expanded beyond the core regions of the major civilizations in the classical era. Some of this was the result of imperial conquests, but more was the result of expanding trade networks and the growing communities based on the great religions of the Axial era.
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1. Africa 1000–591 B.C.E
KUSH. New Kingdom Egyptian expansion south in the Nile Valley created the Nubian state of Kush. Kush became independent around 950 B.C.E. and then conquered Egypt where Kushites ruled as the 25th Dynasty (751–656 B.C.E.). After the Assyrian conquest of Egypt, the Kushite Empire continued in Nubia, developing a distinctive culture and urban society with its capital in Napata.
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591 B.C.E.–350 C.E
MEROË (See 591 B.C.E.–350 C.E), the successor to Napata, was the center of a state which engaged actively in trade with the Mediterranean world and was a major producer of iron implements in a developing trade in Africa.
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1st to 6th Centuries C.E

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e. Expansion of the Ecumene. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

KINGDOM OF AXUM (See 591 B.C.E.–350 C.E) developed in the Ethiopian highlands. Trade with India and Mediterranean areas and Greek and Arabian cultural influences created a prosperous state which conquered Meroë. The conversion of the king to Christianity around 350 C.E. laid the basis for the long-lasting Ethiopian Christian culture.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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d. Indian Empires. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 3. Classical Civilizations, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > d. Indian Empires PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

d. Indian Empires
Hinduism (See Hinduism) provided a strong basis for the social order in India that was less identified with imperial political structures than in the other regional civilizations. Temple organizations and the caste system were effective alternatives to the control of kings. However, India did experience major imperial unifications (See 327–325).
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322–184 B.C.E
MAURYAN EMPIRE. The defeat of local states by Alexander in 327–324 B.C.E. opened the way for unification of northern India by imperial conquest.
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322–298 B.C.E
CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA conquered much of northern India, creating the basis for the Mauryan Empire.
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268–232 B.C.E
REIGN OF ASHOKA, Chandragupta's grandson, represented the high point of Mauryan power and a time of official support for Buddhism. After Ashoka's death, dynastic rivalries, civil unrest, and a revival of Hinduism led to five centuries of political disunity.
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78–180 C.E

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d. Indian Empires. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

KUSHAN EMPIRE was the strongest state in the era of instability. Based in central Asia and modern Afghanistan, it controlled northern India under Kanishka (r. 78–96 C.E.), who aided the expansion of Buddhism in central Asia.

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320–535 C.E
GUPTA EMPIRE (See South Asia, 72 B.C.E.–500 C.E.) revived Indian imperial unity. Gupta rulers gave support to Brahmans and Hinduism. The empire disintegrated in the face of invasions from central Asia, especially in 500–535 C.E.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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3. Classical Civilizations, 300 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

3. Classical Civilizations, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E. 300 B.C.E.–200 C.E
THE ECUMENE, a continuous belt of urban societies and networks of trade and ideas, emerged in the Eastern Hemisphere. Important features of this ecumene were the great empires, which provided large, secure areas for trade and the wealth and power necessary for basic economic development and political stability.
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300 B.C.E.–500 C.E
GREAT CLASSICAL EMPIRES. Regional civilizations in the Eastern Hemisphere were politically unified by major imperial systems in the classical era. Commercial and technological developments had made such large political systems feasible, while shared cultures both facilitated and benefited from the empires. These empires provided a foundation in most regions for a sense of civilizational identity.
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a. The Middle East. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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a. The Middle East
The Middle East was the first region to be brought under the control of a single empire, and a long imperial tradition of regional control was established.
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935–612 B.C.E
ASSYRIAN EMPIRE gained control of both Mesopotamia and Egypt by 665 B.C.E.
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550–330 B.C.E
PERSIAN EMPIRE, established by Cyrus the Great (556–530 B.C.E.), reestablished full regional control after the end of the Assyrian Empire. The empire was defeated by Alexander the Great (356–323 B.C.E.), whose conquests laid the foundations for a number of imperial states in Greece, the Middle East, and central Asia.
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330–30 B.C.E
ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOR STATES. The Seleucid successors to Alexander's generals controlled most of the Middle East, except for Egypt from 305–64 B.C.E. Egypt was ruled by the descendants of Alexander's general, PTOLEMY (367–283 B.C.E.), until the Roman victory in 30 B.C.
E.
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312 B.C.E.–651 C.E
PERSIAN EMPIRES.
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a. The Middle East. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

312 B.C.E.–226 C.E
Parthian Empire (See 247, 238?–211) was established in the eastern regions of the Middle East after the death of Alexander the Great; it expanded until it controlled most of the region except for Egypt and the Mediterranean coastal societies, which by the end of the 1st century B.C.E. had come under Roman control.
6

226–651 C.E
Sassanid Empire (See Economy, Society, and Culture) replaced the declining Parthian state and reestablished effective regional control until falling to the Muslim conquests in the 7th century.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. The Mediterranean Basin. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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b. The Mediterranean Basin
Imperial unification of the Mediterranean basin came gradually and was associated with a single imperial system. The ROMAN EMPIRE (See Geography and Climate) began as a republican city-state in Italy around 500 B.C.E. By the end of the 2nd century B.C.E. it had gained control of all of Italy, Greece, and the Iberian Peninsula. By the 1st century C.E. it controlled all of the Mediterranean basin and much of western Europe. This unity lasted until the fall of Rome to nomadic invaders in the fifth century, although this invasion had been preceded by a long period of loss of control in many areas and a formal division of the Empire into eastern and western sections. The tradition of Roman unity provided a strong sense of identity to western civilization but also contributed to ideas of empire in eastern Europe.
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b. The Mediterranean Basin. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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c. Chinese Imperial Unity. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

c. Chinese Imperial Unity
In 221 B.C.E., Shi Huangdi of the QIN dynasty conquered all of the rival states that had emerged in the later Zhou Empire. Qin control did not survive Shi Huangdi's death, but imperial unification was reestablished in 202 B.C.E. by the HAN dynasty. By the time the Han Empire disintegrated in the 3rd century C.E., a clear sense of Chinese unity had been established, and it survived nearly four centuries of division until the reunification of China under the SUI dynasty in 589 C.E.
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2. Central Eurasia. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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2. Central Eurasia
Central Eurasia witnessed the development of strong herding societies all along the northern regions of the ecumene. The migrations of these peoples and their invasions of the urban societies are a major theme in the history of classical civilizations.
1

5th Century B.C.E.–5th Century C.E
XIONGNU AND HUNS developed as strong herding societies in the central Asian borderlands of China. Maodun (ruled 209–174 B.C.E.) created a large confederation which threatened the Han dynasty and opened central Eurasia to increasing commercial and military interactions. The confederation disintegrated by the 1st century C.E., but the HUN descendants of the Xiongnu affected all the civilizations of the ecumene. In the 5th century C.E. they gained control of much of eastern Europe under the leadership of ATTILA (d. 453), and Hun invaders were a major cause of the collapse of the Gupta Empire in India.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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3. The Silk Roads. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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3. The Silk Roads
The movements of herding peoples were part of the creation of a whole belt of societies stretching from northern China to central Europe, through which peoples, goods, and ideas could move. Because SILK was an important product in these trade networks, the whole system of economic interchange has become known as “the SILK ROADS.” The stability provided by the great empires and growing demand for goods helped to create an economic network in which textiles, precious stones, glass, horses, and other products passed from one side of the Eastern Hemisphere to the other on a regular basis.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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4. The Spread of Religions, 300 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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4. The Spread of Religions, 300 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
Many of the world-views that emerged during the Axial period spread across the boundaries of civilizations, creating new communities with shared ideals. These new-style communities combined urban and herding societies and spread throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, providing new bases for interregional relations.
1

a. The Spread of Hellenism
Hellenism's spread outward from the Greek city-states received a major impetus from the conquests of Alexander the Great (See 336) late in the 4th century B.C.E. From the Mediterranean basin to northern India, Alexander's forces aided the spread of Hellenistic ideas, urban structures, and political concepts. For three centuries, the successor states to Alexander's empire developed Hellenistic institutions and ideas in the Middle East, making them an important part of the general cultural framework in that region. In northern India and central Asia, Greek themes blended with local traditions creating distinctive cultural syntheses. This blend, which was reflected in art and sculpture, reached a high point in the Buddhist sculpture of Gandhara in the 1st century C.E. Hellenistic artistic influence has been traced as far east as China.
2

509–44 B.C.E
The ROMAN REPUBLIC emerged as the dominant force in the Mediterranean basin. Roman culture was strongly influenced by Hellenism, especially after the Roman conquest of Greece in the 2nd century B.C.E. In general terms, the Roman Empire was a distinctive but clearly Hellenistic society by the 1st century B.C.E. Hellenism provided at least some important artistic and cultural themes for societies all across the Eastern Hemisphere.
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4. The Spread of Religions, 300 B.C.E.-500 C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. 1. Periodization
The early civilizations of western Asia and northeast Africa took shape in the 4th millennium B.C.E. Two major centers arose in Mesopotamia and Egypt, each with quite different characteristics but recurrent contacts in war, trade, and culture. Mesopotamian history was marked by recurrent invasions plus the formation of new empires and smaller kingdoms; societies in contact with this civilization center fanned out in North Africa (Carthage) and Asia Minor. The long period in the histories of both western Asia and Egypt extends from the formation of civilizations to the conquests first of the Persians, then of Alexander the Great.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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2. Mesopotamia, c. 3500-539 B.C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

2. Mesopotamia, c. 3500–539 B.C.E. a. Geography
Mesopotamia lay between and around the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The region reaches from the Taurus Mountains to the Persian Gulf and from the Syrian Desert to the Zagros Mountains and splits into Upper and Lower Mesopotamia at the point where the rivers come closest together, near ancient Babylon and modern Baghdad. Upper Mesopotamia is a large piedmont zone flanked by semiarid highlands. In the west, the Balikh and the Khabur flow south to the Euphrates, and in the east, the Great Zab and the Little Zab flow west from the Zagros into the Tigris. Lower Mesopotamia is an alluvial plain, and the Tigris and Euphrates form frequent lakes and marshes. The ancient shoreline of the Persian Gulf probably lay farther north than at present.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture
The staple crops in Mesopotamia were wheat and barley, along with the date palm. Drainage canals and irrigation works made the interior plain of Lower Mesopotamia highly productive, but irrigation led to salinization of the soil and decreased arable land. In Upper Mesopotamia the rivers flow through deep valleys, and irrigation of the interior was not possible. Agriculture was confined to the river valleys, and the interior was used primarily for pastoralism (See First Farmers in the Near East). The region had few natural resources, except bitumen, but finished goods, such as textiles and metalwork, were exported. Originally, economic activity centered around temples, but eventually, kings and private individuals engaged in large-scale agriculture and trade. Technological advances in Mesopotamia during the early civilization period (by 3000–2500 B.C.E.) included the use of bronze for tools and weapons. Copper had been introduced earlier, but mixing it with tin for bronze created much stronger equipment; bronze use also prompted wider trade relations to gain access to metal ores. The introduction of plows increased crop yields. The wheel was probably imported by migrants from central Asia like the early Hurrians (See c. 1700–1500). The potter's wheel, invented by 6000 B.C.E., was further improved, an early sign of craft specialization. Architecture was sophisticated, but since most building was done in mud-brick, examples have not survived as well as stone counterparts in Egypt and Greece. Immense ziggurats (stepped temple platforms) and large palaces were built, and even private houses had drainage systems. Writing first developed in Mesopotamia. Its origins lay in clay tokens, used to count cattle as early as the 8th millennium. True writing (as opposed to pictographs) appeared around 3500 B.C.E. Writing was done on clay with sharp reeds, producing the wedgelike cuneiform script. Originally used to write Sumerian, cuneiform was later adapted to Akkadian, Elamite, Hittite, Hurrian, Eblaite, Ugaritic (Canaanite), and Old Persian. Many Sumerian and Akkadian myths survive, the best known being the Gilgamesh Epic, describing the legendary exploits of a king of Uruk, fragments of which go back to the early second millennium. The King Lists provide important historical material, running, with some gaps, from around 2700 down to the 1st century B.C.E. Economic and legal texts, letters, and scholarly works such as dictionaries, grammar books, and mathematical texts also survive. Mathematical texts contain tables of cube roots, exponential functions, and Pythagorean numbers. The Sumerians and Akkadians normally used a sexagesimal numbering system, the basis of our division of the hour and minute into 60 units.
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b. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Mesopotamian society was organized around city-states. In early Sumerian times, a priest-king (en) ruled as a representative of the city's god, assisted by an assembly of citizens or elders. Later, as multicity states formed, a king (Sumerian lugal, Akkadian sharrum) reigned, and each individual city was administered by a governor (ensi or ishiakkum). Sumerian and Akkadian religion eventually formed a common pantheon, and most gods had both a Sumerian and an Akkadian name. An (Akkadian Anu) was the first king of the gods, later replaced by the Lord of the Air, Enlil, and ultimately by Marduk, the city god of Babylon. Other major gods were Enki (Ea), god of wisdom; Ninmah, mother of all life; Nanna (Sin) the moon; Utu (Shamash) the sun; Inanna (Ishtar) the star Venus; her husband, the shepherd god Dumuzi (Tammuz); and Ninurta (Adad), the god of war. During the five-day New Year's festival (Sumerian zagmuk, Akkadian akitu), a sacred marriage was performed between Enlil (later Marduk), in the person of the king, and a priestess representing Inanna/ Ishtar, ensuring fertility and the return of spring.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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c. The Sumerians and the Akkadians. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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c. The Sumerians and the Akkadians c. 3500–2900
THE PROTOLITERATE PERIOD.
1

c. 3500–3100
THE URUK CULTURE. It is uncertain whether the Sumerians were native to Mesopotamia or if they migrated into the region from the east or south sometime after 4000 B.C.E. In any case, Semitic (Akkadian) elements in the earliest texts suggest an early mixing of ethnic groups. In the Uruk period, the population of Sumer was probably several hundred thousand, with some settlements large enough to be called cities (over 10,000 in population). The stepped temple platform (ziggurat) and cylinder seals so characteristic of Mesopotamian culture developed. The first known writing, a small limestone tablet, comes from Kish and is dated to c. 3500. At Uruk several hundred clay tablets have been found, most dating to c. 3200–3100. These, like the tablet from Kish, are too primitive to be read, but appear to be economic documents.
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c. 3100–2900
THE JEMDET NASR CULTURE (Early Bronze Age). Tablets from Jemdet Nasr sites are clearly written in Sumerian, and almost all are economic texts. Bronze was first utilized in Mesopotamia and there is evidence of extensive overseas trade. Mesopotamian influence appeared in predynastic Upper Egypt, the so-called Mesopotamian Stimulation (See c. 3500–3100).
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c. 2900–2370
THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD.
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c. The Sumerians and the Akkadians. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

2900–2700
EARLY DYNASTIC I. The Sumerian King List names eight antediluvian kings who reigned for tens of thousands of years, but it is not known if these names have any historical basis. The royal tombs of Ur contain the graves of Meskalamdug and Akalamdug, among others, which probably date to this period.
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2700–2600
EARLY DYNASTIC II. According to the King Lists, the first dynasty after the Great Flood (recorded in the Gilgamesh Epic) was the 1st Dynasty of Kish. The last two kings, Enmebaragesi and his son Agga, are the first rulers attested in contemporary inscriptions. According to the King List, “kingship” (namlugal) then passed to the 1st Dynasty of Uruk, which included Enmerkar, Lugalbanda, and Gilgamesh, heroes of epic tradition, and finally to the 1st Dynasty of Ur. Epigraphic evidence, however, shows that these dynasties (and a dynasty at Mari) were all contemporary and date to c. 2700–2600 B.C.E. Many rulers known from contemporary inscriptions are not found in the King Lists.
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2600–2370
EARLY DYNASTIC III. The King Lists record eleven more dynasties before Sargon of Akkad, but, except for the 3rd dynasty of Uruk, little is known of them, and many were probably contemporaneous. The 1st Dynasty of Lagash (Telloh) is well known from inscriptions, though not mentioned in the King List. It started with Mesilim (c. 2600), but it was Eannatum (c. 2500) who conquered much of Sumer, extending Lagash's power into Elam and Mari. Uru-inim-gina of Lagash (2378–2371) was the earliest known social reformer: he established “freedom” (amargi) in the land, the first recorded use of the term in a political sense. The 3rd Dynasty of Uruk had only one king: Lugal-zagesi (2371–2347). Beginning his career as Governor (ensi) of Umma, he defeated Lagash and took the title King of Uruk. Lugal-zagesi claimed to rule from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, though this is doubtful. Under his rule, Akkadians began to rise to high positions in government. The population of Mesopotamia probably reached half a million in this period.
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2371–2190
THE DYNASTY OF AKKAD. Sargon the Great (Sharru-kin, 2371–2316) rose from obscure origins to become cupbearer to Ur-zababa, king of Kish. Rebelling, he built the city of Agade or Akkad (whose site has not been located) and proclaimed himself king. After defeating Lugal-zagesi of Uruk (c. 2347), he conquered the rest of Sumer. Sargon installed his daughter Enheduanna as high priestess at Ur. Enheduanna's hymns to Inanna have survived, making her history's first known author. Sargon went on to conquer Upper Mesopotamia, the Amorites (Amurru or “Westerners”) in Syria, Elam, and Subartu (Assyria). Later legends fancifully describe conquests of Anatolia and Crete, but Sargon's empire certainly ranged from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. Sargon's sons Rimush (2315–2307) and Manishtushu (2306–2292) faced constant revolts: both died in palace coups. Naram-Sin (2291–2255) brought the kingdom of Akkad to its zenith. He was the first Mesopotamian king to claim divinity, as well as the first to be called “King of the Four Quarters” (that is, the World). Defeating the powerful state of Ebla in Syria, he extended his empire to Anatolia. Under Shar-kali-sharri (2254–2230), Gutian tribes from the Zagros began raiding into Mesopotamia. Shar-kali-sharri was assassinated, and after him came a period of anarchy. An independent 4th Dynasty of Uruk broke away and ruled parts of Lower Mesopotamia. Around 2190,
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c. The Sumerians and the Akkadians. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Akkad fell to the Gutians.

c. 2230–2114
THE GUTIANS. The King List records 21 Gutian kings, though most of them were probably local chiefs with only limited authority. Some cities, such as Lagash and Uruk, became independent, though their rulers retained the title of governor (ensi). Gudea of Lagash left inscriptions which contain the most important texts in classical Sumerian. Around 2114, Utu-Hegal of Uruk (2120–2114), drove the Gutians out of Sumer but died soon after.
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2113–2004
3rd DYNASTY OF UR: The Sumerian Renaissance. Ur-nammu (2113–2096) of Ur proclaimed himself king and soon conquered all of Sumer and Akkad. He built and renovated many public buildings, including the enormous temple of Nanna at Ur, best preserved of Mesopotamian ziggurats. Ur-nammu, whose stated purpose was to establish “justice in the land,” is best known for his law code. The reestablishment of central control led to a rise in population: Mesopotamia probably had about one million inhabitants at the beginning of the second millennium. Shulgi (2095–2048) brought the empire of Ur III to its height. He conquered Elam and Upper Mesopotamia and, like the Akkadian kings, he proclaimed himself the divine “King of the Four Quarters.” ShuSin (2038–2030) built a 150-mile-long wall between the rivers to defend against the encroaching Amorites. Nevertheless, in the reign of Ibbi-Sin (2029–2006) the Amorites invaded and established independent states in Lower Mesopotamia. In 2025, Larsa became autonomous under Naplanum, and in 2017 Ishbi-Erra established a dynasty at Isin. Eshnunna and Elam also broke away. In 2004, the Elamites attacked and destroyed Ur (See 2230–c. 1925).
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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d. The Amorite Kingdoms. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > B. Kingdoms of Western Asia and Africa, to 323 B.C.E. > 2. Mesopotamia, c. 3500–539 B.C.E. > d. The Amorite Kingdoms PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

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d. The Amorite Kingdoms 2004–1763
THE ISIN-LARSA PERIOD.
1

2017–1794
THE DYNASTY OF ISIN. Late in his reign, Ishbi-Erra (2017–1985), king of Isin, drove the Elamites from Ur. Ishme-Dagan (1953–1935) was a social reformer, and Lipit-Ishtar (1934–1924) left behind an important early law code. After nine more kings, Damiq-ilishu (1816–1794) ruled as the last king of Isin.
2

2025–1763
THE DYNASTY OF LARSA. Naplanum was king of Larsa from 2025–2005, but it was Samium (1976–1942) who established Larsa as a rival power to Isin. After a dynasty of ten more kings, Rimsin (1822–1763) brought Larsa to its largest extent, defeating Damiq-ilishu of Isin and unifying Lower Mesopotamia.
3

c. 2000–1763
Amorite and Elamite Dynasties. While not mentioned in the King List, inscriptions show an independent dynasty at Eshnunna, some with Elamite names. Indeed, under Naram-Sin (c. 1830), Eshnunna and Assyria may have been united. Other independent Amorite dynasties ruled in Kazallu, Sippar, Uruk, Kish, Marad, and, most importantly, at Babylon.
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d. The Amorite Kingdoms. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

c. 1900–1741
OLD ASSYRIAN PERIOD.
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c. 1900–1813
THE DYNASTY OF PUZUR-ASHUR. The Assyrians probably originated as a nomadic tribe. The city of Ashur (Qalat Sharquat) is first mentioned in the reign of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2350). Around 1950 Puzur-Ashur I built the city's wall, and c. 1900, an Assyrian trading colony (karum) was established at Kanesh in Anatolia, where tens of thousands of cuneiform tablets have been discovered. The Assyrian king Naram-Sin (c. 1830) may be the same as a contemporaneous king Naram-Sin of Eshnunna, and the two kingdoms may have united under him. In any case, Naram-Sin expanded Assyria's rule to the west. In 1813, an Amorite prince, Shamshi-Adad, overthrew Erishum II (c. 1814) to become king of Assyria.
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1813–1741
THE DYNASTY OF SHAMSHI-ADAD. Shamshi-Adad I (1813–1781) conquered Mari and expanded Assyrian power to the west. His son, Ishme-Dagan (1780–1741), invaded Babylonia, in alliance with Elam, Eshnunna, and the Gutians but was defeated by Hammurapi the Great. After Ishme-Dagan's death came a series of usurpations, and Assyria declined into 400 years of obscurity.
7

1830–1531
1ST DYNASTY OF BABYLON (Old Babylonian Empire). The 1st Dynasty of Babylon was established under Sumu-abum (1894–1881). By the reign of Sin-muballit (1812–1793) the city controlled a region running for 60 miles along the Euphrates. Hammurapi the Great (1792–1750) took Uruk and Isin soon after his accession to the throne. For over 20 years, he concentrated on building and irrigation projects, organized a centralized administration, and issued the famous Law Code of Hammurapi. In 1764, Babylon was attacked by a coalition of Elam, Assyria, the Gutians, and Eshnunna, but Hammurapi defeated the coalition, annexed Eshnunna and Elam, and expanded the empire to the borders of Assyria and the Zagros. The Babylonian king then took Larsa, made it his southern capital, and in 1759 defeated Mari and tore down its walls. In 1757–1755, Hammurapi defeated another Assyrian invasion, and when Eshnunna revolted it was destroyed. Hammurapi now controlled all of Mesopotamia, with the exception of Assyria. In this period the Amorites completely assimilated into Akkadian culture, adopting their language, religion, and culture. Two dialects of Akkadian were spoken, Babylonian in the south, and Assyrian in the north—Sumerian survived only in scholarly writing. Marduk, god of Babylon, replaced Enlil as king of the gods. The Marduk temple complex in Babylon was expanded, including the great ziggurat E-temen-an-ki (“House of the Foundation of Heaven and Earth”): the biblical Tower of Babel (Gen. 11:1–9).
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1749–1595

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d. The Amorite Kingdoms. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Decline of the Babylonian Empire. In the reign of Samsuiluna (1749–1712), the Kassites (Kassu) made their first inroads into Babylonia, and the Sealands (the coastal region on the Persian Gulf) broke away from the empire. Under Abieshu` (1711–1684) and Ammiditana (1683–1647), the Kassites again attacked Babylon, but were driven off. Ammisaduqa (1646–1626) made internal reforms, forgiving debt and freeing debt-slaves. Samsuditana (1625–1595) ruled for 30 years in relative peace, but in 1595 the Hittite King Mursilis marched into Mesopotamia and captured and plundered Babylon (See c. 1680–1500). The Hittites did not remain, but Babylonian authority was broken, allowing the Kassite seizure of power.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World 1. The Bronze Age, 3000–1200 B.C.E. a. Geography
Greece (ancient Hellas) is the extension of the mountain ranges of the Balkan Peninsula, with the Ionian Sea to the west and the Aegean Sea to the east. In antiquity, northern Greece comprised Epirus, Amphilochia, and Acarnania in the west, and Macedonia, the Chalcidice (whose three peninsulas jutted into the Aegean Sea), and Thessaly in the east. Central Greece began at the Thermopylae Pass and contained Aetolia, Locris, and Phocis in the west; Boeotia in the center; and Attica to the east, with the large island of Euboea lying off its eastern coast. After the narrow Isthmus of Corinth lay the Peloponnese or “Island of Pelops.” It had six main regions: the Argolis, just south of the Isthmus, Achaea along the Gulf of Corinth in the north, Elis in the west, Messene in the southwest, Laconia (or Lacedaimon) along the eastern coast, and Arcadia in its mountainous center. Off the west coast of Greece lay the Ionian Islands: Corcyra (Corfu), Cephalonia, and Zacynthos. The Aegean Sea was dotted with islands: in the north Scyros, Lemnos, and Imbros (between the Hellespont and Euboea), and Thasos and Samothrace off the Thracian coast; a string of islands along the coast of Asia Minor, of which the most important were Lesbos, Chios, Samos, and Rhodes; and the Cyclades, stretching southeast from Attica and Euboea and including Melos, Delos, Paros, Naxos, and Thera. Some fifty miles southeast of the Peloponnese lay Crete, the largest of the Aegean islands and its southern boundary. The climate of Greece is temperate. Rainfall sometimes exceeds forty inches per year in the west but is only about sixteen inches in the east, making drought a constant menace. It rarely freezes, and in the summer the midday heat can exceed 100° F. Only 18 percent of the land surface is arable, and over large areas of the country, the soil is thin and rocky, making the cultivation of grain difficult, though olives and grapes ripen well in the rainless summers. Ancient Greece was more heavily wooded and more fertile than today, as the country has suffered from severe deforestation and erosion of the topsoil. The mountainous terrain in Greece promoted the development of numerous small city-states. There were some large cities, but most Greeks lived in towns and big villages, walking out to their fields, rather than staying in small isolated hamlets. Since many areas had to import grain, seaborne commerce developed at an early stage. But the civilization of ancient Greece at no time depended primarily on manufacture or trade and was always basically agrarian.
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D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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b. The Minoan Civilization. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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b. The Minoan Civilization c. 3000–2200
EARLY MINOAN. Around 2700 the Bronze Age began in Greece, apparently connected with an immigration from Asia Minor. Pottery was still hand-shaped, and settlement size was small. In the mid-third millennium a rapid rise in culture occurred; towns and cities emerged, as well as the first palaces. There was contact with Egypt, and the votive double axes, characteristic of later Minoan religion, appeared. An indigenous Hieroglyphic Script survives on seals and pottery, but it has not yet been deciphered. This earliest civilization in Crete is called Minoan after the legendary King Minos of Knossos.
1

c. 2200–1700
MIDDLE MINOAN I and II: The Rise of Crete. The great palaces at Knossos, Phaistos, and Mallia were constructed during this period. These stone palaces, built asymmetrically around a large open court, contained large living quarters, storerooms for goods and products, and toilets superior to any in Europe before modern times. A road system connected Knossos with the plain of Phaestus. Wheel-thrown pottery was perfected, and fine examples were made as thin as an eggshell. A new script called Linear A replaced the Hieroglyphic Script, but except for the numeral system and a few pictographic signs, it cannot be read. Conclusions about Minoan culture, particularly government and religion, are necessarily conjectures based on archaeology and later Greek legends. The king was evidently the chief figure in religious worship, and the palace, a seat of religious cults. What appears to be a Mother Goddess, associated with snakes, is widely represented. To judge from wall paintings, the Minoans were devoted to sports, including hazardous bull jumping. Scenes of war are rare, and the towns were at all times unwalled. The Minoan palaces were almost all destroyed toward the end of the period, but whether the destruction occurred through war or natural causes (such as an earthquake) is unknown.
2

c. 1700–1450
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b. The Minoan Civilization. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

MIDDLE MINOAN III–LATE MINOAN I: The “Thalassocracy” of Minos. The art of Minoan Crete reached a high point in this period, and the earliest wall frescoes appear at this time. In the 18th and 17th centuries, Crete had extensive trade relations with Ugarit in Syria and Byblos in Phoenicia. After 1600, this trade declined, but Minoan influence strengthened over the Cyclades, and there was close contact with Egypt. To what extent these changing trade patterns reflect political events is unknown, but legend has Crete's King Minos founding a sea empire (thalassocracy). Both public and private building reflects great wealth. At the end of this period there was another widespread destruction throughout Crete.

3

c. 1450–1125
Late Minoan III: Mycenaean Crete. Knossos was the only Cretan palace to be rebuilt, and it was now ruled by Greek-speaking Mycenaeans. Remains in graves and pottery indicate considerable numbers of Greeks moved to Crete. Clay tablets were inscribed with a new type of script, obviously derived from Linear A and known as Linear B. In 1952, Michael Ventris proved that the Linear B texts were written in Greek. They revealed a highly bureaucratic state centered in the palace of Knossos. A rapid decline in Mycenaean Crete came at the same time as that on the mainland.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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c. Mainland Greece: The Early and Middle Helladic Periods. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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c. Mainland Greece: The Early and Middle Helladic Periods c. 2800–2500
Early Helladic I. Around 2800, Greece, like Crete, seems to have been invaded from northwest Asia Minor. The beginning of the Bronze Age corresponds roughly with this invasion. Probably the immigrants were the Pre-Hellenic population of Greece who left the non-Indo-European place names in Greece and elsewhere ending in -ssos (e.g., Knossos and Parnassos), and in -inth (Corinth). New villages sprang up throughout Greece, and there is evidence of trade with the Aegean Islands and especially Crete. Northern Greece and Thessaly were not as advanced in material culture as the southern mainland.
1

c. 2500–2200
Early Helladic II. Houses in this period were larger and some contained large storage facilities for grain. At Lerna there are remains of what may have been a palace (House of Tiles), indicating some sort of central authority. Large settlements at Zygouries and Tiryns, with gold and silver jewelry buried in tombs, suggest a rising prosperity.
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c. 2200–1900

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c. Mainland Greece: The Early and Middle Helladic Periods. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Early Helladic III. Signs of massive destruction are present at almost all Early Helladic period III sites. A new material culture was introduced, characterized by Minyan Ware (also called Orchomenos ware), a fine, wheel-made pottery. Whether the break in material culture represents the invasion of Greek-speakers into the region is debated. Scholars date the intrusion of the Greeks from as early as 2200 to as late as 1500 B.C.E., though most agree that the Greeks seem to have settled for some time in Thessaly before moving into the rest of the peninsula. In classical times, Greek was divided into three dialect groups: Aeolian, Ionian, and Dorian. Originally thought to predate the Greek invasion, some scholars believe the dialect division occurred after the Greeks took over the peninsula.

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c. 1900–1600
Middle Helladic. A rapid rise in wealth and sophistication is associated with a palace-based civilization, which developed under Minoan influence. Kings and other royal persons were buried in shaft graves within a sacred precinct. One such grave at Mycenae, called Circle B, contained gold and silver objects on a small scale. In this period, Mycenaean culture was centered in the eastern Peloponnese and central Greece.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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d. The Late Helladic Period: The Mycenaean Age. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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d. The Late Helladic Period: The Mycenaean Age c. 1600–1500
Late Helladic I: The Rise of Mycenaean culture. The shaft-grave culture continued but became wealthier. The shaft graves in Circle A (found earlier but dating later than Circle B) contained a remarkable 80 pounds of gold objects. Mycenaean architecture, called Cyclopean, is characterized by use of enormous stones. The rectangular megaron was now the typical private building, consisting of a portico (aithousa), vestibule (prodomos),and main room (domos). The largest and most important settlements were Mycenae and Tiryns. Major centers existed at Orchomenos and Thebes in Boeotia. Lake Copais, which covered a large area of western Boeotia, was drained during the Mycenaean period, providing fertile land. The fortress at Gla was built to protect the region. Athens was an important city and Cyclopean fortifications were built on the Acropolis. Pylos was one of the few early Mycenaean sites in western Greece.
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c. 1500–1400
Late Helladic II: The “Tholos-Tomb” Dynasty. Around 1500 the Mycenaean burial style changed from the shaft grave to circular rock-lined chambers cut out of hillsides: so-called tholoi or “beehive” tombs. After c. 1450, the Mycenaeans conquered Crete and established themselves at Knossos. Evidence of Mycenaean presence is found in the Cyclades, Rhodes, Sicily, and Italy, although where political control ended and trade began is unknown. The prosperity of Mycenaean Greece was due largely to an expansion of trade: Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, and the Hittite Empire were all ruled by wealthy palace-based governments, which fostered international exchange.
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c. 1400–1200

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d. The Late Helladic Period: The Mycenaean Age. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Late Helladic III: The Height of the Mycenaean Age. After 1400, the Mycenaean culture spread throughout Greece, eventually penetrating virtually the entire mainland. The fine pottery found even in nonroyal tombs suggests a general prosperity, and the most impressive Mycenaean architecture dates to the 14th century. Around 1350, the citadel at Mycenae was enlarged, and an immense 23foot-thick wall was constructed of Cyclopean blocks, which included the famous Lion Gate. The royal palace at the summit of the acropolis contained a throne room, living apartments, and a shrine. Its walls were covered with painted frescoes showing military scenes. Similar large palaces from this period were found at Tiryns and Pylos. The largest beehive tombs date to after 1300: the so-called “Treasuries” of Atreus at Mycenae and Minyas at Orchomenos. (The buildings have no connection to these mythical characters.) Linear B tablets have been found at Pylos, Mycenae, and Thebes on the mainland, as well as at Knossos in Crete. While limited to accounts and inventories, they give important information on Mycenaean language, government, economy, and religion. The king, or wanax, exercised supreme authority, followed by the lawagetas, or Leader of the People (or Army). There were a series of lower officials, including the basileus, later the Greek word for king. A special class of priests existed (unlike in the Classical period), as well as a palace economy with a complex division of labor, with numerous slaves. The names of later Greek gods, such as Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hermes, and Athena, were already present. After 1300 Mycenaean trade with Egypt and Syria declined, although the reasons for this are unclear.

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c. 1200–1100
Late Helladic C: The Decline of Mycenae. Around 1230 most of the large Mycenaean cities, with the exception of Athens and Mycenae itself, were destroyed. Texts from Pylos, written just before the city's destruction, discuss military dispositions against an apparent invasion. Around the same time, the export of Mycenaean pottery to Syria and Egypt ceased completely. A number of factors probably brought Mycenaean culture to an end, but a major one was probably the movement of the Sea Peoples, which affected the Middle East at the same time (See c. 1200).
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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e. The Greeks in Asia Minor. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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e. The Greeks in Asia Minor c. 1500–1200
The Ahhiyawa. Hittite records mention the Ahhiyawa, who lived in, or raided, western Asia Minor. Some scholars have connected the Ahhiyawa with the Achaeans, Homer's name for the Greeks. Attacks on Cyprus by Attarissyas the Ahhiyawan, reported by the Hittites, may refer to the activities of Atreus, the father of Agamemnon, referred to in Greek mythology.
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c. 1200
The Trojan War. Troy, located where the Aegean meets the Hellespont, was inhabited after 2000 by people who shared cultural characteristics with the population on the Greek mainland. There are nine levels of habitation, from the Early Bronze Age to Roman times, numbered I to IX. Around 1300 Troy VI was destroyed by an earthquake and replaced by Troy VIIa, generally identified with the city of the Trojan War celebrated in Greek mythology. Troy VIIa was destroyed by fire c. 1200.
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2. The Dark Ages, 1200-800 B.C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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2. The Dark Ages, 1200–800 B.C.E. a. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture
The Greek Dark Ages were characterized by a gradual, though severe, decline in material culture. Mycenaean pottery styles were gradually replaced by proto-Geometric ware, cremation supplanted burial, and the appearance of long pins and spectacle-fibula suggest a new style of dress. International trade, monumental building, and the size of the Greek population declined considerably from Mycenaean times. There is no evidence for writing, and cities dramatically shrank in size. The new technology introduced in the Dark Ages was mainly military: iron weapons and tools appeared, and the slashing sword and throwing spear were introduced. In the 11th or 10th century, cavalry replaced the chariots of the Bronze Age. The later Greeks saw this period as a Heroic Age, and much of our information about Greek society and culture in the Dark Ages comes from legends preserved in later literature. The exploits of these heroes formed three “cycles”: The Theban Cycle, supposedly occurring two generations before the Trojan War and concerning Oedipus and his family; the Cycle of Heracles and his sons, the Heraclidae; and, the Trojan Cycle, the war of the Achaeans against Troy, led by Agamemnon, Achilles, and Odysseus. These legends are preserved in Attic drama of the fifth century B.C.E. and in the epic poems called the Iliad and the Odyssey. The epics were ascribed to the blind poet, Homer, who probably lived sometime between 850 and 650 B.C.E. Both works may have been composed by the same individual, but it is more likely that the Iliad predates the Odyssey by about a century. The poems contain some reliable traditions dating back to the Mycenaean Age: the use of chariots and bronze weapons, large royal palaces, and the Catalog of Ships (Iliad 2.484 ff), which reflects the importance of Mycenaean, not Dark Age, states. Other elements clearly belong to the 10th and 9th centuries: the use of the dipylon or “figure 8” shield, the ritual gift of tripods, and the cremation of the dead. In both epics, the Mycenaean world and the Dark Ages are blended together, and it is difficult to distinguish the date of various elements of the poems.
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2. The Dark Ages, 1200-800 B.C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

In the Dark Ages, Greek states were considerably smaller and less wealthy than in Mycenaean times, though the basic unit is already the walled polis or city-state. Social organization was tribal: Ionians, for example, were grouped into four tribes. Within the tribes there were “brotherhoods” (phratriai) composed of members sufficiently related to each other to certify legitimate birth and citizenship. The landless day-laborers (thetes) were at the bottom of the social ladder, below even slaves. Most of the people (demos) were free peasants, who might be convened in the assembly place (agora) to listen to their superiors but expressed their wishes only by silence or applause. There was no voting and it was not normal for a commoner to speak in theassembly. An aristocratic warrior class, based on birth, wealth, and military prowess, formed clans (gene), which maintained relations with each other through arranged marriages and guest-friendship (xenia), involving the ritual exchange of gifts. The leaders of the aristocratic clans met in a council (boule) and advised the king, now called a basileus instead of wanax. Royal powers were not absolute but depended on the consent of the nobles and clan leaders. Religion was family-based and centered around the hestia, or hearth. Zeus was the king of the gods, but the other gods sat in council, gave advice, and even sometimes opposed Zeus. The gods had local associations: Hera with Argos, Sparta, and Mycenae; Athena with Athens and Troy; Aphrodite with Paphos in Cyprus; and Ares with Thrace.

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. The Dorian Invasion. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

b. The Dorian Invasion
In the 12th century, the power vacuum created by the decline of Mycenaean civilization was filled by Greeks speaking the Dorian dialect, who invaded the peninsula from the north. Greek tradition characterized this movement as the “return” of the sons of Heracles (Heraclidae): Hyllus, Dymas, and Pamphylas, who were the eponymous founders of the three Dorian tribes. The Dorians originally came from southern Macedonia, though the Greeks derived their name from the city of Doris in central Greece. It may be that the Dorians settled there for some time before moving into the Peloponnese. The Argolis, Lacedaemon, and Messenia were conquered, and the Achaeans and Arcadians pushed into corners of the peninsula. Other Dorian groups attacked the Aegean Islands, and conquered Thera, Melos, and the central portion of Crete. A few cities in Asia Minor (principally, Halicarnassus and Cnidos) were founded or cofounded by Dorians. The Dorian invasion corresponded with the start of the Iron Age in Greece, but despite the introduction of this superior metal, culture as a whole declined in Greece as a result of the Dorian invasion.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. The Dorian Invasion. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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c. The Aeolian and Ionian Migrations and the Greek Renaissance. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World > 2. The Dark Ages, 1200–800 B.C.E. > c. The Aeolian and Ionian Migrations and the Greek Renaissance PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

c. The Aeolian and Ionian Migrations and the Greek Renaissance

GREEK CITY STATES (MAP) The speakers of the Aeolian and Ionian dialects were pushed out of their original territories by the Dorian invaders. The Aeolians settled on the northwest coast of Asia Minor and on the islands of Tenedos and Lesbos. This Aeolian migration seems to have started around 1130 and to have lasted until 1000 or even later. Athens resisted the Dorians, though in the 11th and 10th centuries there were changes in Athenian burial customs, dress, and pottery style, which suggests the arrival of new peoples. These were probably Ionian and perhaps Mycenaean refugees fleeing the Dorians. Athens also formed a base for an Ionian migration to the east. The Ionians invaded the western coast of Asia Minor, which was subsequently called Ionia, taking over the existing cities of Colophon, Miletus, Smyrna, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Phocaea, and others. The Cyclades were also settled by Ionians in this period. The spread of proto-Geometric pottery from Athens to all over the Aegean world in the 10th century is probably connected to this Ionian migration. The Ionians shared common religious festivals, particularly the Panionium and Delian festival of Apollo.
1

900–800 B.C.E. the Greek Renaissance
After 900, eastern (“orientalizing”) influence resulted in the development of the proto-Corinthian and proto-Attic pottery styles. The stiffness of geometric design gave way to lively representations of humans and animals: color reappeared; ornament, often symmetrical, was vigorous. A whole new set of vase shapes was invented. Spread by the growing trade with distant places, then by colonies, protoCorinthian became the luxury pottery of the Mediterranean world. Grave sites at Athens indicate a remarkably high rate of population increase in the 9th century.
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c. The Aeolian and Ionian Migrations and the Greek Renaissance. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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3. The Archaic Period, 800-510 B.C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

3. The Archaic Period, 800–510 B.C.E. a. Economy, Technology, Society, and Culture
The Greek diet was simple: bread, cheese, vegetables, olive oil, wine, and occasionally fish or pork. Beef was seldom eaten, and sheep and goats were kept mainly for hides, wool, and milk. Most farms were small, and slave labor was apparently rarely used in agriculture in the Archaic period. By 800 the classical polis was beginning to emerge, the city-state with its own central palace, territory, government, and loyal citizens (along with many noncitizen inhabitants). Many cities, including Athens, were dependent on the importation of grain, particularly from the Black Sea region. The main centers for manufacture were Athens, famous for its painted vases; Corinth; Sicyon; Argos and Chalcis, noted for metal-work; and Miletus and Samos, which made furniture and textiles. Mining was extensive: marble came from Mt. Pentelicus and Paros; silver, from Mt. Laurium and Mt. Pangaeus; gold, from Mt. Pangaeus and Thasos; iron, from Laconia; and copper, from Cyprus. Rough terrain and poor roads made overland travel difficult, so most commerce was by sea. The introduction of coined money from Lydia in the 7th century facilitated trade and capital investment but also increased debt. The two prominent standards of currency were the Euboean and the Aeginetan. By c. 750 B.C.E. the Greeks had borrowed the Phoenician alphabet, adapted certain letters to represent vowels, and added others for sounds found only in Greek. Marble temples appeared, and the three architectural orders—Doric, Ionic, and Aeolic—developed. Sculpture began representing the human body in the nude. Marble statues were generally painted in lifelike colors. Early Greek painting is known mainly from decorated pottery: red-figured vases replaced black-figured c. 500 B.C.E.
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3. The Archaic Period, 800-510 B.C.E. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

In the early Archaic period, aristocratic oligarchies generally replaced Dark Age monarchies, except in Sparta and Macedonia. Later, ambitious individuals overthrew the constituted governments of many cities and established themselves as tyrants. Beginning c. 760 B.C.E., Greek cities started founding colonies, which eventually occupied much of the coastline of both the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Colonists, led by a founder, or oikistes, generally adopted the religious cults and constitution of the “mother city” (metropolis) but were politically independent. In the 7th century, hoplite warfare developed. Hoplites were citizen soldiers who provided their own equipment: a round bronze shield (hoplon), a bronze helmet with cheek and nose guards, and a nine-foot spear. They fought in a phalanx, shoulder-to-shoulder in line, facing the enemy with a wall of shields and spears and marching in step to the music of flutes. Athletics was an important element of Greek culture. There were major international festivals which involved athletic contest, such as the Pythian Games at Delphi and the Olympian Games, starting (traditionally) in 776 and held every four years. The Boeotian poet Hesiod (c. 700) wrote the Theogony, on the genealogy of the gods, and the Works and Days, giving advice on proper living. Other early poets included the Ionian Archilochus (c. 700), the Aeolians Alcaeus and Sappho (c. 600), and the Dorians Stesichorus (630–555) and Arion (c. 600). Lyric poetry was exemplified by Alcman (c. 654–611), Anacreon (born c. 570), Simonides (c. 556–468), Pindar (518–442), and Bacchylides (c. 480). Tragic drama grew out of cultic songs, originally performed by a chorus at religious festivals. The poet Thespis first introduced a speaking actor into a tragedy in 534 B.C.E. Greek philosophy began with Thales (c. 600), who was said, probably falsely, to have predicted a solar eclipse in 585 B.C.E. Anaximenes (c. 600) and Anaximander (c. 610–540) and other early philosophers started to seek knowledge for its own sake and to develop rational explanations for natural phenomena. The so-called logographoi wrote local histories, the best example being Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 500). The normal age for marriage in Greece was 30 for men and 15–16 for women. Most marriages were arranged. Women took little part in public life and, in some cases, had no more legal rights than slaves. Most citizen women spent their lives secluded in women's quarters. Spartan women were the exception and received the same physical training as men. At least one woman poet wrote in the Archaic period: Sappho of Lesbos.

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3

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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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b. Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

b. Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands c. 800–680
Rise of the Ionian cities. The Ionian cities of Asia Minor were the wealthiest and most advanced Greek city-states in Archaic times and served as conduits for Near Eastern technology and culture entering Greece. The Ionian cities, particularly Miletus and Phocaea, were also leaders in the colonization movement.
1

757
Miletus colonized Cyzicus on the southern shore of the Propontus.
2

680–652
Beginnings of Lydian Conflict. King Gyges turned Lydia into the leading power in Asia Minor. He frequently attacked the Ionian cities but was unable to conquer them.
3

675
The Milesians send a colony to Abydos on the Hellespont.
4

630
The southern Aegean island of Thera colonized Cyrene in North Africa.
5

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b. Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

610
With permission of the Pharaoh Psammetichus I, Miletus founded a trading post in the Nile Delta, which developed into the Greek city of Naucratis (See Economy, Society, and Culture).
6

609–560
Alyattes of Lydia conquered Smyrna, but Miletus and Clazomenae continued to resist. Ionian culture reached its height, particularly in philosophy: Thales, Anaximenes, and Anaximander were all active at Miletus.
7

600
Phocaea settled Massalia (Marseilles) on the southern coast of Gaul.
8

560–546
The Lydian king Croesus conquered Ionia, though Miletus maintained its privileged position. Tyrants ruled most of the cities and paid tribute to Lydia.
9

546–499
Persian rule. Cyrus defeated Croesus in 546. The Persian general Harpagus subdued Ionia and installed pro-Persian tyrants. Miletus continued to enjoy a favored status. The Ionian cities were placed together with Lydia and Mysia in a single satrapy and ruled from Sardis.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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c. Sparta and the Peloponnese. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World > 3. The Archaic Period, 800–510 B.C.E. > c. Sparta and the Peloponnese PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

c. Sparta and the Peloponnese c. 900–700
The Rise of Sparta. In the 9th century, four or five Laconian villages joined to form the city of Sparta, with two royal dynasties, the Agiads and the Eurypontids, reigning jointly. Between 800 and 730, Sparta conquered the rest of Laconia. Around the same time, the Spartans reorganized their constitution, introducing lifelong military training, a rigid oligarchic government, and a code of absolute obedience and austerity. At the age of seven, boys were taken from their parents for military training. Men of military age lived away from their wives in barracks and ate at common messes (syssitia). Five tribes replaced the three Dorian ones, each providing a regiment (lochos) for the army. A council (Gerousia) composed of 28 elders and the two kings proposed legislation, which was then approved by the assembly (Apella), made up of adult male citizens (spartiates). The chief magistrates (ephors), eventually five in number, had wide powers. The non-Spartan Laconians, called Perioikoi, tithed to the Spartans and were drafted into the army but had no vote in the assembly. The introduction of this constitution was later ascribed to Lycurgus, though some scholars doubt his existence.
1

c. 735–715
The First Messenian War. Sparta, led by King Theopompus (c. 720–675), defeated Messenia and divided it into allotments (klaroi), rent which supported the individual Spartiates, leaving them free to train for war. The Spartans turned the Messenians into serfs (helots) who worked the land for them.
2

733
Corinth, ruled by an oligarchy under the Bacchiadae clan, founded two colonies: one at Syracuse in Sicily and another on the island of Corcyra (modern Corfu) in northwestern Greece.
3

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c. Sparta and the Peloponnese. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

728
The Megarians colonized Megara Hyblaea in Sicily.
4

720
Achaea and Troezen jointly founded a colony at Sybaris in southern Italy, which became proverbial for its wealth and opulence.
5

c. 710
Achaea settled the colony of Croton on the “toe” of Italy.
6

706
Sparta founded its only colony, Taras (Tarentum), in southern Italy (See 706).
7

c. 680
King Pheidon of Argos defeated Sparta and Tegea in the Battle of Hysiae (669). He later overcame Epidaurus and Athens, and Argos became the leading Greek power. Pheidon may have introduced coinage into mainland Greece, perhaps with a mint at Aegina.
8

676
Megara colonized Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont. It was called “the city of the blind,” because the settlers missed a better site at Byzantium on the European shore.
9

660
Megara founded a colony at Byzantium.
10

657
The Cypselid Tyranny in Corinth. Cypselus (657–625) overthrew the Bacchiad oligarchy and made himself tyrant of Corinth.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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c. Sparta and the Peloponnese. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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c. 650-630. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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Reference > The Encyclopedia of World History II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World > 3. The Archaic Period, 800–510 B.C.E. > c. Sparta and the Peloponnese > c. 650–630 PREVIOUS CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD NEXT

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c. 650–630
The Second Messenian War. Messenia revolted against the Spartans. Allied to the Arcadians and Argos, Messenia won the Battle of Senyclarus. But in a 19-year war, Sparta finally defeated the Messenians and reintroduced helotry.
1

625
Cypselus's son Periander (625–585) succeeded him and brought Corinth to its political and cultural zenith. He had wide international dealings—his nephew Psammetichus was named after the pharaoh of Egypt.
2

600
Corinth founded the colony of Potidaea in the northern Aegean in order to foster trade with Macedonia.
3

585
Psammetichus (585–582) became tyrant of Corinth but was soon murdered. An oligarchic government was reestablished.
4

c. 575–555

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c. 650-630. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Tegean War. Sparta defeated Tegea after a long and difficult war (c. 575–555). Tegea became a subject ally, nominally independent, but bound to follow Spartan foreign policy and provide it with troops.

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c. 555
Sparta extended its alliance system, the Peloponnesian League, which eventually included all the states in the peninsula except Achaea and Argos. Allies contributed two-thirds of their military forces in war, always under Spartan leadership, though each member had a vote in foreign-policy decisions. King Anaxandridas (560–520) led a campaign which overthrew the tyrant of Sicyon. In Sparta, Cheilon and the other ephors dominated Spartan politics.
6

c. 544
The Battle of the 300 hampions. Sparta and Argos fought a war over control of the Thyrean plain. Each side picked 300 “champions” for a fight to the death to decide the issue. When neither side accepted the result, the two armies fought a pitched battle, which the Spartans won. Argos retained its independence but lost its regional power.
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c. 524–510
Pursuing their antityrannical policy, the Spartans supported an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos in 524. They succeeded in deposing tyrannies in Naxos (522) and Athens (510).
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c. 519–490
The Reign of Cleomenes I. The Agiad king Cleomenes I reasserted royal power in Sparta and brought the Peloponnesian League to its height. When the expulsion of the Peisistratid tyrants from Athens resulted not in a pro-Spartan oligarchy but in democratic reforms (See 510), Cleomenes led an expedition into Attica. The invasion failed due to the opposition of the Eurypontid king Demaratus (c. 515–491) and the defection of Corinth.
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The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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c. 650-630. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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d. Athens. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

World History Encyclopedia

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d. Athens c. 800–680
Athens gradually unified Attica by conquest and by synoecism, the process of merging with smaller towns. The Athenians were divided into four tribes (phylai) made up of phratries. Each phratry was divided into two groups: the clansmen (gennetai), made up of the aristocratic eupatridae, and the guildsmen (orgeones), who practiced trade and manufacture. Where poor farmers and serfs (hektemoroi) were enrolled is unclear. For administrative purposes, each tribe was divided into 12 naucrariai, each providing one ship for the navy. The army was provided by two of three classes: the knights (hippeis), wealthy aristocrats who made up the cavalry, and the hoplite class (zeugitai) who provided their own arms and made up the infantry. The thetes, who had no property, did no military service. The Medonidae ruled as kings, but during the 8th and 7th centuries, the aristocrats gradually usurped royal power. The king's military functions were absorbed by the war archon (polemarch) and his civil duties were absorbed by a civil archon (archon eponymos) after whom the year was named. The kingship retained only religious significance.
1

683
Athens abolished the monarchy completely. The king's religious duties were now performed by a king archon (archon basileus). Six thesmothetai were created to be judges and interpreters of law, and these officials along with the civil archon, the king archon and the polemarch were known as the Nine Archons. They were chosen each year from among the aristocracy by the Areopagus, the council of ruling aristocrats, which ran the state. The important priesthoods were hereditary in aristocratic families. The Ecclesia, or assembly of citizens, had little power.
2

623

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d. Athens. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Cylon attempted to establish a tyranny in Athens, but the people did not support him. Cylon himself escaped, but many of his followers were massacred by Megacles and the aristocratic Alcmaeonid clan while in a religious sanctuary. This impious slaughter gave rise to the so-called “Curse of the Alcmaeonidae.”

3

628–620
According to tradition, Draco, one of the thesmothetai, issued Athens' first written laws. The “Draconian” penalties were most severe—death in most cases.
4

c. 600
Athens seized Sigeum from Mytilene. The resulting war was arbitrated around 590 by the tyrant Periander of Corinth in Athens' ofavor.
5

594–591
THE REFORMS OF SOLON. The introduction of coined money, and high rates of interest, led to increased indebtedness. Debt slavery in turn brought civil unrest. To solve the crisis, Solon was made sole archon in 595, with special legislative powers. In 592, he was appointed “reformer of the constitution.” His Seisachtheia (“shaking-off-of-burdens”) canceled all debts on land, banned debt slavery, and freed all debt slaves. Those who had been sold abroad were redeemed at state expense. Solon replaced Draco's laws, except those on homicide, with a milder code. A popular court, the heliaea, was created, to which the citizens could appeal the decisions of the magistrates. Solon created a Council (boule) of 400 (100 from each tribe), which proposed laws to the assembly (ecclesia). The assembly could still only accept or reject the council's proposals but now elected all the magistrates. The Areopagus council continued, but in a reduced capacity. Four classes of citizens, based on wealth, were established: (1) the pentacosiomedimnoi had annual revenues of 500 bushels (medimnoi) of grain or measures (metretai) of wine or olive oil, (2) the hippeis, with revenues of 300 bushels or measures, (3) the zeugitai, with 200, and (4) the thetes who made up the rest of the citizen body. At some later date, these classes were redefined in terms of money and based on property rather than income. Every member of the first two classes was eligible for the archonships. Since exarchons automatically joined the Areopagus council, it ceased to be exclusively aristocratic. The first three property classes could run for the lower magistracies, but the fourth class, the lowest and largest, could participate only in the heliaea court and the assembly. Solon's reforms were important but did not solve the underlying class tensions, perhaps because no provision was made to supply freed slaves with land or to relieve the burdens of the serfs (hektemoroi, “sixth-parters”). Unlike other contemporary political leaders, Solon did not try to become a tyrant. After making his reforms, he left Athens for ten years, traveling around the Mediterranean. Factional fighting broke out immediately after Solon's departure between two parties: the rich aristocrats of the plain (pediakoi) led by Lycurgus, and the merchants and craftsmen (paralioi) headed by Megacles the Alcmaeonid.
6

c. 565
Peisistratus, a relative of Solon, acquired fame by conquering the island of Salamis from Megara. He organized a new party, the diakrioi, based in the hill country of north Attica, made up of small farmers, shepherds, artisans, and the poor.
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d. Athens. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

561–510
THE TYRANNY OF THE PEISISTRATIDS.
8

561–527
The Rule of Peisistratus. In 561, Peisistratus made himself tyrant of Athens but shortly thereafter was driven out of the city by Megacles and Lycurgus. In 560/559, allying himself with Megacles, he was restored to power, only to be expelled again in 556. Peisistratus spent some years in Thrace, gaining wealth from mines he owned there. In 546, he was again made tyrant with help from Thessaly and from Lygdamis, the tyrant of Naxos. Peisistratus exiled his opponents, confiscated their lands, and distributed them to the poor, so that the hektemoroi now became landowners. Peisistratus encouraged industry and trade and introduced the popular cult of Dionysus, which reduced the power of the aristocrats' hereditary priesthoods. He sent Miltiades to establish a tyranny over the Thracian Chersonese, which controlled the passage between Europe and Asia. Peisistratus also “purified” the island of Delos, the center of an Ionian religious league, which extended his political control into the Cyclades. At home, Peisistratus kept the form of the Solonian constitution, while holding all real power.
9

527
Upon Peisistratus's death, his sons Hippias and Hipparchus succeeded to the tyranny.
10

519
Athens defeated Thebes and prevented it from forcing Plataea into the Boeotian League.
11

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514
Two aristocrats, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, attempted to assassinate the two Athenian tyrants. Only Hipparchus was killed, and the sole tyranny of Hippias grew more oppressive. The Alcmaeonidae, apparently part of the plot, fled from Athens.
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e. Central and Northern Greece. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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e. Central and Northern Greece c. 800
Chalcis and Eretria, the two largest cities on Euboea, were major powers in the Archaic period, and Euboean coinage, weights, and measures were used throughout the Greek world.
1

c. 775
Chalcis, Eretria, and the Aeolian city of Cyme jointly settled a colony on the island of Pithecusae (Ischia) in the Bay of Naples.
2

757
These same cities, along with the Pithecusans, established a colony at Cumae on the Italian mainland.
3

c. 730
Eretria settled colonies at Mende in the Chalcidice and at Methone and Dicaea in Macedonia.
4

c. 720
Chalcidian colonists established Rhegium in southern Italy.
5

c. 710

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e. Central and Northern Greece. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Chalcis colonized Torone in the Chalcidice and subsequently founded some 30 small colonies on the peninsula.

6

c. 700–500
THE TAGEIA OF THESSALY. Before 700, Thessaly was organized into four tetrads, each ruled by a tetrarch. In the 7th century, Aleuas of Larissa organized the Thessalian League and led it as tagos, or general. The tagos was an elected office but generally held by a member of the Aleuadae clan. A federal assembly levied taxes and troops, and until the 6th century the Thessalian League possessed the strongest army in Greece. The League's loose organization, however, prevented Thessaly from playing a leading political role, though it dominated the Amphictyony of Anthela, a religious league which, by 600, included all the city-states of central Greece.
7

c. 700
Chalcis, supported by Corinth, Samos, and Thessaly, fought the Lelantine War against Eretria, Aegina, Miletus, and Megara, over the rich Lelantine plain. Chalcis and its allies were victorious.
8

c. 640
Perdiccas I of the Argead dynasty conquered the Macedonian plain and established a capital at Aegae (Vergina). Macedon was inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups, including Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians. Whether the Macedonians themselves spoke a dialect of Greek or a separate language is a hotly debated subject. The royal family and the aristocracy, in any case, became increasingly Hellenized.
9

c. 590
THE FIRST SACRED WAR. Crisa, in whose territory Delphi lay, started levying tolls on visitors to the shrine of Apollo. The Amphictyony of Anthela, under Thessaly's leadership, and with help from Sicyon and Athens, declared war. Crisa was defeated and demolished. The Amphictyony took over the administration of Delphi and moved its headquarters there. Athens and the Peloponnesian Dorians were admitted as members.
10

c. 550
THE BOEOTIAN LEAGUE. Thebes formed the Boeotian League and began subordinating the smaller states in the region. After a long struggle, the city of Orchomenos was defeated and forced to join the league.
11

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The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001. (See Aug. 23 )

5. Japan, 1914–1945

1914–18
During the years of World War I, the Japanese manufactured and sent to Europe large quantities of munitions (especially to Russia). At the same time, Japanese merchants took advantage of the conflict to supplant German commerce in East Asia. Heavy industry in particular grew in the postwar years, with considerable investment from the zaibatsu conglomerates, which increasingly dominated the economy. In the 1920s they set the stage through planning with greater efficiency for the rapid expansion of the 1930s, following the government's shift in financial policy. Domestically, the Taish period (1912–26) is usually considered an era of opening to liberal and Western trends in many areas of society and the arts, the so-called Taish democracy. This is usually to distinguish it from the political authoritarianism of the preceding Meiji era and from the militarism and the crackdown on domestic liberalism of the subsequent Sh wa era. Western influence was felt in the visual and literary arts, both in theme and technique.
1

2

1914, Aug
Japan declared war on Germany. Within a three-month period, German possessions in Shandong and the Pacific were in Japanese hands.
3

Nov. 7

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Jiaozhou surrendered to the Japanese after a two-month siege.

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1915, Jan. 18
JAPAN SUBMITTED TO CHINA THE TWENTY-ONE DEMANDS, initiating a policy of increasing Japanese dominance in East Asia at China's expense.
1

Oct. 19
Japan formally joined the pact of London (Sept. 5, 1914), binding itself not to conclude a separate peace.
2

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1916, July 3
A Russo-Japanese convention was concluded by which Russia accepted the extension of Japanese influence in China under agreements of 1915, and Japan recognized the Russian advance into Outer Mongolia.
1

Sept. 3
Fresh demands made on China, increasing Japanese rights in southern Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, followed a clash between Japanese and Chinese troops at Zhengjiadun (Aug.). China acquiesced (Feb. 1917).
2

Oct. 9
Terauchi Masatake (1852–1919) succeeded kuma Shigenobu (1838–1922) as prime minister, with a slight minority in the lower house of the diet.
3

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1917, April 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1917, April 20
The general election proved a victory for the government.
1

Nov. 2
Notes were exchanged with the U.S. (Lansing-Ishii Agreement) by which the latter recognized the special interests of Japan in China, and Japan gave pledges of good faith in the maintenance of China's integrity, independence, and the “open door.”
2

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1918, April 5
British and Japan marines landed at Vladivostok.
1

May, 16
A Sino-Japanese treaty was signed.
2

July 6
Japanese commanders took control of Vladivostok and the eastern terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway. An announcement of intervention (Aug. 3) was issued. The Siberian Expedition was launched (See 1918–20) with 75,000 Japanese troops. The other troops sent by France, Great Britain, Canada, and the United States left by early 1919; the Japanese stayed over four years.
3

Aug
Rice riots erupted in towns and cities throughout Japan, spurred by the rise in the price of foodstuffs (rice principal among them) during the boom of World War I. They were mercilessly crushed.
4

Sept. 29
The Terauchi cabinet resigned because of its inability to cope with the unrest of the rice riots. Hara Takashi (Kei, 1856–1921), the first common prime minister, formed a government. Corruption and refusal to consider universal suffrage caused alienation among the populace toward party politics.
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1918, April 5. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1918–20
GREAT CIVIL WAR. The Bolshevik government was at first faced with the prospect of war without anything like an adequate, trained force. During the first period of the war it suffered one reverse after another, but gradually a new Red Army of volunteers was organized. Under the leadership of Trotsky (who had become commissar for war) it developed into a regular army based on conscription and subject to strict discipline. The Bolsheviks had the advantage of fighting on the inside lines and derived a certain measure of support from the fact that they were defending Russian territory. At the same time the lack of cohesion among the counterrevolutionary movements and the fitful attitude of the Allied powers constantly hampered the operations of the Whites. (1) The war with the Cossacks. Operations began with the new year. Kaledin committed suicide after a defeat (Feb. 13), and Kornilov was killed in battle (April 13). The command in the south was taken over by Gen. Anton Denikin, supported by Gen. Peter Krasnov (hetman of the Don Cossacks, May 11). (2) The struggle for Ukraine. Ukraine had declared its independence of Russia (Jan. 28, 1918), and the Moderate Socialist government at Kiev had concluded a separate peace with the Germans and Austrians (Feb. 9). Thereupon the Bolsheviks attacked and took Kiev (Feb. 18), but they were soon ejected by the Germans (March 2), who then also took Odessa (March 13) and overran the whole of Ukraine, from which they tried, rather unsuccessfully, to secure much-needed food supplies. With German aid, a more conservative government, under Gen. Paul Skoropadsky, was set up, but after the end of the world war, Skoropadsky was overthrown (Nov. 15) by the Ukrainian Socialists, under Gen. Simon Petliura. The French occupied Odessa (Dec. 18), but the Bolsheviks, having assumed the offensive, took Kiev (Feb. 3, 1919) and expelled the Allied forces from Odessa (April 8). Ukraine became a Soviet Republic, which was conquered by the White armies of Gen. Denikin (Aug.–Dec. 1919) only to be retaken by the Bolsheviks (Dec. 17) and then invaded by the Poles (May 7, 1920). The Bolsheviks managed to drive the Poles back and on Dec. 28 concluded a treaty with the Ukrainian Soviet government, recognizing the latter's independence. On Dec. 30 Ukraine joined with the other Soviet Republics to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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2

3

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1918-20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

(3) The war in Belarus (White Russia) and the Baltic region. Most of this area continued to be occupied or dominated by the Germans down to and beyond the conclusion of the world war armistice. In the autumn of 1919 a White army under Gen. Nicholas Yudenitch advanced on Petrograd (Oct. 19) but was forced back by the Bolsheviks. The Soviet government recognized the independence of Estonia (Feb. 2, 1920), of Lithuania (July 12), of Latvia (Aug. 11), and of Finland (Oct. 14). Belarus continued to be a Soviet Republic until its union with the other Soviet Republics in 1922. (4) Allied intervention in northern Russia. The British landed a force at Murmansk on June 23, 1918, primarily with the object of holding German forces in the east and protecting Allied stores from falling into hostile hands. On Aug. 2 the British and French took Arkhangelsk and began to support a puppet government of northern Russia. The Americans also sent a force, and during the spring of 1919 there was considerable fighting between the Allies and the Bolsheviks. The French were the most ardent advocates of more extensive intervention against the Bolsheviks, but neither the British nor the Americans were willing, after the armistice, to go beyond financial and other support for the anti-Bolshevik movements. On Sept. 30, 1919, the Allies abandoned Arkhangelsk and then (Oct. 12) Murmansk. These territories were quickly taken over by the Bolsheviks. (5) Campaigns of Denikin and Wrangel in the Caucasus and southern Russia. The Caucasian states (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) declared their independence on April 22 and May 26, 1918. After the withdrawal of the Germans and Austrians from southern Russia, the Bolsheviks made an effort to reconquer this territory, so valuable for its oil, but Denikin defeated them (Jan. 1919). After a rather spectacular advance northward, Denikin was himself driven back to the Black Sea coast (April), where he maintained himself until the autumn. In another swift offensive he then captured Odessa (Aug. 18) and took Kiev (Sept. 2), only to be forced to retreat again (Dec.). By March 27, 1920, his last base fell to the Bolsheviks, and he turned over the command to Gen. Peter Wrangel. The Bolsheviks meanwhile advanced into the Caucasus and took Baku (April 28), but Wrangel, starting from the region north of the Sea of Azov, began to overrun much of southern Russia (June–Nov.). Finally, however, the Bolshevik forces, freed by the conclusion of the war with Poland, were able to concentrate against Wrangel, who was forced back to the Crimea (Nov. 1) and then obliged to evacuate his army to Constantinople (Nov. 14). Early in 1921 Soviet governments were set up in Georgia (Feb. 25) and in Armenia (April 2). By the treaty with Turkey (Oct. 13) Batum was restored to Russia. On March 12, 1922, the Soviet governments of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were combined to form the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic, which on Dec. 30 became part of the larger Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (6) The war in Siberia and eastern Russia. Japanese forces were landed at Vladivostok on Dec. 30, 1917, at a time when the Czech legions (organized before the revolution out of large numbers of Austrian war prisoners) had already started their march toward Vladivostok with the purpose of ultimately joining the Allied forces in Europe. Disagreement between them and the Soviet government led to armed conflict (June 1918), in the course of which the Czechs seized control of the Trans-Siberian Railway and formed an alliance with local anti-Bolshevik forces. An autonomous Siberian government had already been formed at Omsk. This government later merged with the directory organized in Ufa by former members of the constituent assembly (mostly Moderate Socialists). Meanwhile the Czechs extended their operations to the Volga region, taking Ekaterinburg (July 26) and other places. At Omsk the military and conservative elements executed a coup (Nov. 18) by which the Socialists were forced out of the government, and Adm. Alexander Kolchak was proclaimed Supreme Ruler of Russia. His Siberian White army then staged an advance into eastern Russia, capturing Perm (Dec. 24) and Ufa. But the Bolsheviks initiated a vigorous counteroffensive, taking Orenburg and Ekaterinburg (Jan. 25, 27, 1919) and gradually forcing Kolchak back into Siberia. They recaptured Omsk (Nov. 14) and drove the White army back on Irkutsk. Kolchak gave way to Gen. Nicholas Semenov (Dec. 17) and was subsequently captured and executed by the Bolsheviks (Feb. 7). The Bolsheviks attempted to take Vladivostok by a coup (Jan. 30) but were obliged to yield to the greater power of the Japanese. In order to avoid conflict, the Soviet government of Russia set up a buffer state in eastern Siberia (April 6). This was known as the Far Eastern Republic, with its capital at Chita. When the Japanese finally evacuated Vladivostok (Oct. 25, 1922), the city was occupied by troops of the Far Eastern Republic, which was itself annexed to Soviet Russia on Nov. 19, 1922.
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5

6

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1918-20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

Other important developments of this confused and crucial period were as follows.

8

1918, July 10
PROMULGATION OF THE SOVIET CONSTITUTION, which was adopted by the Fifth AllRussian Congress of Soviets. The main lines of the soviet system were these: (1) local soviets elected representatives to the provincial congresses of soviets, which in turn sent delegates to the All-Russian (subsequently All-Union) Congress of Soviets; (2) the latter elected the Executive Committee, a permanent body that acted in the intervals between sessions of the congress; the congress also elected the Council of People's Commissars; (3) elections were held on an occupational and not on a territorial basis: the factory workers were more generously represented than the peasants, while the “nontoiling” bourgeois classes (including the clergy) were disfranchised; (4) all elections were open, with no provision for secret ballot. In practice this system of “soviet democracy” was dominated by a dictatorship of (or for) the proletariat, and this in turn was exercised by the Bolshevik Party (renamed the Communist Party in March 1918). No other parties were permitted, and the press and other channels of expression were put under sweeping government control. The Communist Party was governed by the Central Committee, within which there was a smaller group called the Political Bureau (Politburo). This latter was the real governing body of the country. Lenin's authority remained supreme in both party and government until his death.
9

July 16
Murder of Nicholas II, Tsarina Alexandra, and their children in a cellar at Ekaterinburg, where they had been kept in captivity. On the outbreak of the revolution the imperial family had been confined first in the palace of Tsarskoe Selo. Thence it had been moved to Tobolsk and finally (April 1918) to Ekaterinburg. The murder was ordered by Bolsheviks who feared the imminent capture of the city by the advancing Czechs and Whites.
10

Aug. 30
An attempt was made by a Social Revolutionary to assassinate Lenin. Coming at the time of severe crisis, this move inaugurated a systematic reign of terror by the Bolsheviks, in the course of which huge numbers of intellectuals and bourgeois of all types were wiped out.
11

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1919, Jan. 18
The Versailles Peace Conference began (See 1919, Jan. 18). Japan was favorable toward the League of Nations, but its demand for a statement of racial equality was rejected.
1

Feb. 14
Acrimonious debate over universal suffrage took place in the Diet. The franchise was then limited to men over 25, paying a direct tax of 3 yen, thus excluding agricultural and industrial labor, as well as all women. Organized demonstrations in Tokyo led to the dissolution of the Diet (Feb. 26).
2

March 1
Rioting and rebellion in Korea (See 1919, March 1), following the March First Movement, was mercilessly suppressed. There followed a reform of the Korean government-general promising larger powers of self-government should Koreans abandon their independence movement.
3

March 25
A reform act increased the electorate from 1.5 million to 3.0 million.
4

May 10
A general election, with universal suffrage a dominant issue, resulted in 283 seats for the government party (Seiy kai), which was opposed to it, 108 for the Kenseikai, and 68 for other parties.
5

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1920, Jan. 10
Peace was formally reached with Germany by the exchange of ratifications. Japan, after initial satisfaction, became chagrined over the failure to secure recognition of its special position in East Asia.
1

Dec. 17
Japan received as mandates from the League of Nations the former German islands in the Pacific north of the equator (Caroline, Marshall, and Marianas (Ladrone) archipelagoes).
2

Dec. 31
The first imperial census revealed a population of 55,191,140; including Sakhalin, Taiwan, and Korea, the total came to 77,005,112.
3

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1920, Jan. 10. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1921, March-Aug. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1921, March–Aug
The world tour of Crown Prince Hirohito marked the first time a member of the imperial family had been abroad.
1

Nov. 4
Prime Minister Hara was murdered by a political fanatic.
2

Nov. 12
Takahashi Korekiyo (1854–1936) became prime minister.
3

Nov. 12–1922, Feb. 6
The Washington Conference met. Adm. Kat Tomosabur (1861–1923), Shidehara Kij r (1872–1951), and Prince Tokugawa were the delegates from Japan. By these accords, Japan agreed to build no more three vessels for every five constructed by the U.S. and five by Great Britain.
4

Nov. 25
Crown Prince Hirohito became regent because of the illness of the emperor. A shipyard strike in K be succeeded in winning an eight-hour workday, which was later extended to laborers in other heavy industries.
5 6

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1921, March-Aug. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1922, Feb. 23. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1922, Feb. 23
Serious riots erupted over the issue of universal suffrage.
1

June 2
The Sino-Japanese agreement over Shandong was ratified, resulting in friendlier relations with China and the return of Jiaozhou (Dec. 10).
2

June 11
Kat Tomosabur succeeded Takahashi Korekiyo as prime minister.
3

July 6
Treaties from the Washington Conference (See 1921, Nov. 12–1922, Feb. 6) were ratified by Japan, and Japan's naval budget was reduced by 117 million yen.
4

Sept. 6–24
The Changchun Conference with the Soviet Union was a failure, and Japan continued to occupy northern Sakhalin.
5

Oct

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1922, Feb. 23. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

The last of the Japanese troops left Siberia, over four years after the first ones had arrived, having failed to defeat the Bolshevik Revolution. Frank Lloyd Wright (1869–1959) built Tokyo's Imperial Hotel.

6

7

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1923, March 2. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1923, March 2
A universal suffrage bill was defeated.
1

Aug. 28
Yamamoto Gonbee (1852–1933) succeeded Kat Tomosabur as prime minister.
2

Sept. 1
The GREAT KANT EARTHQUAKE was followed by fierce fires in Tokyo, Yokohama, and neighboring cities, with tidal waves and repeated aftershocks. Over 100,000 were killed, with U.S.$1 billion worth of damage. Relief was sent from abroad, especially from the U.S. In the immediate aftermath, frenzied mobs killed several thousand Koreans; the police used the occasion to arrest leftists, torturing and killing some.
3

Dec. 29
The government resigned; this event was followed by an attack on the life of the prince regent. Kiyoura Keigo (1850–1942) became prime minister.
4

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1923, March 2. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1924, April-June. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1924, April–June
High feelings were aroused by the United States' abrogation of the gentlemen's agreement and the total exclusion of Japanese. Demonstrations and boycotts of U.S. products resulted.
1

May 10
General elections were held, and the Kiyoura government fell. Kat Takaaki (K mei, 1860–1926) became prime minister, and Shidehara Kij r became foreign minister (June 1924–April 1927), with conciliatory policies toward China. Labor unions were legalized, and there were other labor reforms; a peace preservation law was enacted that put a serious damper on freedom of speech.
2

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1924, April-June. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1925, Jan. 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1925, Jan. 20
A Russo-Japanese convention reestablished diplomatic relations: Russia recognized the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905; the fisheries convention of 1907 was to be revised; and Japan received oil and coal concessions in northern Sakhalin and agreed to evacuate its troops. This and subsidiary agreements formed a general settlement of issues between the two countries.
1

March
A bill passed the Diet granting universal suffrage for men aged 25 and over; the number of eligible voters increased from 3 million to 14 million. Although this development ought to have strengthened party government, the increased size of the electorate necessitated more expensive campaigns and led to more extensive corruption.
2

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1925, Jan. 20. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1926, Jan. 28. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1926, Jan. 28
Prime Minister Kat Takaaki died and was succeeded by the new leader of the Kenseikai, Wakatsuki Reijir (1866–1949), the second commoner to become prime minister.
1

Dec. 25
The Taish emperor died, and the prince regent succeeded him to the throne. The reign period was changed to Sh wa.
2

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1926, Jan. 28. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1926-89. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1926–89
The SH WA PERIOD was the longest reign in Japanese history. After a few more years of the liberalism and internationalism of the Taish period, a sudden and sharp militaristic and imperialistic reaction set in after the Manchurian Incident (Sept. 18, 1931). There was a partial repudiation of popular intellectual and cultural aspects of Western civilization and a revival of older Japanese ideologies. Politicians lost their influence, and the army and, to a lesser extent, the navy became the dominant forces in the government, with the farming populace more often than not supporting the military against the urban bourgeoisie and the large economic combines or zaibatsu. Under this leadership, the nation embarked on a daring program of territorial expansion on the continent. Meanwhile, Japanese industry was growing rapidly, and Japanese manufactured goods began to flood the world market.
1

1927, April 17
The Wakatsuki cabinet fell, and Tanaka Giichi (1863–1929), leader of the Seiy kai, became prime minister, pursuing an “activist” policy toward China.
2

May–June
Japanese troops intervened in Shandong to block the northern advance of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army upon Beijing in the Northern Expedition.
3

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1926-89. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1928, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1928, April
Japan intervened again in Shandong, allegedly to protect Japanese nationals there, leading to the following events in early May.
1

May 3–11
Sino-Japanese clashes erupted in Jinan: Japan temporarily seized control of the railways in Shandong; a Chinese boycott movement against Japan lasted for over a year; the incident was settled on March 28, 1929; China agreed to pay damages but not an indemnity; and Japanese troops withdrew on May 20, 1929.
2

June
Zhang Zuolin was assassinated by a clique of officers within the Guandong army, in order to make his forces in Manchuria and north China more cooperative. This policy backfired; Tanaka was compelled to recognize the Nanjing-based regime (Guomindang) of Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek); and the Tanaka cabinet ultimately fell (July 2, 1929) when the emperor intervened to note Tanaka's failure to prosecute the murderers of Zhang.
3

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1928, April. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1929. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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1929
The growth of labor unions, begun particularly during 1915–20, reached a total of 600 associations with a third of a million members. There was also an increase in labor disputes (576 in 1929).
1

July 2
The Tanaka cabinet fell. Hamaguchi Osachi (1870–1931) of the Minseit formed a cabinet, and Shidehara Kij r returned as foreign minister. To redress Japan's balance of payments problem, Hamaguchi tried to reduce government expenditures; he also strengthened the yen by moving Japan again to the gold standard. The coming Great Depression undid much of his success. The international depression hit Japanese labor, although the government's reflationary policies helped to alleviate some of the pain after 1932, and the speedy recovery of the 1930s together with continued expansion in both heavy and light industries served actually to enlarge the labor pool considerably.
2

3

The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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1929. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

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