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Sunil Bhooshan ©Sunil Bhooshan
To — My family and the loving memory of my parents
Learning without thought is labour lost; thought without learning is perilous. —Confucius
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Preface
These notes, chapters, lecture notes or what you will have become concrete with my interaction with my students. Though many good books exist on the subject (Jordan & Balmain 1968 W. H. Hayt & Buck 2001), (to name only two) I would like to present this book to my undergraduate students as my view of the subject. In this book my motive is to somehow excite the interest of the reader. The subject is presented as a complete whole, starting from the mathematical principles involved to electromagnetic theory in general. I have included a detailed treatment of the mathematics required, since I feel that the application of the mathematics to engineering situations requires more explanation and solved problems. I include in this book some examples (but not too many) and some exercises which I think may be important. Also I have adopted a conversational style: somewhat like a professor delivering a lecture. Many times I have asked questions, like the questions a student would ask, and then proceeded to answer them. My other advice to the reader is to read and refer to as many texts as possible. The reader is also encouraged to solve as many problems as possible from diﬀerent books and from as many sources as possible. I have also attempted to provide careful and complete explanations of the material, while at the same time maintaining a writing style which is succinct and to the point. Questions for self assessment are given at the end of each chapter. These are (i) Review questions : Theoretical in nature, these questions are without answers. (ii) Numerical problems: The practice questions are given in this section with hints and answers. (iii) Short answer type questions: Questions with answers which will help students in fetching 24 marks in examinations are given in this section. (iv) Objective type questions: Multiple choice questions (One question with four options to choose) are given in this section. (v) Open book exam question: Theoretical/parctice question (With hints for reference to particular page/section for answers) are given in this. Sunil Bhooshan, JUIT, Waknaghat
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Aclnowledgements
Agastya Bhooshan Gagan Gupta Vinay Kumar Rohit Sharma Lyx Xﬁg Inkscape Latex
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Copyright © Sunil Bhooshan 2008. Paper or electronic copies for noncommercial use may be made freely without explicit permission of the author. All other rights are reserved.
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Frequently Used Reference Material 0.1. Table of Fundamental Constants . . 0.2. Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3. The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . 0.4. SI Preﬁxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5. Dielectric Constants of Materials . . 0.6. Relative Permeabilities of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 2 2 3
I.
Introductory Material
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5 5 5 7 13 16 17 21 24 31 31 33 37 43 43 43 44 48 49 50 51 54 57 63 66 71 74
1. Scalars and Vectors 1.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3. Scalars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4. Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1. Vector Addition . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2. A Handy Technique . . . . . . . . 1.4.3. Dot Product or Scalar Product . . 1.4.4. Cross Product or Vector Product . 1.5. Units and Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1. The Basis of Units and Dimensions 1.6. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7. Practice Problems and Self Assessment . .
2. Coordinate Systems and Fields 2.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. Scalar and Vector Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4. The Rectangular Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1. Distance Between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2. Direction Cosines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3. Vector Equation of a Straight Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4. Equation of a Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5. Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1. Equations of Surfaces and Lines in Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6. The Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8. Practice Problems and Self Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3. Vector Calculus 3.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. Basic 3Dimensional Calculus . . . . . . 3.2.1. Diﬀerential Element of a Line . . 3.2.2. Line Integral . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3. Diﬀerential Element of a Surface 3.2.4. Surface Integral . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5. The Volume Integral . . . . . . . 3.3. Diﬀerential Calculus Concepts . . . . . 3.3.1. The Del or Nabla Operator . . . 3.3.2. Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3. The Curl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4. Divergence . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4. Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5. Units and Dimensions of EM Fields . . 3.6. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7. Practice Problems and Self Assessment . 79 79 79 79 83 88 91 94 96 99 101 104 110 112 113 114 117
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II. Electrostatics
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law 4.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. Electrostatics: An Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3. Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4. Coulomb’s Law and the Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5. The Electric Field due to a System of Point Charges . . . . 4.5.1. Electric Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2. Electric Field Due to Any Number of Point Charges 4.6. Electric Field due to Continuous Charge Distributions . . 4.6.1. Inﬁnite Line Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2. Inﬁnite Sheet Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7. Electric Displacement Ψ and Flux Density D. . . . . . . . . 4.8. Gauss’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9. Gauss’s Law Applied to Cases of Spherical Symmetry . . . 4.9.1. Gauss’s Law Applied to a Point Charge . . . . . . . 4.9.2. Gauss’s Law Applied to a Charged Sphere . . . . . 4.10. Gauss’s Law Applied to Cases of Cylindrical Symmetry . . 4.11. Gauss’s Law Applied to Cases of Rectangular Symmetry . 4.12. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13. Practice problems and Self Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Energy and Potential 5.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. Potential Due to a Point Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. Equipotential Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4. Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5. Potential Due to a System of Point Charges . . . . . 5.6. Potential Due Any Continuous Charge Distribution 5.7. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5.8. Practice Problems and Self Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 6. The Electric Field and Material Media 6.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2. Current and Current Density . . . . . . . . . 6.3. Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4. Conductors, Semiconductors and Dielectrics 6.4.1. Conductors and Resistance . . . . . . 6.4.2. Relaxation Time for Conductors . . . 6.4.3. The Method of Images . . . . . . . . . 6.4.4. Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5. Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5. Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1. Parallel Plate Capacitor . . . . . . . . 6.5.2. Coaxial Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.3. Two Conductor Line . . . . . . . . . . 6.6. Relation Between Capacitance and Resistance 6.7. Boundary Conditions for Electrostatic Fields 6.8. Energy Stored in the Electric Field . . . . . . 6.9. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10. Practice Problems and Self Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 212 212 217 219 221 223 228 230 232 233 234 236 238 241 243 248 252 256 264 264 265 266 266 271 271 274 280 281 283
7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations 7.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2. Uniqueness Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3. Laplace’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1. Some One Dimensional Solutions . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2. Two Dimensional Solutions to Laplace’s Equation 7.3.2.1. Analytic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3. Separation of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4. Numerical Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4. Poisson’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1. One Dimensional Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III. Magnetostatics
8. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law 8.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2. The BiotSavart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1. Types of Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3. Ampere’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1. Ampere’s Law Applied to a Thin Straight Wire 8.4. Ampere’s Law Applied to a Wire of Radius a . . . . . 8.5. Ampere’s Law Applied to an Inﬁnite Solenoid . . . . 8.6. The Magnetic Field—Rigorous Calculations . . . . . 8.6.1. Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire . . . . . . . . 8.6.2. Loop of Wire Carrying a Current . . . . . . . . 8.6.3. Magnetic Field Due to a Current Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9. The Vector Potential 9.1. The Magnetic Flux Density . . . . . . . . . 9.2. The BiotSavart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3. Various Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1. Current Carrying Conductor . . . 9.3.2. Two Current Carrying Conductors 9.4. Far Field Approximation . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1. Square Current Loop . . . . . . . . 312 312 316 317 317 317 318 320
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10. Magnetic Forces 323 10.1. The Lorentz Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 10.2. Electron Moving in a Steady Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 10.3. A Straight Wire Carrying a Current in a Magnetic Field . . . . . 326 10.4. Other Formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 10.5. Loop Carrying a Current in a Constant Magnetic Field . . . . . 328 10.6. Torque on Loop Carrying a Current in a Constant Magnetic Field 329 10.7. Force between Two Current Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 11. Inductance, Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits 11.1. Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1. Inductance of a Coil . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.2. Inductance of a Coaxial Line . . . . . . 11.1.3. Magnetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.4. Inductance of a Circular Loop . . . . . 11.1.5. Mutual inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2. Magnetic Materials and Magnetic Circuits . . . 11.2.1. Magnetisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2. Magnetic Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 333 334 335 336 338 342 344 344 346
IV. Time Varying Fields, Radiation and Propagation
12. Time Dependant Fields 12.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3. Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4. A Maxwell Equation from Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . 12.5. The Displacement Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6. TimeDependent Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6.1. Point form of the Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7. Integral Form of Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.8. The Fundamental Equations of Radiation and Propagation 12.9. Time Domain Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.10. requency Domain Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 12.10.1.Phasors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.11. he Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T 12.12. hapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 12.13. hort Answer Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 12.14. roblems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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13. Electromagnetic Waves 13.1. Uniform Plane Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2. Wave Polarisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.1. Circular Polarisation . . . . . . . . . 13.2.2. Elliptical Polarisation . . . . . . . . . 13.3. Wave Propagation in Conducting Media . 13.3.1. Low Conductivity Materials . . . . . 13.3.2. High Conductivity Materials . . . . 13.4. Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5. Reﬂection and Refraction of Waves . . . . . 13.5.1. Reﬂection from a Metal Surface . . . 13.5.2. Refraction from a Dielectric Surface 13.6. Poynting Vector and the Flow of Power . . 13.6.1. Poynting’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . 13.6.2. Poynting Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 379 386 386 389 391 396 398 400 404 404 407 409 410 413 417 418 421 425 427 427 432 435 437 446 451 452 452 458 459 467 472 472 476 485 492 495 499 502 502 502 504 506 506 508 508
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14. Transmission Lines 14.1. Time Domain Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2. Frequency Domain Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3. Solutions to the Transmission Line Equation . . . . 14.3.1. Power Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3.2. Reﬂections from Discontinuities . . . . . . . 14.3.3. Standing Wave Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3.4. Input Impedance Anywhere Along the Line 14.4. Transmission Line Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5. Transformer Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. Waveguides 15.1. The Parallel Plate Waveguide 15.2. TEM mode Waveguides . . . 15.3. The Rectangular Waveguide . 15.4. The Circular Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16. Radiation from Currents 16.1. Wave Equation due to Charges and Currents . . . . 16.2. Radiation from a Current Element . . . . . . . . . . 16.3. The HalfWave Dipole Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4. Basic Antenna Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5. Directivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6. Eﬀective Aperture and Friis’ Transmission Formula 17. Introduction to Antennas 17.1. Chapter Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3. Linear Antenna Arrays . . . . . . . 17.4. Linear Array with Equal Currents 17.4.1. The Array Factor . . . . . . 17.4.2. Nulls and Sidelobes . . . . 17.4.3. Beam Pointing Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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17.5. Farﬁeld Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.6. Aperture Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.7. Horn Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.7.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.8. Parabolic Reﬂector . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.9. List of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.10. ractice Problems and Self Assessment . P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 515 518 518 520 521 521 522 522 524 525 533 533 535 539 540 542 542 542 547 548 550 551
18. Radio Wave Propagation 18.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2. Ground Wave Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3. Earth Reﬂection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4. The Surface Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4.1. The Surface Wave for the Vertical Dipole 18.4.2. Wave Tilt of the Surface Wave . . . . . . . 18.5. Surface Wave for a Horizontal Dipole . . . . . . 18.6. Approximations for Ground Wave Propagation . 18.7. Tropospheric Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.7.1. Spherical Earth Considerations . . . . . . 18.7.2. Tropospheric Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.8. Ionospheric Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.8.1. The Ionosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.8.1.1. Plasma Oscillations . . . . . . . 18.8.1.2. Wave Propagation in a Plasma .
A. List of Symbols 557 A.1. Commonly Use Symbols and Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . 557 B. Coordinate Systems B.1. Rectangular to Cylindrical, Cylindrical to Rectangular . . . . . B.2. Rectangular to Spherical, Spherical to Rectangular . . . . . . . . B.3. Spherical and Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.4. Grad, Div, Curl and Laplacian in Diﬀerent Coordinate Systems B.4.1. Cartesian Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.4.2. Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.4.3. Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Mathematical Reference C.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.1.1. Important Constants . . . C.1.2. Taylor’s Series Expansion C.2. Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . C.2.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . C.2.2. Gradient . . . . . . . . . . C.2.3. Curl . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.2.4. Divergence . . . . . . . . C.2.5. Double . . . . . . . . . . . C.3. Complex Variables . . . . . . . . C.3.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . C.3.2. Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 564 565 565 566 566 566 567 568 568 568 568 568 568 568 568 569 569 569 569 569
x
5. C. . . . C. . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . Triangle Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . C. . . .5. .1. 570 570 570 570 570 570 571 571 571 571 571 571 572 572 573 573 573 576 xi . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2. .4. . .6. . . . . Indeﬁnite Integrals . . Diﬀerentiation . . . . . . Sum and diﬀerence to product . . . C. Complex conjugates . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .4. . . . .6.Contents C. . . C. . . . . . . .4. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Powers of the trigonometric functions C. . Basic formulae . .2. C.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . C. . . . . . . . C. . . .4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Substitutions . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . C. . . Product to sum formulae . .4. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . Integration . . . . . . . . . Euler’s Identity . . . . . . . . Sum and diﬀerence formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .4. . . C. . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerentiation of Functions . . .4. . . . . .3. Half angle formulae . . . . . . . . .3. Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . Double angle formulae . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . C. .4. . . . .
. . . . Figure used to calculate the vector equation of a straight line .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. 3.15. . . 1. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . az ) and (ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3D plot of the plane of the example . . aφ ) of rectangular and cylindrical coordinates respectively. . . Relationship between (aρ . . . . . . . . 2.2. . . . . . . 2. Figure showing vector addition and subtraction . . Coordinate surfaces in spherical coordinates . . . Figure illustrating the line integral . . . .1. 1. . . .7. .11. . . . . . . The diﬀerential surface element . . . A straight line in rectangular coordinates . . . . . . . . . Figure for example 1. . . 3. . . .13. . 2. . . . .14. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . Figure showing the vectors resulting from the cross product 1.5. . . . . . . a y ) and (aρ . . Figure of vector showing its head and tail . . . . . . . .14. Work done and dot product . 1. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 3. . . Diﬀerential linear elements in cylindrical coordinates Diﬀerential linear elements in spherical coordinates . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 1. . Figure showing a spinning object . . . . . . . . Surfaces in cylindrical coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .5. A method to memorise the calculation of the cross product .10. . . . Depiction of right. .13. . . . . . Addition of two vectors . .12. . 1. . . 1. . . aθ ) of the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems respectively . . . The scalar ﬁeld g(r) for Earth . . . . . aφ . . . The helix of the example . . 2. . 3. . . . .12. . . . .6. . . . . Diﬀerential element of a line .3. . 1. Figure for Example .16. . .4. . . Figure to calculate the cross products between unit vectors . . . . . . . . . 12 13 14 14 15 16 18 19 21 22 24 25 26 28 29 45 45 48 49 51 53 55 56 57 60 60 64 65 66 68 71 80 81 82 83 86 88 Figure showing the coordinates for the pressure scalar ﬁeld . . 2. . . . 2. . . . . Right hand thumb rule and the cross product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . Unit vectors in the rectangular coordinate system . . .and lefthanded coordinate systems . . . . and az . . . . .11. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .5. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (ax . . . 1. . . . . . .9. . . . .4. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 2. . . . . . . . . aρ . . . . 2. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . Figure illustrating the scalar line integral . . .List of Figures 1. The cylindrical coordinate system . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .2. . .8. . . . . Figure to calculate the equation of a plane . . . The rectangular coordinate system . . . . . . . . The force shown in rectangular coordinates . . . . . . . . 2. . . 2. . 2. . . . . .2. . xii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . .8. . . . . . .15. . . 1. . .1. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The spherical coordinate system. . To calculate the diﬀerence vector between two points in rectangular coordinates . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Dot Product between two vectors .
. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 125 4. . .8. . . . . When the surface enclosed is closed . 149 4. . . . . . . . . The volume element in spherical coordinates . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. ﬁeld plot for two equal but similar charges of magnitude Q and d= 1 m . . .11. . . . . Electric ﬁeld due to a system of charges. . . . . . . . . . . .18. . . . . . . 3. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26. . . . . . . . . . Details of the calculation of the volume integral .24. Coulomb’s Law . . . . 130 4. . .16. .18. . . . . . . . . . . A ﬂat ring of charge . . d = 1 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerential Flux . . . . . . z) = Φ(x0 . . . . . . . .21. .13. The E ﬁeld due to a point charge. . . .6. . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . Diﬀerential surface elements in rectangular Coordinates . . Field plots for the inﬁnite line charge: Streamline plot of the inﬁnite line charge in the xy plane . 136 4. . . 3. .7. . 146 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Plot of the E ﬁeld along the axis of a ring of charge . . . Coulomb’s law appicable to three charges . . .19. . . . 156 xiii . The volume element in cylindrical coordinates . (a) When the surface enclosed is ﬂat. 156 4. . . . Calculation of the Electric ﬁeld due to an inﬁnite sheet of charge 153 4. . . . 137 4. . . . 152 4. . . . . . .15. . . . . . . . . .14. . . . .12. . . . . . . . 129 4. . . . . . Figure illustrating Coulomb’s Law . . 132 4. . Diﬀerential surface elements in cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . Properties of the curl. Charged disk . . 142 4. . . .20. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure showing two neighbouring points . .16. . . 3. . . . . . 151 4. . . . . . 3. . .4. . . . . . .19. . . . Faraday’s concentric spheres . . . .11. . . . . . . . . Divergence Theorem . . . F = qE. .13. .2. .10. . . . . . . . Exner’s goldleaf electroscope . . . y. (b) When the surface enclosed is bulging . . . . . 3. 133 4. .7. . Field plot for the dipole. . . . . . . .8. .17. . . Figure to analyse a dipole . . . . . . . . . .14. . . z0 ) . . . .20. . . . .23. . . . . . . 149 4. y0 . . Diﬀerential surface element in spherical coordinates of the surface of a sphere . . . . . . . . . . 143 4. . .22. . . . . . . . . Two sheet charges placed at z = ±d/2 . . . . . .17. . . . . . . . Computation of the electric ﬁeld on the axis of a short line charge 150 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 4.10. . . . Force felt on a charge q due to an external ﬁeld E(x. . . . 154 4. . . . . .25. . . . . . . . . dE produced by a minuscule charge dQ.15. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .5. . . 155 4. y. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . The minuscule electric ﬁeld. . 89 89 90 90 91 92 92 94 95 95 97 102 105 109 111 4. . . . . . . 3. . . z). . . . . Figure showing the calculation of the vector surface integral . . . . Field plots for the inﬁnite line charge: Streamline plot for the inﬁnite line charge in a plane passing through the z axis . .1. . . . 137 4. . . . . . . . . . Computation of the electric ﬁeld on the axis of a ring of charge . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 147 4. . . . . . . . . . Figure showing the calculation of the scalar surface integral . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 3. . . 140 4. . . . Charge distributions (a) Point Charge (b) Line Charge (c) Surface Charge (d) Volume Charge . . . . .6. Surface element lying on the surface of a cone . . . . . . . . . . . Charges placed at the corner of an equilateral triangle . Figure for Example 4. . Figure showing a line of charge of densityρl C/m from −∞ to ∞ along the z axis . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 144 4. . Properties of the curl. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . ∇Φ shown on the surface Φ(x. . 143 4.12.21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric ﬁeld at an arbitrary ﬁeld point due to a point charge . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Figures
4.27. Gauss’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.28. The relationship of ﬂux to charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.29. Gauss’s Law applied to a point charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.30. Applying Gauss’s Law to a uniformly charged hollow sphere with radius R0 . The Gaussian surface is a sphere with radius r0 . 4.31. Uniformly charged sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.32. Plot of Dr versus r for a uniformly charged sphere . . . . . . . . 4.33. Gauss’s Law applied to an inﬁnite line charge . . . . . . . . . . . 4.34. An inﬁnite cylindrical hollow tube of radius ρ0 with surface charge ρs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.35. Gauss’s law applied to an inﬁnite sheet of charge . . . . . . . . 4.36. Diagram for Problem 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 158 160 161 163 165 166 167 168 169 177
Potential diﬀerence for a point charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 ρ(x) for Example 5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Potential due to a point charge placed at r′ . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 The surface V = x2 − y2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Work done when moving Qt towards Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 [1, 0, 0] m moving with a velocity of 6×107ax m/sec in the presence of q = 3 × 10−6C at [0, 0, 0] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 5.7. Electron microscope picture of a spider (photo taken taken from a website of University of Minnesota, http://umn.edu, 2010) . . 191 5.8. Figure to calculate the potential for a system of point charges . . 193 5.9. A dipole aligned along the z axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 5.10. dV(r, r′ ) due to a minuscule charge dQ(r′ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 5.11. Potential calculation for a volume charge distribution . . . . . . 197 5.12. Calculation of the potential for a pair of parallel charged lines with charge ρl and −ρl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 5.13. Lines of constant electric potential for a pair of inﬁnite line charges200 5.14. Electric ﬁeld plot of the electric ﬁeld for two parallel inﬁnite line charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 5.15. Charged ring and electron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 5.16. Calculation of potential for Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 5.17. Charged disk for OBEQ Problem 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. Deﬁnition of current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The current and J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concepts concerning charge transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure illustrating the continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . The energy levels of the outermost shell of materials. The ﬁgure shows the valence and conduction band in (a) Metals, (b) Semiconductors, and (c) Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6. Ohm’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7. A nonuniform resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8. The motion of electrons under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld 6.9. Conductor in the presence of an external ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10. A charge Q enclosed by a spherical shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.11. A point charge near an inﬁnite ground plane . . . . . . . . . . . 6.12. Method of images applied to a single charge and a sphere. . . . 213 214 215 217 220 220 222 224 226 227 228 229
xiv
List of Figures
6.13. Polarisation of a single molecule under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld. (a) molecule when the ﬁeld is absent (b) molecule when the ﬁeld is present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 6.14. Two metal bodies representing a capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 6.15. Geometry and ﬁelds of the parallel plate capacitor (a)3D view (b) Cross section (c) Rough sketch of the electric ﬁeld . . . . . . 234 6.16. Capacitance of a coaxial line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 6.17. Geometry of the two conductor line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 6.18. A charge Q enclosed by a spherical shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 6.19. Construction of the Leyden jar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 6.20. A coaxial resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 6.21. The behaviour of the electric ﬁeld near a dielectric boundary . . 243 6.22. Behaviour of the electric ﬁeld near dielectricmetal boundary . . 246 6.23. Electric ﬁeld in the presence of a dielectric occupying a halfspace247 6.24. Moving charges into a region of space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 6.25. Figure for Problem 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 6.26. Measurement of σ for a liquid conductor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 6.27. A capacitor with two dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 6.28. Circuit for Short Answer Question 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 6.29. Three layer dielectric construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 6.30. Concentric spheres with dielectric ε0 εr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 7.1. Laplace’s equation applied to two inﬁnite plates . . . . . . . . . 267 7.2. Figure for Exercise 7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 7.3. Contour plots of the real (sin(x) cosh(y)) and imaginary (cos(x) sinh(y)) parts of the function sin(z): Real part of sin z . . . . . . . . . . . 272 7.4. Contour plots of the real (sin(x) cosh(y)) and imaginary (cos(x) sinh(y)) parts of the function sin(z): Imaginary part of sin z . . . . . . . . 273 7.5. The real and imaginary parts of the function f (z) = z2 . . . . . . 273 7.6. Contour plot of u = x2 − y2 along with the electric ﬁeld superimposed on the potential ﬁeld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 7.7. Laplace’s equation applied to a rectangular region . . . . . . . . 277 7.8. Grid of a region of space where Laplace’s has to be solved. . . . 280 7.9. The ’grid’ method applied to a rectangular domain of width of 6 cm and height 7 cm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 8.1. 8.2. 8.3. 8.4. 8.5. 8.6. 8.7. Figure illustrating the BiotSavart law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zdirected ﬁlamentary current at the origin . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld visavis a straight conductor carrying current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8. Straight wire of radius a carrying a current I′ . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9. The inﬁnite helix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11. A torus with a winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.12. Applying the BiotSavart law to a current carrying straight conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 287 290 291 292 293 295 297 299 300 302 303
xv
List of Figures
8.13. Field lines of the magnetic ﬁeld for the straight wire carrying current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 8.14. Magnetic ﬁeld on the central axis due to a current loop . . . . . 307 8.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 9.1. Magnetic Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2. Figure showing the geometry of how the vector potential calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3. Figure to derive the far ﬁeld vector potential . . . . . . . . . 9.4. Magnetic ﬁeld due to a square loop of current. . . . . . . . . . . is . . . . . . 313 315 319 320 323 324 327 329 330 331 334 335 336 339 340 343 344 346 347 348 348 353 354 355 357 359 363 368 370 375 376 377 379 384 385 387
10.1. The v × B force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2. Single electron moving perpendicularly to a steady magnetic ﬁeld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3. A long straight wire in a steady magnetic ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . 10.4. A loop carrying current in a constant magnetic ﬁeld . . . . . . . 10.5. Torque on a loop carrying a current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6. Calculation of the force between two current elements . . . . . . 11.1. Area of integration for calculating the ﬂux linked by a single turn, Ψm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2. Inductance of a coaxial line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3. Calculation of inductance from the ﬁeld point of view . . . . . . 11.4. A circular loop of wire carrying a current I . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5. Ax and A y integrands for R = 2, r = 1, θ = π/2 . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6. Mutual inductance of two coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7. Magnetic moment deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.8. A coil wound round a core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.9. A magnetic circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.10. agnetic circuit with an airgap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M 11.11. quivalent circuit of a magnetic core with an airgap . . . . . . . E 12.1. Stokes’s theorem applied to ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2. Induced current in a timevarying magnetic ﬁeld. . . . . . . . . 12.3. Faraday’s law applied to generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4. Ignition system of a car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5. Setup to show how the displacement current comes into play . 12.6. Typical communication setup with transmitting and receiving antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7. A travelling wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.8. Showing the relation between timedomain and frequency domain entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.9. Rotating hoop immersed in a constant B ﬁeld. . . . . . . . . . . 12.10. oving magnet and stationary coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M 12.11. oving slider on rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M 13.1. The geometry of the uniform plane wave . . . . . . . 13.2. Electric and Magnetic ﬁelds of a uniform plane wave 13.3. The electromagnetic frequency spectrum . . . . . . . 13.4. Figure illustrating left circular polarisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xvi
List of Figures
13.5. Figure showing the advance of the wave in a left circular polarisation plane wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6. Linear and elliptical polarisations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7. The case for θ = π/6, E y0 = 2 and Ex0 = 1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.8. Loss tangent for a dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.9. Proﬁle of a wave propagating from air to a conducting medium 13.10. kin depth for copper as a function of frequency . . . . . . . . . S 13.11. he Behaviour of electromagnetic ﬁelds near a boundary conT sisting of a change of medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12. wave obliquely incident from air on a metal (σ → ∞) . . . . . A 13.13. wave obliquely incident from air (ε1 ) on a dielectric (ε2 ) . . . A 13.14. igure Illustrating Poynting’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 13.15. oynting theorem applied to the case of a wire carrying a steady P current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
388 389 392 393 394 400 401 405 407 412 413
14.1. The equivalent circuit of a transmission line . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 14.2. Examples of Transmission lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 14.3. Figure to analyse a transmission line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 14.4. Crosssection of the micro strip line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 14.5. Transmission line showing the forward and reverse voltage waves.425 14.6. Transmission line with a load impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 14.7. A plot of the magnitude of the voltage along a line for VL = 1 V and ZL /Z0 = 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 14.8. A plot of the magnitude of normalised current along the line for IL = 0.5 A and ZL /Z0 = 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 14.9. Input impedance of a transmission line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 14.10. shown in the complex plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Γ 14.11. plane with r = 1, r = 0, x = ±1 and x = 0 circles . . . . . . . . . . 439 Γ 14.12. he Smith chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 T 14.13. mith chart depiction for this example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 S 14.14. mith chart showing how to match a load . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 S 14.15. ircuit for the example being considered . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 C 14.16. atching the line with a parallel stub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 M 14.17. atching with a transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 M 15.1. The parallel plate waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2. Fields for the parallel plate waveguide. (a) E y (b) Hz 15.3. The parallel plate transmission line . . . . . . . . . . 15.4. 3 dimensional view of a rectangular waveguide . . 15.5. The circular waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6. The ﬁrst few Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 456 459 460 467 469 474 475 476 478 481 483 484
16.1. Radiation from a current source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2. A current carrying conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3. An elemental wire carrying a current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4. The relationship between Az , Aθ and Ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5. Direction of Eθ and Hφ shown for a spherical wave . . . . . . . 16.6. Polar plot of the normalised power radiated by an inﬁnitesimal current element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7. Equivalent circuit of the half wave dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xvii
List of Figures
16.8. The dipole antenna. (a) closeup details (b) Details with respect to the far ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.9. Showing the approximation R − R′  ≈ r − z′ cos θ . . . . . . . . . 16.10. agnitude of the electric ﬁeld radiated by a halfwave dipole, M shown as a polar plot. Only half the plot is shown. . . . . . . . . 16.11. ormalised power pattern of a halfwave dipole as a function N of θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.12. xamples of antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 16.13. ar ﬁelds of an antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 16.14. he power pattern of an antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T 16.15. ower pattern of the same antenna shown in 3D rectangular P coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.16. eﬁnition of a solid angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D 16.17. eciprocity property of antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R 16.18. erivation of the Friis’ transmission formula . . . . . . . . . . . D 17.1. Design criteria of antennas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2. An equispaced linear array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3. (Top ﬁgure) Plot of sin(Nψ/2)/ sin(ψ/2) for N = 10 (Bottom ﬁgure) Numerator and Denominator of Equation 17.12 . . . . . . . 17.4. 3D view of a broadside pattern, where the antenna is oriented vertically. Note the diﬀerence in the scale of the zaxis which has been broadened to show greater particulars of the main beam and sidelobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5. Pointing the main beam in diﬀerent directions. (a) φ0 = π/2, α = 0 (b) φ0 = π/4, α = −0.7071kd (c) φ0 = 0, α = −kd. For all these plots, kd = π. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.6. Figure to calculate the farﬁeld pattern of current sources . . . . 17.7. Plot of normalised Eθ versus θ for various values of kl . . . . . . 17.8. Wave propagation based on Huygen’s principle . . . . . . . . . 17.9. An aperture with ﬁelds shown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.10. etal sheet with rectangular aperture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M 17.11. xamples of horn antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 17.12. arabolic reﬂector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P 17.13. araboloid of revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P
485 486 489 492 493 494 494 495 496 499 500 503 503 507
511 512 513 515 515 516 517 519 520 521
18.1. Radio wave propagation paths over the earth. . . . . . . . . . . 522 18.2. Two antennas of heights h1 and h2 in communication . . . . . . 524 18.3. Consideration of a wave obliquely incident on a dielectric interface.526 18.4. Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient, R⊥ , of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is perpendicular to the plane of incidence. εr = 15; σ = 12 × 10−3; x = 18 × 103σ/ fMHz . ψ is the approach of the wave above the horizon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 18.5. Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient, R⊥ , of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is parallel to the plane of incidence. εr = 15; σ = 12 × 10−3. ψ is the approach of the wave above the horizon. . 529 18.6. Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient, R , of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is parallel to the plane of incidence. εr = 15; σ = 12 × 10−3; x = 18 × 103σ/ fMHz . ψ is the angle of grazing incidence of the wave above the horizon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
xviii
List of Figures
18.7. Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient, R , of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is perpendicular to the plane of incidence. εr = 15; σ = 12 × 10−3. ψ is the approach of the wave above the horizon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.8. Coordinate system for the surface wave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.9. (Upper graph) Magnitude of the factor a. p = (R/λ)a; (Lower graph) The phase constant b. For these graphs, εr = 15, σ = .012 18.10. raph of the approximate value of the ground wave attenuation G factor A versus the numerical distance p for various values of b. 18.11. ave tilt for a surface wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W 18.12. ave tilt for a surface wavecalculation for three frequencies: W 0.5, 10 and 100 MHz. εr = 15, σ = 0.012. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.13. pherical and plane earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 18.14. ending of rays in the troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B 18.15. igure to calculate the curvature of rays in the troposphere . . . F 18.16. onversion of curved paths to straight paths using an eﬀective C radius for the earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.17. ertical composition of the ionosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V 18.18. lasma Oscillations of an inﬁnite slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P 18.19. high frequency wave travelling in the ionosphere . . . . . . . A 18.20. iagram for fMUF max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D
532 534 536 537 537 539 542 543 544 545 549 550 554 556
xix
List of Tables
1.1. The basic SI units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. Cross products of the cylindrical coordinate system . . . . . . . 2.2. Table of dot products between ax , a y , az and aρ , aφ , az . . . . . . 2.3. Table of dot products in Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 7 59 62 69
3.1. Table showing the units of the various electromagnetic quantities 114 3.2. Summary of Properties of Grad, Div and Curl . . . . . . . . . . 116 13.1. IEEE microwave band designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
14.1. Calculation of L and C for two wire (conductor radius=a, spacing between centres=b) and the coaxial (radius of inner conductor=a, inner radius of outer conductor=b) lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 15.1. Characteristic impedance of a Microstrip line . . . . . . . . . . . 459 18.1. Typical relative dielectric constants of various geological materials comprising the surface of the earth Davis & Annan (1980) . 527 18.2. Table showing the daytime properties of the ionospheric layers. In all the layers there is a great daynight variation of the electron density. Note that on the ground, the pressure is about 1000 mB. (The pressure is measure of the number of molecules/cc) . . . . 549
xx
Frequently Used Reference Material
Students need to refer to some material quite often in the course of reading the text. I have found that students are more likely to refer to reference material in the opening chapter of a book rather than an Appendix. Therefore some material is included here.
0.1. Table of Fundamental Constants
Symbol c e g G ε0 Z0 h k me me mn mp µ0 NA rB Name Velocity of light Charge of an electron Acceleration due to gravity Newton’s gravitational constant Permittivity of vacuum Characteristic impedance of free space Planck’s constant Boltzmann’s constant Electron mass Electron mass Neutron mass Proton mass Permeability of free space Avogadro’s constant Bohr radius Value 2.9979 × 109 (ms−1 ) 1.6022 × 10−19 (C) 9.8067 (ms−2 ) 6.6726 × 10−11 (N m2 kg−2 ) 8.8542 × 10−12 (Fm−1 ) 376.99 (Ω) 6.6261 × 10−34 (J s) 1.3807 × 10−23 (J◦ K−1 ) 9.1094 × 10−31 (kg) 9.1094 × 10−31 (kg) 1.6749 × 10−27 (kg) 1.6726 × 10−27 (kg) 1.2566 × 10−5 (Hm−1 ) 6.022 × 1023 (mole−1 ) 0.53× 10−10 (m)
0.2. Units
Base quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity Name meter kilogramme second ampere kelvin mole candela Symbol m kg s A ◦ K mole cd
1
Frequently Used Reference Material
0.3. The Greek Alphabet
α, A, alpha ζ, Z, zeta λ, Λ, lambda ρ, R, rho χ, X, chi ̺, varrho β, B, beta η, H, eta µ, M, mu σ, ς Σ, sigma ψ, Ψ, psi (’si’) γ, Γ, gamma θ, ϑ, Θ, theta ν, N, nu τ, T, tau ω, Ω, omega δ, ∆, delta ι, I, iota ξ, Ξ, xi (’zi’) υ, Υ, upsilon ε, ǫ, E epsilon κ, K, kappa π, ̟, Π, pi φ, Φ, phi
0.4. SI Preﬁxes
Symbol a f p n µ m d Name atto femto pico nano micro milli deca 10n 10−18 10−15 10−12 10−9 10−6 10−3 101 Symbol h k M G T P E Name hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa 10n 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018
0.5. Dielectric Constants of Materials
Material Air Alumina Bakelite Fused quartz Fused silica (glass) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Germanium Glass Ice (pure distilled water) Paper Paraﬃn Polystyrene Sea Water Silicon Soil Teﬂon Vacuum (free space) Vinyl Water Wood εr 1.00054 9.610 3.7 3.8 3.8 13.1 16 4  10 3.2 4.15 3.0 23 2.55 80 11.7  12.9 2.552.59 2.1 1.00000 2.8  4.5 8088 1.2  2.1 Loss tangent 0.0002 0.000060.0002 0.0016 0.00090.12 0.0001.0003 45 0.00170.0062 0.00028 0.040.15 0.030.04
2
Frequently Used Reference Material
0.6. Relative Permeabilities of Materials
Material(2001 n.d.) Electrical Steel Mumetal Permalloy Ferrite (NiZn) Ferrite (MnZn) Steel µr 4000 20,000 8000 6650 >650 700 Material Nickel Platinum Alluminum Vacuum Copper Water µr 100 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
3
Part I.
Introductory Material
4
1. Scalars and Vectors
Advice is seldom welcome; and those who want it the most always want it the least. —Earl of Chesterfield
1.1. Chapter Goals
This chapter introduces the student to the very, very basic math involved in taking a course in electromagnetics. In particular the topics covered are 1. Manipulating scalars with special emphasis on units. 2. Doing calculations and the special care required in doing them. 3. Estimating the result of a calculation with emphasis on the order of magnitude of the result of those calculations. 4. Understanding the basic concept of a vector and the unit vector. 5. Addition and subtraction of two vectors. 6. Scalar and vector products of two vectors. 7. Units and dimensions of engineering quantities.
1.2. Introduction
Electromagnetics is a subject which is today being rediscovered and applied in an interdisciplinary sense to many areas of engineering which include wireless and wireline transmission and communication, circuits, computer interconnects, optical ﬁber links and components, antennas, plasmas, wave propagation in the ionosphere, lasers and many others. Concerning the historical aspects of electromagnetics, the bending of rays of light in dielectrics, the law of reﬂection and the existence of metal mirrors was known in antiquity. The use of loadstone in compasses was wellknown to the Chinese and convex lenses have been discovered in Carthage (present day Tunesia). Though investigation of electromagnetic phenomena started many centuries ago1 the bulk of the laws of electromagnetic theory were discovered in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Some of the names of investigators of that time include the names of Count Alessandro Giuseppe Volta (17451827), Andre Marie Ampere (17751836), Michael Faraday (17911867), James Clerk Maxwell (18311879), Heinrich Hertz (18571894), and many others.
1 For
example, William Gilbert (15441603), conducted experiments for 18 years with magnetic materials, wrote his book ´De Magnete´.
5
Common circuit features include microstrip transmission lines. and ground returns. after which the student will ﬁnd that electromagnetic theory may prove to be less intractable. Circuit operation is fundamentally based upon electromagnetic wave phenomena. Of what use is it? Electromagnetics is applied in military defense applications. Via pins provide electrical connections between the planes.. Part I gives a basic introduction to the mathematics required and also a general introduction.. directional couplers. Where will I apply it? 3. highspeed electronics. Scalars and Vectors Did you know? Faraday. the student must acquire a good knowledge of vector analysis. circulators. dc power feeds. Furthemore. and individual transistors. for example Kreyszig (2003) Spiegel (1974)} Before the study of this subject is commenced. Before a study of the subject is undertaken. “Why Study Electromagnetics: The First Unit in an Undergraduate Electromagnetics Course” 6 . In discussions with students I found that many found this subject far too diﬃcult to grasp due to the underlying mathematical complexity. ultrahighspeed photonic integrated circuits. who was the son of a blacksmith. he was considered one of the greatest experimentalist of his time due to his pathbreaking work: his far reaching contributions to electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His work is of such a great deal of historical signiﬁcance that a unit of charge and a unit of capacitance has been named after him. light switching in femtoseconds and imaging of the human body. This period was followed by intense research into the engineering applications of the theory in the twentieth century.. That due attention must be paid to the mathematical basics which have been explained in this Part. when electromagnetic theory received a sudden burst of attention with applications in radar and communications. Typical circuits include densely packed.”2 Once these questions are answered the student will know the goals which are to be attained. This was especially true during the second world war. 2 Allen Taﬂove.1. Fundamental to the study of electromagnetism is the study and use of vector and scalar ﬁelds. was educated only upto the school level. Even though he had this limited academic background. Digital circuits typically process lowpass pulses having clock rates below 2 GHz. The student is also advised to consult a standard text as supplementary reading {See. “microwave circuits typically process bandpass signals at frequencies above 3 GHz. After WW II most of the focus of the top universities and corporations was in this area and a huge volume of research was published and made available. My advice to the reader who shares the same view is 1. the student is encouraged to do undertake a simple survey or project where he ﬁnds the answers to the following questions 1.. What will I study in this subject? 2. microcavity laser design. ﬁlters. (He only attended day school till the age of thirteen). multiple planes of metal traces providing ﬂow paths for the signals. matching networks. Circuit operation is nominally not based upon electromagnetic wave eﬀects.
In our applications we need to use real numbers which are called scalars. .4 litres of gas at STP describes the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP. That something may be sand or milk or gas. As the student probably already knows. Radiation and Propagation—the study the radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. 3. 10. Scalars a. 32. it should be immediately applied to some ’thought situation’. 10.4 million metric tonnes may describe the mass of rice produced by some country.1) Mainly this sction is review. Any simple problem may be ’conjured’ up and the equation or concept should then be applied to it. and in this particular case. After solving these problems he or she will then truly grasp the essential concepts. In the last Part an introduction to antennas is also included. These statements apply to all engineering sciences. the subject is introduced in a phased manner: Electrostatics—the study of the electric ﬁeld produced by static charges. may be added together to yield a third scalar. Scalars and Vectors Table 1.: The basic SI units Base quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity Name meter kilogramme second ampere kelvin mole candela Symbol m kg s A ◦K mole cd 2.1.1. are scalars. a scalar is a real number (and sometimes a complex one) which describes a physical quantity. Magnetostatics—the study of the magnetic ﬁeld produced by steady currents. to electromagnetics. Whenever any new equation or concept is studied. Problems at the end of each chapter are given for the reader to solve. we ﬁrst need to describe it in general terms through equations and then proceed those equations to concrete situations.3. Scalars As has often3 been quoted—mathematics is the language of science. . wherever we ﬁnd that we need to apply the results of any subject.1. As the reader would be well aware. As engineers.2 kg describes the mass of something.4 million metric tonnes and 22. 22. b. 1.2 kg. The units used in this book are the SI units and are shown in Table 1. For example c = a+b 3 (1. but a quick reading will be helpful 7 . Scalars are manipulated according to well known rules: Rule 1.4 litres. 32. Apart from the introductory chapters on mathematics. .
In the ﬁrst example c has the dimensions of litres since: (no units) × (litres) gives litres.2) (1. b.1.4 litres a can be 10 meters/sec. The rule is that when adding scalars a.html. the British system. Scalars can multiplied by other scalars or real numbers. pounds to pounds. Therefore before adding two numbers the student must ensure that the two numbers must not only be of the same type but they also must have the same units. . Similarly 20 grams of some material cannot be added to 0.. but also the two units do. b. Subtraction can be tricky. Thus: c = a−b (1.4 litres of gas. In this case the units are ’grams. grams must be added to grams. i. 10 sec making c equal to 100 meters. for example (g) or (kg) or (l). etc. For a quick glance at the SI system of units Barrow (1966) the reader can look at the reference material included in the start of the book. but in engineering one must be clear about the physical interpretation of a negative number. Scalars and Vectors It is essential to note some points If a is 20 grams of sand and is added to b equal to 30 grams of sand then the addition gives us c equal to 50 grams of sand..nist. all the scalars must be quantiﬁed in the same system of units. even though both are scalars. So the rule is: before adding two numbers make sure that they both have the same units. The ﬁrst point is that when subtracting numbers the guidelines given in rule 1 must be followed.3) is an equation which makes sense in mathematics.5 It is because of this that units and dimensions play a very important role in engineering. 20 grams of sand cannot be added to 22. attention must be paid to the fact that all those scalars must be of the same type4 and. even though the two scalars do not necessarily have to be of the same type (i.’ So. The word ’grams’ implies that the scalars possess the same units. The most important point here is to be vigilantly aware of what one is doing with numbers. Rule 3.e. . Simply stated. the Internet the reader may refer to the URL— http://physics. An important point to be noted is that not only the two scalars get multiplied. and so on. 5 On all masses or all volumes etc. The second point is that in mathematics negative numbers may be allowed. but in engineering: if a = 10 litres and b = 20 litres then what is the meaning of c = −10 litres? 4 i. In the second case (meters/sec) × (sec) is meters. 8 . or the cgs system or the SI system. c = ab Here a can be equal to 22. So c = 22. . etc. But here. c.4 (dimensionless) and b = 1 litre.e. furthermore.gov/cuu/Units/units. having the same units and dimensions) they must belong to the same system of units.e. Rule 2.5 pounds of the same material (even though both are masses) because both these numbers belong to diﬀerent systems of units .
If c = a/b (1.546 + 9.233 + . Hence 10 lbs = 10 lbs = 4. So recalculating 1.221 = 13.221 kg of a substance B of volume 2555 cc. Sometimes students punch in wrong numbers into their calculators and as a result get completely wrong results.767 kg ? The answer is not reasonable. To calculate the total volume in litres. To solve this problem. Rule 4.1 10 lbs of a substance A of volume 1. Doing the calculation again Total mass = 4. and 2.233 + 2.546 kg ? 2. Step 1. hence 10/2 ≅ 5 which is close to 4. 2555 cc is 2. . When doing a calculation it is important to keep in mind the order of magnitude6 of various terms. It is important to keep a strict watch on the numbers as they are crunched. what is the density of the material at the end? Solution: To start with do a preliminary computation with only one decimal point (or only whole numbers) to get an idea of what the answer is.546 + 9.546.4) and a is 10 meters and b is 2 seconds then c is 5 meters/second.233 l is added to 9. Something is wrong.2 lbs/kg Is this answer reasonable? Yes because 10 rounded oﬀ is 10. Scalars and Vectors It is obvious that when any answer with a negative sign occurs in the equations the answer is admissible if only the negative answer has physical meaning.788 l 6 Order of magnitude is very important! 9 .767 kg Step 3.2 rounded oﬀ is 2. Next we add the two masses Total mass = 4. not 0. Step 2. but 14.2555 = 1. Division of scalars can be done irrespective of the units of the two quantities involved in the division but the units of the result is equal to the division ’of the units’ of the two numbers.1.555 = 3.4885 l Is this okay? Look at things carefully.221 = 14. we need to quantify everything to a set of common units. EXAMPLE 1.2555 l. as the following example shows. Students make mistakes of various kinds when doing scalar manipulation and calculations.555 litres. It is better to do a calculation with only two or three decimal places of accuracy and get the correct result rather than doing a calculation with eight or nine decimal places and obtaining an answer which is completely oﬀ the mark.767 rounded oﬀ is 15. All values must be in litres 1. because 5+9 is 14. If on adding the two substances there is a contraction of volume by 12%.
80. 3. The length of the arc is 10 miles. We get the same result.3.07. If d is the diameter of a circle and c the circumference then πd = c Step 2.3335 l 3.7. What is the speed of the car in km/hr? Ans. We must get some idea of the value of the diameter.788 l is . Recalculate. Step 4. Step 5. Solution: Step 1.2+0.1.07=0. To estimate the diameter.37+. 0. The angle subtended by the arc is 40◦ .3788 l 12 % of 3.3788 l. Scalars and Vectors The answer seems reasonable.3 m) 4 3 We can say that the value of the diameter will be close to 533 m since π ≅ 3. 10% of 3. So the answer is reasonable.5 is 0. The answer should be around .4546 = 3. 0.7 is 0. Yes it seems okay. This is the answer.2 If the circumference of a circle is 1600 m. A car races around a circular wedge which consists of a circular arc connected by two radii to the centre of the circle. So .5 is 3. Calculating the density Density = 13. Estimate the diameter.788 = 0. 61.4546 0.66.95 km/hr EXAMPLE 1.3335 l 14/3=4.3 m π 10 . Step 3.44.37.02 is around 0. Going to tenths. We now calculate the contraction in the volume.13 kg/l 3.1 of 3. It is important to get some idea of the answer before doing an accurate calculation. What is the maximum and minimum value of the diameter? Compute these values then proceed to do an accurate calculation. which is close to the answer given above. 1+3=4. Possibility of an error. since 3 ≤ π ≤ 4 the diameter lies between 1600 1600 (= 400 m) ≤ d ≤ (= 533.1 Follow the procedure given in the previous example to do the following question.767 kg = 4. The answer seems okay. Doing an accurate calculation d= 1600 = 509. EXERCISE 1. Calculating the 12% contraction. and the car takes one hour to complete one circuit.788 − 0.
A = 157. was one of the greatest Greek mathematicians of his time. the two numbers have to be converted into polar form.7◦ 3 3 ≅ 0◦ 15 3 = 11.3 Multiply two complex numbers. a = 20 m and b = 10 m estimate the area.606 (exact value) b = And the phases: ∠a = tan−1 ∠a = tan−1 2 ≅ 45◦ 3 2 = 33.31◦ 15 ab ≅ 60∠45◦ √ √ 225 + 9 ≈ 225 = 15 √ b = 225 + 9 = 15. The exact value of ab = 55. Estimating the magnitudes of a and b and then calculating the exact values: √ √ a = 9 + 4 = 13 ≅ 4 √ √ a = 9 + 4 = 13 = 3. 150 < A < 200. How will you estimate the polar forms? Solution: Step 1.2 If the major and minor axes. Ans. a = 3 + j2 b = 15 + j3 before the multiplication.1.297 (exact value) (exact value) ∠b = tan−1 ∠b = tan−1 therefore (exact value) Step 2. EXERCISE 1.07 m2 EXAMPLE 1. He concluded that 3 10/71 < π < 3 1/7. of an ellipse. Now that we know the approximate value. we proceed to calculate the exact value of the multiplication. 11 . He did a great deal of work in the ﬁelds of mathematics and engineering. Scalars and Vectors Did you know? Archimedes (287212 BCE ?) A student of Euclid.154∠45◦. One of his coontributions is the approximation to the calculation of π. and then multiplied.
After the third term the area of the rectangles and that of the area under the curve become comparable.5 5 Figure 1.8 0.2 0 1 1.6 0. Scalars and Vectors EXAMPLE 1. 1/22 = 0.611 n2 The actual answer is π2 /6 = 1. ﬁrst spend some time thinking about ways and means to proceed along a quick way to do an estimation of this inﬁnite sum.111 + Shaded area the shaded area is given by 4 ∞ dx = 0. 0. 1. First write out the numbers.4 0.5 3 3. Notice that the sum of the area of the rectangles is greater than the area under the curve. The three rectangles hve areas 1. and 1/32 = 0.4 Solution: How will you estimate the result of the sum 1 ? n2 n=1 To do this problem. 12 .25. Step 3.645. To solve this problem we study Figure 1.1.11. 1. Seeing the analogy between 1/n2 and 1/x2 is it possible to estimate the series from the integral of 1/x2 ? Step 2. etc. Therefore the sum of the series can therefore be approximated by S ≅ 1 + . The ﬁgure shows a graph of the function 1/x2 .25 x2 hence the sum can be approximated as 1 ≅ 1.1.2 ∞ 1 0.111. The approximation is only 2% lower than the correct answer.25.1.4 Step 1. Even draw a graph of the various terms.5 4 4. Think of what is similar to summation.: Figure for example 1. 0.5 2 2. Three rectangles have been drawn.25 + .
1. Referring to Figure 1. This law is formulated in the book Mechanics of Heron of Alexandria around ﬁrst century A. a Greek philosopher. that the reader is familiar.3. z) which correspond to the three distances cut oﬀ by perpendiculars from the point in question to the three axes: x. 2.’ as shown in Figure 1. The rectangular coordinate system is shown in Figure 1. The ﬁgure shows a line segment shaped like an arrow. but only its eﬀects can be felt. similarly vectors cannot be seen. This is the position vector of the point and it is the vector joining the origin to the point under consideration. y and z.?). Scalars and Vectors Head Tail Figure 1. A point in 3Dspace consists of three numbers (x. he never formally proposed the concept of a vector. it is hoped. labelled A with a tail and a head. that they ’are directed line segments’. Vectors One of the fundamental mathematical entities used in the study of electromagnetic theory. This statement is true and yet untrue.C. Vectors are abstract entities whose representation takes the form of directed line segments. Though Newton dealt almost wholly with forces and velocities (which are vectors). Next we consider the rudiments of the rectangular coordinate system in 3space with which.2. The systematic study of vectors was carried in the 19th and early 20th centuries. the position vector of the point (1.D. and is mentioned as a corollary in the famous Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton. in the Principia.4.: Figure of vector showing its head and tail 1. Thus fundamentally vectors are abstract entities. The depiction of these entities is typically in the form of ’directed line segments. are vectors (See Spiegel (1974)). The tailhead combination describes a direction while the length of the arrow gives the magnitude of the vector. Just like you cannot see the number ’1’.2. y. Vectors are deﬁned to be entities which possess both magnitude (like scalars) and direction. But their mathematical manipulation leads to real results which can be corroborated by experiment.3. that a force cannot be seen nor heard nor smelt. As we all know. The unit vector in rectangular coordinates in the xdirection is ax . This is the popular conception of vectors. 2) is notationally the vector 13 . Similarly we can specify unit vectors a y and az in the yand zdirections respectively. Take the concept of ’force’. Did you know? The parallelogram law for the addition of vectors is probably part of the work of Aristotle (384–322 B.
That is.5) (1. i. This is shown in Figure 1. their directions are constant.1.: Unit vectors in the rectangular coordinate system r(1.3. no matter which point in 3space is chosen. Scalars and Vectors z 2 y 1 2 x Figure 1. 14 . 2) from the origin.6) and it is the distance of the point (1.e. Before we proceed any further it is important to point out the nature of the unit vectors in the rectangular coordinate system: (i) The unit vectors are constants.: The rectangular coordinate system z Arbitrary Point y x Figure 1. (ii) The unit vectors are orthonormal7 . 2) ≡ (ax + 2a y + 2az) The magnitude of r ≡ r is given by the wellknown distance formula: r= √ 12 + 22 + 22 = 3 (1. Any vector. and each of the vectors of the orthonormal set has unit magnitude.4. speciﬁed in rectangular coordinates. 2.7) set of orthonormal vectors have the property that they are perpendicular to each other. the vectors are perpendicular to each other and their magnitude is unity. 2. has the representation: A = Ax a x + A y a y + Az a z 7A (1.4 .
It is clear from the above discussion that scalar multiplication of vectors is the natural outcome of the deﬁnition of unit vectors. Another way to corroborate this statement is by observing that if a vector A is given. Scalars and Vectors 2 1 2 Figure 1. A may often be written instead of A when there is no ambiguity. a y is multiplied by 2 and az is multiplied by 2.9) In this text. A y ≡ F y = 2 N and Az ≡ Fz = 2 N. It is also clear that unit vectors are dimensionless.8) Where8 the ’hat’ notation is used to denote a general unit vector.5. For example for the force which we just considered. then the unit vector in the direction of A is ˆ A = A/A (1. the unit vector ax is multiplied by 1. A y and Az are real or complex numbers. With this notation. but the scalars have dimensions. This is so because unit vectors have to be multiplied by real numbers to give us vectors which are directed in any general direction. A = A2 + A2 + A2 x y z (1.5. Thus we can see that Ax ≡ Fx = 1 N.1. That is.: The force shown in rectangular coordinates Where Ax . is shown in Figure 1. that in the a y direction is 2 and so on. the force F = ax + 2a y + 2az (Nt). the magnitude of the force is √ F = 12 + 22 + 22 = 3 while the unit vector is ˆ F = F/F = 1ax + 2a y + 2az /3 8 The 9 Not reader should prove that this is indeed a unit vector included are the unit vectors of coordinate systems 15 .9 and A ≡ A is the magnitude or ’length’ of A. Or in other words the component of the force in the ax direction is 1.
This last statement says that vector addition is commutative: C = A+B = B+A (1.: Figure showing vector addition and subtraction ˆ EXERCISE 1. To form A + B. Thus if A is a vector. √ √ ˆ Ans.11) We can perform the operation the other way.6.4. Vector Addition Vectors can be manipulated according to welldeﬁned rules. 5A y .12) 10 The reader is encouraged to prove this statement for himself. Examples of operations between scalars are +.1. 16 . but the student can easily prove it for himself). Find A and A. Az then 5A ≡ 5Ax . Here the concept of ’+’ (vector addition) is diﬀerent than in the case of scalars. Scalars and Vectors b c o a d Figure 1. but its direction is unchanged10 . Vectors can be ’added’. A y . whose length (or more accurately. A = 5 3 and A = ax + a y + az / 3.6. × and ÷ .(This is not shown in the ﬁgure.3 A vector A = 5ax + 5a y + 5az is given. The vector B is translated parallel to itself and the tail of B is attached to the head of A as shown in the Figure 1. magnitude) is multiplied by 5. −.10) A particularly important binary operation between two or more vectors is vector addition. In rectangular coordinates if A ≡ Ax . 5Az (1. The simplest operation is the scalar multiplication of a vector. 1.1. then 5A is another vector. The vector equation reads: C = A+B (1. attaching the tail of A to the head of B and get the same result.
Thus if A = 2ax + 3a y + 4az and B = 5ax + 6a y + 7az then A + B = 2ax + 3a y + 4az + 5ax + 6a y + 7az = 7ax + 9a y + 11az and B + A = 5ax + 6a y + 7az + 2ax + 3a y + 4az = 7ax + 9a y + 11az Vectors are associative as well.For three vectors A. so we change the sign of the vector and add it to the previous vector: (−B) − (A − B) Note the change in sign of the second term.13) The equation says that the order of addition is unimportant because it leads to the same result. it gives us the same result. we get the same result when we add A to C and then add the result to B. choose any three arbitrary vectors and apply the previous equation. say ’a’. From ’o’ let us go back to ’a’. 1.1. hence we add A to the previous sum. This property is analogous to associativity in scalars.6 on the preceding page we can start from any point. Going from ’a’ to ’d’ the vector involved is −B and since we are going in the direction of the arrow we write this vector as it is: (−B) From point ’d’ we go to point ’o’ going against the direction of the arrow. That is if we add A to B ﬁrst and add the result to C. −B is B reversed in direction (and this is just another vector) and so −B is added to A: C = A + (−B) = A − B (1.2. as long as we reach the starting point. On examining Figure 1.4. It must be remembered however that vectors which are added or subtracted must of the same type. and go to any other neighbouring point connected by a vector.6. just as with scalars.To get an idea of the correct nature of this result. We can apply this technique to any other polygon of vectors. Similarly one can subtract vectors.14) This is also shown in Figure 1. A Handy Technique Whenever we look at a polygon of vectors as in addition or subtraction we can easily compute the ﬁnal result by using a certain technique which is explained below. Since we have come back to the starting point we make the sum of the terms equal to zero: (−B) − (A − B) + A = 0 This is a valid vector equation. Applying the 17 . say point ’d’. Scalars and Vectors that is whether A is added to B or B is added to A. B and C : (A + B) + C = B + (A + C) (1.
7(a)] Step 2. let us apply this technique to the circuit ’oac’ and let call the vector ’oc’ ’C’. da→ −(−B).7(b) A2 + B2 − 2 A B cos(180◦ − 30◦) 11 od→ (A − B). Draw a sketch as shown in Figure 1. Then we ﬁnd that C = A+B EXAMPLE 1. We calculate the length of the third side based on the law of cosines. [See Figure 1.B and C form a triangle.01◦ Method (b) Step 1. First draw a sketch of the two vectors in the notebook. co → −(A + B) 18 .010 sin θ sin 150◦ = B C ∠C(= sin θ) = 18.: Addition of two vectors technique to the circuit: odaco 11 the vector equation becomes: (A − B) − (−B) + (B) − (A + B) = 0 The reader may be wondering how this technique helps formulation of vector equations? Well.7. Step 3.5 Let us add two vectors A of 10 N to B of 15 N at an angle of 30◦ to A as shown in the Figure 1. The third side gives us the magnitude of C: C = we ﬁnd that C = 24.7 and let the result be denoted as C. If we apply the law of sines to the triangle again the angle which C makes with the horizontal is 18.7 we can see that vectors A. From Figure 1. Find the magnitude and direction of C Solution: Method (a) Step 1. Scalars and Vectors (a) (b) Figure 1.18 N.1. ac→ B.
93ax N C y = B y = 7.8).8. the vector parallel to the horizontal is given by Bx = 15 × cos(30◦ )ax N. = 7. one along the direction of a second vector and the other component perpendicular to it. which gives us the same answer as before. A = 10 newtons and B = 20 newtons.18 N.32 A N 19 .8) Solution: This example shows us how to split a vector into two perpendicular components.5a y N √ C = C = 22.01◦ EXAMPLE 1. (See Figure 1. Referring to a sketch (Figure 1. Since the second method is to decompose the vector B into two perpendicular vectors.6 Add two vectors A and B such that the angle from A to B is 150◦ .932 + 7. The angle that C makes with the horizontal is given by arctan(C y /Cx ) = 18. = 12. Step 1.93ax Nt The vector in the vertical direction is given by B y = 15 × sin(30◦ )a y N.: Figure for Example Step 2. Scalars and Vectors Figure 1.1. We add Bx to A giving Cx and C y = B y Cx = 22. B is split into two parts one along A: B to A ˆ = B cos θA ˆ = 20 × cos(150◦ )A ˆ = −17.5a y Nt Step 3.52 = 24.
which when added to A = 30ax gives us C = 15ax + 15a y N Ans. B = 10 2. Step 2.7 Find the diﬀerence of the two vectors: A − B given that A = 1ax + 3a y + 5az N and B = 5a y N in rectangular coordinates. Doing the actual calculation. Magnitude 29.6 If C = A + B. and B = 0ax + 5a y + 0az N.1.5 Find that vector. EXERCISE 1. Ans. Scalars and Vectors and the other perpendicular to A ˆ B⊥ to A = B sin θA⊥ ˆ = 10 A⊥ Nt = B−B to A ˆ ˆ Where A is the unit vector in the direction of A and A⊥ is the unit vector perpendicular to A but lying in the plane enclosed by B and A. Since A+B = C adding B to A we get ˆ ˆ C = (10 − 17. ∠B = 135◦ 20 .32◦ with A. and A has a magnitude of 10. With A = 1ax + 3a y + 5az N. The angle from A to B is 150◦ .32)A = −7.32A + 10A⊥N EXAMPLE 1. Solution: Step 1.09. EXERCISE 1.32A ˆ C⊥ = 10A⊥ Hence ˆ ˆ C = −7. √ Ans. Step 2.4 Subtract B from A. C also has a magnitude of 10 and is at an angle of 90◦ to A. ∠ − 22. A = 10 Nt and B = 20 N. C = = = A−B (1 − 0)ax + (3 − 5)a y + (5 − 0)az ax − 2a y + 5ax EXERCISE 1. ﬁnd B. −15ax + 15a y N. B. We have to calculate C = A − B.
From the deﬁnition of the scalar product (substituting A for B :) A = √ A•A (1. When θ is zero. but here the magnitude of the force is varied with displacement according to the law: F(x) = 10x. when the vectors are in the same direction the magnitudes of the two vectors get multiplied. the result is a scalar. that is. (see Figure 1. On the other hand. when the two vectors are opposite in direction then though the magnitudes of the two vectors get multiplied but the sign is negative. and the vector product of two vectors resulting in another vector.1.4.17) EXAMPLE 1.9.: Dot Product between two vectors 1.9.3.9 we can see that the product is positive for values of 00 ≤ θ ≤ 900 and it is negative for 900 ≤ θ ≤ 1800.16) When we examine Figure 1. When the two vectors are perpendicular to each other (θ = 900 ) then the scalar product is zero.10) Solution: Part (a) 12 SeeThomas & Finney (1996) 21 . The force is applied at an angle of 300 with the horizontal. From the deﬁnition it is clear that the dot product is commutative: A • B = A B cos(θ) = B • A (1. Notice that though two vectors are involved in the product. moving it over a distance of 100 m. Dot Product or Scalar Product There are two other important operations between vectors12 . Scalars and Vectors (a) (b) Figure 1. Both will be considered in turn.15) Where • is the operator representative of the scalar product and θ is the angle between A and B in accordance with Figure 1. N the direction remaining the same as before. The dot or scalar product is given by deﬁnition to be: A • B = AB cosθ (1. The ’dot’ product (or scalar product between two vectors) which results in a scalar.8 (a) Find the work done when a constant force of F of magnitude 100 N is applied on a mass as shown. (b) Calculate the work done to move the mass by 100 m again.
(b) If the resistance from the surroundings is such that the mass does not move at all.10. Note that F=100 N. Find the work done. W = work done = F • d = F • (100ax) = F 100 cos(300) joules = 8. So W= Step 2.660 kJ Part (b) Step 1.866 x=100 EXERCISE 1.3 kJ Which is the work done. what is the work done? Ans. So to work out this part we take the dot product of F with the displacement d = 100ax m.1.0). We know that the work done by a force is a dot product: F•d where F is the force and d is the displacement vector.: Work done and dot product Step 1.7 (a) A force of 10y2 ax + a y N is applied to a mass to move it by a distance of 15 m in the a y direction starting from (0. = (5x2 ) x=0 × 0. A inﬁnitesimal amount of work dW is equal to F • dl where F is the force and dl is the inﬁnitesimal displacement. Step 2.25 kJ (b) 0. To be speciﬁc x=100 F • dl W = work done = x=0 x=100 F(x) • dx = x=0 (10x) × cos(300)dx = 43. 22 . (a) 11. Scalars and Vectors 100 meters Figure 1.
15) it is clear that for two vectors if cos θ = 0 (or θ = ±90◦ ) the dot product is zero. From the deﬁnition of the scalar product (Equation 1.) Using the results of the last example we can ﬁnd the dot product between two vectors when they are speciﬁed in rectangular coordinates.18) Since all dot products of the unit vectors with other unit vectors are zero and dot products of the unit vectors with themselves are 1 then (Ax ax +A y a y +Az az )•(Bx ax +B y a y +Bz az ) = Ax ax •(Bx ax +B y a y +Bz az )+A y a y •(Bx ax +B y a y +Bz az ) + Az az • (Bx ax + B ya y + Bz az ) considering the right hand side term by term Ax ax • (Bx ax + B y a y + Bz az ) = Ax ax • Bx ax + Axax • B y a y + Ax ax • Bz az = Ax B x A y a y • (Bx ax + B y a y + Bz az ) = A y a y • Bx ax + A y a y • B y a y + A y a y • Bz az = Ay By Az az • (Bx ax + B y a y + Bz az ) = Az az • Bx ax + Az az • B y a y + Az az • Bz az = Az B z 23 .9 Find the scalar products between all pairs of unit vectors belonging to the rectangular coordinate system. We ﬁrst write all the possible dot products. a y • ax . Scalars and Vectors EXAMPLE 1. and (ii) Each unit vector is of magnitude equal to 1. ax • az . A y . a y • az .1. These dot products are ax • ax .. Step 3. ax • a y . (because θ = 0.. az • a y and az • az . Step 2. Since the magnitude of each of the the unit vectors (ax . az • ax . a y • a y .) is 1 and taking the dot product of each unit vector with itself. Bz ) then A • B = (Ax ax + A y a y + Az az ) • (Bxax + B y a y + Bz az ) (1. B y . we get ax • ax = a y • a y = az • az = 1 In all these cases cos θ = 1. Step 4. a y . . Az ) and B = (Bx . If A = (Ax . Hence we can conclude that ax • a y = ax • az = 0. a y • ax = a y • az = 0 az • ax = az • a y = 0 We equate all these products to zero on our list. and az Solution: Step 1. ax . We know that (i) All the unit vectors are perpendicular to each other.
The right hand thumb rule states that the direction of the vector product is perpendicular to both A and B and is given by the direction of the thumb when the right hand is held in a position as it were holding an imaginary stick with the thumb along the direction of the stick.25) 24 . Scalars and Vectors z y x Figure 1.24) (1.: Figure showing the vectors resulting from the cross product Therefore A • B = Ax B x + A y B y + Az B z In Equation 1. The hand is held in such a way that the ﬁngers are curled from A to B.23) And the direction of C is given by the wellknown ’right hand thumb rule’.11. Cross Product or Vector Product Another binary operation used by mathematicians and which is useful in the study of natural phenomena is the ’cross product’ or ’vector product’.4. The vector product involves two vectors and the result is a third vector.1.22) (1. This can be seen from Figure 1. It is important to note that the cross product is anticommutative.20) (1.21) (1. Thus (see Figure 1.4.19) 1.11) in symbolic notation: C = A×B where the magnitude of C is given by: A × B = ABsinθ (1.12. C = A × B = −B × A (1.18 if we substitute ax for B then Ax = A • a x Similarly Ay = A • ay Az = A • a z (1.
10 Find the cross products between all unit vectors in rectangular coordinates: ax . a y × ax. Step 2. a y . Based on this we can safely say that: ax × ax = a y × a y = az × az = 0 In all these cases sinθ = 0 (θ = 0.26) Similarly by this type of reasoning we can easily obtain the other products. ax × az . Since the cross product is anticommutative a y × ax = −az (1. As in the previous example.11.13.28) (1. 25 . a y × a y .12. a negative sign is required: a y × ax = −az or ax × az = −a y .) Step 4. and az Solution: Step 1. we realize that we are talking about the unit vector az . We know that the cross product is proportional to sin θ.1. (1. ax × a y = az or az × ax = a y . ax × a y is in the direction of az . we need to ﬁnd the various products: ax × ax . If we go along the direction of the arrow. the angle between the two vectors. az × ax. therefore: ax × a y = ax  a y sin θ = 1 Step 5. ax × a y = az Step 6. We can also memorise these relations by using Figure 1. az × a y and az × az . Further with reference to Figure 1.: Right hand thumb rule and the cross product EXAMPLE 1. We now consider a very simple example based on the above solved example.27) Step 3. a y × az . Also since the magnitudes of both ax and a y are both 1. Scalars and Vectors Figure 1. Step 7. ax × a y . Since ax × a y has a magnitude 1 and is in the direction of az . But if we go against the direction of the arrow.
A × B = (2ax + 4a y) × (ax + 7a y) Step 2.. We next multiply term by term = 2ax × ax + 2ax × 7a y + 4a y × ax + 4a y × 7a y Step 3.3159 with A and B calculated earlier √ A × B = AB sin θ = 50 × 20 × 0.3159 = 10 26 . = 0 + 14az + (−4az) + 0 = 10az It is clear from this example that A × B is perpendicular to both A and B and has a magnitude of 10. We use the results just obtained: ax × ax = 0.1.: Figure to calculate the cross products between unit vectors EXAMPLE 1.. Step 4. using the dot product. We write A × B in terms of the unit vectors ax . Scalars and Vectors Figure 1. To calculate the value of θ.13. Find A × B. We calculate θ next using the dot product formula √ θ = ∠AB = arccos[(A • B)/AB] = arccos(30/ 1000) = 18.41◦) = 0. Step 1. ax × a y = az . A • B = (2ax + 4a y) • (ax + 7a y) = 30 = AB cos θ with A= √ √ 22 + 42 = 20 √ √ B = 12 + 72 = 50 Step 5.62 × 0. the angle between A and B we proceed as follows. Corroborate that A × B = AB sin θ and perpenicular to both A and B.3159 = 31. sin(18. etc.41◦ Step 6.11 Let A = 2ax + 4a y and B = ax + 7a y which lie on the xy plane. etc. . We now use the cross product formula.
Ax Bx ax × ax is zero. Hence the ﬁrst term is Ax ax × (Bx ax + B ya y + Bz az ) = Ax B y az − AxBz a y Similarly. Let A = Ax ax + A y a y + Az az and B = Bx ax + B ya y + Bz az then A × B = (Ax ax + A y a y + Az az ) × (Bxax + B y a y + Bz az ) = Ax ax × (Bxax + B y a y + Bz az ) +A y a y × (Bxax + B y a y + Bz az ) +Az az × (Bxax + B y a y + Bz az ) The ﬁrst term of Equation 1. The second product: Ax ax × B y a y is equal to Ax B y az and the third product: Ax ax × Bz az equals −Ax Bz a y .30) (1. ’y’ and ’z’ in an anticlockwise order. If C = A × B and we want to calculate Cx then we go to the point marked ’x’ and write Cx = 27 .31) To memorise these equations we examine Figure 1.29 reads: Ax ax × (Bx ax + B ya y + Bz az ) The ﬁrst product.14 which shows a triangle with its vertexes marked ’x’.1. Scalars and Vectors Based on the previous example we are in a position to calculate the cross or vector product in rectangular coordinates. This ﬁgure is the same one used previously. the second and third terms respectively are: A y a y × (Bxax + B y a y + Bz az ) = −A y Bx az + A y Bz ax Az az × (Bxax + B y a y + Bz az ) = Az Bx a y − Az B y ax Finally collecting terms A × B = (A y Bz − B y Az )ax +(Az Bx − Bz Ax )a y +(Ax B y − BxA y )az The cross product may be written as A × B = ax simplifying this becomes ax A × B = Ax Bx ay Ay By az Az Bz Ay By Az Az + ay Bz Bz Ax Ax + az Bx Bx Ay By (1.29) (1.
14. 0) and B = (3. √ B = 32 + 42 = 5 A= Step 2. The magnitudes of A and B are √ 42 + 32 = 5. Cx = A y Bz − Az B y We can continue to write the other components in the same manner. Cx = A y Bz Az B y Since we have moved against the direction of the arrow.1. The dot product between A and B is used to calculate the angle between the two vectors: A • B = 4 × 3 + 3 × 4 = 24 ≡ ABcosθ 28 .: A method to memorise the calculation of the cross product then we go towards ’y’ along the arrow and write A y . First we can see that both vectors lie in the xy plane. 3. 4. Cx = A y Bz Az From here we come back to point marked ’y’ (moving against the direction of the arrow) we Az multiply by B y . EXAMPLE 1. Scalars and Vectors z x y Figure 1. This is so because both vectors have no zcomponent. Conﬁrm the formula A × B is given by ABsinθ Solution: Step 1.12 Find the vector product (A × B) of two vectors in rectangular coordinates given by A = (4. We have up to now: Cx = A y We continue on to the point marked ’z’ and multiply A y by Bz . a negative sign must be placed in front of this product. We have so far: Cx = A y Bz Since we are at the point marked ’z’ we write Az . 0).
13 A spinning object. y. spinning at the rate of ω = 60 rpm is spinning about the vertical axis as shown.0) and C=(1/ 3. Which conﬁrms our result .0).0.0).26◦ Step 3.71a y + 0.: Figure showing a spinning object where θ is the angle between the two vectors. Solution: 29 . B=( 3. √ √ 1.1. Ans. 0.1.28 = 7 The cross product has this magnitude and its direction is given by the right hand thumb rule and therefore perpendicular to both.30) we get Cz = (A × B)z = Ax B y − A y Bx = 4 × 4 − 3 × 3 = 7 Cx = (A × B)x = A y Bz − Az B y = 3 × 0 − 0 × 4 = 0 C y = (A × B) y = Az Bx − Ax Bz = 0 × 3 − 4 × 0 = 0 From these calculations it is clear that C is perpendicular to both A and B and has a magnitude of 7.15.29az EXAMPLE 1. O. √ EXERCISE 1. Scalars and Vectors z y x Figure 1. Hence cosθ = 24/(AB) = 24/25 θ = arccos(24/25) = 16. z).2 2/3).8 The vertices of a regular tetrahedron are O=(0. and we now use A × B = AB sin θ: AB sin(θ) = 5 × 5 × 0. Find the unit vector perpendicular to face ABC. (Figure 1.2. A=(0.12) Using Equation(1. Find the velocity of any particle at any point r(x.41ax − 0.
In scalar notation v = ωρ. First we must get to the ’basics’ of the problem. Scalars and Vectors Step 1. Satisfy yourself that the answer is correct (take the magnitude of both sides of the equation): v = 2π x2 + y2 = 2πρ(= ωρ) m/s ρ being the perpendicular distance of the point from the zaxis. The position vector of any point is given by r = xax + ya y + zaz . the angular velocity ω may be written as: ω = 60az (rev/minute) = 2πaz (rad/sec) Step 2. Step 6. Step 5. If r = xax then v = 2πxa y Note the direction which is correct. but we are dealing with vectors so the correct formula is v = ω × r (Check: v is perpendicular to both ω as well as r) v = ω×r = (2πaz ) × (xax + ya y + zaz ) = 2πx (az × ax) + 2πy az × a y + 2π (az × az ) = 2π(xa y − yax) m/s Step 4.1. which from our intuition we can justify. Verfy whether your answer is correct! Notice that the velocity of the particle is independent of the zcoordinate. This is what we expect Another aspect of vectors which we must be sure to remember is that the cross product is not associative. The equation implies that all particles on a straight line parallel to the zaxis possess the same velocity. for example (ax × ax ) × az = 0 × az = 0 and ax × (ax × az ) = ax × (−a y) = −az So clearly 30 . (m) Step 3. Consider a point on the xaxis and ﬁnd out the direction of the velocity. Characterising the rotation as a vector. Consider special cases. This is also intuitively correct.
in general: (A × B) × C ax × (ax × az ) A × (B × C) (1.32) We now take a look at the triple scalar product A•B×C which can be interpreted in only one way: the cross product has to be taken ﬁrst. seconds (s). for the dimension of length [L]. for the dimension of charge [Q].5. 31 . Therefore Ax Bx Cx Ay By Cy Az Bz Cz ay By Cy az Bz Cz A•B×C = (1.5. A y and Az . With these units (and ’dimensions’) we can derive the units and dimensions of any physical quantity14 . 13 14 Therefore From the french. and then only the dot product. Units and Dimensions 1. These fundamental units are: meters (m). The basic units of the SI scheme are given in Table 1. Since ax Bx B×C = Cx or B × C = ax (B y Cz − Bz C y ) + · · · but A • B × C = Ax (B y Cz − Bz C y ) + · · · comparing the two previous equations. a y and az has been replaced by Ax .1 on page 7. the fundamental units used will that of the SI units13 .1. The Basis of Units and Dimensions Units and dimensions play an important role in electromagnetic theory. Throughout this book. kilogramme (kg) for the ’dimension’ of mass [M]. we can see that ax . for the dimension of time [T] and coulombs (C). Le Système International d’Unités all other physical units are called derived units.33) 1.1. Scalars and Vectors (ax × ax ) × az Or.
ohms (Ω). 15 It (1. volts (V). amperes (A ≡ C/s). Let us start in a simple way and ﬁnd the unit and dimension of velocity. such as meters. 32 . rough and ready. for the Romans. one thousand paces was a ’millia’ (Latin for a ’thousand’) from where we get our ’mile’. by dt which is in seconds. Similarly the unit of acceleration is derived from the formula: a = acceleration = d dr dv = dt dt dt (1. farads (F) and henrys (H).15 In this book. Incidentally the dimension of force is [M][L][T]−2. Generally.34) Where r is the position vector of a particle in meters and t is time in seconds.1. we will consider ampere and volt to be the more fundamental of these ﬁve quantities. the length of a foot lead to the measure of a foot. unit to begin which people could use in day to day living. historically. Due to the complexity of the unit of force. then we shall also discuss its units. and the dimension is [L][T]−2 . Scalars and Vectors Did you know? There were many distinct units of measurement. Since we are dividing dr which is in meters. (the student can work this out for himself). For example. all measurement required a standard. A yard was the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the middle ﬁnger of the outstretched arm.35) Which is d/dt (units of s−1 ) × dr/dt (having the units of ms−1 ). when the physical quantity is discussed. Similarly from the formula F = ma (1. in electromagnetics.37) is important for the student to remember that the short form of a unit is written in capital letters when the unit is named after a person. Similarly. the units used for the various physical quantities are in terms of Coulomb (C). However. For example (C) or (N). In this way we can deﬁne the units of any physical quantity. therefore the unit of acceleration is therefore s−1 × ms−1 ≡ ms−2 . hence the units of velocity is meters ≡ (meters)(second)−1 second and the dimension of velocity is [L][T]−1.36) the unit of force is (kg)(m)(s)−2 . v = velocity = dr/dt (1. Observe that the unit and dimension of velocity is obtained through a formula. feet and yards. In the meanwhile. The really important point which I have noted in students studying electromagnetic theory is their confusion about units of various physical quantities and this confusion adds to their confusion about the subject in general. but the unit itself is written in small letters: newton. then from Ohm’s law V = IR The unit of ohms Ω is volt/ampere. it is given a new name: newton (N).
Then unit of henry. List of Formulae The position vector r of a point x.38) Where Z is the impedance in Ω. since radians is dimensionless) and L is the inductance in henry.39) where Y is the admittance in and C is the capacitance in farad (F). Scalars and Vectors Let us look at the impedance equation Z = jωL (1. z in cartesian coordinates is r(x. and so on. Finally we can derive the unit of farad from the admittance equation: Y = jωC (1.6. since radians have no dimensions. z) ≡ xax + ya y + zaz Any vector A is given by A = Ax a x + A y a y + Az a z Its magnitude is given by A = A2 + A2 + A2 x y z and its direction by the unit vector ˆ A = A/A When a vector is multiplied by a scalar (say by 5) then 5A ≡ 5Ax ax + 5A y a y + 5Az az When two vectors are added A + B = (Ax + Bx ) ax + A y + B y a y + (Az + Bz ) az Vector addition is commutative A+B = B+A Vector addition is associative (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) 33 . ω is the radian frequency in rad/sec (which is essentially s−1 . y. y. (H) is Ω/sec−1 = Ω − sec. The the unit of farad is then /sec−1 = − sec. 1.1.
Also we must pay attention to look at the order of magnitude of both terms. (m). (kg). That is 1 × 104 ± 2 × 10−4 is ≈ 1 × 104. The cross product is anticommutative A × B = −B × A A × (B × C) Ax A y Az A • B × C = Bx B y Bz Cx C y Cz (A × B) × C Chapter Summary In this book the SI units will be used.1. Also A • B = Ax B x + A y B y + Az B z The dot product is commutative A•B = B•A The vector product is a vector perpendicular to both vectors in the direction given by the right hand thumb rule A × B = ABsinθ Or ax A × B = Ax Bx ay Ay By az Az Bz where . most importantly. That is. (See Table 1. Scalars and Vectors Vector subtraction A − B = (Ax − Bx ) ax + A y − B y a y + (Az − Bz ) az The dot or scalar product is given by deﬁnition to be: A • B = AB cosθ Where • is the operator representative of the scalar product and θ is the angle between A and B. a kg ± b kg is ﬁne. but not a kg ± b lbs.. the order of magnitude of the result.1) When adding or subtracting two numbers we must take care to make both numbers have the same units. represents a determinant. When multiplying or dividing two numbers we must pay attention to the units of the two numbers: they must belong to the same system of 34 . (A). (C) and (◦ K). and..
A y .1. A = A2 + A2 + A2 x y z In this text. y. then 5A is another vector A ≡ Ax . For example 1 × 104 × 2 × 10−4 is the order of 100 . ◮ Learn to make sure that all the terms belong to the same system of In particular: units. ◮ Learn to look at the units and dimensions of the ﬁnal answer . The unit vector in the direction of A is ˆ A = A/A Where the ’hat’ notation is used to denote a general unit vector. The position vector of the point (x. Vectors are entities which possess both magnitude and direction. z) from the origin. A may often be written instead of A Thus if A is a vector. has the representation: A = Ax a x + A y a y + Az a z Where Ax . ◮ In any equation learn to check the units and dimensions of all terms. Any vector. y. z) is notationally the vector r ≡ (xax + ya y + zaz) The magnitude of r ≡ r is given by the wellknown distance formula: r= x 2 + y 2 + z2 and it is the distance of the point (x. 5Az To form A + B. Scalars and Vectors units. The vector B is translated parallel to itself and the tail of B is attached to the head of A. Az then 5A ≡ 5Ax . and A ≡ A is the magnitude or ’length’ of A. speciﬁed in rectangular coordinates. ◮ Learn to approximate the ﬁnal answer and then only do the ﬁnal calculations. Then the vector from the tail of A to the head of B is C C = A+B 35 . 5A y . For example a (m) ÷ b (s) × c (hours) is incorrect We must pay great attention to the order of magnitude of the numbers and that of the result. A y and Az are real or complex numbers.
In rectangular coordinates A + B = [Ax + Bx .12). Or W expressed as an integral is W= F • dl W = work done = F • d For i. Scalars and Vectors Addition is commutative and associative A+B = B+A (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) The vector B is the vector B reversed in direction. Az + Bz ] The dot or scalar product is given by deﬁnition to be: A • B = AB cosθ = B • A Where • is the operator representative of the scalar product and θ is the angle between A and B. d is the displacement. Otherwise it is zero. The cross product is antcommutative: A × B = −B × A The cross product can be obtained from: ax A × B = Ax Bx ay Ay By az Az Bz 36 . y. The vector or cross product is C = A × B = ABsinθ where θ is the angle from A to B and the direction of C is given by the ’right hand thumb rule’ (Refer Fig. 1. In rectangular coordinates A • B = Ax B x + A y B y + Az B z From the deﬁnition of the scalar product (substituting A for B :) √ A = A • A Work done is W is the work done. z then ai • a j = 1 if i = j. j = x. A y + B y .1. F is the force.
Scalars and Vectors The cross product is not associative: (A × B) × C The scalar triple product is: A•B×C = Ax Bx Cx Ay By Cy Az Bz Cz A × (B × C) References 1. a y and az explain how we obtain the cross product using the determinant notation. (c) estimate the order of magnitude of the result and the answer (d) then use the calculator to calculate the answer. why do we to pay attention to small details (like units and order of magnitude) in problem solving? 3. Why is the dot product commutative based on the deﬁnition? 6. Explain how there are two types of units: fundamental and derived. Why is the study of scalars operations imperative in engineering electromagnetics? In particular. Problems 1.7. 8. Practice Problems and Self Assessment Review Questions 1. Does scalar multiplication of a vector change the direction of the vector? b) Addition of two vectors. 4. 7. Using the same notation explain why the cross product is anticommutative. c) Sutraction of two vectors. Deﬁne a vector and a unit vector. When we take the cross product given in terms ax . Why is the dot product important in vector operations? (Discuss with respect to work done) Why is it called scalar product? Discuss the sign of the dot product with respect to angle between the two vectors. How do you arrive at the cross product between two vectors? Explain the right hand thumb rule. Follow this procedure every time you 37 . 2. 5. An electron moves with a velocity of 2 × 107m/s ﬁnd its kinetic energy. (a) First write the formula (b) then write the units of the K.1.E. Why do we need to know about vector operations? Write down the rule for a) Scalar multiplication of a vector. Name two common applications of electromagnetic theory and write a short note (about 10 lines) on each application.
0 Vector A has a magnitude of 1 m . A is vector of length 1 m. 9.1. Ans. ∠ (A − B) = 233. but in the end it will save you a lot of trouble. How will you check whether your results are correct? Ans. 9. Vector A has a magnitude of 1 m. Ans.8 m/s. In simple integrations of this type a graph of the integrand is very helpful. The angle between A and B is not speciﬁed. B has a magnitude of 2 m. 4.1◦ with A. B has a magnitude of 2 m. A − B = 1. What is the result of the integral ∞ −∞ xe−x dx ? 2 7. Scalars and Vectors do a calculation. (a) 1/2 me v2 (b) Joules (c) 18 × 10−17 (J) (d) 1. ∠ (A − B)min = 0◦ . How many meters are there in a mile? Follow some procedure to estimate and check your answer. The angle 38 . A + B = 2. ∠ (A − B)max = 180◦ . Find the minimum and maximum value of A + B and A − B for all possible angles. Take a moment oﬀ and concentrate on the solution.8218 × 10−16 (J) 2. ∠ (A + B)max = 0◦ . In any calculation think before you leap do not blindly proceed to solve the given problem. estimate the velocity with which it hits the ﬂoor. B is ⊥ to A. 1.9 m 5.0. Also estimate the height from which it is dropped. B has a magnitude of 2 m at an angle of 30◦ to A. A + Bmax = 3. Ans. This method of approach in the long run will be very beneﬁcial.239. 1609.4 Ans.3 m to a mile π (3/2)π 3.0. Ans. (a) What should be the length of B to make A + B= 2 m? (b) A − B= 2 m? √ √ Ans. (a) 2 (b) 1 4. Is the sum ∞ 1 n n=1 convergent or divergent? Hint: See Ex. Divergent. Do two integrations (a) 0 sin(x)dx and (b) 0 cos(x)dx. ∠ (A + B) = 20. Think of various ways to do this estimation. 6. This procedure seems very involved. 10. Finally do an accurate calculation. A − Bmin = 1.909. 8. ∠ (A + B)min = 180◦ . Hint: What is the type of function which is being integrated? Ans. Ans. If a ball is dropped from a certain height from rest and takes 1 s to hit the ﬂoor and then return to its initial position. A − Bmax = 3. This is an example of how some time spent initially on thinking of the solution will save you a lot of trouble.8◦ with A. A + Bmin = 1. (a) 3 (b) 3 Vector A has a magnitude of 1 m. Find the magnitude and angle of the resultants A + B and A − B.
B and C using the diagrammatic representation of vectors show that (A + B) + C = B + (A + C) 17. B = 5ax − 3a y and C = 6az .56◦ with A. Find the position vectors of the two points P1 = (1. Pm = (1/2)(P1 + P2)=1. vector P1 P2 = P2 − P1 . Find the position vector of the mid point of P1 P2 where P1 and P2 are two points given in Problem 12.5 m Ans. 46. Show that in in the case of a planet having an elliptical orbit around the sun. 13. Show that in in the case of a planet having an circular orbit around the sun. Given A = 5ax + 3a y. Find the unit vector which is perpendicular to the plane OP1 P2 where P1 and P2 are two points given in Problem 12. Show that A • B × C is equal to the volume of the parallelepiped whose sides are A. 16. For three vectors A. 12. Where O is the origin and where P1 and P2 are two points given in Problem 12. OP2 and OPm . Find the angles between the three vectors OP1 . A • B × C = −180. Show that A × B is equal to the parallelogram whose two sides are A and B. 2). ± (P1 × P2) / P1 × P2= ±(1/ 93)[−8. Show that the work done by a force F operating over the displacement d must be F • d. Ans.7◦. P1 = ax − a y + 2az . 20. Compute A • B × C and A × (B × C). 24. Why is the radian dimensionless? Hint: How do you deﬁne π radians? 25. B and C.9◦. Find the angle between A and B to make A + B= 1. Scalars and Vectors between A and B is not speciﬁed. −1. Show that A × (B × C) = (A • C) B − (A • B) C using the values given. P2 = 2ax + 3a y + 2az . 15. 11.1. 19. Angle between OP2 and OPm = 25. A × (B × C) = −96az 23. 3. and then show that B + (−B) = 0. Angle between OP1 and OPm = 46. √ Ans. 2) and the vectors P1 P2 and P2 P1 . Ans. vector P2 P1 = P1 − P2 . P2 = (2.71◦. 18. Ans. Angle between OP1 and OP2 = 72. Let this point be Pm . no work is done over one cycle of the orbit. 22. Show that the unit of force (N) is (kg)(m)(s)−2 Hint: What are the units of mass? Acceleration? 39 . 2. Show that −B is B reversed in direction.5ax + a y + 2az . no work is done at any time. 5]. Show that for two vectors A and B using the diagrammatic representation of vectors that A+B = B+A 14. Hint: calculate the area of a parallelogram. Ans. 21.
Is this correct? Justify your answer. Therefore 3 g is incorrect. Is this correct? Justify your answer. A scalar of magnitude 5. energy and power in SI units. 5+2 g is not equal to 7 since the dimensions of the two added quantities are not the same.◦ K 29.. Ans.. Ans. Ans. Angular velocity = rad/sec. 100 m N from the opposite point. Is this correct? Justify your answer. and C is a vector. . 5 is dimensionless and 2 is in grams. (c) 100 m S of the opposite point (d) 100 m N from the opposite point. Temperature = dimensionless. A unit vector A is equal to (a) A/A (b) A/A (c) AA (d) None of these Ans. What is the meaning of 3 g of iron? Physically. (a) 2. Ans. N/m2 . torque.1. Ans.’ etc. Ans. 40 . Yes. is multiplied by 2 g of iron. A scalar of magnitude 5. Ans. is subtracted from 2 g of iron. Ans. No the answer is incorrect. C (ms) may be the correct answer if C = A × B. ˆ 1. The cross product of a vector A of unit ’m’ with a vector B of unit ’s’ gives a result C (ms). Short Answer Questions with Answers 1.. 5 × 2 g = 10 g is correct. Is this correct? Justify your answer. 3. perpendicular to the bank. Find the units of the angular velocity. 5. A • B is always a scalar. Derive the units of refractive index of a dielectric. 27. A 5 g of iron. E (b) 50 m N of the opposite point. The answer written is 10 g. 4. is added to 2 g of iron. Dimensionless 28. Ans. with a velocity 10 m/s E.. Start with the deﬁnition of refractive index. The interpretation is ’Five 2 g pieces of iron. Objective Type Questions In the following questions one or more choices may be correct. Investigate the units of heat and temperature. where does the boat reach on the other bank? (a) Directly opposite. Is this correct? Justify your answer. there is no such thing. Energy = Nm. A boat is travelling across a NS river. Scalars and Vectors 26. Sometimes choices may be separated with an ’or’ and somtimes with an ’and’. The answer written is 7. 2. The written is 3 g. Heat = Energy. The current of water is moving at 10 m/s N. What are the units of pressure in SI units? Ans. Power = Nm/sec. If the width of the river is 100 m. Torque = Nm. The dot product of a vector A of unit ’m’ with a vector B of unit ’s’ gives a result C (ms).
What is the work done? (a) 35 J (b) 34 J (c) 33 J (d) None of the above Ans.1. c or d.1) to Q=(4. (a) a and b. If two vectors A and B are such that A • B = 0. Hint: See Sect. (c). 1. Ans. 5. Scalars and Vectors 3. If E1  = 1 and E2  = 4 and E1 • E2 = 6 then: (a) The angle is 0◦ (b) Impossible answer (c) The angle is either 45◦ or −45◦ . Open Book Exam Questions 1. If E1  = 1 and E2  = 4 and E1 • E2 = 2. Ans. (c). (d) The maximum value of E1 • E2 = 3. (a) and (b).6. 7. If E1  = 1 and E2  = 4 and E1 • E2 = 4 then: (a) The angle is 0◦ (b) Impossible answer (c) The angle is either 45◦ or −45◦ . (b). (b) 11. Niether A nor B is 0.4. A force F = 3ax + 4a y + 5az (N) moves a particle from P=(1. A top is spinning at 2 rev/s. (d) The maximum value of E1 • E2 = 3. what is the angle between the vectors? (a) 0◦ (b) 45◦ (c) 90◦ (d) 270◦ Ans. 6. (a) 4. a. a y (b) (ax + a y ). what is the velocity of a point on the axis of rotation? (a) 0 m/s (b) 1 m/s (c) 2 m/s (d) 3 m/s. (ax − a y ) (c) (A + B).2). Ans. (A − B). Which of the following vectors are perpendicular to each other: (a) ax . If E • B1 = E • B2 then (a) E=0 (b) E • (B1 − B2 ) = 0 (c) B1 = B2 (d) All of the above Ans. (d) 10. Ans. 8. If A and B are two non colinear vectors with an angle θ from A to B and if C is deﬁned by A×B C= AB sin θ (a) C is perpendicular to A and B (b) C is a unit vector (c) A × B is not a vector (d) all of the above Ans.1 41 . 12. Ans. (a). (d) The maximum value of E1 • E2 = 3. (b) a and c (c) c only (d) all.828 then: (a) The angle is 0◦ (b) Impossible answer (c) The angle is either 45◦ or −45◦ . A = 2ax + a y + 2az and r = xax + ya y + zaz then r • A = 5 represents (a) a curve (b) a region of 3space (c) a plane (d) a sphere Ans.1. State the law of triangle of velocities. 9.
5. What part of the vector OP1 is in the direction of OP2 ? −− −→ Hint: Consider the dot product and the unit vector of OP2 ! 4. The force is directed toward the Sun. Why is A × A = 0 even though A 0. When F • ∆l is positive the planet gains potential energy. Explain why if three vectors A. B and C lie on a plane then the determinant Ax Bx Cx Ay By Cy Az Bz Cz =0 Hint: Consider the product: A • (B × C). When considering the position vector of two points P1 and P2 .1. 1. ***Chapter complete*** 42 . Using the right hand thumb rule show why the directions of A×B and B× A are opposite to each other. Scalars and Vectors 2.8. etc. Hint: See Ex. 3. In the case where a planet is moving around the Sun show how and why the planet speeds up and slows down.
2. b) Conversion between rectangular coordinates and spherical coordinates. 4. and I understand.2. d) Equation of a plane. Introduction The need for the use of more than one coordinate system arises from the fact that electromagnetic phenomena are easier calculated or understood in a system that is appropriate to that application. 5. c) Equations of lines and surfaces in cylindrical coordinates. it is necessary to transform from one coordinate system to another. ar . Right and left handed coordinate systems. In particular the topics covered are 1. b) Distance between two points. Discussion of the spherical coordinate system. The cylindrical coordinate system with emphasis on: a) The unit vectors of a cylindrical coordinate system. c) Conversion between cylindrical coordinates and spherical coordinates. aρ . 2. ax . Chapter Goals In this chapter the student clariﬁes concepts related to electromagnetic ﬁelds and their description using various commonly used coordinate systems. 2. Frequently. with emphasis on a) The unit vectors of a spherical coordinate system. c) Equation of a straight line. I see. aφ and az . Coordinate Systems and Fields I hear. and I remember. aθ and aφ .1. I do. 43 . A basic idea of scalar and vector ﬁelds. A discussion of the rectangular coordinate system with emphasis on: a) The unit vectors of a rectangular coordinate system. 3. b) Conversion between rectangular coordinates and cylindrical coordinates. and I forget. —Chinese Proverb 2. a y and az .
only one coordinate is needed and we can safely say that the pressure is only a function of the height. the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems.) 2. Also as we move transversely at any level. Why are coordinate systems important? They are important because our vectors (electric or magnetic) are functions of coordinates and so a study in this direction is imperative. h. The pressure higher up is lower than the pressure closer to the ground. the electric ﬁeld or magnetic ﬁeld or the electric potential. a coordinate system and then the function or functions which deﬁne the vector for a vector ﬁeld. Obviously. for example I. Slalskaya & Uﬂyand (1979). (or theoretically calcu 44 . As a result of this deﬁnition the electric ﬁeld and magnetic ﬁeld are vector ﬁelds and the electric potential is a scalar ﬁeld. Since only the height is involved. In this example. α is some constant which has to be experimentally determined. Consider the example of atmospheric pressure. A vector or scalar ﬁeld is a vector or a scalar which is a function of coordinates and perhaps time. one deﬁnes three mutually perpendicular ´lines´ or axes in three dimensional space. the pressure does not change. This is shown in Figure 2. As mentioned earlier. we must deﬁne a coordinate system whose origin is at some point on the ground. P ≡ P(h) where h is the height from the origin placed on some point on the surface of the earth (at mean sea level).2. The labelling of these axes is done in two ways: a righthanded (or lefthanded) orthogonal set. Coordinate Systems and Fields For the deﬁnition of the rectangular coordinate system in three dimensional space.1. Generally the coordinate system is chosen keeping in mind the problem being discussed. the ﬁrst two are vectors. So for more complicated problems. and scalar for the case of a scalar ﬁeld. more complicated coordinate systems are required (See. are deﬁned over some region of space. The equation for the pressure is: P(h) = P0 e−αh where h is the height above the surface of the earth (within about a km). To talk about a vector or scalar ﬁeld therefore one has to ﬁrst deﬁne an origin. We know that 1. both (1) and (2) must be satisﬁed. Scalar and Vector Fields In electromagnetic theory various vectors and scalars.3. P. To write an equation describing the pressure. Pressure above the surface of the earth is a function of the distance from the surface. while the third is a scalar. in (2) the pressure does not change transversely. 2. The most important coordinate systems (from the viewpoint of electromagnetic theory) are the rectangular. Therefore when we write the equation for the pressure. the pressure must be a function of the height.
in this case a single coordinate. h. EXAMPLE 2. P = P0 when the height. P(h) is a scalar ﬁeld because it is a scalar which is a function of coordinates.9P0 1 α ≈ 1.1. (that is. First let us see whether both conditions (1) and (2) given above are both satisﬁed.19278 × 10−4 45 .193×10 −4 h 0 = 0.2. but the exact form of the equation is to be corroborated experimentally. Coordinate Systems and Fields P(h) h Surface of the Earth Figure 2. (1) is satisﬁed since the pressure does indeed reduce when we go up. h = 0).: Figure showing the coordinates for the pressure scalar ﬁeld Earth Figure 2. the pressure remains the same.1 At what height is the pressure 9/10 of the pressure at the surface of the earth? Solution Step 1. Write out the formula: P(h0 ) = P0 e−1.: The scalar ﬁeld g(r) for Earth lated)1 and P0 is the pressure on the surface of the earth. (2) is satisﬁed since when we move transversely.2.
φ. The previous examples have given us a fair idea about what a scalar ﬁeld is. z) Φ ≡ Φ(r. and ME is the mass of the earth. z) or in the case of cylindrical and spherical coordinates we have. R0 is the radius of the earth.9)/(−1. r is the distance of a distant point from the earth’s centre in meters. Thus in our two examples. In general we can characterise a scalar ﬁeld by the equation Φ ≡ Φ(r) (2. For rectangular coordinates a scalar ﬁeld may be written as: Φ ≡ Φ(x. θ. y. Generally the coordinate system will be three dimensional but sometimes it could be one 2 Note that though the acceleration due to gravity is a vector. From these two examples we can see that a scalar ﬁeld is essentially a scalar which is some physical quantity which changes from point to point in space. the acceleration due to gravity g for the earth may be deﬁned as: g(R) = GME /r2 R0 ≤ r Where g(r) is the acceleration due to gravity2 of the earth at a distant point from the earth’s centre. respectively. z) and (r. Coordinate Systems and Fields Step 2.’ and which we are interested in.1) Where Φ is (obviously) a scalar and r is the position vector of the point where the scalar ’exists. in meters/sec2 . Or in the language of mathematics. A little thought tells us that the coordinate system being used is essentially the spherical coordinate system.193 × 10−4) = 883 m In another example. G is the gravitational constant. φ. Similarly a vector which is a function of coordinates is a vector ﬁeld.2) the origin of the coordinate system is located at the centre of the earth. the two equations: Φ ≡ Φ(ρ.2. Using this coordinate system. (see Figure 2. in SI units. φ) Where the sets (ρ. in kilograms. in the ﬁrst case we interested in the pressure of the atmosphere somewhere in and above the clouds. and in the second case we are interested in the acceleration due to gravity much above the surface of the earth. r is the distance of the observation point from this origin. it is a physical quantity which is a function of coordinates. θ. φ) are the cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Calculate h0 : h0 = ln(0. where the scalar ﬁeld is being evaluated. here it is modelled as a scalar 46 . in meters.
for example.z)=(1. Coordinate Systems and Fields or two dimensional in nature. and does not change from point to point. y and z are the coordinates of the point in question. the E ﬁeld is E = 0. In rectangular coordinates. when g is evaluated at another point. This equation is actually three equations: Ex = Kx 3/2 (x2 + y2 + z2 ) Ky Ey = 3/2 (x2 + y2 + z2) Kz (x2 + y2 + z2 ) Ez = 3/2 Let us proceed to examine this vector ﬁeld. changes from point to point and therefore calculus may be applied to these entities. the E ﬁeld reduces drastically. E is given by: K(xax + ya y + zaz ) 3/2 E= x 2 + y 2 + z2 (x.1. however.1. but a simple vector may not be diﬀerentiated or integrated (with respect to the coordinates) because it is a constant.2). r = (7 × 106 + 1) meters its value will be slightly diﬀerent from the earlier result.1). A vector or scalar ﬁeld. However.y. 47 .1925(ax + a y + az )K And at the point (2. the vector ﬁeld E in a particular case may be speciﬁed by the equation: E= K(xax + ya y + zaz ) 3/2 x 2 + y 2 + z2 Where K is a constant. At the coordinate point (1.2.2. Thus g at a distance of r = 7 × 106 meters from the centre of the earth will be given by the formula given above. in this case. Let us take a speciﬁc example of a vector ﬁeld. The diﬀerence between just a vector and a vector ﬁeld is that a vector ﬁeld maybe diﬀerentiated or integrated with respect to the coordinates.1) K = √ (ax + a y + az ) 27 = 0.04811(ax + a y + az )K So it is clear that at diﬀerent points the ﬁeld has diﬀerent values and as we move away from the origin. and x.
we can write the representations of E(r) in diﬀerent coordinate systems as: E ≡ E(x.: Depiction of right. z y x x z y (a) A right handed coordinate system (b) A left handed coordinate system Figure 2. y. Faraday also underscored the fact that the ﬁeld itself should be an object of study. (See Figure 2. φ) for spherical coordinates.) We can write our equations in either coordinate system since both are equally valid. The Rectangular Coordinate System Coordinate systems play a central role in the application of electromagnetic theory to various engineering situations. As we did for scalars. z) for rectangular coordinates. They were proposed by Michael Faraday. Coordinate Systems and Fields Generalising these results we can write the E vector ﬁeld in general terms as: E ≡ E(r) Where r is the position vector of any general point.2. To start with we take a closer look at the rectangular coordinate system and then we proceed to other coordinate systems. z) for cylindrical coordinates. due to the value of such a concept in explaining physical phenomena. 2. φ.4. θ.3. A particular coordinate system is chosen because in that coordinate system the equations reduce to a particularly simple ones. How do we characterise these systems? In the righthanded rectangular coordinate system 48 . and E ≡ E(r. Today the concept of vector ﬁelds are used in practically all branches of egineering and physics.and lefthanded coordinate systems Before we proceed we must ﬁrst decide whether we will be working with a left handed or right handed coordinate system. in his conceptualisation of magnetism in terms of ’lines of force’. Did you know? The mathematical concept of vector ﬁelds arose originally 19th century physics. the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems have proved to be useful in various applications. Though the rectangular coordinate system is most often used. E ≡ E(ρ.3.
Referring to Figure 2. y0 . 2) R01 = r1 − r0 = (2.1.: To calculate the diﬀerence vector between two points in rectangular coordinates if we go from ax to a y then we get az . while in the lefthanded rectangular system when we go from ax to a y then we get az . In this book. z1 ) = (2. Coordinate Systems and Fields z y x Figure 2. 2) = (1. y0 . 2) and (x1 . For example if two points: (x0 . 2.4. z0 ) = (1. y1 . 3. 2) the diﬀerence vector is given by: R{point 0 to point1} = r{point 1} − r{point 0} Or R01 = r(x1 . y1 . 2. z1 ) − r(x0. 2) and (x1 . 2) − (1. however. following the right hand thumb rule. 2. we shall only be using right handed coordinate systems only. z1 ) = (2.4. z0 ) = (1. 2) and (x1 . 0) (2. z1 ) = (2. 3. y1 . 1.4 with (x0 . 2. 3. z0 ) = r1 − r0 For two points (x0 . Distance Between Two Points We will be required to do various mathematical manipulations in the rectangular (or rectangular) system. then how do we ﬁnd the distance between these two? On the other hand if two lines are given how do we ﬁnd the angles between the two? To answer these questions we can use vector algebra with great advantage.2) The distance of point 1 from point 0 is R01 = r1 − r0  = √ √ 2 While the length of the two position vectors are: r0 = 12 + 22 + 22 = 3 49 . y1 .2. 2. y0 . z0 ) = (1. but following the left hand thumb rule. 2) are given. y0 . 3.
3. We ﬁrst ﬁnd the unit vector in the direction of V (V = V/V) and then take its dot product with the coordinate unit vectors ax . φ and ψ with the x.90 Similarly we can ﬁnd the angle with the other position vector. 2× √ 17 × cosθ = 5 2. Therefore if the unit vector V makes angles of θ.2. a y and az . Direction Cosines If a vector V in rectangular coordinates is given and we wish to ﬁnd the angle the vector makes with the coordinate axes then we can do so in the following ˆ way. Then the three ˆ direction cosines are these three dot products.55709a y + 0.2. γ) of V are given by α β γ ˆ = V • ax ˆ = V • ay ˆ = V • ax = cos φ = cos θ = cos ψ (2. 2) = 5 then we can ﬁnd the angle between the two vectors: √ Or √ cos θ = 5/ 34 = 0.37139ax + 0. and zaxes respectively then the direction cosines (denoted by α.2 Find the direction cosines of and angles that the position vector r = (2.4. 1. 3. 4) makes with the coordinate axes Solution: ˆ Step 1.74278az 50 . 0) • (2. The unit vector r is ˆ r= = (2ax + 3a y + 4az) √ 22 + 32 + 42 (2ax + 3a y + 4az) 5.3852 = 0. Coordinate Systems and Fields and r1 = √ √ 12 + 22 + 22 = 17 If we take the dot product of R01 with r1 R01 • r1 = (1.3) EXAMPLE 2.8549 Or θ = 30. β. y.
r = 0 for t = 0. Direction cosines: −1/ 2. and −∞ ≤ t ≤ ∞. The ﬁgure shows that that if a vector r is given. 2.5.5. There. To obtain the parametric equation in a more systematic manner.5).4. and γ = 0. attached to a point 3 The number of degrees of freedom corresponds to the number of independent variables in any equation or mathematical description. 0. If x is speciﬁed. This deﬁnes the xaxis. π/2.74278 Step 3. Coordinate Systems and Fields z y x Figure 2.37139.1 Find the direction cosines and angles of the point (5. Take the xaxis. where m and c are constants has only one degree of freedom.2◦. Examining the previous equation in some more detail we ﬁnd that r = −ax for t = −1.0. They are therefore α = 0. π/4.55709.2. √ √ Ans.3. Vector Equation of a Straight Line Very often one requires the vector equation of a straight line passing through a vector. cos−1 β and cos−1 γ: 68. The corresponding angles are cos−1 α. 1/ 2. y is uniquely determined. on the other hand if y is speciﬁed then x is uniquely determined. The direction cosines are the cosines of the angles which the unit vecor makes with the three axes. Angles: 3π/4. any straight line can have only one degree of freedom. or through a unit vector which is attached to some point in 3space.: A straight line in rectangular coordinates Step 2. and. The parametric equation of the xaxis is r = ax t where t is the parameter. The simplest example of a parametric equation is that of one of the axes. A region in the 2dimensional plane has however two degrees of freedom.3 Generally the easiest equation of a straight line is the parametric equation. For example in two dimensions the general equation of a straight line: y = mx + c.2◦ and 42◦ EXERCISE 2. 56. As we know. and r = ax for t = 1. we examine Figure 2. x and y can be independently speciﬁed 51 . β = 0.
then tR + r0 (−∞ < t < ∞) is another point which lies on the straight line shown. 1. 0) and (x1 . t is a parameter whose positive values lead to points toward the head of the vector r while negative values of t lead to points on the straight line toward the tail of the vector.1) toward (1.6).1. 0.2. z) = tR + r0 (−∞ < t < ∞) (2.2. 1) Step 2.3) (in the other direction. 1) Step 3. Next we write the vector equation for the straight line joining the two points: 52 . Coordinate Systems and Fields r0 = (x0 . 1.1. y0 . First of all we calculate R (see Figure 2.3 Find the parametric equation of the line which passes through (0.0) and (1.3)(cm) are connected by a straight line and extended on both sides. 3) − (1. z1 ) = (1.1. y.0. and two more having y and z on the left hand side x y z = tRx + x0 = tR y + y0 = tRz + z0 (−∞ < t < ∞) EXAMPLE 2. In this example (x0 . Using the theory which has been developed above r = r0 + tR x = x0 + t(x1 − x0) = t y = y0 + t(y1 − y0 ) = t z = z0 + t(z1 − z0 ) = t EXAMPLE 2.2. z0 ) = (0. 1) = (0.and zplanes. Solution: Part (a) Step 1.4) Note that this vector equation is consists of three equations: the ﬁrst having x on the left hand side. 1. The position vector of a point on the straight line is: r(x. y1 . 2. R is given by: R = r1 − r0 = (1.) (b) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of this line with the x. y. 2) cm Step 2. Then R = r1 − r0 = (1.1) Solution: Step 1.1)(cm) and (1. 1. (a) Find a point on the straight line which is a distance of 5 cm from (1.3) and also away from (1.4 The two points (1. y0 . z0 ) in 3space.2.
Notice that for τ = 0 we at the point (1. We can now write a new equation involving the parameter t and ar : √ √ r(x. yb . 1/ 5. (1 + 5). ˆ Step 4. 2/ 5) Step 5.1). y. 5/ 5 . (1 − 2 5) cm Part (b) Step 1. 1. The xy plane is described by the equation z=0 (Note 53 . 1. we are at (1. 1) √ √ = 0. 1) √ √ = 1. 1) (−∞ < t < ∞) We can clearly see that the parameter t is the distance parameter. To ﬁnd the distance between points this equation is not helpful.1) (−∞ < τ < ∞) (2. 2) + (1. 1. ya .2. 1. 2 5 + (1. (1 + 2 5) cm When we put t=5 cm we go in the other direction and get the coordinates of the second point: r(xb . 1. 1) √ √ = 1. 1. za ) √ √ = 5 × 0. −2 × 5/ 5 + (1.1) or 1 cm away.5) Step 3. 1. 5.3).1. 1. 1) √ √ = (0.6. Step 6. 1/ 5.2. 2)/ 5 √ √ = (0. 1. −5/ 5. (1 − 5). Let us consider the xy plane. 2 5) + (1. y. 1. Now we can get the correct answer for this part: Put t=5 cm in the previous equation. − 5. The unit vector is calculated by: ˆ R = R/R √ = (0. Coordinate Systems and Fields Origin Figure 2. but when t=1 then we are at one unit vector away (along the line) from (1. When t is 0. 2 × 5/ 5 + (1. To get the correct equation we need to calculate the unit vector R in the direction of R. 1/ 5. −2 5) + (1. zb ) √ √ = −5 × (0.1. 2 5) + (1. r(xa . 1/ 5.1. 2 5) + (1. z) = t × (0. In this part we have to ﬁnd where the line meets the three planes. 1) √ √ = 0.1) and for τ = 1 we land up at (1. z) = τ × (0.: Figure used to calculate the vector equation of a straight line r(x. 1) √ √ = (0.
z) = t × (0. r = (−1. Let us proceed and calculate where this line meets the xz plane described by y=0 and substituted into the second equation: √ 0 = t × 1/ 5 + 1 √ ⇒t =− 5 With which we calculate: xx−z plane zx−z plane =1 = −1 cm Step 4. 1) (−∞ < t < ∞) Which is reproduced here for convenience. 54 . Equation of a Plane Very often in the application of the electromagnetic equations.1) and (1. Hence the equation of the yz plane is x = 0. All over the yz plane the value of x is zero.4.1. x and y can be anything). Again we can obtain the equation of one of the coordinate planes. 1/ 5. y. The ’z’ equation becomes: √ 0 = t × 2/ 5 + 1 √ ⇒ t = − 5/2 Step 2. 1. Here we have to put z=0 on the left hand side of the equation: √ √ r(x. Using this value of t and utilising the other two equations: xx−y plane yx−y plane =1 = 1/2 cm Step 3. The appropriate equation is: 0 →0 ??? =1? = t×0+1 Here after careful thought we conclude that the line does not meet the yz plane! EXERCISE 2.4. 2.2. −1.1.2 Find the parametric equation of the line which passes through the points (1. In the same manner we proceed to calculate the meeting point of the line with the third plane— the yz plane described by x=0. −1) + t(2. 2 5) + (1.2) 2.1). Take the yz plane. the equation of a plane is desired. Coordinate Systems and Fields that when z=0. Ans.
) R = r − r0 EXAMPLE 2. 1) − (1. Solution: Step 1. then we would like to calculate the equation of a plane which encloses both R1 and R2 and also passes through the point r0 (x0 .1. y. we put the restriction that it be perpendicular to Rp : R • Rp =0 ⇒ (r − r0) • Rp =0 (2. Two vectors which lie on this plane are: R1 = (0. Also ﬁnd the unit vector perpendicular to this plane. 1. 0. 0) = (−1. and R must lie on the plane.5 Find the equation of a plane passing through (1. Coordinate Systems and Fields z x y Figure 2. 0. 0) and R2 = (0. The equation apples particularly in two cases: (i)When two vectors R1 .y and z and therefore has two degrees of freedom. z). y0 . (0.7.0.7.1) in the rectangular coordinate system. 0. suppose R1 and R2 are two vectors given in 3space. 0. 0) = (−1. 0) − (1. Let the coordinates of any point lying on the plane be r(x. To proceed further we ﬁrst calculate two vectors: (shown in the Figure) Rp = R1 × R2 and We can clearly see that rp is perpendicular to the plane. To make R lie on the plane.0) and (0.6) ⇒ (r − r0 ) • (R1 × R2 ) = 0 This equation is a single equation in three variables: x. z0 ).2.0). 1) 55 .: Figure to calculate the equation of a plane Referring to Figure 2. R2 and r0 are given (a plane parallel to two given vectors and passing through a point) and (ii)When Rp and r0 are given (a plane passing through a point and perpendicular to a given vector. 1.0.
0) × (−1. z) − (1. 1.1) = −ax × (−1. 0.0) and (0. z = 0 56 .2.0).8. 0.: 3D plot of the plane of the example EXERCISE 2. y. 1) + a y × (−1. 1. If we take the cross product R1 × R2 we get a vector perpendicular to the plane: Rp = R1 × R2 = (−1.0. By inspection the unit vector is: √ ˆ Rp = (1/ 3)(ax + a y + az ) Step 4. 1.1. 1) Step 3. 1) On further simpliﬁcation: Rp = a y + az + ax ≡ (1. Coordinate Systems and Fields Step 2. 0. 0. 1) = (x − 1) + y + z = 0 Hence the desired equation is: x+ y+z= 1 Figure 2.0.3 Find the plane passing through (0.0) Ans. 0) • (1. Using the equation derived in the this section: (x. (1.
The foot of the perpendicular (point f) is joined to the origin (O). and z. and z) a perpendicular is dropped onto the xy plane. starting from the south pole. φ. The columns are labeled by number 1 through 60 (starting from the tip of Siberia near Alaska going east) and the rows are labeled C through X. The angle between this line and the xaxis is the φ coordinate. A practical application of the rectangular coordinate system as applied to the Earth GPSa is the UTMb locator system. a Global b Universal Positioning System Transverse Mercator 2.. are ommited so they are not confused with the numbers zero and one. The z coordinate is the same as in the case of the rectangular coordinate system.9. India would be in R43. the length of this perpendicular is the z coordinate.7) To obtain the inverse transformation. With UTM . we do the following manipulations: ρ is 57 . By observing the ﬁgure which shows the cylindrical description superimposed on the rectangular coordinate system we get the following set of equations: x= y= z= ρ cos φ ρ sin φ z (2. whose coordinates are ρ. O and I.5. From the point in question (i. Each UTM zone is therefore expressed by a number and letter. the earth is divided by parallel lines which are EW and NS on the Mercator projection map of the world. for example New Delhi. Any point in cylindrical coordinates is described by three scalars: ρ. Cylindrical Coordinate System z a b d c e g O f y x Figure 2. these parallels create a matrix of 60 columns by 20 rows. φ.9.e. Coordinate Systems and Fields Application. Similar to latitude longitude lines.: The cylindrical coordinate system The cylindrical coordinate system is shown in Figure 2.2. This length of this line is the ρ coordinate. As in the rectangular case.
z = (1. ρ = √ 2. φ. 0. 1) EXAMPLE 2.4142. φ = −π/4.2. Solution: Step 1. z = (1. the ρ coordinate is given by ρ= Also φ = arctan and z=1 The coordinates in cylindrical coordinates are ρ. y = 1 z = 1 Step 2.1.4 Find the cylindrical coordinates of the rectangular coordinate points (x = 1. The inverse transformation equations are: ρ= x2 + y2 (2.φ =1. φ.1) Ans.1) and (1.z =1) given in cylindrical coordinates. 1.1.1. z = 1 and ρ = √ ρ = 2.4142 y π = = 0.6 Find the cylindrical coordinates of the point (x = 1.7 Find the rectangular coordinates of the point (ρ=1.78540 x 4 EXERCISE 2.54030 y = ρ sin φ = 1 × 0. In all cases. (1.84147 z=1 x2 + y2 = √ 2 = 1. (1. Solution: Step 1. 1) the three rectangular coordinates are x = ρ cos φ = 1 × 0. φ = π/4. 58 .8) φ = arctan(y/x) z= z EXAMPLE 2. while φ is obtained by dividing the second equation by the ﬁrst. z = 1).1). ρ = √ 2. z = 1) given in rectangular coordinates.78540. φ = 5π/4. Coordinate Systems and Fields obtained by squaring and adding the ﬁrst two equations. y = 1. y = 1. φ = 3π/4. √ 2. The cylindrical coordinates of the point in question are ρ. The rectangular coordinates are x = 1.
az form a righthanded. we ﬁnd that aρ is parallel to the xy plane and along the line joining the origin to the perpendicular from ρ. ax . it is perpendicular to az . and ay lie on the same plane.2.: Cross products of the cylindrical coordinate system aρ aφ az × aρ 0 −az aφ aφ az 0 −aρ az −aφ aρ 0 An important point to remember is that the unit vectors in the cylindrical coordinate system are dependent on the position of the point in space. Coordinate Systems and Fields Table 2.11) 59 . On this line the z and φ are constants. The circle ’a’ ’b’ ’c’ is a circular line on which only the φ coordinate changes. Figure 2. By observing the ﬁgure. Scrutinising the ﬁgure we can see that aρ × aφ moving along the arrow gives us az — and so on.1. unit vector aφ is perpendicular to aρ in the increasing direction of phi and again parallel to the xy plane.9 on page 57. Referring again to Figure Figure 2. The unit vector aρ is parallel to this line. Therefore aρ and aφ are perpendicular to az . The three unit vectors for the cylindrical coordinates are related to the unit vectors for rectangular coordinates. (Refer to Figure 2.4) aρ . aφ and az are orthogonal to each other.9 we can see that the along straight line ’d’ ’e’ only ρ changes.10.4. (2. Similarly on the straight line ’f’ ’g’ only the z coordinate changes and the unit vector az lies parallel to it. Examining Figure 2. aρ . aφ . Let us start with aρ . aφ . It makes an angle φ with the xaxis and an angle (π/2 − φ) with the yaxis. Further. Thus we see that the aρ . we can see that aφ = az × aρ . It is important to note that the three unit vectors. aρ × aφ aφ × az az × aρ = az = aρ = aφ Since aρ is parallel to the xy plane. (See 1.9) The relations given above are put down in the form of a table and an aid to their memorisation is through the use of the accompanying diagram. orthonormal set of vectors. on this circle z and ρ are constants. φ. and the unit vector aφ is tangent to it. z to the xy plane. a plane parallel to the xy plane.
Coordinate Systems and Fields Figure 2. aρ makes an angle of φ with ax and (π/2 − φ) with a y . aφ .10) (2. [T]rc .12) (2. as: aρ a φ az cos φ sin φ 0 ax − sin φ cos φ 0 a y = 0 0 1 az [T]rc (2. and az z P y x Figure 2. a y ) and (aρ .11) (2.2. aφ ) of rectangular and cylindrical coordinates respectively.13) The transformation equations in the other direction (with the transformation 60 .: aρ .10.: (ax . therefore aρ = cos φax + sin φa y Also aφ = az × aρ. therefore aφ = cos φa y − sin φax These relations are given below aρ = cos φax + sin φa y aφ = cos φa y − sin φax az = az And they may be written in the form of a matrix.11.
18) These two equations are extremely useful because if some vector A is given both in rectangular as well as cylindrical coordinates then: A ≡ Aρ a ρ + Aφ a φ + Az a z = Ax a x + A y a y + Az a z Then Aρ = aρ • (Aρ aρ + Aφ aφ + Az az ) = aρ • (Ax ax + A y a y + Az az ) = Ax (aρ • ax ) + A y(aρ • a y ) + Az (aρ • az ) = Ax cos φ + A y sin φ (2.14) With the inverse related to [T]rc by [T]−1 = [T]t rc rc The superscript t implies transpose Figure 2.10 with ax and a y we get: aρ • ax aρ • a y Similarly Equation 2. we can now write the general matrix equation for conversion: Aρ A φ Az cos φ sin φ 0 Ax − sin φ cos φ 0 A y = Az 0 0 1 61 (2.16) (2.2. The position vector r is given by: r = xax + ya y + zaz = ρ cos φax + ρ sin φa y + zaz Or r = ρaρ + zaz If we take the dot product of Equation 2.11 gives us: aφ • ax aφ • a y = − sin φ = cos φ = cos φ = sin φ (2.19) Using this technique.11 shows these relations in threedimensional space.17) (2. Coordinate Systems and Fields matrix T−1 between rectangularcylindrical coordinates) are rc ax cos φ − sin φ 0 aρ a sin φ cos φ 0 a φ y = 0 0 1 az az [T]−1 rc (2.20) .15) (2.
In a similar manner.: Table of dot products between ax . Step 3. 0. For example.22) Hence 0 az Az Step 2. In Equation 2. aφ . aφ and az . Solution: Step 1.21) (2. Coordinate Systems and Fields Table 2. 0. az • aρ aφ az And ax cos(φ) sin(φ) 0 ay sin(φ) cos(φ) 0 az 0 0 1 or Ax a x • a ρ A a •a y = y ρ Az az • aρ ax • aφ a y • aφ az • aφ ax • az a y • az az • az The individual terms of the matrix have been evaluated from Equations 2. 0.2. These dot products can be put down in the form of a table. 62 . Thus it depends on the coordinates of the point where the unit vector is evaluated. EXAMPLE 2. Table 2. a y . 0) instead of Ax . z) in cylindrical coordinates then ax = aρ . A y .8 Compute ax . ax = (1. az and aρ . 0) in rectangular coordinates. Az and get Aρ A φ Az cos φ sin φ 0 1 cos φ − sin φ cos φ 0 0 − sin φ = = 0 0 0 0 1 ax = cos φ aρ − sin φaφ + Aρ Aφ Ax cos φ − sin φ 0 Aρ A y = sin φ cos φ 0 Aφ 0 0 1 Az Az Aρ A φ Az (2. We notice that the unit vector ax is a function of coordinates.21 we insert (1. z) ax = −aφ . if we take the point (1. On the other hand at the point (1.18 where the dot products are given.2.2. a y = sin φaρ + cosφaφ and az is the same in both coordinate systems. a y and az in terms of aρ . π/2.17 and 2.
The ﬁgure shows three surfaces deﬁned by the equation ρ = constant. cos φ = x/ρ and sin φ = y/ρ then we have Or − x2 + y2 √ y x2 +y2 Ax A = Ay = x2 + y2 √ x 2 x2 +y Az 0 A = −yax + xa y. z) at the point (1.1. Az = 1. Solution: Step 1. φ. Equations of Surfaces and Lines in Cylindrical Coordinates The simplest surface in cylindrical coordinates corresponds to ρ = constant. So using the conversion matrix Ax cos φ A sin φ y = 0 Az − sin φ cos φ 0 0 0 1 Aρ A φ Az cos φ − sin φ 0 0 −ρ sin φ sin φ cos φ 0 ρ ρ cos φ = = 0 0 0 0 1 −y = x 0 Step 2. A little reﬂection will tell us that this equation is that of a cylinder.10 The vector ﬁeld A(ρ. A y .1) in rectangular coordinates. y.9 The vector ﬁeld A(x. Aφ = ρ. See Example 2.1) in rectangular coordinates is (1. using the matrix to convert to cylindrical coordinates is Aρ A φ Az cos φ sin φ 0 1 − sin φ cos φ 0 1 = 0 0 1 1 Step 3. So Aρ = 1. Az = 0. Since φ = 0. 1) (cylindrical coordinates.1). Coordinate Systems and Fields EXAMPLE 2. φ. The components of the vector ﬁeld A are Aρ = 0. z = constant and φ = constant.1.1. z = (1. In this 63 .6) Step 2.12. EXAMPLE 2. cos(.5.2.7071.1. 0.7854) = 0. The point (1.1) (rectangular coordinates) translates to ρ. 2.78540. We need to ﬁnd Ax . Solution: Step 1. z) (cylindrical coordinates) in the region 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1 is given by A = ρaφ Find the value of the vector ﬁeld in the same region in rectangular coordinates.1.4142.7854) = sin(. We use ρ = x2 + y2 .7854r. Aφ = 0. The point (1.4142. Az . Find the value of the vector ﬁeld at the same point in cylindrical coordinates. An example of such a surface is shown in Figure 2.
The equation set from ρ. and so on.11 Find the parametric equation of the cylinder ρ = 2 in rectangular coordinates. Coordinate Systems and Fields ﬁgure z = constant planes are planes parallel to the xy plane. Since these equations have two degrees of freedom in 3space. φ and z to x. φ and z. When we put φ = φ0 = constant then it describes a halfplane passing through the zaxis and at an angle of φ0 .: Surfaces in cylindrical coordinates. A surface is always described by two independent variables. y and z are given by Equation set 2. they constitute a surface4 . y and z for any value of (or in terms of) ρ. x = 2 cos φ y = 2 sin φ z =z Step 3. in 3space equations in two parameters represents a surface. As in the case of rectangular coordinates. Surface Surface Surface Figure 2. 64 . Let us now take a look at the mathematical description of lines in cylindrical coordinates. Thus equations in one parameter represents a line (in 2space or 3space). Solution: Step 1. Step 2.2. lines in cylindrical coordinates 4 In 3space or 2space. EXAMPLE 2. of course other curves are possible). These independent variables are called parameters.7 : x = ρ cos φ y = ρ sin φ z=z These are in fact the parametric equations of x. Generally the lines which can easily be described are those lines which lie on the surface of a cylinder (though.12. In these equations we substitute ρ = 2 and we get the parametric equations of the cylinder in rectangular coordinates as a function of φ and z as parameters. a curve is always by an equation with one independent variable.
24) A plot of the helix described by these parametric equations for two turns is presented in Figure 2. The parametric equation for a righthanded helix.4 Figure 2.13 65 . A little reﬂection tells us while the x. Coordinate Systems and Fields 12 10 8 6 0.2 0. the zcoordinate advances in such a way that the whole curve lies on a cylinder. is given by the equations (in cylindrical coordinates): ρ φ z = 0. Here t is the parameter in question.5 =t =t (2. and z ≡ z(t) (2.2 2 00 0 0. That is we equations of the type ρ ≡ ρ(t).4 4 0.4 0.and y. A simple example is that of a helix (spiral. A helix is a curve in space which lies on a cylinder and advances ’spirally’ [see chapter 11]Thomas & Finney (1996). where the distance between turns is 2π and the radius of the helix is 0.4 0. When the curve advances in the φ direction by 2π then the zcoordinate advances in the zdirection by L.20.5. screw). φ ≡ φ(t).values lie on a circle.2.13.2 0.: The helix of the example possess only one degree of freedom.23) are curves.
φ) which are shown in the accompanying ﬁgure. z=0 1 + e cosφ where e is the eccentricity and l is the semilatus rectum (the chord through a focus parallel to the conic section directrix is called the latus rectum. if e = 1. The Spherical Coordinate System The Spherical coordinate is represented by three parameters: (r. and if e < 1.2. polar coordinates are used.6. Coordinate Systems and Fields z q a b c p g O f s y x Figure 2.25) where x. the curve is an ellipse.). which is given by ρ= l . this equation deﬁnes a hyperbola. y. Did you know?/Application. θ.: The spherical coordinate system. the r parameter is the distance from the point in question to the origin. and z are the rectangular coordinates of the point. In the mathematical description of the movement of planets or comets about the sun. This the length ’O’ ’p’ . the line joining the origin to the point).26) 66 .) From observing the Figure. (See Figure 2. a Note that polar coordinates are cylindrical coordinates with a suppressed zcoordinate..e. it is clear that z = rcosθ (2. If e > 1.14. To describe any point. (i. it is a parabola. 2. The θ coordinate is the angle between the two lines: the zaxis and the line ’O’ ’p’.14. When e = 0 we obtain a circle of radius l. Therefore: r ≡ r = x 2 + y 2 + z2 (2. a The orbit of a planet or comet is a conic section.
θ and φ coordinates in terms of the of x. Tangent to this circle is the unit vector aφ . These three unit vectors are perpendicular to each other with ar × aθ = aφ (2.30) aθ × aφ = ar aφ × ar = aθ To compute the unit vectors of the spherical coordinates in terms of the unit vectors of the rectangular and cylindrical coordinate systems. y and z coordinates.29) The unit vectors in the spherical coordinate system are depicted in Figure 2. On the line ’O’ ’p’ θ and φ are both constant and only r varies. On the circle ’a’ ’b’ ’c’ r and θ are both constants. The unit vector ar is connected to az and aρ by ar = az cos θ + aρ sin θ Since aρ = ax cos φ + a y sin φ 5 (2. The inverse transformation is given by: x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z= r cos θ (2. These relations have give the values the r. ar is outward along the line ’O’ ’p’.2. while φ is variable.28) Where ρ = x2 + y2 .15. The third unit vector aθ is tangent to the circle ’q’ ’p’ ’s’ on which r and φ are both constants and θ is variable. we take a look at Figure 2. The unit vectors aρ .32) The perpendicular is ’p’ ’f’ or ’g’ ’f’ 67 . The circle ’a’ ’b’ ’c’ is like the line of latitude on the surface of the earth.27) similarly it is clear that the φ coordinate is angle between the xaxis and the line joining the origin to the foot of the perpendicular5 from the point ’p’ to the xy plane . Therefore: φ = arccos(x/ρ) = arccos x x2 + y 2 (2.31) (2. Coordinate Systems and Fields or θ = arccos(z/r) = arccos z x2 + y2 + z 2 (2. while the circle ’q’ ’p’ ’s’ is like a line of longitude.14. aθ and az lie on the same plane as shown in the ﬁgure. ar .
coordinate and unit vector respectively.36) 68 . and aφ . Coordinate Systems and Fields z y x Figure 2. Thus observing the plane φ = constant the unit vectors az . aρ (which are perpendicular to each other) and ar .2. aθ ) of the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems respectively Therefore ar = az cos θ + (ax cos φ + a y sin φ) sin θ aρ (rectangular to spherical) (2.: Relationship between (aρ . aθ = cos θ cos φax + cos θ sin φa y − sin θaz aφ = − sin φax + cos φa y (2.35) Therefor the unit vectors of the spherical coordinate system in terms of the rectangular coordinates are given by: ar = sin θ cos φax + sin θ sin φa y + cosθaz .33) The important point to remember is that the spherical and cylindrical coordinates share the same φ. aθ (which are also perpendicular to each other) lie on this plane as diagrammed. az ) and (ar .34) (2.15. Since aθ = aφ × ar and using the results of the cross products of cylindrical coordinates: aθ = aφ × ar = aφ × (az cos θ + aρ sin θ) = aφ × az cos θ + aφ × aρ sin θ) aρ −az = (ax cos φ + a y sin φ) cos θ − az sin θ The third unit vector aφ is as for cylindrical coordinates aφ = a y cos φ − ax sin φ (2.
38) Note that T−1 = Tt rs rs (2.: Table of dot products in Spherical Coordinates ax ay az • ar sin θ cos φ sin θ sin φ cos θ aθ cos θ cos φ cos θ sin φ − sin θ aφ − sin φ cos φ 0 These results can be put in the form of a matrix equation (with the transformation matrix Trs ) : ar sin θ cos φ sin θ sin φ cos θ a cos θ cos φ cos θ sin φ − sin θ θ = aφ − sin φ cos φ 0 Trs ax a y az (2.39) The three unit vectors of the spherical coordinate system are orthonormal.41) Ar Aθ Aφ 69 .3 We can compute the components of a vector in either of the two coordinate systems Ar A θ Aφ ar • ax ar • a y ar • az a •a a •a a •a = θ x y z θ θ aφ • ax aφ • a y aφ • az sin θ cos φ sin θ sin φ = cos θ cos φ cos θ sin φ − sin φ cos φ ax • aρ a y • aρ az • aρ ax • aθ a y • aθ az • aθ ax • aφ a y • aφ az • aφ Ax A y Az cos θ Ax A − sin θ y 0 Az (2. are shown in Table 2.40) Ax A y = Az = sin θ cos φ cos θ cos φ sin θ sin φ cos θ sin φ cos θ − sin θ − sin φ cos φ 0 Ar A θ Aφ (2. and a table of their dot products with ax etc.3..37) We can also ﬁnd the inverse transformation (with T−1 ) rs ax sin θ cos φ cos θ cos φ a sin θ sin φ cos θ sin φ y = cos θ − sin θ az T−1 rs − sin φ cos φ 0 ar a θ aφ (2.2. Coordinate Systems and Fields Table 2.
1. and φ ≡ φ(t) Where t is the parameter and r (t) . θ = π/4 is a cone whose cone angle is π/2. θ ≡ θ(t). Az and get Ar A θ Aφ ar • ax a •a = θ x aφ • ax ar • a y aθ • a y aφ • a y ar • az aθ • az aφ • az 1 0 0 which translates to Ar Aθ Aφ Step 2. 0. Solution: Step 1.16. cones or half planes passing through the origin. Just as in the case of the cylindrical coordinate system we can write parametric equations of a space curve which are functions of a single variable in the spherical coordinate system: r ≡ r (t) .40 we insert (1. Thus r = 3 is a sphere whose radius is three.2.10 in rectangular coordinates. Therefore in Equation 2. θ (t) and φ (t) are functions of t.42) Which has only two degrees of freedom (only two variables φ and θ may be speciﬁed independently. In the same manner we get a y = sin θ sin φar + cos θ sin φaθ + cos φaφ az = cos θar − sin θaθ The spherical coordinate system is especially suited mathematical descriptions involving spheres. Coordinate Systems and Fields EXAMPLE 2. equal to 3). A y . we can rewrite the equation of a sphere as: r= 3 φ = anything θ = anything (2. ax is (1. r is ﬁxed. a y and az in terms of aρ . aθ and aφ . (2. 0) instead of Ax . Hence sin θ cos φ sin θ sin φ cos θ = cos θ cos φ cos θ sin φ − sin θ − sin φ cos φ 0 1 sin θ cos φ 0 = cos θ cos φ 0 − sin φ ax = sin θ cos φar + cosθ cos φaθ − sin φ aφ Ar Aθ Aφ Step 3. and φ = π/6 is a half plane passing through the origin at an angle of 300 to x − z plane. These surfaces are shown in Figure 2. As we have noted earlier that any equation with two degrees of freedom is a surface.43) 70 .12 Compute ax .
y. y and z are the rectangular coordinates of a point then the cylindrical (−∞ < t < ∞) 71 .16. The equation of a plane in rectangular coordinates is given by (r − r0 ) • (R1 × R2 ) = 0 where r is the position vector of a point on the plane. r0 is the position vector of a speciﬁc point on the plane and R1 and R2 are two vectors lying on the plane. List of Formulae R01 . If ρ.: Coordinate surfaces in spherical coordinates 2.2.7. Coordinate Systems and Fields z z z y x (a) x (b) y x (c) y Figure 2. r0 is the position vector of a speciﬁc point on the line and r is the position vector of any point on the line is r(x. the position vector from point 0 at r0 to point 1 at r1 is given by R01 = r1 − r0 The direction cosines of a vector V are given by ˆ α = V • ax ˆ • ay β =V ˆ γ = V • ax = cos φ = cos θ = cos ψ The parametric equation of a straight line where R is vector parallel to the line. φ and z are the cylindrical coordinates of a point then the rectangular coordinates are given by x = ρ cos φ y = ρ sin φ z= z If x. z) = tR + r0 where t is a parameter.
θ and φ. Coordinate Systems and Fields coordinates are given by x2 + y2 ρ= φ = arctan(y/x) z= z The cross products of the unit vectors in cylindrical coordinates are given by aρ × aφ = az aφ × az = aρ az × aρ = aφ The position vector of a point in cylindrical coordinates is r = ρaρ + zaz When the same vector is expressed in cylindrical and rectangular coordinates then Aρ cos φ sin φ 0 Ax A − sin φ cos φ 0 A φ = y Az 0 0 1 Az Ax cos φ − sin φ 0 Aρ A y = sin φ cos φ 0 Aφ 0 0 1 Az Az and Spherical coordinates use three coordinates: r. In terms of rectangular coordinates these are: x 2 + y 2 + z2 z θ = arccos 2 + y 2 + z2 x x φ = arccos x2 + y2 r= r sin θ cos φ r sin θ sin φ r cos θ If the coordinates are expressed in spherical coordinates then rectangular coordinates the equations are x= y= z= The crossproducts of the unit vectors in spherical coordinates are: ar × aθ = aφ aθ × aφ = ar aφ × ar = aθ 72 .2.
r0 is the position vector of a point on the plane and R1 . In the following equations r = x. Coordinate Systems and Fields If a vector is given in rectangular coordinates then in spherical coordinates its components are Ar A θ Aφ sin θ cos φ cos θ cos φ = − sin φ sin θ sin φ cos θ cos θ sin φ − sin θ cos φ 0 Ax A y Az If a vector is given in spherical coordinates then in rectangular coordinates its components are Ax sin θ cos φ A sin θ sin φ y = Az cos θ cos θ cos φ − sin φ cos θ sin φ cos φ − sin θ 0 Ar A θ Aθ Chapter Summary Since electromagnetism is expressed in terms of vectors and scalars which change from point to point in space we have to express our equations in terms of scalar and vector ﬁelds. R2 are two noncolinear vectors on the plane. The equation of a plane in rectangular coordinates is (r − r0 ) • (R1 × R2 ) = 0 where r is the position vector of any point on the plane. or a semiinﬁnite halfplane. Cylindrical coordinates are used where the geometry is either a cylinder. Scalar and vector ﬁelds may be diﬀerentiated and integrated with respect to coordinates and time. or a cone. φ = φ0 or a combination of these three.2. The vector equation of a straight line in rectangular coordinates is r = tR + r0 where t is a parameter. Scalar and vector ﬁelds are scalars and vectors which are functions of coordinates and time. or a semiinﬁnite halfplane. φ = φ0 or a plane z = z0 or a combination of these three. Spherical coordinates are used where the geometry is either a sphere. ρ = ρ0 . 73 . The type of coordinate system we choose to express our equations in aids in making those equations simple in that particular coordinate system. z The distance between two points with position vectors r1 and r2 is r1 − r2 . y. r = r0 . θ = θ0 . R is a vector along the line and r0 is the position vector of a particular point on the line and r is the position vector of any point on the line.
A scalar ﬁeld is given by Φ = 3xyz compute A= ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ ax + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z 74 . 5. Ans. Find dV/dz of Prob.2. −3yax − 3za y − 3xaz. Practice Problems and Self Assessment Review Questions 1. Deﬁne (a) A scalar ﬁeld and (b) A vector ﬁeld. A scalar ﬁeld. Compute ax ay az ∂/∂x ∂/∂y ∂/∂z Ax Ay Az Ans. Why is the pressure above the Earth’s surface a scalar ﬁeld? Is the dielectric constant of air above the Earth’s surface a scalar ﬁeld? Research this question. −10−4 and −0. Problems 1. Compute ∂Ax ∂A y ∂Az + + ∂x ∂y ∂z what is the result? Ans. A vector ﬁeld. In the spherical coordinate system are the unit vectors constant vectors? Explain with an example. 10−10 3.8.9901 × 10−4 2. A vector ﬁeld is given by A = 3xyax + 3yza y + 3zxaz. 3. Explain with examples where you would use Cartesian. 4. cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems? 7. What is the diﬀernce between the equation of a curve and that of a surface? 6. The vector ﬁeld A of Prob. What is the diﬀerence between a righthanded and lefthanded coordinate system? Are equations written in the two coordinate systems exactly same? Explain your answer with an example. Are scalar and vector ﬁelds diﬀerentiable with respect to coordinates? With respect to time? 4. 3. The scalar ﬁeld V(z) = −100/z for z > 1000 km. 1 at 1000 km. 3(x + y + z). 5. Find V at 1000 and 1010 km. Ans. Coordinate Systems and Fields 2. Why do we need scalar and vector ﬁelds to study electromagnetic theory? 2.
16. For the rectangular coordinate system ﬁnd the point (x = 1. Find the equation of the halfplane x = 0 y ≥ 0 in cylindrical coordinates. Find the equation of a line passing through the points (1. ±az . Ans. Find the equation of a circle in the xy plane with radius 5. A = 3(ax + a y + az ) 6. (x. Find the equation of the straight line joining the origin to (1. Ans. z) = (1 + t.3.0. The equation of a circle with radius 5 on the plane z = 4. ρ = 2. z = 3. 5 sin t. (x. Ans. 0) with 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.1. Find the unit vector normal to the surface of the triangle. Ans. Ans. 12.0. Ans.1) Ans. Ans.4). Normal component 0.0) and (0. 5 sin t.1. 1 + t). What does (x. z) = (5 cos t. 2 + t. 14. in cylindrical coordinates Ans. Coordinate Systems and Fields at the point (1.0. 1 + t. Find the equation of a circle of radius 2 with its center coincident with the origin and lying on the xyplane. (1.1) and is parallel to the xaxis. z) = (5 cos t.1. z = 0.0) form a triangle.1) and is parallel to the xyplane. 9. 75 . y. y. φ = 63.1. y. ρ = 2. 13. Tangential component 0. φ = t 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Ans. 4) with 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π represent? Justify.5/2) and (1. 1.8415aρ.2. 18. φ = 1r . Other solutions are also possible.1. Consider the vector ﬁeld A = sin φaρ + cos zaφ + ρaz Find the normal and tangential component at the point (ρ = 2. Ans. The points (0. az 19. y. Ans. 11.1. (x.5) Ans. az and ax + a y + az / 3 20. Find the equation of an inﬁnite cylinder of radius 2 with its axis coincident with the zaxis in cylindrical coordinates. In rectangular coordinates ﬁnd the equation of a straight line which passes through the point (1. z = 1) on the cylinder ρ = 2.5403aφ+ 2az . Find the equation of a plane passing through (1. z − 1 = 0 8. z = 3) in cylindrical coordinates.2. Ans.4◦. Other solutions are also possible. 15. √ Ans. 2x + 3y + 4z − 20 = 0 10.3) and (2. 17. φ = π/2.3) and perpedicular to the vector 2ax + 3a y + 4az . Find the unit vector to the surface x2 + y2 + 2z = 5 at the point (0. y = 2. ρ = 5. 7.2. z) = (1 + t. Find the unit vector to the surface x2 + y2 + z2 = 25 at the point (0. In rectangular coordinates ﬁnd the equation of a plane which passes through the point (1. 3 + t).1). z) = (1 + t. (x.0.3/2) √ Ans. y. 1).0).
8198r. Coordinate Systems and Fields Short Answer Questions with Answers 1. After conversion. On further conversion u = ρaρ − kaz / ρ2 + k2 rewrite in rectangular coordinates.3). We observe the point (3. The equation for A written in spherical coordinates is A= e−jkr ar r ˆ rectangular coordinates.48aθ − 0. ˆ Ans.48ar + 0.48aθ − 0. √ Ans. r = x2 + y2 + z2 . The vector ﬁeld A = kaφ /ρ given in cylindrical coordinates is to be expressed in spherical coordinates. sin φ = y/ x2 + y2 . ρ = r2 − z2.81aφ (b) 0. y = 0.5aθ − 0. Ans.8π) is (a) 0. z = 3). ar = cos θaz + sin θ cos φax + sin θ sin φa y . sin θ = x2 + y2/r. u = ρ cos φax + ρ sin φa y − kaz / ρ2 + k2 is the unit vector in the 2. z = k) to the point (ρ.81aφ (c) −0. cos θ = z/r.129ar + 1. φ = 0. (b) 76 .48ar + 0. The expression for a y in spherical coordinates at the point P(r = 4. r2 = ρ2 + z2 .2.40 to convert from rectangular to spherical coordinates. Find the unit vector of the point (x = 0.451aθ + 1. cos φ = x/ x2 + y2 . 0) in the cylindrical coordinate system. 4. the unit vector aφ remains the same. Express A = k/r2 ar in cylindrical coordinates. Transform 3ax − 3a y − 2az into spherical coordinates at the point (x = −3.81aφ Ans.2π. Using these results √ 2 2 2 e−jk x +y +z A= 2 xax + ya y + zaz x + y 2 + z2 or ar = r/r.897aφ.1. θ = 0. We now use Equation 2.8117r and φ = 2. Sometimes choices may be separated with an ’or’ and somtimes with an ’and’.35aθ + 0. the vector is −4. 1. y = 1. 3.4ar + 0. Ans.81aφ (d) 0. Ans. ar = ρaρ + zaz / ρ2 + z2 giving k ρaρ + zaz ρ2 + z2 3/2 A= 5.35ar + 0. At this point θ = 0. So kaφ A= √ r2 − z2 Objective Type Questions In the following questions one or more choices may be correct. φ.
36a y Ans. (a) aρ /ρ (b) ρaρ (c) φaφ (d) −ρaφ Ans. A vector ﬁeld in Cartesian form is given as D = yax − xa y ﬁnd the cylindrical form.4 Ans. (b) 7. (a) cos(2φ)ρaρ + sin(2φ)aφ (b) cos(2φ)ρaρ − sin(2φ)aφ (c) cos φaρ + sin φaφ (d) None of these Ans. A vector ﬁeld in Cartesian form is given as D = xax − ya y ﬁnd the cylindrical form. (a) kz/ ρ2 + z2 (b) kρ2 sin φ cos φ/ ρ2 + z2 (c) kz/ ρ2 + z2 these Ans. A vector ﬁeld is given by D = k/r2 ar in spherical coordinates. A vector ﬁeld is given by D = k/r2 ar in spherical coordinates. (b) 5.72ax + 1. Coordinate Systems and Fields 2. (c) 3/2 (d) None 9. A vector ﬁeld in Cartesian form is given as D = xax + ya y ﬁnd the cylindrical form. The enclosing area is (a) 34. (a) kz/ x2 + y2 + z2 (b) kxy/ x2 + y2 + z2 (c) kz/ x2 + y2 + z2 of these Ans. Find the Dz component of the vector ﬁeld in cylindrical coordinates. A vector ﬁeld in Cartesian form is given as D = yax + xa y ﬁnd the cylindrical form. (a) aρ /ρ + ρaρ (b) cos(2φ)ρaρ − sin(2φ)aφ (c) cos φaρ + sin φaφ (d) None of these Ans. (d) 6.7 (d) 16.4. The surface ρ = 2.2. Find the Dz component of the vector ﬁeld in rectangular coordinates.29 (b) 32.72a y (d) −2. ρ = 4. (a) aρ /ρ (b) ρaρ (c) φaφ (d) −ρaφ Ans. (b) 4. (c) 3/2 (d) None of 77 . z = 3 and z = 4 form a closed surface.36ax − 2.0) is (a) ax − 2a y (b) −2ax + a y (c) 1. φ = 135◦ . φ = 45◦ . The vector B = (10/r) ar + r cos θaθ + aφ in rectangular coordinates at the point (3. (b) 3.27 (c) 20. (a) 8.
Give one example each of a (a) A scalar ﬁeld and (b) A vector ﬁeld. 5.3. ***Chapter Complete*** 78 .4.3. 4. Coordinate Systems and Fields 10.6. When do we use a particular coordinate system? For example to describe a plane which coordinate system will we use? Hint: See Sec. why do we choose the cylindrical coordinate system? Hint: See Sec. 3. What is the advantage of using ﬁelds in electromagnetic theory? Hint: See Sec. The unit of ar in spherical coordinates is (a) m (b) no dimension (c) ft (d) None of these Ans.2. 2.5. 2. If we want to ﬁnd the equation of a straight line in 3space what are the possible ways of deﬁning the straight line? Hint: See Sec. 2.4. 2. (b) Open Book Exam Questions 1. For deﬁning a helix.1. Which are those surfaces which are special in terms of coordinate = constant in spherical coordinates? Hint: See Sec. 2. 2.
z) in rectangular coordinates. the cornerstone on which the whole of vector analysis rests are a few important but simple concepts. —Albert Einstein 3.1) shows a curve in space on which two closely placed points are shown.1. Vector Calculus Do not worry about your diﬃculties in Mathematics. These elements generally occur in the various coordinate systems which we have considered in a previous chapter. hopefully in a clear and concise manner. and so on. Luckily. φ. Similarly the position vector 79 . x) in rectangular coordinates. y + ∆y. Basic 3Dimensional Calculus The analysis of vector and scalar ﬁelds is facilitated through the use of vector calculus. z) in cylindrical coordinates. Based on the above deﬁnition the concept of grad. 3. Figure (3. r(A) ≡ r(x. Differential Element of a Line To understand vector calculus a clear concept of diﬀerential elements must be acquired. Chapter Goals 1. Because of their importance we need to know the diﬀerent types of diﬀerential elements which occur in the description of EM ﬁelds and how to manipulate them. 3. 2.2. The student is the introduced to the concepts of line integral.2. curl and div are introduced. surface integral and volume integral in a very basic manner and starting from the fundamentals. To start with we concentrate on linear elements. Scalar and vector ﬁelds are important since they are the words of the mathematical language which describes the majority of electromagnetic phenomena. r(ρ.1. 3. The physical interpretation of these operations is made clear. y. 4. At the end of the chapter Maxwell’s equations are introduced and the units of various electromagnetic quantities are discussed. In particular. Divergence theorem and Stoke’s theorem are also discussed. I can assure you mine are still greater. These shall be presented here.3. y. The position vector r of the point A is xax + ya y + zaz . Similarly the point B which is very close to the point A has the coordinates of (x + ∆x. which once understood leads to a mastery of the subject. The coordinates of the point A are (x. z + ∆z).
From this it is clear that the diﬀerential elements of the coordinates in the rectangular coordinates is the set (∆x. ∆y = ∆ya y and ∆z = ∆zaz . The length of this vector is ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆x2 + ∆y2 + ∆z2 (3. z + ∆z) in cylindrical coordinates. ∆y in the a y direction and ∆z in the az − → − → − → direction.1 − → And the diﬀerential element of a line (the vector AB) is the vector: ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆xax + ∆ya y + ∆zaz (3. z + ∆z) in rectangular coordinates. 1 Note that lim(∆x → 0) = dx. The point B is so close to the point A that the linear element AB can be considered to be a straight line even though both points may lie on a curve.1. ∆y. y + ∆y. lim(∆y → 0) = dy. and r(ρ + ∆ρ. Vector Calculus z B A y x Figure 3.3) On a little reﬂection it should be clear that this unit vector is along the direction of the tangent to the curve on which the diﬀerential element lies.1) The equation given above says that the vector ∆l is the sum of three vectors: − → − → − → a small vector ∆x in the ax direction. Where ∆x = ∆xax . etc 80 . etc. ∆z) Where the ∆x can be read as ’a very small increment of x’. φ + ∆φ.3.2) It is obvious that the unit vector along the line is ˆ t= ∆l ∆xax + ∆ya y + ∆zaz = ∆l ∆x2 + ∆y2 + ∆z2 (3.: Diﬀerential element of a line of the point B is r(B) ≡ r(x + ∆x.
ρ∆φ and ∆z we can reach any neighbouring point. we can see that the vector ∆l is the sum of three small vectors: ∆ρaρ . The length of this vector is ∆r ≡ ∆l = ∆ρ2 + ρ2 ∆φ2 + ∆z2 (3. is the vector: ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆ρaρ + ρ∆φaφ + ∆zaz (3.5) and therefore the unit tangent vector is ˆ t= ∆ρaρ + ρ∆φaφ + ∆zaz ∆ρ2 + ρ2 ∆φ2 + ∆z2 (3. the vector AB of Figure 3. the element ∆ρ is a small linear element in the direction of the unit vector aρ and which is a short extension of the line ’d’’e’ in the ﬁgure.4) From the equation given above.2. shown in Figure 3.3 on the following page.1 on the previous page. ∆φ. shown in Figure 3.6) In Spherical coordinates. while ρ∆φ is a small linear element tangent to the circle ’a’’b’’c’ and which is in the direction of aφ .3. ∆z) Referring to the ﬁgure the diﬀerential element ∆z is the same as that in rectangular coordinates.2 the diﬀerential elements of the coordinates are: (∆ρ. − → The diﬀerential element. ρ∆φaφ and ∆zaz . the diﬀer 81 .: Diﬀerential linear elements in cylindrical coordinates In the same way the in cylindrical coordinates. By varying the values of ∆ρ. Vector Calculus z a b c z d e g O f y x Figure 3.
On this circle r and φ are constant.8) (3.: Diﬀerential linear elements in spherical coordinates ential coordinates are (∆r. − → The general linear element. And.7) and the unit tangent vector to the curve at this point is ˆ t= ∆rar + r∆θaθ + r sin(θ)∆φaφ ∆r2 + r2 ∆θ2 + r2 sin2 (θ)∆φ2 (3. ∆θ. r∆θ is a small element of the line of longitude ’q’’p’’s’.3. ﬁnally. ’q’’p’’s’ in this ﬁgure is a line of longitude passing through the point with position vector r. the diﬀerential linear element r sin θ∆φ is an element of the line of latitude ’a’’b’’c’.3. ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆rar + r∆θaθ + r sin(θ)∆φaφ its length is ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆r2 + r2 ∆θ2 + r2 sin2 (θ)∆φ2 (3.9) 82 . ∆φ) The spherical coordinate system is exactly the same system which is used to describe the geography of the earth. ’a’’b’’c’ is a line of latitude passing through our point and on it r and θ are constant. the vector AB of the ﬁgure on page 80. The element ∆r is a linear element which is in the direction of the unit vector ar and an extension of the r coordinate keeping θ and φ constant. Vector Calculus z q a b c z d p g O f s y x Figure 3.
To do this.2.4. to rN = (xN .3. Line Integral Given a scalar or vector ﬁeld. yi .2. zN ). we wish to compute the integral B Φ(r)dl A over the curve A → B. Vector Calculus z B y A x Figure 3.12) (3. In reference to this ﬁgure.13) 83 . zi ) and ri+1 ≡ (xi+1 . we divide the curve into a number of points (N + 1. y0 .4. yi .10) To understand the scalar line integral let us look at Figure 3. Φ(r) or F(r) we can deﬁne two types of line integrals: B Φ(r)dl A and B A F(r) • dl (3. ri ≡ (xi . The integral is computed according to i=N−1 lim Φ(xi .11) where ∆li = (xi+1 − xi )ax + (yi+1 − yi )a y + (zi+1 − zi )az = (xi+1 − xi )2 + (yi+1 − yi )2 + (zi+1 − zi )2 (3. yi+1 . to be exact) starting with r0 = (x0 . z0 ). zi )∆li N→∞ i=0 (3. yN .: Figure illustrating the scalar line integral 3. Two typical points on this curve are also shown. zi+1 ).
Using Equation 3. zi )∆li = Φ(x. for r(x. Step 2.11) becomes an integral: B B i=N−1 lim Φ(xi .0) and at t = 1 the coordinates become (1. y(t). First we need to ﬁnd the parametric equation of the straight line.1 Find the length of the straight line from A(0. this is x=t y=t z=t As a check.16) or in short hand notation: B B Φ(r)dl = A A Φ[r(t)] dr dt dt (3.1.15) Φ(r)dR = A A Φ[x(t). x y z Then B B = = = x(t) y(t) z(t) (3. 1.. 1) Solution: Step 1. z) = r(t). z(t)] (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 + (dz/dt)2 dt (3. y. By the methods we have discussed in the last chapter. we notice that at t = 0 the coordinates are (0.17) This equation applies to any coordinate system. yi .3. where A(0.14) Φ(r)dl = N→∞ i=0 A A If the curve is parametrised. 1. 1) is reached when t = 1. EXAMPLE 3.e. 0. i.0. and the point B(1. Vector Calculus In the limit as N → ∞ the sum (Equation 3. z) dx2 + dy2 + dz2 (3. 0. The length of the line is given by A dR. y. 0) is the point when t = 0.1). 0) to B(1.17 we can identify by inspection that Φ(r) = 1 B r(t) = tax + ta y + taz Then dr = ax + a y + az dt and 84 .
2 Find the length of one turn of the helix ρ=1 φ = 2πt z = 2t Solution: Step 1. By scrutinising the Figure 3. one turn implies that t goes from t = 0 to t = 1.19) F(r)•dl = A A (Fx ax +F y a y +Fz az )•(dxax +dya y +dzaz ) (3.20) 85 . zi ) • ∆li = N→∞ i=0 B B (3. Then using Equation 3. Vector Calculus √ dr = 3 dt Step 3. yi .3.18) where: Or ∆li = (xi+1 − xi )ax + (yi+1 − yi )a y + (zi+1 − zi )az i=N−1 lim F(xi . zi ) • ∆li lim N→∞ i=0 B F(r) • dr A can be written as the limit of a sum: (3. (That is φ goes from φ = 0 to φ = 2π). We substitute these values in the line integral. Therefore 1 The required length = √ 0 3dt = √ 3 EXAMPLE 3. yi .5 the vector line integral i=N−1 F(xi .17 we ﬁnd that Φ(r) = 1 dφ dr(t) dρ dz = aρ + ρ aφ + az = 0aρ + (1)(2π)aφ + 2az dt dt dt dt Hence √ dr(t) = 0aρ + (1)(2π)aφ + 2az = 4π2 + 4 dt Step 2. Just as in the previous example. Therefore B B dR = A A dr dt = dt t=1 t=0 √ √ 4π2 + 4 dt = 4π2 + 4 We proceed to the vector variety of the line integral.
0) m Solution: 86 .22) An example of the line integral is where it is used to ﬁnd the ’work’ done by a particle in a ﬁeld. EXAMPLE 3.: Figure illustrating the line integral Or using the parameter form: B A B F(r) • dr = Fx A dy dx dz + F y + Fz dt dt dt dt (3.23) is the work done by a variable force F exerted on a particle. 0.3 Find the work done to move a particle in the force ﬁeld F(r) = − 103 ar nt r2 along the straight line from r = (10. Thus for instance B W= A F(r) • dl (3. 0) m in spherical coordinates. Note that the expression is the integral generalisation of the formula − − − − −→ −→ − − − W = Force • distance .5. Vector Calculus z B y A x Figure 3.21) Which can be written as: B A B F(r) • dl = A F• dr dt dt (3. to r = (100. 0.3.
5 − 1. The parametric equations of the straight line are x = 1 − t. Hence B A B (3.1. y = 1 − t.4 Given the vector ﬁeld G = yax − 2.0) Solution: Step 1.1.1.5t2 [(1.24) F(r) • dr = A F(r) • dr dt = − dt t=10 t=1 1030 dt 100t2 The integral can now be evaluated t=10 − t=1 1030 1030 dt = 100t 100t2 t=10 = t=1 1030 1030 − = 1. Step 2.5(1 − t)d(1 − t) + 3(1 − t)d(1 − t)] 1 t=0 1.5xa y + 3zaz ﬁnd the line integral of G along the straight line from (1.3.22 we can identify (in the spherical coordinate system) that 103 103 ar for 1 ≤ t ≤ 10 (3.0.75 87 .0) G • (ax dx + a ydy + azdz) = (1.03 − 10. The straight line can be characterised by the parametric set of equations r = 10t θ=0 φ=0 where t goes from t = 1 to t = 10.25) F(r) = − 2 ar = − r 100t2 dφ dθ dr dr = ar + r aθ + r sin θ aφ = 10ar dt dt dt dt Step 3.5xdy + 3zdz) = t=0 1 [(1 − t)d(1 − t) − 2. The line integral is L= = (1.1) (ydx − 2.0.0) (0. z = 1 − t Step 2.27 J 1000 100 EXAMPLE 3. Vector Calculus Step 1.5t)d(−t)] = = − 1.5t 2 t=0 = −0.1) to (0. By examining Equation 3.1) 1 0≤t≤1 G • dl (0.30 = −9.0.
The magnitude of ∆S is ∆S = ∆S (3. The surface element thus has vectorial properties. Another example of a surface element lying on a plane parallel to the yz plane would be ∆S = ∆y∆z ˆ and and its direction would be S = ax . These elements are shown in Figure 3.3. Vector Calculus z D A a d b C c y B x Figure 3. is so small that though it lies on the curved surface. Similar methods were developed in ancient times in China and India. Such an element would lie on a plane parallel to the xy plane.27) Examples of such surfaces are given below in Figures 3. systemetised such a method applying it to volumes. and 3. ˆ ∆S = S(r) (3.6) ABCD is some curved surface on which lies a small element of area abcd.7. Looking at the accompanying ﬁgure (Figure 3.: The diﬀerential surface element Did you know?/Application.8.3. 88 . The Indian mathematician Aryabhata used a similar method to ﬁnd the volume of a cube. The element of area. In rectangular coordinates one such basic surface element would be ∆S = ∆x∆y ˆ and the unit vector associated with this element would be ∆S = S = az . Archimedes used a method similar to integration to ﬁnd the area of a circle by inscibing the circle with a polygon of a greater and greater number of sides.6.2. This is like the case of a plane on the surface of the earth: though the earth is spherical the plane appears ﬂat.26) while the unit vector associated with it is perpendicular to the surface at the point r. Eudoxus (about 370 BC). Since the surface ˆ is ’planelike’ it has a unit vector associated with it: S which is perpendicular to the elemental surface area . Integration could have possibly be used to calculate the volume of frustum of square pyramid as exhibited in the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus of ancient Egypt perhaps written around 1850 BC.7. of magnitude ∆S. it can be considered locally plane. 3. Differential Element of a Surface Before we take a look at surface integrals we must understand the concept of a small element of area.
8. ∆ρ and ρ∆φ. and ∆r. Vector Calculus z y x Figure 3.: Diﬀerential surface elements in rectangular Coordinates z y x Figure 3. r∆θ and r sin θ∆φ.: Diﬀerential surface elements in cylindrical coordinates Similarly. For example in Figure 3.10 the two linear elements. Figure 3. In the other surface element. diagrammed in Figure 3. are r sin θ0 ∆φ. ∆S consists of multiplication of these elements. ˆ and hence ∆S = (r0 sin θ∆φ)(r0 ∆θ) and S = ar . The linear elements are r sin θ∆φ and r∆θ which are perpendicular to each other. in cylindrical coordinates the basic surface elements (∆S) are multiplications of ∆z. Finally.3.8 shows these surface elements. ∆S = (r sin θ0 ∆φ)(∆r) and S = aθ .9 a surface element has been shown lying on the surface of a sphere.7. in spherical coordinates the elemental lengths are ∆r. 89 . perpendicular to each ˆ other.
: Diﬀerential surface element in spherical coordinates of the surface of a sphere z Surface of a cone y x Figure 3.9.10. Vector Calculus z Surface of a sphere y x Figure 3.3.: Surface element lying on the surface of a cone 90 .
2. A typical surface element Si is also shown.11. For Φ(r) = 1/r (spherical coordinates) ﬁnd the surface integral of Φ over the surface of a sphere with radius equal to 2. as discussed in the previous section.) In the limit as N → ∞ the sum becomes an integral: Φ(r)dS ABCD (3.29) This expression applies to any coordinate system. 91 . Referring to Figure 3.: Figure showing the calculation of the scalar surface integral 3. Surface Integral 2 The concept of a surface integral may now be introduced. The integral is computed according to the sum N→∞ lim i=N−1 Φ(ri )∆Si i=0 (3. Vector Calculus C A D z axis y axis B x axis Figure 3.3. (∆Si is a typical surface element.11 we can calculate the integral Φ(r)dS ABCD where ABCD is the surface S over which the integral is evaluated and Φ(r) is a scalar ﬁeld.28) where Φ(ri ) is the scalar ﬁeld evaluated at the centre of the surface element. EXAMPLE 3. 2 ΦdS In this section we will be concerned with only simple surface integrals. to SN . ∆Si . Solution: Step 1.4. The surface is ﬁrst divided into a number of surface elements (N + 1) starting with S0 .5 To begin with let us take a simple example. The surface integral is I= where Φ = 1/r.
This expression may be approximated by (see Figure 3.13. An element of surface on a sphere is dS = r2 sin θdθdφ.: Diﬀerential Flux Step 2.32) 92 .: Figure showing the calculation of the vector surface integral Figure 3.30) ABCD F is the vector ﬁeld. F • dS (3.12): i=N−1 lim F(ri ) • ∆Si N→∞ i=0 (3. and its dot product is taken with the diﬀerential surface vector. Vector Calculus C A D z axis y axis B x axis Figure 3.31) where ˆ ∆Si = ∆Si Si (3. Since the surface has r = 2 I = 0. So Step 3.12.5 × sin θdθdφ = −(2π) × (−1 − 1) = 2π = ( φ φ=0 ) × (− cos θθ=π ) θ=0 φ=2π The vector surface integral may be calculated using the same principles.3.
34) EXAMPLE 3. through the surface of a sphere with unit radius for (i)F = (1/r) aφ (ii) F = (1/r) aθ and (iii) F = (1/r) ar in spherical coordinates. In the case of (ii) also F • dS = [(1/r)aθ] • (ar r2 sin θdθdφ) = 0 but in the third case F • dS = [(1/r)ar] • (ar r2 sin θdθdφ) = r sin θdθdφ r=1 = sin θdθdφ The ﬂux is therefore Φ= θ.φ 3 sin θdθdφ = 4π The total ’ﬂow’ of the ﬁeld through the surface 93 .3. The parallel part does not pass through the surface at all.6 Find the ﬂux. The ﬁgure shows ˆ that the ﬁeld F is at an angle θ to the normal S. Vector Calculus The physical meaning of the vectorial surface integral can be understood from observation of Figure 3. The ﬂux is given by Φ= S F • dS dS in all the three cases is dS = ar r2 sin θdθdφ r=1 = ar sin θdθdφ Step 2. ∆Φ is ∆Φ = F cos(θ)∆S = F • ∆S (3.33) And the total ﬂux through some surface S is given by an integration of the above diﬀerential Φ= S F • dS (3. Φ. Therefore the diﬀerential ﬂux. The ﬁeld can therefore ˆ be split into two parts: one along S (perpendicular to the surface) which is ˆ F⊥ ≡ F cos θ and the other perpendicular to S which is equal to F ≡ F sin θ (parallel to the surface). in the case of (i) F • dS = (1/r)aφ • (ar r2 sin θdθdφ) = 0 So the ﬂux is zero.13 showing the diﬀerential ﬂux3 . Solution: Step 1. while perpendicular part passes completely through the surface.
into smaller regions (N + 1 regions of elemental volume ∆Vi .35) and consists of the three linear elements multiplied together. i = 0. Similarly. they can be of arbitrary shapes. 94 . .14. .: The volume element in cylindrical coordinates 3. Vector Calculus z y x Figure 3.3.7 Find the volume integral. EXAMPLE 3. in the spherical coordinate system the volume element is ∆V = (∆r)(r∆θ)(r sin θ∆φ) This is shown in Figure 3.N ) and then summing over i. In rectangular coordinates a volume element is ∆V = ∆x∆y∆z (3.38) N→∞ V i=0 (3. the volume integral is: i=N−1 Φ(r)dV = lim Φ(ri )∆Vi (3. I.16. The Volume Integral Before we discuss the volume integral we must understand the meaning of an element of volume.15 The volume integral usually integrates a scalar ﬁeld Φ(r). Though the elemental volumes are shown to be small cubes. Using the earlier method of converting a volume.2.36) Such a volume element is shown in Figure 3. of a scalar ﬁeld V = 1/r over a sphere with unit radius in spherical coordinates. as long as they ﬁt into one another and span the whole volume. .37) This is shown in Figure 3.14.5. V. Using the same concept the element of volume in the cylindrical coordinate system is ∆V = (∆ρ)(ρ∆θ)(∆z) (3.
.3..16..: The volume element in spherical coordinates z .. Vector Calculus z y x Figure 3..: Details of the calculation of the volume integral 95 .15. y x Figure 3...
which we evaluate at two points f (x0 ) and f (x1 ) with x1 > x0 but x1 almost equal to x0 .01) = 3.0 = 0. Step 2. Because x1 ≈ x0 therefore f (x0 ) ≈ f (x1 ). then δx = x1 − x0 = 3. So: δ f (x) = f (x1 ) − f (x0) = 27. Here by numerical computation δ f (x) /δx = 0.271 (3.01 − 3 = 0.1 4 Here my remarks are mostly applicable to diﬀerentiation and partial diﬀerentiation 96 . A volume element in spherical coordinates is dV = r2 sin θdθdφdr. δ f (x) /δx is an approximation to the derivative of f (x) at x = 3.4 First let us approach a problem in onedimension in a very simple way.01 = 27. Differential Calculus Concepts Once the notion of a ﬁeld has been understood.01 Then by the same token we can call δ f (x) = f (x1 ) − f (x0).3.271/0. Vector Calculus Solution: Step 1. Let f (x) be a function.271 − 27. For example let the function f (x) be x3 with x0 = 3 and x1 = 3.39) By convention. So I= V (1/r)(r2 sin θdθdφdr) r sin θdθdφdr r=1 φ=2π = V = 4π = (r2 ) r=0 × (− cos θ)θ=π × (φ) φ=0 θ=0 3. we can proceed to apply calculus concepts to ﬁelds.01 then f (x0 ) = f (3) = 33 = 27 and f (x1 ) = f (3.013 = 27. If we set δx = x1 − x0 . The volume integral I which is of interest is given by I= V (1/r)dV Where V is the region occupied by a sphere of unit radius.3.271.
z0 ) δx = x1 − x0 f (x1 . y0 . z ∂x 6 5 That = x0 . δ f (x) = 0.y0 . y.17.0027001. z0 ) − f (x0. We can evaluate the function f (x. Vector Calculus z R y x Figure 3. z0 ) x1 − x0 x1 →x0 is x1 > x0 but x1 ≈ x0 In the limit as x1 → x0 means that x1 becomes closer and closer to x0 but x1 is never equal to x0 . z0 ) δx f (x. z0 ) − f (x0.0001 f (x0 ) = 27.0001. For instance x0 = 3. y and z. 97 . z0 ) and (x1 . The two points are assumed to be very ’close’ 5 to each other. We can do the same computation making x1 to be still closer to x0 and we will get a result which is still closer to the exact result.: Figure showing two neighbouring points The exact answer. δx = 0. y. z0 ) − f (x0. y0 . y0 . y.3. z) = δx x1 − x0 In the limit as x1 → x0 . y0 . z) at (x0 . Look at the scalar ﬁeld f (x.z0 f (x1 .6 we can see that the deﬁnition leads to the partial derivative: ∂ f (x.0001 = 27. y0 . If we call δx f (x.0027001/0. x1 = 3. f (x1 ) = 27. y. as we know is 27. y0 . y.0027001 δ f (x) /δx = 0. z) = xe−y sin(z) which is a function of three variables: x. z) = f (x1 . z0 ).001 ≈ 27. y0 . y0 .0 Let us proceed to understand the meaning of the partial derivative.
z) = f (x0 . More clearly: δ f (x. z0 is a point on the surface. z1 ) − f (x0.y0 . y.y0 . y0 . y0 . z0 ) ≡ (constant) where x0 . y.0005ax + 0a y + 0.z0 =0 deﬁnes a surface because only two of the three variables. For example one particular value of δr may be: δr = 0.00007a y + 0az Or another value may be: δr = 0. y. Then δ f .z0 ∂ ∂ ∂ ax + a y + az ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. Vector Calculus In the same manner we can deﬁne the other partial derivatives: ∂ f (x. must be zero. y. y0 .z0 (3. y. z) ∂f ∂f ∂f δx + ∂y δy + ∂z δz ∂x x0 . The ﬁrst use that we can put partial derivatives to use is in the deﬁnition of ’nabla’: ∇. 98 . z) • δr x 0 .y0 . z ∂z = x0 . 7 Suppose that δr is allowed to take values so that it lies only on this surface.z0 = ∂ ∂ ∂ = ( ∂x ax + ∂y a y + ∂z az ) f (x. Nabla is a vector operator whose deﬁnition is: ∇≡ For the function f (x. z0 ) − f (x0.40) δ f (x. z0 ) z1 − z0 z1 →z0 Where are the partial derivatives useful? Let us take some examples. z) • δr x 0 .y0 .z0 f (x0 . Let us look at the surface: f (x. z) x 0 . z0 ) y1 − y0 y1 →y0 f (x0 . y1 . z) x 7 This 0 .y0 . z ∂y and ∂ f (x.3. y.z0 = x0 .y0 . Let us take a particularly simple (but very interesting) case. y0 .y0 . Thus for diﬀerent values of δr we get diﬀerent values of δ f .005ax + 0.z0 = ∇ f (x. y. y and z may be independently speciﬁed. y0 .y0 . y. z) • (δxax + δya y + δzaz ) x0 .41) The vector δr of course is purely arbitrary.z0 = ∇ f (x.00009az and so on. y. since f is equal to a constant on the surface. x.
at (x0 . y.y . y. Another important point to be remembered is that an operator may operate on another operator to give us a completely new operator. The mathematical entity ∇ f is so important.44) Which may now operate on a function to give us a double derivative. The Del or Nabla Operator What is an operator? An operator is a mathematical entity which ’operates’ on a function or another entity. z0 ). z0 ) After a little reﬂection it is also clear that δr lying on f (x. y. z0 ). y. φ. y0 . For example d2 d d = 2 dt dt dt (3. Another example is that of a matrix 1 2 1 1 (3. z) etc. y0 . Hence ∇ f (x. z) = f (x0 . z) • δr x . The Del operator in rectangular 8 In cylindrical coordinates it would be the gradient of f (ρ. Thus when it operates on x(t) then the operation has meaning d [x(t)] (3.42) Notice that d/dt in itself has no meaning. y0 . Vector Calculus when δr lies on the surface f (x. z) = f (x0 . 99 .45) When this matrix operates on a vector it gives us another vector 1 2 1 1 5 2 = 7 12 (3. y0 . A very simple example of an operator is the diﬀerentiation operator d/dt (3. And since ∇ f (x.3.47) 2 1 2 −4 8 −8 Let us go on to the case of the Del or nabla operator which plays an extremely fundamental role in electromagnetic theory.46) Or it may operate on another matrix (an operator) to give us a new matrix (operator) 1 1 3 −2 5 −6 = (3. y. z0 ) really means that it lies on the tangent plane to the given surface. z)8 3. that it is called the gradient of the scalar ﬁeld f (x.43) dt which obviously is the derivative of x(t). When it ’attacks’ or operates on a function then only meaning develops.3. z) is perpendicular to the tangent plane to the surface at r0 = (x0 .z = 0 0 0 0 therefore these two vectors are perpendicular to each other.1.
’ The Laplacian 100 . the ﬁrst of which is ∇ • ∇ = ∇2 = = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ax + a y + az • ax + a y + az ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. y. 3. The ∇ operator may operate on itself also in two ways. Vector Calculus coordinates takes the form ∇≡∇= ∂ ∂ ∂ ax + a y + az ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. ∇ may operate on mathematical entities in various ways: 1. The product in rectangular coordinates is: ax ∇×F = ∂ ∂x ay ∂ ∂y az ∂ ∂z Fx Fy Fz (3. In rectangular coordinates the product becomes ∇•F = = ∂ ∂ ∂ ax + a y + az • Fx ax + F y a y + Fz az ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂Fx ∂F y ∂Fz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. In rectangular coordinates the gradient takes the form ∇Φ = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ ax + a y + az Φ(x. In this case the result would be a scalar ﬁeld.51) and is called the ’divergence (or div) of the vector F. z) = ax + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z (3.52) = ax ∂F y ∂Fx ∂Fx ∂Fz ∂Fz ∂F y − − − + ay + az ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y and is called the ’circulation (or curl) of the vector ﬁeld F.49) which is called the ’gradient (or grad) of Φ’.48) Notice that the vector notation may be omitted without loss of understanding.50) 2. The Del operator may operate on a vector ﬁeld through the dot (•) product. ∇ may operate on a vector through the vector or cross (×) product to give us another vector ﬁeld. ∇ (a vector) may operate on the scalar ﬁeld Φ to give a vector ﬁeld ∇ [Φ] ≡ ∇Φ (3.3.53) which is a scalar operator and is called the ’Laplacian. 4.
∇Φ = therefore z ∇Φ = −ze−ρ cos φaρ − e−ρ sin φaφ + e−ρ cos φaz ρ 1 ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ aρ + aφ + az ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z 101 .3. Gradient The gradient (or grad) is deﬁned by the operation of the Del operator on a scalar ﬁeld ∇Φ(r) (3. (3.2.56) (3. Therefore using the formula for the gradient in cylindrical coordinates.57) The gradient in the rectangular coordinate system when applied to a scalar ﬁeld which is a function of rectangular coordinates is ∇Φ = ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ ax + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. The ∇ operator may operate on itself through the cross product ∇×∇ = 0 is identically zero! The student may verify this for himself. Vector Calculus may operate on a scalar ﬁeld to give us another scalar ﬁeld ∇2 Φ = ∂2 Φ ∂2 Φ ∂2 Φ + + ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 (3.54) The Laplacian may also operate on a vector ∇2 A = ∇2 Ax ax + ∇2 A y a y + ∇2 Az az 5.59) while in spherical coordinates ∇Φ is ∇Φ = 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ∂Φ ar + aθ + aφ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (3.58) In cylindrical coordinates the form of ∇Φ is ∇Φ = 1 ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ aρ + aφ + az ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z (3. Obviously the scalar ﬁeld is given in cylindrical coordinates.60) EXAMPLE 3.55) 3.8 Find the gradient of the scalar ﬁeld Φ = ze−ρ cos φ. Solution: Step 1.3.
z) = Φ(x0 .3 on page 96 where it was shown that the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld at a particular point (x0 . y.3. Let ∇Φ = E (3. zi ) (3.61) be a vector ﬁeld which we want to integrate between two points A ≡ (xi . y0 . z f ) over any curve L. Then the line integral B A L B [∇Φ • dl] = = A L B A L B ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ ax + ay + az • dxax + dya y + dzaz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z dΦ = A L = Φ(x f .62) In other words. yi .: ∇Φ shown on the surface Φ(x. y f .18. z0 ) Note that grad(Φ) has been introduced before in Section 3. the line integral of the gradient of a scalar is independent of the path 102 . z0 ) (≡ constant). y f . y. y0 . z) = Φ(x0 . yi . z0 ) is perpendicular to the surface Φ(x. Vector Calculus z y x Figure 3. y0 . It does not matter what the shape of the curve is. The second result which is very important is to do with the line integral of the gradient. z f ) − Φ(xi. zi ) and B ≡ (x f . This result holds good for all coordinate systems.
61 we can say that if any ﬁeld is the gradient of a scalar then its line integral from A ≡ (xi . Vector Calculus of integration9 .0. yi .3.62 Φ(x f . zi ) = (x f . Solution: Step 1. 3.1)..e. y f . zi ) and hence the result follows. Since the line integral is to be evaluated on the straight line joining (0.63) 2. zi ) to B ≡ (x f . i. zi ) is equal to B ≡ (x f .65) EXAMPLE 3. We can proceed to infer another important result viz. Using the formula for the gradient in rectangular coordinates. when A ≡ (xi .1) I= L 9 Important ∇Φ • dl = L (yzax + xza y + xyaz) • (dxax + dya y + dzaz) result 103 .0) and (1.64) any C This is true because from Equation 3.0) and (1.0.. y f . This is the most important result concerning the gradient. if B E(≡ ∇Φ) then A L [E • dl] is the same f or any L (3.1.1. yi . B A L [∇Φ • dl] = Φ(B) − Φ(A) The other results all follow from this result! 1. z f ) is independent of the path of integration.9 For scalar ﬁeld Φ = xyz investigate the line integral of ∇Φ along the straight line joining the points (0. yi . z f ) = Φ(xi . that if the closed line integral of a vector ﬁeld E is always identically zero then the vector is the gradient of some scalar ﬁeld E • dl = 0 then E = ∇Φ (3. y f . i. z f )) [∇Φ • dl] = 0 (3. y f . z f ) (which means that (xi .e. From Equation 3. ∇Φ = ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ ax + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z = yzax + xza y + xyaz Step 2. yi . When the gradient of a scalar is integrated over a closed curve.
1) − Φ(0.) ∇ aφ1 + bφ2 = a∇φ1 + b∇φ2 ∇ φ1 φ2 = φ2 ∇φ1 + φ1 ∇φ2 ∇ φ1 /φ2 = ∇ φ n (3. The Curl The curl of a vector A (≡ ∇ × A) plays a very important role in electromagnetic theory. dz = dt or I= L (yzax + xza y + xyaz) • (dxax + dya y + dzaz ) (yzdx + xzdy + xydz) = = = L t=1 (t2 dt + t2dt + t2dt) 1 t=0 31 t 0= = Φ(1.3.3. z(t) = t giving dx = dt. 0) Other results involving the gradient are (where φ1 and φ2 are scalar ﬁelds and a and b are constants. In rectangular coordinates the curl of A is given by ax ay az ∇×A = ∂/∂x ∂/∂y ∂/∂z = ax ∂ y Az − ∂z A y +a y (∂z Ax − ∂xAz )+az ∂x A y − ∂ y Ax Ax Ay Az (3.67) (3.66) (3.68) φ2 ∇φ1 − φ1 ∇φ2 φ2 2 (n−1) = n∇ φ (3. dy = dt. 0.71) 104 .69) (3. y(t) = t.3. 3.70) ∇ × ∇φ = 0 The last of these is an important result which we will reexamine shortly. Vector Calculus Step 3. 1. we need to use the parametric equations for the straight line x(t) = t. To perform this line integration.
74 is evaluated in the counterclockwise sense. The result which we have given is due to Stokes.12 on page 25 which shows how the hand is held. In other coordinate systems the curl is given below. In the (a) part of the ﬁgure. A • dl = L aθ + 1 ∂ (rAθ ) − ∂Ar aφ r ∂r ∂θ S (∇ × A) • dS (3. and 1 ∂ sin θAφ ∂Aθ 1 1 ∂Ar ∂ rAφ ar + ∇×A = − − r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r (3. The ﬁngers curl in the direction of the line integral. and S is the surface enclosed by the line.74) where (see Figure 3.73) for spherical coordinates. (Please refer to the Reference Material on page 1 for all important formulae) ∂Aρ ∂Az ∂Aρ 1 ∂Az ∂Aφ 1 ∂ ρAφ ∇×A = − − aρ + aφ + ∂ρ − ∂y az ρ ∂φ ∂z ∂z ∂ρ ρ (3. (b) When the surface enclosed is bulging where ∂x ≡ ∂/∂x etc. The line integral in Equation 3. while the vector associated with the surface is given by the right hand thumb rule10 . and therefore is called Stokes’ theorem. An important relation for the curl is (the relation is given without proof.72) for cylindrical coordinates. Vector Calculus (a) (b) Figure 3. while the vector associated with the enclosed surface is in the direction of the thumb. Then A • dl = L 10 S (∇ × A) • dS See the Figure 1.19. The ﬁgure shows a closed curve L enclosing a ﬂat surface S.3. 105 .19(a)) L is a closed curve over which the line integral is calculated. The unit vector associated with the surface is given by the right hand thumb rule. and the reader can see for example Spiegel (1974) for more detail). Referring to the ﬁgure we can apply the above equation.: Properties of the curl. (a) When the surface enclosed is ﬂat.
i. Also if ∇×A = 0 everywhere. ∇ × ∇Φ = 0.19.78) in R. Using the formula for ∇Φ in spherical coordinates ∇Φ = 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ∂Φ ar + aθ + aφ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ 106 . Therefore ∇ × A •dS =0 S Or The inverse is also true.77) (3. θ.10 Verify in spherical coordinates that for any scalar ﬁeld Φ(r. Solution: Step 1. A • dl = 0 then A is the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld L ∇ × A = ∇ × ∇Φ = 0 (3.76) The proof of this is seen through Stokes’ theorem: consider a surface S bounded by a curve L as shown in Figure 3. For every case if in some region R. If A is the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Φ.e. Vector Calculus We may also apply the above equation without hesitation to the case where the surface concerned is bulging rather than ﬂat as is the case of Figure 3.75) and therefore ∇ × A = ∇ × (∇Φ) = 0 (3. On this surface ∇ × A • dS = = =0 L L S A • dl ∇Φ • dl But this surface can be anywhere and of any dimension. A = ∇Φ EXAMPLE 3. then A is the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld.. A = ∇Φ then L A • dl = 0 (3.3.19 (b). φ).
A y = y2 zx. ∂ ∂Φ ∂Φ 1 1 ∂φ 1 ∂ ∂θ ∇ × ∇Φ = − r sin θ r ∂θ r ∂φ which is zero. Az = z2 xy Step 2.1. The formula for the curl in rectangular coordinates is ∇×A = where ∂A y ∂Ax ∂Az ∂A y ∂Ax ∂Az − − − ax + ay + az ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y Ax = x2 yz.0. Solution: Step 1.0.1. ∇ × A is Step 3.11 Apply Stokes’ theorem to the vector ﬁeld A = x2 yzax + y2 zxa y + z2 xyaz to the surface bounded by the four points (0.1). (1. Aθ = . ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ . Substituting these into the previous formula: ∇×A = ∂(x2 yz) ∂(z2 xy) ∂(y2 zx) ∂(x2 yz) ∂(z2 xy) ∂(y2 zx) − − − ax + ay + az ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y 107 .3.1).1) and (0. (1.1) and verify the theorem.79) ∂Φ ∂ r 1 1 ∂ ∂r − ar + r sin θ ∂φ 1 ∂Φ ∂ ∂Φ 1 ∂ r r ∂θ ∂r − + r ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂Φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r aφ aθ aθ ∂ ∂Φ ∂φ 1 1 1 ∂2 Φ ar + sin θ ∂φ∂r − sin θ ∂r r ∂Φ 1 ∂ ∂θ + r ∂r ∂ ∂Φ ∂r − aφ ∂θ EXAMPLE 3. Aφ = ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − aφ aθ + r ∂r ∂θ (3. or simplifying. substituting 1 1 ∂Ar ∂ rAφ ∂Aθ 1 ∂ sin θAφ − − ∇×A = ar + r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r Ar = in the previous equation ∂ sin θ 1 ∂Φ ∂ 1 ∂Φ r sin θ ∂φ 1 r ∂θ − ∇×∇Φ = r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ Step 4. Vector Calculus Step 2.
1) (0.1.1) (1. so: ∇ × A • dSz=1 = y2 z − x2z hence x=1.1) A y dy which becomes: (1.1.0.0.y=1 z=1 dxdy = y2 − x2 dxdy S ∇ × A • dS = = x=0.1.1) (0.1. so ∇ × A • dS = y2 z − x2z dxdy but the plane of integration is the z = 1 plane.1) A y dy + (1.1.1) I= L A • dl = (0.0.0.1) Ax dx + (0.y=0 y=1 y=0 y=1 y2 − x2 dxdy y2 x − x3/3 y2 − 1/3 dy x=1 x=0 dy = y=0 =0 Step 4.1.3.0.1) y2 x x=0 dy 108 .1) (1. and when traversed in the counterclockwise sense. an element of are is given by: dS = dxdyaz Step 4.1) (1.1.1.1) (0.1) I= (0. we now compute the right side of the equation (1. Vector Calculus which gives ∇ × A = z2 x − y 2 x a x + x 2 y − z2 y a y + y 2 z − x 2 z a z Step 3.1) y2 x x=1 dy + (0.1) Ax dx + (1. Stokes’ theorem says ∇ × A • dS = A • dl S L If we observe the region of integration we ﬁnd that it is a plane area on the xy plane.0.1) x2 y y=1 dx + (0.1) x2 y y=0 dx + (1.1.1.
and the surface is bulging as in the ﬁgure.20).80) This is true for any A since the length of the line L is zero. However by Stokes’s theorem A • dl = L→0 S f or L→0 (∇ × A) • dS = S (∇ × A) • dS = 0 (3. When the surface enclosed is closed which simpliﬁes to y=1 I= y=0 y2 xdy + x /3 3 0 1 x=0 x=1 x2 dx = y /3 =0 3 1 + 0 We go another route and apply Stokes’s theorem to the case when the line integral is vanishingly small (see Figure 3.: Properties of the curl. therefore the surface integral of the curl of A over any closed surface is identically zero! (∇ × A) • dS = 0 (3. 109 .82) S This result will be discussed in the next section.81) But this holds for any A. ﬁnd the surface integral of ∇ × A over a sphere of radius r0 . Vector Calculus Figure 3. Then obviously. EXAMPLE 3.20. A • dl = 0 L→0 (3.12 For the vector ﬁeld A = r2 sin θar + r2 sin θ cos φaθ .3.
φ=2π S r3 sin φ sin θdθdφ 0 =0 3. One of the 110 . we need to consider only the ar component.4.φ=0 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − aφ r ∂r ∂θ aθ (3.85) 2 1 ∂ (sin θAθ ) 1 ∂Aφ 1 ∂ r Ar + + 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r (3.83) Since we will be integrating over a sphere. Divergence The divergence of vector ﬁeld.86) in the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems respectively.3. Which simpliﬁes to r sin φ r2 sin θdθdφ Sphere θ=π. in rectangular coordinates is given by ∂Ax ∂A y ∂Az ∇•A = + + (3. = ∇ • A. A.3. Vector Calculus Solution: The curl of A in the spherical coordinates is 1 1 ∂Ar ∂ rAφ ∂Aθ 1 ∂ sin θAφ − − ∇×A = ar + r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r + which becomes in our case: E = ∇×A = ∂(r2 sin θ cos φ) 1 1 ∂(r2 sin θ) 1 − ar + aθ r sin θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ 3 ∂(r2 sin θ) 1 ∂ r sin θ cos φ − + aφ r ∂r ∂θ Er = r sin φ Taking ∇ × A • dS = = θ=0.84) ∂x ∂y ∂z In other coordinate systems the divergence of A is ∇•A = ∇•A = 1 ∂ ρAρ 1 ∂Aφ ∂Az + + ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z (3.
3. ∇ • (∇ × A) = 0 Conversely if the divergence of a vector ﬁeld is always zero. Referring to Equation 3.21.87) V S and is well known as the divergence theorem. ∇•A = 0 then A must be the curl of another vector A = ∇×B since then ∇ • (∇ × B) = 0 There is an important note to be added here. Vector Calculus Figure 3. Applying this theorem to the case when the vector ﬁeld is the curl of some vector ﬁeld we ﬁnd ∇ • (∇ × A)dV = (∇ × A) • dS = 0 (3.21.82 on page 109. this must imply that. The theorem is illustrated in Figure 3. Since this equation is valid over any volume.87 and the ﬁgure. The unit vector S is the outward normal to the closed surface.88) V S The ﬁrst equality is true due to the divergence theorem (Equation 3.: Divergence Theorem most important relations for the divergence is the relation (∇ • A) dV = A • dS (3. the integration here is over any volume V enclosed by the closed surface ˆ S.91) (3. (without proof) that a vector ﬁeld is fully speciﬁed only when both its divergence as well as its curl are speciﬁed. (3.90) (3.89) 111 . Here V is any volume and S is the surface enclosing the volume.87) and the second equality is true due to Equation 3.
which are the fundamental equations on which the whole of electromagnetic theory is built. Solution: Step 1.3. In cylindrical coordinates ∂Aρ ∂Az ∂Aρ 1 ∂Az ∂Aφ 1 ∂ ρAφ ∇×A = − − aρ + aφ + ∂ρ − ∂φ az ρ ∂φ ∂z ∂z ∂ρ ρ ∇•B = on comparing equations ∂Aρ ∂Az ∂Aρ 1 ∂ ρAφ 1 ∂Az ∂Aφ − − − . and t is time): 1. Bz = Bρ = ρ ∂φ ∂z ∂z ∂ρ ρ ∂ρ ∂φ 1 ρ ∂ ρ 1 ∂Az ρ ∂φ Step 2. The Magnetic ﬁeld H(r. The Electric ﬁeld E(r. and ∇ • B is given by 1 ∂Bφ ∂Bz 1 ∂ ρBρ + + ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z Step 3. The Electric ﬂux density D(r. t) 112 . t) 4. t) 3. Vector Calculus EXAMPLE 3. t) 2.13 In cylindrical coordinates show that ∇ • ∇ × A = 0. in general apply to four types of vector ﬁelds (r is the position vector of any point in space. Maxwell’s Equations Maxwell’s Equations.4. Bφ = . 3. substituting in the previous equation − ∂Aφ ∂z ∇•B = ∂ρ ∂ ∂Az ∂φ 1 = ρ −ρ ∂ρ ∂Aφ ∂z = 1 1 z z − − − + + ρ ∂φ∂ρ ρ ∂z ∂z∂ρ ρ ∂ρ∂φ ρ ∂z ∂ρ∂z 1 2 3 1 2 3 ∂2 A 1 ∂Aφ 1 + + ρ ∂φ ∂z 2 1 ∂ Aρ ∂ 2 A ∂ ρ Aφ ∂ 2 Aφ 1 ∂ 2 Aρ 1 z + − + + − ρ ∂z∂φ ∂ρ∂φ ∂z ∂ρ∂z ρ ∂φ∂z cancels cancels ∂ ∂Aρ ∂z − ∂Az ∂ρ ∂ 1 ρ ∂ ρAφ ∂ρ − ∂Aρ ∂φ ∂ 2 Aφ ∂2 A 1 ∂Aφ ∂ 2 Aφ All the terms cancel (11. the Magnetic ﬂux density B(r. 22 and 33 all cancel) and so we have proved our result. And.
t) and D(r. ρv is the volume charge density and its unit is C/m3 .92) (3. when these ﬁelds are timeindependent functions.3. Here ρv is the volume charge density in C/m3 and J is the current density in A/m2 .98) 3. will be explained later in the book.99) The D ﬁeld is called the Electric ﬂux density. In the study of electrostatics only the ﬁelds 1 and 3 will be considered (E(r. In addition there are the two equations: D = εE (3. t)).100) 11 This section may be a little advanced. Here ε is the permittivity of the dielectric medium. Units and Dimensions of EM Fields11 Keeping the above discussion in mind. and its unit is F/m. which are both functions of position as well as time are given below. Next. Another equation is applicable to magnetic materials is B = µH (3. The student may read it as and when required 113 .95) (3.97) Where µ is the permeability of the magnetic material in H/m. t) and B(r.96) Which is a relation between D and E in a dielectric. Vector Calculus Why the ﬁrst two are called ’ﬁelds’ and the other two are called ’ﬂux densities’.94) These equations are in SI units. for future reference: ∇ • D = ρv ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t ∇•B = 0 and ∇ × H = ∂D/∂t + J (3. The ﬁrst of Maxwell’s equations is: ∇•D = ∂Dx ∂D y ∂Dz + + = ρv ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. and that too when these ﬁelds are not functions of time: E(r) and D(r). let us look at the equation: ∇ × H = ∂D/∂t + J (3. t)).5. Hence we can say that D has the units of C/m2 . The general Maxwell’s equations. in magnetostatics the ﬁelds 2 and 4 will be considered (H(r. H(r) and B(r). The last equation (and which is very important) is the continuity equation: ∇ • J = −∂ρv /∂t (3.93) (3. Similarly. let us take a look at the units of the various terms of Maxwell’s equations.
: Table showing the units of the various electromagnetic quantities Symbol D E H B ρv J ε µ Name Electric Flux Density Electric Field Magnetic Field Magnetic Flux Density Volume Charge Density Current Density Permittivity Permeability Unit C/m2 = (F/m)(V/m) V/m A/m (Vs)/m2 = (H/m)(A/m) = tesla C/m3 A/m2 F/m H/m The unit of ∂D/∂t is Cm−2 s−1 = (Cs−1 )m−2 = A/m2 . Hence the unit of J is A/m2 and H is A/m. it has the alternate units of (F/m)(V/m).102) straightaway gives us the unit of B: (V s)/m2 = (H/m)(A/m). Hence the unit of the E ﬁeld is V/m. since C/F is volt. Hence the unit of E is (C/m2 )/(F/m) = (C/F)m−1 = V/m. Finally examination of the equation: ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t (3. Relooking at D.12 The results of this discussion can be put down in the form of a table. Vector Calculus Table 3.3.6. The unit of B is also called Tesla (T). Let us focus next on the relation between D and E: D = εE (3. List of Formulae The diﬀerential element of a line in rectangular coordinates is ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆xax + ∆ya y + ∆zaz The diﬀerential element of a line in cylindrical coordinates is ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆ρaρ + ρ∆φaφ + ∆zaz The diﬀerential element of a line in spherical coordinates is ∆l ≡ ∆r = ∆rar + r∆θaθ + r sin(θ)∆φaφ The line integral of a scalar ﬁeld is B B Φ(r)dl = A A Φ[r(t)] dr dt dt 12 1 Tesla= 1 Weber/m2 114 . where we have converted V to H by using V = Ldi/dt.1. (Table 3.1) 3.101) Where the unit of ε is F/m.
◮ The surface integral of the curl of any vector ﬁeld over a closed surface ◮ ∇ × ∇Φ = 0. This is Stokes’s Theorem. The curl ∇ × A any C ◮ The ﬁrst result the surface integral of the curl of a vector connected to its line integral A • dl = L S (∇ × A) • dS where the line is a closed curve L which encloses the surface S. Here Φ is any scalar ﬁeld. which is zero.3. gives the from point A to B is independent of the path of integration and will give the same result when integrated along any line L. [∇Φ • dl] = 0 . z0 ) is perpendicular to Φ(r) = Φ(r0 ). S (∇ × A) • dS = 0 115 . S is always zero. y0 . Vector Calculus The line integral of a vector ﬁeld is B A B F(r) • dl = A F• dr dt dt The ﬂux out of a surface is Φ= S F • dS The nabla operator in rectangular coordinates is ∇= Grad (∇Φ) ◮ The gradient ∇Φ of a scalar ﬁeld Φ(r) at an arbitrary point r0 = ∂ ∂ ∂ ax + a y + az ∂x ∂y ∂z (x0 . ◮ The line integral of the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Φ. B A L [∇Φ • dl] ◮ When the gradient is integrated along any closed curve C. same result always.
∇ • (∇ × A) = 0 To specify a vector ﬁeld completely through equations.: Summary of Properties of Grad.2. y0 . Vector Calculus The divergence ∇ • A ◮ The volume integral over the volume V of the divergence of a vector ﬁeld ∇ • A is always equal to the surface integral of that ﬁeld over the enclosing surface S V (∇ • A) dV = S A • dS This is the divergence theorem. z0 ) is perpendicular to Φ(r) = Φ(r0 ). from point A L When the gradient is integrated along any closed curve C. B [∇Φ • dl]. Div and Curl Operator Integral Property Diﬀerential Property Gradient b ∇φ • dl = La L ∇φ • dl = 0 φ(a) − φ(b) ∇ × ∇φ = 0 Curl L A • dl = S (∇ × A) • dS S (∇ × A) • dS = 0 V ∇ • AdV ∇ • (∇ × A) = 0 Divergence S A • dS = The gradient ∇Φ of a scalar ﬁeld Φ(r) at an arbitrary point r0 = (x0 . gives the same [∇Φ • dl] = 0. which is zero. result always. The line integral of the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Φ. ◮ The divergence of the curl of a vector is always zero. both its divergence and curl must be speciﬁed.3. Chapter Summary Table 3. any C A to B is independent of the path of integration and will give the same result when integrated along any line L. 116 .
7. What is the connection between the ﬂux of a vector ﬁeld and divergence? Problems 1. x2 + y2 + z2 = a constant. 4. Here Φ is any scalar ﬁeld. 117 . 2. The vector ﬁeld A = yax − xa y + zaz is given in rectangular coordinates. In rectangular coordinates. Find the surface where A is a constant. θ0 and φ0 are constants. (∇ × A) • dS = 0. 2. state the divergence and Stokes’ theorems. curl and divergence (of a vector ﬁeld).3. Find the normal vector to the surfaces r = r0 . ∇ × ∇Φ = 0. Ans. aθ and aφ . Give the physical signiﬁcance of the gradient (of a scalar ﬁeld). cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. In a particular application. S References 3. Deﬁne the following in rectangular coordinates: a) The nabla operator b) Gradient of a scalar ﬁeld c) The curl of a vector ﬁeld d) The divergence of a vector ﬁeld 3. Find ∇ • E for this ﬁeld. the electric ﬁeld in the spherical coordinate system is given by ar E=K 2 r where K is a constant. Everywhere zero except at r = 0. This is Stokes’s Theorem. ar . Ans. Practice Problems and Self Assessment Review Questions 1. θ = θ0 and φ = φ0 where r0 . 3. 5. Ans. The surface integral of the curl of any vector ﬁeld over a closed surface S is always zero. Vector Calculus The ﬁrst result the surface integral of the curl of a vector connected to its line integral A • dl = L S (∇ × A) • dS where the line is a closed curve L which encloses the surface S. Deﬁne the linear elements in the rectangular.
Everywhere zero except at r = 0. A scalar ﬁeld V in the spherical coordinate system is given by V=K 1 r where K is a constant. 9. Find the equation in rectangular coordinates. where K is a constant. Compute ∇ • H. A scalar ﬁeld 2 2 2 V(r) = e−(x +y +z ) ﬁnd the volume integral of this ﬁeld over all space. The magnetic ﬁeld H in cylindrical coordinates is given by H= K aφ ρ 8. Ky/r3 . Vector Calculus 4. Kx/r3 . Ans. Kz/r3 . Write the equation in rectangular coordinates. Ans. 13. the electric ﬁeld in the spherical coordinate system is given by ar E=K 2 r where K is a constant. The vector ﬁeld (cylindrical coordinates and K is a constant) A= K aρ ρ is to be integrated in the clockwise direction over the boundary of a unit circle lying on the xy plane.3. Ans. z for sperical coordinates. The equation of a cone in spherical coordinates is θ = θ0 . Compute ∇ × H. (4/3)πr3 Find the surface area of a cylinder of radius a and length l through integration. Find the volume of a sphere using the spherical coordinate system through integration. y. Ans. What is the method of obtaining the equation of any plane in spherical coordinates? How would you go about doing it? Ans. 7. 10. Ans. Ans. Everywhere zero except at ρ = 0. Find ∇ × E for this ﬁeld. 11. In a particular application. The magnetic ﬁeld H in cylindrical coordinates is given by H= K aφ ρ where K is a constant. 5. then substitute the values of x. 6. By 118 . 12. z = tan θ0 × x2 + y2. Everywhere zero except at ρ = 0. Find the line integral of this vector ﬁeld. ∂V/∂y and ∂V/∂z. Find ∂V/∂x.
which is V/m show that ε has the unit of F/m. The grad. 2. 1) to (1. Vector Calculus looking at the structure of A can you guess the answer? 14. If the unit of the charge density ρv is C/m3 then from the equation ∇ • D = ρv show that the unit of D is C/m2 . and K is a constant. Find the gradient of K V= r where V is given in spherical coordinates. 2. Using any vector ﬁeld A(x. 1. y. Going over to spherical coordinates ﬁnd the surface integral of D over a sphere of any radius. Find of the function V of Problem 14. Using the unit of E. 20. 119 . The gradient gives the normal at any point. For the vector ﬁeld D=K xax + ya y + zaz x 2 + y 2 + z2 3/2 ∇ × ∇V 17. of the surface in general is x n = az − ax 2 √ ˆ and the unit normal at the point in consideration is n = (az − ax) / 2. Find the normal to the surface z − x2/4 = 8 at the point z = 9. A vector ﬁeld A = yzax + xza y + xyaz. K being a constant. Ans. z) show that ∇ • (∇ × A) = 0 a) The line integral of this vector ﬁeld from (1. x = 2. Find ﬁnd the divergence of D. 16. Short Answer Questions with Answers 1. For the vector ﬁeld A = z sin φaρ + z cos φaφ + ρ sin φaz ﬁnd the line integral of the vector ﬁeld along the unit circle in the z=1 plane in the anti clockwise direction.3. How do you explain the results using ∇ • D dV = D • dS ? V S 19. 3) b) Find the surface integral of this ﬁeld over the square region which is described by R = −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 and − 1 ≤ y ≤ 1 18. Find the line integral of this vector ﬁeld over the boundary of a unit circle lying on the xy plane. 15.
In spherical coordinates a vector ﬁeld is given by A= Kar r2 ﬁnd the ﬂux out of a closed sphere with radius R. 4. Outward ﬂux from the z = 1 surface is ρ=2 φ=2π (ρ sin φ)dρρdφ = 2π ρ3 /3 = 16π/3 ρ=0 φ=0 0 2 outward ﬂux from the z = −1 surface is ρ=2 φ=2π − ρ=0 φ=0 (ρ sin φ)dρρdφ = −2π ρ3 /3 = −16π/3 0 2 outward ﬂux from the ρ = 2 surface is z=1 φ=2π (z sin φ)ρdφdz z=−1 φ=0 ρ=2 =0 so the ﬂux out of the closed surface is zero. ∇ × A = ax ∂ y Az − ∂z A y + a y (∂z Ax − ∂x Az ) + az ∂x A y − ∂ yAx and ∇ • ∇ × A = ∂x ∂ y Az − ∂z A y + ∂ y (∂z Ax − ∂xAz ) + ∂z ∂x A y − ∂ y Ax = ∂xy Az − ∂xz A y + ∂ yz Ax −∂ yx Az + ∂zx A y − ∂zy Ax =0 the overbar. Vector Calculus Ans. underbar and underbracket terms cancel each other. Find the ﬂux of A = z sin φaρ + z cos φaφ + ρ sin φaz out of the closed cylinder bounded by the three surfaces z = ±1 and ρ = 2. Ans. Ans. 120 . Outward ﬂux from the r = R surface is θ=π φ=2π θ=0 φ=0 K R2 sin θdθdφ = 2Kπ [− cos θ]π = 4Kπ 0 R2 5. z=1 dφ = φ=0 cos φdφ = 0 3. In rectangular coordinates show that ∇ • ∇ × A = 0 where A is any vector. Ans.3. The line integral is 2π c A • dl = z cos φρ c ρ=1.
2. θ = 1.2214 (b) 0.01. θ = 1.0) to (1.0) to (1.1/2).4181 (c) 0.5 (d) ∞ Ans. (c) 10. Find the linear element dl between the points a) x = 1.5 (c) 6.1/2.1/2. 121 . φ = 1. (c) 3. The divergence of the vector A = ρ sin φaz is (a) 0 (b) cos φaz − sin φaρ (c) ρ (d) sin φ Ans. The surface integral of the vector A = xyax on the xy plane for −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −2 ≤ y ≤ 2 is (a) 0 (b) 4 (c) 4 (d) 16 Ans. (b) 6. The length of the the curve x = 2y = 4z2 from (0. (d) 2.0. The surface integral of the vector A = ρ sin φaz on the xy plane for 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π and 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 2 is (a) 2 (b) 0 (c) 4 (d) 16 Ans. (a) 8.1dx (c) 1. The value of the integral is (a) 12 (b) 11 (c) 10 (d) 9 Ans.0) to (1.1.0.1/2) is (a) dx (b) 1. y = 1.266dx Ans.0. Find the line integral of the vector A = 3ax + 4a y + 5az along the curve x = y = z from (0. Vector Calculus Objective Type Questions 1. z = 1 and x = 1.01. (a) Open Book Exam Questions 1. The value of the integral is (a) 5. φ = 1. y = 1.1) is √ √ (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 2 Ans.001 c) r = 1. z = 1 and ρ = 1.263dx (d) 1.01.5 (b) 7.661 (b) 3. z = 1.1/2. φ = 1 is (a) 2. The magnitude of gradient of the scalar ﬁeld Φ = ze−ρ cos φ at the point z = 1.2688 Ans. (b) 7.3. ρ = 1. The length of the vector dl along the curve x = 2y = 4z2 at the point (1.1/2) is (a) 2. (b) 9.001 b) ρ = 1. z = 1.5 (d) 2 Ans. φ = 1. (a) 5.1).0.0) to (1.1.001 Hint: See Section 3.2688 (d) 2. φ = 1 and r = 1. The curl of the vector A = ρ sin φaz is (a) 2 (b) cos φaz − sin φaρ (c) cos φaρ − sin φaφ (d) cos φaρ + sin φaφ Ans.1. (c) 4.661 (c) 1. The length of the the curve x = y = z from (0. Find the line integral of the vector A = 3ax + 4a y + 5az along the curve x = 2y = 4z2 from (0.
1) to (4.0) to (0.1) dx2 + dy2 + dz2 G = yax − 2.0.3.2.1. If A = 2xyax + 3xya y + 4xyzaz prove the divergence theorem in the volume enclosed by the planes z = 0 z = 1. Vector Calculus 2.4.1.0).0.1.1.1. x = 0 x = 1 and y = 0 y = 1. 2) Hint: Consider the integral (4.0) to (1. If A = 2xyax + 3xya y + 4xyzaz prove Stokes’ theorem in the ﬂat region enclosed by the straight lines (0. ***Chapter complete*** END OF PART I 122 .0) and back to (0. 3.0.2) dl = with y = z = t and x = t2 .1) to (2.0) to (1. 4.5xa y + 3zaz ﬁnd the line integral of G along the straight line from (1.4) Hint: Consider Example 3. Given the vector ﬁeld (1.3. 2. Find the length of the curve x = y2 = z2 from (1. 5.
Electrostatics 123 .Part II.
Chapter Goals This chapter introduces the student to the fundamentals of electromagnetism. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilisations. but which give us results which are corroborated by experiments. For example. 2. These charges may be treated as point charges or distributed charges residing on the surfaces of conductors or dielectrics. We discuss the concept of electric ﬂux and the electric ﬂux density vector. Next. in 425 BC Democritus proposed that all matter is made of small indivisible particles called atoms.1. 3.2. This theory was based more on intuitive reasoning rather than scientiﬁc investigation. or idealised as placed in some region of space. In most cases when we apply the concepts developed in the study of electrostatics we assume that the eﬀects due to the motion of the charges are neglected which in some cases may not be strictly true. Inroduction to the ﬁeld concept. begin at the lowest —Syrus: Maxims 4. This indicated to him 124 . Calculation of the electric ﬁeld due to many charges. 5. surface charge and volume charge. but a systematic study of this phenomenon started much later after the development of the scientiﬁc method. 4. Coulomb’s law is introduced which involves the calculation of forces between point charges.4. The concept of charge: the idealised point charge and other distributed charges such as line charge. 6. In the eighteenth century electrostatic machines were developed. Electrostatics: An Introduction Electrostatics is the study and analysis of the eﬀects of stationary (and almost stationary) charges. In 1747 Benjamin Franklin conducted experiments that demonstrated that one type of electriﬁcation could be neutralised by the other type. 4. Calculation of the electric ﬁeld for continuous charge distributions. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law If you wish to reach the highest. The topics covered are: 1. We start with electrostatics which is the compuation of the electric ﬁeld due to stationary charges. that of the electric ﬁeld. and its application to a dipole.
The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law + + + + + (a) (b) + + ++ + + + + + + + ++ + + (c) (d) Figure 4. Thus the smallest unit of charge.24 × 1018 elementary charges2 . it exhibits electrical properties. A coulomb is an enormous amount of charge. it has either a surplus or a deﬁcit of electrons. and.1. 4. The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb. is e = 1. This was followed by experiments conducted by Joseph Priestley in 1766 who proposed that the force between electric charges follows an inverse square law.org reasoning is as follows: n × e = 1 C where n is the number of elementary charges. A body with a surplus of electrons is said to be negatively charged. which is the charge on a proton. as will be clear through the examples in the book.: Charge distributions (a) Point Charge (b) Line Charge (c) Surface Charge (d) Volume Charge that the two types of electricity were not just diﬀerent. the number of protons and electrons are equal in number in an atom. also called the elementary charge. The phenomena in such cases are referred to as static electricity 1 . while oppositelycharged bodies experience attraction. Electrostatic forces exist between charged bodies. in most electrostatic situations governed by static electricity charge levels of an extremely small fraction of a coulomb give rise to signiﬁcant eﬀects. for some reason.602 × 10−19 C. The coulomb is deﬁned as the quantity of charge that has passes through the crosssection of a conductor carrying one ampere of current within one second. 1 2 The See http://en. which represents approximately 6. positively charged.3.wikipedia. The amount or quantity of charge on a body is expressed in coulombs (positive or negative). they were opposites and he called one type positive and the other negative. we know that the atom consists of electrons and protons which are negatively and positively charged respectively. Hence the result follows. 125 . We know that macroscopic objects consist of atoms which are neutral and normally. The symbols Q and q are used to denote a quantity of electric charge. Bodies with like charge have repulsive forces between them. a body with a deﬁciency. (such as rubbing an object with silk) there is surplus of charge on such an object. When a material becomes charged by rubbing or by other means. Charge From the study atomic physics and chemistry.4. If. In 1777 Charles de Coulomb invented a torsion balance to measure the force proposed by Priestly between electrically charged objects (Coulomb’s law).
Thus if ∆l is comparatively large then the charge residing on it. In electrostatic formulations charges have four types of idealisations.1 1.1 One million electrons are equally distributed over a linear region of 1 cm.4. Then the volume charge density ρv in C/m3 at that point is ∆q ρv = lim (4. ∆q. Qδ(x)δ(y)δ(z) EXAMPLE 4. 2. Surfaces charges. Volume charges. Find the charge density. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law The electrical charge is to the electric ﬁeld as mass is to the gravitational ﬁeld. The idealisation here is that the full charge Q is concentrated at a point. The idealisation here is that the charge is distributed over a line or a curve. since the charge ∆q will be proportional to ∆l ∆q ≈ ρl ∆l Or more precisely ρl = lim ∆l→0 ∆q ∆l (4. ∆q coulombs on it on it. 3.3) ∆V→0 ∆V EXERCISE 4. as shown in Figure 4. The unit of such a charge distribution is C/m2 . The unit of the charge distributed over a line is C/m and referred to as ’linear charge density. 126 . will also be large. mathematically. ρl . The mathematical deﬁnition of ρs at a point on the surface is obtained in a similar manner as earlier ρs = lim ∆q ∆S (4. 4. Here the idealisation is that the charge is distributed over some surface. In this book such charges will be designated by Q or q. This is done at all points on the surface to give a complete picture of the charge all over the surface. We take a small element of volume ∆V and ﬁnd the total charge ∆q contained in it. In essence. Line charges. in rectangular coordinates? Hint: Use the Dirac delta function. Electrostatic ﬁelds are produced because of the existence of charge just like gravitational ﬁelds are produced due to the existence of mass.1) at that point.’ To calculate the line charge density. Ans. at a point we take a very small linear element ∆l on the charged curve and ﬁnd the charge. Point charges. The unit of such a charge is Coulombs. It is intuitively obvious that the charge residing on the linear element ∆l will be proportional to ∆l itself.1 How would you express a point charge Q.2) ∆S→0 where ∆q is the charge on a very small surface ∆S. This can be done for all points on the curve to give a ρl which is a function of coordinates. And if ∆l is small then ∆q will be small.
Ans. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Solution: Step 1. We are required to ﬁnd the charge density.4.602 × 10−19 × 106 = −1.01 m).602 × 10−13 ÷ 0. is given by Q= R ρs (x. Since R is the region bounded by −5 ≤ x ≤ 5 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 Q= R ρs dxdy e−x e− y dxdy R = 10−12 Step 3. Step 2. The total charge.602 × 10−7 C/m3 EXAMPLE 4.2 The surface distribution of charges on a plane z = 0 is given by ρs = 10−12 e−x e− y Find the total charge in the region R bounded by −5 ≤ x ≤ 5 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 Solution: Step 1. Since the charge is distributed over a region of 1 cm (=0. Q. which consists of 1 million (106 ) electrons (ve charge) uniformly distributed over 1 cm (.602 × 10−19 C. ρv = −1.602 × 10−13 (C) Step 3. y)dxdy Step 2. The charge of an electron is −1. Find the charge density.01 m) ρl = −1.602 × 10−11 (C/m) EXERCISE 4. Therefore we ﬁnally write: Q = 10−12 0 −5 ex dx + 5 0 e−x dx 0 −3 e y dy + 3 0 e−y dy = 10−12 2 1 − e−5 2 1 − e−3 (C) 127 .01 = −1. So 106 elctrons have a charge of −1. namely: 5 −5 e−x dx = 0 −5 ex dx + 5 0 e−x dx = 2 5 0 e−x dx (the two integrals are identical) Step 4.2 One million electrons are equally distributed over a region of 1 cm3 . We have to take special care with each integral.
−3 ≤ y ≤ 3 and −3 ≤ z ≤ 3 is given by ρv = 10−14 cos (πx/3) e−x e− y e−z Find the total charge in the region R. we must write out the volume element in spherical coordinates. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law EXERCISE 4. Step 3. Case 1.3 The volume distribution of charges in a region R given by −3 ≤ x ≤ 3.5.0014 C/m3 ﬁnd the total charge enclosed in a volume of the sphere of radius r Solution: Step 1. Step 2. (We will not do this but the student should) Step 4.2.3 In a region in space the charge density is given by er0 − er (C/m3 ) when 0 ≤ r ≤ r 0 ρv = 0 when r > r0 ρv dV where R is a sphere of radius r. The amount of charge contained in such an element is ρv r2 sin θdθdφdr.4. Step 6. r < r0 Therefore the total charge contained in a sphere of radius r < r0 is ρv r2 sin θdθdφdr = r≤r0 π θ=0 π 2π φ=0 r r=0 (er0 − er )r2 sin θdθdφdr 2π r = θ=0 sin θdθ φ=0 3 r0 dφ r=0 (er0 − er )r2 dr r r=0 r e − r2 − 2 r + 2 er = (2)(2π) 3 r3 er0 − r2 − 2 r + 2 er + 2 = 4π 3 128 . which is dV = r2 sin θdθdφdr as given in Section 3. Step 5. Draw a rough sketch of the charge density. Since we are considering spherical coordinates. Ans. When r ≤ r0 there is a charge density given by the statement of the problem and when r > r0 there is no charge denity. The total charge Q is given by Q= R EXAMPLE 4. 10−14 2 1 − e−3 2 × 1.
he determine how an electric force varies as a function of the magnitude of the charges and the distance between them.4. that the law of electrical attraction was the same as that of gravitational attraction.2. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Figure 4. during the 1780’s.4. When r ≥ r0 the integral remains the same except that the limits change ρv r2 sin θdθdφdr = r=r0 π θ=0 2π φ=0 r0 r=0 (er0 − er )r2 sin θdθdφdr r0 r=0 4. Then twenty years later in 1767 it was proposed by Priestley. that a French engineer. Coulomb’s Law and the Electric Field It was known to the ancient Greeks as long ago as 600 B. If a body had more than its normal share of this ﬁre it was positively charged. Using a torsion balance.: Coulomb’s Law Step 6.3 depicts two charges. that amber. It was much later. 129 .2. acquired the property of attracting light objects. (the Greek word for amber is ’elektron’) rubbed with wool. We can implement these ideas. The force was a repulsive when the two charges possessed the same polarity and attractive when the two charges were opposite in polarity. created by Coulomb himself. The force exerted on a charge q by the charge Q was proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two F∝ Qq R2 (4. into an equation. using vector notation.4) r3 er0 = (2)(2π) − r2 − 2 r + 2 er 3 3 r0 − r2 − 2 r0 + 2 er0 + 8π = 4π 3 0 He also found that 2. namely. what Coulomb found was that 1. The direction of the force was along the line connecting the two bodies. Figure 4. Referring to Figure 4. Case 2. In 1747 Benjamin Franklin (17061790) supposed that ’electric ﬁre’ (read charge) is a common element existing in all bodies. that the strength of electrical attraction between oppositely charged bodies varies as the inverse square of the distance. if less it was negatively charged.C. Charles Coulomb (17361806) investigated the quantitative relation of forces between charged objects.
Solution: Step 1.9898 × 109 is the constant of proportionality and ε0 is a constant characterising the medium (which in this case is vacuum3 ). The method also ensures that the paint adheres to the surface. Its unit is F/m. Since no coordinate system is given we place one of the charges at the 3 Air and vacuum have almost the same value of permittivity 130 . felt by q charge due to the presence of Q1 is given by Q1 q (r − r1 ) 1 1 Q1 q ˆ R1 = F= 4πε 4πε0 R2 0 r − r1 3 1 (4.4 Find the force felt by a 1 nC test charge q due to a 1 nC charge Q at distances of 1 cm and 10 cm. The two charges repel each other with a force in accordance with Coulomb’s law. a charged spray of tiny particles comprising the paint are electrically charged which causes them to repel each other while exiting the nozzle and spread evenly. Did you know?/Application: In electrostatic spray painting or powder coating. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law z y x Figure 4. and q are the two charges with r1 (Can be read as “the position vector from point 1 to point occupied by q”) which is the position vector of q with respect to Q1 Then the Coulomb’s law says. The spray is charged of one polarity while the surface which is being painted is charged with the opposite polarity. (they repel each other because they are of the same polarity) Step 2.4. reaches hardtoreach areas and in general gives a far superior coating when compared to ordinary spray painting.: Figure illustrating Coulomb’s Law Q1 . F. that the force. the paint is attracted to the object and gives an even coat. EXAMPLE 4.3. Due to this.5) where : 1/4πε0 = 8.
4. 1 % of all the outermost single electrons are removed. So we proceed as follows: silver has an atomic weight of 107.581 × 1021 atoms 107. Ans.852 = 89. Solution: Step 1. Step 3.9 Step 3. so 107.691 MC/m3 = V 95. EXERCISE 4. is therefore ρv = Q 8.987 × 10−5 (N) at a distance of 1 cm the force felt by either of the charges is 89.87 µN. The density of silver is 10. EXAMPLE 4.022 × 1023 = 5. The volume charge density.022 × 1023 (= NA ) atoms.542 C Step 4.581 × 1019 atoms.602 × 10−19C). 1 gm of silver has N= 6.9. Step 5. From this we compute that 1 gm(= 0. Find the charge density inside the sphere.7 nN at 10 cm.5 × 103 Step 2. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law origin and the other at a distance of 1 cm from it F= q Q × 4πε0 R2 1 · 10−9 1 · 10−9 × = 1.5 In a silver sphere weighing 1 gm. First we have to calculate the number of atoms in 1 gm of silver. and 898.001 = 95. At a distance of 10 cm the force will be 100 times weaker— due to the inverse square law. One does not have to do the calculation a second time. ρv .1127 × 10−10 (0. ﬁnd the force on another charge of 1 nC placed 1 m from it.23 × 10−9 131 . Next we need to calculate the volume occupied by a gram of silver.581 × 1019 · 1. If the silver sphere was to act like a point charge.01)2 = 8.4 Find the force felt by a 1 pC test charge q due to a 1 µC charge Q at distances of 1 cm and 10 cm.001 kg) occupies a volume of V= 0.9 gm of silver has 6.602 × 10−19 = 8. These atoms have an excess charge contributed by one proton (−e = 1. 89.5×103 kg/m3 .23 × 10−9 m3 10.87 µN at 1 cm. 1 % of this number is n = 5. Therefore the excess charge is Q = 5.
Equal charges are placed on each of the two balls. Step 6.6. Find the charge on each ball. So from the second equation F = mg tan(θ/2) 132 . and they are found to be separated from each other by 2 cm.8 m/s2 ) the acceleration due to gravity.4. long threads from a hook as shown in Figure 4. each are suspended by 1 m. if T is the tension in the string. EXAMPLE 4. we need to ﬁnd the coulombic force on each ball.542 C on q =1 nC charge at a distance of 1 m is given by Coulomb’s law to be: F= q Q · 4πε0 R2 1 · 10−9 8. then the two equations which deﬁne the forces of the problem are T = mg cos(θ/2) + F sin(θ/2) F cos(θ/2) = mg sin(θ/2) Step 2. Using the diagram on the right.4. Figure 4. m (= . As a ﬁrst step.4. There are two equations: which equation should we use? The ﬁrst can be rejected since it contains a second variable.: Figure for Example 4.542 = × 2 1 1.6 Two metallic balls of 1 gm.001 kg) the mass of each ball. Solution: Step 1. The force exerted by Q =8. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law 1 m.79 N Which is a very big force indeed.1127 · 10−10 = 75. 2 cm. F the coulomb force and g (= 9. T.
If Q is the charge on each ball then F = 9. If the distance 133 .001 × 9.02)2 0.7 In the hydrogen atom compare the force of gravity (between the electron and proton) with the Coulombic force of attraction. We still need to calculate θ.8 × Step 4. Application: The Gold Leaf Electroscope. From geometrical considerations and using sin (θ/2) ≈ tan (θ/2) when θ is small. Since the two particles are of opposite polarity both kinds of forces (due to gravity and due to electrostatic attraction) are attractive. Since the charge causes the two leaves to repel each other a scale is placed at the back of the assembly which reads oﬀ the charge residing on the leaves. EXAMPLE 4. we get F = mg tan(θ/2) ≈ 0.01 = 9.8 × 10−5 = or Q2 4πε0 × (0.5.4. An application of measurment of charge based on Example 4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Metal rod Insulator Gold leaf Charge Glass housing + + + + + + + + Scale Stand Figure 4. extremely delicate gold leaves by an external charge introduced through a metal rod. Step 1.8 × 10−5 N 1 Q = 2. In essence the basis on which the instrument works is the charging of two thin. Generally such an instrument would be caliberated through an experimental procedure rather than through analysis.5).6 is the gold leaf electroscope by Exner (1910–1920) (See Figure 4.088 nC By using this method or some allied technique one can accurately measure charges.: Exner’s goldleaf electroscope Step 3.
Now the force on q due to Q1 is Q1 q (r − r1 ) 1 Q1 q 1 (4.1094×10−31 kg) and mp (1.: Coulomb’s law appicable to three charges between the particles is one Bohr radius.212 × 10−8 (N) 4πε0 r2 B FC /FG = 2. When we examine Coulomb’s law.6. Similarly (and using similar notation) Q2 q (r − r2 ) 1 1 Q2 q (4. On the other hand. r is position vector of q and r1 is the position vector of Q1 . Using G = 6.7) F2 = 3 R2 = 4πε 4πε0 R 0 r − r2 3 1 134 .6. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law z y x Figure 4.6726 × 10−11 (mks units) FG = 3. we know that there is force on one charge due to another charge. rB = 0. What happens when there are three charges: q (the test charge on which the force is felt).61 × 10−47 (N) Step 2. the force due to Coulombic attraction is given by FC = and 1 e2 = 8.6) F1 = 3 R1 = 4πε 4πε0 R 0 r − r1 3 1 where r1 is the vector directed from Q1 to q. Q1 and Q2 as shown in Figure 4.6749× 10−27 kg) are the masses of the electron and proton respectively.53 × 10−10 (m) then the force due to gravity is me mp FG = G 2 rB where G is the gravitational constant and me (= 9.27 × 1039 ! The Coulombic force of attraction is ∽ 1039 times the gravitational force.4.
4.8) EXAMPLE 4. and the pull is mysterious. Taking the case of gravity.1. QN located at r1 . . in which we concentrate on those terms which do not involve q. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law is the force on q due to Q2 . . r1 (Location of Q1 ) = ax + a y + az r2 (Location of Q2 ) = 5ax + 3a y + 2az and r(Location of the mid − point) = And so R1 = r − r1 = 2ax + a y + 0.8 Find the force on a charge q = 1 nC located at the midpoint of two equal charges of 1 µC located at (1.5az 2 Step 2. .5az where R1 . Step 1. Because of these arguments we proceed to take a fresh look at Coulomb’s law. R2 are the position vectors from Q1 . the fact that a force is felt by Q2 must imply some sort of physical connection between the two. since. We now use some reasoning using Coulomb’s law: since R1 = −R2 and Q1 = Q2 therefore F1 = −F2 therefore FT = 0.10) (4.1) and (5. Q2 to q. R2 = r − r2 = −2ax − a y − 0. which we have called E1 . Rewriting Coulomb’s Law: 1 Q 1 R1 ˆ F{Force on q} = q 4πε 2 0 R1 = qE1 The term in the square brackets.5 once more. . is F 1 Q1 ˆ R1 E1 = = q 4πε0 R2 1 135 (4.3. If we extend this concept to N charges. there is no visible physical connection. Step 3. Eﬀect (which is the force felt by Q2 ) must have a cause. rN exerting a coulomb force on q at r then FT = Q1 q (r − r1 ) Q1 q (r − r2 ) Q1 q (r − rN ) q + + ··· 3 3 4πε0 r − r1  r − r2  r − rN 3 (4. So the total force on the charge q is: FT = F1 + F2 = q Q1 (r − r1 ) Q2 (r − r2 ) + 4πε0 r − r1 3 r − r2 3 (4. . .5az (r1 + r2 ) = 3ax + 2a y + 1.9) If we examine Equation 4.2) in rectangular coordinates. First we ﬁnd all the position vectors.11) . we ﬁnd that the Earth exerts a pull on the Moon. Draw a sketch and show all the vectors on the sketch. Q1 .
In the bracketed portion.7. Regarding the units of E.7. that is. These arguments therefore make us tend to believe that the charge Q1 produces an invisible ’force ﬁeld’ around itself. the electric ﬁeld is: E= Q1 ˆ Q 1 R1 1 1 R1 = × × 4πε0 R2 4πε0 R3 1 1 where R1 = r − r1 .12) This equation is valid when the electric ﬁeld is produced not only by a single point charge. z). Figure 4.11 leads to a relation between the force F which q experiences. where no charge is placed at r. The unit of the electric ﬁeld must obviously be the units of4. and any charges introduced into this ’ﬁeld’ are subjected to Coulomb’s force. This ’force ﬁeld’ we call the ’electric ﬁeld’. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law is independent of q.8 shows such a situation. y. We also know that as we move q around. E(x. gives the full term. and the external electric ﬁeld E F = qE (4. Equation 4. E. also says that if the charge is positive then the electric ﬁeld points radially away from the principal charge.4.11. it feels a force F = qE(r). there is no part played by q. in the direction −R1 . the character of a vector. If charge q is immersed in this ﬁeld. produced by some system of charges not shown in the ﬁgure. ˆ However R1 being a unit vector.: Electric ﬁeld at an arbitrary ﬁeld point due to a point charge Referring to Figure 4. no matter where it is moved. z Field point y Figure 4. in the direction R1 while if the charge is negative then the direction of the electric ﬁeld points radially towards the principal charge. it will always tend to feel a force ’created’ by Q1 .5 and 4. but by any external system of charges4 . 4 Note that a charge does not feel a force due to the electric ﬁeld produced by itself! 136 . Force U = N/C Charge The electric ﬁeld in electromagnetic units is also Volt/meter. There is an electric ﬁeld.
(b) If another 1. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Figure 4.: Force felt on a charge q due to an external ﬁeld E(x. We have to ﬁnd that distance R where E is 1.9. See Figure 4. Step 2. y.0 V/m due to a 1 C point charge. ﬁnd the force on it. Step 1. z). 1= 1 1 × 4πε0 R2 137 . (a) If we place the 1 C principal charge Q at the origin. due to this charge.8. EXAMPLE 4.0 C point charge is placed at this point.: The E ﬁeld due to a point charge. the E ﬁeld due to it is given by Q 1 E(r) = × ar 4πε0 r2 where r is the position vector of the ﬁeld point or observation point.9 (a) Find the distance where the E ﬁeld is 1.4.9.0 V/m. Hence E = 1 Q × 4πε0 R2 Q 1 = × 2 4πε0 R Or plugging in the values of E = 1 V/m and Q = 1 C. Figure 4. F = qE.
5 EXAMPLE 4. 138 .11 and Equation 4. Draw a rough sketch. 1. By examining the two equations. Equation 4. 3) − (1.3) (rectangular coordinates) due to a 1 nC point charge (Q) located at (1.3 on page 130) Equation 4. is equal and opposite to the force that test charge q exerts on the principle charge! This situation is the same as what we ﬁnd in the case of gravity.988 × 109 (m).4. which is a very intense ﬁeld! Step 3. 2.14) ˆ Notice the negative sign on R1 . exerts on the test charge. Though the forces are same.988 × 109 V/m. E= 5 The QR1 1 × 3 = 0. r = ax + 2a y + 3az r1 = ax + a y + az (r is the observation point) (r1 is the position of the charge) R1 = r − r1 = (1. But the charge q generates an electric ﬁeld Eq . Continuing with our discussion (refer to Figure 4. From this result it is clear that 1 C is a very large charge indeed. Which implies that R = 94. By the force equation: Fon Q1 = Q1 Eq Where ˆ (−R1 )q 1 × 4πε0 R2 1 (4.0 C.10 Find the electric ﬁeld at (1. Calculate the electric ﬁeld. In this example we ﬁrst calculate all the position vectors. 1) = a y + 2az √ R1 = 5 Step 2. hence F is 1 N. q. Q1 . (b) The force exerted on the 1 C test charge Qt at a distance of 94.8 km. it is the Earth which moves around the Sun. A quick calculation shows that the E ﬁeld at a distance of 1 m from this charge is 8. because of the diﬀerence of the two masses.79364(a y + 2az) 4πε0 R1 (V/m) gravitational ﬁeld is such that the force that the Sun exerts on the Earth is the same as that the Earth exerts on the Sun.14 we can see that though the E ﬁelds are diﬀerent from each other the forces on the two charges are equal but opposite each other. and not the other way around. of its own. and and Q1 feels a force due to q charge ﬁeld.8 km is given by F = Qt E Since E is 1.5 which applies to the ﬁgure gives the force F felt on the charge q.1) Step 1.1.13) Eq = (4.0 V/m and Q is 1. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law R2 = 1/4πε0 = 8. The force that the principal charge.2.
The ﬁeld mill makes use of a rotating shutter or vane which exposes and then shields an electrostatic ﬁeldsampling probe.4. one a positive one.15) this is clear by examining Equation (4. placed at r1 = (0. produces an electric ﬁeld E2 at exactly the same point (no other ﬁelds being present). 139 . acting together. 4. Σ1 and Σ2 .5. illustrated in Figure 4. if single charge Q1 produces an electric ﬁeld E1 at the point r and the charge Q2 produces an electric ﬁeld E2 at exactly the same point. In other words. Q. 4. the ’ﬁeld mill’ is one of the best means for such a measurement. with our present knowledge. This is so since the Coulombic force is additive. The study of the dipole has important consequences in the study of dielectrics which we will encounter later on.1. d/2.8): This principle can be extended to the case of systems of charges. 0). due to any system of point charges distributed in space. Σ1 .5. then the the two systems of charges. With the application of this principle we are able to compute the electric ﬁeld. We have to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld everywhere due to them. To be speciﬁc. 0) and the other a negative charge. This method produces a pulsating voltage on the probe that is proportional to the ﬁeld strength. produce a ﬁeld ETotal = E1 + E2 (4. produces an electric ﬁeld E1 (no other ﬁelds being present) at the point r and another system of charges. The Electric Field due to a System of Point Charges The electric ﬁeld obeys the principle of superposition. The electric dipole consists of two charges. Thus if more than one charge is present. We are of course considering only the electrostatic case. if one system of charges. then it is found that the total electric ﬁeld at that point is the vector sum of the two ﬁelds ETotal = E1 + E2 (4. The total ﬁeld at any point in space is the vector sum of the electric ﬁeld of all the charges. Electric Dipole In this section we examine the well known problem of the electric dipole. We now apply superposition to the case of the computation of the electric ﬁeld due to the presence of only two point charges based on our knowledge of the electric ﬁeld of a single point charge. placed at r2 = (0. such as an aircraft. The signal is then averaged and ampliﬁed to give the relative ﬁeld strength. but this principle is applicable to the general case as well.10 of equal magnitude. then each charge produces its own electric ﬁeld everywhere. −Q.16) at the same point r. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Did you know? When we want to measure large elctric ﬁelds from a moving vehicle. −d/2. Σ2 .
the charge conﬁguration will be identical in that plane as it is in the xy plane. which will be rewarded by a great simpliﬁcation of the problem! Due to the above argument. We conclude from this observation that the electric ﬁeld has a cylindrical symmetry about the yaxis.18) ˆ R+ = and x. The reader is guided to note that in every problem we encounter we look for speciﬁc symmetries.: Figure to analyse a dipole Referring to the ﬁgure. y − d/2 . 0 x2 + y − d/2 2 2 (4.4. The electric due to the positive charge. y.21) 140 . we observe that there is symmetry about the yaxis. E+ in the xy plane is given by E+ = where R+ = r − r1 = [x. the electric ﬁeld is calculated only in the xy plane. 0 ˆ Q R+ 4πε0 R2 + (4.19) R2 = x2 + y − d/2 + ˆ Q R− 4πε0 R2 − (4. d/2. 0] = x. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law y x Figure 4. 0 (z = 0. If we pass an arbitrary plane through the y axis. It is because of this that the ﬁelds also will be identical in that plane as they will be in the xy plane.17) (4.) We proceed by calculating the ﬁeld due to each charge and then ﬁnd the vector sum of the two at the ﬁeld point.10. giving us the condition that the observation point has the position vector r = x. y − d/2 . 0] − [0.20) and the Eﬁeld due to the negative charge is E− = (4. y.
in the original equation for Er so xax + y − d/2 a y xax + y + d/2 a y Q − Er = 3/2 3/2 4πε0 2 2 2 x + y − d/2 x2 + y + d/2 = Q 4πε0 xax − d/2a y xax + d/2a y − 3/2 3/2 2 2 2 x + (d/2) x2 + (d/2) da y x2 + (d/2)2 3/2 y=0 =− Q 4πε0 (4. y − d/2 .4. Er = E+ + E− x. y + d/2 .23) (4.22) (4. 0] − [0. If the charge distribution is simple we can visualise the electric ﬁeld. Step 1. 0 Q x. y + d/2 . (a) On the x axis both y and z must be set to zero. −d/2. (y = 0.11 For a dipole ﬁnd the resultant electric ﬁeld on the x axis and yaxis. 0 x2 + y + d/2 2 2 (4. z = 0). z = 0). y. 0 − = 3/2 3/2 4πε0 2 x + y − d/2 2 x2 + y + d/2 2 (4. 0 x. xax + y − d/2 a y xax + y + d/2 a y Q Er = − 4πε0 2 2 3/2 2 3/2 x + y − d/2 x2 + y + d/2 x=0 y − d/2 a y y + d/2 a y Q − = 3 4πε0 y − d/2 3 y + d/2 =− Q 4πε0 da y y − d/2 3 It is diﬃcult to visualise the electric ﬁeld in any particular case. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Where the terms are R− = r − r2 = [x.25) EXAMPLE 4.24) ˆ R− = R2 = x2 + y + d/2 − The resultant electric ﬁeld Er is In this last equation the denominator must always be positive. (b) on the y axis (x = 0. y + d/2 . 0] = x. For example for the 141 .26) Step 2.
8 0.28 by a small amount. The unit vector in the direction of the electric ﬁeld is attached to the grid point as shown in the ﬁgure.’ or rather get an idea of the ﬁeld. 4 Q 0.4.28) = dx Ex 0.11. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law case of a lone positive charge at the origin. and other arguments. In our case. 2. From the ﬁgure. namely. radially away. 4 0. d = 1 m Figure 4. The ﬁeld plot is illustrated in Figure 4. One streamline is drawn as an example. that is. Each set of ﬁeld lines are identical because the two charges are identical. it is clear that there will be a point. we know that the electric ﬁeld streams away in the ar direction. The streamline is calculated as follows. then we put z = 0 and plot only dy E y (4. The ax and a y components of the electric ﬁeld. 8 0.: Field plot for the dipole. the region of interest is a square of 2 m × 2 m in extent and is covered by a grid of 14 × 14. Since engineers need to ’see.11 shows the ﬁeld plot of the electric ﬁeld for a dipole with intercharge distance d = 1m. Let us see how the ﬁeld lines look when the two charges have equal values: each of the two charges is a positive charge Q. A small distance is moved in the direction of ∆y/∆x calculated from Equation 4. The following is the set of observations which one can make. 1. These are called streamline or ﬁeld plots which deﬁned by the equations dx dy dz = = Ex E y Ez (4. 8 Figure 4. 3. but the lines do not cross each other.27) If. for example. Ex and E y are computed on grid points which cover the whole region. 142 . The electric ﬁeld streams out from each charge. we are interested in a ﬁeld plot in the xy plane.12. 4 0 0. numerical procedures exist which plot the direction of the ﬁeld in any desirable plane. 8 Q 0. Then at the new point the process is repeated till the streamline ends. 4 0 0.
. z′ . will be used for the position vectors of the i charges which produce the ﬁeld. . i=1. z o y x Figure 4.12.. 6 Midway 143 . Consider a set of point charges Q1 ..2.. z ). We consider next. Q2 .7 as depicted in Figure 4. N.: Electric ﬁeld due to a system of charges.13. y.. the total ﬁeld due to a system of point charges at an arbitrary point r(= x. The electric ﬁeld i i i i due to Q1 placed at r′ and observed at the ﬁeld point r is given by 1 E1 (r) = Q 1 R1 4πε0 R3 1 R1 = r − r′ 1 between the two charges the electric ﬁeld due to the upper charge will be equal and opposite to the electric ﬁeld due to the lower charge.13.6 2 Q 0 Q −2 0 2 Figure 4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law midway between the two charges where the electric ﬁeld will be zero. .. y′ .: ﬁeld plot for two equal but similar charges of magnitude Q and d= 1 m 4.5.4. QN placed at positions r′ = x′ . r′ or r′ . 7 All throughout the book the prime notation. Electric Field Due to Any Number of Point Charges Field Point . .
due to the ith charge Qi whose location is r′ is i Q i Ri Ri = r − r′ (4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law y A x Figure 4. the electric ﬁeld.30) which.14. the electric ﬁeld due to the second charge.4.29) Ei (r) = i 4πε0 R3 i but the total electric ﬁeld at the observation point r is a superposition of all these ﬁelds E (r) = E1 + E2 + · · · + EN i=N = i=1 Ei or i=N E(r) = i=1 Q i Ri 4πε0 R3 i Ri = r − r′ i (4.31) EXAMPLE 4. Set up the coordinate system with the origin at the centre of triangle. The charges are placed at the corner of an equilateral triangle. Draw a sketch 144 . at r. in rectangular coordinates becomes i=N E(r) = i=1 Qi 4πε0 x − x ′ a x + y − y ′ a y + z − z′ a z i i i x − x′ i 2 + y − y′ i 2 + z − z′ i 2 3 (4. Q2 located at r′ and 2 observed at the same ﬁeld point r is given by E2 (r) = Q 2 R2 4πε0 R3 2 R2 = r − r′ 2 in this way. Ei .: Charges placed at the corner of an equilateral triangle similarly.12 Find the electric ﬁeld at the centre of an equilateral triangle whose corners have equal charges Q. Step 1.
The Ri i = 1. Why? Write out the expression for R1 + R2 + R3 and simplify: since cos(θ + 2π/3) = cos θ cos(2π/3) − sinθ sin(2π/3) √ 3 1 sin θ = − cos θ − 2 2 similarly √ 3 1 cos(θ + 4π/3) = − cos θ + sin θ 2 2 cos θ + cos(θ + 2π/3) + cos(θ + 4π/3) = 0 in the same way we can show that sin θ + sin(θ + 2π/3) + sin(θ + 4π/3) = 0 so 4. Electric Field due to Continuous Charge Distributions From Coulomb’s law we obtained the electric ﬁeld due to any arbitrary charge distribution of point charges. r′ and r′ . Although this result looks insigniﬁcant.3 of Equation 4. 3 1 2 If r′ makes an angle θ with the x axis and its magnitude is A. . Let the three charges be of value Q each with position vectors r′ . .30 are given by R2 = −A cos(θ + 2π/3)ax − A sin(θ + 2π/3)a y R3 = −A cos(θ + 4π/3)ax − A sin(θ + 4π/3)a y and the electric ﬁeld is E= = Q R3 Q R2 Q R1 + + 4πε0 R3 4πε0 R3 4πε0 R3 2 3 1 Q (R1 + R2 + R3 ) = 0 4πε0 A3 =0 Note that r′ and r′ are r′ rotated by 120◦ and 240◦ respectively. 2 3 1 R1 = −A cos θax − A sin θa y Step 4. then 1 r′ = A cos θax + A sin θa y 1 r′ = A cos(θ + 2π/3)ax + A sin(θ + 2π/3)a y 2 r′ = A cos(θ + 4π/3)ax + A sin(θ + 4π/3)a y 3 Step 3.4. . . Step 2. We can obtain. Q1 . .QN by the method of superposition. it is highly signiﬁcant.6. by 145 . Since we need to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld at the origin. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law of the arrangement. r = 0.
Since the minuscule charge produces a ﬁeld as in the case of a point charge. Putting down these facts in a single equation ρl (r′ )dL′ dQ = ρs (r′ )dS′ ρv (r′ )dV ′ for a linear charge distribution for a surface charge distribution for a volume charge distribution (4. Miniscule E Field dEat r = 1 4πε0 × dQat r′ r−r′  r−r′ 3 r − r′ r dQ Miniscule Charge r′ z y x Figure 4. To proceed we have to ﬁrst concentrate on the the electric ﬁeld produced at a point r by a minuscule charge dQ placed at the position vector r′ . with ρl being the linear charge density. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law using this result. such as any system of volume. then dQ = ρv dV ′ . ρv . This is shown in Figure 4.32) For the case of a line charge. if we are considering charges on a surface with a surface charge distribution ρs then.15. The ﬁeld. as usual. E(r) = ρl ≡ ρl (r′ ). it is the same except that the charge and the ﬁeld are both minuscule quantities. The charge dQ will be diﬀerent for diﬀerent kinds of charge distributions. the electric ﬁeld due to any continuous charge distribution. If we want to compute the electric ﬁeld due a linear charge distribution ρl then dQ = ρl dL′ .33) L′ . surface and linear charge distributions.4.: The minuscule electric ﬁeld. dE produced by a minuscule charge dQ. dQ = ρs dS′ . 146 ρl dL′ (r − r′ ) 4πε0 r − r′ 3 (4.15. or if we have a volume charge distribution. is a radial ﬁeld with the ﬁeld lines emanating from the charge. its ﬁeld is also inﬁnitesimal dEat r = dQat r′ r − r′  1 × 4πε0 r − r′ 3 If we look at this equation and contrast it with the equation of a point charge.
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
In the same manner we can deﬁne the electric ﬁeld at a distant point if the charge is a surface charge or a volume charge.
4.6.1. Inﬁnite Line Charge
In this section we apply the concepts and equations just discussed to a speciﬁc case, which is a inﬁnite line charge with a linear charge density ρl (C/m) = constant. The line charge is placed along the z axis of a coordinate system, shown in the accompanying ﬁgure, which is Figure 4.16. The inﬁnite line charge is the the most basic of all cylindrical structures. The other cylindrical structure like the charged inﬁnite straight wire of ﬁnite thickness has a ﬁeld which is similar to one produced by this structure. From this conﬁguration we may also derive the electric ﬁeld of other conﬁgurations— for example, the two conductor lines.
Line Charge z
dL′ = dz′ r′ (0, 0, z′ )
r − r′ r(x, 0, 0)
x
O
y
Figure 4.16.: Figure showing a line of charge of densityρl C/m from −∞ to ∞ along the z axis
To compute the electric at an arbitrary point we have to apply Equation 4.33 to the conﬁguration shown in the ﬁgure. In the most general case r = x, y, z is the ﬁeld point and r′ = x′ , y′ , z′ is point where the charge producing the ﬁeld lies. So r − r′ = x − x′, y − y′, z − z′ . The three components of the electric ﬁeld from the general equation—Equation
147
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
4.33— may be spelt out as Ex = Ey = Ez = ρl dz′ 4πε0 ρl dz′ 4πε0 ρl dz′ 4πε0 x − x′
3/2
z′
(x − x′)2 + (y − y′)2 + (z − z′)2 y − y′ (x − x′)2 + (y − y′)2 + (z − z′)2 (x − x′)2 + (y − y′)2 + (z − z′)2 z − z′
z′
3/2
z′
3/2
But we know that r′ is constrained to lie on the z axis since all the charge is along the zaxis. This translates to the equation: r′ = x′ = 0, y′ = 0, z′ . The integration is performed over the z′ coordinate. (ρl dL′ ≡ ρl dz′ ). Furthermore, from the symmetry of the problem it is clear that the electric ﬁeld will be the same along any plane parallel to the xy plane. Hence we can safely evaluate the ﬁeld speciﬁcally, on the xaxis: r = [x, 0, z = 0] and obtain values of the ﬁeld everywhere. Using these values: r− r′ = [x, 0, −z′]. The integration is performed in the interval z′ ≡ [−∞, ∞]. E= ρl (r − r′ ) dz′
Looking at these terms one at a time, we examine the ax part of the ﬁeld. (Keep x constant!), the indeﬁnite integral (See Appendix) dz′ z′ = √ (x2 + z′2 )3/2 x2 z′2 + x2 therefore ρl xdz′ z′ 2 + x 2
3 2
4πε0 r − r′ 3 ∞ ′ ρl dz x = 4πε0 ′ 2 −∞ z + x2
z′
3 2
, 0, −
z′ z′ 2 + x 2
3 2
(4.34)
(4.35)
= ρl x
dz′ z′ 2 + x 2
3 2
=
ρl x z′ √ x 2 z′ 2 + x 2
(4.36)
which the reader may verify by diﬀerentiation. Putting the integration limits at z′ = ±∞ we get ±ρl /x. Ex is: Ex = The third term − ρl 2 π ε0 x ρl z′ dz′ z′ 2 + x 2 2
3
(4.37)
(4.38)
is zero since the integrand is an odd function of z′ . Thus the total electric ﬁeld
148
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
8
4
0
Infinite Line Charge
4
8
8
4
0
4
8
Figure 4.17.: Field plots for the inﬁnite line charge: Streamline plot of the inﬁnite line charge in the xy plane
8
4
0
4
8
8
4
0
4
8
Infinite Line Charge
Figure 4.18.: Field plots for the inﬁnite line charge: Streamline plot for the inﬁnite line charge in a plane passing through the z axis
is E=
ρl ax 2 π ε0 x
(4.39)
in the Cartesian coordinate system. Due to the rotational symmetry of the problem, cylindrical coordinates will yield a simpler result. E= ρl aρ 2 π ε0 ρ (4.40)
Why? Due to symmetry, ax will become aρ ; also x is the distance from the line charge to the observation point, and so x may be replaced by ρ. Note that the result is the same as the one we obtained by application of Gauss’s law. To help the reader visualise the ﬁelds, the ﬁeld plots for the inﬁnite line charge in the xy plane and also the plot for any plane passing through the z axis are shown. The ﬁeld is visualised as streaming away from the charged line cylindrically since there is one component, namely, the ρ directed component. Since 1 Eρ ∝ ρ As we approach the z axis (ρ = 0) the ﬁeld becomes more and more intense and tends to inﬁnity as ρ → 0. As we increase the value of ρ, the ﬁeld falls oﬀ toward zero.
149
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
Figure 4.19.: Computation of the electric ﬁeld on the axis of a short line charge
EXAMPLE 4.13 Compute the electric ﬁeld at point P, on the axis of a short line charge of length 2a as shown in Figure 4.19. Step 1. The electric ﬁeld is given by E(r) = ρl dl′ (r − r′ ) = 4πε0 r − r′ 3
z=a z=−a
L′
ρl dz′ (xax − z′ az ) 4πε0 x2 + z′2 3/2
Step 2. Which means that ρl Ex = 4πε0
z=a
xdz′
3/2 z=−a x2 + z′2
ρl z′ = √ 4πε0 x z′2 + x2
z′ =a
=
z′ =−a
ρl a √ 2πε0 x a2 + x2
using the tables of integrals in the appendix. Step 3. Also from arguments from earlier in the chapter Ez = 0 Step 4. In cylindrical coordinates, by inspection, x becomes ρ and ax becomes aρ ρl a Eρ = 2πε0 ρ a2 + ρ2 Step 5. If the line becomes inﬁnitely long then a → ∞ then Eρ = ρl 2πε0 ρ
EXERCISE 4.5 Compute the electric ﬁeld at point P, on the axis of a short line charge (as shown in Figure 4.19) but of length a + b when the charge exists from −a ≤ z ≤ b . Calculate the ﬁelds for the special case of a = 0 and b = ∞
150
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
Figure 4.20.: Computation of the electric ﬁeld on the axis of a ring of charge
Hint: We again consider the electric ﬁeld given by E(r) = ρl dl′ (r − r′ ) = 4πε0 r − r′ 3
z=b z=−a
L′
ρl dz′ (xax − z′ az ) 4πε0 x2 + z′2 3/2
and using the two integrals we calculate the ﬁelds Ex = and Ez = ρl 4πε0 1 1 − √ √ 2 + x2 2 + x2 b a ρl 4πε0 x b a − √ √ b2 + x2 a2 + x 2
for the special case of a = 0 and b = ∞ we have Ex = ρl 4πε0 x ρl Ez = − 4πε0 x2
and in cylindrical coordinates this becomes Eρ = ρl 4πε0 ρ ρl Ez = − 4πε0 ρ2
EXAMPLE 4.14 Compute the electric ﬁeld at point on the axis of a ring of charge of radius a as shown in Figure 4.20. What happens to the ﬁeld as a ≪ z? 151
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0 0 1 2 3 4 5
Figure 4.21.: Plot of the E ﬁeld along the axis of a ring of charge
Step 1. To calculate the electric ﬁeld at r = (0, 0, z) due to a ring placed on the xy plane we use E(r) = ρl dl′ (r − r′ ) ρl = 3 4πε0 r − r′  4πε0 adφ′ zaz − aaρ a2 + z2
3/2
L′
Step 2. Symmetry: due to symmetry of the problem, the aρ component will be zero and therefore E(z) = Step 3. As a ≪ z (but a Q = 2πaρl : ρl ρl az 2πazaz = 3/2 4πε0 a2 + z2 2ε0 a2 + z2 a 3/2 z
0) the ring behaves like a point charge of magnitude ρl az az 2 + z2 3/2 a = Q az 4πε0 z2
E(z) = lim
a→0
ε0
which is the electric ﬁeld at (0, 0, z) of a charge located at the origin. A typical plot of the ﬁeld is shown in Figure 4.21 EXERCISE 4.6 Do Ex. 4.14 using rectangular coordinates.
4.6.2. Inﬁnite Sheet Charge
Let us consider another case: that of an inﬁnite sheet of charge. We would like to compute the electric ﬁeld produced by such a sheet. As shown in the accompanying ﬁgure, Figure 4.22, the sheet coincides with the z=0 plane and the charge on it is ρs C/m2 , which for the case under consideration, has a constant value. The sheet covers the entire xy plane. We expect the ﬁeld to be the same in the x and y directions. As we move in either the x or y directions, but maintaining the same distance from it, the ﬁeld should be unchanged. Therefore the ﬁeld will not be a function of either the xor y coordinates, but it will be a function of only the z coordinate. To calculate
152
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
z
dS′ = dx′ dy′
r − r′
r(0, 0, z)
...
O
...
Sheet of charge
x
...
...
r′ (x′ , y′ , 0)
y
Figure 4.22.: Calculation of the Electric ﬁeld due to an inﬁnite sheet of charge
the electric ﬁeld the equation E(r) = ρs dS′ (r − r′ ) 4πε0 r − r′ 3
S′
is to be applied in the proper manner. In this equation, dS′ = dx′ dy′ where dS′ is a small element of area on the sheet of charge. The general form of the vectors r (the ﬁeld point) and r′ (position vector of the charges) are r = x, y, z and r′ = x′ , y′ , z′ . In our speciﬁc case r and r′ reduce to r = [0, 0, z] and r′ = x′ , y′ , 0 , since the sheet occupies the z = 0 plane which is inﬁnite in extent, we expect Ex and E y to be zero. Using the two vectors r and r′ for Ez Ez =
x−y plane
ρs dx′ dy′ 4πε0
z x′2 + y′2 + z2
3/2
This vector has to be integrated over the whole xy plane and where the variable z must be treated as a constant. Or
∞, ∞ x′ =−∞, y′ =−∞
zdx′ dy′ z2 + y′2 + x′2
3 2
Integrating with respect to x′ (please refer to the integral given in Equation 4.35): ρs dy′ 4πε0
∞ x=−∞
zdx′ z2 + y′2 + x′2
3 2
=
y′2 ).
→ ±∞ is ±z/(z2 + Substituting these limits, the integral becomes We now integrate this expression with respect to y′ between the limits y = −y0 to y = +y0 and then let yo → ∞. The integral The value of this integral at its upper limit, and lower limits x′ 2z/(z2 + y′2 ).
ρs dy′ 4πε0 z2 + y′2
x′ z z2 + y′2 + x
∞ ′2
x=−∞
(4.41)
153
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
z z=d/2 + y x _ z=d/2
Figure 4.23.: Two sheet charges placed at z = ±d/2
ρs 4πε0
+y0 −y0
ρs y0 2 zdy′ = 4 arctan 2 + y′2 4πε0 z z
(4.42)
This result can be veriﬁed by referring to the Appendix. This expression becomes y0 lim 4 arctan y0 →∞ z 4 × π/2 for z > 0 = 4 × −π/2 for z < 0 when z > 0 when z < 0 (4.43)
the other components of the electric ﬁeld being zero. This is the same result which we obtained by application of Gauss’s law. It is important to note that that for all structures, the electric ﬁeld points away from the positive charges. We shall return to these results later in the book. See Richard P. Feynman & Sands (2001) Jordan & Balmain (1968). EXERCISE 4.7 Two charged sheets, inﬁnite in extent are placed at z = ±(d/2) with surface charge densities of ρs (at d/2) and −ρs C/m2 (at −d/2) respectively. Show, using superposition that there is an electric ﬁeld between the two sheets and none outside. Obtain the value of the electric ﬁeld between the sheets and its direction. Remember this result for the case of a parallel plate capacitor, which is considered later in the book Hint: The electric ﬁeld everywhere is the superposition of the electric ﬁeld due to the two sheet charges. The upper sheet produces a E ﬁeld given by ρ /(2ε )a s 0 z Eu = −ρ /(2ε )a s 0 z z > d/2 z < d/2
Substituting the other constants ρ s 2 π = ρs 2ε0 Ez = 4πε0 ρs (−2 π) = − ρs 4πε 2ε
0
(4.44)
0
Similarly, the electric ﬁeld due to the lower sheet produces a E ﬁeld given by −ρ /(2ε )a z > −d/2 s 0 z El = ρ /(2ε )a s z < −d/2 0 z 154
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
Figure 4.24.: Charged disk
With reference to Figure 4.23 we see that there are three regions. 1. z > d/2. 2. d/2 > z > −d/2. and 3. z < −d/2. In Regions 1 and 3 the ﬁeld is zero. In Region 2 the ﬁeld is E = −ρs /ε0 az d/2 > z > −d/2
EXAMPLE 4.15 Obtain the electric ﬁeld along the axis of a charged disk with ρs (C/m2 ). Step 1. From the ﬁgure r′ = ρ′ aρ (with 0 ≤ ρ′ ≤ a 0 ≤ φ′ ≤ 2π) and r = zaz Step 2. So r − r′ = zaz − ρ′ aρ and r − r′ 3 = ρ′2 + z2 Step 3. The electric ﬁeld is given by (Set Eρ = 0) Ez =
disk 3/2
.
ρs ρ′ dφ′ dρ′ 4πε0
z
3/2 ρ′2 + z2
a
=
ρ′ =0
ρs ρ′ dρ′ 2ε0
z ρ′2 + z2
3/2
=
ρs 2ε0
z 1− √ 2 + a2 z
EXAMPLE 4.16 Find the E ﬁeld on the axis of a ﬂat ring of charge with charge density ρs (C/m2 ) and with inner outer radii equal to a and b respectively as shown in the ﬁgure. Step 1. From the ﬁgure r′ = ρ′ aρ (with a ≤ ρ′ ≤ b 0 ≤ φ′ ≤ 2π) and r = zaz r − r′ = ρ′2 + z2 r − r′ = zaz − ρ′ aρ
3 3/2
155
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
Figure 4.25.: A ﬂat ring of charge
Small amount of flux Dielectric
Q
Q
Figure 4.26.: Faraday’s concentric spheres
Step 2. The electric ﬁeld along the axis of the ring is given by Ez =
ring b
ρs ρ′ dφ′ dρ′ 4πε0 ρs ρ′ dρ′ 2ε0
z
3/2 ρ′2 + z2
=
ρ′ =a
z
3/2 ρ′2 + z2
=
ρs z 2ε0
1 1 − √ √ 2 + a2 2 + b2 z z
4.7. Electric Displacement Ψ and Flux Density D.
Faraday conducted experiments with concentric spheres and found some astonishing results. A sphere of with charge Q was placed within a larger sphere containing dielectric. The outer sphere was then earthed for a short while and
156
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
the inner sphere was removed. It was found that the outer sphere contained the same amount of charge as the inner sphere (but of opposite sign). These results held no matter whatsoever the size of the spheres or whatever the dielectric. Faraday hypothised that there was an ’electric ﬂux’, Ψ which moved from the the inner sphere to the outer one equal in magnitude to the charge independant of the size of the spheres and the dielectric ε: Ψ=Q (C) (4.45)
It was further hypothised that there was an electric displacement from the inner to the outer sphere and on any sphere between the two (shown dotted in the ﬁgure) there was a displacement density D whose magnitude would be D= Ψ Q = 4πr2 4πr2 (C/m2 ) (A)
Using these ideas a further development would be that the ﬂux and displacement density would be related by ∆Ψ = D • ∆S and Ψ= D • dS (4.47) (4.46)
After a little reﬂection we could visulaise that Equation A above can be written in vector form as Q ar D= (4.48) 4πr2
4.8. Gauss’s Law
Carl Friedrich Gauss formulated, in 1835, a law applying to electrostatic ﬁelds which connected arbitrary charge distributions to the electric ﬁelds produced. Gauss’s law is a law relating the distribution of charge to the resulting electric ﬁeld. Gauss’s law states that: The electric ﬂux through any closed surface is equal to the enclosed electric charge. In mathematical terms, the electric ﬂux Ψ= =Q dΨ =
S
D • dS
(From Eq. 4.47)
(4.49) (4.50)
(Enclosed charge)
Using the divergence theorem 3.87 on page 111 ∇.D dV = D • dS (4.51)
V
S
157
4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law
and using the results of Section 4.3 Q=
V
ρv dV
we have as a result
V
∇.D dV =
ρv dV
V
(4.52)
We ﬁnd that it is one of Maxwell’s Equations. ∇ • D = ρv (4.53)
The equation, applies equally to both situations where the ﬁeld is time varying and the charges nonstationary and the other case of electrostatics, where the charges are stationary and the ﬁelds are timeindependent. The equation will be applied here to the latter case. D is called by various names: the electric displacement density and the electric ﬂux density, with units of C/m2 . ρv is the volume charge density with units of C/m3 .
Surface
Charges Volume
Figure 4.27.: Gauss’s Law
Equation 4.51 says that the volume integral of the divergence D over a volume V is equal to the surface integral of D over the closed surface S enclosing the volume V. . . . dS represents the integral over a closed surface enclosing the volume. Such a volumesurface combination is shown in Figure 4.27. If we examine Figure 4.27 and apply Gauss’s law to it, then the volume integral of the divergence of D is equal to the total charge (Expression 4.54) enclosed. ρv dV
V
(4.54)
We can perform these integrations provided we know both D and ρv . Provided that the ﬁeld and charge distribution are the correct ones, there should be equality between the two integrations. Though only the volume charge, ρv , has been speciﬁcally mentioned it includes the cases of surface, linear and point charges.8
8
The case of point charges, surface charges and linear charges can be converted into volume
158
Step 3. Algebraically adding the two ﬂuxes.17 The electric ﬁeld in a region of space is D = (k/r)ar 0 ≤ r ≤ 1 (spherical coordinates).556k.5 dφdθ = 0.56) To be speciﬁc D = ε0 E for free space.25 or r = 0.25k× 1 π × √ = −0. the total ﬂux leaving the region is 1.4.25 ≤ r ≤ 0. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law What is the relation between D and E? These two ﬁelds are rather closely related. Find the ﬂux leaving the region R bounded by 0 ≤ φ ≤ π/2.25 ≤ r ≤ 0. Surfaces 36 have dS ∝ aφ or aθ . Out of these surfaces only surfaces 1 and 2 have ﬂux coming in or going out. the for a medium with relative dielectric constant εr ε = ε0 εr (4.5 with dS ∝ ar 3. π/4 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 and 0. Also ﬁnd the total charge inside this region. R is bounded by six surfaces: 1.556k 2 2 S1 S1 r=0.5 with θ = π/4 or θ = π/2 with dS ∝ aθ Step 2. ε is the permittivity of the medium being considered. 0 ≤ φ ≤ π/2. Step 1. and 2. If the medium is not vacuum. π/4 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 and 0.11k − 0.5 with φ = 0 or φ = π/2 with dS ∝ aφ (4. To ﬁnd the charge enclosed we need to ﬁrst ﬁnd ∇ • D: ∇•D = 2 1 ∂ r Dr r2 ∂r k = 2 = ρv r charges by means of the Dirac delta function. and 0.25 ≤ r ≤ 0.55) at every point in space.57) 5. EXAMPLE 4. Step 5. The relation between the two is given by D = εE (4. Let us ﬁrst draw and understand the bounding surfaces.5. 159 . and 4.112k 2 2 Step 4.5k × 1 π × √ = 1. 0 ≤ φ ≤ π/2. and 6. since the surface vector dS ∝ ar . So for surface 1 (ﬂux entering is negative) Ψ1 = − D•dS = − k ar • ar r2 sin θ r dφdθ = −0. For example a uniform surface of ρs C/m2 covering the xy plane can be written as ρs δ(z) C/m3 .556k = 0. π/4 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 with r = 0.25 Similarly for Surface 2 (ﬂux leaving is positive) Ψ2 = S1 D • dS = S2 k ar • ar r2 sin θ r r=0.
Figure 4.28. ρv . we know from examining it. that the total ﬂux leaving a closed surface is equal to the total charge inside it.25 = 0. a small portion of which is shown in the ﬁgure. and the net ﬂux leaving is zero. through the diﬀerential surface A is equal to that through surface B.: The relationship of ﬂux to charge Going back to the ﬂux equation. one which does not enclose the charge. produces a D ﬁeld all around it. The most important fact to remember from Gauss’s law is that the ﬂux density diverges from positive charges! 9 A Gaussian surface is a closed surface in which a volume is enclosed 160 . Equation 4. The diﬀerential ﬂux ∆Ψ(= D • ∆S). B Sphere 2 c Sphere 1 A a b Figure 4.556k 2 r2 2 R And we have shown that the total ﬂux leaving is equal to the enclosed charge. If we give a positive sign to the ﬂux leaving the surface as positive then the ﬂux entering it is negative. the ﬂux only leaves the surface and none enters it and the net ﬂux leaving the is equal to the total charge inside the sphere. The volume charge.28 illustrates this point. This is not the case with Sphere 1. This implies that the small ﬂux entering b on the surface of Sphere 2 leaves through the small surface c. Here. while the other encloses it. In this way all the ﬂux entering the surface of Sphere 2 leaves through some other part of the surface of the sphere. Two Gaussian spheres9 are drawn. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law and ∇ • DdV = 1 π k 2 r sin θdθdφdr = k × × √ × 0.4.49.
Furthermore we also expect that D will have only a radial ﬁeld component. an element of area on the sphere is (see Figure 3. (r. and a point charge. we draw that closed (or Gaussian) surface which is ’equidistant’ from the point charge viz. a sphere with radius r0 .9 on page 90) dS = ar (r0 sin θdφ)(r0 dθ) (4. θ.9. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law 4. A little discussion will help.59) 161 .1. 2. Therefore.: Gauss’s Law applied to a point charge 4.29. but the reasoning required to obtain the results will be acute. Gauss’s Law Applied to Cases of Spherical Symmetry z Gaussian sphere y Q x Figure 4. As a start let us apply Gauss’s to Figure 4.58) To calculate D • dS.9. We do this to from the point of view of the following reasoning: since all points are equidistant from the charge. This aspect will give great satisfaction and will further increase our motivation to study the subject. We expect that the D ﬁeld will be equal at all points on the surface. the results obtained in this chapter will corroborate the results of the next chapter. With a minimum of eﬀort one obtains spectacular results and the mathematics will be fairly straightforward. φ) D = Dr ar (4. 1. Also.29.. Since we are talking about a closed surface. in the spherical coordinate system. Gauss’s Law Applied to a Point Charge Gauss’s law is best understood by applying it to various situations.4.
) 0 E= Which means that D = ε0 E (4.66) Q ar 4πε0 r2 (4. (Note that constants in this case) 2π sphere π θ=0 2π D • dS = φ=0 Dr r2 sin θdφdθ 0 π = Dr r2 0 dφ φ=0 θ=0 sin θdθ = Dr r2 (2π)(2) 0 = 4πDr r2 0 Finding the total charge enclosed ρv dV = charge enclosed = Q sphere (4. Explain your result.18 Compute ∇ • D for all values of r for the case of a point charge.62) equating the two results 4πDr r2 = Q 0 Q Dr = 4πr2 0 (4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law so that D • dS = (Dr ar ) • ar r2 sin θdφdθ 0 = Dr r2 sin θdφdθ 0 π sin x 0 (4. Do not include the point r = 0. (Note: r′ = 0 and r = r in Equation 4.4.61) (4. Solution: For a point charge D is (in spherical coordinates) D= Q ar 4πr2 (A) 162 . so letting r0 be replaced by the more general value r Q (4.65) EXAMPLE 4.60) dx = 2. Dr and r0 are Integrating this over the sphere.11 on page 135.63) But r0 can assume any value.64) Dr = 4πr2 If we compare the electric ﬁeld at the same point in the same situation.
no charge 163 . by changing the value of r0 .30. shown in Figure 4. Gauss’s Law Applied to a Charged Sphere z Charged Sphere with Radius R0 Unit Vector ar y x Gaussian Sphere with Radius r0 Figure 4. Let us apply Gauss’s law to yet another case. where there is a point charge. In this case. 4. D • dS = 4πDr r2 0 (4. The Gaussian sphere may be expanded or contracted at will. that of a hollow sphere whose surface is uniformly charged. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law and ∇ • A in spherical coordinates for any general vector is ∇•A = 2 1 ∂ (sin θAθ ) 1 ∂Aφ 1 ∂ r Ar + + 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r in this formula we substitute only Dr as per Equation (A) given above (Dφ . except at the origin.: Applying Gauss’s Law to a uniformly charged hollow sphere with radius R0 .30.9. The Gaussian surface is a sphere with radius r0 .67) S≡Gaussian Sphere Since the Gaussian sphere has a radius less than the charged sphere. Two cases can be clearly distinguished Case 1.2.4. Dθ = 0) Q Dr = 4πr2 and 2 1 ∂ r Dr 1 ∂ (Q/4π) ∇•D = 2 = 2 =0 ∂r ∂r r r Why? This is so because there are no charges anywhere. The total charge on the surface of the sphere is considered to be Q. the Gaussian sphere has a radius less than the radius of the charged sphere r0 < R0 . The charged sphere has a radius R0 while the Gaussian sphere has a radius r0 . to consider diﬀerent situations.
the radial component. There is no ﬁeld inside the sphere.854 × 10−12 × (−110) = −9.70) Dr = Q Q ≡ 4πr2 4πr2 0 (4.19 If an electric ﬁeld exists at the surface of the earth which is about 110150 V/m. So ρv dV = 0 Gauss sphere (4. To sum up 0 inside the charged sphere r < R0 D= Q (4. θ. φ). In this case D • dS = 4πDr r2 0 when r0 > R0 (4. radially downward. so −9. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law is enclosed. D = 0.7394 × 10−10 C/m2 where we have taken the lower value of the ﬁeld. (r. What is (a) The total charge dispersed on the surface of the Earth? And (b) the charge density at the surface? Using the spherical coordinate system. D = (Q/4πr2 )ar . the electric ﬁeld has only one component. Using r.69) S and ρv dV = Total charge enclosed = Q so V (4. EXAMPLE 4. Dr = 0.71) Where we have replaced r0 by the more general value of r.7394 × 10−10 = Q 4πr2 E 164 . Er = −110 V From this section the ﬂux density at the surface of the earth is Dr = ε0 Er = 8.4.72) 2 ar outside the charged sphere r > R0 4πr The important thing to remember is that Gauss’s law can be applied successfully whenever there is a symmetry about the problem. The radius of the Earth is 6350 km. namely. Case 2. The Gaussian sphere has a radius which is larger than the charged sphere.68) by equating the two results.
Since the problem has spherical symmetry. Explain your result. Solution: Step 1.: Uniformly charged sphere rE is the Earth’s radius.7394 × 10−10 C/m2 4πr2 E Notice that the surface charge density.31. Find the electric ﬂux density ﬁeld for all values of r in spherical coordinates. throughout its entire volume with a a charge density ρv . is equal to the Dr ! EXERCISE 4.8 Find ∇ • D everywhere for the hollow sphere with radius R0 and surface charge ρs .20 A sphere of radius R0 is uniformly charged. we expect only one component of D. EXAMPLE 4. by using a Gaussian sphere. ρs . Solving for Q Q = −439502 C And the surface charge density is ρs = Q = −9. The charged sphere and the gaussian sphere are shown in Figure 4. namely D = Dr (r)ar therefore applying Gaussian Sphere D • dS = ρv dV V to a Gaussian sphere r ≤ R0 we have Dr dS = ρv dV 4ρv 3 πr 3 r Dr = ρv 3 or Dr (4πr2 ) = 165 .4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Spherical Gaussian surface Figure 4.31.
: Plot of Dr versus r for a uniformly charged sphere Now looking at the problem when r ≥ R0 we have: Gaussian Sphere D • dS = Dr (4πr2 ) and ρv so 4 dV = ρv πR3 3 0 Dr = ρv R3 0 3r2 The plot of Dr versus r is shown in Figure 4.10.32.32. Therefore for r < R0 2 1 ∂ r Dr ∇•D = 2 ∂r r r ∂ r2 ρv 3 1 = 2 ∂r r = ρv outside the charged sphere 2 3 1 ∂ 2 ρv R0 1 ∂ r Dr = 2 r 2 = 0 ∇•D = 2 ∂r r r ∂r 3r 4. Gauss’s Law Applied to Cases of Cylindrical Symmetry Let us consider another couple of problems which exhibit symmetry. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Figure 4.33.21 How will you check whether the answer in the previous example is correct? Solution: We know that ∇ • D should be equal to ρv inside the charged sphere and zero outside. The ﬁrst of these is the inﬁnite line charge coincident with the zaxis and with a linear charge density of ρl (C/m) as shown in Figure 4. The obvious thing to do 166 . EXAMPLE 4.4.
: Gauss’s Law applied to an inﬁnite line charge here is to choose a cylindrical Gaussian surface whose radius is ρ0 and whose end surfaces lie between z = z0 and z = z1 . φ.8 on page 89) we ﬁnd that the surface can be split up into three parts: the top. the bottom and the side.4. D will be aρ Dρ : that is. From the symmetry of the ﬁgure it is clear that the D ﬁeld will be streaming radially away. Applying Gauss’s law to the surface (see Figure 3.73) top Similar arguments apply to the bottom of the cylinder D • dS = (aρ Dρ ) • (−azρdφdρ) = 0 (4.33. there will be no aφ or az component of D. ρ. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law z Infinite line charge Gaussian surface y x Figure 4.74) bottom Therefore the contribution from the side of the cylinder is the total contribution D • dS = = z=z0 φ=0 z1 2π side (aρ Dρ ) • (aρ ρdφdz) z1 2π Dρ ρ0 dφdz dφdz z=z0 φ=0 = Dρ ρ0 = Dρ ρ0 (z1 − z0 ) (2π) therefore (4. The intergration over the top of the cylinder is zero since D • dS = (aρ Dρ ) • (az ρdφdρ) = 0 (aρ • az = 0) (4. In the cylindrical coordinate system.75) 167 . z .
81) 2πρ And the E ﬁeld is aρ Eρ where Eρ = Dρ ε0 = ρl 2πε0 ρ (4. so replacing ρ0 by the more general value of ρ ρl Dρ = (4. ρ0 can be anything.77) z1 = ρl z=z0 = Total charge enclosed = ρl (z1 − z0 ) Equating these terms Dρ ρ0 (z1 − z0 ) (2π) = ρl (z1 − z0 ) Dρ = ρl 2πρ0 (4.80) But.78) (4.82) 168 .4. as earlier.: An inﬁnite cylindrical hollow tube of radius ρ0 with surface charge ρs cylinder D • dS = 2πDρ ρ0 (z1 − z0) (4. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Figure 4.34.76) Now considering the right hand side of Gauss’s law z1 ρv dV = cylinder z=z0 ρl dz dz (4.79) (4.
. Figure 4.. on the walls of the Gaussian surface.z then Dρ = ρs ρ > ρ0 On the other hand when ρ < ρ0 the charge enclosed is zero and Dρ = 0 ρ < ρ0 4. (as shown in Figure 4. The charge on the sheet is a constant.35 shows an inﬁnite sheet of charge. = ρs C/m2 . below the sheet y Figure 4. The Gaussian surface is a rectangular box extending along the x axis from x = x0 to x = x1 .34) with a surface charge of ρs C/m2 . along the y axis from y = y0 to y = y1 . Use a cylindrical Gaussian surface..: Gauss’s law applied to an inﬁnite sheet of charge Let us apply Gauss’s law to a case of an inﬁnite sheet charge... . the 169 . Gauss’s Law Applied to Cases of Rectangular Symmetry z Gaussian surface infinite sheet charge at z=0 ..22 Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere for the case of an inﬁnite hollow cylindrical tube of radius ρ0 . x . above the sheet .35.4.. coincident with the xy plane extending in all directions to inﬁnity.. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law EXAMPLE 4. We know from the symmetry of the ﬁgure that the D ﬁeld will have only a ρ component D = Dρ (ρ)aρ and using the Gaussian cylindrical surface shown dotted in the ﬁgure for the case ρ > ρ0 we apply Gauss’s law Dρ ρdφdz(= 2πρ × l × Dρ) = Charge enclosed = ρs × l × 2πρ0 ρ0 ρ φ. From symmetry. and centred along the z axis from z = −z0 to z = +z0 .11.
4. y. Dz ] for z > 0 D = [0.4.87) (4.88) (4. y. −Dz] for z < 0 Dz = constant on the walls of the top and bottom of the Gaussian surface (4. Feynman & Sands (2001). 0. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law D ﬁeld is assumed to have the form [0.85) (4. H. −z0) = −Dz (x.84) (4. while the ﬂux from the top and bottom will be Ψtop = (x1 − x0 ) y1 − y0 Dz Ψbottom = (x1 − x0) y1 − y0 Dz so the total ﬂux will be Ψtotal = Ψtop + Ψbottom = 2 (x1 − x0 ) y1 − y0 Dz The total charge enclosed by the Gaussian surface is Qtotal = ρs (x1 − x0) y1 − y0 equating the right hand sides of the previous two equations 2 (x1 − x0) y1 − y0 Dz = ρs (x1 − x0 ) y1 − y0 or Dz (x.89) (4. z0) = − The electric ﬁeld will be ρ s Ez = 2ε0ρs − 2ε for z > 0 for z < 0 (4. List of Formulae Distributed charges are calculated as per ◮ The line charge: ρl = lim ∆l→0 ∆q ∆l ∆q ∆S ∆q ∆V ◮ The surface charge: ρs = lim ∆S→0 ◮ And the volume charge: ρv = lim ∆V→0 170 .83) With this structure of D the ﬂux out of the sides of the box will be zero. W. Some good references for this chapter are Jordan & Balmain (1968). z0) = and Dz (x.90) 0 the other ﬁeld components are zero.12. Hayt & Buck (2001). 0. y. and Richard P.91) ρs 2 ρs 2 (4.86) (4.
4. F. Q1 . felt by a charge q placed at r due to the presence of Q1 at r1 is given by F= Q1 q (r − r1 ) 1 4πε0 r − r1 3 The force FT felt by a charge q placed at r due to N charges. and QN at r′ is a superposition of all the ﬁelds produced by the N 2 charges alone E (r) = E1 + E2 + · · · + EN i=N = i=1 Ei or E(r) = i=1 i=N Q i Ri 4πε0 R3 i Ri = r − r′ i The electric ﬁeld due a continuous charge distribution is given by Eat r = where ρl (r′ )dL′ dQ = ρs (r′ )dS′ ρv (r′ )dV ′ for a linear charge distribution for a surface charge distribution for a volume charge distribution dQat r′ r − r′  1 × 4πε0 r − r′ 3 Gauss’ law states that the ﬂux leving a region of space is equal to the charge enclosed: Ψ=Q Ψ= Ψ= (C) ρv dV D • dS The relationship between D and E is D = εE where ε is the permittivity of the medium. 171 . . The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Coulomb’s law says. . Q2 at 1 r′ . .rN FT = q Q1 q (r − r1 ) Q1 q (r − r2 ) Q1 q (r − rN ) + + ··· 3 3 4πε0 r − r1  r − r2  r − rN 3 The electric ﬁeld at a point r (where the charge q is placed) due to Q1 at r1 is Q1 (r − r1 ) 1 F E1 = = q 4πε0 r − r1 3 The total electric ﬁeld at the observation point r due to Q1 at r′ . . that the force. . . QN located at r1 . ε = εr ε0 . . .
The SI unit of charge is the Coulomb which is also 1 A/s.2) (in cyclindrical coordinate) is ? Ans. surface charge. cylindrical and rectangular symmetries. Why is Gauss’ law only applied to cases of symmetry? 5. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law Chapter Summary In this chapter the following points are of considerable interest: There are various types of charge such as the idealised point charge. What is the relationship between the force on a point charge and the electric ﬁeld? 4. 3.7aρ + 27.4aφ − 49. Write a short note on Coulomb’s Law. 3. The electric ﬁeld at P (8. ρv . ρs . Write a short note on Gauss’ law and the signiﬁcance of electric ﬂux. and volume charge. E = 159.13. 4. ρl . 5) in free space. For nonsymmetrical cases which equations will we use to calculate the electric ﬁeld? Problems 1. the line charge.4.4az 172 . 2. The net charge can be calculated from the charge line distribution as Q= or the surface charge distribution as Q= Coulomb’s law is written as F= q1 q2 aR 4πεo R2 ρs dl ρl dl The student learns to obtain the electric ﬁeld for continuous charge distributions. A 2 µC point charge is located at A(4. Practice problems and Self Assessment Review Questions 1. Q. Gauss’ law is next considered ∇ • D = ρv D • dS = (in point form) ρv dV (in integral form) Gauss’ law is applied to cases of spherical.12.
173 .0) and √ √ point 2= (1/ 2. How√ much charge lies on the z axis from −∞ ≤ z ≤ ∞? Ans.9875 × 10−6ax N. 2 × 10−8 tan−1 (10) C.9875 × 10−6 ax + a y / 2 N. 7. π/10 C. Find the force of the charge placed at 1 on 2 and vice versa. 12. √ √ Ans. Ans.0. z) = 1/ z2 + 1 (C/m2 ) for − ∞ < z < ∞ How much charge lies on the z axis from −10 ≤ z ≤ 10? Ans.0) respectively. (2/3) × 10−8 C. 8. 8. Find the electric ﬁeld in both cases for Problem 8.4.0). The surface charge density in cylindrical coordinates varies as ρs (ρ = 1. Find the force of the charge placed at 1 on 2 and vice versa. The charge density on the z axis varies as 10−8 / z2 + 5 C/m for −∞ < z < ∞. The charge density on the z axis varies as 10−8 / 4z2 + 25 C/m for −∞ < z < ∞. 0.0) and point 2= (1.0) and point 2= (1. Find the force of the charge placed at 1 on 2 and vice versa. How much charge lies on the inﬁnite cylinder? Ans. z) = e−z / ρ2 + 1 (C/m2 ) 11. The charge density on the z axis varies as 10−8 / z2 + 1 C/m for −∞ < z < ∞.0.9875 ax V/m and −8. Two charges.4.0) and point 2= (3.0) respectively. φ = 0. Two charges. 8. Ans.9875 × 10−6 ax + a y / 2 N and −8.3590 × 10−6 3ax + 4a y /5 N.0.0) respectively. Two charges. π/2 C. Q1 = 1 nC and Q2 = 1 µC are placed at point 1= (0. π/ 5 C. 8. Q1 = 1 nC and Q2 = 1 µC are placed at point 1= (0.0. How much charge lies on the z axis from −∞ ≤ z ≤ ∞? Ans.9875 × 10−9ax N. Ans.0. 2π2 C. The charge density on the z axis varies as 10−8 z2 for − 1 < z < 1 C/m ρl (z) = 0 otherwise 4.0.3590 × 10−6 3ax + 4a y /5 N and −0. 3. 10. The surface charge density in cylindrical coordinates varies as ρs (ρ.9875 × 10−9 ax N and −8. Q1 = 1 nC and Q2 = 1 µC are placed at point 1= (0.9875 × 10−6ax N and −8. φ. Find the force of the charge placed at 1 on 2 and vice versa. How much charge lies on the half plane? Ans. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law 2.1/ 2. 5. 6.9875ax V/m. 9. How much charge lies on the z axis from −10 ≤ z ≤ 10? Ans. 8. Ans. Equal charges of 1 nC are placed at point 1= (0.
θ = π/2. there? Ans. The 1 mC charge will feel a force of 1 mN and the 1 C charge of 1 N. 0). θ = π/2.0).0. Four charges q are placed at the corners of a square in the xy plane. φ = 0). q. two opposite corners of which are (a. ∇ • E = 3 + 2r cosθ.0). If two charges. (a) Where in all 3 space is E = 0? (b) Ex = 0? Ans.1. If εr = 1 at that point then what is the charge density. 0) and (−a. 1.0. z = 3).0. A charge Q0 is placed at the origin.1. are placed at (a.0. Two charges. φ = 3) and (r = 3. φ = −1). Ans. ρv = 3ε0 21. In cylindrical coordinates two equal charges (q) are placed at (ρ = 1. 23. one of 1 mC of mass 1 g and the other of 1 C of mass 1 kg are placed in a uniform ﬁeld of E =1 V/m what will be forces and accelerations felt by them? Solution. Find the electric ﬁeld E at (2a. Find the force on a 1 nC charge placed on the (a) centroid of the square (b) 0. 0. 15.0).0) and (0. At a distance of 1 m from it the electric ﬁeld is 100 V/m. Calculate the divergence of E = rar + r2 sin θaθ + 5aφ at (r = 1. Find the electric ﬁeld at the origin. 83. 0). 19. Ans.5 m vertically above the centroid. coincident with the xy plane. Find the electric ﬁeld in both cases for Problem 11. the electric ﬁeld is given by E = aar + a2 sin θaθ + 5aφ ﬁnd the charge enclosed. Ans.431(ax − az ) V/m. Find the electric ﬁeld at the origin. On the surface of a sphere of radius a. Short Answer Questions with Answers 1.0) and (0. Ans.084×10−8az N. Find the force on the charges at (1. Two opposite charges (10 nC) are placed at (0. 14.2. (a = F/m) 174 .1082 × 10−07a y N. (a) (0.7052 × 109qaz V/m 20. Equal charges of magnitude q = 1 nC are placed on the corners of a square of side 1 m.4202q / 4πε0 a2 ax V/m. 0. 3. 1. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law 13.0) and (1. Ans. Ans. −4. 1 × 10−3/10−3 = 1 m/s2 .2. 0). −5. 0. 10 nC charges are placed at (1. 0.4. Two equal charges of 10 nC are placed at (1.3590 3ax + 4a y /5 V/m.3590 × 103 3ax + 4a y /5 V/m and −0. 0) and (−a. Two equal charges of 10 nC are placed at (r = 1. Ans.3) and (3.1.28a y V/m. Ans. Find Q0 .1082 × 10−07ax N and 4. (a) 0. 0. 4πεa3 C 22. Find the electric ﬁeld at the origin.58ax − 4. Ans.6839 × 108qa y + 1. 0. The accelerations of both will be the same. 16. (F = qE).113 × 10−8 C 17. (b) 5. φ = π/2.1).0) (b) yz plane 18. z = −3) and (ρ = 1. θ = π/2. φ = π/2. ρv .
Therefore ∆q will always feel a force toward q2 . The electric ﬁeld on the axis of the disk is given by Ez = ρs 2ε0 1− √ z z2 + a2 For 0 < z ≪ a z2 can be neglected compared to a2 so Ez = ρs /2ε0 1 − When z is very large we expect Ez = πa2 ρs Q a2 = = ρs 4πε0 z2 4πε0 z2 4ε0 z2 z a 4. will there be a point on the straight line joining them where the electric ﬁeld is zero? Solution. The D ﬁeld at 2a would be given by D= so E= Q ar 4π(2a)2 Q ar 4πε0 (2a)2 when −Q is placed on the bakelite sphere. A charged circular disk of radius a is placed on the xy plane. Suppose there is such a point. If two charges q1 (>0) and q2 (<0) of opposite polarity are placed a distance d apart. What would be the electric ﬁeld at a radius of 2a? A charge −Q is placed on the surface of the bakelite sphere. Place a small charge ∆q > 0 at that point. On intuitive grounds what should be the electric ﬁeld at 0 < z ≪ a (very small) and z ≫ a (very large)? Solution. Two hollow cylindrical charged inﬁnite cylinders with radii 0 < a < b with surface charge densities ρsa and ρsb C/m2 are placed concentrically. Find the electric ﬁeld at ρ = (a + b)/2. with its axis coinciding with the z axis and having a charge density ρs . Now q1 will repel it toward q2 and q2 will attract it toward itself. the total charge enclosed in the sphere of radius 2a is zero. 3. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law 2.4. So D = E = 0 5. A charge Q is placed at the center of a thin (thickness=δ) bakelite sphere of outside radius a. What would be the electric ﬁeld now? Solution. Hence there will be no such point. For a hollow cylinder of radius ρ0 and surface charge ρs Dρ = ρs ρ0 ρ ρ > ρ0 ρ < ρ0 Dρ = 0 175 .
A cylindrical surface ρ = 8 cm contains the surface charge density ρs = 5e−20z (nC/m2 ).21 V/m (c) 146. (c) 3.5) (a) 158. A force of attraction exists between (a) Two positively charged bodies (b) Two negatively charged bodies (c) Two oppositely charged bodies (d) When one body has a charge which is twice than that of the ﬁrst one Ans.4. 3. Hint: Use Coulomb’s law.45 pC (c) 270.1 pC (d) 129. The electric ﬁeld E1 at point r due to Q1 at point r1 is given by (a) E1 = (1/4πε0)Q1 r1 /r1 3 (b) E1 = (1/4πε0)Q1 (r−r1 )/r−r1 3 (c)E1 = (1/4πε0)Q1 (r− r1 )/r1 3 (d) E1 = 1/4πε0 Q1 r/(r − r13 ) Ans. 2.2µC/m2is present throughout the spherical shell extending from r = 3 to r = 5 cm and ρ = 0 everywhere else. The cylindrical shell is inﬁnite in its length. Can any three charges be placed on a straight line be in equilibrium? That is each charge feel no net force due to the action of the other two charges. Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere due to a spherical shell of inner radius a and outer radius b of uniform charge density ρv (C/m3 ) Hint: Use Gauss’ law. 4.92 pC (c) 82. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law using superposition D = ρsa 2a aρ a+b Objective Type Questions 1. (b) Open Book Exam Questions 1.11 V/m (b) 194.05 pC (b) 257. The electric ﬁeld at point (r = 1. (b) 2.37 V/m Ans. 176 .6 pC Ans.45nC Ans. Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere due to a cylindrical shell of uniform charge density ρv (C/m3 ) and which has an inner radius a and outer radius b. (c) 4.1cm < z<5cm and 30◦ < φ < 90◦ is (a) 270. What is not the unit of 1/4πε0 ? (a) [F/m] (b) m[C/V]−1 (c) [mF]−1 (d) None of These Ans. θ = 45◦ . What is importance of the analysis of dipoles in electromagnetic theory? Hint: Research the modelling of dielectrics. The total charge present will be (a) 41. φ = 0◦ ) is (see Section 5.7 nC (d) 9. The ﬂux that leaves the surface ρ = 8 cm .07 pC (b) 9. A dipole having Qd/4πε0 = 100 SI units is located at origin in free space and aligned so that its moment is in the az direction. (c) 5. (a) 6. A uniform volume charge with density of 0.21 V/m (d) 167.
4.36. 5.36. Hint: See Figure 4. By using the results of disk of charge with surface charge density ρs = ρv δz.: Diagram for Problem 5 Hint: Use Gauss’ law. The Electric Field and Gauss’s Law z r a R Sphere Figure 4. ***Chapter complete*** Part2B—Electrostatics 177 . ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld of a uniformly charged sphere.
1. The importance of equipotential surfaces. 3. (−F) we need to work against this force. The concept of the potential at inﬁnity for a point charge. if dW is to be positive. To calculate the the work done on a charge required to move it in a region immersed in an electric ﬁeld from a point A to B. Or the work done by the external force to move the charge from rA to rB will be rB rB W= rA −QE • dl = −Q rA E • dl (5.1.1) 178 . 4.1 In a region of space the electric ﬁeld E = xy2 ax − xz2 a y + xyzaz ﬁnd the work done to move a charge of 1 nC from (1. we know that if a charge Q is immersed in an electric ﬁeld.1) If we expect to move this charge by application of an external force. 1. F F = QE (5. 5. 8. The potential is very useful concept related to potential and kinetic energy and also the electric ﬁeld. 5. it experiences a force. The concept of potential energy. Energy and Potential Let early education be a sort of amusement. 2. Potential Due to a Point Charge Looking work and energy. 6. Chapter Goals In this chapter the student is introduced to the concept of potential. and the incremental work done will be dW = −F • dl = −QE • dl the negative sign tells us that the force applied is working against ﬁeld. you will then be better able to ﬁnd out the natural bent —Plato 5.2) EXAMPLE 5. The calculation of the potential due to continuous charge distributions. 7. To calculate the potential diﬀerence between points A and B.5.2. How the scalar potential and the electric ﬁeld are connected. The student learns the following 1. The calculation of the potential when there are a number of point charges.1) to (0.
1) (0. The work done is W = −Q E • dl = −Q = −Q (xy2 ax − xz2a y + xyzaz) • ax dx xdx (putting y = z = 1) x2 2 0 1 (1. The work done is W = −Q where P is the integration path. Step 2. We next ﬁnd the parametric equation of a straight line joining the two points.1. on the coordinate system etc.0) along a straight line. 0.1) Step 3.1) = −1 × 10−9 = 0.5 × 10−9 (J) EXAMPLE 5.4. Putting y = z = 1 we carry out the the integration. We ﬁrst draw a sketch of the straight line.5.6) to (0. y and z are ﬁxed with y = z = 1.5. We realise from the sketch that path of integration is along a line parallel to the x axis. 5.1. 0.75 (nJ) r0 t=1 t=0 t=1 = 675Q t=0 179 .1. The work done is r1 or the three equations are W = −Q = −Q = −Q = −Q r0 r1 r0 r1 E • dl (xy2 ax − xz2a y + xyzaz) • (dxax + dya y + dzaz ) xy2 dx + xz2dy + xyzdz 15(1 − t)3(−3dt) + 18(1 − t)3(−5dt) + 90(1 − t)3(−6dt) (1 − t)3dt = 168. First draw a sketch of the path of integration.1.3 the vector joining r0 = (3.2 For the electric ﬁeld of Example 5. Step 1. The parametric equation of the straight line joining these two points is r = r0 + tR01 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 x = 3(1 − t) y = 5(1 − t) z = 6(1 − t) Step 3. E • dl P Step 2. In accordance with 2. Energy and Potential Step 1. 6) to r1 = (0. −5.1) (1. 0) is R01 = (−3. (0.1 ﬁnd the work done to move a charge of 1 nC from (3. −6).
1. EXAMPLE 5. π/2. Using Equation 5. θ(t). We next look at the The electric ﬁeld for a charge located at the origin is given by Q ar E= 4πε0 r2 dl = drar since θ and φ are constants along the path of integration (dθ = dφ = 0). Draw a sketch pertaining to the problem. φB ). φA ) and rB = (rB .3 For a point charge Q located at the origin ﬁnd the potential between two points rA = (rA . Energy and Potential initial point Line of integration final point Q Figure 5. Step 2. Then B rB VAB = − A E • dl = − rA Q ar • (drar + dθaθ + dφaφ ) 4πε0 r2 rB =− or VAB = rA Q 1 1 Qdr = − 2 4πε0 rB rA 4πε0 r (5.3) Q 1 1 − 4πε0 rB rA 180 . Let the curve be parametrised as (r(t).1. φ(t)) with rA = (rA . 0) (initial point) and rB = (rB . θB . So rB rB VAB = − rA E • dl = − rA Q Q dr = 2 4πε0 r 4πε0 r rB = rA Q 1 1 − 4πε0 rB rA Generalising these results we look at the potential diﬀerence between two points rA (initial point) and rB (ﬁnal point) as shown in Figure 5. We notice from the looking at the problem that we are integrating only in the rdirection.: Potential diﬀerence for a point charge The concept of the electric potential in the electrostatic ﬁeld springs directly from the concept of work. θA .5. 0) (ﬁnal point) in spherical coordinates.2 we have VAB = W =− Q rB rA E • dl remember that Q is the charged which is moved in the electric ﬁeld. Step 1. π/2.
then VA→A = VAB + VBA = (VB − VA ) + (VA − VB) = 0 in terms of the line integral of the electric ﬁeld this is E • dl = 0 (L is any closed path) (5.10) Referring back to the section concerning the curl. rA → ∞ and rB → r then we can deﬁne an absolute potential Q Vr = (5. Furthermore if rA is a point at inﬁnity. Energy and Potential which is a statement of the fact that in an electrostatic ﬁeld of a point charge.6) Another important consequence of this property is that if we go from A to B along one path and back from B to A along another path.5) L which by Stokes’s theorem is E • dl = (∇ × E) • dS = 0 (5. Why? Let us look at Equation 5. the path is independent of the parameter t and depends only on the r coordinate: the path may be anything.3.8) (5.3. one knows that when the curl of a vector ﬁeld is zero— like the previous equation— then it must be the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld.12) 181 .3.11) (5.5. We see that in the integration. Section 3. the potential diﬀerence is independent of the path of integration.9) L Enclosed surface or ∇×E = 0 (5.4) 4πε0 r with the point at inﬁnity as having zero potential: V∞ = 0 And VAB = VB − VA = Vﬁn − Vinit (5. Having said this we look at and compare the right hand sides of the two equations: dV = −E • dl = −Ex dx − E ydy − Ezdz and dV = ∂V ∂V ∂V dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.7) (5.
Find the electric ﬁeld and potential as a function of x.14) (5. First: ∇•D = and so ∂Dx ∂D y ∂Dz + + =ρ ∂x ∂y ∂z dDx = ρ(x) dx 182 . E. Find the electric ﬁeld and charge in that region. EXAMPLE 5.5.2. The medium has a dielectric constant εr .5 The charge density ρ(x) −L ≤ x ≤ L is shown in Figure 5. Step 1. What are the units of V ? Units of V(r) = Units of {E l} = V/m × m = V which is volts. The electric ﬁeld E is given by E = −∇V = − ∂V ∂V ∂V ax − ay − az = −2kxyzax − kx2za y − kx2 yaz ∂x ∂y ∂z (V/m) U U Step2. is the gradient of the potential. From the E ﬁeld we can obtain the D ﬁeld: D = ε0 E = −kε0 2xyzax + x2 za y + x2 yaz Step 3. the variable V is used both for the volume as well as the electric potential. Energy and Potential from which we get ∂V ∂x ∂V Ey = − ∂y ∂V Ez = − ∂x Ex = − or E = −∇V (5. In this book. Step 1.13) The electric ﬁeld. but this should not cause confusion. and ρv = ∇ • D = ∂Dx ∂D y ∂Dz + + = −2kε0 yz ∂x ∂y ∂z (C) (C/m2 ) EXAMPLE 5. The region is air.4 The electric potential in a region of space is V = kx2 yz.
5. integrating this equation for −L ≤ x ≤ x1 x Dx (x) = −L ρ(x)dx = 0 for x1 ≤ x ≤ 0 Dx (x) = for 0 ≤ x ≤ x2 Dx (x) = − for x2 ≤ x ≤ L ρm x2 + 2 x x1 x1 −L x (0)dx + x1 x2 ρm x2 2 x − x2 ρm 2 xdx = x 1 2 x2 1 1 ρm ρm 2 x dx = − x2 + x x2 2 2x2 ρm Dx = 0 From the ﬂux density we can get the electric ﬁeld 0 ρm x 2 2 2 x2 − x2 ax D 1 1 E= = × ρ x1 ε0 εr ε0 εr m x2 − x2 a 2 x 2x2 0 Step 3.5 Step 2.: ρ(x) for Example 5. Since there is only one component Ex and dV = −Ex dx we can obtain V(x) from Ex by x −L ≤ x ≤ x1 0 ≤ x ≤ x2 x1 ≤ x ≤ 0 x2 ≤ x ≤ L V(x) = − Ex dx −L 183 . Energy and Potential Figure 5.2.
Z) Q = 4πε0 R Q = √ 4πε0 X2 + Y2 + Z2 (5. Generally. V0 . Z) due to a point charge placed at the origin of the (X. but the functional form of the potential is correct. V(R) is V(r) = Q Q = = 4πε0 R 4πε0 r − r′  Q 4πε0 (x − x′ )2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 1/2 since R = r − r′ . y′ . the same potential. z) coordinate system. For the point charge.: Potential due to a point charge placed at r′ The reader must note that the absolute potential is unknown to the extent of an additive constant. Y. V0 will be diﬀerent.15) then what is the potential V(r) due a point charge placed at r′ = (x′ . Energy and Potential Figure 5. Y. we know that in the (x.16) (5. we would like to ﬁnd the potential for a point charge placed at an arbitrary point r′ . Referring to Figure 5. it is taken to be zero. However it should be noted that for diﬀerent conﬁgurations. Y.3. if the potential at the point (X.17) = . if we compute −∇V(= E) of the above expression −∇V = (∂V/∂x) ax + ∂V/∂y a y + (∂V/∂z) az = 4πε0 (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 4πε0 r − r′ 3 184 Q (r − r′ ) Q (x − x′) ax + x − y′ a y + (x − z′) az 3/2 (5. V0 is taken to be zero for r equal to inﬁnity. Z) coordinate system is V(R) = V(X. y. z′ )? Referring to the ﬁgure once again.5.3. Proceeding now along a diﬀerent tack.
the electric ﬁeld has only one component Eρ ρ. z′ ). y′ . z) is 0 0 0 V(r) = 4πε0 if we equate V to a constant Q 4πε0 then x − x′ 0 2 2 2 1/2 Q x − x′ 0 2 + y − y′ 0 2 + z − z′ 0 2 1/2 (5. z′ ) is indeed V(r) = Q 4πε0 r − r′ 0 (5.3.33 on page 167.3. we can evaluate the equipotential surfaces for these three cases to give us an insight on equipotential surfaces in general. 0 Proceeding to examine the ﬁeld of a line charge. So we can conclude that the potential V(r) due a point charge placed at r′ = (x′ .21) where k is another constant. Equipotential Surfaces Equipotential surfaces are those surfaces on which the potential is constant.5.19) + y − y′ 0 2 2 = k1 (5. Squaring both sides x − x ′ + y − y ′ + z − z′ 0 0 0 2 2 2 = k2 (5. Figure 4. What is so important about an equipotential surface is that the ﬁeld is normal to the surface at all points on it. the inﬁnite line charge and the inﬁnite plane charge. This was explained in Section 3.20) + z − z′ 0 2 1/2 x − x ′ + y − y ′ + z − z′ 0 0 0 = Q =k 4πε0 k1 (5. y. For the point charge at (x′ . φ. z = ρl 2πε0 ρ (5.23) 185 . y′ . Energy and Potential which is the electric ﬁeld at an observation point due to a charge placed at (x′ . Since the electric 0 0 0 ﬁeld is normal to this surface at all points it is radially streaming out of r′ .18) 5. If we examine the ﬁeld for the three cases considered in the previous chapter— the point charge. z′ ).22) is the equation of a sphere with radius k and centre (x′ . y′ . z′ ) the potential at (x. y′ .
the electric ﬁeld is normal to the surface and equal at all points on it.35. 0.24) (5. On any one such surface. The previous equations are a family of cylinders cylinders whose axes coincide with the zaxis.26) for z > 0 − or ρs dV = dz 2ε0 (5. 186 . Because only diﬀerences in potential are important. z). Their crosssections are circles with centres (0. the electric ﬁeld is given by ρ s az when z > 0 (5.27) where k1 . the function is zero at ρ = 1.5.30) the V = constant surfaces are planes z = k surfaces. Figure 4. Energy and Potential Equating this component to the aρ component of −∇V in cylindrical coordinates ρl ∂V =− 2πε0 ρ ∂ρ dV =− dρ or V(ρ) = − dρ ρl 2πε0 ρ ρl 1 = ln 2πε0 ρ (5. The equipotential surfaces are computed by ρl 1 ln = k1 2πε0 ρ 2πε0 1 ln = k1 ρ ρl = k2 ρ = e−k2 =k (5. k2 and k are constants. (z = 0 is the xy plane). which are parallel to the xy plane. This is point with which compare all other values V are compared to.29) V=− ρs z 2ε0 (5. The electric ﬁeld streams out radially away from the z axis.25) This is the potential function.28) E = 2ε0ρs − a when z < 0 2ε z 0 (5. To compute the potential ﬁeld for the case of the inﬁnite plane charge.
See Figure 5.5.: The surface V = x2 − y2 EXAMPLE 5. Potential Energy Next we investigate the question: What is the physical meaning of the line integral of the electric ﬁeld? We know that the line integral of the force F • dl is the work done. The force on the 187 . Equipotential surfaces are those surfaces when V = constant On the base of the ﬁgure are shown curves x2 − y2 = k where k is a constant. Let us further suppose that both Q and Qt are both positive charges. The surface V = x2 − y2 is shown in Figure 5.6 For the potential function V = x2 − y2 ﬁnd the equipotential surfaces Step 1. So let us ﬁnd the work done on a test charge Qt when moving it in an electric ﬁeld due to the point charge Q placed at the origin.4.4.4. Step 2.5. First let the test charge be far away at r = ∞. Energy and Potential 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 10 5 0 5 5 5 10 10 0 10 Figure 5. Since both Q and Qt are both of the same polarity we expect a resistance to the motion when we move Qt since the charges repel each other. and let us move Qt towards Q along a straight line. Each of these contours may be imagined to be a surface which extends from z = −∞ to z = ∞ 5.
We have done work on the charge.31) V(r0 ) is the potential due to the charge Q at the point r = r0 .: Work done when moving Qt towards Q test charge is F = Qt Eprinciple charge Q ˆ = Qt r 4πε0 r2 The work done to move the test charge from r = ∞ to r = r0 is given by r0 r=∞ r0 r0 F • dl = − r=∞ Qt E • dl = Qt − r=∞ E • dl = Qt V(r0 ) (5.32) Work done on the charge = −Qt A E • dl 188 . That is it: it will gain in kinetic energy and so it must have had gained potential energy. In fact it is Qt (V(r0 ) − V(∞)) but since V(∞) = 0 the work done is equal to Qt V(r0 ). Energy and Potential z 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 o 1 2 3 4 y x Figure 5.5. If we release Qt it will move towards r = ∞ with increasing velocity. We can write a general formula Gain in Potential Energy=Qt [V(Final Position) − V(Initial Position)] Also we may write (from what has been said earlier) that B (5. but it seems to have made no diﬀerence to it! Where has the ’work done’ gone? Notice that Qt and Q are of the same polarity so obviously to maintain its position we are exerting a force.5.
Describe the motion of the electron. 0. 0] Step 1. Step 3.0. As the electron moves it slows down due to attraction to the charge at the origin. The electron is moving in the electric ﬁeld of a charge q = 3 × 10−6 C placed at the origin of a coordinate system. The potential at [1.7 An electron has an initial velocity of v = 2 × 107ax m/sec when it is at the coordinate point [1. 0.696 × 103V volts. Step 2. Energy and Potential EXAMPLE 5. 0. 189 . Its initial kinetic energy is 1 Kin = me v2 in 2 = 1.6398 × 10−15J 1 The subscript in will be used for initial quantities while f in will be used for ﬁnal quantities. In the previous equation rin is the initial position of the charge and Vin is its initial potential.6 × 10−19C the charge of an electron.0] is1 Vin = q/(4πε0 rin ) = (3 × 10−6)/(4πε0 ) = 2. The initial potential energy Pin of the electron is Pin = eVin = −4. 0] m moving with a velocity of 6 × 107 ax m/sec in the presence of q = 3 × 10−6 C at [0.6. Let us ﬁrst draw a diagram of the conﬁguration z 4 3 2 1 q e 1 2 3 4 o 1 2 3 4 y x Figure 5.5.: [1. 0] m.31411 × 10−15J (note the negative potential energy) where e = −1.
Step 3.31411 × 10−15) = 0 in 2 solving for vin .8 In the previous example beyond which velocity does the electron escape from the ’clutches’ of the 3 × 10−6C charge? Step 1. Step 2. The initial total energy is ET = Pin + Kin = −2.713231 × 107m/sec 190 . vin = 9. Energy and Potential Step 4.6743 × 10−15J But P f in = eq 4πε0 r f in which gives the ﬁnal position of the electron r f in = 1. Hence ETin = ET f in = ET P f in = ET = −2. We have to solve the equation ET = Kin + Pin = K f in + P f in = 0 or or setting ET = 0 we have 1 me v2 + (−4.6743 × 10−15 J As the electron moves it comes to rest. Step 5. When the electron reaches r = ∞ its ﬁnal potential energy becomes zero and its kinetic energy also becomes zero. EXAMPLE 5.6131 m After this the electron reverses motion and moves toward the charge at the origin.31411 × 10−15J as earlier. The initial potential energy of the electron is Pin = eVin = −4.5. Which means that its total energy must be zero initially itself.
the smaller its wavelength. (Microscopes using light are limited to about 2000x magniﬁcation. Energy and Potential Figure 5. The potentials and potential diﬀerence between two points in space. (something like an electron gun in a TV tube) which are accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 40 to 400 keV and transmitted through the specimen. the wavelength of an electron may be calculated according to.000x. The electrons which emerge are used to form an image. are possible which give magniﬁcations of up to about 2.5.) Electron microscopes use electrostatic ’lenses’ to focus the electron beam.000 times shorter than light. Did you know?/Application The electron microscope (as the name implies) uses a beam of electrons to illuminate the specimen and create a magniﬁed image of it. so very small wavelengths through very high velocities are acheived. http://umn. Interpretation: this result can be stated as follows: if the electron has an initial velocity greater than 9. A ≡ 191 .edu. From quantum theory. Typically. electrons are dual in nature being waves or particles. electrons are emitted by an electron gun. Figure 5.713231 × 107m/sec then the electron does not return toward the charge at the origin.7.: Electron microscope picture of a spider (photo taken taken from a website of University of Minnesota. 2010) Step 4.000.7 shows one such image. a De Broglie equation From the above example we realise that potential energy of a charge may be negative! Hence we should rather be concerned about the diﬀerences in potential and potential energy rather than their absolute values. λ = h/(mev) where h is the Plank’s constant and v is the velocity of the electrona . By these means wavelengths about 100. Obviously the greater the velocity of an electron.
5. Positive charges feel forces in the direction of the electric ﬁeld. The electric ﬁeld is directed from a higher potential to a lower potential. z1 is equal to B ∆V = A B (−E) • dl ∇V • dl (5. 1.012786)J. losing potential energy. In this case if a positive charge is placed at B and no restrictions are placed on it then it will feel a force from B to A. the potential diﬀerence between the points A ≡ [1. They move from a lower potential to a higher potential again losing potential energy. a negative charge placed at B will feel a force towards A.0051891V V(B) > V(A) The electric ﬁeld goes from B to A. 2] V(A) = 0.0179755V V(B) = 0. and tend to go from A to B.33) = A = V(B) − V(A) ≡ V(ﬁnal point) − V(initial point) Thus for a charge of 2 pC placed at the origin. On the other hand. And 2. y1 . Negative charges feel forces in a direction against the electric ﬁeld. losing potential energy = Qt (−0. On the other hand. Energy and Potential A x0 . z0 to B ≡ B x1 . If a positive charge Qt is placed at A and no restrictions are placed on it then it will feel a force from A to B. 192 . 2. y0 . If the charge at the origin is a 2 pC charge then V(A) = −0.0051891V V(A) > V(B) The electric ﬁeld goes from A to B.0179755V V(B) = −0. a negative charge placed at A will feel a force towards B. and when they move they go from a higher potential towards a lower potential. 1] and B ≡ [2. We come to two important conclusions 1.
: Figure to calculate the potential for a system of point charges which we already know from the early part of this chapter. . y′ . then N 1 2 each of these charges produces a potential Vi (r) at the ﬁeld point r. . r′ . z) is 2 2 2 2 V(r) = V1 (r) + V2(r) 2 = i=1 Qi 4πε0 x − x ′ + y − y ′ + z − z′ i i i 2 2 2 Similarly if charges Q1 . . y′ . QN are placed at r′ . The total potential. y′ . due to all these charges placed at all these positions is i=N V(r) = i=1 Vi (r) or i=N V(r) = i=1 4πε 0 Qi 2 2 2 ′ + y − y ′ + z − z′ x − xi i i 193 (5. Energy and Potential 5. y... Q2 . therefore.5. .8. For example if there are two point charges Q1 and Q2 placed at r′ = (x′ . z) due to a single charge Q1 placed at the point r′ = 1 (x′ . z′ ) is given by 1 1 1 V(r) = = 4πε0 Q1 4πε0 r − r′ 1 2 Q1 2 2 (5.. z′ ) then the potential at r = (x. .35) . y. . z′ ) 1 1 1 1 and r′ = (x′ . r′ respectively. . .5. Potential Due to a System of Point Charges The potential at r = (x. z o y x Figure 5.34) x − x ′ + y − y ′ + z − z′ 1 1 1 . but how do we calculate the potential due to many point charges? As usual we use superposition.
Step 1.9. the potential due to the two identical charges is Q V(r) = 4 π ε0 1 z− d 2 2 2 2 + y +x − z+ d 2 1 2 2 + x2 +y (5. z′ . Let us revisit the dipole this time aligned along the zaxis as shown in the ﬁgure. y. the nabla operator operates only on the r variable. z Distant point r1 Q d −Q θ r r2 y d cos θ x Figure 5.9. z ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂V ∂V ∂V ax + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.5.38) 194 . z trio. y′ . y′ . x. Using the formula of Section 5.9 Find the far ﬁeld for the case of a dipole as shown in Figure 5. That is.37) In the previous equation diﬀerentiation must be carried out only on the x. z′ set of variables. and not on the x′ .36) In the previous equation. The real value of the potential expression is here we have to perform diﬀerentiations rather than integrations to compute the electric ﬁeld. y. Energy and Potential And from which expression we can evaluate the electric ﬁeld by E = −∇V (5.5.: A dipole aligned along the z axis EXAMPLE 5. in rectangular coordinates E = −∇V =− =− ∂ ∂ ∂ ax + a y + az V x′ .
. 2 p = Qdaz (5. Now obtaining the gradient of V in spherical coordinates Er ≈ − ∂V Qd cos θ = ∂r 2πε0 r3 (5.39) V(r) = (5.43) EXERCISE 5.41) Because of the absence of φ there is a symmetry of the E ﬁeld about the z axis.1 Show all the steps related to the Equation 5. going from rectangular to spherical coordinates.. z = r cos θ and simplifying Q 1 1 − √ √ 2πε0 2 − 4 d r cos θ + d2 2 + 4 d r cos θ + d2 4r 4r 1 1 Q − √ √ 2 − 4 d r cos θ + d2 2 + 4 d r cos θ + d2 2πε0 4r 4r Q 1 1 ≈ − √ √ 2πε0 4 r2 − 4 d r cos θ 4 r2 + 4 d r cos θ Q 1 1 = − 4πε0 r 1 − ( d/ r ) cosθ 1 + ( d/ r ) cosθ √ we get V= 1 1±x = 1∓ x + . 5.42) (5.40. y = r sin θ sin φ.6 on page 145 we obtained the electric ﬁeld due any continuous charge distribution. Eθ ≈ − 1 ∂V Qd sin θ = r ∂θ 4πε0 r3 Eφ = 0 (5. we now obtain the scalar electric potential due any contin 195 . We now write the potential when r ≫ d: V(r) = Step 4. This will hone your math skills.40) Step 3. Using p • ar Qd cos θ = 4πε0 r2 4πε0 r2 Step 5. Going over to spherical coordinates x = r sin θ cos φ. Potential Due Any Continuous Charge Distribution In the Section 4.5.6. Energy and Potential Step 2.
dQ r′ y x dV(r.10. r′ ) r − r′ r z Miniscule Charge. charge inS′ line. r due an elemental charge placed at r′ as shown in the ﬁgure is Miniscule Potential dV(r. r′ ) = 4πε0 dQ(r′ ) (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 (5. Energy and Potential uous charge distribution. except that the point charge Q has been replaced by dQ. r′ ) due to a minuscule charge dQ(r′ ) dV(r. r′ ) = dQ 4πε0 (x−x′ )2 + ( y−y′ )2 +(z−z′ )2 Figure 5.5. Now dQ will be diﬀerent for diﬀerent charge distributions ρv (r′ )dV ′ for a volume charge distribution (5.: dV(r.45) (5. charge in V′ surf.47) dQ = ρs (r′ )dS′ for a surface charge distribution ρl (r′ )dL′ for a linear charge distribution Therefore V(r) = V′ S′ L′ ρv (r′ )dV′ 4πε0 (x−x′ )2 +( y−y′ ) +(z−z′ )2 ρs (r′ )dS′ (x−x′ )2 +( y−y′ ) +(z−z′ )2 ρl (r′ )dL′ (x−x′ )2 +( y−y′ ) +(z−z′ )2 2 2 2 vol.44) where r is the position vector of the ﬁeld point and r′ is the position vector of the charge dQ. Now to ﬁnd the potential due to any charge distribution we integrate the above equation over the region where the charge is V(r) = R′ dV(r) dQ(r′ ) 4πε0 (x − x′ )2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 (5.48) 4πε0 4πε0 196 . To do so we ﬁnd the inﬁnitesimal potential dV at a point in space. charge in L′ (5. Notice that this is the same formula as that for a point charge.46) = R′ Where R′ is the region occupied by the charge.
52) 197 .49) and r′ = [0. 0] (5. From symmetry considerations.50) (5.0] and [0. z′] ρl (r′ )dL′ L′ (5. y.5. With these remarks in mind r = [x. z′] r′ = [0.: Potential calculation for a volume charge distribution For a volume charge distribution the accompanying ﬁgure. We now apply our newly derived formulae to obtain the potential and the electric ﬁeld to the case of a pair of line charges shown in Figure 5. Energy and Potential V(r) = V′ ρ(r′ )dV′ 4πε0 (x−x′ )2 +( y−y′ ) +(z−z′ )2 2 r r − r′ dV ′ z r′ y x V′ Figure 5.0]. and the integrations are performed on V′ .d/2. The ﬁgure shows a couple of charged lines piercing the xy plane at [0.51) V(r) = The left integral is over the positively charged line while the right integral is over the negatively charged line. −d/2. as the ﬁelds on any other plane would be the same. d/2.11.12. The lines are charged with a with a constant line charge of ρl (z′ ) and −ρl (z′ ) C/m.d/2. (Figure 5. The integral may be written in a slightly 4πε0 (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 ∞ ρl dz′ + = −∞ 4πε0 x2 + y − d/2 2 + z′2 4πε0 −ρl 2 x2 + y + d/2 + z′2 dz′ (5.11) shows the various regions. we compute the potential only on the xy plane.
53) The reader is referred to the Appendix where a table of such integral has been provided. Energy and Potential z To Infinity dz’ r′ [0. After taking the limit z0 → ∞ the potential in the xy plane becomes ρl log V(x. y) = 2 π ε0 y + d/2 2 + x2 2 2 y − d/2 + x (5.0] y r r − r′ ρl C/m Chrged Lines x −ρl C/m d Figure 5.5.0] [0.12. integrating from −z0 to z0 and letting z0 → ∞.−d/2.d/2. −z0 4πε z0 Where V(r) = lim + z0 →∞ 2 2 2 + y − d/2 + z′2 2 + y + d/2 + z′2 4πε0 x 0 x z′ =z0 ′ ′ ρl z z − sinh−1 sinh−1 lim = 2 2 4 π e0 z0 →∞ d d 2 2 y− 2 +x y− 2 +x z′ =−z0 ρl 2z0 2z0 sinh−1 − sinh−1 = lim z0 →∞ 2 π e0 4 y2 − 4 d y + 4 x2 + d2 4 y2 + 4 d y + 4 x2 + d2 ρl dz′ −ρl dz′ sinh−1 (p) = log p2 + 1 + p (5.: Calculation of the potential for a pair of parallel charged lines with charge ρl and −ρl . diﬀerent way.54) 198 .
57) and are valid for 0 < k < 1.56) where k is another constant.5. yk = − 2 1 − k2 These plots are shown here. If we substitute 1/k for k < 1 then we arrive a family of complementary circles with the same radii r= but centres dk = r1/k 1 − k2 (5.55) a constant. We can compute the electric ﬁeld for this case by E = −∇V d 1 + k2 0. This equation simpliﬁes to y + d/2 2 + x2 − k2 y − d/2 2 + x2 = 0 which is 1 − k2 x2 + 1 − k2 y2 + 1 + k2 yd + 1 + k2 d2 1 − k2 = 0 4 These are equations are circles with radii r= and centres 2 2 1 + k2 d 2 k2 − 1 1 + k2 yd + x2 + y2 + 2 1 − k2 d = 4 1 − k2 + 2 1 − k2 d 1 − k2 2 2 2 d 1 + k2 = d k x2 + y + 2 2 1 − k2 1 − k2 dk = rk 1 − k2 (5.58) d 1 + k2 0. y) = 2 π ε0 y + d/2 2 + x2 y − d/2 2 + x2 y + d/2 =V 1 2 y − d/2 + x 2 2 + x2 (5. Energy and Potential If we wish to compute the equipotential surfaces for this example ρl log V(x. y1/k = + 2 1 − k2 199 . Or = exp V1 × 2 π ε0 =k ρl (5.
10 Find the potential due to an inﬁnite line charge with charge density ρl along the zaxis (z = ±∞) Step 1. E= ρl aρ 2 π ε0 ρ 200 −2 −2 −1 0 1 . In fact in any electrostatic case.13. the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines always cut each other at right angles.: Lines of constant electric potential for a pair of inﬁnite line charges Though the expressions are quite complex. as shown in the ﬁgure.5 k=0. Figure 5.6 k=0.4 2 2 1 0 −1 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 Figure 5.: Electric ﬁeld plot of the electric ﬁeld for two parallel inﬁnite line charges EXAMPLE 5.14. Energy and Potential k=0. Recall that the equipotential lines are also circles.5. but the ﬁeld plot is particularly simple.40. The electric ﬁeld due to such a conﬁguration is given by Equation 4. The electric ﬁeld streamlines are circles which cut the equipotential lines at right angles.
0. Since ρ2 ρ2 Vρ1 to ρ2 = − ρ1 E • dl = − ρ1 ρl ρ1 ρl dρ = ln 2 π ε0 ρ 2 π ε0 ρ2 Step 3.15. Step 2. So r = [z. 0.5. z Electron at [1.59) Where ρl is the charge density of 1 pC/m.0. Energy and Potential Step 2. Describe the motion of the electron. 0] and for the ring (5.60) 201 . The motion of the electron is best described by computing the potential function of the charged ring. We want to ﬁnd the potential on the zaxis only.0] r r − r′ V(0. Step 1. z) = 2 ε0 ρl ρ0 z2 +ρ2 0 Charged Ring Diameter=1 m ρl = 1 pC/m r′ y x Figure 5. The potential V(r) is given by V (r) = = Ring ρl dL′ ′ Ring 4πε0 r − r  4 π ε0 ρl dL′ y − y′ 2 + (x − x′)2 (z − z′ )2 + (5.11 An electron at rest is released from the position of 1 m along the axis of a ring of diameter 1 m which is charged with a linear charge density of ρl = 1 pC/m as shown in the ﬁgure. Both r and r′ are shown clearly in the ﬁgure.: Charged ring and electron. If we make the datum ρ = ρ1 = 1 and replace ρ2 by ρ then V(ρ) = − ρl ln ρ 2 π ε0 EXAMPLE 5.
Energy and Potential r′ = [x′ .64) (5. namely. x and y are both equated to zero 2π V (z) = ρl ρ0 dφ′ 4 π ε0 z2 + ρ0 sin φ′ + ρ0 cos φ′ z2 + ρ2 0 (5.61) where x′ = ρ0 cos φ′ and y′ = ρ0 sin φ′ where φ.63) 2 2 0 2π = 0 ρl ρ0 dφ′ 4 π ε0 = 2 ε0 ρl ρ0 z2 + ρ2 0 Step 5.5 m) and the electron is on the z axis. The initial kinetic energy of the electron is zero. y′ . which is the axis of the ring. the parameter.0458 × 10−21 J = −4. namely. Now we come to the electron. As it moves its kinetic energy increases while its potential energy decreases keeping its total energy 202 . the z component.65) Interpretation. Using x′ = ρ0 cos φ′ and y′ = ρ0 sin φ′ 2π V (r) = ρl ρ0 dφ′ 4 π ε0 z2 + y − ρ0 sin φ′ 2 0 + x − ρ0 cos φ′ 2 (5.0458 × 10−21 J (5. Since the potential function needs to be calculated only on the z axis. Step 3. 0] (5. The electric ﬁeld has only one component.0458 × 10−21 J ET = Kin + Pin = Pin = −4. as we have shown in Example 4.14. and its initial potential energy and total energy is ρl ρ0 e 2 ε0 z2 + ρ2 0 z=1 m Pin = = −4. the charge lies on a circle with radius ρ0 (= 0. Now since the geometry of the problem is cylindrical. And therefore the electron feels a strong attractive force toward the centre of the ring.5 m. we go over to the cylindrical coordinate system.5.62) Step 4. is the angle and ρ0 = 0.
which gives a value of zero.0458 × 10−21 (= ET ) K+P = 2 2 ε0 z2 + ρ2 0 (5.7. rA and rB .5. When the electron is at a distance z from the origin its potential energy is ρl ρ0 e (5.70) solving for v (which requires some algebraic manipulations) 2 ε0 ET v=− z2 + ρ2 − e ρl ρ0 0 1 4 az (5. e. ε0 . ρ0 . in the ﬁeld created by a point charge is 1 Q 1 VAB = − 4πε0 rB rA 203 . and also z = 1. If we want to ﬁnd the velocity of the electron when it reaches the centre of the ring then we substitute z = 0 in the above equation.72) 5. The potential diﬀerence between points A and B is rB W VAB = =− E • dl Q rA The potential diﬀerence between two points. List of Formulae The work done by the external force to move the charge from rA to rB will be r B W = −Q rA E • dl The concept of the electric potential in the electrostatic ﬁeld springs directly from the concept of work.68) P(z) = 2 ε0 z2 + ρ2 0 and its kinetic energy is 1 K = me v2 2 ρl ρ0 e 1 + me v2 = −4. me .047 × 105az m/s (5.71) m2 ε2 z2 + ρ2 e 0 0 Important note: To check this result.69) (5. v(z = 0) = −1.66) (5.67) Step 5. which is equal to the initial value of total energy ET = Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = K+P = Kin + Pin = −4. we substitute the values of ET . Energy and Potential constant.0458 × 10−21 J (5.
.. E • dl = 0 (L is any closed path) L Maxwell’s equation for electrostatic ﬁelds is ∇×E = 0 The relation between the electric ﬁeld E and the potential V is E = −∇V The potential at r for a point charge Q located at the point r′ is V(r) = Q = 4πε0 r − r′  Q 4πε0 (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 1/2 An equipotential surface is one where the potential is constant. −Q) with a separation d.. Energy and Potential The absolute potential for a point r in the ﬁeld created by a point charge is Q V(r) = 4πε0 r and where V(∞) = 0 The potential diﬀerence between two points A and B is VAB = VB − VA = Vﬁn − Vinit The line integral of the electric ﬁeld on a closed path is zero.5. Then the potential V(r) 204 . The electric ﬁeld is always perpendicular to an equipotential surface.. and located at the origin.73) Gain in potential energy for a charge Q is Gain in Potential Energy=Q [V(Final Position) − V(Initial Position)] The potential at a point r due to N charges Qi at points r′ . oriented along the zaxis. i = 1. N in i rectangular coordinates is i=N Qi V(r) = 2 2 2 ′ + y − y ′ + z − z′ i=1 4πε0 x − xi i i Consider a dipole consisting of charges (Q. The work done to move a charge from r = ∞ to r = r0 is given by r0 r=∞ F • dl = QV(r0 ) (5.
The student learns to calculate the work done to move a charge from point A to B. y. Using the principle of superposition. we learnt to calculate the potential due to many point charges. The concept of potential is introduced: what is the potential due to a point charge at a point r. We explain how the electric ﬁeld and potential are related: E = −∇V The student learns Maxwell’s equation: ∇ × E = 0 for electrostatic ﬁelds. We applied the principle of superposition to the dipole and calculated the potential function and electric ﬁeld at distant points. z) for two inﬁnitely long lines with charge distribution ρl and −ρl is ρl log V(x. Energy and Potential is V= Qd cos θ 4πε0 r2 The electric ﬁeld for such a dipole is Qd cos θ 2πε0 r2 Qd sin θ Eθ = 4πε0 r2 Eφ = 0 Er = The potential at the point r due to continuous distribution of charges is V(r) = R′ dQ(r′ ) 4πε0 r − r′  where ρv (r′ )dV ′ dQ = ρs (r′ )dS′ ρl (r′ )dL′ for a volume charge distribution for a surface charge distribution for a linear charge distribution The potential at any point (x. 205 . We explain how to calculate the gain or loss of potential energy of a charge: Q V f in − Vin . The concept of equipotential surfaces is introduced.5. y) = 2 π ε0 y + d/2 2 + x2 2 2 y − d/2 + x Chapter Summary In this chapter.
Explain why electric ﬁeld lines are perpendicular to equipotential surfaces? 3. Probably the E ﬁeld is conservative. ≈ 10−8 × 0. y and z directions respectively.1) along the following zigzag path (0.1).0) to (1. In free space V = x2 y2 (z + 3). Ans. If we calculated the line integral of a static electric ﬁeld along a closed contour what should be the answer? Justify. The electric ﬁeld near the the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system is E = −(yz + 2xy2z2 )ax − (xz + 2yx2z2 )a y − (yx + 2zy2x2 )az .1. If we calculate the potential at a point in the presence of a number of point sources what is the ’law’ we use and why? 6. Let V = xy2 z . Ans.0) to (1. What happens to is potential energy? 4. For the E ﬁeld of Problem 2 ﬁnd the work done to move a 10 nC charge to move it from (0.1. Explain how work has to be done to move a charge from point A to B. 3.1. −3).031 (W) 4. 5.1) along a straight line. 5. 4.1) in the x. 6.8.0. Ans. Find E at (3. For the E ﬁeld of Problem 2 ﬁnd the work done to move a 10 nC charge to move it from (0.1. ∇ × E = 0. Show that the electric ﬁeld for a line charge and sheet charge satisﬁes the equation ∇×E = 0 2.0. an electron gains momentum. Find the work done on a 10 nC charge to move it by 6 mm from (1. 2 × 10−8 (W) 5.1) in the ax + a y + a y direction. 16 µJ 206 . If the work is positive what does it mean? If it is negative what is the implication? 2. 2) to (2. 1. calculate the energy expended in transferring a −2µC point charge from (1. −1.0) to (1. 288ax + 864a y − 144az 7. Energy and Potential We learnt how to calculate the potential for continuous charge distributions. For the E ﬁeld of Problem 2 ﬁnd the work done to move a 10 nC charge to move it by 6 mm from (1. 6). Problems 1. 2 × 10−8.5.018 (W) in all three cases.0) to (1. Derive an expression for the potential at any point due to a point charge.1. From the answer what do you infer? Ans. Practice Problems and Self Assessment Review Questions 1. Ans.0. Left alone in a static electric ﬁeld with no external force applied.0) to (1. ≈ 10−8 × 0.0.1. Ans.
2) (d) A to D Ans. 0. − cos φ ρ z. 0.0. 0. √ z2 + a2 − z Ans. 4. 6). Energy and Potential 8. 0) to B(4. Ans. In free space. ρs /2ε0 a − tan−1 a z z 14. ρs /2ε0 18. with inner radius b and outer radius a ﬁnd the potential along the axis of the disk. [−2 sin φ ρ z. √ 2 −z 2 2 ] z +y +x z +y +x z +y +x 11. 1. 0) to C(4. (a) 0. 0. To verify that E = [−2 x y (z + 3). Q3 = 3 mC are respectively located at (0. √ 2 2 2 . 4) (−2. 30◦. show that (a) ∇ × E =0 (b) L E • dl = 0 where L is the closed loop of (0. z < 1 Ans. 30◦ . 5.2) (3.3. y. 2. (a) 1. (c) 16 nJ (d) 16 nJ 13.2) (0. The electric ﬁeld in cylindrical coordinates is E = − sin φ zaρ − cos φ zaφ − sin φ ρaz determine the work done in moving a 4 nC charge from (a) A(1. [cos φ e−r sin (θ) .2) (3. −x2 y] is truly an electrostatic ﬁeld. (a) Find the potential Vp at P(−1. 1. For a disk of charge with constant surface charge ρs .5. For a disk of charge with surface charge ρs ρ and radius a ﬁnd the potential along the axis of the disk. (a) 72ax+54a y36az (b) −ε0 /2 C 17. −2 y.0. Determine the electric ﬁeld due to the following potential V = e−r sinθ cos φ cos(φ) e−r cos(θ) sin(φ) e−r . −6) (b) the charge within the cube 0 < x. ρs /2ε0 207 . Determine the electric ﬁeld due to the following potentials (a) V = x + y2 + 2z2 (b) V = (x2 + y2 + z2 )1/2 −y Ans. − sin φ ρ2 ] Ans. Find the work done in carrying a 5C charge from P(1.18×106 V 15. Q2 = −2 mC . 2.3. 0) (b) B(4. − r r 9. 1) (b) Calculate potential diﬀerence VPQ if Q is (1. ] Ans. V = x2 yz V.2). (b) 0. 30◦. For a disk of charge with constant surface charge ρs and radius a ﬁnd the potential along the axis of the disk. 16. −x2 (z + 3). Determine the electric ﬁeld due to the following potential V = ρ2 zsin φ Ans. 2) and (3. −4 z] (b) [ √ 2 −x2 2 . Three point charges Q1 = 1 mC. 0) to C(4. √ √ z2 + a2 − z2 + b2 Ans. 0) in an electric ﬁeld E = −2xzax − x2 az V/m 10. 3) Ans. (a) [−1. −6. 5 W 12. 0) (c) C(4. −2)to R(0. Find (a) E at (3.45×106 V (b) 1.
If V = (10/r2) sin θ V in free space then what is ρv at point P (r = 2. Find the value of ∇2 V if ρv = 0 throughout the region.− . A potential ﬁeld exists in a region where ε = f (x). 208 . θ = 30◦ φ = 0◦ ) ? Ans: Use ∇2 V = −ρv /ε0 . D = εE and ∇ • D = ρv = 0 ∇ • D = ∇ • (− f (x)∇V) = −∇ f • ∇V − f ∇ • ∇V = −[(d f /dx)∂V/∂x + f (x)∇2V] =0 So. Find KE of the electron when it reaches the inner sphere.5. An electron leaves the outer sphere and rushes toward the inner sphere. Ans. ∇2 V = − 1/ f (x) (d f /dx)(∂V/∂x) 3. The potential of the outer sphere is Vout = − Q 4πε0 rout similarly the potential of the inner sphere is Vin = the diﬀerence in PE is Q 4πε0 rin 1 1 eQ − 4πε0 rout rin eQ 1 1 − 4πε0 rout rin we equate this to the KE me v2 /2 = 2. while the outer sphere has radius rout with charge −Q. For the case of two concentric spheres. 0] =[ r3 r3 ∇ • (ε0 E) = ρv 10 = −ε0 4 r sin (θ) and at the point under consideration one can evaluate the expression. Energy and Potential Short Answer Questions with Answers 1. E = −∇V 20 sin (θ) 10 cos (θ) . Ans. the inner sphere has a radius rin with charge Q on it.
Derive an expression for the potential at any point due to a point charge. φA ) and rB = (rB .5. Solution. φ(t)) with rA = (rA .1) (all in meters) the work done is: (a) 10 pJ (b) 10 nJ (c) 10 µJ (d) 0 J (e) None of the above Ans.1. (d) 4. θ(t). (d) 2. θA . For a negative point charge −Q (Q > 0) the point which is taken as V = 0 is (a) Not deﬁned (b) at inﬁnity (c) at 1 m from the charge (d) none of the B B 209 .1) to (1.16. Energy and Potential Q O Figure 5. (b) and (d) 3. Work done in moving a charge Q from point A to B is (a) dependant on the path chosen (b) dependant on the initial and ﬁnal potentials (c) equal to Q A E • dl (d) equal to Q A ∇V • dl Ans. φB ). z = 1) to (1. Which of the following sentences is incorrect? (a) The line of force or ﬂux lines are always normal to equipotential surfaces (b) The conductivity of metals generally decrease with temperature (c) Work done in moving a charge along a closed path in electrostatic ﬁelds is zero (d) None of the above Ans.2. y = 1. Then dl = drar + dθaθ + dφaφ B rB VAB = − A E • dl = − rA Q ar • (drar + dθaθ + dφaφ) 4πε0 r2 rB =− or VAB = rA Q Qdr 1 1 = − 4πε0 r2 4πε0 rB rA Q 1 1 − 4πε0 rB rA Objective Type Questions 1.2) and back to (1. Let the curve be parametrised as (r(t). which of the following statements are correct. In an electrostatic ﬁeld.: Calculation of potential for Problem 4 4. θB . When moving a small charge q = 1 pC in the ﬁeld of a charge Q = 1 µC located at the origin (in air) along the path (x = 1.2.
(b) and (c) 10. (a). Equipotential surfaces (a) may intersect at right angles (b) never intersect (c) may intersect at any angle (d) ∇V is perpendicular to them Ans. When a free electron is placed in an electrostatic ﬁeld it moves (a) from a higher potential to a lower potential (b) from a lower potential to a higher potential (c) perpendicular to equipotential surfaces (d) None of the above Ans. Use E = −∇V. b. If there is a potential ﬁeld V = ax + by + cz where a. For a single charge ∇ × E = 0. 210 . Work done in moving a charge Q in a straight line in an electrostatic ﬁeld which is varying with coordinates is (a) Force × distance (b) F • dl (c) − F • dl (d) −Q E • dl Ans. (c) and (d) 8. 3. The electric lines are (a) directed from a higher potential to a lower potential (b) directed from a lower potential to a higher potential (c) perpendicular to equipotential surfaces (d) None of the above Ans. c are constants. Hint. 2. Hint. and ﬁnd the direction in which the electric ﬁeld points. Can electric ﬁeld lines of electrostatic ﬁelds be closed curves? Research this topic. and (a) The potential at the midpoint between the two charges may be taken as zero (b) ∇V = 0 (c) the potential is the sum of the potentials of each of the charges (d) none of the above Ans. From this concept and the principle of superposition show that ∇ × E applies to ﬁelds generated by all kinds of charges. the potential is V everywhere.5. (a) and (b) 6. For a negative point charge −Q (Q > 0) at a distance of 1 m from the charge (a) V is negative (b) V = −Q/4πε0 (c) V is positive (d) V is zero Ans. (b) and (c) 7. Energy and Potential above Ans. then show that the electric is constant. Consider Eat r = ∇ × Eat r = 1 4πε0 1 4πε0 r − r′ 3 dQat r′ r − r′  ∇× r − r′ 3 V′ V′ dQat r′ r − r′  where the ∇× acts only on the r coordinate. (b) 5. For two equal point charges Q. (a) and (c) 9. Hint. (b) and (d) Open Book Exam Questions 1. Use E = −∇V and the concept of equipotential surfaces.
5. Find the potential along the axis of a circular disk of charge of surface charge ρs and radius a.: Charged disk for OBEQ Problem 4 4. V (r) = = Disk ρs dS′ ′ Disk 4πε0 r − r  4 π ε0 φ′ ρs dS′ = ρ′ ρs dρ′ ρ′ dφ′ 4 π ε0 4 π ε0 ρs dρ′ ρ′ dφ′ ρs √ 2 2 z +a −z 2ε0 ρ′ φ′ (z − z′ )2 + y − y′ 2 + (x − x′)2 z2 + y ′ 2 + x ′ 2 z2 + ρ′2 = = *** Chapter complete *** maybe 1Q to be added to OBEQ 211 .17. Energy and Potential Figure 5.
The student learns the following 1. The relationship between the electric ﬁeld and the current density. The concept of current and current density. The concept of mobile charge density.1. First we will consider conductors which support currents.6. How charge and current are related. 7. 6. 5. How the electric ﬁelds behave at the boundary of two media: he learns how ﬁelds behave. The concept of velocity of mobile charge carriers and its connection with the current density. In dielectrics.2. 6. Current and Current Density Broadly there are three types of media which interact with electric ﬁelds giving rise to diﬀerent types of results. each student must take the responsibility for his own education. The concept of conservation of charge and the continuity equation. and. semiconductors and dielectrics. —John Carolus S. The criteria under materials become conductors. 10. 4. These are conductors.J. In conductors and semiconductors electric ﬁelds give rise to the ﬂow of charge or electric currents. 212 . What is the energy stored in the electrostatic ﬁeld. The Electric Field and Material Media No matter how good teaching may be. as a prelude to charge ﬂow we need to understand come key concepts. 2. semiconductors and dielectrics. In conductors the charges are predominantly electrons. the charges are not free to move and the electric ﬁeld polarises the molecules comprising the nucleus and valence electrons. Chapter Goals In this chapter we will discuss how the electric ﬁeld interacts with materials. 8. while in semiconductors charge ﬂow is due to both electrons and holes. 9. 3. 6. After reading the chapter the student will understand various concepts and also learns how ﬁelds interact with materials. How to calculate the capacitance.
1) Area A I= dQ/dt Charge dQ moves through A in time dt ≡ I(t) Straight Wire Figure 6. So if Q is the total charge crossing the crosssection. The charge crossing any crosssection of the wire in time dt is given by the current dQ = Idt Step 2.2 A wire carries a current of I = 1 exp{−3t} (A). it is calculated by 3 3 Q= 0 Idt = 0 1 exp{−3t}dt = 1 − e−9 = 0. EXAMPLE 6. The charge crossing any crosssection of the wire in time dt is given by the current dQ = Idt. So if Q is the total charge crossing the crosssection in 1 s is t0 +1 t0 +1 Q= t0 Idt = I t0 dt = 1 (C) EXAMPLE 6. Find the total charge passing a plane perpendicular to the crosssection of the wire from t = 0 to t = 3 s. The Electric Field and Material Media Charge ﬂow of any type.33 (C) 3 Since current is calculated from the movement of charge.1 A wire carries a constant current of 1 A.: Deﬁnition of current The equivalent straight wire carrying a current is also shown. Step 1.3) ˆ • n∆S (6.6. Current is deﬁned as the total charge ﬂow per second through the crosssection of a conductor. and which should give us the current.5) 213 . Step 2. whether of the positive or negative variety gives rise to currents. J.1. consider a straight conductor of crosssectional area A through which a charge dQ passes in time dt. which is a current density in amp/m2 . That is the small current which passes through the small surface element ∆S is ∆I = J • ∆S ˆ = J • n∆S = J =J to n • n∆S ˆ ˆ ˆ to n + J⊥ to n ˆ (6.4) (6. Then the current I is given by I = dQ/dt (6. To be speciﬁc. we deﬁne a vector ﬁeld. and the crosssection of the conductor. Step 1. Find the total charge passing a plane perpendicular to the crosssection of the wire in 1 s.2) (6.
when the average velocity of a small volume of charge is v. which is termed as a convection current. Furthermore. say in air1 . The meaning of term mobile will become clear shortly. then the current density should be proportional to the instantaneous velocity of that volume J∝v (6.m2 ) = [x](m/sec) where [x] are the units of some quantity. then I= Area o f CS 1 J • dS = JA Such as in a Van de Graaﬀ generator 214 .7) U Where ρm is the mobile charge density. The equation says that at any point. It is important to note here that there may be current in a nonconducting medium which may be due to motion of charge between two points.2. EXAMPLE 6.6.6) Looking at the units. which may also lead to a current. So [x] = ρm . The units of J are (C/s). Then [x] = C/m3 But C/m3 are the units of the charge density. The relation between ∆I.: The current and J.(1/m2) while the units of v are m/sec so U C/(sec. If I is the current.3 In a straight wire of diameter 1 mm the current is 1 A ﬁnd the magnitude of the current density if the charges are uniformly distributed across the crosssection of the wire. J = ρm v (6. the current density J is equal to the product of the charge density and the velocity with which the charge is moving at that point. The Electric Field and Material Media J ˆ n ˆ n J J to n ˆ J⊥ to n ˆ dS (a) dS (b) Figure 6. This equation applies to both convection as well as conduction currents. J and ∆S are shown in the accompanying ﬁgure. A the area of crosssection and J the current density. Step 1.
the mobile charge carriers would be electrons. we can see that a small number of charge carriers. In the case of a metal ρm is the density of the charge contributed by the conduction band electrons.3. We concentrate on a small rectangular parallelepiped. The Electric Field and Material Media Step 2. the density of charge carriers and J the current density. making the medium neutral. buried in the medium.10) respectively.2732 × 106 (A/m2) ∆x ∆x ∆z ∆x ∆y ∆z ∆x (a) 3−D View (b) Side View Figure 6. That is. ∆V = ∆x∆y∆z. ∆y and∆z. Now if each carrier caries a charge q then the total charge in the parallelepiped would be equal to Nq.6. Referring to the ﬁgure. Please note that ρm must not be confused by the excess charge density ρv . We2 visualise a situation when a conducting medium containing mobile charge carriers is under the inﬂuence of an external electric ﬁeld in the ax direction. with sides ∆x. are enclosed by it. Or the charge enclosed by this volume. in the case of a metal.: Concepts concerning charge transport If we now refer the next ﬁgure we can understand some important concepts concerning ρm . which shows such a parallelepiped. N. For a metal. the charge contribution due to the number of mobile free electrons is equal to the charge contribution due to the metal nuclei. Note that generally no ﬁeld 2 The explanation given below is an extremely simpliﬁed one to help the reader visualise the concepts involved 215 . would be ∆Q = Nq (6. So J = I/A = 1/(π × (0. the medium is electrically neutral.8) And the density of charge carriers and charge would be n= and ρm = N ∆V (6.001/2)2) = 1.9) ∆Q = nq ∆V (6. n. For example. the mobile charge density.
we get the number of atoms/m3 . So if each atom contributes a maximum of 1 electron to the conduction band. ∆z is ∆I = J • ∆S I= where J = ρm ∆x ax = ρm v ∆t (6. the total (elemental) current through the face with sides ∆y.022 × 1023/107. The average velocity4 is v ≅ ax ∆x/∆t (6. 5. The Electric Field and Material Media may be produced by ρm 3 .16) J • ∆S (6.17) Step 3.58 × 1024 × 10.4 Estimate the mobile charge density.15) (6. Or the number of atoms per kg is 6. The valency of silver is 1.86 × 1028 atoms/m3 (6. Step 1. of silver.6.9.12) If in small time ∆t charges get displaced by a distance ∆x then the parallelepiped enclosing the charges moves parallel to itself as shown. silver has an atomic weight of 107.18) Step 4. Since the charge carriers have moved.86 × 1028 × −1.11) The parallelepiped should be placed in such a way that the side ∆x should be oriented along the direction of motion of the carriers as shown. The density of silver is 10.5 × 103 kg/m3 .13) (6.20) Which is this maximum value of the mobile charge density. 4 We are assuming that all the charge carriers are moving in the same direction 3 216 .58 × 1024 atoms/Kg (6. So 107.5 × 103 = 5. It may so happen that these mobile charge carriers may accumulate somewhere and cause excess charges.14) ∆S = ∆y∆zax EXAMPLE 6.19) (6.602 × 10−19 = −9.9 gm have NA = 6. In that case an electric ﬁeld will be produced. In most cases ∇•D ρm (6.39 × 10 C/m 9 3 (6. ρm = 5.022 × 1023 atoms.9 × 103 = 5. ρm . Step 2. Multiplying the number of atoms/kg by the density of silver (kg/m3 ).
Continuity Equation ˆ n J V J • dS = − I= ∂ρv /∂t dV J • dS = dQ/dt S ρv Figure 6.4. From Example 6. J = 1.: Figure illustrating the continuity equation Let us apply the divergence theorem to J.3 estimate the magnitude of the velocity v of the mobile charge carriers.21) V S But S J • dS = Current leaving the volume = I = − dQ dt (6. We use the Formula 6.22) The negative sign indicates that the charge inside the volume is decreasing.36 × 10−4 (m/s) 6.3. The Electric Field and Material Media EXAMPLE 6.5 Using ρm for silver. in a region where there are currents.39 × 109v Step 2.7.24) 217 . But Q = ρv dV. So ∂ ρv dV (6. Step 1.3.6. Referring to Figure 6. J = ρm v = −9.2732 × 106 so v = 1.4. and J from Example 6.23) ∇ • JdV = − ∂t Or since space coordinates and time are independent of each other we can change the order of diﬀerentiation and integration: ∂ ∂t ρv dV = ∂ρv dV ∂t (6. ∇ • JdV = J • dS (6.
29) Step 3. z1 . namely. Considering a Gaussian surface: lower and upper surfaces: z = z0 . Step 1. Let the wire be oriented in the z direction. EXAMPLE 6. EXAMPLE 6. Step 2. If we take the divergence of this equation ∇ • (∇ × H) = ∇ • (∂D/∂t + J) (6. Namely. Charge is neither created nor destroyed.27) The importance of the contiuity equation is that it tells us that charge is conserved. and ∇ • (∂D/∂t) = ∂/∂t(∇ • D) (since space and time are independent of each other) the previous equation becomes ∇•J = − ∂ ∇•D ∂t ∂ρv =− ∂t (6.25) This is the continuity equation.30) where we have used Gauss’s Law. side √ surface ρ = a (= A/π) 5 This is a little advanced 218 .26) ∂ρv dV ∂t (6.6 5 Obtain the continuity equation from Maxwell’s equations We can get this result from Maxwell’s equations as well.6. Step 1. which has a current term present in it. It connects the current density with the rate of change of charge in any region of space. And the integral form is J • dS = − ∂ρv dV ∂t (6.7 Apply the continuity equation to a straight wire carrying a current I and circular crosssectional area A.28) The equation says that the curl of H is equal to the current density plus the rate of change of the ﬂux density. Using the identity ∇ • (∇ × A) = 0. The Electric Field and Material Media Using the last result: ∇ • JdV = − Which becomes ∇•J = − ∂ρv ∂t (6. Step 2. ∇ × H = ∂D/∂t + J (6. ∇ • D = ρv .
In semiconductors (part (b) of the ﬁgure) the two bands do not overlap: there is about a 1 eV 6 gap between the upper edge of the valence band and lower edge of the conduction band.5. In this case electrons never acquire enough energy to move from the valence band to the conduction band. So J • dS = − ρv dQ dV = dt dt 6. 2. In the case of dielectrics (part (c) of the ﬁgure) the band gap is of the order of 67 eV. A conduction band whose lower edge is generally higher than the upper edge of the valence band. such as metals. Conductors. Semiconductors and Dielectrics The band theory of materials postulates that the outermost shell of atoms have two types of energy bands. 219 . This is shown in the (a) part of the ﬁgure. 1.33) we ﬁnd that J • dS = Step 4. (as shown in Figure 4. the conduction band overlaps the valence band and at room temperature the charge carriers are electrons. Here if electrons are present. Normally the conduction band is empty but at room temperature some electrons acquire enough energy migrate from the valence band to the conduction band giving rise to two types of charge carriers: conduction band electrons and valence band holes. Under the inﬂuence of an external electric ﬁeld the nuclei and the valence band electrons take part in formation of minuscule dipoles.4. With J • dS = 0 (No current leaves through the side) J • dS = − Bottom Lower surface J • dS + Upper surface J • dS + Side J • dS Side Top J • dS = IA Step 5. where the electrons are tightly bound to the nucleus. A valence band. Referring to Figure 6. Also since there is no accumulation of charge with time dQ =0 dt Q = constant = 0 Step 6.6. The Electric Field and Material Media Step 3. they take part in current formation under the inﬂuence of external ﬁelds. These electrons do not take part in charge transport. In conductors.
6.: Ohm’s law − 220 . (b) Semiconductors. The ﬁgure shows the valence and conduction band in (a) Metals.6.: The energy levels of the outermost shell of materials.5. and (c) Dielectrics Area A Conductivity =σ Current I Length l + Voltage V Figure 6. The Electric Field and Material Media C Energy C ≅ 1 eV C C: Conduction Band BG > 6 − 7 eV BG V: Valence Band BG: Band Gap Holes Electrons V (a) V (b) V (c) Figure 6.
The Electric Field and Material Media 6.37) where v is the average velocity of electrons. a is the acceleration and τ is the mean free time between collisions.1.32) Going over to ﬁeld quantities.33) (6. As we know. However on acceleration they are slowed down by collinsions with the atoms of the lattice. If l is the length of the conductor.36) This is Ohm’s law in vector form. The electric ﬁeld E = V/l The conduction current density is J = I/A then El = JA E= J σ J = σE l σA (6. In a good conductor σ can take very large values. Conductors and Resistance We all know Ohm’s Law which applies to a conductor V = IR (6. a= so v = 6 eE me eτE me (6.34) (6.6. So v = aτ (6.39) which is ≅ 40kT. We can look upon a metal in a microscopic form. The average energy of electrons in the material is at most only few kT 221 .4.31) V and I are the voltage across and through the conductor while R is the resistance of the conductor. Due to the presence of an electric ﬁeld. A the area of crosssection and σ the conductivity of the material R= l σA (6. electrons are accelerated. The vector equation is J = σE (6.38) (6.35) The two quantities E and J are actually vectors while σ is a scalar.
What is the current due to this ﬁeld in a wire of d =1 mm diameter? Step 1.7. This is a very high current density. tends to inﬁnity. The resistor consists of deposited material of conductivity σ and thickness t in a coaxial mode.96 × 10−7 m2 A=π 2 Step 3. Copper practically satisﬁes the deﬁnition.9 Find the resistance of the nonuniform resistor whose geometry is shown in Figure 6. For the small section between ρ and ρ + dρ the resistance dR is dR = dρ σρθt 222 . The Electric Field and Material Media Figure 6. σ. So an electric ﬁeld of E = 1 V/m gives J = σE = 58.14 × 106 /m.7.: A nonuniform resistor or J = ρm v = so σ= ρm eτE me (6.4 × 106 A/m2 Step 2.8 Find the current density in copper for an electric ﬁeld of 1 V/m. EXAMPLE 6.40) (6. A 1 mm diameter wire has an area of 2 d = 1. Copper has a conductivity of 58.6.46 A A perfect conductor is one whose conductivity. The current in the wire is therefore I = JA = 11. Step 1. The current enters the resistor at ρ = a and leaves at ρ = b.41) ρm eτ me EXAMPLE 6.
6 × 1018 ln ρv (t f ) = −6. What happens? First of all from Gauss’s law a D ﬁeld develops. Relaxation Time for Conductors Suppose in a conductor charge accumulates somewhere in the interior of a conductor. The rate at which the charge dissipates is proportional to exp{−σ/ε0t}. the charge dissipates.2. EXAMPLE 6.43) (6. they have to be added together. R≅ inﬁnite number dρ σρθt or R= 1 σθt b a dρ 1 b = ln ρ σθt a (6.6 × 1018t f −41.3 × 10−18 s Step 4. Step 1.4.28. Also since we are working in a conductor. ∇ × H = ∂D/∂t + J Since there is no magnetic ﬁeld. Since Step 2. Therefore Step 3.44) Equation 6. D = ε0 E = (ε0 /σ) J ∂J σ + J=0 ∂t ε0 J = J0 e − εσ t 0 (6.44 says that after the accumulation of charge at any point.10 A charge of 1 C accumulates in copper. a current density develops which dissipates the charge till no further remains.42) 6. For copper J = J0 e ρv (t) = ρv0 e − εσ t 0 − εσ t 0 = 1e − εσ t 0 σ/ε0 = 6. The Electric Field and Material Media Step 2.6. for some reason. Since all these miniscule resistors are in series along the path of the current. From Equation 6. Taking natural logarithms on both sides 223 .6 × 1018t f t f = 6. then at any point ∂D/∂t + J = 0 Also at that point. Find the time it takes to dissipate to 10−18 C.44 = −6.
The conductor carries a current of 1 A. Step 1. and the electric ﬁeld is a linear one for any particular material vd = −µe E (6. they continue to move in the manner discussed.46) where µe is a constant called the mobility.6. EXAMPLE 6. vd .47) (6. and so on.45) Electron E vd ≡ v = −µE Normal thermal motion Motion when E field is present Figure 6. The relationship between the drift velocity. The Electric Field and Material Media we can see that even if a 1 C charge accumulates in copper. The negative sign is there since the motion of electrons are in the opposite direction of the ﬁeld. Electrons are under constant thermal motion. the electric ﬁeld dissipates at the same rate E = E0 e−(σ/ε0 )t (6. J is J= I πr2 = 1. then hit another atom. somewhat as shown in the ﬁgure.27 × 106amp/m2 J = ρm vd (6.11 Estimate the drift velocity of electrons for silver in a conductor of diameter 1 mm carrying a current of 1 Amp and compare the result with the velocities attained due to thermal motion. As they move about in the conductor lattice they impinge upon the stationary metal atoms.44 and using J = σE. but along with that they constantly ’drift’ slowly against the ﬁeld. The total motion of such a large number of these mobile electrons together constitutes a current. it dissipates in the twinkling of an eye! Is there an electric ﬁeld in a conductor due to accumulation of charge? Observing Equation 6. rebound.48) Step 2. So the current density.8. Under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld. Recall that 224 . Also estimate the mobility for silver.: The motion of electrons under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld The mechanism by which actual conduction takes place is as follows.
So vd ≅ 1. There would be a charge on the surface but distributed in such a way that only a normal resultant electric 225 .50) (6. The right side would be positively charged due to the stationary nuclei bereft of electrons. Since vd = µe E so the mobility for silver is µe ≅ 6.) Step 5.6. The migration of the electrons to the left as shown in Figure 6. which would set up large currents. The argument is that if there was a ﬁeld inside there would be a perpetual migration of charges producing heat which is not seen in practice.51) (If we compare the drift velocity of electrons with the thermal velocity of electrons we ﬁnd that there is many orders of magnitude diﬀerence between the two as shown now. Step 3.36 × 10−4 m/s.25 × 107 /m.4. The experimental value of σ for silver is. For T = 3000 K 1 me v2 = kT th 2 vth = 2kT me ≅ 9. Let us estimate the velocity of an electron whose kinetic energy is exactly 1 kT. just to get an idea of the velocities involved. Step 7. Step 6.9 (a). In the case of Figure 6.02032 V/m Step 5.39 × 109 C/m3 for silver from Example 6.9 (b) would result in a zero resultant ﬁeld inside the conductor. The Electric Field and Material Media and the value for ρm = 9.65 × 10−3 m2 /(V.5 × 104m/s Compare this value with vd ≅ 1. σ = 6. What would happen? Initially there would be a ﬁeld inside the conductor. which gives the value of the electric ﬁeld to be E ≅ 0. The kinetic energy of electron under normal thermal motion is about a few kT.s) (6. The electric ﬁeld is related to J by J = σE (6. Suppose a conductor was suddenly immersed in an electric ﬁeld. the electrons would move very quickly against the direction of the electric ﬁeld and on the left side of the conductor.49) Step 4. On the surface of the conductor. for the same reason. there would be no tangential electric ﬁeld since the charges would migrate on the surface perpetually.52) (6.36 × 10−4 m/s The drift velocity.
When r1 > r > r0 the electric ﬁeld inside the metal is zero. 6.54) 226 . then what happens? Example 6. by Gauss’s law.10 (a) Find the ﬁelds everywhere and discuss. Charges are present on the surface but distribute themselves so as to make the surface an equipotential one EXAMPLE 6. (b) If the shell is grounded.53) Step 2. On the surface of the conductor electric ﬁelds are only normal to the surface 3. The surface charge σ0 (r = r0 ) = Total Charge Q C/m2 =− Total Surface Area 4πr2 0 (6. if we recall.6.12 part (a) Step 1. No electrostatic ﬁeld is present inside a conductor 2. These results are summarised 1. the total charge enclosed must be zero. Which means that the inside surface of metal shell must have a uniform surface charge whose total value is −Q. The Electric Field and Material Media E E E E − E=0 − −− − − ++ − − − ++ + + + + + E (a) E field suddenly introduced (b) After a while Figure 6. The surface of the conductor would be a equipotential surface. We now increase the radius of the Gaussian sphere. the electric ﬁeld is given by E= Q ˆ r r < r0 V/m 4πε0 r2 (6. So. We neglect the small hole as it will not change the ﬁelds greatly.: Conductor in the presence of an external ﬁeld ﬁeld would be present.9. Using a spherical Gaussian surface with the charge Q as centre and radius r < r0 .12 A spherical metal shell with inner radius r0 and outer radius r1 has a very small hole in it through which a positive charge Q is introduced as shown in the ﬁgure. We proceed to apply all we have learnt to the case of a charge Q enclosed by a spherical shell.
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
Hole to introduce charge + + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 −− 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 − + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 r1 − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 − r0 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000+ 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + − Q 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 − − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + − 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 − −− 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 + + 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 +
Figure 6.10.: A charge Q enclosed by a spherical shell
Step 3. The ﬁeld satisﬁes all the conditions discussed: the ﬁeld inside the metal is zero; it is normal to the metal surface r = r0 , and since there are no tangential components of the E ﬁeld, the surface r = r0 is an equipotential surface. Step 4. Mobile electrons have moved to the inner surface of the shell. So the outer surface develops a surface charge which is positive. Since the inner surface has a total charge equal to −Q, the outer surface must have a total charge of Q consisting of the immobile nuclei whose outer electrons have migrated to the inner surface of the shell. Now on increasing the radius of the Gaussian surface still further, r > r1 , the total charge enclosed is once again Q: Q at the centre, −Q on the inner surface and Q on the outer surface. Step 5. The electric ﬁeld then becomes E= Q ˆ r r > r0 V/m 4πε0 r2 (6.55)
and the surface charge on the outer surface is σ1 (r = r1 ) = Example 6.12 part (b) Step 1. When we ground the outer surface which is positively charged, negative charge rushes in from ground and neutralises all the positive charge on the outer surface. The inner surface is still negatively charged because of the presence of the charge at the centre, and the electric ﬁeld inside the shell is Q C/m2 4πr2 1 (6.56)
227
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
unchanged. Outside the inner surface there is no electric ﬁeld anywhere Q ˆ r < r0 2r (6.57) E = 4πε0 r 0 r>r
0
6.4.3. The Method of Images
Normally charges are present in situations where other material media are also present. What happens when we introduce a large ground plane near a positively charged point charge? Obviously 1. The surface of ground plane will become charged with negative charges; 2. The ground plane will become an equipotential surface. So 3. The electric ﬁeld will be be perpendicular to the ground plane at all points on the surface of the ground plane.
Q E field streamlines +
−
−
Charge − −− − − − − − SurfaceC/m2 σ Ground plane
−Q
Figure 6.11.: A point charge near an inﬁnite ground plane
In fact whenever a conductor is introduced near any charge distribution, the what has been outlined in the enumerated points 1 to 3 will always take place. The situation will be somewhat as shown in Figure 6.11. The ﬁgure rings a bell. If we recall the electric ﬁeld of a dipole the ﬁelds look similar— not only is the electric ﬁeld similar, but the ﬁeld above the ground plane is indeed the same. The solution of such types of problems is done by a well known method, namely, the method of images. In this method, 1. We start with some set of charges which give us the electric ﬁeld and the potential everywhere. 2. If some potential surface is replaced by a thin metal plane then the electric ﬁeld and the potential ﬁeld are not disturbed because the metal acts like an equipotential surface. 3. We have now a new problem which consists of the same set of charges and the metal plane which we have just put in place
228
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
Sphere
Figure 6.12.: Method of images applied to a single charge and a sphere.
4. The problem outlined in the enumerated 3 above has the solution as in 1. EXAMPLE 6.13 Apply the method of images to the dipole problem Step 1. Using the formula of Section 5.5, the potential due to the two identical charges is Q V(r) = 4 π ε0 1 z− d 2
2
+ y2 + x2
−
d z+ 2
Step 2. In this equation let z = 0. Immediately we can see that V(r)z=0 = 0 which is an equipotential surface. Step 3. Between the positive and negative charges, at half the distance between them, the potential surface V = 0 is an inﬁnite plane. Step 4. An inﬁnite metal plane can now be introduced right there. The ﬁelds everywhere are the same as before. The lower charge can be removed, and the ﬁelds above the plane are still the same, while the ﬁelds below the plane vanish. EXAMPLE 6.14 Apply the method of images to the problem of a single charge placed inside of a sphere as shown in Figure 6.12 The method of images may be applied to a sphere as analysed by Tikhonov (1963) who considers the case of a point charge in a hollow metallic sphere. Step 1. Referring to the ﬁgure, we would like to ﬁnd the potential, V(r), inside a sphere of radius R, centred at O, due to a point charge q inside the sphere at position a. Step 2. The stipulation is that the image of this charge with respect to the ﬁrast charge for the sphere is placed at (R/a)2a. It has a charge of −qR/a. Step 3. Hence for the conﬁguration of the two charges shown,
1 2 + y2 + x2
(6.58)
229
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
V(r) =
Step 4. In the above expression if we put r = R, then V(R) =
q (−qR/a) 1 + (anywhere) 4πǫ0 r1  r2  q (qR/a) 1 √ = − 4πǫ0 r2 + a2 − 2ar cos θ 4 2 2 + R − 2R ar cos θ r 2 2 a a q q 1 √ = − 2 2 4πǫ0 r + a − 2ar cos θ 2 a2 r + R2 − 2ar cosθ
R2
(6.59)
Step 4. We can therefore see that V = 0 on the sphere.
q q 1 − √ =0 √ 4πǫ0 2 + a2 − 2aR cosθ 2 + R2 − 2aR cos θ R a
Step 5. Therefore the potential inside the sphere for a single charge q is given by Equation 6.59.
6.4.4. Semiconductors
A semiconductor behaves just like a conductor does, except that there are two kinds of charge carriers. This is so because valence electrons acquire enough energy to enter the conduction band, and they interact with the electric ﬁeld and give rise to currents. On the other hand atoms bereft of electrons in the valence band become positively charged, they also become charge carriers as well. These are called holes. Since there are two types of charge carriers Je = ρme ve = −ρme µe E
(6.60)
Jh = ρmh vh = ρmh µh E where Je is the electron current density Jh is the hole current density ρme is the mobile electron charge density ρmh is the mobile hole charge density ve is the electron drift velocity vh is the hole drift velocity µe is the electron mobility of the material
(6.61)
230
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
µh is the hole mobility of the material and E is the electric ﬁeld within the semiconductor In any conducting material ρm = nq (6.62) ρm , being the mobile charge carrier density; n, the carrier concentration (number/m3 ); and q, the value of the charge: q = e for electrons and q = −e for holes. Using these expressions J = Jh + Je = −nh evh + ne eve
(6.63)
Where ne is the electron concentration and nh is the hole concentration. The velocity of the holes is in the direction of the electric ﬁeld, while the velocity of the electrons is in the direction opposite to the ﬁeld. vh = µh E ve = −µe E (6.64) (6.65)
J = −nh eµh E − neeµe E = σE σ = −nh eµh − ne eµe σ will be positive since e is negative. σ = nh e µh + ne e µe
(6.66) (6.67)
(6.68)
EXAMPLE 6.15 A sample of silicon is doped with a type 3 element (having 3 outermost electrons) with an eﬀective concentration of 3 × 1023 atoms per m3 . Find the conductivity of the material. µe = 0.14 and µp = 0.05 m2 /(Vs). e = −1.6 × 10−19C. Step 1. The sample is silicon, a type 4 element and a semiconductor. Step 2. The impurity is type 3 so the material is a ptype semiconductor. nh = 3 × 1023. Step 3. Since nh ≫ ne (due to the presence of an impurity) σ ≅ nh µh e = 2400. /m
231
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
Did you know? John Bardeen (1908 – 1991), an American physicist and engineer, is the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice. First with W. Shockley and W. Brattain in 1956 for the invention of the transistor, and then 1972 when he proposed a fundamental theory of superconductivity (in collaboration with others.) The transistor as we all know has fundamentally changed society with the development of microminiaturised electronic components and has made available many modern electronic devices: the telephone, television and computers among many others. Bardeen’s proposed theory is also used in MRIs a .
a Magnetic
Resonance Imaging
6.4.5. Dielectrics
Referring to Figure 6.5 on page 220, dielectric materials are those materials which have a minimum band gap of 67 eV between the valence band and conduction band. For conduction to take place, electrons must be present in the conduction band. If one remembers that 1 eV corresponds to an energy diﬀerence of about 40 kT at room temperature, a quick calculation based on the MaxwellBoltzmann model shows that, very very few electrons have enough energy to enter the conduction band. Any book on semiconductor physics will help the reader understand this point (Tyagi 2004 Sze 1969). As a result, practically all the electrons are present in the valence band and are tightly bound to the nucleus. A detailed treatment of dielectrics will not be given here, but the basic idea is that a dielectric polarises under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld into dipole moments at the atomic/molecular levels. A ﬁgure of how this takes place is included.
Nucleas
  +   Electron cloud (a)
  +  
(b)

+
Figure 6.13.: Polarisation of a single molecule under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld. (a) molecule when the ﬁeld is absent (b) molecule when the ﬁeld is present
The ﬁgure shows the two cases, the ﬁrst case (a) when no ﬁeld is present. An electron cloud exists and spherical symmetry is maintained. In the second case (b), the electron cloud shifts to the left as the ﬁeld is directed toward the right. The dipole that is created has a dipole moment p = qd C − m (6.69)
where d is the position vector directed from the negative charge to the positive charge.
232
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
Since we are talking at an atomic level we can talk of a polarisation density, P, which is the number of dipole moments/m3 , but which have been added vectorially. If in a very small volume ∆V there are N dipoles then 1 P = lim ∆V→0 ∆V
N i=1
Then, it turns out that under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld E, the relationship between E and P is a linear one P = ε0 χe E (6.71)
pi
(6.70)
where χe is called the electric susceptibility. The ﬂux density in the dielectric material is related to E and P by the relation D = ε0 E + P = ε0 E (1 + χe) = ε0 εr E εr = 1 + χe is the relative dielectric constant. EXAMPLE 6.16 Find the polarisation density in a dielectric material of εr = 1.5 immersed in an electric ﬁeld of 1 V/m. Step 1. First Step 2. As a second step χe = εr − 1 = 0.5 P = ε0 χe E = ε0 × 0.5 C/m2 (6.72) (6.73) (6.74)
6.5. Capacitance
If we connect two metal bodies by an emf source like a battery we ﬁnd that current ﬂows from one body to the other, through the source. As the current ﬂows one of the masses becomes negatively charged while the other becomes the positively charged. Since each of the two masses is a conductor, each becomes an equipotential surface, with potentials which we designate as V+ and V− . It is obvious that V = V+ − V− , where V is the emf of the battery. When this potential diﬀerence is reached, the current stops ﬂowing and charge is established on each body, as shown in the ﬁgure, according to the ’capacity’ of the system. The capacitance of this conﬁguration is deﬁned as C= Q V (6.75)
233
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
V = V+ − V− V+
+Q
V−
−Q
Figure 6.14.: Two metal bodies representing a capacitor
6.5.1. Parallel Plate Capacitor
The capacitance of various conﬁgurations are very important from the viewpoint of electrical engineering. In ’low frequency’ (from d.c all the way up to hundreds of megahertz) circuits, capacitors are required and their design is of paramount importance. In this section we investigate the approximate capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor, with plate area A, separation d and ﬁlled with a dielectric with dielectric constant εr . The accompanying ﬁgure, Figure 6.15, shows such a parallel plate capacitor.
1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 ǫ 1111 0000 1111111 0000000 1111 0000 1111111 0000000 1111 0000
z b a 2h y x (a)
Area A
r
111111 000000 111111 000000
+Q d −Q (b)
(c)
Figure 6.15.: Geometry and ﬁelds of the parallel plate capacitor (a)3D view (b) Crosssection (c) Rough sketch of the electric ﬁeld
To investigate this conﬁguration, let the top and bottom plates of the capacitance have a charge Q and −Q, respectively. The surface charge density, ρs and −ρs , on the inner surfaces of the top and bottom plates may be approximated
234
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
by Q/A and −Q/A respectively. We draw a Gaussian surface which would be a rectangular parallelepiped with sides a= depth, b = width and height = 2h. Let only half the height, h, be toward the bottom plate and the other half above the top plate. The electric ﬁeld lines would run from the inner surface of the top plate to the inner surface of the bottom plate (see 154). Applying Gauss’s theorem to the the parallelepiped
D • dS =
sides
D • dS +
top surface
D • dS +
bottom surface
D • dS
(6.76)
Recalling the case of a sheet of charge, we expect that, to a ﬁrst approximation, on the inner surface of the upper plate, D will have the form D = [0, 0, −Dz ]. On the upper surface of the top plate, however, D will be approximately zero.
sides
D • dS =
left side
D y • −a y dydz + +
behind
right side
D y • a y dydz Dx • ax dydz (6.77)
Dx • (−ax ) dydz +
front
Now from the formulation Dx and D y on the sides will be approximately zero. Hence D • dS ≅ 0
sides
The ﬁeld on the upper surface of the top plate would also be zero. So D • dS ≅ 0
top surface
Only on the bottom surface we can expect the integral to be nonzero.
x=x0 +a bottom surface y=y0 +b y=y0
D • dS =
(−Dz ) (−az ) dxdy
x=x0
= Dz ab The charge enclosed is ρs ab where ρs is the surface charge density on the inner Q surface. Recall that ρs = A Q ab A Dz = ε0 εr Ez = Q/A Q Ez = (ε0 εr A)
Dz ab = ρs ab =
(6.78)
235
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
The potential diﬀerence between the plates would be V = Ez d = and C= Qd (ε0 εr A) (6.79)
Q ε0 εr A ≈ V d
(6.80)
which is the approximate value of the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor. In this formulation, we have neglected the fringing ﬁelds at the extreme ends of the capacitor plates, and the ﬁelds on the outer surfaces of the both the top and bottom plates.
6.5.2. Coaxial Line
We look at another example, that of a coaxial line. The importance of the capacitance (per meter) of a coaxial line is important in transmission line theory. Much of the television cables laid by cable companies consist of coaxial lines. Computer cables also consist of two and fourwire lines. In this section we investigate the capacitance of the coaxial line shown in Figure 6.16. The inner and outer conductors have a radii of a and b respectively. Between the the two conductors there is a dielectric of dielectric constant εr . The surface charge density on the inner surface is ρs C/m2 . Radius b
C=
1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000
Radius a
2πεr ε0 loge b a
F/m
Gaussian surface Length h, radius ρ Dielectric εr
Figure 6.16.: Capacitance of a coaxial line
We assume that the ﬁelds are radial, that is, they diverge from the positive charge on the inner conductor to the negative charge on the outer conductor. Therefore the ﬂux density ﬁeld, D is assumed to have a structure, D = Dρ , 0, 0 in the cylindrical coordinate system. The ﬁeld is also assumed to be uniform throughout the length of the of the coaxial line. A Gaussian surface is drawn as shown in Figure 6.16. The surface is cylindrical with a radius, ρ, a < ρ < b
236
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
and the length of the cylinder is h. Integrating on the Gaussian surface D • dS = =
cylinderical surface
sides
D • dS +
cylinderical surface
D • dS
D • dS
=
cylindrical surface z0 +h 2π 0
Dρ ρ dφdz
=
z0
Dρ ρ dφdz (6.81)
= 2ρhπDρ The total charge enclosed is Q= =
z0 0
ρdSdz
z0 +h 2π
ρs a dφdz (6.82)
= h × ρsa2π equating these two equations 2ρhπDρ = hρs a2π = Q ρs a ρ ρs a Eρ = ρεr ε0 Dρ = The potential diﬀerence between the inner and outer conductor is
b
(6.83) (6.84) (6.85)
Vab =
a
E • dl =
ρs a εr ε0
b ρs a ρs a b loge ρ = loge εr ε0 εr ε0 a a
(6.86) (6.87)
Q = Vab
hρs a2π loge b a
=
2πεr ε0 h loge
b a
This is the capacitance of a length h of the structure. For h = 1 m, the capacitance/meter is C= 2πεr ε0 loge
b a
F/m
(6.88)
237
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
6.5.3. Two Conductor Line7
Let us look at the example of a two conductor line illustrated in Figure 6.17. We ﬁnd the capacitance of such a structure using a slightly convoluted approach to a structure which we have tackled earlier. Each conductor has radius a and their centres are separated by a distance D. The surface charge density on the left and right conductor are such that the the total charge per meter on each is ρl and −ρl Coulombs/m respectively.
L L’
S 1111 0000
1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000
d
1111 0000 S’ 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 2a
C=
loge
πε √ 0
D2 −4 a2 +D 2a
(F/m)
D
Figure 6.17.: Geometry of the two conductor line
To solve this problem we consider another problem, that of the dual line charge considered on page 198 . We know that the equipotential surfaces are cylinders. Using the method of images (Section 6.4.3 on page 228) we can replace each of the equipotential cylinders by a metal surface. Referring to Figure 6.17, lines L and L′ are the two line charges, with lines charges ρl and −ρl coulombs/m; the equipotential surfaces are S and S′ , which are replaced by metal cylinders. Using the analysis outlined in Section 5.6 on page 198, if V1 is potential on the left equipotential cylinder, the centre line of the cylinder is located at d 1 + k2 x k = , y = 0, z = z 2−1 2 k k = exp
where
V1 × 2 π ε0 VL × 2 π ε0 = exp ρl ρl ρl VL = loge k 2 π ε0
VL is potential on the left conductor. Similarly the potential on the right conductor is VR × 2 π ε0 V2 × 2 π ε0 = exp 1/k = exp ρl ρl
7
A slightly advanced topic
238
The x coordinate of the centre of the left conductor translates to 2 D d 1+k (6. r= dk =a 1 − k2 (6.17 8 Find the capacitance of two concentric spheres and from there ﬁnd also the capacitance of a single sphere (Figure 6.91) solving for a and substituting the value of d a= Solving for k √ D 2 − 4 a2 + D k= 2a using this value of k. C= π ε0 = loge k √ kD k2 + 1 (6.92) π ε0 D2 −4 a2 +D 2a (F/m) (6. The Electric Field and Material Media ρl ρl loge (1/k) = − loge k 2 π ε0 2 π ε0 ρl VL − VR = loge k π ε0 VR = The capacitance/meter is C= ρl π ε0 = VL − VR loge k To calculate k we proceed as follows.6.18) The electric ﬁeld between the two spheres is E=− 8 Q ar 4πεr2 r0 < r < r1 Important example 239 .93) loge EXAMPLE 6.89) = 2 2 k2 − 1 Solving for d k2 − 1 D k2 + 1 (6.90) d= The radius of the cylinder is given by.
However. from the University of Leyden. The water really had no part to play. and the charge was stored on the metal foils.: A charge Q enclosed by a spherical shell and the potential diﬀerence is r0 V= r1 − Q dr 4πεr2 = Q r0 4πεr r1 Q 1 1 = − 4πε r0 r1 hence the capacitance of the conﬁguration is C = Q/V = 4πε 1 r0 − r1 1 (F) if the outer sphere is removed with r1 → ∞ then the capacitance of a sphere of radius r0 (in air) is C = 4πε0 r0 Did you know? Records indicate a German scientist named E. (See Figure 6. Holland.19) The Leyden jar consisted of a glass jar lined on the inside and outside with metal foil.18.6. To convey the charge to the inner foil. invented a capacitor in the form of a glass jar which became famous as the Leyden jar. though at that time it was thought to play an important role. there was a metal chain connecting the innerfoil to the top of the jar. The glass in fact was the dielectric. Von Kleist invented the capacitor in 1745. van Musschenbroek. 240 . and partially ﬁlled with water. about the same time P. The Electric Field and Material Media + + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + − 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 −− 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − + 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − r1 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − r0 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000+ 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 −Q 1111111111111111111 + 0000000000000000000 +Q − 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + − 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − − ε 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + − 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 − −− 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + + 1111111111111111111 0000000000000000000 + Figure 6. G.
A is the area on the surface of any one of the conductors.6.19. The capacitance is given by C= Q = V A D • dS L E • dl = ε A E • dS L E • dl (6. Relation Between Capacitance and Resistance There is very strong relation between capacitance and resistance.95) 241 . The Electric Field and Material Media Metal rod Stopper Glass jar Inner metal foil Outer metal foil Metal chain Figure 6.14. Let us study Figure 6. The deﬁnition of voltage diﬀerence is exactly the same as before. So V = I L R= A J • dS E • dl = L σ A E • dS E • dl (6. In this case the current I is given by I= A J • dS = σ A E • dS which ﬂows alond the electric ﬁeld lines.6. the line may be curved or straight. the integral D • dS A is equal to the total charge residing on the conductor.94) where L is the integration along any line connecting one conductor to the other. Let us consider the same geometry but with the case where the medium has a conductivity σ. and ε is the permitivity of the medium.: Construction of the Leyden jar 6.
9.42. The inner and outer conductors have radii a and b respectively. Step 1. The medium between the inner and outer conductors is a material of conductivity σ. The capacitance per meter of a coaxial line is (Equation 6. 242 .97) Step 2.96) ε σC (6. in Example 6. Compare with a similar situation. RC = or R= Let us take the following example EXAMPLE 6. The resistance for length l is given by (Equation 6.6. The capacitance for length l is c = Cl Step 3. Equation 6. The Electric Field and Material Media Figure 6.88) C= 2πεr ε0 loge b a L σ A E • dS E • dl × ε A E • dS L E • dS = ε σ (6.20.97) R= ε εr ε0 = σc σl 2πεr ε0 / log e = loge b a b a 2πσl Step 3.20) where the current moves from the inner conductor to the outer conductor of the line. Therefore.18 Find the resistance of length l of a coaxial line (geometry as shown in Figure 6.: A coaxial resistor The integrations being performed are indentical.
length (b − c) = length (d − a) ≅ 0 length (a − b) = length (c − d) ≅ ∆x 243 . E • dl = 0 (6. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ t1 is the tangent to the boundary and in this case it is equal to ax . n. dielectrics and metal bodies. The arrows superimposed on the loop show that integration is being carried out in the counterclockwise sense as per the requirement. The ﬁgure depicts a closeup of the interface where a loop abcd has been shown. We concentrate on a very small region R on the boundary of the two dielectrics shown in Figure 6. We assume that da and bc are vanishingly small. while ab and cd are small enough so that that the ﬁeld is approximately constant over these lengths. From the small coordinate system shown on top of the ﬁgure. on which the line integral of the electric ﬁeld is to be computed.7. The region outside the dielectric (region 1) consists of a medium with permittivity ε1 (for example if the medium is air then ε1 ≡ ε0 ). t2 in that order. Boundary Conditions for Electrostatic Fields What happens when there is an electric ﬁeld in a region where more than one media are present? Suppose there is an electric ﬁeld present in a region comprising air.21(a) and apply the integral form of the electrostatic Maxwell’s equation to the interface.21. ˆ n ≡ az is the normal to the boundary.98) This is shown in Figure 6.21. The cases of interest are the dielectricdielectric boundary and the dielectricmetal boundary. The immersed dielectric has a permittivity of ε2 . t1 . What is the behaviour of the ﬁeld in that region? y z x ǫ1 ǫ2 R ǫ1 a ǫ2 d c b z y x Dielectric Boundary ˆ n E field (a) (b) ˆ t1 ˆ n ǫ1 ǫ2 Dielectric Boundary (c) Figure 6. form a righthanded coordinate system. The Electric Field and Material Media 6.21(b).6. The normal is directed toward region 1.: The behaviour of the electric ﬁeld near a dielectric boundary In this section we will examine the behaviour of the ﬁeld on the very boundary of two dissimilar media. A dielectric (region 2) is immersed in an external electric ﬁeld as illustrated in Figure 6.
2 (6. If we take the cross product of the previous ˆ equation by n ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ n × E1. while the shorter side cuts across the two media.2 are tangential components of the ﬁeld in directions t1.2 (6.2 = E2 + E2 x1.2 The tangential component of the electric ﬁeld is continuous across a dielectric boundary.2 and in regions 1 and 2 respectively.2 + t2 Et2 1. E1 • ax ∆x + E2 • (−ax ) ∆x = 0 where E1 and E2 are the electric ﬁelds in regions 1 and 2 respectively.2 = n × nEn1.2 1.2 = t1 Et1 1.2 ˆ ˆ ˆ = 0 + n × t1 Et1 1.6. Et1.102) The component En1.2 is the normal component of the ﬁeld in regions 1 and 2 ˆ respectively.103) (6. t1 ≡ ax t2 ≡ a y the ﬁeld is ˆ ˆ ˆ E1.2 + t2Et2 1. We know that n × t is again a tangential component.2 are the tangential components of the electric ﬁeld next to the boundary but in media 1 and 2 respectively.2 = nEn1.2 y1.99) In the same manner by considering a similar loop going into the page the longer sides of which lie in medias 1 and 2.2 ˆ ˆ = n × tEt1.101) (6.105) n × (E1 − E2 ) = 0 This equation is written in this form because it is independent of coordinate 244 . So ˆ (6. Et1. The previous equation now becomes Ex1 − Ex2 = 0 (6. Considering the electric ﬁeld as consisting of a normal and tangential ˆ ˆ ˆ components where n ≡ az .2 + n × t1 Et1 1. The Electric Field and Material Media Applying Equation 6.2 + t2 Et2 1.2 + t1Et1 1. The integrations over the line lengths bc and da are assumed to be negligible and so have been dropped from the equation. (Et1. Et1.2 + E2 1. We perform a similar line integral over it to get E y1 − E y2 = 0 which can be summarised as Et1 − Et2 = 0 (6.98 to the loop abcd.2 since t1 and t t 1 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ The tangential ﬁeld tEt1.2 + n × t2 Et2 1.2 = ˆ ˆ ˆ t2 are perpendicular to each other).104) ˆ E2 1.2 .100) The subscript t is used to signify the tangential component.
If we apply Gauss’s law D • dS = ρv to the conﬁguration shown in Figure 6. Let us now consider the normal component of the ﬁeld. a surface charge develops and makes the surface an equipotential one. The ﬁgure shows a close up of region R in Figure 6.106) (6. the normal component of the ﬂux density is continuous across a dielectricdielectric boundary. The Figure 6.21(a). The Electric Field and Material Media notation and because of the importance of its comparison with ∇×E = 0 We will come back to this kind of notation when we consider other boundary conditions.98 on page 243 to the dielectricmetal body E • dl = 0 Applying this equation to the loop abcd in Figure 6.21(c). using the same arguments as earlier in this section.4.22(b) and.1 on page 221— that there can be no electric ﬁeld inside a conductor.6.22(a) shows a metal body of conductivity σ immersed in a dielectric of permittivity ε1 . (disregarding the fact that we are dealing with a metal) we have (6.108) 245 . We draw a small pillbox as shown in (c) whose height is negligible and the top and bottom areas are so small that the ﬁeld is assumed not to change much in those regions height of pill − box ≅ 0 Area of the top and bottom ≅ ∆A Applying Gauss’s law to this pillbox with the knowledge that that there is no accumulated charge on the interface (ρs = 0) D1 • az ∆A + D2 • (−az ) ∆A = 0 Dz1 − Dz2 = 0 (6. We once again apply Maxwell’s Equation 6. We know from our earlier discussion— Section 6.107) or in other words. In the presence of a ﬁeld. Dn1 − Dn2 = 0 ˆ n • (D1 − D2 ) = 0 Compare this last equation with ∇•D = 0 Let us investigate what the behaviour of the ﬁeld is near a dielectricmetal boundary.
whose volume is ∆V D1 • az ∆A + D2 • (−az ) ∆A = ρv ∆V (6. just outside the metal.: Behaviour of the electric ﬁeld near dielectricmetal boundary ˆ n × (E1 − E2) = 0 Et1 = Et2 (6.112) where ρv is the volume charge density accumulated near the surface.110) Similarly applying Gauss’s law to the pillbox shown on the boundary interface of Figure 6. applying Gauss’s law to this pillbox. D • dS = ρv (6.22(c). that is Et2 = 0. the tangential electric ﬁeld must be zero. Et = 0 Just outside a metal surface E=0 inside a metal (6. Therefore. However we know from earlier arguments that the charge exists only on the surface ρv ∆V = ρs ∆A 246 .6.111) height of pill − box ≅ 0 Area of the top and bottom ≅ ∆A then.22. The Electric Field and Material Media y z ǫ1 ǫ1 σ x z d c b ˆ n ˆ t1 ˆ n y x Dielectric−Metal Boundary ǫ1 σ Metal σ R a E field Dielectric−Metal Boundary (a) (b) (c) Figure 6.109) but there can be no ﬁeld inside the metal.
tangential and normal to the dielectric boundary. and D1. E1 meets a dielectric with dielectric constant εr ﬁlling the half space as shown in Figure 6.19 A uniform electric ﬁeld. respectively. we know that inside a metal D2 = 0 so Dn = ρs Just outside a metal surface D=0 inside a metal (6.116) EXAMPLE 6.23.23. That this equation is indeed true is borne out by observing the units.113) (6.114) ˆ Where n is the normal to the surface but directed toward the outside from the metal.115) (6.: Electric ﬁeld in the presence of a dielectric occupying a halfspace where ρs is the surface charge density D1 • az ∆A + D2 • (−az ) ∆A = ρs ∆A Dz1 − Dz2 = ρs and so in general we have. The Electric Field and Material Media Figure 6.117) (6. Find the ﬁeld inside the dielectric. ρs is the charge on the surface of the metal.6. Quantifying these components E1t = E1 cos θ E1n = E1 sin θ 247 . E1 = E1t + E1n Step 2.2 is the ﬂux density outside and inside the metal. independent of coordinate notation ˆ n • (D1 − D2 ) = ρs (6. The ﬁeld is split into two components. Note the comparison with ∇ • D = ρv Coming back to the earlier equation. Step 1. that is medium 1.
hence D2n = D1n = ε0 E1 sin θ Step 5. Figure 6. . E(sin θ/εr ) = tan−1 (tan θ/εr ) E cos θ 6. For example. The normal component of the D is continuous. The electric ﬁeld is therefore (in the dielectric) is E2n = D2n E1 sin θ = ε0 εr εr Step 6. Visulaising the electric ﬁeld in the dielectric to be E2 = ax E2t + a y E2n then the angle from the x axis is ψ = tan−1 which is less than θ. N being moved to positions given by ri . . . 2. The work done to move charge number 2 from inﬁnity to r2 is equal to the potential at r2 multiplied by the magnitude of the charge: W2 = Q1 Q2 4πε0 r2 − r1  248 (J) .24 shows how charges from inﬁnity are moved into a region of space. 2. The Electric Field and Material Media also D1t = ε0 E1 cos θ D1n = ε0 E1 sin θ Step 3. i = 1. The amount of work done is zero.6. the ﬁrst charge of magnitude Q1 is moved to the position R1 ≡ (0) (the origin) from R = ∞. Step 7. The tangential component at the boundary is continuous so E2t = E1t = E1 cos θ Step 4. . since no other charges are present to produce an electric ﬁeld. .8. Find what the ﬁeld looks like in the dielectric: the magnitude ﬁrst E2  = = E2 + E2 2t 2n E2 cos2 θ + E2 1 1 sin2 θ ε2 r = E1 cos2 θ + (sinθ/εr )2 the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld in the dielectric is less than that in air. Energy Stored in the Electric Field Let us calculate what happens as we move point charges into a region of space. N from inﬁnity. The ﬁgure shows charges Qi . . . i = 1. .
.24.3 = W2 + W3 Q1 Q3 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q2 + + = 4πε0 r2 − r1  4πε0 r3 − r1  4πε0 r3 − r2  How do we represent this mathematically? Let us try i=3 j=3 WT... the work required is W3 = Q2 Q3 Q1 Q3 + 4πε0 r3 − r1  4πε0 r3 − r2  And the total work (WT..: Moving charges into a region of space To move charge number 3.3 for three charges) done is WT. j = 1 i j 249 .3 = Qi Q j 4πε0 ri − r j i.3 = i=1 j=1 Qi Q j 4πε0 ri − r j The very ﬁrst term Q1 Q1 4πε0 r1 − r1  i. The Electric Field and Material Media z (2) (1) Q2 .j=3 is wrong. .. Therefore let us try instead WT.. (i) (N) . Q1 Q3 y x (3) Figure 6.6.
each Qi is replaced by ∆Qi and N can made very large WT. If we write the square bracket summation as j=N Vi = j=1 Qj 4πε0 ri − r j 1 = 2 i=N with j i (6. j = 1 i j In the same way.3 = 2 i.N = 1 2 i.N Q i Vi i=1 (6.3 = that is every term would occur twice.j=N Qi Q j 4πε0 ri − r j (6. The equation rewritten is j=N i=N Qj 1 WT. for N charges.119) then WT.6.120) Now instead of large charges. let the charges accumulated be small.j=3 Q2 Q1 Q1 Q2 + + ··· 4πε0 r2 − r1  4πε0 r1 − r2  Qi Q j 4πε0 ri − r j i.N = 1 2 i=N (∆Qi ) Vi i=1 this accumulation can done by replacing ∆Qi = ρvi ∆vi where ρvi ∆vi is a very small volume of charge which is moved into the region where the accumulation 250 . the work done would be WT. that is.N = Qi × 2 4πε0 ri − r j i=1 j=1 i j the term in the square brackets is the potential at ri due to all the other charges.118) i. j = 1 i j Let us play around with this equation to get a signiﬁcant result. Therefore the correct formula would be 1 WT. The Electric Field and Material Media This would be WT.
251 . The Electric Field and Material Media is taking place9 .122) all space all space all space surface at ∞ (DV) • dS + 1 2 all space = 0+ = 1 2 1 2 all space D • (−∇V) dv (both D and ∇V are zero at inﬁnity) (6. The work done on the charges has been stored in the electrostatic ﬁeld! We = 1 2 D • EdV = 1 2 ε E2 dV (J) (6. there is a contribution to the volume integral.) 1 2 ρv dv V all space (6.123) all space D • Edv (E = −∇V) A surprising result. there is no contribution. Then WT. 9 Note that here we vi instead of Vi for the diﬀerential volume so as not to confuse it with the potential Vi .121) The volume V is over the ρv .6. We can therefore safely integrate over all space. and where there is no charge density. WT = Now we know that ∇ • D = ρv and ∇ • (DV) = V∇ • D + D • ∇V therefore WT = = = 1 2 1 2 1 2 (∇ • (DV) − D • ∇V)dv ∇ • (DV) dv + 1 2 (−D • ∇V) dv D • (−∇V) dv (Divergence Th.N = 1 2 i=N ρvi ∆vi Vi i=1 Replacing the summation by an integration WT = 1 2 ρv dv V V (6. That is where ρv is present.124) all space all space The term we = εE2 is the energy density in J/m3 at all points permeated by the electric ﬁeld.
if the charge carriers have a velocity v and the charge density of these mobile carriers is ρm then J = ρm v If the number of carries per unit volume is n (No. List of Formulae The current is related to the charge in a wire by I = dQ/dt where dQ/dt is evaluated at any crosssection of the wire.6. then the charge density ρ is ρ = nq The continuity equation states that ∇•J = − ∂ρ ∂t The continuity equation in integral form says that the amount of current leaving a closed surface is equal to the total time rate of depletion of charge in the volume enclosed J • dS = − ∂ρ dV ∂t 252 ./m3 ) and each charge has a charge of q (C). The total stored energy is therefore εV 2 1 .9.εE2 × (volume between the capacitor plates) ≅ 2 × (Ad) 2 2d A V2 . The electric ﬁeld between the capacitor plates is given by E ≅ V d where V is the potential diﬀerence across the capacitor plates. At any point in a conducting medium.20 Find the approximate energy energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C = ε(A/d) where A is the area of the plates and d is the separation between the plates. The current density J and the current I are connected by the relation I= cs J • dS where cs is the crossection of the wire. ε = 2 d 1 2 = V C 2 6. The Electric Field and Material Media EXAMPLE 6.
For a dielectric χe = 1 − εr In a dielectric D = ε0 E + P pi 253 . the relationship between E and P is a linear one P = ε0 χe E where χe is called the electric susceptibility. The relaxation time. is the number of dipole moments/m3 in a dielectric is deﬁned by 1 P = lim ∆V→0 ∆V N i=1 where pi are the dipole moments in the dielectric and ∆V is a small volume while N is the number of dipole moments in ∆V. for a material is the amount of time charge takes to dissipate in a material from its initial value (Q0 ) to Q0 e−1 . p of two charges q and −q is given by p = qd where the vector d is a position vector directed from the negative charge to the positive charge. and is I the current through it. τ for conductors is (σ/ε)−1 . Under the inﬂuence of an external ﬁeld E. The mobility (µ) in a conductor or semiconductor is deﬁned by the relation v = µE where v is the drift velocity of charge carriers in the material and E is the electric ﬁeld. The resistance of a piece of material is given by R= l σA where l is the length of the material (the direction in which the current will travel). The dipole moment. A is the area of crosssection and σ is the conductivity.6. The polarisation density. Ohm’s in point form is J = σE where J is the current density at a point and E is the electric ﬁeld at that point and σ is the conductivity. P. The Electric Field and Material Media Ohm’s law V = IR where V is the voltage or potential diﬀerence across the resistor of value R. τ.
126) where D is the distance between the centers of the two conductors and a is the radius of each conductor. The capacitance per metre of a two conductors which are in parallel is C= loge √ π ε0 D2 −4 a2 +D 2a (6. The Electric Field and Material Media The capacitance of a capacitor is for two metallic surfaces is C= Q V where Q is the charge residing on one of the surfaces and V is the potential diﬀerence between them. the tangential E ﬁeld is zero and the 254 . b are the inner and outer radii of the line respectively and εr is the dielectric constant of the material ﬁlling the region between the conductors. At a dielctricdielectric boundary.125) where a. The capacitance per metre of a coaxial line is C= 2πεr ε0 loge b a (6.6. The approximate value of a parallel plate capacitor is C≈ ε0 εr A d where A is the area of the plates and d is the separation between them. The capacitance of two concentric spheres is C= 4πε 1 r0 − r1 1 where r0 and r1 are the radii of the inner and outer sphere respectively and ε is the permittivity of the material ﬁlling the region between the spheres. The capacitance of a single sphere in air is C = 4πε0 r0 where r0 is the radius of the sphere. the tangential E ﬁelds and the normal D ﬁelds are continuous E1t = E2t D1n = D2n At a dielectricmetal boundary.
255 . the student learns the connection between the current. the student learns about how the ﬁeld behaves in the presence of a metal. QN at position vectors r1 . (Section 6. the electrostatic concept of capacitance is explained.N 1 = 2 i. are explained. . The concepts of polarisation P and electric susceptibilty. (Section 6. properties of semiconductors are discussed. WT. . . Three important capacitances are discussed in detail: the parallel plate capacitor. (Section 6. χe .3) students lears the connection between Maxwell’s equations and the continuity equation. current density and charge. (Example 6. semiconductors and dielectrics. The energy.6. .N stored in an electrostatic ﬁeld for N charges. the boundary conditions for electrostatic ﬁelds are discussed for both a dielectric and metal. The Electric Field and Material Media normal D ﬁeld is equal to the surface charge density Et = 0 Dn = ρs no ﬁelds can exist inside a metal. the student learns the concept of energy stored in the electrostatic ﬁeld. Q1 . the student learns about the relaxation time for charge in a metal. rN is WT. the properties of dielectrics in the presence of an electrostatic ﬁeld is discussed. the method of images is dicussed.4) a detailed treatment of of these three types of materials is given. the capacitances per unit length of coaxial and two wire lines.2) the continuity equation is discussed. j = 1 i j The energy stored in the electrostatic ﬁeld in general is We = 1 2 D • EdV = 1 2 ε E2 dV all space all space Chapter Summary In this chapter.6) the student is introduced to the diﬀerences and similarities between conductors.j=N Qi Q j 4πε0 ri − r j i.
4. 2.5 < z < 3 by: (a) integrating J • dS over the surface of the cube.5. Write a short note on conductors.15803 A for both. Ans. How is energy stored in a capacitor? 11. Write a short note on the boundary conditions of electrostatic ﬁelds for dielectrics and metals. (b) Evaluate ∇ • J at P(ρ = 2. z = 6. Given the current density J = e−2y ax + e−2y a y A/m2 (a) ﬁnd the total current crossing the plane y = 0. 6. −2 < z < 2. Write a short note on the continuity equation and why does it predict the conservation of charge charge? 5. −2 < z < 2. Explain why the current density J is directly proportional to the velocity of the charge carriers (v) and and also the mobile charge density.5 in the ax direction in the region −1 < y < 1. Explain the concept of ﬂux of a vector ﬁeld out of a surface and link it with current density J and the current I. The Electric Field and Material Media 6. φ = 0. (b) ﬁnd the total current crossing the plane x = 0.5074 (c) 0 2. Why is it that metals immersed in an electrostatic electric ﬁeld have no ﬁelds in their interior? 8. explain how this combination may be replaced by the original current and an image current. −2 < x < 2. Explain the concept of charge neutrality in a metal. If a current is present above an inﬁnite ground plane. Ans.4. 2. and explain how it is related to the electric ﬁeld? 10.5 in the a y direction in the region −1 < x < 1.05). electrons in the presence of an electric ﬁeld. 3.) How is this related to heat dissipated in a conductor? 7. y < 0. Problems 1. 4. Explain the concept of polarisation density. Find the total current leaving the region 0 < x. (c) ﬁnd the total current crossing the plane z = 0. ρm .5 in the az direction in the region −1 < y < 1.6.10. are only described as moving with constant drift velocity? (Ordinarily electric ﬁelds accelerate electrons.08. Find the total current I crossing the surface (a) ρ = 2. In spherical coordinates 1 J = 20 sin θ cos φar + aφ A/m2 r 256 . in the aφ direction. Ans: (a) 2. dielectrics and semiconductors. Let the current density be J = 2ρaρ −sin φaφ A/m2 within a region of space. Why is it that in a conductor.943 (b) 14. 3. 0 < φ < 2π. (b) employing the divergence theorem. 0. Practice Problems and Self Assessment Review Questions 1. 0 < z < 5. Given the current density J = e−2y ax + e−2y a y A/m2 . P. 9.
(b) Find the total current ﬂowing through the surface r = 1. 5. 9. 13. 16 g of Oxygen also contains 1 Avagadro number of molecules. Two point charges each with charge 1 pC are embedded in a dielectric of dielectric constant εr and placed 1 m apart. Ans. The point (1. (b) 2 and (c) 10. Find the E ﬁeld and ρs at that point. Ans.05 mm. Ans. εr for oxygen is 1.0) Ans. Ans. The potential in a region of space is V = ln( x2 + y2 ). what is the current? Ans. 11. The potential in a region of space (εr = 1) is V = x5 + xy4 − 10x3 y2 . Find the expression for the current density. A current I = I0 e−αt t > 0. 8. The point (0. The current density is maximum on circumference with value J0 az and decays exponentially along the radius at a rate proportional to α. Find the resistance per meter of ten strands of copper twisted together with the diameter of each strand equal to .0) is on a conducting surface. 257 .0005 at 0 ◦ C. Ans. Calculate the average shift in the electron cloud of a single molecule when oxygen gas O2 (at STP) is placed in an electric ﬁeld of 1 V/m.4 l. 0 < φ < π/2. Find the force of repulsion when εr is equal to (a) 1. 14. 10. Ans. Calculate the number of molecules per cubic meter. z = 0. A circular metal wire of radius a is placed with axis coinciding with the z axis. charges one plate of a capacitor of value C. If J = 20e1000(ρ−a) az for 0 < ρ < a is the this current density in a circular wire with radius a oriented along the zaxis. Ans. If a beam of electrons occupying a region space with density 5×1020 (No/cc) are moving with uniform velocity v = 2×106ax (m/s) (a) what is the charge density.0) is on a conducting surface. Find the resistance of 1 m of wire with the current density given in Problem 7.6. 15. Find the charge on the capcitor plate. and the voltage across the plates as a function of time. 16 g of Oxygen at STP occupies 22. Find the E ﬁeld and ρs at that point and the equation of the surface in the neighbourhood of (0. 0 < θ < π/2. 7. The thickness of the coating is 10 µm. what is the current in the wire? For which value of ρ is 98% of the current contained? Ans. Find the resistance of 1 mm of this conductor. and the width is 1 mm. The Electric Field and Material Media (a) Find the total current ﬂowing through the surface r = 1. Ans. 6. ρ? (b)the value of J? If the beam is passing through a circular pipe of 1 cm radius. A plane glass is coated with a resistive material of σ = 105 S/m. 12. Hint.
6. Find the charges on both spheres. t = 1 cm) is placed at an angle of 45◦ with respect an electric ﬁeld of 1 V/m. A liquid of unknown conductivity is placed in a large trough of glass as shown in Figure 6.26.25. the distance between the rods. Ans. 18. 15 cm. Two rods are immersed in the liquid.26. The dimensions of the rods are: the diameter of each rod. 17. If the voltage applied is 10 V and the current is found to be 100 mA.: Figure for Problem 17 +  Liquid Figure 6. Ans. A sphere of radius 10 cm is charged with 1 µC of charge. and the depth of immersion is 15 cm.25.: Measurement of σ for a liquid conductor. A slab of dielectric of large dimensions (width and height very much greater than the thickness. ﬁnd the 258 . 1 cm. The Electric Field and Material Media dielectric Figure 6. 16. as shown in Figure 6. Another sphere with 5 cm radius without any charge on it is connected by a wire to the ﬁrst sphere. Find the electric ﬁeld in the dielectric (εr = 10) and on the other side.
28. When the battery is connected the capacitor acts like a short circuit and the initial current is I(0) = V/Rs . The Electric Field and Material Media Metal plates Figure 6.: A capacitor with two dielectrics V I C Figure 6. A coaxial line of length L with inner radius a and outer radius b. Short Answer Questions with Answers 1.16) is ﬁlled with a material with dielectric constant εr and conductivity σ.28. (Figure 6. The circiut is as shown in Figure 6. If a battery of V V with source resistance Rs Ω is connected between the inner and outer conductors ﬁnd the current as a function of time. 0 < y < 1 and 0 < z < 1. For a capacitor with two dielectrics calculate the capacitance with respect to the parameters given in Figure 6. The ﬁnal current is zero. 19.97) ε ε 2πεL R= = σC σ log b e a −1 This resistance and capacitance are in parallel.6. For Problem 13.: Circuit for Short Answer Question 1 conductivity of the liquid. 20.27. Ans. The capacitance of the coaxial line is given by (refer Equation 6. The region is air.88) C= 2πεr ε0 L loge b a on the other hand the resistance if the line is (Equation 6.27. and the time constant is R C where R = RRs = Rs R Rs + R 259 . ﬁnd the energy stored in the electric ﬁeld in the region 0 < x < 1.
Ans.6.5969l 2πσa2 260 . The Electric Field and Material Media so I(t) = IC (t) = V −t/CR e Rs now the current through the resistance is zero at t = 0 and V/(Rs + R) at t = ∞ so the current as a function of time is IR = the total current is therefore IT (t) = V −t/CR V e + (1 − e−t/R ) Rs Rs + R V (1 − e−t/R ) Rs + R 2. In a tubular section of wire between ρ and ρ + dρ the current that ﬂows is 1 − eρ/a dI = 2πρdρJz0 1−e so the total current is I= = 2πJz0 1−e a 0 x2 ρ(1 − eρ/a)dρ a 0 The heat dissipated in the wire is (E = J/σ) E • J dV = 2 2πJz0 l a 0 2πJz0 a2 = e−1 x 2πJz0 − a x − a2 e a 1−e 2 a 2x 2 2πJz0 l 2 a x − a2 e a x x2 2 − 2 ax − a ea + = 4 2 σ(1 − e)2 = 2 2πJz0 l σ(1 − e)2 ρ(1 − eρ/a)2 dρ 0 σ(1 − e)2 (0.5969a2) if we divide the total power dissipated by the square of the current. R= 2 (2πJz0 l)/[σ(1 − e)2] (0. In a circular wire of radius a if the current density across the wire is J = Jz0 1 − eρ/a az 1−e calculate the resistance of length l.5969a2) 2πJz0 2 a2 /(e − 1) = 0.
Ans. Find the capacitance of two concentric speres (Figure 6. The radii of the inner and outer spheres is r0 and r1 respectively.: Concentric spheres with dielectric ε0 εr (r) 3. The dielectric can be modelled as εr (r) = ar + b ε0 − ε0 εr1 a= r0 − r1 ε0 εr1 r0 − ε0 r1 b= r0 − r1 261 .6.30.29. Each capacitor has a capacitance Ci = and the capacitance.30) with the dielectric between the spheres being a function of r. Ans. is 1 = C εi li σA 1 Ci i 4. The value of the dielectric is ε0 εr1 at the surface of the outer sphere and is ε0 at the surface of the inner sphere and varies linearly with r.: Three layer dielectric construction Figure 6. The Electric Field and Material Media Metal plates Figure 6. C. Find the capacitance of a capacitor with three layers of dielectrics.
Objective Type Questions 1. If J = e−ax −by −cz ax how much current crosses the xy plane? (a) 0 (b) πa (c) 1/πa (d) none of the above Ans. The Electric Field and Material Media Note that in these expressions. Now if the total charge on the outer sphere is Q and inner sphere is −Q. so the surface charge densities on the outer and inner spheres is Q −Q and 4πr2 4πr2 0 1 The D ﬁeld between the two spheres is D= and the electric ﬁeld is E= The energy density is Q (−ar ) 4πr2 Q 4πε(r)r2 1 E • DdV 2 where the integration is to be performed over the volume between the spheres.6. then the capacitance reduces to that two concentric spheres. then the charge passing through the crosssection of the wire in one second is 1 (a) I C (b) 1/I C (c) 0 I(t) dt (d) none of the above. Ans. If the current in a wire is I(t) A. if εr1 is set equal to 1 then a = 0 and b = ε0 . (a) 2 2 2 262 . E= = = E= 1 2 4πQ2 2(4π)2 Q 4πε(r)r2 r1 r0 Q r sin θ dφrθ dr 4πr2 (integrate by partial fractions) r1 r2 dr ε(r)r4 Q2 a ln (a r + b) a ln (r) 1 − − 8π br b2 b2 (check by diﬀerentiation) r0 r0 (ar1 + b) 1 1 1 Q2 a ln − − 8π b2 r1 (ar0 + b) b r1 r0 setting the energy stored on a capacitor to Q2 /2C Q2 Q2 = a ln r0 (ar1 + b) − 1 1 − 1 2C 8π b2 r1 (ar0 + b) b r1 r0 4π C= r0 (ar1 +b) a ln r (ar +b) − 1 r1 − r1 b b2 1 0 1 0 in these expressions if a = 0 and b = ε0 . (c) 2. the surface.
The mobile charge density in a metal is (a) directly proportional to the number of valence electrons (b) inversely proportional to the number of valence electrons (c) there is no connection with the number of valence electrons (d) none of the above Ans. If no charge has to accumulate at a point in space. (b) One of Maxwell’s equations can be otained from the continuity equation (c) The continuity equation has nothing to do with Maxwell’s equations. In a semiconductor (a) holes are present in the conduction band which contribute to the current (b) electrons are present in the conduction band which contribute to the current (c) electrons and holes are present in the conduction band which contribute to the current (d) holes are present in the valence band which contribute to the current Ans.0) what is the drift velocity of the charge? (a) 1 × 106 m/s (b) 1 × 104 m/s (c) 1 × 103 m/s (d) none of the above Ans. Which statements are true? (a) The continuity equation can be obtained from Maxwell’s equations. (c) 2 2 2 2 2 2 5. Ans. (b) 6. ε/2E • E (a) has the units of J·m−3 (b) is the energy density of the electric ﬁeld (c) is a nonsensical quantity (d) has meaning but is nothing to do with energy density Ans.0)? (a) yes (b) no (c) increasing at a constant rate (d) decreasing at a constant rate Ans. The Electric Field and Material Media 3. (a) and (b) Open Book Exam Questions ***Chapter Complete*** 263 .6.0. (d) 11. Ans. If J = e−ax −by −cz ax . then (a) ∂ρv /∂t = t (b) ∂ρv /∂t = 0 (c) none of the above Ans. (d) None of the above.0. If J = e−ax −by −cz ax in a region of space and the mobile charge density is −1 mC/m3 at (0. (a) 9. (b) and (d) 10. (a) 7. The continuity equation says that (a) matter is neither created nor destroyed (b) the current density is created through the presence of an electric ﬁeld (c) charge is niether created nor destroyed (d) the total current leavind a closed surface is equal to the rate of depletion of charge in that surface. (c) and (d) 8. is charge accumulating at (0. Ans. σ/ε has the units of (a) charge (b) length (c) mass (d) time. (b) 4.
In such situations we may have to set up a partial diﬀerential equation and extract the solution. we start with Gauss’s law ∇ • D = ρv where D is the electric ﬂux density and ρv is the charge density. To set up such a partial diﬀerential equation.1) To get a equation involving the potential V we use the gradient relationship between the electric ﬁeld and the potential. ε being the permittivity of the (homogeneous) medium. For example we may know the voltage on some boundary (as in the form of a voltage on a set of plates) and we may be expected to ﬁnd the potential ﬁeld in the region enclosed. This may take various forms.1.2) which is Poisson’s equation. E = −∇V ∇ • ∇V = ∇2 V = − ρv ε (7. ∇•E = ρv ε (7. we can write the equation in terms of the electric ﬁeld. Or we may be given the charge distribution in a region of space and be expected to obtain the electric ﬁeld in that region. Using D = εE. In a charge free region of space this becomes Laplace’s equation ∇2 V = 0 The operator ∇2 is called the Laplacian.3) 264 . confusion or doubt. —John Dewey 7. Introduction In many situations in electrostatic problems we may know only the boundary conditions of some engineering problem.7. (7. The partial diﬀerential equations and their solution is well known in mathematics as boundary value problems and their solutions. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations The origin of thinking is some perplexity.
the surface S. Then let a function ψ be deﬁned as the diﬀerence of these two solutions: ψ(r) = V1 − V2 (7. S. V1 (r) and V2 (r) both solutions to Laplace’s equation in the region V.6) ψ(r = rb ) = V1b − V2b = 0 Now consider the identity ∇ • (ψ∇ψ) = ψ∇2 ψ + ∇ψ If we take a look at ∇2 ψ ∇2 ψ = 0 (since ∇2 V1 − ∇2 V2 = 0) =0 =0 2 (7.7 becomes (7.4) Where rb is the position vector of the boundary.7) (7.9) ∇ • (ψ∇ψ) = ∇ψ 2 Integrating this equation over the volume V.10) And also integrating the left of Equation 7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations 7. Uniqueness Theorem A very important point in solving partial diﬀerential equations is that once we have found one solution of the equation for given boundary conditions then do we continue to look for other solutions? Let us take Laplace’s equation.8) as both terms on the right are solutions to Laplace’s equation.2.7.12) V Now we know that ψ on S is zero: ψ S = 0.5) (7. namely.11) So S ψ∇ψ • dS = (7. Hence Equation 7. 1 V ∇ • (ψ∇ψ)dv = V ∇ψ 2 dv (7. Suppose two solutions exist. At the boundary. V1b = V2b = V(r)r=rb (7.9 over the surface S enclosing V V ∇ • (ψ∇ψ)dv = ψ∇ψ • dS ∇ψ 2 dv (7. Therefore S ψ∇ψ • dS = 0 1 Note we using v for volume 265 .
namely.16) V1 − V2 = constant = k V1b = V2b but at the boundary So the constant k is zero. The only place where there is a diﬀerence is a departure in Equation 7.3 the simpler of the two is Laplace’s equation. where each of the two terms are equal to −ρv /ε and not zero.20) and Where k1 and k2 are constants which will be determined by the boundary conditions. x. The same reasoning applies to Poisson’s Equation.2 and 7.13) (7. obviously because the ’ρ’ is absent. So ∇ψ = 0 ∇ (V1 − V2 ) = 0 (7.1. Therefore V1 (r) = V2 (r) everywhere (7. Laplace’s Equation 7. In Cartesian coordinates Laplace’s equation becomes ∂2 V ∂2 V ∂2 V ∇2 V = + + =0 (7.3. 7.15) (7. Looking at the solution carefully we realise that this solution would apply to two inﬁnite plates with a potential diﬀerence of V0 as in the 266 .3. it is the only solution.19) (7. Some One Dimensional Solutions Out of the two Equations 7.14) (7.17) From this it is clear that once a solution of Laplace’s equation is obtained.18) ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 Let us consider the simplest of simplest of all cases: let V be a function of only one dimension.7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations and so V ∇ψ 2 dv = 0 but ∇ψ 2 can never be negative. Laplace’s equation then becomes ∂2 V =0 ∂x2 performing two integrations d2 V dV = k1 dx = dx dx2 dV dx = V(x) = k1 x + k2 dx (7. That is V ≡ V(x). This implies that there is no variation in either the y or z directions.8.
22) E = −∇V = − we can see that we have obtained the solution to Laplace’s equation for one dimension in the Cartesian coordinate system. To check the answer. From the ﬁrst condition k1 x + k2x=0 = 0 k2 = 0.21) (7.1. we apply the solution which we have just obtained to the ﬁgure. We set V = 0 at x = 0 and V = V0 at x = d. Why? let us compute the E ﬁeld E = −∇V = −k1 a constant y V=0 V = V0 V= V0 d x E field z x=0 x=d x Infinite Plates Figure 7. k1 = d so the total solution is V= V0 x d V0 d (7. k1 xx=d = V0 V0 . EXAMPLE 7.7. we put x = 0 and x = d in the ﬁrst of the above equations and we can see that we have obtained the correct solution to Laplace’s equation for one dimension in the Cartesian coordinate system.1 Use the solution to Laplace’s equation to ﬁnd the capcitance of a 267 .: Laplace’s equation applied to two inﬁnite plates The electric ﬁeld would be a constant only in the case where there would be two parallel plates! To proceed.1. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations case of the parallel plate capacitor as shown in Figure 7.
Laplace’s equation is ∇2 V = ∇2 V = 1 ∂ ∂V 1 ∂2 V ∂2 V + ρ + 2 ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ2 ∂z2 (Cylindrical) (7. each of area A placed in parallel. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations parallel plate capacitor. Step 1. the equation of the voltage is V0 x V= d which satisﬁes the boundary condition. is given by Dn = ρs and Dn = εEn so ρs = Q = εEn A Q = εAEn and ρs is the charge on any plate per m2 .25) EXAMPLE 7. the normal component of the electric ﬂux density.23) dV V0 =− dx d Let us examine Laplace’s equation in other coordinate systems and apply it to some speciﬁc conﬁgurations.24) 1 ∂ 2 ∂V ∂ 1 ∂V 1 ∂2 V r + 2 sin θ + ∂r ∂θ r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (Spherical) (7. The equation was obtained from the analysis conducted earlier.2 Find the general solution to Laplace’s equation for concentric cylinders. Since we have two plates. with a separation of d and ﬁlled with a dielectric ε. placing our x coordinate on the lower plate. The normal electric ﬁeld is given by En = − Step 6. D. Step 7. Suppose the upper and lower plates have charges of Q and −Q respectively. The parallel plate capacitor consists of two plates. The upper and lower plates have surface charges. ρs = ±Q/A. Step 2.7. 268 . Therefore the capacitance is C= (εAV0 /d) εA Q = = V0 V0 d (7. Step 3. Step 5. Recall that at the metal boundary. In the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. Step 4. with voltages of V0 of the upper plate and 0 of the lower plate. V = 0 at x = 0 and V = V0 at x = d.
∇2 V = Step 4. So.26) In the above equations we subtract (2) from (1) to give k1 ln b = V0 a V0 k1 = ln(b/a) −V0 ln b ln(b/a) k2 = −k1 ln b = Step 6. Step 5a.7. We want the solution V such that V = 0 on the inner conductor and V = V0 of the outer conductor of two coaxial cylinders with a and b as the inner and outer radii Step 3. We want a solution where there is no dependance on the φ and z coordinates. let V ≡ V(ρ) and ∂V/∂φ = ∂V/∂z = 0. ∇2 V = 1 ∂ ∂V 1 ∂2 V ∂2 V + =0 ρ + 2 ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ2 ∂z2 Step 2. Using the boundary condition. Using Laplace’s equation in cylindrical coordinates. Therefore the solution is V= V0 V0 ln ρ − ln a ln(b/a) ln(b/a) ρ V0 ln = ln(b/a) a 269 . Then Vρ=b = k1 ln ρ + k2 ρ=b = V0 k1 ln b + k2 = V0 k1 ln a + k2 = 0 (1) (2) Vρ=a = k1 ln ρ + k2 ρ=a = 0 dV 1 d ρ =0 ρ dρ dρ (7. V = 0 on the inner conductor (ρ = a) and V = V0 of the outer conductor (ρ = b). Integrating this twice d dV dV = k1 ρ dρ = ρ dρ dρ dρ dV k1 = dρ ρ dV dρ = V = k1 ln ρ + k2 dρ Step 5. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations Step 1.
Step 8. By the uniqueness theorem. apply it two concentric metal spheres of radii a and b.1 Show that the capacitance per meter of the coaxial line with inner radius equal to a and outer radius equal to b is given by C= 2πε ln (b/a) (F/m) What about two concentric spheres maintained at potentials V = 0 and V = V0 ? EXERCISE 7. Also the reader can obtain an expression of the capacitance per meter of the coaxial line.3 z EXERCISE 7. 270 . The electric ﬁeld is Eρ = − V0 dV =− dρ ln(b/a)ρ The reader is encouraged to apply his common sense (ask. EXERCISE 7.: Figure for Exercise 7. this solution is the only one and correct one.7. Also devise a method to calculate the capacitance of this combination.3 Find the solution to Laplace’s equation for the conﬁguration shown in Figure 7. Let the inner sphere be at a potential V0 and the outer one at a potential V = 0. how do we check this solution? Where will this be applied) and check that the solution is correct.2 Obtain the one dimensional solution to the Laplace’s equation in r for spherical coordinates. There are no other solutions. y Inﬁnite cone at θ = θ0 with V = V0 Inﬁnite cone at θ = θ1 with V = 0 x Cones are insulated from each other here Figure 7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations Step 7.2.2.
but a method which is indirect in nature. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations 7.7. y) which are real and imaginary parts of f (z).31) (7.3. Analytic functions of the complex variable z f (z) = u(x.28) u(x.27) where z = x + jy (7.29) (7. we get ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂2 v ∂2 v + 2= − ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂x2 ∂y but at a point which is analytic ∂2 v ∂2 v = ∂x∂y ∂y∂x we get Laplace’s equation in two dimensions ∂2 u ∂2 u + =0 ∂x2 ∂y2 similarly we can show that ∂2 v ∂2 v + =0 ∂x2 ∂y2 (7.32) (7.30) diﬀerentiating the ﬁrst of these equations with respect to x and the second one with respect to y we get ∂2 u ∂2 v = 2 ∂x∂y ∂x 2u ∂2 v ∂ =− ∂y∂x ∂y2 by adding the two equations given above.2. Analytic Functions One of simplest ways of solving Laplace’s equation. (Narayan 2001) ∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− ∂y ∂x (7.2. have the property that they have to satisfy the CauchyRiemann partial diﬀerential equations.33) (7. y) + j Real part v(x. is to use an analytic function of a complex variable. Two Dimensional Solutions to Laplace’s Equation 7.1. y) and v(x. y) Imaginary part (7.35) (7.3.36) 271 .34) (7.
5. can be a potential source of a solution to an engineering problem.25 . y) = ±1. Let us take some concrete examples. Take the case of the function f (z) = sin(z) = sin(x + jy) = sin(x) cosh(y) + j cos(x) sinh(y) where we have used the two relations sin( jy) = j sinh(y) cos( jy) = cosh(y) If we plot the real and imaginary parts of this function u = sin(x) cosh(y) (The real part) v = cos(x) sinh(y) (The imaginary part) as contour plots u(x.7. Both subﬁgures represent a possible potential ﬁeld conﬁguration. 0. ±0.5 1 .75 0.37) (7.75.25 and 0 v(x.5.: Contour plots of the real (sin(x) cosh(y)) and imaginary (cos(x) sinh(y)) parts of the function sin(z): Real part of sin z therefore. 0.0. then some very interesting observations follow. f (z).5 1 1.75 . y = 0) and an (7.5 0 −0.0.5 0. the real and imaginary parts of every analytic function.75.5 −1 1 1 0 0.3. For example if we were to place a metal curved plane specially shaped and inﬁnite in extent along the zdirection along the wedgeshaped u = 1 curve (the centre of which is at x = π/2. ±0. ±0. The usefulness of these plots is that they give us a feel for what the potential looks like in complex 2dimensional cases.5 2 2.25 0. 0.25 and 0 for the region 0 ≤ x ≤ π and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1.5 3 Figure 7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations 1 1 . y) = 1.38) 272 .
75 . −100 −50 −50V 100 50 −25V 25V 0 −25V 50 100 25 −50V −50 −100 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 Figure 7.5 2 2.: The real and imaginary parts of the function f (z) = z2 273 50V 0V 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 −6 25V 50V .5 3 Figure 7.5 1 1.75 1 −0. Both the real and imaginary parts of the function are shown plotted on the same graph. Another interesting function is f (z) = z2 .75 −1 .5 −.7.5 .25 −.5 0 −.75 1 0. The labels with ’V’ apply to the real part of the function while the ordinary labels apply to the imaginary part of the function.4.25 0 −1 −.5 .: Contour plots of the real (sin(x) cosh(y)) and imaginary (cos(x) sinh(y)) parts of the function sin(z): Imaginary part of sin z inﬁnite plane along the u = 0 at x = π an engineer gets an idea of how the potential changes near a wedge placed at potentials of V = 1 and V = 0 respectively. we can see how the potential changes near a rightangled corner. From the right hand graph.25 .5.5 −. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations 1 .25 0 −.5 −1 0 0.
7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations Analysing the function in some more detail.7. Separation of Variables Another method and which is a direct. Feynman & Sands 2001). Let us consider Laplace’s equation in two dimensions (though the method can be applied to 3dimensional problems as well) ∂2 V ∂2 V + =0 ∂x2 ∂y2 Let V = X(x)Y(y) a multiplication of two functions.: Contour plot of u = x2 − y2 along with the electric ﬁeld superimposed on the potential ﬁeld. analytical method. The real part of the function z2 with the electric ﬁeld plot is shown in ﬁgure = x2 − y2 + 2 jxy 6 −50V −25V 4 2 0V 25V 0 2 4 −25V 6 −50V 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 6 4 2 0 −2 −4 −6 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 Figure 7. X which is a function of x 274 50V 25V 50V . z2 = x + jy 2 u = x2 − y2 (The real part) v = 2xy (The imaginary part) both parts of the function are hyperbolas (Richard P.3.6. is the wellknown separation of variables technique.3.
7.40) + A function only of y the second equation is obtained by dividing the ﬁrst equation by XY.42) 275 . Now comes a clever argument: a function of x is added to a function of y to give zero! f (x) + g(y) = 0 What does this mean? This only means that the following must be true f (x) = k (a constant: could be zero. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations while Y is a function of y. negative or positive) g(y) = −k (the same constant with a negative sign!) therefore f (x) = 1 d2 X =k X dx2 (7.39) (7. Then d2 X ∂2 V =Y 2 ∂x2 dx d2 Y ∂2 V =X 2 ∂y2 dy ∂2 V ∂2 V d2 X d2 Y + 2 = Y 2 +X 2 ∂x2 ∂y dx dy which gives Y 1 d2 X X dx2 A function only of x d2 X d2 Y +X 2 = 0 2 dx dy 1 d2 Y Y dy2 =0 (7.41) we know that (for a and b for k>0 for k<0 for k=0 d2 X = kX dx2 the reader may diﬀerentiate the above expressions to satisfy himself that they from the theory of ordinary diﬀerential equations constants) √ √ a sinh( k x) + b cosh( k x) √ √ X = a sin( −k x) + b cos( −k x) ax + b (7.
43) d2 Y = −kY dy2 or (with $c$ and $d$ constants) √ √ c sin( k y) + d cos( k y) for k>0 √ √ Y = c sinh( −k y) + d cosh( −k y) for k<0 cy + d for k=0 so (7. bounded by metal plates which are maintained at constant potential. An alternative formulation is √ √ √ √ a exp( k x) + b exp(− k x) c sin( k y) + d cos( k y) for k>0 √ √ √ √ V = XY = a sin( −k x) + b cos( −k x) c exp( −k y) + d exp(− −k y) for k<0 (ax + b) cy + d for k=0 (7. He may use the relations: √ √ √ d sinh( k x) = k cosh( k x) (k>0) dx √ √ √ d cosh( k x) = k sinh( k x) (k>0) dx √ √ √ d sin( −k x) = −k cos( −k x) (k<0) dx √ √ √ d cos( −k x) = − −k sin( −k x) (k<0) dx Similarly we can proceed with the y relation g(y) = 1 d2 Y = −k Y dy2 (7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations indeed satisfy the previous diﬀerential equation.45. while the two side plates at x = −a and x = a are maintained at V = 20 V and V = −20 V respectively. The ﬁgure shows a rectangular region of width 2a and height b.46) Let us apply these relations to an actual problem.44) Quite complex. Instead of hyperbolic functions.7. Since the bottom plate and top plate are both at V = 0 the only function which ﬁts the y direction is sin(αy) where α is to be determined so as to make the top √ √ √ √ a sinh( k x) + b cosh( k x) c sin( k y) + d cos( k y) √ √ √ √ V = XY = a sin( −k x) + b cos( −k x) c sinh( −k y) + d cosh( −k y) (ax + b) cy + d for k>0 for k<0 for k=0 (7.45) 276 . We apply Laplace’s equation to the 2dimensional layout shown in Figure 7.7. we may use instead use exponential functions. The lower and upper plates at y = 0 and y = b are maintained at a potential of V = 0. To analyse this conﬁguration the potential function can be as that given in Equation set 7.
. That is sin(αy) y=b = sin(αb) = 0 or αb = mπ mπ α= b m = 1. (7.7. . Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations y V=0 y=b V(x.7. y) = m=1 dm sin αm y sinh (αm x) mπ b yet to be determined αm = dm Let us see whether the function above ﬁts the bill 1. Note that at y = 0 the function is zero. It satisﬁes the lower and upper boundaries 3. dm are to be determined to satisfy the left boundary. 2. 3. . It satisﬁes Laplace’s equation (most important) 2. . 277 . . So the complete solution is m=∞ V(x. 2. . m = 1. it will satisfy the right boundary since sinh(· · · ) is an odd function.47) Observing the other boundary condition we must use sinh αb as the function since it is an odd function and the boundary condition is 20 V at the left plate and −20 V at the right plate. If it satisﬁes the left boundary.: Laplace’s equation applied to a rectangular region x=a plate have a potential of zero. 3.y) to be found found here V=V0 V=−V0 x V=0 Metal Boundaries with corners insulated Figure 7.48) (7.
2. .49) (7. . Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations So we must proceed to satisfy the left or right boundary.52) taking this term into the summation sign m=∞ m=1 A little thought tells us that if we multiply both sides of the equation by sin αn y and integrate both sides in the interval [0.50) (7.m. Lets try this: multiply both sides by sin(αn y) with n = 1. b] m=∞ m=1 dm sinh (αm a) b 0 sin αn y sin αm y dy = −V0 =0 for m n b 0 sin αn y dy we ﬁnd that when n b 0 m the integral (when n m) sin αn y sin αm y dy = 0 so every term of the inﬁnite sum becomes zero on the left hand side except for the m = n term b b 2 sin αn y dy sin αn y dy = −V0 dn sinh (αn a) 0 0 278 . . m=∞ V(x. m=∞ sin αn y × dm sin αm y sinh (αm a) = sin αn y × (−V0 ) m=1 dm sin αn y sin αm y sinh (αm a) = −V0 sin αn y integrating both sides in the limits [0. . b] then the orthogonality property of the sine function will give us dm .51) = m=1 dm sin αm y sinh (αm a) (for all values of y) = −V0 How are we to ensure the last equality? m=∞ m=1 dm sin αm y sinh (αm a) = −V0 (7. . y) = m=1 m=∞ dm sin αm y sinh (αm x) x=a (7. .7.
0121 7 .3.4. b = 7 cm and V0 = 20 V let us calculate dn for n = 1..5. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations the integral b 0 sin2 αn y dy = 1 − cos2αn dy 2 0 b b sin (2 nπ) = − 2 2 nπ b = 2 b cos (π n) b − πn πn b and the integral b 0 sin αn y dy = using these results b cos (π n) b b − sinh (αn a) = −V0 2 πn πn −2V0 [1 − cos(π n)] dn = πn sinh (αn a) dn n=1.0006 Let us calculate the potential at (x = 1 cm.3. cos (π n) = −1 so −4V0 πn sinh (αn a) dn = 0 using these values of dn n=∞ dn = and n=1.5. 279 ... 6.3...7.. V(x. . The top row shows the number of terms in the summation.6.2. . . αn = dn = anticipating the next section. cos (π n) = 1 and for n = 1. . 4.2991 5 0. 5 ..··· dn sin αn y sinh (αn x) nπ b −4V0 πn sinh (αn a) n=1.. we can see that for n = 2. n dn 1 14. y = 5 cm).. while the bottom row shows how fast the sum converges. y) = n=1. .3. 3.. . 3.213 3 0.. n=2. let a = 3.
y) is given by the Taylor series expansion V(x + h. y y−h Potential function V(x. (x. V(x. y − h).. number of terms Vn (V) 1 term 5.. y) = V(x. y) − h ∂V h2 ∂2 V h3 ∂3 V − + O(h4) + ∂x 2! ∂x2 3! ∂x3 (7.. and Laplace’s equation is no exception. (x − h.8.3..: Grid of a region of space where Laplace’s has to be solved..1562 2 terms 5. . y + h) and V(x.3887 3 terms 5.4. 280 . y + h) and (x. y). The basis of the numerical solution of Laplace’s equation. Numerical Techniques With the advent of the digital computer most applications involving partial diﬀerential equations and boundary value problems are solved numerically. y)..3337 7. The potential function at a neighbourhood point. x−h x x+h Figure 7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations n.7.3337 4 terms 5.y) to be calculated In this region . y). V(x − h. y).54) . y+h . y) + h ∂V h2 ∂2 V h3 ∂3 V + + O(h4) + ∂x 2! ∂x2 3! ∂x3 (7... y) V(x − h. y − h) the potential function V(x. is the following. Similarly at the point (x − h. At a point (x. say (x + h. y) takes on the values V(x + h. y) and its neighbourhood (x + h. y) = V(x.53) This is the standard expansion where y is treated like a constant.
1 is the Poisson’s equation.9. y + h) + V(x.26 rounded oﬀ). y=5 cm.7.60) To apply this equation the region where Laplace’s is to be solved is divided into a large number of grid points.55) we can similarly obtain an equation for the yneighbourhood V(x.58) h2 ∂2 V + O(h4) 2! ∂y2 (7. taking care that the grid points coincide with the boundaries where the potential is speciﬁed. y) or V(x. y − h) ≅ 4V(x. y) + V(x. y − h) = 2V(x.2 in Section 7.56) therefore V(x + h. y) + V(x − h. y) = 2V(x. After a number of iterations the values stabilised to the ones shown in the ﬁgure. shown circled (=5. y) + 2 h2 ∂2 V + O(h4) 2! ∂x2 (7.61) ε The equation states that the potential function V(r) satisﬁes Equation 7. y) + V(x. At the grid point x=1 cm.59) (7.62) ∇ • ∇V = ∇2 V = − 281 . The method was applied to a rectangular domain of width 6 cm and height 7 cm as shown in Figure 7. The results have been shown after rounding oﬀ to the nearest tenth of a volt. y) ≅ 1 V(x + h. Poisson’s Equation As already discussed Equation 7. y) + 2 adding the above and previous equations V(x + h. 7.61. ρv (7. y + h) + V(x. The left and right plates were maintained voltages of 20 and 20 V respectively. y + h) + V(x. while the top and bottom plates were maintained at 0 V. y) + V(x. y − h) 4 (7.57) (7. given a set of charges ρv (r) then the electric ﬁeld E maybe obtained everywhere in that region by E = −∇V (7. y + h) + V(x. y) + V(x − h. y − h) ≅ 4V(x. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations adding these two equations V(x + h.4. y) + h2 but ∂2 V ∂2 V + =0 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂2 V ∂2 V + ∂x2 ∂x2 (7. y) + V(x − h.3 V which is 5. y) + V(x − h. the comparison with the accurate value of 5.3337 V is encouraging.
9 −12.8 −20 0 0 0 0 0 V=0 Figure 7.6 −20 20 12.7.5 −20 20 11.5 −3.5 −8.5 5.5 −8.3 0 −5.5 0 −3.3 0 −5.8 3. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations Potential function V(x.3 −11.8 3.6 5.y) to be calculated In this region Corners insulated V=0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 8.9 0 −5.: The ’grid’ method applied to a rectangular domain of width of 6 cm and height 7 cm.5 −20 V=−20 V=20 20 12.9.3 −11.6 −20 20 8.9 −12.9 0 −5. 282 .6 5.8 −20 20 11.5 5.
67) d 2ε and hence the potential is V(x) ≅ c V0 cd x2 + − x 2ε d 2ε (7. Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations 7. Poisson’s equation then becomes ∂2 V c = ε ∂x2 performing two integrations dV c d2 V dx = = x + k1 2 dx ε dx dV x2 dx = V(x) = c + k1 x + k2 dx 2ε (7. In Cartesian coordinates Poisson’s equation becomes ∇2 V = ∂2 V ∂2 V ∂2 V ρv c + + = = ε ε ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 (7. namely. at x=d d2 (7.4.7. Looking further.64) (7.68) 283 . x.1. That is V ≡ V(x). At x = 0 when we apply V = 0.63) The boundary conditions are that the lower plate is at a poential V = 0 and the upper plate is at V = V0 .66) V0 = c + k 1 d 2ε or V0 cd k1 = − (7. This implies that there is no variation in either the y or z directions. One Dimensional Solutions Let us consider Poisson’s equation where there are two plates of area A with a separation d.65) and Where k1 and k2 are constants which will be determined by the boundary conditions. let V be a function of only one dimension. we get k2 = 0. From the symmetry of the problem. This solution is an approximate solution to the problem. the material between the plates is a volume charge of constant magnitude ρv = c.
Magnetostatics 284 .Part III.
This state of aﬀairs existed till about 1820. mathematically. Parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction attracted and antiparallel currents repelled each other. It was up to Maxwell to connect the two type of forces— electric and magnetic— who neatly tied up both. It was believed around that time that the Earth was a giant load stone.1. Introduction The earliest knowledge of magnetism can be traced back to the Chinese. And what is this ’point current’? Let us write the BiotSavart law and then understand this.2. Around 1820. That is 1 E∝ 2 R where R is the distance from the point charge. 8.1. made up of ironrich ore. Referring to the Figure 8. But he was not able to explain the phenomenon. That the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld was changing was conﬁrmed by the fact that at any one place the direction of the compass needle slowly shifted over time. magnetised in the same way. Similarly magnetic ﬁelds are also inversely proportional to the distance from a ’point current’. because currents are only moving charges. How are currents quantitatively related to magnetic ﬁelds? We already know from Coulomb’s law that electric ﬁelds are produced by charges involving an inverse square law. they produce magnetic ﬁelds. and simply put— when charges move.8. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law 8. Ampere further showed that the force between two long straight parallel currents was (a) inversely proportional to the distance between them and (b) proportional to the intensity of the current ﬂowing in each. who discovered naturally occurring magnets called load stone. and the greatest puzzle at was the slow variation of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Experimental investigations by AndreMarie Ampere in France on two parallel wires carrying current showed that they interacted magnetically. The word ’source’ has been put in inverted commas. into the now famous Maxwell’s equations. we see that in a conductor carrying a current there is 285 . around the year 1000. Hans Christian Oersted noted the connection between changing currents and the movement of a compass needle. The BiotSavart Law The ’source’ of magnetic ﬁelds are currents.
8. I′ dl′ . dH = I′ dl′ × r − r′ 4π r − r′ 2 (8. 286 . located at a position vector vector r′ where I′ is the current and dl′ is a minuscule part of the current carrying conductor. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law dH = I′ dl′ ×r−r′ 4πr−r′ 2 P (r) dl′ r′ r − r′ z r Current. If we substitute rR′ R = r − r′ Then the equation may be written in a simpler form dH = I′ dl′ × arR′ R 4πr2 ′ R R (8. The equation says that the magnetic ﬁeld at the ﬁeld point r is proportional to the cross product of the of the ﬁlamentary current.1. r − r′ is the unit vector in the direction of the vector r − r′ . This current element produces a minuscule magnetic ﬁeld dH at the point P (r) (at a position vector r). I’ y x Figure 8.3) (8.2) The vector rR′ R may be read as “the position vector from R′ to R—the source point to the ﬁeld point”. arR′ R .1) Here the ’source’ notation has been used: I′ dl′ . with the unit vector in the direction of the position of the current. which is the source term. has been set in the ’prime’ notation.: Figure illustrating the BiotSavart law a minuscule current element I′ dl′ .
In general with no restriction whatsoever.5) These expressions are fairly complicated. y′ .8. z′ ] r − r′ = [x − x′. y. we will integrate these expressions. the three diﬀerential components of the magnetic ﬁeld are given below in the rectangular coordinate system: dHx = 4π dH y = 4π dHz = 4π I′ dy′ (z − z′ ) − dz′(y − y′) (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 I′ [dz′ (x − x′) − dx′(z − z′ )] (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 I′ dx′ (y − y′) − dy′(x − x′) (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 3 3 3 (8. dl′ = ax dx′ + a y dy′ + az dz′ r = [x.: zdirected ﬁlamentary current at the origin and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the ﬁeld point r to the source point r′ : r2 ′ R .4) Using these results. z − z′ ] [x − x′.6. z] r′ = [x′ . y − y′. R Let us proceed to evaluate this expression in Cartesian coordinates. But for the present we apply these equations to a zdirected ﬁlamentary current 287 .2. To get the magnetic ﬁeld. but to give us a better understanding we apply these expressions to speciﬁc cases in Chapter 8. for speciﬁc current distributions. y − y′ . z − z′ ] r − r′ = (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 (8. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law z r r =0 ′ y I′ dz′ a z x Figure 8.
8.2. r′ = 0.6) a y = ar sin θ sin φ + aθ cos θ sin φ + aφ cos φ then dH = 4π = I′ −dz′ y a + 3 x I′ (dz′ x) 4π x 2 + y 2 + z2 x 2 + y 2 + z2 a 3 y I′ −dz′ y I′ (dz′ x) ax + ay 4πr3 4πr3 I′ dz′ = −yax + xa y 4πr3 288 . Plugging in the values with the following reasoning x′ = 0 ′ since r = 0 therefore y′ = 0 ′ z = 0 and dl′ = az dz′ dx′ = 0 so ′ dy = 0 I′ −dz′ y 4π 4π I′ (dz′ x) x 2 + y 2 + z2 3 Plugging in these values dHx = dH y = x 2 + y 2 + z2 3 dHz = 0 If we go over to the spherical coordinate system then x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ r= and ax = ar sin θ cos φ + aθ cos θ cos φ − aφ sin φ x 2 + y 2 + z2 (8. Here. because the ﬁlamentary current is at the origin. The ﬁgure depicts a ﬁlamentary current I′ dz′ az placed at the origin of a coordinate system. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law placed at the origin of a coordinate system as shown in Figure 8.
The units of the magnetic ﬁeld can be established from the BiotSavart law. If we recall we have already written out this law for the term I′ . J′ is the notation s we will use for the surface current idealisation. Rewriting the law 4π r − r′ 2 U A×m (r − r′ has no units) Units of dH = m2 = A/m U dH = I′ dl′ × r − r′ 8. it has the units of amp/m and is the surface current density.2. namely. The idealisation then is that the current is inﬁnite thin. The BiotSavart law using J′ is s dH = = 4π r − r′ 2 J′ × r − r′ s dS′ dS′ (8. Referring to the Figure 8.7) = − (1/2)arr sin2 θ sin 2φ + (1/4)aθr sin 2θ sin 2φ − aφr sin θ sin2 φ the other components being zero. dHφ = I′ dz′ sin θ (A/m) 4πr2 (8. In some cases the current exists on the surface of a conductor. The sin θ term is present due to the fact that there is a cross product term in the BiotSavart law.8) J′ × (r − r′ ) s 4π r − r′ 3 289 . We can write alternate forms of the BiotSavart law using these s currents. The minuscule ﬁeld is proportional to the current I′ and sin θ.1. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law Now −yax = −r sin θ sin φ ar sin θ cos φ + aθ cos θ cos φ − aφ sin φ xa y = r sin θ cos φ ar sin θ sin φ + aθ cos θ sin φ + aφ cos φ = (1/2)arr sin2 θ sin 2φ + (1/4)aθr sin 2θ sin 2φ + aφr sin θ cos2 φ adding these two terms I′ I′ −yax + xa y = aφ r sin θ 4πr3 4πr3 going back to the magnetic ﬁeld there is only one component. minuscule amounts of these currents are I′ . but covering the surface. Types of Current In electromagnetic theory one will meet with several types of idealisations of the current. and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source dl. This goes to support the important result that zdirected currents produce φdirected magnetic ﬁelds.8. J′ and J′ .3.
4. r is the position vector where the ﬁeld is evaluated dS′ is a diﬀerential element of surface which contains J′ s H is evaluated at the ﬁeld point r. 290 . r is the position vector where the ﬁeld is evaluated and r′ is the position vector of the current density.11) (8. In the same manner.8.12) H= V′ dV ′ is a diﬀerential volume element containing the current density J′ .: Types of Current And the magnetic ﬁeld using this equation is H= S′ J′ × (r − r′ ) s 4π r − r′ 3 dS′ (A/m) (8.10) (8. J′ (amp/m2 ).9) In this equation J′ ≡ J′ (r′ ) which is the surface current and where s s r′ is the position vector of the surface current which produces the ﬁeld. then J′ × r − r′ dH = dV ′ 4π r − r′ 2 J′ × (r − r′ ) ′ dV = 4π r − r′ 3 J′ × (r − r′ ) 4π r − r′ 3 dV ′ (8. when the current is a current density. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law I′ dl′ J′ dS′ s J′ dV ′ Figure 8.3. r and r′ are shown in Figure 8.
no current exists. the surface S bulges out and in part (b) of the ﬁgure.13) (This equation is given on page 113) Since we are considering the steady ﬁelds. 291 .2). The law states that the curl of the magnetic ﬁeld is equal to the current density at a point in space. H • dl = (∇ × H) • dS (8. Integrating both sides of this equation over a surface S as shown in Figure 8.8.15) Notice that the ﬁgure has two parts (a) and (b). In (a) part of the ﬁgure.: . If at that point. 8. we need to brush up our concepts on the curl (Section 3. the ∂D/∂t may be dropped and we have ∇×H = J (8. S is ﬂat. L is counterclockwise and encloses the S. The line integration has to be carried out in the anticlockwise sense. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law Element of current H (r) J′ dS′ or J dV ′ s r′ r − r′ r dH = or dH = J′ ×r−r′ s dS′ 4πr−r′ 2 J′ ×r−r′ dV ′ 4πr−r′ 2 z y x Figure 8.14) This is Ampere’s Law in diﬀerential form. we ﬁnd that one of the equations is ∇×H = ∂D +J ∂t (8. and L is the line which encloses the surface.16) L S Where S is the surface of integration.3. then the curl of the magnetic ﬁeld is zero. Ampere’s Law Before we read this section.3. In both cases.2. If we go back to Maxwell’s Equations. We recall from vector analysis Equation 3.3) and the line integral (Section 3. the equation given above applies. Stokes’s theorem is. In both cases.74.4.5 S (∇ × H) • dS = S J • dS (8.
5.17) This is Ampere’s law in integral form. The full expression then becomes H • dl = J • dS = Ienclosed (8. but incorporating the results of the above equation (∇ × H) • dS = H • dl = J • dS S L S But J • dS = Current through the surface = Ienclosed where Ienclosed is the current enclosed by the line and therefore passing through the enclosed surface. The integration is carried out in the direction of the ﬁngers while the unit vector of the surface is in the direction of the thumb. which is indicated by the symbol . The line integral of the magnetic ﬁeld H over a closed contour in the anticlockwise sense1 is equal to the current crossing the surface which enclosed by the contour. 292 . The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law J(r) J(r) J(r) S ˆ S ˆ S J(r) S L L (a) (b) Figure 8. 1 ’The anticlockwise sense’ is in the sense of the right hand thumb rule.8. So continuing with the previous equation.
It can give us quick results with the minimum of eﬀort.6. which are the natural coordinates to use in this 293 . The line integral of the magnetic ﬁeld must be equated to the current passing through the enclosed surface. On this loop we expect the magnetic ﬁeld to have the same value everywhere because of the symmetry of the loop. To obtain the current. To correctly apply Ampere’s law. One of the most popular applications of Ampere’s law is its application to the straight inﬁnite wire of Figure 8. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law b z Enclosed Surfaces a c x y Current in straight conductor= I’ Figure 8. 8.6. Loop c is a circle lying on a plane parallel to the xy plane with radius ρ. which we consider now. The ﬁgure shows an inﬁnite wire going from z = −∞ to z = +∞ carrying a current I′ . Loop a is not good enough because it encloses no current and application of the law will yield no result. we may have to do a surface integration. Loop c serves our purpose. The Loop b is not symmetrical though it does enclose the current.1. Also Ampere’s law gives a very sound ’feel’ for how the magnetic ﬁeld is produced by a current carrying conductors. It has the required symmetry. Ampere’s Law Applied to a Thin Straight Wire Ampere’s law is like Gauss’s law: when applied properly to certain symmetrical conﬁgurations. a closed contour must be chosen to the conﬁguration in question. These will now be considered in turn.3.8. Various loops (or contours) are shown in the ﬁgure (for the purpose of carrying out the line integral) which can be considered for application of the law. Using the integral deﬁnition of Ampere’s law H • dl = Ienclosed = J • dS In cylindrical coordinates.
then as ρ→0 (8. since Hφ ∝ 1/ρ. while the thumb points in the direction of the current. Hφ . the left side of the equation leads to H • dl = = Hρ dρ + Hz dz + Hφρdφ Hφ ρdφ 2π (dz and dρ are both zero) (Hφ and ρ are both constant on the loop) (8.20) (8. the φ component H = 0. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law situation.18) (8.22) 294 .7 as per the right hand thumb rule. if we were to ﬁnd the curl of H at any point except the line ρ = 0. For example for the straight wire. at that point. namely. Hφ → ∞ and Hφ → 0 as ρ→∞ The magnetic ﬁeld ’curls’ around the current as shown in Figure 8. If the wire were to be held in the right hand. J.21) Therefore we can see that the magnetic ﬁeld has only one component. The diﬀerential statement of Ampere’s law states that the curl of H at a point is equal to volume current density.19) = Hφ ρ 0 dφ = Hφ ρ (2π) And the right side of the equation is Ienclosed = I′ So 2πHφ ρ = I′ Hφ = I′ 2πρ (8. 0 = aφ Hφ Reexamining the magnetic ﬁeld. then the magnetic ﬁeld ’curls’ around the wire in the direction of the ﬁngers.8.
8.7.23) The ﬁrst equation above is zero because Hz is zero and Hφ is not a function of z. The second equation is zero because Hρ and Hz are both zero.: The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld visavis a straight conductor carrying current (using the equations for the curl in cylindrical coordinates.) 1 ∂H ∂Hφ z =0 (∇ × H)ρ = − ρ ∂φ ∂z ∂Hρ ∂Hz (∇ × H)φ = ∂z − ∂ρ = 0 Hρ =0 Hz =0 ∂ ρH ∂Hρ φ 1 (∇ × H)z = ∂ρ − ∂φ = 0 ρ =0 Hρ =0 Hz =0 Hφ (ρ) (8. The third 295 . The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law Straight conductor with direction of current Magnetic field lines Direction of magnetic field Figure 8.
the volume current density is J′ = I′ az πa2 (8. The wire caries a current I′ . we choose a circular contour of radius b < a along which to carry out the line integration as shown in the ﬁgure.26) = 2πbHφ 296 . The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law equation is zero because ρHφ is a constant and so ∂ ρHφ ∂ρ = I ∂ ρ 2πρ ′ ∂ρ =0 The second part of the third equation is zero because Hρ = 0. Then 2π L H • dl = 0 Hφ bdφ 2π = Hφ b 0 dφ (8. where the current exists) the current density is zero! There is a magnetic ﬁeld. Ampere’s Law Applied to a Wire of Radius a We now apply Ampere’s law to straight conductor of circular crosssection of radius a and of inﬁnite length as shown in Figure 8.8. but its curl is zero.25) To apply Ampere’s law in accordance with Equation 8. On the other hand if we were to consider the integral form of Ampere’s law and apply it to an inﬁnite wire carrying a constant current I′ H • dl = J • dS = Ienclosed H • dl = = = 0 Hρ dρ + Hφ(ρdφ) + Hzdz Hφ ρdφ (because Hρ and Hz are zero) 2π I′ ρdφ 2πρ I′ dφ 2π (which is = Ienclosed ) 2π = 0 =I ′ (8.8.4. Given these conditions.24) 8. Why is the curl of the magnetic ﬁeld zero everywhere? It is zero because everywhere.17. (except along the zaxis.
29) 297 .φ=0 (8.27) 2πbHφ = I′ b2 a2 I′ b Hφ = 2πa2 (8. from symmetry considerations.φ=2π S J′ • dS = ρ=0. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law Radius b Radius a x z Current I’ y Line of Integration L Surface of Integration S Cross Section of Conductor Figure 8.: Straight wire of radius a carrying a current I′ Hφ is assumed to be constant on the contour.28) Since b is actually a variable (≡ ρ) Hφ = I′ ρ 2πa2 (8.φ=2π ρ=0.8.φ=0 I′ az • ρdφdρaz πa2 ρdφdρ I′ = 2 πa = Equating these two results I′ b2 a2 ρ=b.8. The surface integration is now carried out ρ=b.
30) = 2πbHφ and for the surface integral is ρ=a. Outside the conductor.31) In the above equations the upper limit in the integral sign is ρ = a since the current is only present in the conductor. it is not surprising that the result is equal to I′ since the total current crossing the surface is I′ . I′ ρ 2 aφ inside the conductor 2πa I′ H = Hφ aφ = 2πρ aφ outside the conductor ′ I a at the boundary 2πa φ 298 .φ=0 I ′ a2 = 2 a = I′ (8. the ﬁeld is continuous.8.φ=2π S J′ • dS = = ρ=0.φ=2π ρ=0. In addition. in the above equation. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law When b > a then 2π L H • dl = 0 Hφ bdφ 2π = Hφ b 0 dφ (8. which is deﬁned by the region 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π and 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a. Which then gives Hφ = I′ 2πρ (8. Equating the two equations as earlier 2πbHφ = I′ or Hφ = I′ 2πb but b may be treated as a variable. this result is the same as in the case of an inﬁnitely thin wire. which is ρ.φ=0 I′ az • ρdφdρaz πa2 ρdφdρ I′ πa2 ρ=a.32) Notice that at the boundary.
33) (8.b. z0 and Applying the right hand thumb rule to the path of integration we come to the conclusion that the current enclosed by the loop is the total current going into the plane of the paper. φ0 . The points a. which is in the counterclockwise sense.34) = 2Nz0 I′ (a constant) 299 . then the total number of turns enclosed is 2Nz0 turns. z0 z b c y x r Current. namely.d in cylindrical coordinates are a in cylindrical coordinates is ρ0 . −z0 ρ0 . The line integral H dl = abcd ab the point d is ρ1 . z0 ρ1 . the point b. z0 . I’ (a) Geometry a d ρ0 . Ampere’s Law Applied to an Inﬁnite Solenoid We next apply Ampere’s law to the inﬁnite helix or solenoid shown in Figure 8. φ0 . abcd which will be the path of integration.9.8. ρ0 .9.5. φ0 . The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law ρ0 . Hz • dz + Hρ dρ + bc cd Hz • dz + Hρ dρ da (8. To apply Ampere’s law. φ0 . Then if the number of turns/m of the helix be N. we draw a closed rectangular loop. −z0 . φ0 . φ0 . If the helix current is I′ and the number of turns in the loop is n then nI′ is the total current enclosed. φ0 .there is the point c is ρ1 . (because 2z0 is the length of the loop) and therefore the total current enclosed is 2Nz0 I′ (A). φ0 .c. −z0 . −z0 (b) Path of integration Figure 8. The radius of the crosssection of the Helix is r and a current I′ ﬂows through it.: The inﬁnite helix 8.
This is so because for the inﬁnite number of turns. We can get an idea of the ﬁelds by imagining that one holds one turn of the solenoid with the right hand with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current. Using this path. Integration 1. (where r is the radius of the solenoid). we make line cd to be inside the helix itself.10. The magnetic ﬁeld curls around the turn. Now as we go all round the turn. We can now play with this line integral.9. no current is enclosed H dl = abcd ab Hz • dz + Hz • dz + Hρ dρ + bc cd Hz • dz + Hρ dρ da = ab cd Hz • dz since Hρ = 0 = 0 (no current is enclosed) 300 . Hρ will also be zero inside and outside the solenoid because there is no Hρ in the plane of the loop for a single turn. Hφ should be zero because of symmetry considerations. Referring to the Figure 8. we can draw a rough sketch of the ﬁelds. But ﬁrst we have to have an idea as to the ﬁelds existing inside and outside the solenoid. the ﬁeld conﬁguration in the plane of the loop will be repeated again and again. It is also clear that Hz must be a function of ρ only.8. Only Hz should be present everywhere inside. Such a sketch is shown in the ﬁgure for one turn. and perhaps outside. that is ρ0 < ρ1 < r. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law I Magnetic field lines Figure 8. From the sketch it is clear that the ﬁelds in the plane of the loop will be the ﬁelds which will present for the inﬁnite solenoid.
But from the previous equation Hz (ρ0 ) = Hz (ρ1 ) = constant (8.35) This is magnetic ﬁeld inside the solenoid. and again no current is enclosed H dl = abcd ab Hz • dz + cd Hz • dz (8. Now we allow ab to be inside and cd to be outside the solenoid. such that r < ρ0 < ρ1 .38) Integration 3. Hz (ρ0 ) = Hz (ρ1 ) = constant = 0 (8.8. and the ﬁelds are expected to decay slowly. so that H dl = abcd ab Hz • dz + Hz • dz cd Hz • dz = ab = 2z0 Hz ρ0 = 2Nz0 I′ But the right hand side must be equal to the total current enclosed Current enclosed = 2Nz0 I′ From the previous equations 2z0 Hz ρ0 = 2Nz0 I′ 2Nz0 I′ Hz (ρ0 ) = 2z0 = NI′ This is only component of the magnetic ﬁeld. Now we allow the lines ab and cd both outside the solenoid. Integration 2. But we expect the magnetic ﬁeld at ρ → ∞ to be zero. that is ρ0 < r < ρ1 . Hence 301 .37) The only explanation which explains this fact is that the magnetic ﬁeld outside the solenoid is zero.36) = 0 (no current is enclosed) which implies that Hz outside the solenoid is also a constant. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law which implies that Hz ρ0 = Hz ρ1 = c a constant (8. the other components being zero.
302 . The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law crosssection a I Figure 8. If the circular closed path is chosen outside (ρ > ρmin + 2a) or inside the torus (ρ < ρmin ). 0.11. Note that the current enters into surface enclosed by the path. Ampere’s law applied to a torus is H • dl = NI (8.: A torus with a winding EXAMPLE 8.41) Step 3. N is the total number of turns and I is the current. Step 2. no current crosses the surface and the ﬁeld in these regions is zero. Step 1. Hφ ρdφ = NI Hφ = NI 2πρ ρmin < ρ < ρmin + 2a (8.1 Apply Ampere’s law to a torus.39) where the integration is to be performed along the path shown.40) [0.8. NI′] H= 0 for 0 < ρ < r for r < ρ < ∞ (8.
12. 0] r′ = [0.: Applying the BiotSavart law to a current carrying straight conductor 8. y. conductor. shown in the Figure 8. z′ ] source point z y x r = [x. Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire We now calculate the magnetic ﬁeld more rigorously to show the student how to go about it. −z′] r − r′ = x2 + y2 + z′2 Using these expressions (8. y.1. 0. We will ﬁrst apply the BiotSavart Law to a current carrying straight. 0. y. dl′ = az dz′ r = [x.42) 303 . The Magnetic Field—Rigorous Calculations 8. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law dl′ = az dz′ r′ = [0. 0] observation point Current in straight conductor= I’ Figure 8. y. −z′ ] [x.12. inﬁnite.8. z′ ] r − r′ = [x.6.6.
y. y. Now we have to keep x and y constant. y. z′ → −∞) = therefore I′ y 2π y2 + x2 I′ x Hy = 2π y2 + x2 Hx = − Hz = 0 (8.47) (8.43) Somewhat simpler. while integrating over z′ from −∞ to ∞. Let us ﬁrst integrate dz′ z′ 2 + y 2 + x 2 Using the value of Γ(x.48) These are the ﬁelds everywhere. y. z′ → ∞) − Γ(x. the conﬁguration of the conductor will look the the same and the ﬁelds will be identical to the ones we have obtained. y. z′ = = y2 + x2 z′ z′ 2 + y 2 + x 2 (8. y. z′ → ±∞) I′ y Γ(x. z′ → ∞) − Γ(x. z′ → ∞) = 1 y2 + x2 1 Γ(x.45) Γ(x. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law dHx = dH y = I′ −dz′ y 4π 4π I′ [dz′ x] x2 + y2 + z′2 x2 + y2 + z′2 3 3 dHz = 0 (8.44) (8.8. We now go over to the 304 . If we move to any plane parallel to the z= 0 plane. z′ → −∞) = − 2 y + x2 2 y2 + x2 (8.46) so Γ(x. z′ → −∞) 4π I′ x Γ(x. z′ → ∞) − Γ(x. y. z′ → −∞) Hy = 4π Hz = 0 Hx = − 3 2 Γ x. y. y. y.
50) What does the magnetic ﬁeld for a straight conductor look like? Scientists and engineers have thought of a simple way to visualise the ﬁeld pattern.0. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law cylindrical coordinate system H=− I′ y I′ x ax + a y + 0az 2π y2 + x2 2π y2 + x2 I′ y I′ x cos φaρ − sinφaφ + =− 2π y2 + x2 2π y2 + x2 ax ′ ′ sin φaρ + cos φaφ ay = 2π y2 + x2 I′ ρ = aφ 2πρ2 I′ = aφ 2πρ I ρ sin φ I ρ cos φ sin φaρ + cos φaφ cos φaρ − sin φaφ + 2π 2π y2 + x2 ′ρ I − sin φ cos φa + sin2 φa + sin φ cos φa + cos2 φa = ρ ρ φ φ 2 + x2 2π y =− I′ ρ sin2 φ aφ + cancels I′ ρ cos2 φ cancels 2π y2 + x2 aφ We can use another way to corroborate this equation. We can also plot the ﬁeld lines of the magnetic ﬁeld. Writing out the ﬁelds in ρ. The ﬁeld line equations 305 . This is called the right hand thumb rule.0] aρ = ax and aφ = a y .7. z Hρ = 0 Hφ = I′ 2πρ also evaluating the ﬁelds at [0.y. If one holds the conductor in the right hand with the thumb in the direction of the current. then the magnetic ﬁeld lines have a direction as that of the ﬁngers. as shown in Figure 8. ρ = x.49) ﬁelds as obtained earlier. At [x.8. φ.0]. ρ = y and aφ = −ax which give us the same Hz = 0 (8. The ﬁelds are therefore Hx = 0 ≡ Hρ = 0 I′ I′ Hy = ≡ Hφ = 2πx 2πρ Hz = 0 (8.
Or 4. If a magnetic ﬁeld line starts at inﬁnity then it also ends at inﬁnity.8. Electric ﬁeld lines end at a charge. which are shown in Figure 8. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law 8 4 0 4 8 8 4 0 4 8 Figure 8. 3. Magnetic ﬁeld lines. Some important remarks are required here on the comparison of ﬁeld lines of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds 1. 306 .13. 2. or some metal surface. The ﬁeld lines consist of a family of circles with centre [0. form closed loops. Electric ﬁeld lines start at some charge or start at inﬁnity.: Field lines of the magnetic ﬁeld for the straight wire carrying current are dy dx = Hx H y dx I′ y − 2π y2 +x2 ) ( = dy I′ x 2π( y2 +x2 ) xdx = −ydy Integrating both sides xdx = − x 2 + y 2 = c2 ydy x2 = −y2 + c2 where c is a constant. at inﬁnity or a metal surface.13.0. on the other hand.z].
Loop of Wire Carrying a Current In the next example we apply our BiotSavart law formulae to ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld along the axis of a current loop shown in the Figure 8.14.6. 0] x′ = ρ0 cos(φ) y′ = ρ0 sin(φ) dx′ = −ρ0 sin(φ)dφ dy′ = ρ0 cos(φ)dφ With r = [0. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law z r = [0. The radius of the loop is ρ0 . z] We plug in the values given above I′ dy′ z 4π x′2 + y′2 + z2 I′ [−dx′ z] 4π x′2 + y′2 + z2 3 3 (8. The current I′ ﬂows in the wire and the loop is placed ﬂat on the xy plane. y′ .: Magnetic ﬁeld on the central axis due to a current loop 8. 0] source point y I’ Current loop x Figure 8. 0.8.52) dHx = = I′ zρ0 cos(φ)dφ 4π ρ2 + z2 0 ρ2 + z2 0 I′ ρ2 dφ 0 4π ρ2 + z2 0 3 3 dH y = = I′ zρ0 sin(φ)dφ 4π = 3 dHz = I′ dx′ (−y′ ) − dy′(−x′ ) 4π x′2 + y′2 + z2 3 (8.51) (8. z] observation point r − r′ radius ρ0 r′ = [x′ .14. y′ . 0.2.53) 307 . Scrutinising the ﬁgure it is clear that r′ = [x′ .
Figure 8.6. Magnetic Field Due to a Current Sheet Referring to Figure 8. the z component. 0. Sheet of current y r′ = [x′ .. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law z r − r′ dS′ = dx′ dy′ r = zaz ﬁeld point . namely.3.15 we can use some of these concepts applied to the case of the magnetic ﬁeld produced by a current sheet.15. y′ . Note that at z = 0 the loop produces a ﬁeld Hz = I′ 2ρ0 while as z tends to inﬁnity the magnetic ﬁeld Hz ∝ 1 z3 8. 0] s x . The ﬁgure shows a 308 . O ′ J′ = [Jsx . and the ﬁeld line starts at −∞ and proceeds to ∞..8.54) The magnetic ﬁeld along the axis of the loop has only a single component.. 0] source point Integrating these equations 2π Hx = I′ zρ0 cos(φ)dφ 4π ρ2 + z2 0 3 0 2π =0 Hy = I′ zρ0 sin(φ)dφ 4π ρ2 + z2 0 I′ ρ2 dφ 0 4π ρ2 + z2 0 3 3 0 2π =0 I′ ρ2 0 2 ρ2 + z2 0 3 Hz = = 0 (8..
z] r′ = [x′ .8. 0. −y′ . y − y′.58) 309 . 0 . −y′ . z − z′ ] [x − x′. z − z′ ] (8. z − z′ ] r − r′ = (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 ′ ′ Jsy (z − z′) − Jsz (y − y′) dS′ (8.56) ′ J′ = ax Jsx s r = [0. The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law ′ current ﬂowing in the ax direction with J′ = Jsx . y − y′ . 0] r − r′ = [x − x′. y.9 s the the various terms of this equation (in the most general case.57) Here r = [0.55) dHx = 4π dH y = 4π dHz = 4π In the current case (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 ′ ′ Jsz (x − x′) − Jsx(z − z′) dS′ 3 (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 ′ ′ Jsx (y − y′) − Jsy(x − x′) dS′ 3 (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 3 (8. Using these equations dHx = 0 dH y = dHz = ′ −Jsx zdx′ dy′ 4π 4π x′2 + y′2 + z2 x′2 + y′2 + z2 3 ′ Jsx (−y′ )dx′ dy′ 3 (8. y − y′. z] = [−x′ . z] r − r′ = x′2 + y′2 + z2 dS′ = dx′ dy′ r′ = [x′ . y′ . z] [−x′ . y′ . 0. z′ ] r − r′ = [x − x′. in rectangular coordinates. are) ′ ′ ′ J′ = ax Jsx + a y Jsy + az Jsz s r = [x. If we use Equation 8. 0. z] since the ﬁeld on the z axis will be the same as the ﬁeld anywhere.
y=∞ Hy = x.y=−∞ ′ Jsx (−y′ )dx′ dy′ 4π x′2 + y′2 + z2 3 (8.61) ′ −Jsx zx′ ′ dy Hy = y′ =−∞ 4π z2 + y′ 2 z2 + y ′ 2 + x ′ 2 y′ =∞ x′ =∞ = ′ −Jsx zdy′ y′ =−∞ 2π z2 + y′ 2 y′ =∞ x′ =−∞ (8.8.y=−∞ x.59) In the very ﬁrst equation a question mark appears. The third integral is zero because the integrand is an odd function of y′ . The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law Integrating these equations Hx = constant(= c)(?) x.62) Performing the second integration we get 310 . So we are left with the second integration Hy = ′ −Jsx zdx′ dy′ 3 4π x′2 + y′2 + z2 (8.y=∞ ′ −Jsx zdx′ dy′ 4π x′2 + y′2 + z2 3 Hz = x.60) Integrating with respect to x′ ′ −Jsx zdx′ 3 = 4π 4π so x′2 + y′2 + z2 ′ −Jsx zx′ z2 + y ′ 2 z2 + y ′ 2 + x ′ 2 (8. That is so because the integration is a deﬁnite integral and the deﬁnite integration of zero is zero.
this is the unit vector of the surface toward the upper region.8.64) Hz = 0 If we consider the region above the sheet. 311 . The Magnetic Field—Ampere’s Law ′ Jsx z arctan Hy = − × 2π z (π) 2π J′ = − sx (−π) 2π =− or more compactly Hx = 0 ′ − Jsx H y = Jsx 2 ′ 2 ′ Jsx y′ z y′ =∞ ′ y′ Jsx =− × arctan 2π z y′ =−∞ y′ =∞ y′ =−∞ for z > 0 for z < 0 (8.63) for z > 0 for z < 0 (8. Then az × (Habove − Hbelow ) = az × − = Jsx ax = Js (8. That is. the unit vector of the surface toward the region above is az .65) Jsx Jsx ay − ay 2 2 = az × (−Jsx ) a y This result is signiﬁcant as will be clear when we consider boundary conditions.
9. The Vector Potential
9.1. The Magnetic Flux Density
Let us consider another of Maxwell’s equations, namely, ∇•B = 0 where B is the magnetic ﬂux density. B = µH (9.2) (9.1)
What does the previous equation really say or mean? As it stands, in the diﬀerential form, it does not convey much. But if integrate this equation over some volume V enclosed by a surface S and apply the divergence theorem ∇ • B dV = B • dS = 0 (9.3)
V
S
then we can understand something more from the above equation. The second equality says that the surface integral of B over the closed surface S is zero. The surface integral of a vector basically gives you the total ﬂux of that out of that surface of that vector. (See Figure 9.1) Here the term B • dS
S
is the total magnetic ﬂux out of the surface S. Therefore, the total magnetic ﬂux out of any closed surface is always zero. Let us compare this with an analogous equation involving the electric ﬁeld, which is GaussÂŽs law: D • dS = Total charge enclosed
S
If we compare these two equations, then we can come to the surprising conclusion that since the total magnetic ﬂux out of any closed surface is always zero, therefore there are no magnetic charges! Going back to Equation 9.1 we know from our knowledge of vector analysis that when the divergence of a vector is zero, that vector ﬁeld must be the curl of some other vector. In other words if ∇•B = 0
312
9. The Vector Potential
Flux =
S B • dS S B • dS =
0
B
field
Surface
S B
field
Closed surface
S
(a)
Figure 9.1.: Magnetic Flux
(b)
then where A, in theory can be any vector ﬁeld. Thus given any vector ﬁeld A it will, by the previous equation give us a possible B ﬁeld. A is called the vector potential. Can two vector potentials give us the same B ﬁeld? Let us investigate this. Let two ﬁelds A1 and A2 give us the same B ﬁeld B = ∇ × A1 = ∇ × A2 therefore recall that when the curl of a vector ﬁeld is zero then that vector must be the gradient of a scalar A1 − A2 = ∇φ A1 = A2 + ∇φ (9.7) (9.8) ∇ × (A1 − A2 ) = 0 (9.5) (9.6) B = ∇×A (9.4)
So, vector potential is not unique: two diﬀerent A ﬁelds can give us the same B ﬁeld. The diﬀerence between the two possible vector potentials is the gradient of a scalar. How do we get a practical or real vector potential? That is given a set of currents. how do we proceed to obtain the vector potential? To do this let us look at another of Maxwell’s equations, namely Ampere’s law in magnetostatics ∇×H = J
313
9. The Vector Potential
or substituting Equation 9.4 in the above equation and using ∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇ (∇ • A) − (∇ • ∇) A we get ∇ × (∇ × A) = µ0 J ∇ (∇ • A) − (∇ • ∇) A = µ0 J (9.10) ∇ × B = µ0 J (9.9)
(9.11)
Any vector is not fully determined until both is curl and divergence are both speciﬁed we choose (for a reason) ∇•A = 0 so that the previous equation becomes − (∇ • ∇) A = µ0 J (9.12)
∇2 A = −µ0 J
(9.13)
On examination of the above equation we ﬁnd that we are dealing with three equations ∇2 Ax = −µ0 Jx ∇2 Az = −µ0 Jz
∇2 A y = −µ0 J y
(9.14)
Each of these equations are mathematically similar to the potential equation ∇2 V = −ρv /ε0 The solution to the above equation is V (r) = 1 4πε0 ρv (r′ ) dv′ r − r′  (9.16) (9.15)
V′
where V(r) is the potential at the ﬁeld point r due to charges ρv (r′ ) in the volume V′ whose position vector is speciﬁed by the r′1 . Using the above result we can assert that2 µ0 Ji (r′ ) dV ′ Ai (r) = (9.17) i=x,y,z 4π ′ r − r′ 
V
where Ai (r) is the ith component (i=x, y or z) of the vector potential at the ﬁeld point r due to currents Ji (r′ ) in the volume V′ whose position vector is speciﬁed
2 Note 1 Note
that dv′ is used instead of dV ′ to avoid confusion with V, the potential that instead ε0 in the denominator there is µ0 in the numerator
314
9. The Vector Potential
A (r) =
µ0 4π J(r′ )dv′ V′ r−r′ 
r
r − r′
dV ′
z
r′ V′
y x
Figure 9.2.: Figure showing the geometry of how the vector potential is calculated
by the r′ . These three equations can be recombined into A (r) = µ0 4π J (r′ ) dV ′ r − r′  (9.18)
V′
Figure 9.2 depicts the various variables. We can formulate the above equations a bit diﬀerently. Instead of the term Jv dV ′ , we can use other formulations A (r) = µ0 4π µ0 4π Js (r′ ) dS′ r − r′  I (r′ ) dl′ r − r′  (9.19)
S′
A (r) =
L′
(9.20)
in the case of surface or line currents.
315
9. The Vector Potential
9.2. The BiotSavart Law
Let us take the curl of the vector potential at a ﬁeld point. µ0 J (r′ ) dv′ ∇(R) × A (r) = ∇(R) × 4π r − r′  ′ = µ0 4π µ0 4π
V V′ V′
∇(R) × ∇(R)
=
1 × J (r′ ) dv′ r − r′ 
J (r′ ) dv′ r − r′ 
(9.21)
the nomenclature ∇(R) is the nabla operator operating on the r coordinates only, (which is where the ﬁeld point is) and not the r′ coordinates (which are the coordinates of where the currents are). In the last equation we have used ∇ × (aA) = ∇a × A + a∇ × A Now r − r′ ∇(R) r − r′
−1
= (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 =− =−
−(1/2)
−1
(x − x′)ax + (y − y′)a y + (z − z′)az
r − r′ 3 µ0 4π µ0 4π (r − r′ )
(r − r′ )
(x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2
(3/2)
therefore ∇(R) × A (r) = B(r) = − r − r′ 3 × J (r′ ) dv′ dv′
V′ V′
J (r′ ) × (r − r′ ) r − r′ 3
Let us apply this expression to a wire of crosssection A carrying a current I. dv′ = Adl′ Then then B(r) = µ0 4π I(r′ )dl′ × (r − r′ )
V′
JAdl′ = Idl′
(9.22)
r − r′ 3
(9.23)
Which is the same result that we obtained by the BiotSavart law.
316
9. The Vector Potential
9.3. Various Results
The important aspect about the vector potential is that we can take the results of the scalar potential and apply then directly. Let us take some examples.
9.3.1. Current Carrying Conductor
Let us look at a straight wire along the zaxis of a coordinate system, carrying a steady current I. The potential of such a wire with a charge density ρl is given by ρl ln y2 + x2 V(x, y) = − 2 π ε0 since the vector potential is proportional to the current, and the directions to be properly chosen, we can straight away write (ρl Iaz and 1/ε0 µ0 ) Az = − Iµ0 ln y2 + x2 2π Iµ0 ln ρ =− 2π
Note that in this case only one component of A, namely Az is present since the current is zdirected and the vector potential is in the direction of the current (Examine equation (9.20)). the other components being zero. Therefore using cylindrical coordinates ∂A ∂ ρAφ ∂Aρ ρ 1 ∂Az ∂Aφ ∂Az a + 1 ∇×A = − aρ + ∂z − ∂ρ φ ρ ∂ρ − ∂φ az ρ ∂φ ∂z
0 0 0
∂Az aφ =− ∂ρ Iµ0 B= 2πρ
(9.24)
which is the same result which we obtained using Ampere’s law.
9.3.2. Two Current Carrying Conductors
We can proceed along the same lines and ﬁnd the ﬁeld for two inﬁnite wires parallel to the z axis placed on the xy plane at (x=0,y=d/2) and (x=0,y=d/2). The potential from electrostatics is ρl V(x, y) = log 2 π ε0 y + d/2 2 + x2 2 2 y − d/2 + x
(9.25)
317
9. The Vector Potential
where the wires are charged ρl and −ρl . Using ρl µ0 the analogous vector potential is Iµ0 log Az = 2π y + d/2
2 2
Iaz , −ρl + x2
−Iaz and 1/ε0
Ax = 0 Ay = 0 then Iµ0 B x = ∂ y Az = 2π
2 y − d/2 + x
(9.26)
y + d/2 y + d/2 2 + x2 x
−
Iµ0 B y = −∂x Az = − 2π Bz = 0
y + d/2 2 + x2
−
y − d/2 2 y − d/2 + x2
x 2 2 y − d/2 + x
(9.27)
we can see that we have obtained quite complicated expressions in a simple manner.
9.4. Far Field Approximation
Very often we would like to ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld far from where the currents are placed, the far ﬁeld. In such cases it is much easier to ﬁnd the ﬁeld using the vector potential. Figure 9.3 shows the geometry of the where the currents along with the region of the ﬁeld point. The concerned accurate equation for calculation of the vector potential is A (r) = the term r − r′ µ0 4π J (r′ ) dV ′ r − r′  1 r2 − 2 r′ cos χ r + r′ 2
V′
−1
=
by the cosine law. χ is the angle between r and r′ . The far ﬁeld is deﬁned by R ≫ R′ . 1 r2 − 2 r′ cos χ r + r′ 2 = r 1−2
r′ r
1
cos χ +
r′ 2 r
since R′ /r is much smaller than 1. Therefore we can use a Taylor series expan
318
9. The Vector Potential
A(r) ≈
µ0 4πR2 ′ r ˆ′ ′ ′ V′ J (r ) (ˆ • r ) R dV
z
r >> r′ r r − r′
χ r′
Region where currents lie
y
x
Figure 9.3.: Figure to derive the far ﬁeld vector potential
sion around R′ /R = 0 1 r2 − 2 R′ cos χ r + R′ 2 using this expansion we write µ0 A (r) = 4π 1 r′ cos χ 3 cos2 χ − 1 r′ 2 ′ dV + J (r′ ) + r r2 2 r3 J (r′ ) dV ′ = 0
V′
=
1 r
First term
+
3 cos2 χ − 1 r′ 2 r′ cos χ + r2 2 r3
Second term Third term
V′
generally we use only the ﬁrst two terms. However the term
since the steady current always ﬂows in closed loops3 . The second term always contributes µ0 A(r) ≈ J (r′ ) r′ cos χdV ′ 4πr2 ′
V
3 This
point will be clear when we take applications of this formula.
319
9. The Vector Potential
r, observation point
z
(−a/2,−b/2)
(−a/2,b/2)
(a/2,−b/2)
y I x
(a/2,b/2)
r′ , source point
Figure 9.4.: Magnetic ﬁeld due to a square loop of current.
ˆ ˆ but cos χ = r • r′ . Therefore A(r) ≈ µ0 4πr2
V′
J (r′ ) (ˆ • r′ ) r′ dV ′ r ˆ
9.4.1. Square Current Loop
Consider a square loop of steady current as shown in Figure 9.4. Mathematically, the current can be described by the set of equations on the xy plane. −Idxax −Idya y JdV = Idl = Idxa x Idya y JdV = =I for a/2 > x > −a/2, y = b/2 for b/2 > y > −b/2, x = −a/2 for a/2 > x > −a/2, y = −b/2 for b/2 > y > −b/2, x = a/2
Let us ﬁrst calculate
Loop
Idl ax dx + a ydy dx + a y dy
Loop
= I ax =0
Loop
Loop
320
9. The Vector Potential
Let us now calculate the second integral J (r′ ) (ˆ • r′ ) r′ dV ′ = ax r ˆ r ˆ Jx (r′ ) (ˆ • r′ ) R′ dV ′ + a y r ˆ J y (r′ ) (ˆ • r′ ) R′ dV ′
V′
V′
V′
For the ﬁrst integral on the right, r = xax + ya y + zaz , r′ = x′ ax ± (b/2)a y . So ˆ ˆ r • r′ =
a/2 −a/2
r x′2 + (b/2)2
a/2 −a/2
xx′ ± y(b/2)
ax
V′
r ˆ Jx (r′ ) (ˆ • r′ ) r′ dV ′ =
ax R
(−I) xx′ + y(b/2) dx′ +
(I) xx′ − y(b/2) dx′
ax = −Iyab R
Similarly for the second integral on the right r = xax + ya y + zaz , r′ = ±(a/2)ax + y′ a y ˆ ˆ r • r′ = ay r ˆ J y (r ) (ˆ • r ) r dV = R
′ ′ ′ ′ b/2 −b/2
r (a/2)2 + y′2
b/2 −b/2
x(a/2) ± yy′
ay
V′
(−I) x(−a/2) + yy dy +
′
′
=
ay R
(Ixab)
(I) x(a/2) + yy dy
′ ′
Or A= = = = = µ0 Iab −ax y + a yx 4πr3 µ0 Iab (az × r) 4πr3 µ0 Iab ˆ R (az × r) 4πr3 µ0 Iab az × az cos θ + aρ sin θ 4πr2 µ0 Iab aφ sin θ 4πr2
(9.28)
(We can of course obtain the same result by the long method:
321
9. The Vector Potential
a y = ar sin φ sin θ + cosθ sin φaθ + aφ cos φ x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ using these results
ax = ar cos φ sin θ + cosθ cos φaθ − aφ sin φ
−ax y = − ar cos φ sin θ + cosθ cos φaθ − aφ sin φ r sin θ sin φ a y x = ar sin φ sin θ + cosθ sin φaθ + aφ cos φ r sin θ cos φ
= − ar r cos φ sin φ sin2 θ + aθr sin θ cos θ sin φ cos φ − aφr sin θ sin2 φ = ar r cos φ sin φ sin2 θ + aθr sin θ cos θ sin φ cos φ + aφr sin θ cos2 φ
a y x − ax y = aφ r sin θ therefore Aφ = µ0 Iab sin θ 4πr2 (9.29)
the other components being zero.) Based on this vector potential we can obtain the B ﬁeld 1 ∂ sin θAφ B= r sin θ ∂θ 1 ∂ sin θAφ = r sin θ ∂θ = ∂Aθ 1 1 ∂Ar ∂ rAφ − − ar + ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r 1 ∂ rAφ ar + − aθ r ∂r 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − aφ aθ + r ∂r ∂θ (9.30)
µ0 Iab cos θ µ0 Iab sin θ ar + aθ 3 2πr 4πr3
These expressions are identical with the expressions obtained for the electric ﬁeld for an electric dipole given in Section ?? on page ??, except that Qd, the dipole moment is replaced by the expression Iab, which is the current multiplied by the area of the loop. Because of this similarity, Iab is called the magnetic dipole moment. EXERCISE 9.1 Work out the far ﬁeld magnetic ﬁeld for a current loop of radius a. Show that the expressions for the ﬁeld are the same ones which we obtained above except that ab is replaced by πa2 .
322
10. Magnetic Forces
10.1. The Lorentz Force
Forces appear in electrodynamics in two varieties. The ﬁrst one consists of the force on a charged particle due to the presence of an electric ﬁeld. The law here is F = qE (10.1) where q is the charge, E is the electric ﬁeld where the charge is located and F is the force felt by the charge. The ﬁrst point to be noticed is that the force on the charge is in the direction of the electric ﬁeld. The second point is that the force is proportional to the magnitude of the charge and the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. The second kind of force, experimentally veriﬁed, is the force on a moving charge. Referring to Figure 10.1, if a charge q is moving with a velocity v in a magnetic ﬁeld with ﬂux density B then the magnitude of the force experienced by the charge is given by F = qvB sin χ (10.2) where χ is the angle between v and B. The direction of F is perpendicular to the two vectors: in the direction of the thumb given by the right hand rule, when the ﬁngers are curled from v to B. All this is conveniently written in vector notation as F = qv × B (10.3) The total force on a charge in the presence of both the electric as well as the magnetic ﬁelds is given by F = q(E + v × B) this force is called the Lorentz force. F = qv × B (10.4)
11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 v 11111 00000 ◦00000 χ 90 11111 11111 00000 containing Plane 11111 00000 11111 00000 and v q
both B
Figure 10.1.: The v × B force
B
323
Let us start with a single electron moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld.5) (10.6) = ev0 B0 ax 324 . We want it to move perpendicularly.2.9) (10.8) (10. Magnetic Forces z B e F v trajectory y x Uniform magnetic field B = B0 a z Figure 10. 10.2 which shows B = B0 a z v = v0 a y x = some value which we specify later y=0 z=0 F = ev × B The equations of motion are dvx = ev y Bz dt dv y = −evx Bz me dt dvz me =0 dt me The third equation integrates to vz = 0 (10.7) at t=0 (10.10) (10. The situation is depicted in Figure 10. Electron Moving in a Steady Magnetic Field The next question which arises is: where do we apply this new law? (The v × B law?) First we require a magnetic ﬁeld.12) (10. Then we require some moving charges so that we can see the eﬀect of the force. so that the eﬀect of v × B is simpliﬁed.11) (10.2.: Single electron moving perpendicularly to a steady magnetic ﬁeld.10.
10. ωc is the cyclotron frequency.13) (10.18) 325 .17) vx = 1 dv y = −v0 sin (ωc t) ωc dt Notice that the magnitude of the velocity is constant v2 + v2 = v0 x y (the initial velocity) (10. vx can now be calculated. Magnetic Forces Using Laplace transforms with the notation a(t) ⇐⇒ A(s) the ﬁrst two equations can be written as me [sVx (s)] = eV y (s)B0 me sV y (s) − v0 = −eVx (s)B0 (10. the ﬁrst equation becomes Vx (s) = or me sV y (s) − v0 = −eB0 sV y (s) − v0 = − eB0 sV y (s) + me V y (s) s2 + or V y (s) = taking the inverse Laplace transform v y (t) = v0 cos(ωc t) (Check: at t = 0 the value of v y = v0 ) and where ωc = − eB0 me (10. since me dv y dt = −evx B0 therefore (10.14) L substituting the ﬁrst equation into the second one.16) (10.15) 2 eV y (s)B0 me s eV y (s)B0 2 eB0 me me s V y (s) s V y (s) s 2 = v0 = sv0 sv0 eB0 me s2 + eB0 2 me Note that the right hand side is positive since e is negative.
Magnetic Forces which means that the kinetic energy of the electron neither increases nor decreases and no work is done by this force.3. A Straight Wire Carrying a Current in a Magnetic Field We next consider the case of a long straight metallic wire immersed in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld of magnetic ﬂux density B = B0 az shown in Figure 10.21) where r is the position vector of the charge. and then move on to the macro level.22) 10. To get a better feel for the problem. and centre (x0 . we will analyse the problem from the micro level. In a metal conductor the mobile charge carriers are electrons. Let us ﬁnd the trajectory of the electron vx = −v0 sin (ωc t) or dx = −v0 sin (ωc t) dt v0 v0 cos (ωc t) + x0 where + x0 is x at t=0 x= ωc ωc v y = v0 cos(ωc t) or v0 y= sin (ωc t) y = 0 at t = 0 ωc To obtain the geometry of the trajectory of the electron x − x0 = v0 cos (ωc t) ωc v0 y= sin (ωc t) ωc v0 ωc 2 (10. No work is done by this force! Let us take a look at the general case. 0) with a frequency of ωc . If the density of 326 .23) (10.10.20) the electron is moving in a circle with radius v0 /ωc . (10. Let a charge q move with a velocity v in a magnetic ﬁeld with ﬂux density B.3. But dr =v dt therefore dW = q (v × B) • vdt = 0! Charges moving in magnetic ﬁelds neither gain kinetic energy nor lose it.19) Hence (x − x0)2 + y2 = (10. Then the diﬀerential work done in time dt is dW = q (v × B) • dr dt dt (10.
then the force on the wire per meter F is F = ρlm vd × B = ρlm vd B0 ax (Nt/m) (10.10. Therefore F = −IB0 ax (Nt/m) But the current is related to the line mobile charge and the drift velocity through the equation I = −ρl vd (10.25) Let vd = vd a y be the drift velocity.24) the total mobile charge per meter of line is again ρlm = ρvm × A (m2 ) = ρvm A (C/m)(A is the area of crosssection of the wire) (10. Magnetic Forces z B = B0 a z F y ρvm = ne Infinite wire I x vd Uniform magnetic field B0 a z Figure 10.3.26) the negative sign occurs since the conventional current direction and the electron current direction are of opposite sign. I is in the direction L) is F = −ILB0 ax = IL × B (conﬁrm this from the ﬁgure) 327 .: A long straight wire in a steady magnetic ﬁeld electrons are n electrons/m3 then the mobile volume charge density is ρvm = ne (C/m3 ) (10.27) and the force on a length of straight line L (in vector notation.
31) = (ρv dV) v × B In the above equations dF is the elemental force which the charge feels. qv may be replaced by IL.10.4.32) 10.33) =I =0 L 328 . Loop Carrying a Current in a Constant Magnetic Field Let us consider yet another case: that of a loop in a constant magnetic ﬂux density B = B0 az . Magnetic Forces A simpler manner in which we can approach this problem is to start from the equation F = qv × B Since the wire is straight. So F = IL × B (10. Other Formulations We can use the basic equation F = qv × B and make it suit our needs: dF = dQ v × B = J × BdV (10. dV is a volume element.30) (10.28) 10. In this case we use the formulation dF = Idl × B so F=I L dl × B dl × B (I is a constant) (B is constant) (10. J is the current density and B is the external magnetic ﬂux density.5. dQ is an elemental charge. Or alternatively another formulation is the force felt by a diﬀerential current element dF = Idl × B (dQv = Idl) (10.29) (dQ = ρv dV) (J = ρv v) (10. shown in Figure 10. ρv is the charge density.4.
The 329 . x(t f ) = x(ti ). z(t). z be x(t).4. Take the example shown in Figure 10. Then t=t f dl = L t=ti (ax x′ dt + a y y′ dt + azz′ dt) t=t f t=ti (x′ = dx/dt. Torque on Loop Carrying a Current in a Constant Magnetic Field The total force on a loop carrying a current is zero.10. y(t).6.34) (This can be proved as follows: dl = L L (ax dx + a ydy + azdz) since we are integrating on a loop.: A loop carrying current in a constant magnetic ﬁeld since dl = 0 L (10. Therefore dl = 0) L (10. Magnetic Forces z dl I I y x B = B0 a z Figure 10.5. y(t f ) = y(ti ) and z(t f ) = z(ti ). y.) = ax x(t) + a y y(t) + azz(t)t = ax x(t f ) − x(ti) + a y y(t f ) − y(ti) + az z(t f ) − z(ti) but since we are considering a loop. let the parametric equations for x. 10.35) Therefore no force is felt by a loop carrying a steady current I and immersed in a steady magnetic ﬁeld. but that does not mean that the loop does not feel a torque. etc.
The magnetic ﬁeld (read ﬂux density) is directed from the north pole of the magnet to the south pole. is modelled as B = −az B0 . The current ﬂowing through the loop is I. The other side is of length d.36) (10.: Torque on a loop carrying a current ﬁgure shows a square loop abcd immersed in a constant magnetic ﬁeld B and it is allowed to rotate about a central axis as shown. The length of the side of the loop (ab) is L and as a vector it is L = a y L. Magnetic Forces N F I a θ b B o z + y − x origin moves to I d c F S Figure 10.5.37) both these forces tend to rotate the loop in the counterclockwise sense when 330 . Applying now the magnetic force equation along the side of the loop ab: Fab = IL × B = I(a y L) × (−azB0 ) = −ax ILB0 similarly the force along the side cd is Fcd = IL × B = I(−a yL) × (−azB0 ) = ax ILB0 (10. The coordinate system chosen is placed at the centre of the loop at the point o with ab along the y axis.10.
: Calculation of the force between two current elements We now proceed to compute the force which a current element exerts on another one.7.38) (10. Notice that the forces on sides bc and da are equal and opposite and pass through the centre of the loop.39) 10.10. was the ﬁrst to explain this eﬀect: he showed that two parallel wires carrying current. The torque about the axis of rotation is due Fab is Tab = r × Fab d = (az cos θ − ax sin θ) × (−axILB0 ) 2 d = − a y cos θILB0 2 and Tcd = r × Fcd d = (−az cos θ + ax sin θ) × (axILB0 ) 2 d = − a y cos θILB0 2 hence the total torque is T = −a y ILdB0 cos θ = −a y IAB0 cos θ where A = Ld is the area of the loop. (10. Ampere. Magnetic Forces viewed from the side ad. attracted each other if the currents ﬂowed in the same 331 .6. Force between Two Current Elements I2 dl2 r2 z r1 I1 dl1 r2 − r1 y x Figure 10.
Consider Figure 10.10. The ﬁrst element I1 dl1 produces a magnetic ﬁeld dH2 at the ﬁeld point r2 which is given by the BiotSavart Law: I1 dl1 × r2 − r1 (10.6 where two current elements exist. Magnetic Forces direction and repelled each other if the currents ﬂowed in opposite directions.41) I1 dl1 × r2 − r1 4π r2 − r1 2 And the total force that circuit 2 feels due to the current ﬂow in circuit 1 is F2 = µ0 I2 = µ0 dl2 × I1 dl1 × r2 − r1 L1 L2 I2 I1 4π dl2 × dl1 × r2 − r1 L2 L1 4π r2 − r1 2 r2 − r1 2 332 .40) dH2 (r2 ) = 4π r2 − r1 2 Therefore the ﬁeld at point 2 due to the circuit 1 would be an integration of the above equation: I1 dl1 × r2 − r1 H(2) = 2 L1 4π r2 − r1  Normally if a ﬁeld at point 2 there is a magnetic ﬁeld H(2) then the current element I2 dl2 would feel a minuscule force dF2 = µ0 I2 dl2 × H(2) Therefore the minuscule element on circuit 2 feels a force dF2 = µ0 I2 dl2 × H(2) = µ0 I2 dl2 × L1 (10.
and I is the current through it. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits 11. vL is given by vL = L dI dt (11. at the ﬁeld level we ﬁnd that the magnetic ﬁeld is also on the increase. Inductance. capacitances. stored at any time is t Wm = t=0 L dI Idt dt vL t =L t=0 i I dI dt dt =L =L i=0 I2 IdI 2 (11. The magnetic energy. a back emf1 is formed opposing the change.11. the analogous magnetic elements which are nondissipative and store magnetic energy are inductances. We know that the inductor does not dissipate energy so the power vL I that is being supplied to the inductor is being stored as magnetic energy.3) While the current is increasing. Generally an inductor consists of N turns.1) where L is the inductance of the inductor. Thus in the case of inductances as we try to increase the current in an inductor. Inductance As in the case of nondissipative electric circuit element which store energy. and energy calculated above is being stored in the ﬁeld. in the magnetic ﬁeld. The back emf. and each turn links a certain amount 1 emf: electromotive force in volts 333 . namely. Wm .2) Based on this deﬁnition we can get the value of an inductor from L= 2Wm I2 (11.1.
given by H = nI A/m (11.6) (11.5 we know that a solenoid carrying a current I and having n turns per meter produces a uniform magnetic ﬁeld H in its core.1 on page 334) Ψm = cross−section B • dS (11.8) The magnetic ﬂux density. Inductance of a Coil As a start let us do a quick calculation for an inductance in the form of a coil.9) (11. Referring to Section 8.: Area of integration for calculating the ﬂux linked by a single turn. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits B Field Area of integration Figure 11.1.4) therefore the total ﬂux linked by N turns (λ) is. Then n(turns/m) ⋍ N(turns)/l(m). λ = NΨm The inductance of the inductor is L= λ NΨm = I I (11.1.1. Inductance.11. B is related to the magnetic ﬁeld by B = µH ≃ µ0 The ﬂux linked per turn is Ψm ≃ µ0 The total ﬂux linked is λ = NΨm ≃ µ0 NIA l N2 IA l (11. The magnetic ﬁeld in the core of the inductance is therefore (approximately) H≃ NI l (11.7) Now consider an inductor whose length is l with N turns wound on a cylinder with area A. Ψm of magnetic ﬂux.10) NI l (11. given by (see Figure 11. Ψm .5) 11.11) 334 .
: Inductance of a coaxial line therefore the inductance is N2 A λ ≃ µ0 (11. this time the inductance per meter of a coaxial line. z=0 µ0 µ0 I b ln 2π a I dρdz 2πρ (Wb) (11. which also shows the area of integration to calculate the ﬂux Ψm . Inductance of a Coaxial Line Let us do some more inductance calculations. The conﬁguration is shown in Figure 11. B is therefore B = µ0 I aφ 2πρ and (note that z goes from 0 to 1 meter) ρ=b. z=1 Ψm = ρ=a. L= 11.2. For a current I ﬂowing into the centre conductor. since the magnetic ﬁeld was borrowed from that of an inﬁnitely long solenoid where the ﬁeld in the core is uniform. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits Area of Integration Radius b 111 000 111 000 111 000 Radius a Figure 11.14) = 335 .11. Inductance.12) I l of course this value of inductance is only approximate.1.2.2.13) 2πρ in a coordinate system with the zaxis pointed down the line and whose origin is placed at the centre of the inner conductor. the magnetic ﬁeld between the inner and outer conductor is given by I H= aφ (11. but the approximation is a fairly good one and can be relied upon as the starting point of an inductance calculation.
18) We = CV 2 2 where V was the potential diﬀerence across the capacitor plates. from the ﬁeld point of view.3. In a similar manner we now would like to investigate the energy stored in an inductor. To do this.1.8 we studied about the energy stored in the electric ﬁeld in a region of space V is given by 1 D • E dV (J) (11.17) 2 is the electrical energy density at any point in space.15) 11. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits Area of Integration Radius b 111 000 111 000 111 000 Radius a Figure 11.16) We = 2 where V 1 we = D • E (J/m3 ) (11. Inductance. The electrical energy stored in a capacitor was 1 (11.3. Magnetic Energy In Section 6. we take the the coaxial line as a case in point.: Calculation of inductance from the ﬁeld point of view and hence the inductance per meter is L= b Ψm µ0 = ln I 2π a (H/m) (11. (see Figure 336 .11. Taking a small slice of the coaxial line of length dz along the zaxis.
Wm = µ0 2 H • H dV (J/m) (11. in the last step.21) µ0 2 ρ=b. z=1 2 Hφ ρdρdφdz (J/m) ρ=a. Therefore Wm = Generalising this result.23) 337 .3 on page 336) the magnetic energy stored in this small section is dWm = 1 dL I2 2 1 dΨm 2 = I 2 I ρ=b 1 = ( Bφ dρdz) I 2 ρ=a dΨm φ=2π ρ = 1 2 Bφ dρdz ( φ=0 Hφ ρdφ) Ampere′ s Law = µ0 ( 2 ρ=b. φ=2π 2 Hφ ρdρdφ)dz (J) ρ=a.11. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits 11. z=0 (11. φ=2π. The inductance is L= 2Wm = µ0 I2 H2 dV (H) I2 (11. The magnetic energy density is therefore 1 wm = B • H (J/m3 ) 2 (11.19) where dL is the inﬁnitesimal inductance of that part.20) V 2 where ρdρdφdz = dV and Hφ → H•H. φ=0 (11.22) Let us therefore calculate the inductance from the ﬁeld point of view for a coaxial line. Inductance. the two integrations are taken together. φ=0.
H = I/2πρ aφ .29) the integral on the right is zero since we may take the surface S at inﬁnity where the ﬁelds are zero. 11. Consider 1 2 and from so B • HdV = 1 2 (∇ × A) • HdV (11.24) b I2 ln 2π a which is the same result as earlier. φ=0.25) I2 4π2 I2 ρdρdφdz 4π2 ρ2 ρ=b. z=0 1 dρdφdz ρ 2π ln b a (11. we can get another formula for the inductance.26) ∇ • (A × H) = H • (∇ × A) − A • (∇ × H) H • (∇ × A) = ∇ • (A × H) + A • (∇ × H) [∇ • (A × H) + A • (∇ × H)] dV S (11.27) (11.4 of circular crosssection.4. Inductance. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits Applying this formula to a coaxial line. Inductance of a Circular Loop 2 Consider a loop of radius R as shown in Figure 11. (see page 336) From Equation 11.3.26 becomes B • HdV = = A × H • dS + V A • JdV (11.28) the Equation 11. The vector potential A near the wire is given 2 An advanced topic 338 .11. So H2 dV = I2 = 2 4π = = the inductance is therefore L = µ0 µ0 b H2 dV = ln (H/m) 2 2π a I (11. so Wm = 1 2 B • HdV = 1 2 A • JdV (11. φ=2π. z=1 ρ=a. where a is the radius of the wire.1.30) V VC where VC is the volume where the currents are.
Inductance.5 339 . Writing Considering a point on the xz plane.: A circular loop of wire carrying a current I by Equation 9.z V′ observing a point in the wire we can see that there is only component of J.34) 4Rr sin θ R2 + r2 + 2Rr sin θ (11.33) the ﬁrst equation is zero since the integrand has odd symmetry about π. The second equation can be expressed in terms of the complete elliptic integrals K and E. here φ = 0 r − r′ = = and 3 Ax = Ay = Az = 0 µ0 IR 4π µ0 IR 4π 2π 0 (x − x′)2 + y − y′ 2 + (z − z′ )2 R2 + r2 − 2Rr sin θ cos φ′ (11.4. 1999.31) where J is the magnitude of the current density and is uniform throughout the crosssection..y. Aφ = where k2 = 3 see µ0 4π 4IR √ R2 + r2 + 2Rr sin θ (2 − k2)K(k) − 2E(k) k2 (11.5. Section 5.D. John Wiley and Sons. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits z observation point centerline I crosssection a R x y source point Figure 11.32) (− sin φ′ )dφ′ R2 + r2 − 2Rr sin θ cos φ′ (cos φ′ )dφ′ R2 + r2 − 2Rr sin θ cos φ′ =0 (11. namely Jφ and J = Jφ −ax sin φ′ + a y cos φ′ (11. Classical Electrodynamics.35) Jackson J.11. The Ax and A y integrands are shown in Figure 11. the second equation is not zero and is Aφ and the third equation is zero since Jz = 0.17 to be Ai (r) = µ0 4π Ji (r′ ) dV ′ r − r′  i=x.
Inductance.6 0.1 0 0.2 0 0.5.5 sin(x)/sqrt(4+12*2*1*cos(x)) 0.2 0.1 0.2 0. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits 0.: Ax and A y integrands for R = 2.3 0.4 0.3 0.5 0 1 cos(x)/sqrt(4+12*2*1*cos(x)) 0.4 0.2 0.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 11.4 0.11. r = 1. θ = π/2 340 .
The functions near this point 4 can be approximated by 1 z−1 1 + O((z − 1)2 ) + ln 4 + (1 − ln4) (z − 1) + O((z − 1)2 ) K(z)z→1 ≈ − ln(1 − z) 1 − 2 4 4 (11.. Aφ ≈ µ0 1 16 2I ln −2 4π 2 (1 − k) (11. We allow r = R + ρ where ρ < a (the radius of the loop). com/ EllipticIntegrals /EllipticK /introductions /CompleteEllipticIntegrals /ShowAll.11.. θ = π/2 we ﬁnd that k ≈ 1.36) z−1 z−1 1 + −2 ln 4 + 1 + O((z − 1)2 ) (11.34.40) (11.40. Here we ﬁnd the Taylor series expansion of k is k ≈ 1− ρ3 ρ2 + 3 + . wolfram.42) Integrating ﬁrst only on the area of crosssection Aφ Jφ ρ′ dφ′ dρ′ = Jφ = = since [x ln(8R/x) − 2x]dx = µ0 I 2π µ0 I 2π Aφ ρ′ dφ′ dρ′ I πa2 ln 8R − 2 ρ′ dφ′ dρ′ ρ′ ln 8R − 2 ρ′ dρ′ ρ′ I (2π) πa2 x2 ln(8R/x) 3x2 − 2 4 4 http: //functions. and taking only the ρ2 term 1 − k ≈ (ρ/2R)2 Aφ ≈ µ0 I 2π ln 8R −2 ρ (11.41) substituting in Equation 11. 4R2 4R (11.39) where we have substituted r ≈ R in the loop. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits for r = R.38) (11.37) E(z)z→1 ≈ 1 + ln(1 − z) 2 4 4 we can see from these equations that as z → 1 the largest terms in these expansions are 1 K(z)z→1 ≈ − ln(1 − z) + ln4 2 E(z)z→1 ≈ 1 which we introduce into Equation 11. Inductance. On closer examination we discover that K(k) becomes inﬁnity but E(k) remains ﬁnite and ≈ 1.html 341 . We now proceed to evaluate 1 − k on the inside of the wire.
Then the mutual inductance of the second loop or coil is given by M21 = N2 Ψm21 I1 (11.44) µ0 I I a2 3 (2π) ln(8R/a) − 2 4π πa 2 2 µ0 I 2 4π ln(8R/a) − 3 2 (11. Mutual inductance If a loop or coil produces a magnetic ﬁeld.46) where S2 is the region where the integration is performed. This diﬀerence is chieﬂy due to the level of approximation of the K and E functions. B1 and a second loop or coil links the ﬁeld of the ﬁrst one then the ﬂux linked by the second loop or coil may be called Ψm21 and read as the ﬂux linked in coil(loop) 2 due to ﬁeld 1 is Ψm21 = S2 B1 • dS2 (11.1.5.47) where N2 are the number of turns in the second coil and I1 is the current in the ﬁrst coil or loop. 11. Similarly if the second loop has a current I2 in it which produces a ﬁeld B2 then the mutual inductance of coil 1 due to current 2 is given by N1 Ψm12 M12 = (11. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits therefore 1 2 Aφ Jφ ρ′ dφ′ dρ′ = = integrating along the wire Wm = 2πR × = µ0 I 2 4π ln(8R/a) − 3 2 (11.45) There are various other results given in the literature where instead of the constant 3/2 they have either 2 or 7/8. Inductance.11.43) µ0 I 2 3 R ln(8R/a) − 2 2 I2 2 =L which gives the inductance of a single turn to be L = µ0 R ln(8R/a) − 3 2 (11.48) I2 342 .
From Equation 8.11.49) EXAMPLE 11. Find also the self inductance of coil 1. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits I coil 1 coil 2 Torus Figure 11.: Mutual inductance of two coils Also due to reciprocity. if the current I is ﬂowing in coil 1 then Hφ1 ≈ N1 I 2πρ ρmin < ρ < ρmin + 2a The result of Equation 8.41 applies even though the torus is partially wound since for µ ≫ µ0 the magnetic ﬁeld is conﬁned entirely to the inside of the torus. Inductance. Or µN1 I Bφ1 = µHφ1 = ρ0 = ρmin + a 2πρ0 then the ﬂux linked by a single turn of coil 2 is Ψm1 = Bφ1 × Area of cross − section = and the total ﬂux linked is N2 Ψm1 = so the mutual inductance is M21 = N2 Ψm1 µN1 N2 a2 = I 2ρ0 µN1 N2 Ia2 2ρ0 µN1 I × πa2 2πρ0 343 .6. M12 = M21 (11.6.1 Find the mutual inductance of the two coils with turns N1 and N2 wound on a torus as shown in Figure 11.41.
50) is the vector normal to the area S.11. Magnetic Materials and Magnetic Circuits 11. the ﬂux linked per turn is again Ψm1 = so the total ﬂux linked in coil 1 is N1 Ψm1 = hence the inductance of coil 1 is: L1 = 2 2 N1 Ψm1 µN1 a = I 2ρ0 2 µN1 Ia2 µN1 Ia2 2ρ0 2ρ0 11. Inductance.2.51) (11. If we take a look at the expression of the torque on a current loop as considered in Section 10.1. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits Figure 11. S is the area of the loop and ˆ S = SS (11.7. This is shown in Figure 11.6 we ﬁnd that T = −a y IAB0 cos θ = −a y mB0 cos θ which gives us the important formula T = m×B 344 (11.: Magnetic moment deﬁnition By reciprocity M12 = M21 To calculate the (self) inductance of coil 1. Magnetisation The magnetic dipole of a loop is deﬁned as m = IS where I is the loop current.2.52) .7.
If we take a look at the far ﬁelds of an electric dipole the electric ﬁeld is E≈ p (2 cos θar + sin θaθ ) 4πε0 r3 (11. In these materials ms  ≫ mo  (11. the material also does not exhibit any magnetic properties.mo .53 and 11.11.56) (11. B≈ µ0 m (2 cos θar + sin θaθ ) 4πr3 (11. Finally we consider ferromagnetic materials. After the ﬁeld is removed. Inductance. complex explanations of the theory magnetic materials will be avoided. These are weakly repelled by magnetic ﬁelds. One of the ways in which a material exhibits magnetic properties is that in those materials with unpaired electrons orbit around the nuclei in ’circular’5 orbits with magnetic moment.54) p = qd being the magnitude of the electric dipole. S = ab is the surface area of the loop. are diamagnetic. A comparison of Equations 11. In the second case mr ≅ 0. most materials can be considered as one of three types: diamagnetic. Similar results are obtained for a circular loop.54 shows why the magnetic dipole is so named. Since mr is zero. These materials are strongly attracted by external magnetic ﬁelds. external magnetic ﬁelds have little eﬀect on them. These substances are weakly attracted to magnetic ﬁelds and external ﬁelds are enhanced by their presence.52. and only a simple introduction will be given. silver. which tends to align the magnetic ﬁeld (which is in the direction of mo ) produced by the orbiting electron with the external magnetic ﬁeld.30. including copper. For diamagnetic materials.57) mr ≅ ms ≫ 0 In ferromagnetic materials adjacent atoms crystallise in similar arrangements in regions which are known as magnetic domains. mr = 0. An example of a paramagnetic element is potassium. The result of these two vectors can be denoted as mr with mr = mo + ms (11. Most elements in the periodic table.53) where m = Iab = IS is the magnitude of the magnetic dipole of the square loop. With this in mind. Another way by which electrons exhibit magnetic properties is through spin whose magnetic moments can be designated as ms .55) Since this a introductory level text book. In the presence of a magnetic ﬁeld these orbiting electrons feel a torque as outlined in Equation 11. paramagnetic or ferromagnetic. These are paramagnetic substances. 5 Which is contradicted by the quantum theory 345 . We now consider the nature of magnetic materials. And after the ﬁeld is removed some of these materials retain their magnetism. and gold. If we consider the far ﬁelds of a magnetic dipole using the far ﬁeld approximation the magnetic ﬂux density B is given by (see Equation 9. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits where m is the magnetic dipole.
: A coil wound round a core In a magnetic material. Figure 11.63) 11.8 shows a winding on one leg of a rectangular core made 346 .8.61) where χm is the magnetic susceptibility. in a small volume ∆V let there be N small magnetic dipole moments. immersed in an external ﬁeld. Without going into greater detail we can show that B = µ0 (H + M) = µ0 µr H (11.61.2.11. Inductance.2.60 and 11. χm > 0 χm ≫ 0 χm < 0 for paramagnetic materials for ferromagnetic materials and for diamagnetic materials using Equations 11. we have µ = µ0 µr µr = 1 + χ m (11. Magnetic Circuits A magnetic circuit is the analysis of magnetic setup using electrical circuit concepts.58) and has the same units as the magnetic ﬁeld H. Then the magnetisation M is given by N M = lim ∆V→0 i=1 mi ∆V (11.62) (11.60) where H is the magnetic ﬁeld in the absence of the material. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits I Magnetic Material N turns l length of contour A Area of cross−section H Figure 11. Assuming a linear model we can say that M = χm H (11.59) (11.
R is the reluctance (analogous to resistance)6 (11. H is the magnetic ﬁeld in the core and l is the length of the contour. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits of magnetic material µ (generally µ ≫ µ0 ).65) H= l the ﬂux Ψm is given by NI Ψm = BA = µ A (11. If we employ Ampere’s law and apply it on the circuit around the core and airgap we have NI = Ha la + Hc lc where Ha is the magnetic ﬁeld in the gap (which we assume to be constant) 6 (11.9. N is the number of turns of the winding. Applying Ampere’s law (assuming a uniform ﬁeld within the core) NI = Hl (11.11. Inductance.64) where I is the current in the winding.: A magnetic circuit Let us analyse another magnetic circuit. one with an airgap in it.70) Observe: the formula for resistance is l/σA and reluctance is l/µA 347 .66) l In this formulation l Ψm (11.67) NI = µA if F = NI then F = RΨm where F is called the magnetomotive force or mmf (analogous to emf). So the equivalent magnetic circuit is Ψm = F /R + F = NI − R= l µA Figure 11.10.68) and Ψm is analogous to the current. H is therefore NI (11. as shown in Figure 11.69) and R= l µA (11.
11.: Equivalent circuit of a magnetic core with an airgap 348 . Inductance. Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits Magnetic Material I la length of air gap A Area of cross−section N turns lc length of contour in core H Figure 11.72) Ψm Rc F Ra + − Figure 11.10.71) where Ba and Bc are the ﬂux densities in the air and core respectively and µ0 and µc are the permeabilties of air and core respectively From the conditions on the boundary between the core and air: the normal component of B is continuous Ba = Bc (≡ B) (11.11.: Magnetic circuit with an airgap la is the length of the airgap Hc is the magnetic ﬁeld in the core (which also we assume to be constant) and lc is the length of the contour in the core The B ﬁeld in the two regions is Ba = µ0 H a Bc = µc H c (11.
Magnetisation and Magnetic Circuits so rewriting (11.70) NI = F B B la + lc µ0 µc la +BA µ0 A Ra = BA Ψm lc µc A Rc F = Ψm (Ra + Rc ) (11.11 on page 348. 349 . Inductance.11.73) the same result may be obtained by applying the “Magnetic Ohm’s law” to the circuit shown in Figure 11.
Radiation and Propagation 350 . Time Varying Fields.Part IV.
1. Faraday’s law as it was historically obtained. 2. A discussion of Maxwell’s equations in point and integral forms. Maxwell’s equations in point form: ∇ • D = ρv ∂Ψm ∂t ∂Ψm ∂t ∇ × E = − ∂B/∂t ∇•B = 0 ∇ × H = J + ∂D/∂t 351 . 3. 4. One of Maxwell’s equation as obtained from Faraday’s law. Faraday’s law: emf generated = E = − 2. Faraday’s law for an N turn coil: E = −N 3. 5. The concept of the displacement current density as a fundamental requirement in Ampere’s law. Time and frequency domain wave equations–due to sinusoidally varying charges and currents. Time Dependant Fields 12. A discussion of phasors. 7. In particular the topics covered are 1. Chapter Goals This chapter introduces the student to Maxwell’s equations in their ﬁnal form. and the Maxwell’s equation derived from the law. 12. 6. Time and frequency domain wave equations. List of Formulae 1.2.12.
Frequency domain wave equation(s): √ (∇ • ∇) E = −k2 E (k = ω µε) ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex + + + k2 E x = 0 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂2 E y ∂x2 + ∂2 E y ∂y2 + ∂2 E y ∂z2 + k2 E y = 0 ∇ × E = − jωµH ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez + + + k2 E z = 0 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 8. Frequency domain wave equation of the vector potential with currents 352 .12. Time Dependant Fields 4. Maxwell’s equations in integral form: D • dS = E • dl = − ρv dV ∂B • dS ∂t S L B • dS = 0 L S H • dl = S J • dS + S ∂D • dS ∂t 5. The time domain wave equation(s): ∇2 E = ∂2 E ∂2 E ∂2 E + + ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 = 1/ v2 ∂2 E/∂t2 ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex + + − 1/ v2 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂2 E y ∂x2 + ∂2 E y ∂y2 + ∂2 E y ∂z2 − 1/ v2 ∂ 2 Ex =0 ∂t2 ∂2 E y ∂t2 =0 ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez + + − 1/ v2 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂ 2 Ez =0 ∂t2 6. Frequency domain Maxwell’s equations in point form: ∇ • D = ρv ∇•B = 0 ∇ × H = jωεE + J 7.
: Stokes’s theorem applied to ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t With this in mind we concentrate on the setup shown in Figure 12. The conclusion was that a changing magnetic ﬁeld linking a circular wire creates an emf. (1791 –1867) 353 . t) B(R.3.1(b) which consists of a wire in the shape of the closed curve L and having a voltmeter in the circuit. The voltmeter shows a voltage which is given by Faraday’s and 1 Michael Faraday. In 1831 Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry independently came to the conclusion that when a changing magnetic ﬁeld was linked by a coil of wire connected to a galvanometer.1. in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic ﬂux through the circuit. Faraday’s1 law is a general statement of the fact that an emf is induced in a closed circuit where a time varying magnetic ﬁeld is present. t) V S L L S wire (b) (a) Figure 12. We now turn our attention to time varying phenomena. Faraday’s Law So far we have worked with static electromagnetic ﬁelds. Time Dependant Fields as sources: ∂2 A ∂2 A ∂2 A + + 2 − k2 A = −µJ ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z ∂ 2 Ax ∂ 2 Ax ∂ 2 Ax + + − k 2 Ax ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂2 A y ∂x2 + ∂2 A y ∂y2 + ∂2 A y ∂z2 − k2 A y −µJx −µJ y −µJz = = = ∂ 2 Az ∂ 2 Az ∂ 2 Az + + − k 2 Az ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 12. Faraday’s law states The induced electromotive force. B(R.12. it was found that the needle moved thus showing that an emf was generated in the coil. E.
Time Dependant Fields Lenz’s laws. That is Lenz’s law The induced current ﬂows in a direction such that the current opposes the change that induced it. emf generated = E = − ∂Ψm ∂t (12. where the motion of the conductors causes the ﬂux enclosed by a closed loop to change and thereby cause an induced emf. The ﬂux in the loop is equal to Ψm (t) = area of loop az B0 f (t) • az dS = abB0 f (t) where 2 Heinrich 3 Lenz formulated the law in 1834. The law of electromagnetic induction is used in the design of generators. u(t) is the step function tu(t) for t = 0 to 1 s f (t) = 1 for t ≥ 1 s 354 .1) Lenz’s law2 gives us the direction of the current in the closed loop and the sign of the emf produced.2.2.12. b z y a x B = az B0 f (t) 1 2 Figure 12. EXAMPLE 12. the magnetic ﬂux density is given by the equation a B tu(t) for t = 0 to 1 s z 0 B = az B0 f (t) = a B z 0 for t ≥ 1 s Find3 the induced voltage and direction of current in the loop of wire.1 For the conﬁguration shown in Figure 12.: Induced current in a timevarying magnetic ﬁeld.
2) ∂t ∂Ψm −abB0 = E =− 0 ∂t for t = 0 to 1 s for t ≥ 1 s N I a b θ az F B o z ω y x + F d ax I c origin moves to S Figure 12. which opposes the change as per Lenz’s law.2 Find the emf generated for the case of Figure 12. since the line integral is negative. (= −abB0 ) the potential at terminal 1 is higher than the potential at terminal 2. It must be noted that when there is a coil of N turns instead of just a single turn then ∂Ψm E = −N (12. EXAMPLE 12. and therefore the current ﬂows from 1 to 2.3.12. E.3 across the terminals marked ′ +′ and ′ −′ . 355 . Time Dependant Fields The induced emf.: Faraday’s law applied to generators Next we apply Faraday’s law to the case where the conductor itself is moving. Notice that the induced current produces a B ﬁeld in the −az direction. is given by The line integral of the induced E ﬁeld is in the anticlockwise sense so as to make the unit vector of the surface in the az direction.
contain charges which feel a force given by F = qv × B = qEm (12. Time Dependant Fields Referring to Figure 12. which move in the constant magnetic ﬁeld. which are perpendicular to each other.3 A circular loop of 10 turns of conducting wire of radius r = 5 cm and resistance R = 10 Ω is placed in slowly varying a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. The conductors. EXAMPLE 12.3 we ﬁnd that we have a complicated arrangement where a single loop of wire is being turned in the anticlockwise sense (as seen from the side ad) immersed in a uniform and constant magnetic ﬁeld. the magnetic ﬁeld is constant and the conductors are moving. The charges feeling the force then set up currents. The loop is being rotated at an angular speed ω = dθ/dt. The magnetic ﬁeld makes an angle of 45◦ with respect to the direction of the surface of the loop. and which lie on the plane are ˆ u1 = a y and ˆ u2 = az cos θ − ax sin θ So the vector normal to the plane is ˆ ˆ n = a y × u2 = ax cos θ + az sin θ The ﬂux through this plane is Ψm = abcd (12. Another way of looking at the same problem is to view it from the point of view of the Lorentz force. which causes the emf to be induced.6) A current is induced in the loop which develops a torque (due to the two forces F in the wires) to turn the loop in the opposite direction of the angular motion.5) where A is the area of the loop4 . The magnetic ﬁeld magnitude is given by B = cos(2πt) (T) What is the emf? What is the current? 4 As a check: note that for θ = 0 there is no ﬂux linked 356 .3) (12. The induced emf is therefore E=− dθ d (−B0 A sin θ) = B0 A cos θ = B0 Aω cos θ (V) dt dt (12. B = −az B0 . To apply Faraday’s law. causing the ﬂux linked by the loop to change. Two unit vectors.7) The vector Em can be looked upon as a motional electric ﬁeld.12. (Lenz’s law) In the case which we have just discussed.4) B • dS = abcd [−az B0 ] • (ax cos θ + az sin θ) dS = −B0 A sin θ (12. we need to compute the vector normal to the plane abcd.
524 cos(2πt) mA.9722 × 10−3 cos(2πt) or the emf generated is E = 10 × 2π × 5. the secondary very high voltages (about 40.12.1 can be used to derive an equation in vector calculus. and Ψm = BA cos 45◦ = cos(2πt) × π × (.4.1) emf generated = E = L E • dl (12.000 V) which in turn causes a spark in the spark plug.4.: Ignition system of a car The emf generated is given by E = −N where N = 10. Due to rate of change of ﬂux. Time Dependant Fields Spark A T B 12 V C S Figure 12.05)2 cos 45◦ = 5. ∂Ψm ∂t 12.8) which by Stokes’s theorem becomes E= ∇ × E • dS (12.37524 cos(2πt) (V) and the current is 37.9722 × 10−3 cos(2πt) = 0.9) S 357 . The emf generated in a closed loop is (see Figure 12. we see that when the contact A is opened the magnetic ﬁeld of the primary winding slumps to zero.4. A Maxwell Equation from Faraday’s Law Equation 12. Referring to Figure 12. Did you know? The ignition system of a car uses the concepts developed above to create a spark in the spark plug.
12) and we ﬁnd that the line integral shown indeed gives us the enclosed current. but when we apply Ampere’s to the (b) part of the ﬁgure (the bulging surface).13) but div(curl(H))=0 for any vector and ∇ • J = −∂ρv /∂t.10) while the rate of change of ﬂux is ∂ ∂Ψm = ∂t ∂t B • dS = ∂B • dS ∂t (12.5.14) 358 .5. The Displacement Current Density We have studied Ampere’s law which applies to steady magnetic ﬁelds which are produced by steady currents. In the (a) part of the ﬁgure we apply Ampere’s law: ∇×H = J (12. What about cases where the current is time varying? Take the case of a resistorcapacitor combination series connectedto a battery as shown in Figure 12.12 to include another current density. So obviously something is missing. we ﬁnd that the line integral gives us a zero result (there being no current between the plates of the capacitor). therefore ∂ρv = 0! − ∂t which is an absurd result! Let us therefore modify Equation 12. the continuity equation. Let us now approach Ampere’s from a diﬀerent manner: taking the divergence of Equation 12. ∇ × H = J + J∗ (12. J∗ .12.11) S using the above equation and Equation 12. ∇ • (∇ × H) = ∇ • J (12. Though the line integral is the same as earlier. Time Dependant Fields The ﬂux Ψm through that loop is Ψm = S B • dS (12.12.9 we get ∇ × E • dS = − ∂B • dS ∂t S S or ∇×E = − Which is one of Maxwell’s equations ∂B ∂t 12. the two results are diﬀerent.
15) ∂ρv = −∇ • J∗ ∂t (using Gauss’s law) (interchanging diﬀerentiations) ∂ D ∂t which we call the displacement current density.: Setup to show how the displacement current comes into play taking the divergence of this equation ∇ • ∇ × H = ∇ • (J + J∗ ) = 0 or ∇ • J = −∇ • J∗ − ∂ (∇ • D) = ∇ • J∗ ∂t ∂ D = ∇ • J∗ ∇• ∂t or (12.12. Jd ≡ J∗ = (12.16) 359 . Time Dependant Fields H • dl = I dielectric capacitor line integral V0 + _ resistor I battery (a) (∂D/∂t) • dS line integral H • dl = bulging surface dielectric resistor V0 + _ I battery (b) Figure 12.5.
24) d RC where A is the area of the capacitor plates.12. is H • dl = I (12. This is the last of Maxwell’s equations.18) So the line integral in part (a) of the ﬁgure. The D ﬁeld is therefore D = εE = and εV0 1 − e−t/RC d (12.25) 360 . From circuit theory we know that the current through the circuit is I= V0 −t/RC e R (12. the surface is bulging and no current is enclosed. where the enclosed surface is ﬂat. Recalling that C = εA/d the expression given above becomes (∂D/∂t) • dS = (∂D/∂t) • dS = εV0 A −t/RC V0 −t/RC e = e = I(t)! Rd(εA/d) R (12.5.22) (12. EXAMPLE 12.19) but in part (b) of the ﬁgure.17) the boxed part being the time dependent part. Time Dependant Fields Rewriting Ampere’s law ∇ × H = J + ∂D/∂t (12.20) The charge produces a voltage across the plates V(t) = Q(t)/C = V0 1 − e−t/RC which produces an electric ﬁeld E = V/d = V0 1 − e−t/RC d (12. but the line integral is the same as before.4 Apply Maxwell’s Equation 12.17 to Figure 12. Let us pause a moment and calculate the charge accumulated on the capacitor plates Q(t) = V0 −t/RC t e dt = −CV0 e−t/RC 0 = CV0 1 − e−t/RC t=0 R t (12.23) εV0 1 −t/RC × e ×A (12.21) where d is the distance between the plates. That is H • dl is the same in both ﬁgures.
The ﬁrst equation is Gauss’s law.5 If A is the vector potential and V is the scalar potential then another form of Faraday’s law is ∂A − ∇V E=− ∂t Since or hence E=− ∇×E = − ∂B ∂∇ × A =− ∂t ∂t ∂A )=0 ∂t ∇ × (E − ∂A − ∇V ∂t (since curl(grad(.. but the idea is correct.1. The fringing ﬁelds are taken into account by the bulging surface! So in summary in part (a) of the ﬁgure H • dl = I and in part (b) H • dl = (∂D/∂t) • dS = I (12. TimeDependent Maxwell’s Equations 12.6.31) In the second and fourth equations given above. Time Dependant Fields The current is the same as given in Equation 12. The analysis given above is rather crude. the last is Ampere’s law.28) (12.))=0 361 . Point form of the Equations So far we have studied the timeindependent electromagnetic ﬁelds.12. The two boxed terms are the time dependent terms which add to the static equations and complete all of Maxwell’s equations.30) (12. there are time varying terms which are shown boxed.6.18. EXAMPLE 12.27) (12.. the second equation is Faraday’s law and the third equation generated the vector potential and tells us that there are no magnetic charges. Jd 12.26) the term (∂D/∂t) is the displacement current density.29) (12. The relevant equations (that is Maxwell’s equations) including the time term are given below ∇ • D = ρv ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t ∇•B = 0 ∇ × H = J + ∂D/∂t (12.
A typical communication link consists of an information source. we need to understand the concepts of electromagnetic waves. Integral Form of Maxwell’s Equations We can write Maxwell’s equations in Integral form from the point form of the equations.8. To properly design the transmission lines or the antennas.32) V S where S is the surface enclosing the volume V. Integrating the third equation: ∇•B = B • dS = 0 (12.34) V 4. both these phenomena are governed 362 .33) the counterclockwise direction on the line integral shows us the direction of the line integral. 1. which are the parts of the equipment concerning the electromagnetic part.29 over a surface S enclosed by the closed curve L and using Stokes’s theorem we get ∇ × E • dS = L S E • dl = − S ∂B • dS ∂t (12. Next we integrate Equation 12.35) S L S S 12. which sends information to a distant receiver in the form of radiated signals. Integrating Equation 12. Figure 12.6 illustrates such a communication setup where antennas are used to transfer the signal. whether these travel through transmission lines or through space itself. suitably modulated—for example using AM. And the fourth ∇ × H • dS = H • dl = J • dS + ∂D • dS ∂t (12. Time Dependant Fields 12. The receiver has the same conﬁguration as that of the transmitter. Surprisingly. 2. The transmitter is connected to a transmitting antenna through a transmission line. The ﬁgure displays a transmitter and a receiver.12. consisting of electrical signals. The Fundamental Equations of Radiation and Propagation In any situation where we have to communicate between a source and a receiver we usually use high frequency signals and either have wires or cables connecting the two.28 over a volume V and using the divergence theorem we get ∇ • DdV = D • dS = ρv dV (12.7. or we radiate energy from the one to the other. 3. or FM—sent via the antenna.
36) (12. this time.12. ρv is the volume charge density. and ﬁnally the curl of H.37) (12.38) (12. ∇ • D = ρv (12. Time Domain Wave Equation To begin with. the magnetic ﬁeld. the divergence of B is always zero.. Time Dependant Fields Radiating Antenna Transmission Line Receiving Antenna Transmitter .9.6. since we are dealing with electromagnetic phenomena. H on the other are D = εE (12. The relations between D. we must take Maxwell’s equations into account. which is the divergence of D is equal to the volume charge density. 12. is equal to the displacement current density ∂D/∂t plus J is the current density. The curl of E is the negative of the rate of change of B. Remember that all electromagnetic phenomena are governed by Maxwell’s equations whether these phenomena be timeindependent or timedependent.: Typical communication setup with transmitting and receiving antennas by the same kind of equations.39) ∇ × H = ∂D/∂t + J ∇ × E = −∂B/∂t ∇•B = 0 To recapitulate: D is the electric ﬂux density.. Maxwell’s equations are reproduced here for the convenience of the reader. Next we have the equation. E is the electric ﬁeld and B is the magnetic ﬂux density. and these two are connected by the ﬁrst equation. Keeping this in mind let us then begin with the basic electromagnetic equations of Maxwell introduced and used frequently (and with which the reader must be familiar by now) and work with them to get wave equations. In this chapter we will examine these equations in greater detail. The equations. E on one hand and B. Transmission Line Receiver Figure 12.40) 363 .. are the complete equations which include the time dependent part.
Using the vector identity ∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇ (∇ • A) − (∇ • ∇) A and applying it to the left hand side of the previous equation.43) In the second equation. This simpliﬁes the equation to the time domain wave equation ∂ (∂D/∂t + J) ∂t ∂ (∇ • E = 0 no free charges) − (∇ • ∇) E = −µ (∂D/∂t + J) ∂t ∂ (J = 0 no currents present) = −µ (∂D/∂t) ∂t ∂2 = −µ 2 D ∂t ∂2 = −µ 2 (εE) (D = εE) ∂t ∂2 E (12. we have used Equation 12. in the right side of the equation. and J = 0.41) where the constants of proportionality ε and µ are the permittivity and permeability respectively. To obtain the wave equation of the E ﬁeld. which in turn implies that ∇ • E = 0. of the above equations.44) = −µε 2 ∂t ∇ (∇ • E) − (∇ • ∇) E = −µ 364 . In a region where the wave is propagating. ρv = 0. we take the curl of Equation 12.39 ) ∂t (12. Time Dependant Fields B = µH (12. of the medium in which the waves travel.39. So that ∇ • D = ρv = 0.42) In the second equality ∂/∂t and ∇× were transposed since the two operators are independent of each other and their transposition gives the same result.37: ∇ × (∇ × E) = −∇ × (∂B/∂t) = −∂(∇ × B)/∂t (12. The last equation we have substituted Equation 12. (remember that D = εE).12.41. we get ∇ (∇ • E ) − (∇ • ∇ ) E = − ∂ (∇ × B ) ∂t ∂ =− ∇ × (µH ) (B = µH ) ∂t ∂ (µ is a constant ) = −µ (∇ × H ) ∂t ∂ = −µ (∂D/∂t + J ) (Equation 12. Some of these vector ﬁelds may or may not be needed depending on the physical situation. we assume that there are no charges or currents.
49) ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez + + − 1/ v2 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂ 2 Ez =0 ∂t2 (12.46) ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z is the Laplacian. the velocity of light in free space.48) + + (12. Using this notation the wave equation just derived becomes ∇2 E − 1/ v2 ∂2 E/∂t2 = 0 In Cartesian coordinates the operator ∇ • ∇ ≡ ∇2 = = (12. 365 . which we recognise to be c.45) ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ax + a y + az • ax + a y + az ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z (12.47) = 1/ v2 ∂2 E/∂t2 This equation is a vector equation so it is actually three equations— in Ex . velocity. the permittivity of free space.998 × 108 m/s.12. In Cartesian coordinates these equations are: ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex + + − 1/ v2 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂2 E y ∂x2 ∂2 E y ∂y2 ∂2 E y ∂z2 − 1/ v2 ∂ 2 Ex =0 ∂t2 ∂2 E y ∂t2 =0 (12. A simple calculation of 1/ µ0 ε0 5 gives 2. Applied to the electric ﬁeld E ∇2 E = ∂2 E ∂2 E ∂2 E + + ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 (12.50) 5 Remember that µ0 and ε0 are the µ. the permeability and ε. Time Dependant Fields √ Investigating the units of 1/ µε 1 Units of √ = µε 1 (H/m) · (F/m) m = √ H·F m = (Ω · s) ( · s) m = s √ which we denote by v. E y and Ez .
just derived. We now go over to the body of work done in the past which deals with such an equation. we do two things. equal to zero. (a) We look at an analogous scalar equation. Let us do a quick computation.e. To reduce the number of independent variables we set ∂2 /∂y2 and ∂2 /∂z2 . Time Dependant Fields EXAMPLE 12. we ﬁnd that it is satisﬁed. i.12. t) = Ex0 cos(ωt − βx) with v = ω/β satisﬁes the wave equation..51) This is the scalar wave equation in one coordinate and time. φ ≡ φ (x − vt). and (b) We reduce the number of independent variables. These partial diﬀerential equations look quite complex. φ (x − vt) = φ (a) dφ ∂a ∂ φ (a) = = φ′ · 1 = φ′ ∂x da ∂x 366 . Then ∂a/∂t = −v and ∂a/∂x = 1 We know that Using the notation that φ′ = dφ/da. satisﬁes the equation.6 Show that Ez (x. To get a scalar equation we ﬁrst concentrate on just one of these three equations: the very ﬁrst one in Ex and replace Ex by φ. ∇2 Ez = −Ex0 β2 cos(ωt − βx) 1/ v2 ∂ 2 Ez = − (ω/v)2 Ex0 cos(ωt − βx) ∂t2 = −β2 Ex0 cos(ωt − βx) and substituting both these terms into the wave equation. Let the variable a ≡ a (x. (which is the equivalent of saying that φ is not a function of either y or z) ∂2 φ ∂x2 − 1/ v2 ∂2 φ ∂t2 =0 (12. In order to gain a picture of the solution to these equations. t) = x − vt. Mathematicians have studied this equation and have found that any function φ whose argument is of the type x − vt.
∂2 φ/∂x2 and ∂2 φ/∂t2 are obtained in a similar manner 2π 2π ∂ φ= cos (x − vt) = φ′ ∂x λ λ 2π ∂2 φ=− λ ∂x2 2 sin 2π (x − vt) = φ′′ λ 367 . ∂2 φ ∂2 φ − [1/v2] 2 = φ′′ − [1/v2] [v2 ]φ′′ = 0 ∂x2 ∂t we ﬁnd that the scalar wave equation is satisﬁed.52) (from the previous equation) (12. Time Dependant Fields ∂ ∂ ∂2 φ= φ 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂ = φ′ ∂x dφ′ ∂a = da ∂x = φ′′ · 1 = φ′′ Similarly. dφ ∂a ∂ φ (a) = = φ′ · (−v) = −vφ′ ∂t da ∂t ∂ ∂ ∂2 φ= φ ∂t ∂t ∂t2 ∂ (−vφ′ ) (from the previous equation) = ∂t ′ dφ ∂a = −v da ∂t = (−v) φ′′ · (−v) = v2 φ′′ Substituting these relations into the scalar wave equation.7 Let φ (x − vt) = sin [ (2π/λ) (x − vt) ]. Show that this function satisﬁes the wave equation. Taking the ﬁrst derivative φ′ = and.12. where λ is the wavelength and v the velocity. φ′′ = − 2π 2π cos (x − vt) λ λ 2π 2π sin (x − vt) λ λ (12.53) Now. EXAMPLE 12.
A wave travelling toward the right (the positive x direction) is a function of the type φ(x − vt). The spatial proﬁle of the signal is now φ(x − vt). The reader can substitute this function into the wave equation and verify that this function is also a solution to the wave equation. Recall that if f (x) (some function) is compared to f (x − x0). Also verify that this is a wave travelling to the left. so φ(x) is continuously shifting to the right. then the second function is shifted to the right by x0 . Time Dependant Fields 2π 2π ∂ φ = − v cos (x − vt) = −vφ′ ∂t λ λ ∂2 2π φ = −v2 2 λ ∂t 2 sin 2π (x − vt) = v2 φ′′ λ Substituting these terms into the scalar wave equation we ﬁnd that it is identically satisﬁed.12. In eﬀect φ(x) is travelling to the right. This can be logically understood by applying the reasoning given earlier. φ(x − vt) is φ(x) shifted to the right by the vt. The next question that we ask is that why is this a wave equation? The solution to the wave equation should be a wave.7. as discussed. is increasing all the time. Observe the signal φ(x − vt). But t.: A travelling wave x EXAMPLE 12.8 Verify that the function φ(x + vt) is indeed a solution of the wave equation. time. And what is a wave? A wave is a signal carrying energy which travels. φ vt φ(x) φ(x − vt) Initial pulse Figure 12. a distance of vt in time t. This situation is pictured in Figure 12. At t = 0 the signal has a spatial proﬁle given by φ(x). which is a solution of the wave equation. Applying this argument. Substituting the function in ∂2 φ = v2 φ′′ ∂t2 368 . where a triangular pulse is travelling to the right with a velocity v. And the velocity with which the wave travels is v.7. Now observe the signal at time t. while a wave travelling in the x direction is any function of the type φ ≡ φ (x + vt).
10. Phasors Let us see how the wave equation appears when using sinusoidal quantities.55) (see Figure 12. In this section we take a look at Maxwell’s equations when the ﬁelds vary sinusoidally.1. engineering applications require sources which produce sinusoidally varying voltages and currents. What about the wave equation for the magnetic ﬁeld? We ﬁnd that we can obtain it in a similar fashion to give ∇2 H − 1/ v2 ∂2 H/∂t2 = 0 (12. Notice that tilde looks like a sine wave. and to do that let us ﬁrst take a look at a sinusoidally varying quantity such as ˜ φ(t) = φ0 cos(ωt + θ) (12.12.˜ — signiﬁes that the entity is an sinusoidal signal. θ is a constant phase in radians and φ0 is the amplitude of the signal.56) Here the symbol ℜ means ‘the real part of’ and Φ is a complex number given a special name—phasor—corresponding to φ(t) Φ = φ0 e jθ (12. The two can be symbolically shown connected 369 . Time Dependant Fields Similarly ∂2 φ = φ′′ ∂x2 ∂2 φ ∂x2 − [1/v2] ∂2 φ ∂t2 =0 so the wave equation Since the argument of φ is x + vt where there is a ’+’ sign. the wave has to be travelling in the −x direction. which in turn produce electromagnetic ﬁelds.10. and the phasor Φ is the Equation 12.54) EXERCISE 12. Frequency Domain Wave Equation Generally.1 Obtain the wave equation for the magnetic ﬁeld from ﬁrst principles. 12.57) The relation between the sinusoidally varying quantity.8) Where ω is the frequency in rad/s. This equation can be written as ˜ φ (t) = ℜ φ0 e j(ωt+θ) = ℜ φ0 e jθ e jωt = ℜ Φ e jωt (12. in time domain. 12.56. The tilde.
8. Put down more clearly. time ˜ φ′ (t) = −φ0 ω sin(ωt + θ) Is this result the same as diﬀerentiating Equation 12. 370 .55 with respect to t.59) Ph ˜ φ(t) −→ Φ (12.: Showing the relation between timedomain and frequency domain entities as Diﬀerentiating Equation 12. because dφ/dt as calculated above and that calculated by the previous equation are indeed equal.58) There is a question mark against the second equality. Time Dependant Fields ℑ Complex plane Φe jωt = φ0 e j(ωt+θ) t ωt t=0 Φ = φ0 e jθ φ0 b φ0 cos(θ + ωt) θ a ℜ O φ0 cos(θ) Figure 12. Can we interchange ℜ and d/dt? The answer is yes.12.56? Let us diﬀerentiate this equation d d ˜ φ (t) = ℜ φ0 e j (ωt+θ) dt dt d ? φ0 e j (ωt+θ) =ℜ dt = ℜ jωφ0 e j (ωt+θ) = ℜ jωφ0 cos (ωt + θ) + j sin (ωt + θ) = ℜ jωφ0 cos (ωt + θ) − ωφ0 sin (ωt + θ) = −ωφ0 sin (ωt + θ) (12.
60) ˜ φ (t) dt = = =ℜ =ℜ φ0 cos (ωt + θ) dt ℜ φ0 e j (ωt+θ) dt φ0 e j (ωt+θ) dt Φe jωt jω EXAMPLE 12. and Φ is the corresponding phasor. So the phasor is 10e j0 = 10∠0 (b) The term 20 sin(2π · 106t) = 20 cos(π/2 − 2π · 106t) = ℜ 20e j (2π·10 6 t−π/2) = 20 cos(2π · 106t − π/2) so the phasor is 20e j(−π/2) = 20∠(−π/2) (c) 13 cos(105 t + 1. (a) 10∠10 = 10e j10 .5 .10 Convert the phasors (a) 10∠10 (b) 1e j15 to their realtime counterparts.9 Find the phasors for (a) 10 cos(200t) (b) 20 sin(2π·106t) (c) 13 cos(105t+ 1.5) . 371 .12.5) (d) 25 sin(100t + 45) (a) The term 10 cos(200t) = ℜ 10e(200t+0) That is θ = 0. Time Dependant Fields when φ(t) is a sinusoidal function. d d ˜ φ = ℜ Φe jωt dt dt d Φe jωt =ℜ dt = ℜ jωΦe jωt In the same manner we can show that if (12. The realtime function is therefore ℜ[10e j(10+ωt) ] = 10 cos(10 + ωt) (b) 1e j15 converts to 1 cos(15 + ωt). (d) The phasor is by inspection 25e j (45−π/2) . The conversion to time domain is 10e j(10+ωt) . which gives the phasor EXAMPLE 12. 5 t+1.5) is by inspection = ℜ 13e j(10 13e j1.
66. then from deﬁnition ˜ E (R. EXERCISE 12.63) (12.36 to 12.62) In the last equation we have dropped e jωt and this factor is understood to be there. Note that all of Maxwell’s equations remain the same except that ∂/∂t is replaced by jω.64) (12.65) (12. t) = − ∇ × ℜ E (R) e jωt ∇ × ℜ E (R) e jωt ˜ ∂B (R.66) 372 .11. .2 Show that Maxwell’s equations in phasor notation maybe written as in Equations 12.)) as well. t) ∂t ∂ = − ℜ B (R) e jωt ∂t ∂ B (R) e jωt = −ℜ ∂t (12. and E (R) be the corresponding (complex) phasor. t) be the ﬁelds in time but sinusoidally varying.12. The Wave Equation Though we have considered the real part of the complex phasor. A single Maxwell’s equation may written in the phasor notation as ˜ ∇ × E(R.61) ℜ ∇ × E (R) e jωt + ℜ jωB (R) e jωt = 0 ℜ ∇ × E (R) e jωt + jωB (R) e jωt = 0 ∇ × E (R) e jωt + jωB (R) e jωt = 0 ℜ ∇ × E (R) e jωt = −ℜ jωB (R) e jωt ∇ × E = − jωB (12. . Equations 12. t) = ℜ Ee jωt The other ﬁeld vectors are similarly written. let E (R. Every term in these equations is a phasor.39 become ∇ • D = ρv ∇ × E = − jωµH ∇•B = 0 ∇ × H = jωεE + J (12. Time Dependant Fields 12. Applying this knowledge ˜ to sinusoidally varying ﬁelds.63 to 12. we could have worked with the imaginary part (ℑ(.
72) (12. Using these relations.74) 373 . − (∇ • ∇) E = − jωµ( jωε)E Furthermore. Time Dependant Fields We will make no distinction between the notation (that is for example E) used for sinusoidal and timedomain mathematical quantities since the discussion itself will clearly indicate whether the reference is toward the ﬁrst set or the second.68 becomes − (∇ • ∇) E = k2 E (12. Therefore there ρv = 0 (Which implies that ∇ • E ≡ 0) and J = 0. The wave equation for sinusoidal functions is called the Helmholtz’s Equation. −( jωµ)( jωε) = ω2 µε.12. Therefore − (∇ • ∇) E = ω2 µεE The phase velocity vp of the wave is related to µ and ε by v2 = 1/(µε) p Hence. ω2 µε = ω2 1/ 1/µε = ω2 /v2 = (2π f )2 /( f λ)2 = (2π/λ)2 = k2 p (12.68) In a region where the wave is propagating.71) Which is the wave equation.67) ∇ (∇ • E) − (∇ • ∇) E = − jωµ( jωεE + J) (12.73) ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez ∂ 2 Ez + + + k2 E z = 0 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 (12.69) Where λ is the wavelength of the wave in meters and k is the freespace propagation constant in rad/m.64: ∇ × (∇ × E) = − jωµ∇ × H = − jωµ( jωεE + J) Using the identity we have: ∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇ (∇ • A) − (∇ • ∇) A (12. This equation is in fact three diﬀerent equations (as earlier): ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex + + + k2 E x = 0 ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂2 E y ∂x2 + ∂2 E y ∂y2 + ∂2 E y ∂z2 + k2 E y = 0 (12.70) (12. Equation 12. we assume that there are no charges or currents. To obtain the wave equation we take the curl of Equation 12.
∆z ω = = vp ∆t k (12. t) = ℜ Ae j(ωt−kz) = A cos (wt − kz) Denoting the phase of this travelling wave by θ = ωt − kz. that is we travel with the phase θ0 = ω(t0 + ∆t) − k(z0 + ∆z) = ωt0 + ω∆t − kz0 − k∆z = (ωt0 − kz0 ) + ω∆t − k∆z = θ0 + ω∆t − k∆z 0 = ω∆t − k∆z (12. If we pause a moment and further examine the nature of the full function A exp j(ωt − kz) we realise that it must be a travelling wave. .) or cos(.77) which gives. We can derive the magnetic ﬁeld Helmholtz’s equation in a similar 374 . that is φ is not a function of these coordinates.] if φ = φ0 sin kz then ∂2 φ = −k2 φ ∂z2 is satisﬁed.. . Let us look at a speciﬁc function of the type that is. In the above equation we have replaced Ex by φ in the ﬁrst of the three previous equations and ∂/∂y. . the at some time t = t0 and position z = z0 . x=x0 = θ0 = ωt0 − kz0 As in the case of the time domain scalar wave which we examined earlier.e. (12.) etc. This function satisﬁes the wave equation.78) Notice that vp is the phase velocity since it is the velocity with which the phase travels. in real time it must be φ(z. sin(. ∂/∂x are equated to zero. . θt=t0 .76) or. Since we are looking at a phasor.75) √ where k = ω µε. Time Dependant Fields Similarly.75 we note that its solution is of the sinusoidal type of function [i. If we observe Equation 12. the frequency domain scalar wave equation in one variable is d2 φ + k2 φ = 0 dz2 (12. we allow a diﬀerent set of values of z and t but changed in such a way that the phase remains the same.12. let φ = Ae−jkz where A is a constant.
10 is moved as shown in (a) part of the ﬁgure. 2. State Faraday’s law. A discussion of phasors and their connection with the frequency domain wave equations. and the Maxwell’s equation derived from the law. Looking at Figure 12. 2. 375 . with sources which are sinusoidally varying charges and currents. Does a current ﬂow in the metal hoop as shown in (a) part of the ﬁgure? Ans.13.9 which consists of a loop of metallic wire immersed in a constant B ﬁeld. Faraday’s law as it was historically obtained and the of Maxwell’s equation as obtained from Faraday’s law by Maxwell. No 5. 4.79) 12. Time Dependant Fields (a) (b) Figure 12.12. The magnet shown in Figure 12. The frequency domain wave equation. Chapter Summary This chapter introduced the student to Maxwell’s equations in their ﬁnal form. 3. Introduction to the scalar and vector wave equations in time and frequency domains. 5. No 4.12. 12. State Lenz’s law. way − (∇ • ∇) H = k2 H (12.9 does a current ﬂow in the metal hoop as shown in (b) part of the ﬁgure? Ans.9. Looking at Figure 12. Short Answer Questions 1. The concept of the displacement current density as a fundamental requirement in Ampere’s law. Into the plane of the paper. 3. A discussion of Maxwell’s equations in point and integral forms.: Rotating hoop immersed in a constant B ﬁeld. 6. In particular the topics covered were 1. In which direction does the current go in the upper part of the coil? Does the current go into the plane of the paper or come out of it? Ans.
10.12. In which direction does the current go in the upper part of the coil? Does the current go into the plane of the paper or come out of it? Ans. 5. What is the angle of the phasors (a) j (b) 1 (c) 1 + j1? Ans. In Figure 12.2 the B ﬁeld is given by B = cos(100πt − kz)ax (Wb/m2 ) where k is a constant.14. Find the induced emf V12 (t) generated. Yes. Time Dependant Fields coil of wire S N N S (a) (b) Figure 12. In Figure 12. No. In Figure 12. 8.2 the B ﬁeld is given by B = cos(100πt)az (Wb/m2 ) Find the induced emf V12 (t) generated. The magnet shown in Figure 12. In which quadrant is 1 − j1 lie? What is its angle? Ans. In Figure 12. 4th quadrant. Does φ(x/v − t) satisfy the wave equation? v is the velocity of the wave. (a) π/2 (b) 0 (c) π/4 10. In Figure 12. −π/4. Problems 1. 7. 9.2 the B ﬁeld is given by B = cos(100πt − ky)a y (Wb/m2 ) where k is a constant. Into the plane of the paper. 4. Ans. 12. ε∂E/∂t is the displacement current. Find the induced emf V12 (t) generated.2 the B ﬁeld is given by B = cos(100πt − kz)xy(ax + a y + az ) (Wb/m2 ) 376 .2 the B ﬁeld is given by B = t2 u(t)az (Wb/m2 ) = 4 (Wb/m ) 2 t ≥ 4 (s) 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 (s) Find the induced emf V12 (t) generated. 2.10 is moved as shown in (b) part of the ﬁgure. 3.: Moving magnet and stationary coil 6. Ans.
t) of a plane wave is H0 sin(ωt − kx)az and is incident on the ’antenna’ as shown in Figure 12.11. and L = 0.11.1t (m). and R1 = 1 Ω. if R2 = 0. If B(x. if R2 = 0.11.11.: Moving slider on rails where k is a constant and a = 1 and b = 2. The whole arrangement is immersed in a constant magnetic ﬁeld B with a direction going into the plane of the paper as shown. 12. In Figure 12. In Figure 12.1 (T). Find the induced emf V12 (t) generated. From Maxwell’s equation in integral form Equation 12. ﬁnd the emf generated in the loop. E = E0 az . 10. If B = 0.1t + .1 (m). the electric ﬁeld is a constant. Time Dependant Fields z y a v. z. ﬁnd the emf generated and the current in the 1 Ω resistor. In a region of free space ε = ε0 and µ = µ0 . A slider moves on rails with a velocity v as shown in Figure 12. If R2 = 0 show that the induced emf Vab is Vab = BvL 8. the position of the slider in the y direction is given by y(t) = 0.1 (T). y) = 0.05t2 (m). The magnetic ﬁeld H(x. Find the magnitude of the emf V(t) between terminal 1 and 2.1xy (T). 9.1t (m). the position of the slider in the y direction is given by y(t) = 0.33 show how both Faraday’s law as well as Lenz’s laws can be obtained. velocity b L x Figure 12. Show that it is: H 0 µ0 2ω sin ak 2 cos (ωt) k b 7. and the current.2.11. In Figure 12. What is the displacement current density? 377 . If B = 0. 6. and L = 0. and R1 = 1 Ω. and L = 0. In Problem 8 if R1 10 Ω and R2 = 20 Ω ﬁnd the voltage drops across the two resistors.1 (m). the position of the slider in the y direction is given by y(t) = 0. ﬁnd the emf generated and the current in the 1 Ω resistor and when the yposition of the slider is 1 m. y.12. 11.1 (m). 13.
E = E0 cos(110t − kx)az . the electric ﬁeld is. By using the arguments given in Section 12. What is the displacement current density? What is the conduction current density? 16. Time Dependant Fields 14. 378 . σ = 10−5 the electric ﬁeld is. E = E0 cos(110t − kx)az . What is the displacement current density? What is the conduction current density? 15. µ = 10−5 . σ the input current to the capacitor is equal to the displacement current plus the conduction current within the capacitor. In a region ε = 10−6 .5 show that for a parallel plate capacitor with a dielectric ﬁlling of ε. In a region of free space ε = ε0 and µ = µ0 .12.
ε = εr ε0 . In this chapter we concentrate on the fundamental properties of electromagnetic waves as they propagate in various types of media.. σ. Let a sinusoidally timevarying wave travel in the +z direction but with no variation in either x or y directions. Thus if the waves propagate in a dielectric.. then the medium is described by its permittivity. Uniform Plane Wave In the very beginning we consider the simplest of waves. Figure 13.13.. namely.. The shaded region shows a single phase front. then the conductivity. 13. .1. Plane perpendicular to propagation 379 .: The geometry of the uniform plane wave . Direction of propagation z H y ...1. The transmitting antenna transmits electromagnetic waves which are essentially waves whose nature is that of light waves but at much. x E . Figure 13. If the medium is a conducting.1 depicts how the wave travels. These waves are generally sinusoidal. much lower frequency. Electromagnetic Waves When we set up a communication link between a transmitter and receiver without the help of cables we usually set up two antennas. and so on.. which in turn depends on the medium in which the waves propagate. a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna. comes into play. the uniform plane wave. perpendicular to the direction of propagation. described by frequency and the velocity of propagation. and their interaction with matter..
direction. the ﬁelds must satisfy Helmholtz’s equation1 . Since we are considering a wave. a travelling wave must have a functional dependence. E0 is a constant but real phasor. ˜ E(R. Helmholtz’s equation for the electric ﬁeld is Equation 12.11 for a better understanding of this point 380 . ∇2 E + k2 E = 0 where √ k = ω µε If we recall the results of the last chapter. z = (ωt0 − K)/k = Another constant = K1 Now working only with the phasor E = E0 e−jkz (13. travelling in the +z.71.3) 1 See Section 12. The phase of the wave at time t0 is given by ωt0 − kz = constant = K which is the equation of a plane in three dimensions which is parallel to the z = 0 plane.1) where β is the propagation constant of the wave and ω is the frequency of oscillation.13. E y0 . Electromagnetic Waves The procedure which we now outline is standard for most wave phenomena. E0 = ax Ex0 + a yE y0 + az Ez0 (Ex0 . Ez0 are real and constant) (13.2) Let us ﬁrst satisfy the Helmholtz equation ∇2 E = −k2 E ? E0 ∇2 e j(ωt−βz) = −k2 E0 e j(ωt−βz) E0 e jωt ∂2 −jβz ? e = −k2 E0 e j(ωt−βz) ∂z2 ? E0 e jωt −β2 e−jβz = −k2 E0 e j(ωt−βz) −β2 E = −k2 E Which is satisﬁed if β = k. In the case of a uniform plane wave. The term exp{ j(ωt − kz)} ensures that the wave is a travelling wave. the electric and magnetic ﬁelds must satisfy the wave equation. having a exp( jωt) time dependence. Here β may or may not be equal to k. And since their nature is oscillatory. t) = ℜ E0 e j(ωt−βz) (13.
we get Hz = 0 or the magnetic ﬁeld is also 381 . Writing out the various components starting with the x component (∇ × E)x = − jωµHx ∂Ez ∂E y − = − jωµHx ∂y ∂z 0 + jkE y0e−jkz = − jωµHx Similarly we can get the other components (∇ × E) y = ∂Ex ∂Ez − = − jkEx0 e−jβz = − jωµH y ∂z ∂x ∂E y ∂Ex − = 0 = − jωµHz (∇ × E)z = ∂x ∂y Straightaway.7) Which is Equation 12. If this electric ﬁeld is to represent an actual wave. Electromagnetic Waves The sinusoidal ﬁelds in time are ℜ Ee jωt = ℜ E0 e−jkz e jωt = E0 ℜ e j(ωt−kz) = E0 cos (ωt − kz) (13.13. it must satisfy Maxwell’s equations. from the last equation. E = ax Ex0 e−jkz + a y E y0 e−jkz (13. The ﬁrst Maxwell equation which has to be satisﬁed is ∇•E = ρv ε But we know that the wave is travelling in a region free of charges.4) The term E0 can be pulled out of the bracket since it is real and constant. there are only transverse components. ∇•E = 0 ∂ ∂ ∂ Ex0 e−jkz + E y0 e−jkz + Ez0 e−jkz = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂z 0 + 0 − jkEz0 = 0 Ez0 = 0 (13.5) In other words there is no electric ﬁeld in the direction of propagation.6) The second Maxwell equation which the electric and magnetic ﬁelds have to satisfy is ∇ × E = − jωµH (13.64 on page 372. So ρv must be zero.
a quick calculation of the characteristic impedance.8) − jωµH y = − jβEx0e−jkz √ − jω µε Hy = Ex0 − jωµ = Concentrating on the term ε Ex0 µ (13.13) Since ε/µ has the units of .1 clearly shows how both the electric and magnetic ﬁelds lie on z = constant planes.12) (13. Electromagnetic Waves transverse to the direction of propagation. Figure 13. From the above equations.9) ε/µ we calculate its units F/m H/m F H s Ω s 2 Units of ε = µ = = = = √ (13. Z ≡ Z0 gives 2 Z0 = 2 µ0 ≈ 377 Ω ε0 µ0 /ε0 = (13.11) (13.13. we represent 1 Hx = − E y Z 1 H y = Ex Z µ Z= ε Z is called the characteristic impedance of the medium. the magnetic ﬁeld components are − jωµHx = jβE y0 e−jkz √ jω µε E y0 Hx = − jωµ =− ε E y0 µ (13. For air or vacuum. a resistance (13. therefore 382 .14) √ 4 × 36π2 × 100 = 120π Since µ0 = 4π × 10−7 and ε0 = (1/36π) × 10−9 .10) µ/ε by Z.
Figure 13. Notice that the magnetic ﬁeld is always in phase with the electric ﬁeld.15) Taking a diﬀerent tack. that is when the electric ﬁeld increases.13. We reach an important conclusion: Not only are the electric and magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Electromagnetic Waves The magnitude of the magnetic ﬁeld is H= = 1 Z E = Z 2 Hx + H 2 y E2 + E2 y x (13. between E and H we must compute the dot product between the two. we calculate E × H for the uniform plane wave. therefore cos θ must be zero. but they are perpendicular to each other. the angle from E to H is π/2. To compute the angle. E × H = ax E y Hz − Ez H y + a y (Ez Hx − Hz Ex ) + az Ex H y − E y Hx = a z Ex H y − E y H x = a z Ex = az (Ez and Hz are both zero) (From the previous set of equations) −E y Ex − Ey Z Z 1 2 E + E2 y Z x V2 /(Ωm2 ) ≡ W/m2 1 2 1 E + E2 = E2 y Z x Z (13. In other words.11 and 13. θ. the magnetic ﬁeld increases.16) E × H = It is important to note that the direction of E × H is the direction of propagation.12 E • H = ax Ex0 e−jkz + a yE y0 e−jkz • ax Hx0 e−jkz + a yH y0 e−jkz e−j2kz ax Ex0 + a yE y0 • −ax E y0 + a y Ex0 Z e−j2kz = −Ex0E y0 + E y0 Ex0 Z =0 = (13. Since E • H = EH cos θ Using Equations 13.17) Now E 0 and H 0.2 depicts the advance of the plane wave where the electric ﬁeld is drawn as the solid line while the magnetic ﬁeld is the dotted line. the vector E × H is directed toward the propagation direction. and when the electric ﬁeld 383 .
From inspection of the E ﬁeld it is clear that ω = 2π 107 t(= 2π f ) where f is the frequency of the wave. Since the velocity c = 3 · 108 m/s the wavelength is λ = c/ f = 3 · 108/107 = 30 m from λ we can calculate k by k = 2π/λ = 0. Electromagnetic Waves decreases the magnetic ﬁeld does the same. So 1 1 ax × E = (−10a y + 20az) cos(2π 107t − kx) A/m H= Z0 377 EXAMPLE 13.13. So f = 107 Hz.1 Find the H ﬁeld of of an plane wave whose E vector is given by E = (10az + 20a y) cos(2π 107t − kx) in air.2. The power density S is given by S = E2 /Z0 = 106 W/m2 so E= √ 106 · 377 = 1. Find the magnitude of the electric and magnetic ﬁeld vectors. Find the value of k.9416 · 104 V/m 384 .20944 rad/m Again from inspection it is clear that the wave is travelling in the +x direction.2 A plane wave caries a power density of 1 MW/m2 . the characteristic impedance). and the wavelength λ. E field H field Direction of propagation −1 0 Emax 1 −1 0 1 Hmax Figure 13. keeping the ratio of the electric to the magnetic ﬁeld constant (=Z.: Electric and Magnetic ﬁelds of a uniform plane wave EXAMPLE 13.
and there is an agreement all over the world about their use.3−3 KHz − ULF 30−300 Hz − SLF 3−30 KHz − VLF 3−30 Hz − ELF Figure 13.R. high frequency. ultra high frequency and EHF extremely high frequency and so on. medium frequency. but now adopted worldwide. very low frequency. Lumped Shortwave Radio Voice frequency Distrbuted Optical AM Radio FM Radio 300 MHz Television Mobile 3 GHz Satellite 30 GHz 300 KHz 300 GHz 300 THz 30 MHz 30 KHz 30 THz 300 Hz 3 MHz 3 KHz 3 THz Radio Waves 30−300MHz −VHF Micro Waves I. Figure 13. low frequency. At the bottom of the ﬁgure. infrared and visible and beyond.501 A/m Electromagnetic waves in actual use for diﬀerent purposes are characterised by their frequency f and wavelength.13. Visible and U. microwaves.3 shows the frequency bands. HF. the designated frequency bands are named: VLF. These bands are shown in Table 13.3−3 MHz − MF 3−30 MHz − HF 0. VHF.1 385 > 3 GHz −EHF 3 PHz 30 Hz 3 Hz . λ. MF. At the top the approximate analytical technique is outlined: for example the lumped element approach is used from DC to a few hundred megahertz. LF. 30−300 KHz − LF 0. Apart from the radio frequency bands there is yet another set of designations which is primarily due to the US military. Below the logarithmic spectrum is the rough demarcation of the frequency bands: radio waves.: The electromagnetic frequency spectrum In the ﬁgure the frequency spectrum is depicted on a logarithmic scale from 3 Hz to 3 PHz. the distributed element approach is used from a few hundred megahertz to about a few hundred gigahertz. and so on.V. very high frequency.3. These bands of frequencies have been given names by engineers. UHF. Electromagnetic Waves and H = E/Z0 = 51. (Read as petahertz).3−3 GHz − UHF 0. their names and their uses.
The sinusoidal ﬁelds in time are ˜ E(R.2. The ﬁgure shows the electric ﬁeld in the x direction while the magnetic ﬁeld moves in phase in the y direction. Let us now consider the case when one amplitude of the set [Ex . Taking a speciﬁc case Ex0 = A0 e j0 E y0 = A0 e E0 = ax Ex0 + a y E y0 Where A0 is of course real. Circular Polarisation Let us examine the solution to the wave equation.: IEEE microwave band designations 13.2. Equation 13.19) (13.2 illustrates this point.2). E y ] is complex. t) = ℜ E0 e j(ωt−kz) j(π/2) (13.6 under diﬀerent cases and conditions.1.13. Examination of Figure 13.1. and the other one real.110 GHz 110300 GHz Table 13.21) = A0 ℜ ax e j(ωt−kz) + a ye j(ωt−kz+π/2) = A0 ℜ ax e j(ωt−kz) + a ye j(π/2) e j(ωt−kz) (13. and a x Ex × a y H y = a z Ex H y (13.20) (13. Electromagnetic Waves Band L S C X Ku K Ka V W mm Frequency 12 GHz 24 GHz 48 GHz 812 GHz 1218 GHz 1827 GHz 2740 GHz 4075 GHz 75. Wave Polarisation The electric ﬁeld in the case just discussed always moves on a plane as the ﬁeld advances in the direction of propagation. So far we have stipulated that the amplitudes are real and we found that the electric ﬁeld moved along a plane as the wave advanced (Again study Figure 13.18) 13.22) = ℜ ax A0 + a yA0 e j(π/2) e j(ωt−kz) = ℜ ax Ex0 + a y E y0 e j(ωt−kz) = A0 ax cos(ωt − kz) − a y sin(ωt − kz) 386 .
t) = A2 cos2 (ωt − kz) + sin2 (ωt − kz) 0 = A0 (13. and t = 3T/4. π/2. How do we interpret this result? Let us analyse this situation in greater detail.25) ˜ This seems simpler.23) Which is constant. Figure 13. t = T/2. t) = A0 ax cos(ωt) − a y sin(ωt) (13. z = 0. where T is the time period of one cycle. ωt = 0. and 3π/4 at these times. ˜ E(x. Electromagnetic Waves The magnitude of the ﬁeld in time is ˜ E (R.: Figure illustrating left circular polarisation The original electric ﬁeld in time is ˜ ˜ ˜ E = a x Ex + a y E y = A0 ax cos(ωt − kz) − a y sin(ωt − kz) (13. Since ω = 2π/T. By setting z to zero we are analysing the behaviour of the electric ﬁeld on the plane z = 0. Let us now proceed to calculate the electric ﬁeld E at diﬀerent times: at t = 0. with the tip of the vector moving on a circle with radius A0 .4. ˜ E ˜ E ˜ E ˜ E = A0 a x = −A0 ax = A0 a y = −A0 a y (At t = 0) (At t = T/4) (At t = T/2) (At t = 3T/4) We notice that the vector rotates in the clockwise direction.4 illustrates this point.13. y. t = T/4.24) We get rid of the z coordinate by setting it to zero. π. 387 . ˜ Ey t=3T/4 ωt = 3π/2 ˜ E(t = 3T/4) t=T t=T/2 ωt = π ˜ E(t = T/2) ˜ E(t = 0) ˜ E(t = T/4) t=0 ωt = 2π ˜ Ex ωt = 0 t=T/4 ωt = π/2 Figure 13.
with the thumb extended. The electric ﬁeld at point b advances to b’ three quarters of a wavelength away. and so on.13. The electric ﬁeld then can be written as Ex0 = A0 e j0 E y0 = A0 e−j(π/2) E0 = ax Ex0 + a y E y0 E = E0 e−jβz (13. advancing in the +z direction. This type of polarisation is called left circular polarisation because as the left hand is held in the form of a ﬁst.26) 388 .: Figure showing the advance of the wave in a left circular polarisation plane wave The next ﬁgure Figure 13. The electric ﬁeld at point a advances to a’ which is one wavelength away. at t = T/4 it is at b. the electric ﬁeld rotates in the anticlockwise direction on any plane parallel to the xy plane and the wave travels in the direction of the thumb in accordance with the right hand thumb rule. the ﬁngers curl in the direction of motion of the electric ﬁeld while the thumb points in the direction of the propagation of the wave. The tip of the electric ﬁeld vector at t = 0 is at point a. For such a wave.5 shows how the wave advances helically in a polarised wave. In this way it traverses a full circle in time T. Electromagnetic Waves E field helix E field on the xy plane Direction of Propagation a’ z b’ λ a y −1 x d’ d o c’ b c A0 A0 Figure 13.5. The ﬁgure shows the wave at time t = T. The electric ﬁeld vectors all lie parallel to the xy plane but all their tips lie on a helix. going through points c and d. On the xy plane the electric ﬁeld traces a clockwise circle. In time T diﬀerent parts of the wave advances by varying amounts. Consider the case of a right hand circularly polarised wave.
13. y=2*cos(t+ π/2 ) (d) x=2*cos(t). Let us take a look at the most general type of polarisation.2. y=cos(t+ π/2 ) Figure 13. linear and circular polarisation. Elliptical Polarisation 2 1 0 −1 −2 −2 −1 0 1 2 (a) x=cos(t). namely 389 .28) This is vector which is rotating in the counterclockwise direction and obeys the right hand thumb rule.: Linear and elliptical polarisations We now have studied two types of polarisations.27) choosing z = 0 as the plane on which the electric ﬁeld is evaluated ˜ E(z = 0.6. t) = A0 ax cos(ωt) + a y sin(ωt) (13.2. y=2*cos(t) 2 1 0 −1 −2 −2 −1 0 1 2 (b) x=cos(t). Electromagnetic Waves The sinusoidal time dependent ﬁeld is ˜ E = ℜ Ee jωt = ℜ A0 ax e j0 + a ye−j(π/2) e j(ωt−kz) = A0 ax cos(ωt − kz) + a y cos(ωt − kz − = A0 ax cos(ωt − kz) + a y sin(ωt − kz) π ) 2 (13.13. y=2*cos(t+ π) 2 1 0 −1 −2 −2 −1 0 1 2 2 1 0 −1 −2 −2 −1 0 1 2 (c) x=cos(t).
33) or 2 2 ˜ ˜ ˜ E y Ex Ex Ex ˜ + cos θ − 2 E E cos θ = 1 − E Ex0 y0 y0 x0 x0 2 2 ˜y ˜y E ˜ E E ˜ x cos θ Ex =1 E sin θ + E sin θ − 2 E E 2 y0 x0 y0 x0 sin θ ˜ Ey E 2 2 sin θ (13.34) (13. Ex0 and E y0 can be anything. Choosing the plane z = 0 to evaluate the polarisation ˜ E(z = 0) = ax Ex0 cos (ωt) + a y E y0 cos (ωt + θ) = ax Ex0 cos ωt + a yE y0 (cos ωt cos θ − sin ωt sin θ) ˜ Ex Ex0 1− ˜ Ex Ex0 2 (13.34 since Equation 13. Case 1 .35) Let us discuss these equations.31) (13.13.29) where Ex0 and E y0 are the wave amplitudes in the x and y directions and θ is ˜ ˜ the phase angle with which E y leads Ex . θ = 0 or π. Electromagnetic Waves elliptical polarisation. This case gives us linear polarisation.35 is un 390 .32) = cos ωt cos θ − sin ωt sin θ = ˜ Ex cos θ − Ex0 1− ˜ Ex Ex0 2 sin θ (13.30) cos ωt = sin ωt = ˜ Ey E y0 (13. Let ˜ ˜ ˜ E = a x Ex + a y E y = ax Ex0 cos (ωt − kz) + a y E y0 cos (ωt − kz + θ) (13. To illustrate this statement we use Equation 13.
Case 3. θ = ±π/2. We already know that where an electric ﬁeld is present in a medium with conductivity σ. This is shown in Figures 13.37) which is the equation of an ellipse with major and minor axis along the x and y directions respectively.6 (a) and (b). Electromagnetic Waves suitable. Letting sin θ = 0 we have ˜ Ey E 2 2 ˜ ˜ E ˜ + Ex cos θ − 2 y Ex cos θ = 0 E E Ex0 y0 y0 x0 2 ˜ ˜ Ey Ex E − E cos θ = 0 y0 x0 ˜ ˜ Ey Ex = cos θ E y0 Ex0 E y0 E for θ = 0 Ex0 ˜ x ˜y = E Ey0 − E for θ = π ˜x E x0 (13. If E y0 = Ex0 then we obviously get circular polarisation. This shown in Figures 13. 13. E y0 = 2 and Ex0 = 1.13. θ. with the major axis of the ellipse tilted in any general direction.5 is shown in Figure 13.7. Wave Propagation in Conducting Media In conducting media. as the wave propagates currents are set up. This gives elliptical polarisation with with the major and minor axes of the ellipse along the coordinate axes.36) ˜ ˜ which is a straight line between the variables E y and Ex . The case for θ = π/6. These currents circulate in the medium and produce heat. we have elliptical polarisation. In this general case.6 (c) and (d). Ex0 all of which can be anything.35 with cos θ = 0 and sin θ = ±1 ˜ Ey E 2 ˜ + Ex Ex0 y0 2 =1 (13. there the current density generated at a point in the medium is related to the electric ﬁeld through the equation J = σE 391 . We use Equation 13. E y0 . Thus energy carried by the wave must necessarily be diminished. Case 2. Ex0 and E y0 can be anything.3.
5 1 1.5 −1 −1.41) = jωε 1 − = jωεC E Where εC is the complex dielectric constant which is so called because of the above set of equations.40) (13.43) The ratio σ/(ωε) is dimensionless (the same as εr ). This ratio is called the dissipation factor.44) D= ωε ≫ 1 for a good conductor 392 .5*cos(t). 2*cos(t+pi/6) 2 1.5 −1 −0.5 2 Figure 13.42) (13. where εC is introduced to simplify things.7.5 0 ˜ Ex 0.13.: The case for θ = π/6.5 −2 −2 −1. The conducting medium can be modelled as a dielectric but one with a complex permittivity. Electromagnetic Waves 1.5 Using Maxwell’s Equation 12. D σ ≪ 1 for a good dielectric (13. E y0 = 2 and Ex0 = 1. in phasor form ∇ × H = jωεE + J = jω ε − = jωεE + σE jσ E ω jσ E ωε (13.5 ˜ Ey 0 −0.38) (13. εC = ε′ − jε′′ σ = ε− j ω (13.39) (13.66.5 1 0.
8. Electromagnetic Waves Generally. ε′′ σ (13. D = tan θ σ/ω or ǫ′′ θ ǫ or ǫ′ Figure 13.13.: Loss tangent for a dielectric Using the notation of βC as the complex propagation constant βC = βR + jβI = β + jα √ = ω µεC To compute βC β2 = β + jα C 2 ω2 µεC = β2 − α2 + j2βα σ = β2 − α2 + j2βα ω2 µ ε − j ω Equating the real and imaginary parts. the dissipation factor for lossy dielectrics is also called its loss tangent.47) What is the meaning of a complex propagation constant βC ? Let us examine a wave travelling in the z direction.45) = ′ D= ωε ε Why it is so called may be seen from examining Figure 13. The 393 .8. and solving the resulting equations we get √ ω µε β = βR = σ 2 ωε + 1 = β2 − α2 + j2βα 1+ √ 2 (13. with the electric ﬁeld in the x direction.46) √ ω µε α = βI = 1+ √ 2 σ 2 ωε − 1 (13.
13. The wave amplitude decays as exp(−αz). This is so because √ ω µε 1+ √ 2 σ 2 ωε + 1 2π = βCond Med = λC √ 2π > ω µε (= ) λ where λC is the wavelength in the conducting medium.49) Observing the previous equation we can see that as the wave progresses in the z direction. The wavelength of the wave decreases. The ﬁgure shows a snapshot at some time instant of a wave incident from air into a conductive medium. Electromagnetic Waves wave in complex notation is then Ex = Ex0 e−jβC z = E e−j(β−jα)z x0 = Ex0 e−αz e−jβz (13. The term exp(−αz) forms an envelope of the cosine term. the electric ﬁeld is still oscillating (the cosine factor). As the wave progresses into the medium.9. but its amplitude decays (the exponential factor).: Proﬁle of a wave propagating from air to a conducting medium Using sines and cosines.48) Air Conducting medium Envelope Skin Depth Figure 13. 2. the amplitude of the wave falls by 394 . This is shown in Figure 13. the wave in the real world is ˜ Ex = ℜ Ex0 e−αz e−jβz e jωt = Ex0 ℜ e−αz e j(ωt−βz) = Ex0 e−αz cos(ωt − βz) (13. Concentrating on the decaying term.9. the following happens 1.
395 . The same argument applies to the next factor taking into account the additional fact that E y = 0. E y =0 C In the ﬁrst factor the E ﬁeld is not a function of either x or y. the skin depth varies. Let us apply what we have learnt to diﬀerent materials. To obtain the value of the magnetic ﬁeld. ∂ y =0 ∂ y =0. In the last bracket.50) = ay Which means that the characteristic impedance is complex Z= µ = εC µ = ε′ − jε′′ µ ε − j(σ/ω) The meaning of a complex characteristic impedance is that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are not in phase with each other.. ˆ propagating in the n direction if the electric ﬁeld is E. Thus. Therefore H=− 1 a y − jβC Ex jωµ βC Ex = ay ωµ εC Ex µ (13. Using the notation ∂x ≡ ∂/∂x etc. Ez =0 ∂x =0. Electromagnetic Waves Ex0 exp(−1) in a distance given by zskin depth = δ = 1/α Ex0 e−δα = Ex0 e−1 = 0.13. diﬀerentiation with respect to z is the same as multiplication by − jβC . the magnetic ﬁeld is ˆ (1/Z)n × E.3679Ex0 δ is called the skin depth and depending on the value of α. H=− 1 ∇×E jωµ 1 az ∂x E y − ∂ y Ex + ax ∂ y Ez − ∂z E y + a y (∂z Ex − ∂xEz ) =− jωµ 1 =− az ∂x E y − ∂ yEx +ax ∂ y Ez − ∂z E y +a y (∂z Ex − ∂x Ez ) jωµ ∂z =−jβ . in a propagating wave.
54) 396 .46 and 13.13.51) (13. Consider such a dielectric. In the following equations we have used the Taylor series expansions.52) Reproducing Equations 13. Low Conductivity Materials Low conductivity materials are generally lossy dielectrics with a small dissipation factor.47 with ε′ σ = ′′ ≪ 1 ωε ε √ ω µε β= √ ω µε ≅ √ = ω µε 1+ √ 2 1+ 1 2 √ 2 1+ σ 2 ωε + 1 σ 2 ωε +1 (taylor′ s expansion of sq. where x ≪ 1 √ x 1+x ≅ 1+ 2 1 ≅ 1−x 1+x (13. root) (13.1. root) 1 σ 2 4 ωε 1 σ 2 √ ≅ ω µε 1 + 8 ωε (taylor′ s expansion of sq.3.53) √ ω µε α= √ ω µε ≅ = √ ω µε 2 1+ √ 2 1+ 1 2 √ 2 σ ωε σ 2 ωε − 1 σ 2 ωε −1 (13. Electromagnetic Waves 13.
05 and a dielectric constant of 2. the permittivity ε = εr ε0 = 2ε0 . Electromagnetic Waves The characteristic impedance Z= = = µ εC µ × ε 1 1 − j(σ/ωε) (applying the taylor series expansion) µ σ 1+ j ε 2ωε Applying these results to a case of a wave travelling in a dielectric with a loss tangent of 0. The permeability µ ≡ µ0 .3412π β = β0 1 + α≅ 1 σ 8 ωε 2 = 298.4585π 2 ωε δ = 1/α = 0. Let the frequency of the wave be 10 GHz.4345π β0 σ = 7.05 ≪ 1. ω = 2π f = 2π × 106 rad/s.04268 m (Skin depth) µ0 = 266. σ = 0.0025 = 266. The loss tangent is 0.6 1 + j0.05 ≪ 1 ωε √ β0 = ω µ0 ε = 298.13.14◦ The magnetic ﬁeld may be obtained from H= 1 (n × E) = ˆ Z εC (n × E) ˆ µ0 397 .6 Ω ε The characteristic impedance Z= = ≅ µ0 εC µ0 × ε 1 1 − j(σ/ωε) µ0 σ 1+ j ε 2ωε = 266.6∠0.
for high conductivity materials α=β= ωµσ 2 398 .56) Therefore.55) √ ω µε α= √ ω µε 1+ √ 2 √ 2 σ ωε σ 2 ωε − 1 ≅ −1 √ ω µε ≅ √ 2 ωµσ = 2 σ ωε (13. High Conductivity Materials For the case of high conductivity materials like metals. σ ≫1 ωε and √ ω µε β= √ ω µε √ 2 1+ √ 2 σ ωε σ 2 ωε + 1 +1 ≅ (since σ ≫ 1) ωε √ ω µε ≅ √ 2 ωµσ ≅ 2 σ ωε (since σ ≫ 1) ωε (13.13.2.3. Electromagnetic Waves 13.
369 in a distance of .6 × 10−5 m The wave decays to e−1 = 0. The wavelength in air is c 3 × 108 λair = = = 300 m f 1 × 106 2π β 2π = 15150 = 4.10. the skin depth rapidly decreases 399 . ε ≡ ε0 at a frequency of f = 1 MHz.15 × 10−4 m! ωµσ = 15150 2 the wavelength in copper at the same frequency is λcopper = A typical example of the skin depth as a function of frequency is shown in Figure 13. (ω = 6.28 × 106 rad/s) σ/(ωε0 ) = 1.814 × 107 /m.066 mm .045 × 1012 ≫ 1 and so β=α≅ The skin depth δ = 1/α = 6.13. As we can see from the ﬁgure. Taking the example of copper with a conductivity σ = 5. Electromagnetic Waves The characteristic impedance is given by Z= = = µ0 εC µ0 ε0 − j (σ/ω) µ0 ε0 1 1− j ωε0 σ ωε0 σ σ ωε0 ≅ Z0 = Z0 j 1+ j √ 2 The characteristic impedance of a high conductivity material is therefore Z ≅ Z0 1+ j √ 2 ωε0 Ω σ Where Z0 is the characteristic impedance of free space(≅ 377 Ω).
the skin depth goes into the µm range.10. On the other hand as the frequency is increased into the GHz range.4. It is for this reason that in many microwave components. and at dc.57) 13. Electromagnetic Waves Skin depth for copper as a function of frequency 0. In high conductivity materials the wavelength and skin depth are related by λmaterial = 2πδmaterial The characteristic impedance for copper is given by Z ≅ Z0 1+ j ωε0 √ σ 2 ◦ = 377 × 1∠45 × 9.13. (zero frequency) the skin depth becomes inﬁnity. the conducting surface is coated with a very thin layer of gold (in which the wave penetrates) to minimise the energy dissipated. Boundary Conditions When we consider electromagnetic problems we need to look at the conditions of the electromagnetic ﬁelds at the boundary between two media.57 × 10−13 = 3.01 Skin depth (m) 0.1 0.61 × 10−10∠45◦ (13.001 0.: Skin depth for copper as a function of frequency with increasing frequency.0001 1e−05 1 10 100 1000 10000 Frequency (Hz) 100000 1e+06 1e+07 Figure 13. Principally what we are interested in is: what are the relations between the electromagnetic ﬁeld components in the two media which are (a) tangential to the surface separating the two media? And (b) normal to this surface? 400 .
In this case there will be both a surface charge. σ2 ). at the boundary of the two media. Js .11. σ1 y x ǫ 2 . The body is immersed in a region with permittivity and permeability (ε1 . This we call region 2. ρs . µ 1 . In the (a) part of the ﬁgure the macro level diagram is shown where a small region labelled R is shown. The ﬁelds in regions 1 and 2 must satisfy Maxwell’s equations. Electromagnetic Waves z ǫ 1 .58) ∂D +J ∂t These are the diﬀerential form of the equations. σ1 ǫ 2 . To investigate these problems we take a look at the case where electromagnetic ﬁelds are present inside and outside a body with permittivity and permeability (ε2 . σ1 ). In this case. µ 2 .11. the conductivity.13. no time varying ﬁelds can exist inside a conductor: E and H will both be zero. µ 2 . The integral forms are 401 . σ2 z a d b ˆ n y x Medium Boundary ǫ 2 . σ → ∞. µ1 . as well as a surface current. µ 2 . ∇ • D = ρv ∇×E = − ∇•B = 0 ∇×H = ∂B ∂t (13. This region is shown blown up in parts (b) and (c) of the ﬁgure. σ2 R c ˆ t2 ˆ t1 ˆ n ǫ 1 . µ 1 . called region 1. σ1 E and H fields (a) (b) Medium Boundary (c) Figure 13. µ 1 . σ2 ǫ 1 .: The Behaviour of electromagnetic ﬁelds near a boundary consisting of a change of medium There is one special case which we always have to keep in mind: the case of a perfect electric conductor. µ2 . This conﬁguration is shown in Figure 13.
59) We ﬁrst take a look at the ﬁrst of the above equations (Maxwell’s equations in integral form). So Dn1 = ρs (13. If we have a perfect conductor then σ2 → ∞ then there will be a surface charge.60) (13. Electromagnetic Waves ∇ • DdV = ∇ × E • dS = ∇ • BdV = ∇ × H • dS = D • dS = E • dl = − B • dS = 0 H • dl = ρv dV ∂B • dS ∂t ∂D • dS + ∂t J • dS (13. Then there will be no ﬁelds there and Dn2 = 0 but there will be a surface charge.63) Now considering the the second of the Maxwell’s equations in integral form (the second of the Equation set 13. ρs . There is no surface charge (ρs = 0) if σ2 is ﬁnite.61) in other words. (ρs = 0). then the right hand side is replaced by zero and in that case.62) If there is no surface charge.13. The equation is applied to the pillbox shown in part (c) of the ﬁgure. the normal component of the D ﬁeld is continuous. Writing Gauss’s law in the most general case (that is if a surface charge exists) D1 • az ∆A + D2 • (−az ) ∆A = ρs ∆A Dz1 − Dz2 = ρs (13.59) to part (b) of Figure 13. In this case length (b − c) = length (d − a) ≅ 0 length (a − b) = length (c − d) ≅ ∆x 402 . ρs . the normal component of the ﬂux density is discontinuous across a dielectricdielectric boundary by the amount of the surface charge density. The mathematical description of the pillbox is height of pillbox ≅ 0 Area of the top and bottom ≅ ∆A Applying Gauss’s law to this pillbox with the knowledge that there may or may not be accumulated charge on the interface. Writing the above equation in a more general form Dn1 − Dn2 = ρs ˆ n • (D1 − D2 ) = ρs (13. Let us take the case where the second medium is a pec (perfect electric conductor).11.
2 are the tangential components of the electric ﬁeld next to the boundary but in media 1 and 2 respectively. Electromagnetic Waves Applying the line integral to the loop abcd in the anticlockwise direction. E1 • ax ∆x + E2 • (−ax ) ∆x = 0 where E1 and E2 are the electric ﬁelds in regions 1 and 2 respectively. So Bn1 = 0 (13. So Et1 = 0 (13. the area is vanishingly small. Then there will be no ﬁelds there and Bn2 = 0.64) is zero.67) (13.70) 403 .65) The subscript t is used to signify the tangential component.66) Taking a look at the next Maxwell equation ∇ • BdV = B • dS = 0 we apply the same arguments as for the D vector and get Bn1 − Bn2 = 0 Or ˆ n • (B1 − B2 ) = 0 (13. that is.68) (13.69) Let us take the case where the second medium is a pec (perfect electric conductor). The condition on the electric ﬁeld may then be summarised as Et1 − Et2 = 0 (13. Et1. dS ≈ ∆x × length (b − c) = 0 (13. Let us take the case where the second medium is a pec (perfect electric conductor). Writing this in a more compact form ˆ n × (E1 − E2 ) = 0 Notice that the normal goes from medium 2 to medium 1. The right hand side of the integral ∂B • dS ∂t ∂B × dS = 0 ∂t since one side enclosing the area is vanishingly small.13. Then there will be no ﬁelds there and Et2 = 0.
71) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ t1 . Reﬂection and Refraction of Waves 13.(or t2 ) directed surface current. Then there will be no ﬁelds there and H2 = 0. ∆A is also considered to be zero. Let us consider ﬁrst the case of a uniform plane wave obliquely incident on a air metal boundary. J y is the ydirected volume current while Jsy is the surface current just at the boundary. a y and az . 13. The line integrals of H over the shorter sides of the loop are equated to zero since there lengths are virtually zero.73) (13. So ˆ n × H1 = Js (13. For the sake of convenience the metal may be considered to be a perfect one with σ → ∞. t2 and n form a righthanded orthogonal coordinate system. t2 and n are ˆ akin to ax . Reﬂection from a Metal Surface Electromagnetic waves having the same nature as light and therefore reﬂect from metallic objects and suﬀer refraction in the presence of dielectrics. But in this case there will be the surface current Js .72) Let us take the case where the second medium is a pec (perfect electric conductor). t1 . Electromagnetic Waves Finally we treat the last Maxwell equation ∂D • dS + ∂t ∇ × H • dS = H • dl = J • dS Integrating over the small loop abcd in the anticlockwise sense Hx1 ∆x − Hx2 ∆x = ∂D y ∂t ∆A + J y∆A + Jsy ∆x Here ∆x is the longer side of the loop and ∆A is the area of the loop. Jst2 is the y.13. The simplest case is one where a plane wave falls on a metal or dielectric plane surface.1.5.74) ˆ note that n will be from the pec into medium 1. Scrutinising the ﬁgure. Writing equation in vector notation az × (H1 − H2 ) = Js or ˆ n × (H1 − H2 ) = Js (13. Therefore Hx1 ∆x − Hx2 ∆x = Jsy ∆x or Ht1 1 − Ht1 2 = Jst2 (13. The wave may approach the 404 . Using the same argument.5.
76) (13. With this introduction. z) = ax + by + cz = constant = p then the normal3 to this plane is ∇ f = aax + ba y + caz and the unit normal to the plane is aax + ba y + caz n= √ ˆ a2 + b2 + c2 (13.12. The equation of the plane. We need to look at a plane wave travelling in a general direction whose unit vector is n. y.75) √ note that a/ a2 + b2 + c2 is the direction cosine of the vector n in the xdirection.78) √ p/ a2 + b2 + c2 is the shortest distance of the plane from the origin. Both conﬁgurations are shown in Figure 13.75.12.13.79) where E0 is perpendicular to n. the equation of a uniform plane wave travelling in the n direction ˆ is ˆ E = E0 e−jkn•r (13.77) (13. y.: A wave obliquely incident from air on a metal (σ → ∞) boundary in either of two conﬁgurations: where the electric ﬁeld is perpendicular to the plane of incidence or when it is parallel to the plane of incidence. ˆ etc. n • r describes diﬀerent planes all parallel to to ˆ ˆ 3 Recall that the normal to any surface f (x. The equation of a plane is ˆ f (x. Electromagnetic Waves z Medium 1 y Medium 2 (a) Perpendicular polarisation z y (b) Parallel polarisation Figure 13. may now be written as p n•r = √ ˆ a2 + b2 + c2 (13. Equation 13. z) is ∇ f 405 .
E y0r = −Z0 Hx0i cos θi so E0r = Z0 Hx0i −a y cos θi + az sin θi (13. Er = −ax Ex0 e−jk( y sin θi +z cos θi ) (13. We can see for instance if the wave travels in the a y direction then a y • r = y.83) where R. then E = E0 e−jky and so on.89) 406 . We now proceed to apply the boundary condition at the metal boundary: the tangential electric ﬁeld is zero at the boundary.88) = Z1 Hx0i −a y cos θi + az sin θi where Z1 = µ/ε1 .87) We now analyse the case of parallel incidence where the magnetic ﬁeld is perpendicular to the plane of incidence as shown in Figure 13.12(a). The electric ﬁeld is given by E0i = Z1 H0i × ni ˆ = Z1 Hx0i ax × −az cos θi + a y sin θi (13. the reﬂection coeﬃcient is to be determined.82) let the reﬂected Eﬁeld be Er = ax REx0 e−jk( y sin θi +z cos θi ) (13.80) (13. the tangential electric ﬁeld must vanish as per the previous section. Referring now to Figure 13. Electromagnetic Waves each other. (Ei + Er )z=0 = 0 ax Ex0 e−jk( y sin θi −z cos θi ) + ax REx0 e−jk( y sin θi +z cos θi ) =0 z=0 or or (13.81) (13.13.90) (13.85) (13. ni = −az cos θi + a y sin θi ˆ nr = az cos θi + a y sin θi ˆ E = a E e−jk( y sin θi −z cos θi ) i x x0 (13.84) (13. At the boundary of the metal. the intrinsic impedance of free space. (377 Ω).86) R = −1 the reﬂected electric ﬁeld is therefore for perpendicular incidence.12(b).
reﬂected and transmitted electric ﬁelds are given by Ei = ax Ex0i e−jk( y sin θi −z cosθi ) E = a E e−jk( y sin θi +z cos θi ) r x x0r (13.93) 13.13.5.13. Electromagnetic Waves z Medium 1 y Medium 2 z y (a) Perpendicular polarisation (b) Parallel polarisation Figure 13.13.: A wave obliquely incident from air (ε1 ) on a dielectric (ε2 ) and the reﬂected magnetic ﬁeld is nr × E0r /Z0 ˆ H0r = az cos θi + a y sin θi × Hx0i −a y cos θi + az sin θi = Hx0i cos2 θi + sin2 θi ax = Hx0i ax (13. The incident.92) (13.95) (13.2.91) We notice that the reﬂected magnetic ﬁeld remains as it is at z = 0! The incident and reﬂected magnetic ﬁelds are Hi = ax Hx0 e−jk( y sin θi −z cosθi ) H = a H e−jk( y sin θi +z cosθi ) r x x0 (13.96) Et = ax Ex0t e −jk( y sin θt −z cos θt ) 407 .94) (13. First let us consider the case where the electric ﬁeld is perpendicular to the plane of incidence as shown in the (a) part of the ﬁgure. Refraction from a Dielectric Surface We now consider a wave obliquely incident on a dielectric surface as shown in Figure 13.
(Ex0i − Ex0r ) cos θi (Ex0i + Ex0r ) cos θt = Z1 Z2 or Ex0r (cos θi /Z1 + cosθt /Z2 ) = Ex0i (cos θi /Z1 − cosθt /Z2 ) Ex0r cos θi /Z1 − cosθt /Z2 = Ex0i cos θi /Z1 + cosθt /Z2 cos θi − Z1 cos θt /Z2 R⊥ = cos θi + Z1 cos θt /Z2 = cos θi − (ε2 /ε1 ) cos θt (ε2 /ε1 ) cos θt cos θi + (13.107) (13.97.102) In these equations.98) where Z j = µ0 /ε j characterises the medium (1 or 2) and m characterises the wave: incident.108) 408 .109) ε2 ε1 (13.103) (13. (z = 0) the tangential ﬁelds must be continuous. R = is the reﬂection coeﬃcient. so we equate the sum of the ﬁelds in Region 1 to the ﬁelds in Region 2. the tangential magnetic ﬁelds must also be continuous (Ex0i − Ex0r) cos θi Ex0t cos θt = Z1 Z2 using Equation 13.100) (13.105) (13.104) (13. reﬂected and transmitted magnetic ﬁelds are given by Hm = 1 nm × Em ˆ Zj (13. transmitted or reﬂected waves. So Ex0i a y cos θi + az sin θi e−jk( y sin θi −z cos θi ) Z1 Ex0r −a y cos θi + az sin θi e−jk( y sin θi +z cos θi ) Hr = Z1 Ex0t Ht = a y cos θt + az sin θt e−jk( y sin θt −z cos θt ) Z2 Hi = (13. Also from Snell’s law sin θi = sin θt which makes cos θt = 1 − sin2 θt = 1 − (ε1/ε2 ) sin2 θi (13.13.97) similarly.101) at the dielectric interface.99) (13. Ex0i + Ex0r = Ex0t (13. Electromagnetic Waves at the dielectric interface.106) (13. the incident.
110) (13. the magnetic ﬁelds fro the incident.119) (13.113) (13.117) (13.116) Er = −Z1 Hx0r −a y cos θi + az sin θi e−jk( y sin θi +z cos θi ) Et = −Z2 Hx0t a y cos θt + az sin θt e−jk( y sin θt −z cos θt ) equating the tangential electric ﬁelds at the boundary Z1 (Hx0i cos θi − Hx0r cos θi ) = Z2 Hx0t cos θt substituting Equation 13.111) (13. Electromagnetic Waves which gives Er cos θi − R⊥ = = Ei cos θi + (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi Proceeding to analyse the case of parallel polarisation.115) (13. Poynting Vector and the Flow of Power If we stand out in the sun we know that our skin is warmed by the rays from the sun.118) (13.120) 13.13.114) (13. How did the energy from the sun reach us? It is obvious that the light which falls on our skin has warmed our skin. reﬂected and transmitted waves are: Hi = ax Hx0i e−jk( y sin θi −z cos θi ) H = a H e−jk( y sin θi +z cos θi ) r x x0r (13.6. And light is a form of 409 .112) Ht = ax Hx0t e−jk( y sin θt −z cos θt ) equating the tangential magnetic ﬁelds at the boundary Hx0i + Hx0r = Hx0t we now ﬁnd the corresponding electric ﬁelds Ei = −Z1 Hx0i a y cos θi + az sin θi e−jk( y sin θi −z cos θi ) (13.113 in this equation Z1 cos θi (Hx0i − Hx0r) = Z2 cos θt (Hx0i + Hx0r ) Hx0r (Z1 cos θi + Z2 cos θt ) = Hx0i (Z1 cos θi − Z2 cos θt ) Hx0r (Z1 cos θi − Z2 cos θt ) = Hx0i (Z1 cos θi + Z2 cos θt ) from where we get using Snell’s law Er (ε2 /ε1 ) cos θi + = R = Ei (ε2 /ε1 ) cos θi + (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi (13.
The basic work on P. Electromagnetic Waves electromagnetic radiation— the same waves which we have studied in Chapter 13.121) Though the dot product is zero. Substituting these equations in 4 In many books S = E × H is used instead of P. which denoted by P is P = E×H (13.123) which are the standard Maxwell’s equations. but ”power density” which is a vector? To understand about the concept of ”Power which is a vector” we need to study the basic equations in more detail. Now ∂H ∂t ∂E +J ∇×H = ε ∂t ∇ × E = −µ (13. All we know— as a hint — is that the product E H has the units of power density: (V/m)×(A/m) = W/m2 From the knowledge which we obtained from that chapter.6. though P 4 has the units of power density. That is. Poynting’s Theorem Let us concentrate on the vector identity ∇ • (E × H) = H • ∇ × E − E • ∇ × H The units of this equation is W/m3 throughout.125) (13. since the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are perpendicular to each other E•H = 0 (13. We can consider the cross product. 410 . called the Poynting vector.13. He was an English physicist.1. 13. the wave still caries power. But our studies have not given us a clue as to how waves carry energy and power. The Poynting vector describes the direction and magnitude of electromagnetic energy ﬂow and is used in the Poynting theorem.124) (13.122) The units are right. was carried out by Henry Poynting (1852 – 1914) in 1884. we can speculate that the dot product will not do. and a professor of physics at Mason Science College (now the University of Birmingham) from 1880 until his death. a statement about energy conservation for electric and magnetic ﬁelds.
126 over a region in space in accordance with Figure 13.126. Fld. Fld. E•J is the ohmic power density.127) V 411 . and εE • E is proportional to the energy density stored in the electric ﬁeld. Vect. of the magnetic ﬁeld at any point in space. V ∇ • (E × H) dV = V − S (E × H) • dS = Poynt. Similarly E• ε ∂E ∂t is the power density of the electric ﬁeld. the term µH • H Is proportional to the energy density stored in the magnetic ﬁeld (J/m3 ) at any instant of time. The last term of Equation 13. (13. (W/m3 ). Integrating Equation 13. and at a given point in space.126) Is the power density.14 ∂H ∂E + J dV −E• ε ∂t ∂t µ ∂ H2 ε ∂ E2 + + E • J dV 2 ∂t 2 ∂t Heat H • −µ Mag. Electromagnetic Waves the previous identity ∇ • (E × H) = H • −µ Identifying each term H• µ ∂H ∂t ∂H ∂E +J −E• ε ∂t ∂t (13. Obviously.13. If we integrate over any given volume we will get the total power of the magnetic ﬁeld in that region. Elec.
Electromagnetic Waves − S E × H • dS 2 ε ∂E V 2 ∂t dV V µ ∂H2 V 2 ∂t dV S V E • JdV  S (E × H) • dS = µ ∂H2 V 2 ∂t + ε ∂E + E • J dV 2 ∂t 2 Figure 13. we expand the left.14. and (b) by the electric ﬁeld.14) the term on the left is the total power entering the surface S which encloses the volume V6 .y. The last term is the power dissipated in ohmic losses.z i=x. E • E 2 2 1 ∂Ai = ∂t 2 1 = 2 2 ∂Ai ∂t 2Ai prove this. Hence we can write this equation as Power entering S = Power gained by {E in V + H in V} + Heat dissipated in V The two terms 5 To µ ε H • H.z i=x.y. The terms on the right are (in that order): the total power gained— (a) by the magnetic ﬁeld. The negative sign implies that the power is entering.127 (refer to Figure 13.z ∂Ai ∂t = LHS 6 The surface integral denotes the total ﬂux leaving the surface.and righthand sides Ai i=x. 412 .: Figure Illustrating Poynting’s Theorem Where we have used5 A• ∂A 1 ∂ A2 = ∂t 2 ∂t To correctly interpret Equation 13.y.13.
However. z) outside (and just inside the conductor) is given by Hφ = Now I = Jz × πa2 = πa2 σEz 413 (Jz = σEz ) I 2πρ .. at a point (ρ. this latter assumption would require a perpetual ﬂow of energy at every point in the ﬁeld except the special points at which the electric and magnetic lines of force are tangential to one another. Sir James Jeans states in his classic text. that there is an actual ﬂow of energy at every point equal to the Poynting Flux.” The italicised part states that Poynting’s theorem has meaning.” (Italics mine). Page 519.13. published by Cambridge University Press in the ﬁfth edition of 1933.. We look at the case of the energy ﬂow of the case of wire carrying a steady current.15. That is the Poynting vector has no real physical signiﬁcance whatsoever. and we are not entitled to assume.: Poynting theorem applied to the case of a wire carrying a steady current Consider the case of a current carrying conductor of conductivity σ and which carries a current I shown in Figure 13. It is diﬃcult to believe that this predicted circulation of energy can have any physical reality.2. in the engineering world.6. The conductor has a steady electric ﬁeld Ez . "The Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism". but it has not been proved. P. but not the Poynting vector. J/m3 . stored in the electric and magnetic ﬁelds respectively. ”For instance. Poynting Vector The Poynting vector. is associated with the ﬂow of power. if an electriﬁed sphere is placed near to a bar magnet.15. Does the vector have actual physical signiﬁcance? Famous scientists have expressed doubt about its reality. Electromagnetic Waves are the energy densities. The magnetic ﬁeld in the cylindrical coordinate system. φ. I x E z H S P y Figure 13. "The integral of the Poynting Flux over a closed surface gives the total ﬂow of energy into or out of a surface. and in most areas of electromagnetics— especially in antennas — the Poynting vector has been used with great success. 13.
dS = S φ=2π.127. Equation 13. The only region where the electric ﬁeld and magnetic ﬁeld are present together is inside the conductor. but inﬁnitesimally smaller and its length is d. Now − P. Integrations on the two ﬂat surfaces contribute nothing. to the Gaussian surface shown as a cylinder S in the ﬁgure.13. and Jz is the (constant) current density inside the conductor. an element of area of which is dS = aρ adφdz On the surface of the conductor the aρ part of the Poynting vector is Pρ = −Ez Hφ = − I I I2 × =− 2 3 2πa πa2 σ 2π a σ Where we have used the earlier equations of Ez and Hφ . Therefore Ez = I πa2 σ I Jz = 2 πa H at the surface of the conductor is Hφ = I 2πa We apply Poynting’s theorem.z=0 2π2 a3 σ I2 (2π)d 2π2 a2 σ I2 d = 2 πa σ = Total power ﬂow into the conductor = 414 . The Poynting vector is P = E×H = aρ 0 0 aφ 0 Hφ az Ez 0 = aρ −Ez Hφ It is interesting to note that the power ﬂow is inward from the surface of the cylinder. This due to the negative sign with the unit vector aρ .z=d 2 I adφdz φ=0. The Gaussian surface (shown as S in the ﬁgure) is made to coincide with the surface of the conductor. Electromagnetic Waves where the radius of the conductor is a. The Pointing vector contribution is from the curved surface. because the direction of the Poynting vector is parallel to those surfaces.
These ﬁelds in the real time are ˜ Ex = E0 cos (ωt − kz) E0 ˜ cos(ωt − kz) Hy = Z0 Then ˜ ˜ ˜ P = E×H (13. We cannot work with phasor quantities since the Poynting theorem has been deﬁned for real time variables.13. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds in phasor notation are given by Ex = E0 e−jkz E0 −jkz Hy = e Z0 (13.129) ax a y ˜ = Ex 0 ˜ 0 Hy ˜ ˜ = a z Ex H y = az E2 0 az 0 0 cos2 (ωt − kz) Z0 E2 1 cos 2 (ωt − kz) = az 0 − Z0 2 2 (13. for free space and Z0 is the characteristic impedance of free space. Electromagnetic Waves If we calculate the total E • J term V E • J = Ez Jz πa2 d I I × πa2 d πa2 σ πa2 I2 d = 2 πa σ = Total power dissipated inside the conductor = We notice that the two results are equal. that of a uniform plane wave travelling in space in the az . which is intuitively satisfying.130) We notice that (a) The Poynting vector travels in the direction of wave propagation. increasing from 0 to E2 /Z0 and then back to 0. and so on. and (c) the average value of the P is E2 /(2Z0 ). since the average value 0 415 . β. sinu0 ˜ soidally.128) Where k is the notation used for the propagation constant. Let us look at another example. (b) the Poynting vector is always positive but pulsating.
13. for example. Using the Equation set 13. and E and H are the phasor electric and magnetic ﬁelds. the factor 1/2 has to be included. On the other hand the time averaged Poynting vector is given by 1 Pav = ℜ {(E × H∗)} 2 (13.131) 2 Because these are not rms values.128 and applying the deﬁnition given above 1 Pav = ℜ {(E × H∗ )} 2 a ay 1 x = ℜ Ex 0 2 0 H∗ y az 0 0 1 = ℜ Ex H ∗ y 2 1 ∗ = × ℜ E0 e−jkz × H0e+jkz 2 E0 2 = 2Z0 416 . to a load is given by P = VI cos φ where V and I are the rms phasor voltage across and current through the load and φ is the angle between them. (ωT = 2π) 1 ˜ Pav = T = = T 0 E2 1 cos 2 (ωt − kz) 0 − dt Z0 2 2 (Integral of the cosine term is zero) 2 1 E0 T × × T Z0 2 E2 0 2Z0 These ideas expressed above are reminiscent of circuits where the average power supplied. P is the called the Poynting vector.132) Let us ﬁnd out whether we are right. Similarly working with electromagnetic phasors (but not rms values) 1 P = (E × H∗) (13. Electromagnetic Waves is given by.
2. while actual transmission lines are shown in Figure 14. How do we proceed to analyse transmission lines? The ﬁrst point is that in general transmission lines have to be treated as if the line is composed of inductances. Examining Figure 12.14. Let us consider another case. 417 . Here the wavelength is about 10000 m. Figure 14. but for alternating current. Typically the frequency of the received signal is of the order of a hundred megahertz. The schematic of a transmission line is shown in the accompanying ﬁgure. To be speciﬁc. for low frequencies. and the lumped model may be applied without loss of accuracy. At these lengths the phase delay and the interference of any reﬂections on the line become important and can lead to unpredictable behaviour in systems which have not been carefully designed using transmission line theory. Generally. In general. A lumped component has a value like L = 1 mH. So (using λ = c/ f ). λ ∼ 3 m. capacitances and resistors which are distributed rather than lumped. the length of the wires connecting the components can be ignored. for an inductor or C = 10 µF for a capacitor.6 on page 363 we can see that at suﬃciently high frequencies. the length becomes important and connecting wires must be treated as transmission lines.1. A common rule of thumb in connection with the length of the line is that the cable or wire should be treated as a transmission line if the length of the line is greater than ∼1/10 of the wavelength. if the length is comparable to the wavelength. Transmission line theory must therefore be used in the design of circuits when the conditions outlined above apply. Transmission Lines In various communication equipment when the frequency is high (> 100 MHz) and the size of our lines is comparable to the wavelength of propagation. take the example of a television connected to an antenna on the roof of a house. that where the frequency is only 30 kHz. the line connecting the antenna to the receiver must be modelled as a transmission line. and their values are per meter rather than ﬁxed. This is the lumped model of electrical circuits and is normally employed in regular circuit theory. concepts of transmission lines have to be employed. Thus we see that to model the connecting line as a short lumped segment would lead to a faulty design. and the voltage and current along the connecting wires can be assumed to be same at all points along the line. or L = 10 µF/m. For direct current this is strictly true. the length of the wire is important when the signal includes frequency components with corresponding wavelengths which are comparable to the length of the wire. The connecting line between the antenna and TV will be about 20 m which is about 7 wavelengths. but distributed elements must be described in terms L = 1 mH/m. so 20 m (the length ∼ 1/500 λ) may be modelled as a ’short’ segment of wire.
3. between two planes a − a′ and b − b′ on the line in accordance with Figure 14. Figure 14.: The equivalent circuit of a transmission line The ﬁgure shows two conductors.14. a resistance of R (Ω/m) along the line and a conductance of G ( /m) in parallel with the distributed capacitance.1.2.3. Time Domain Equation a L∆z R∆z b I(z + ∆z) + V(z) I(z) + C∆z G∆z V(z + ∆z) − ∆z a ′ − b′ Figure 14. Dielectric cladding Outer conductor Conductor Inner conductor (a) Two−wire line (b) Coaxial line Figure 14. The plane a − a′ is a at coordinate point z while the plane b − b′ is at a 418 .. an upper conductor and a lower conductor with a distributed inductance of L (H/m) along the line.. Transmission Lines L R C G .1..: Figure to analyse a transmission line To analyse a transmission line we take a short section of such a line of length ∆z. a distributed capacitance of C (F/m) between the upper and lower conductor.: Examples of Transmission lines 14..
t) is the total shunt current loss due to a lossy dielectric between the conductors. I(z.3) Here (C∆z) (∂V(z.4) 419 . t) − I(z. t) ≅ ∂I(z. The equation is V(z + ∆z. By taking V(z. which is the total series inductance between the two planes. t) ∂t (14. t)/∂t) is the shunt current from the upper line to the lower line due to the capacitance C∆z. the current at plane b − b′ . t) ∂z ∂t V(z + ∆z. t) = V(z. t) − G∆zV(z. term 3. and (G∆z)V(z. t) ∂t ∂I(z. t) ∆z ∂z (14. I(z + ∆z. V(z. t) ≅ ∂V(z. we obtain an analogous ’current’ diﬀerential equation using the current at the two planes a − a′ and b − b′ . L∆z. t)∆z ∂z ∂t ∂I(z. minus the two leakage currents through the shunt capacitance (=C∆z∂V/∂t) and resistance (=G∆zV). Since the equation under discussion is a diﬀerential equation. in the short section of length ∆z. is equal to the current at plane a − a′ .1) Here term 1 is the voltage at plane a − a′ in the ﬁgure. t). t) ∆z ∂z (14. Term 2 is the voltage drop across the inductance. t) − (L∆z) 1 ∂I(z. The third term. I(z + ∆z. t) − V(z. t). t) ∆z ≈ −L ∆z − RI(z. t) ≈ −L − RI(z. we proceed as follows: to the voltage. To obtain the voltage equation. t) − C∆z ∂V(z. is a voltage drop across a resistance.14. t). As earlier I(z + ∆z. t) ∂t 2 3 (14. V(z + ∆. at plane a − a′ we subtract the two voltage drops (=L∆z×∂I/∂t) of the series inductor and series resistor (=R∆z×I) between the two planes and thereby obtain the voltage at the plane b − b′ . With this in mind. t) ∂V(z. t) − V(z. we would like voltage terms to be present on both sides of the equation. t) = −(L∆z) Where we have used V(z + ∆z. R∆z. t) − (R∆z)I(z. the voltage at plane b − b′ . t) ∂V(z.2) and cancelled the ∆z term on both sides. The concern which we have with the previous equation is that there is a voltage term in the left hand side of the equation while a current term is present in the right hand side. Transmission Lines coordinate point z + ∆z where ∆z is a very small distance as compared to the wavelength. t) − (R∆z)I(z. t) = I(z. To obtain this equation. t). t) to the left side of the equation ∂I(z.
5) To reduce the number of terms and to consider only the most important terms we neglect (a) R.10) ∂z2 ∂t2 ∂t2 420 .51 on page 366. I). t) ∂2 I(z. i.14. t) = LC = 1/v2 (14. t) ∂2 V(z. Equation 14. This is the most important ﬁnding. C has the units of ( − sec)/m. When a voltage is applied to one end of a transmission line it travels down the line with a velocity v.e. Seems complicated? Let us diﬀerentiate the ﬁrst equation with respect to z ∂2 V(z. We observe that both equations are identical. t) deﬁnes a voltage wave travelling with a velocity v. v.7) (14. so the unit of LC is (sec/m)2 . which we can corroborate by comparing this equation with Equation 12. t) ∂t ∂z ∂V(z.9) This is a wave equation in one dimension. Transmission Lines gives us the current equation ∂V(z. contributing to the copper loss and (b) G the conductance which contributes to the losses in the dielectric separating the two (upper and lower) lines. the series resistance.6) We have here two partial diﬀerential equations in two independent variables (z. t) ∂I(z. v = 1/ LC. t) and two dependent variables (V.. t) ∂V(z. and therefore we understand that V(z. t) ∂I(z. t) ∂ ∂I(z. t) ∂z ∂t (14. t) ∂t2 (14. t) = −L ∂z ∂t ∂z2 = −L = −L = LC ∂ ∂I(z. t) = −C − GV(z.8 now becomes ∂2 V(z. t) = −L ∂z ∂t and ∂I(z. Then the equations become ∂V(z. L has units of (Ω − sec)/m. In a similar manner we can deﬁne the governing equation for the current I(z. A little reﬂection tells us that √ √ 1/ LC has the units of velocity. t) ∂t2 (changing the order of diﬀerentiation) (substitution from the other equation) (14. Let us take a look at the units of LC. t) = −C ∂z ∂t (14. t) = LC = 1/v2 ∂z2 ∂t2 ∂2 V(z. t) ∂ −C ∂t ∂t ∂2 V(z.8) Where we changed the order of the diﬀerentiation and also used the second of the two equations. t) ∂2 I(z. t) ∂2 I(z.
For example the distributed series impedance is Z = jωL + R (14. Similarly the shunt admittance is Y = jωC + G (14. Now proceeding as earlier dV(z) = −( jωL + R)I(z) dz Similarly we can obtain dI(z) = −( jωC + G)V(z) dz (14. capacitances.2. 14. the time dependence is of the type exp jωt and we have to deﬁne distributed impedances and admittances based on inductances. t) = V(z)exp( jωt) and I(z.16) 421 . t) = I(z)exp( jωt) where V(z. Then V(z + ∆z) = V(z. As earlier. both the voltage and current are travelling waves. t) − jω (L∆z) I(z) − (R∆z) I(z) V(z + ∆z) − V(z. In a transmission line. Frequency Domain Equation To obtain the frequency domain equation for transmission lines is one where the voltages and currents are sinusoidal oscillations.17) (14.14) Diﬀerentiating the previous equation with respect to z followed by substituting the above equation we have d dV(z) d = −( jωL + R) (I(z)) = ( jωL + R)( jωC + G)V(z) dz dz dz Which gives d2 V(z) = ( jωL + R)( jωC + G)V(z) dz2 = γ2 V(z) (14. That is V(z.12) where G is the conductance describing the dielectric loss. Transmission Lines which is also a wave equations.18) (14.14.11) where L and R have been deﬁned earlier in the previous section. t) are the total voltage and current. and has not been included in the equation.15) (14.13) In these equations exp( jωt) is implicit. t) and I(z. R is the resistance along the length of the line. t) = − jω (L∆z) I(z) − (R∆z) I(z) ∂V ∆z = − jω (L∆z) I(z) − (R∆z) I(z) ∂z (14. contributing to copper losses.
24) Some notes are in order: The solution to the wave equation where both R and G are not neglected is: V(z) = V01 eγz + V02e−γz 422 .14.22) which are two onedimensional Helmholtz’s wave equations for V(z) and I(z) respectively. Coming back to the second equation.21) = −β2 V(z) = −β2 I(z) (14.19) In these equations if we set R ≈ G ≈ 0 for low loss lines. Transmission Lines In these equations ( jωL + R)( jωC + G) is the complex propagation constant γ = α + jβ = ( jωL + R)( jωC + G) This kind of realisation comes from comparing with the scalar Helmholtz Equation (12. The solution to these equations which are travelling waves are V(z) = V0 e j(ωt−βz) I(z) = I0 e j(ωt−βz) (14. the two equations become d2 V(z) = ( jωL)( jωC)V(z) = −ω2 LCV(z) dz2 d2 I(z) = ( jωL)( jωC)I(z) = −ω2 LCI(z) dz2 if we set then these equations become d2 V(z) dz2 d2 I(z) dz2 (14.20) β2 = ω2 LC (14.23) And if we drop the exp( jωt) (this term is conventionally understood to be present) then V(z) = V0 e−jβz I(z) = I0 e−jβz (14. α is called the attenuation constant in neppers/m and β is the propagation constant.71). we get the equation for the current d2 I(z) = ( jωL + R)( jωC + G)I(z) dz2 (14.
Polystyrene has a dielectric constant of 2.1) of the L and C values for the case of the two wire line and the coaxial line. (The arguments are same as given on page 394) One particular case is of great interest.28) is constant for all frequencies. Calculate the L and C for this line. to calculate these two important parameters. that of the distortion less line where R L = = Z2 0 G C In this case γ= = ( jωL + R)( jωC + G) ( jωZ2 C + Z2 G)( jωC + G) 0 0 (14. So using the formula from Ta 423 . (Since R and G are only present in lossy lines. √ v = ω/β = 1/ LC (14. Table 7.25) = Z0 ( jωC + G) √ √ = jω LC + RG α= √ RG √ β = ω LC (14. Therefore a pulse sent down the line arrives at the other end undistorted. In general γ = α + jβ a complex number.14. Transmission Lines Where γ = α + jβ = ( jωL + R)( jωC + G) The solution may be veriﬁed by substitution. page 238. √ For a loss less line where R = G = 0. which implies that e−γz = e−αz e−jβz so the voltage wave decays as it progresses.26) (14. γ = jω LC = jβ and the functional dependence is exp(− jβz) or exp( jβz).1 Calculate the inner radius of the outer conductor for a 75 Ω coax line whose inner conductor is of radius is 1 mm. EXAMPLE 14.1. C. R and G for physical lines? We give here a table (Table 14. The reader is referred to Jordan & Balmain.56.27) Note that the real part is frequency independent and the imaginary part is proportional to the frequency which means that the velocity of propagation. The dielectric between the inner and outer conductor is polystyrene. these parameters are not presented here. Next we ask the all important question: how do we get the values of L.
Transmission Lines Table 14.3891 b = 7.: Calculation of L and C for two wire (conductor radius=a.2 Calculate the distance between the conductors for a 300 Ω two wire line whose conductor radius is 1 mm. inner radius of outer conductor=b) lines. Two wire line L C √ vp β ble 14.5 ln(b/a) b/a = 7. 424 .3891 mm The capacitance/m for this line is given by C = (2πε)/ ln(b/a) = 27. spacing between centres=b) and the coaxial (radius of inner conductor=a.56) ln(b/a) = 37. The investigation of this line is due to Wheeler 1977.1.1 Z = (1/π) µ/ε cosh−1 (b/2a) 300 = (1/π) µ0 /ε0 cosh−1 (b/2a) = 120 cosh−1 (b/2a) b/2a = 6.1 we have Z = (1/2π) µ/ε ln(b/a) (µ/π) cosh−1 (b/2a) (πε)/ cosh−1 (b/2a) (1/π) µ/ε cosh−1 (b/2a) √ 1/ µε √ ω µε Coaxial line (µ/2π) ln(b/a) (2πε)/ ln(b/a) (1/2π) µ/ε ln(b/a) √ 1/ µε √ ω µε Z= L/C 75 = (1/2π) µ0 /ε0 εr ln(b/a) √ = (60/ 2.1.265 mm Another transmission line which is used in a large number of applications is the micro strip line whose crosssection is depicted in Figure 14.1323 b = 12.81 pF/m while the inductance is L = 0. From Table 14.14.156 µH/m EXAMPLE 14.4. The characteristic impedance of this line is given in Table 15.
is the onedimensional Helmholtz equation with √ 2π β = ω LC = λg (14. Working with the ﬁrst equation of the previous equation set.: Transmission line showing the forward and reverse voltage waves. In any section of the line.4.5. Solutions to the Transmission Line Equation Since most of the time we will be working with sinusoidal quantities.14. The wave equation in the frequency domain.5. An illustration of these waves are shown in Figure 14.3.: Crosssection of the micro strip line h 14. we will consider the frequency domain equation rather than the time domain equation. the solution is V e−jβz for a wave travelling in the + z direction. the voltage can be 425 . for a coordinate z along the line. λ g is the wavelength of the voltage or current wave in the transmission line. if we recall correctly.29) Where V+ and V− are amplitudes of the forward and backward waves respectively and z is the distance along the line with respect to some origin. or + V(z) = one of V e+jβz for a wave travelling in the − z direction − V− e jβz V+ e−jβz z Figure 14. We can conﬁrm that β plays the role of the propagation constant in a transmission line by taking a look at the units of β. Transmission Lines w Metallisation t εr Figure 14.
That is if V(z) = V+ e−jβz + V− e+jβz then I(z) = 1 V+ e−jβz − V− e+jβz Z0 (14. V(z) = V+ e−jβz + Incident wave V− e+jβz Reﬂected wave (14. Z0 is always real.34) 426 . The unit of Z0 Z0 = L (Ω) C (14. or for a wave travelling in the − z direction To get the relation between I+ and V+ we use Equation 14.14. in particular. That is. By the same technique. we can show that I− = − V− Z0 (14.31) where Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the line.33) These two relations are very important. in that the forward and reverse voltage waves are linked to the corresponding current waves.30) For each of these solutions. Transmission Lines written as a sum of these two solutions. the corresponding current waves are I e−jβz + I(z) = one of +jβz I e − for a wave travelling in the + z direction.32) Note that for a loss less line.14 ∂V(z) = − jωLI(z) ∂z ∂ V+ e−jβz = − jωLI(z) ∂z − jβV+ e−jβz = − jωLI(z) βV+ e−jβz = ωLI+ e−jβz √ ω LCV+ = ωLI+ C V+ = I + L or I+ = V+ Z0 (14.
P+ . characterised by incident voltage and current waves meets a load impedance ZL .1. Transmission Lines Furthermore we introduce a new (but important) variable. the reﬂection coeﬃcient along the line for any value of z Γ(z) = where V+ (z) = V+ e−jβz V− (z) = V− e+jβz (14.14.3. The ratio of the reﬂected to the incident power is V− P− V− 2 /2Z0 = = P+ V+ 2 /2Z0 V+ 2 = Γ2 (14. The forward/backward wave carries a total average power of (since we are not considering rms values of the voltage and current. while the power in the reﬂected wave.38) 14.3. be complex. in the forward wave is positive.2. but we are not nearer to getting the values of V+ and V− . shown in 427 . The ’±’ subscript is the indicator of the forward/backward wave. Γ(z).37) A little explanation is needed.35) Since we have placed no restriction on V+ and V− . and Z0 is assumed to be real) 1 Pav = ℜ {VI∗ } 2 1 = ℜ V± e∓jβz I± e∓jβz 2 1 ∗ = ℜ V± e∓jβz I± e±jβz 2 V∗ 1 = ℜ V± × ± ± 2 Z0 =± V± 2 2Z0 ∗ (14.36) V− (z) V− 2 jβz e = V+ (z) V+ (14. Reﬂections from Discontinuities We have obtained the solution to the transmission line equation. Power Considerations Let us take a look at the power in the forward/backward wave. The power. is negative. How do we get these. to apply our solution to real problems? Let us consider the case where the incident electromagnetic wave. 14. these two coeﬃcients can. P− . in general.
The ﬁgure shows that the load is placed at z = 0. while the generator is at z = −L.: Transmission line with a load impedance Figure 14.41) 428 .40) for z < 0 (14. Transmission Lines V+ e−jβz V− e jβz Generator ZL Load z = −L z = −l z=0 Figure 14.6.14. The incident parameters are V+ (z) = V+ e−jβz I+ (z) = I+ e−jβz (14.39) After meeting the load a reﬂected electromagnetic wave is set up characterised by V− (z) = V− e−jβz I− (z) = I− e−jβz The total voltage and currents are V(z) = V+ (z) + V−(z) for z < 0 V+ (z) − V−(z) I(z) = I+ (z) + I−(z) = Z0 (14.6.
42) Where ΓL is the reﬂection coeﬃcient at the load.43) ZL = 1 + ΓL Z0 ZL − ΓL = 1 + ΓL Z0 ZL ZL − 1 = ΓL +1 Z0 Z0 ΓL = ZL Z0 ZL Z0 −1 +1 (14. Transmission Lines We know that the total voltage and current across the load must satisfy ZL = = V(0) I(0) V+ e−jβz + V− e+jβz I+ e−jβz + I− e+jβz z=0 V+ e−jβz + V− e+jβz = (V+ /Z0 ) e−jβz + (−V− /Z0 ) e+jβz = Z0 V+ e−jβz + V V+ e−jβz − V− e+jβz − z=0 e+jβz z=0 Z0 (V+ + V− ) = V+ − V− Z0 V+ {1 + (V− /V+ )} = V+ {1 − (V− /V+ )} Z0 (1 + ΓL ) = (1 − ΓL ) (14. 429 . ΓL = Solving for ΓL ZL = (1 − ΓL ) ZL Z0 Z0 (1 + ΓL ) (1 − ΓL ) V− 2 jβz e V+ = z=0 V+ = Γ(0) V− (14.44) ΓL = V− ZL − Z0 = V+ ZL + Z0 (14.45) It is interesting to examine this equation in various cases.14.
This is the case of maximum power transfer: the condition of a matched load.46) the total incident power is reﬂected here since ΓL  = 1 (14. When the transmission line is terminated in a short circuit: ZL = 0 V− ZL − Z0 = V+ ZL + Z0 0 − Z0 = 0 + Z0 = −1 V− = −V+ ΓL = again we can see that all the incident power is reﬂected. Transmission Lines When the transmission line is terminated in an open circuit: ZL = ∞ ΓL = V− ZL − Z0 = V+ ZL + Z0 ZL (ZL ≫ Z0 ) ≈ ZL =1 V− = V+ which means that the total incident power is reﬂected1 . We also know that if the load is purely imaginary (ZL = jX. X being real) no power is consumed by the load. When the transmission line is terminated in the characteristic impedance: ZL = Z0 V− ZL − Z0 = V+ ZL + Z0 Z0 − Z0 = Z0 + Z0 =0 V− = 0 ΓL = since there is no reﬂected wave all the incident power is consumed.47) 430 . In this case too all of the incident power must be reﬂected ΓL = V− ZL − Z0 = V+ ZL + Z0 jX − Z0 = jX + Z0 = 1e−j2 tan −1 (X/Z 0) 0) −1 (X/Z V− = 1e−j2 tan × V+ (14.14.
Using β = 2π/λ g ∠Γ(−l) = −4πlλ where lλ = l/λ is the distance in wavelengths towards the generator. z = −l Γ(−l) = ΓL e−j2βl (14.16358 + j0. (14. The reﬂection coeﬃcient along the line is from an earlier equation is Γ(z) = V− 2βz e V+ = ΓL e2βz and when we move towards the generator. while the phase changes by −2βl.48) which tells us that the magnitude of Γ(z) remains constant. ΓL .19056 So 19% of the power is reﬂected. EXAMPLE 14.43653 V+ 2 Now ΓL  = and V− V+ = . If we study this equation carefully we ﬁnd that the complex reﬂection coeﬃcient has a constant magnitude. = ΓL .14.5.49) 431 .3 Find the percentage of reﬂected power when a load of value ZL = 40 + j40 Ω terminates a 75 Ω (= Z0 ) transmission line.40472 V− = 0. ΓL = ZL − Z0 ZL + Z0 = −0. and it returns to its original value every half a wavelength: that is for lλ = 0. Transmission Lines which conﬁrms our surmise.
5 −1 Distance in wavelengths −0.52) 1. the voltage along the line at a point z = −l is given by V(−l) = V+ e−jβ(−l) + V− e jβ(−l) = V+ (cos βl + j sin βl) + V−(cos βl − j sinβl) = (V+ + V− ) cos βl + j sin βl (V+ − V− ) = VL cos βl + jZ0 IL sin βl Z0 sin βl = VL cos βl + j ZL (14. Standing Wave Ratio Referring to Figure 14. VL = V(0) = V+ e−jβ(−l) + V− e jβ(−l) l=0 = V+ + V− IL = I(0) = I+ e−jβ(−l) + I− e jβ(−l) l=0 = I+ + I− = VL = IL ZL V+ − V− Z0 (14.7.6.2 Normalised voltage 1 0. along the line for VL = 1 V and ZL /Z0 = 2 is shown in Figure 14. Transmission Lines 14.50) (14.5 0 ZL /Z0 = 2 λ Figure 14. Here VL and IL are the voltage and current across and through the load.8 0. A study of the ﬁgure shows that 432 .5 −2 −1.2 0 −3 −2.4 1.14.: A plot of the magnitude of the voltage along a line for VL = 1 V and ZL /Z0 = 2 A plot of the magnitude of the normalised voltage. V(−l)/VL. The ﬁgure shows the resultant sum of the forward and backward voltages.3.7.6 0.3.51) Which is a mathematical statement of the fact that the total voltage along the line is a sum of the forward and backward voltage waves.4 0.
3.53) diﬀerentiating this function with respect to l.55) We now proceed to obtain an analytic expression for s.. 3λ/4.... The ratio Vmax /Vmin is called the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) s (VSWR) = Vmax /Vmin (14.At these lengths βl = Making a table βl V(−l) 0 1 −π/2 Z0 /ZL −π 1 −3π/2 Z0 /ZL . The periodicity of the standing wave pattern is λ/2 instead of the usual λ. There is a voltage maxima at the load. −λ/4. which gives sin(2βl) = 0 2βl = nπ nπ l= 2 × 2π λ nλ = 4 (14.54) Hence maximas and minimas occur at −l = 0.14. (ZL is real) V(−l) = VL cos βl + j V(−l) = VL cos2 βl + Z0 sin βl ZL Z0 ZL 2 sin2 βl (14. 2. . The voltage along the 433 . Transmission Lines 1. Vmax /Vmin = 2.. 2π nλ nπ × = λ 4 2 Comparing values in the second row. Z > Z then there is a maximum at the load (1 > Z /Z ) L 0 0 L if Z < Z then there is a minimum at the load (1 < Z /Z ) L 0 0 L and maxima and minima alternate thereafter at intervals of λ/4. keeping z = Z0 /ZL d V(−l) = dl 2 β cos(β l) sin(β l) z 2 sin2 (β l) z − 2 β cos β l sin β l + cos2 β l To ﬁnd the maximas and minimas we set the numerator to be zero. Let us investigate this analytically.. . −λ/2.
59) Applying this formula to the above case.60) (14. Transmission Lines line is given by V(z) = V+ e−jβz + V− e jβz (14.57) or the previous equation may be written as V(z) = V+ e−jβz + ΓL e jβz V(z) = V+  e−jβz + ΓL e jβz (14. s = 1 13 2 3 =2 For the current. ZL /Z0 = 2 ZL /Z0 − 1 ΓL = ZL /Z0 + 1 = 1/3 VSWR. Then V− = ΓL V+ (14. That is V(z)max = V+  (1 + ΓL ) V(z)min = V+  (1 − ΓL ) so s (VSWR) = V(z)max 1 + ΓL  = V(z)min 1 − ΓL  (14.58) Now the maximum value of the above equation is when the maximum of each individual term adds and the minimum value is when the two terms in the bracket subtract (remember that ΓL  1).14. that is. I(−l)/IL. we may proceed along similar lines.61) (14. 434 .62) A plot of the magnitude of the normalised current. The current along the line is given by I(−l) = I+ e−jβ(−l) + I− e jβ(−l) = I+ (cos βl + j sin βl) + I−(cos βl − j sinβl) = (I+ + I− ) cos βl + j sin βl (I+ − I− ) VL = IL cos βl + j sin βl Z0 ZL sin βl = IL cos βl + j Z0 (14.5 A and ZL /Z0 = 2 is shown in the accompanying ﬁgure. Let the reﬂection coeﬃcient be ΓL . along the line for IL = 0. a standing wave is formed. These are the voltage and current along the line in terms of the load parameters and load impedance. the case of the ﬁgure.56) Due to some reﬂection.
5 0 −2.14.: Input impedance of a transmission line.5 1 0.5 −2 −1. Input Impedance Anywhere Along the Line We now take a look at the input impedance at a point z = −l shown in Figure 14.3. Zin = Z(−l) V(−l) = I(−l) 435 .: A plot of the magnitude of normalised current along the line for IL = 0.4. 14. This impedance must be the ratio of the voltage to the current along the line.9.5 0 Distance in wavelenths λ Z0 ZL /Z0 = 2 Figure 14.5 Normalised current 2 1.8. Transmission Lines 3 2.9.5 A and ZL /Z0 = 2 z= −l ZL Zin Figure 14.5 −1 −0.
and Den. Transmission Lines We now substitute Equations 14.51 and 14. by cos βl) ZL + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZL tan(βl) = Z0 Zin (−l) = Z0 (14. Open circuit: ZL = ∞ Zin = Z0 = Z0 ZL + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZL tan(βl) ZL jZL tan(βl) (ZL ≫ Z0 ) = − jZ0 cot βl Short circuit: ZL = 0 Zin = Z0 = Z0 ZL + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZL tan(βl) jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 (ZL = 0) = jZ0 tan βl Matched load ZL = Z0 Zin = Z0 = Z0 = Z0 ZL + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZL tan(βl) Z0 + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZ0 tan(βl) (ZL = Z0 ) 436 .62 into the above equation Zin = VL cos βl + j Z0 ZL sin βl Z IL cos βl + j ZL sin βl 0 Z0 ZL cos βl + j ZL sin βl Z cos βl + j ZL sin βl 0 = (since ZL = VL /IL ) = ZL cos βl + jZ0 sin βl 1 Z0 Z0 cos βl + jZL sin βl ZL + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZL tan(βl) ( Dividing the Num.63) Let us apply this formula to various cases.14.
64) (14.10. Γ = − j r = 1. hence a graphical procedure has been evolved using transmission line charts.65) Using the new parameter Zin − Z0 Zin + Z0 (Zin /Z0 − 1) u + jv = (Zin /Z0 + 1) Zin − 1 = Zin + 1 Γ= (Γ = u + jv) (14. x = 0. x = 0.: Γ shown in the complex plane It is clear that the number of equations involved in transmission line problems increases the complexity of the computation. it must be normalised with respect to the characteristic impedance. Γ = j Complex Plane Unit circle jv Γ(z) r = 0. Γ = 1 + j0 lλ Toward generator Γ(z − l) New value of r+jx r = 0. as is with the case with Zin . Z0 . Γ = − j1 Figure 14. x = −1. but for any sense to be made of this parameter.14. So we deﬁne a new parameter Zin (−l) = Zin (−l) Z0 = r + jx (14. of the line. x = 1. Transmission Lines 14. x = 0. We know that the terminating impedance ZL is complex.4. Transmission Line Charts ℑ {Γ} r = 0. Γ = 0 4πlλ u Some value of r+jx ℜ {Γ} r = ∞.66) 437 .
438 . we know that since generally Γ = V− (z) ≤1 V+ (z) (14.14.73) which is the equation of a circle with centre [r/(1 + r). r = 0.71) (14.67) (14.70) r= (1 − u) (u + 1) − v2 v2 + (1 − u)2 2v v2 + (1 − u)2 (14.72) x= Working with the previous equation r v2 + (1 − u)2 = (1 − u) (u + 1) − v2 (1 + r) v2 + r + (1 + r)u2 − 2ru = 1 2r 1 r + u2 − u= v2 + 1+r 1+r 1+r r 2 1 r r 2 v2 + u − − = − 1+r 1+r 1+r 1+r r 2 1 r r v2 + u − = − + 1+r 1+r 1+r r+1 1 2 r 2 v2 + u − = 1+r 1+r 2 (14.69) then the region contained within the unit circle (which is Γ = 1) contains all values of r and x. v = 0. r = ∞. x = 0 maps to u = 1. v = 0. v = 1 5. v = 0. And the relation between u and v as functions of r and x are u= x2 + (r − 1) (r + 1) x2 + (r + 1)2 2x x2 + (r + 1)2 (14. x = −1 maps to u = 0. v = −1 The transformation in the other direction is more useful Zin = 1+Γ 1−Γ (14.10. r = 0. (remember Γ = u + jv). r = 1. For example. 1. r = 0. using the above equations. 2. 0] and radius 1/ (1 + r). x = 0 maps to u = 0. x = 1 maps to u = 0. Transmission Lines This is a mapping between the complex variables Γ and Zin . With reference to Figure 14. 3. x = 0 maps to u = −1.68) v= Thus for every r and x we get a u and a v. 4.
EXAMPLE 14. 2. x). 1/x) and radius 1/ x.: Γ plane with r = 1. x = ±1 and x = 0 circles Let us see how these plots were obtained. which is a straight line. Let us apply the Smith chart to some simple cases. r = 0. The x = ±1 circles have their centre at (1. Γ for Z = 1 + j1 Γ = 0 + j1 unit circle x=1 Z = 1 + j1 r = 0 circle r=1 Γ = −1 + j0 x=0 Γ=0 Γ = 1 + j0 x=−1 Complex Γ plane Γ = 0 − j1 Figure 14. 4.11. The x = 0 ’circle’ has its centre at (1. 0) and has a radius of 1. 0) and radius 1/2. Transmission Lines Similarly the other equation gives (u − 1)2 + v − 1 x 2 = 1 x 2 (14. x = ±1 and x = 0 which are shown in the ﬁgure. 1. At the outset we ﬁnd the wavelength and the normalised impedances. 3. The 439 . On the gamma plane let us draw the ﬁve circles with r = 1. r = 0. Find the input impedance and the complex reﬂection coeﬃcient at the input end. In this way we can get every point on the gamma plane in terms of (r. ±1) and radii of 1.14.74) which is the equation of a circle with centre (1. ∞) and radius of ∞. The r = 0 circle has its centre at (0. The r = 1 circle by drawing a circle with centre (1/2. which is the Smith chart Smith (1939).4 The a 20 m 50 Ω line operated at 350 MHz is terminated with a 75 Ω load.
Transmission Lines Figure 14.12.14.: The Smith chart wavelength is λ = c/ f = the load impedance is 3 · 108 = 0.8571 m 350 · 106 ZL = 75 Ω 440 .
5 1.: Smith chart depiction for this example f0= 350.5 (= r.14.000+j0.13.00M so the normalised impedance is ZL = 75/50 = 1.2 End here after completing revolutions Start here Γin 0.5 +j2.0 Mark value of ZL z0= 1.0 1.2 we have to move towards the generator by the amount l = 20 m 441 . x = 0) the normalised load impedance plotted on the Smith chart gives the position marked ‘start’ in Figure 14.000 ΓL 2. The origin of the complex gamma plane connected to this point is ΓL (as is shown).00 Figure 14.0 +j0.0 Read value of Zin +j0.2 0. ΓL = 0.13. Transmission Lines GSMC printout source file: Date: Tue Jul 1 11:38:15 2008 +j1.
27 this is the value of Zin at the end of the 20 m line.11 + j0.5 Ω = 50 · 0. we would like to ’somehow’ match the load to the line. and the transmission line. The ﬁnal value of Γ(−l) is Γin = ΓL e−jφ = −0.8 + j0. Doing this we ﬁnd that the normalised impedance at b is Zin = 1 − j0. One moves on a circle since the magnitude of the reﬂection coeﬃcient is a constant. by a distance l along the physical line and from a to b on the Smith chart. as one moves toward the generator. so that the power delivered to the load be maximum.14.43 442 . such that the point b lies on the r = 1 circle.5 With the load given above. one moves on the Smith chart in the clockwise sense by φ on the circle shown.27 EXAMPLE 14.17 this value of the reﬂection coeﬃcient falls on the normalised input impedance Zin which when read out from the Smith chart gives us Zin = 0.8 + j0. The actual. we will have adopt a strategy. Transmission Lines to give the new value of the reﬂection coeﬃcient Γ(−l) = ΓL e−j2βl = ΓL e−j (4π/λ) l = ΓL e−j4πlλ the length of the line in wavelengths is lλ = 20/0.14 we move along the line towards the generator. unnormalised impedance is Zin = 50 · Zin = 38 + j13.66 rad which is 46 complete revolutions and followed by 238◦ = 180◦ + 58◦ in the clockwise sense.85714 = 23. How do we go about doing this? To match the load. Referring to Figure 14. Having decided the angle.33 λ in terms of phase this is φ = 4πlλ = 2π · 46.
Zin = 1. φ turns out to be (from the Smith chart) φ = 39◦ Corresponding to φ the distance lλ turns out to be lλ = 0.00 f0= 350.2 a 0.14.43 so that beyond that point.5 Zin = 1 Zin = 1 − j0.00M Zs = j0.000 2. Transmission Lines GSMC printout source file: Date: Tue Jul 1 11:38:15 2008 +j1.: Smith chart showing how to match a load at this point we cancel out the reactive part of Zin by adding a series reactance Zs = j0.5 +j2.2 0.14.43 ZL = 1.5 1.43 Figure 14.0 +j0.000+j0.0 +j0.0 φ b l z0= 1.0 1.11 λ 443 .
61 λ Three questions arise from the consideration of the above examples. How are we going to conveniently obtain a series reactance? 3. To consider admittances (which for physical reasons is more convenient) we need to consider the Smith chart with admittances as the parameters.43 we equate tan(βl) = 0.43 − tan(βl) = 2. 2. Is it possible to use a shunt reactance? Let us answer these questions one by one. The answer to the ﬁrst question is yes.9769 lλ = 0.4061 lλ = 0. The next question is answered by considering a transmission line terminated in an open or short circuit.5 = 0. Is it always possible to match any load? 2.54 cm The circuit for the example is shown in Figure 14. by the method outlined above. A transmission line terminated in a short circuit has an input impedance given by Zin = jZ0 tan(βl) or Zin = j tan(βl) for example to realise Zs = j0.3256 βl = 1.4061 2πlλ = 0.14. Transmission Lines if we want more line. the required length would be obtained from − cot(βl) = . To this 444 . 1. it is possible to match any load. This is because one revolution of the Smith chart corresponds to exactly half a wavelength lλ = 0.15 for the example being considered.064633 λ l = 5. 1. In the same manner if we use an open circuited line. lλ can be increased by half a wavelength.967 cm 3.43 βl = 0.31463 λ l = 26.11 + 0.
409 in parallel with the line.5 and YL = 0.667.2 − j0.54 cm Z0 = 50 Ω Figure 14.142 λ which brings us to Zin1 = 0.2 − j0.348 and the corresponding Yin1 = 1.75) 1+Γ in this transformation.855 − j0.409.0 + j0.188 λ. We now add a short circuited stub of value Ysp = − j0. We now go down the line by a distance of lλ = 0. then we need a Smith chart which has both the impedance and admittance on the same chart.4 from the chart. For example if we are at the normalised impedance point Z = 1 + j2 then the complex refection coeﬃcient Γ for this point is the straight line joining the origin (which is Z = 1 + j0) to Z = 1 + j2. Let Γ = Γ ∠φ. The start point is the load of 75 Ω which gives ZL = 1. 1−Γ (14.4. The ﬁnal end point is Yin2 = 1.0 + j0.15.4 cm 5. To conﬁrm. we plot −Γ (= Γ ∠(φ + π)) on the chart and we can read out the normalised admittance value of Y = 0. Transmission Lines 9. The length of the stub is 0. Yin = g + jb = 445 . treating r as g and x as b.14. we look at the transformation Zin = letting Yin = 1/Zin 1+Γ 1−Γ If however without going from Γ to −Γ we want to read the admittance directly.: Circuit for the example being considered 75 Ohm end. we can also do the mathematics 1/(1 + j2) = 0. To go over to the admittance Smith chart. We will use this kind of chart to match the load of the example which we have been considering. if we replace Γ by −Γ we obtain the original transformation (the previous equation) and the new chart can be read just like the old one with r → g and x → b.
5 L Y1.200 in2 1.0 +j0.00 f0= 1.500= 0.000 = 1.000 Yin1 = 1. Transformer Matching Suppose we have two lines of characteristic impedances Z01 and Z02 and we would like to match these two lines.0 + j0.2 2.142 λ 50 Ω 75 Ω 0.00M 0.14.0 2.2 0.0 +j0.16.409 j0.5.0 50. How would we go about doing it? Starting from Zin (−l) = Z0 ZL + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZL tan(βl) 446 .0 Y0.000 0.: Matching the line with a parallel stub 14.000+j0.000 z0= 1.500 j1. Transmission Lines GSMC printout source file: Date: Tue Jul 1 15:24:44 2008 +j1.5 +j2.667 0.000 j0.200 j2.188 λ Figure 14.
2 0.8 + j0.000+j0.5 +j2.00 f0= 350.2 ZL = 0.113 λ ZL = 0.8 0.000 2.0 z0= 1.00M 50 Ω 78 Ω 50 Ω 0.25 λ Figure 14.17.14. Transmission Lines GSMC printout source file: Date: Tue Jul 1 11:38:15 2008 +j1.0 1.0 +j0.0 +j0.: Matching with a transformer we want Zin (−l) = Z01 and ZL = Z02 then Z01 = Z0 Z02 + jZ0 tan(βl) Z0 + jZ02 tan(βl) consider a line of length λ/4 which implies that βl = (2π/λ)(λ/4) = π/2 or tan(π/2) → ∞ then Z01 Z02 = Z2 0 447 .8 Zin1 = 2.8 + j0.5 1.44 + j0 0.
Transmission Lines or Z0 = Z01 Z02 (14. since the EM energy must go form the antenna to the TV receiver. How do we go about it? The ﬁrst point which we must decide is which is the generator and which is the load. Now we take a section of quarter wavelength line of characteristic impedance √ Z0 = 50 · 122 = 78 Ω and the load is matched to the 50 Ω line. Thus to match a load. so there must be a match.44 + j0) which lies on the x = 0 line on the Smith chart. so that we may be able to see our TV programs. 50 300 Connection Antenna Receiver Since we always start with the load and the transmission line. we come to the conclusion that the antenna is the generator.6 We would like to look at a practical but simple example of the application of the theory which we have developed here. the transmission line must be matched to the generator.14. so the conﬁguration is now as shown in the ﬁgure below. We now use a transformer. The method of transformer matching has been extended to wide band matching by many researchers. The results are shown on a Smith chart. Next we must model the TV receiver as a load. 448 . So the ﬁnal setup is shown below.76) This formula can be used to match two lines as we are considering or even any given load. for example of ZL = 40 + j40 Ω (which is ZL = 0. EXAMPLE 14. However the line must be connected to a 50 Ω load. as well the antenna as a generator. but the modern solution is to use a 6 : 1 turns ratio transformer which operates into the MHz region.8) we move toward the generator a distance of lλ = 0. Most modern televisions have an input jack marked 50 Ω. If we search for the speciﬁcations of a folded dipole we ﬁnd that it has an input impedance of 300 Ω.8 + j0. We can use a quarter wavelength transformer √ with a characteristic impedance of 123 Ω. what should be the characteristic impedance of the line? As a rule of thumb.113 λ which brings to the point Zin1 = 122 + j0 (Zin1 = 2. Hence the line should be a two wire ribbon line with Z0 = 300 Ω. A folded dipole antenna receives EM energy and must be connected to a television receiver. After a little reﬂection.
5∗) = 0.514 + j0.5) = 229 + j114 Ω Γ(l = −1.377 Moving toward the generator by 1. Transmission Lines r6:1 300 300 Connection Antenna Receiver 50 EXAMPLE 14.5) = 0. The new impedance and reﬂection coeﬃcient are Z(l = −1.321 + j.5∗) = 229 + j164 Ω Γ(l = −1.7 Analyse the transmission line conﬁguration shown below.118 Here we add j50 Ω to the impedance in series.5 m 10ang0 Z0=100 Rg=50 Z2=j50 ZL=40+j40 f=30 MHz From the ﬁgure λ = 3 × 108/3 × 107 = 10 m β = 2π/λ = 0. 2.5 m 1m Z1=j50 1.5 m we arrive at Z(l = −1.628 rad/m = 36◦ /m At the load ΓL = −0.458 + j0.14.244 449 .
742 We know from Γ(l = −5) that Γ(l = −5)2 × 100 = 70.5156 + j4.742 1 − Γ(l = −5)2 × 100 = 29.77 Ω Γ(l = −2.27% is the percentage of power which is reﬂected and Z(l = −2.5) = 125 − j152 Ω Y(l = −2. But. The important point to note is to move between transmission line concepts and lumped concepts as and when required. So the new parameters Y(l = −2. therefore this is also the percentage of the power absorbed by the load.14.025156 + j0.390 − j0. Let us now start at the generator. The new parameters are Z(l = −2.73% is absorbed by the system.00393 At this point we add an admittance of − j0.5) = +0.5∗ is used to indicate the parameter values on the side of the discontinuity on the generator side.00322 − j0. except for the load. Next we move toward the generator by 1 m.21 − j161) V+ (−5) − V−(−5) (10∠0) = 0.00322 + j0. we need to compute V+ (z) = V+ exp − jβz and V− (z) = V− exp jβz along the line.21 − j161) = 8.7422 − j2.4633 = V+ (−5) + V−(−5) 50 + (32.414 in shunt.0161 Finally we move toward the generator by 2.049266 = 50 + (32.5∗) = −0.390 − j0.5∗) = 11.5 m and Z(l = −5) = 32.2 are Γ(l = −2.21 − j161) Z0 V+ (−5) − V−(−5) = 2.390 + j0. all the other elements are reactive.9266 450 . Transmission Lines The star notation l = −1.21 − j161 Ω Γ(l = −5) = 0. But to compute the incident power.5∗) = 0.5) = 0.97 + j59. The voltage across Z(l = −5) and the current through this impedance is V(l = −5) = I(l = −5) = (10∠0)(32.
5∗) − V−(−2.016119 + j0.02 (in shunt) and 0. Therefore only 0. we move toward the load by 2.5∗) The total current is I(−2.5).5 m which corresponds to a length of λ/4 V+ (−2.5) = (−0.00322 + j0.00322 + j0.2317 V− (−5) = 3.5) + V−(−2. Using the current divider theorem I(−2.00393 which is the input impedance at this point.5)}/Z0 While the voltage remains the same beyond the shunt element V(2.14.1 W is delivered to the load.5) and V− (−2.33 W We know that about 30% is absorbed.133 − j3. To continue our calculations.024633 − j0.00322 + j0.5∗) = V+ (−2. References 451 .133 The total voltage is V(−2.695 + j3.00393 = 0.2 + 0.2317 − j5.087422) × (0.5∗) = V+ (−2.5∗) + V−(−2.024633 − j0.00393) − j0.5) = V+ (−2.6289 + j1.5∗) = V− (−5)e jβ(λ/4) = 3.695 I+ (−5) = V+ (−5)/Z0 I− (−5) = −V− (−5)/Z0 Hence the incident power is V+ (−5)2 /Z0 = 0.023086 = {V+ (−2.5∗) = V+ (−5)e−jβ(λ/4) = 1. and proceed toward the load.5∗) + V−(−2.5) − V−(−2.087422 This current gets divided between to admittances of values − j0.6289 V− (−2. 14. In this manner we continue on.5∗) = {V+ (−2. Transmission Lines V+ (−5) = 5.5∗)}/Z0 = −0.5) From these equations we compute V+ (−2.6.
1.1. Thompson. we take a look at the parallel plate waveguide. were ﬁrst proposed by Sir J. and (b) the method applied to tackle them mathematically.1. In the parallel plate waveguide.: The parallel plate waveguide Referring to Figure 15. 15. The inner surface of the lower plate is coincident with the yz plane and is described by x = 0 while the upper surface is described by the the equation x = a. the parallel plate waveguide cannot be really constructed and is. Waveguides Energy transfer in the gigahertz range must necessarily be done through propagation of waves travelling in hollow pipes called waveguides. the two metal plates are assumed to have inﬁnite conductivity. in reality. As a start to our understanding of wave guides. The method of energy transfer by using an open structure consisting of wires is ineﬃcient— the radiation losses are prohibitive. an exercise in the understanding of (a) waveguides in general. J. J. It is clear that due to the inﬁnite extent of the surfaces. and mathematically analysed by Lord Raleigh in the 1890s. These hollow pipes. Lodge. This assumption is not very 452 . Each of the plates is inﬁnite in extent in the y and z directions. the parallel plate waveguide consists of two metal plates whose inner surfaces are placed parallel to each other at a distance of a m apart. they were experimentally veriﬁed by O.15. The Parallel Plate Waveguide x a z o y Figure 15. waveguides.
1) √ where k (= ω µε) is the freespace propagation constant and E and H are phasors. hence the ﬁelds do not depend on the variable y. since if we construct the waveguide from copper plates. We suppose that the wave is based on sinusoidal oscillations with a frequency ω and since the wave is oscillatory there is an implicit exp jωt dependence in the electromagnetic ﬁelds. t. which is very close to inﬁnity. (no dependence on y) and ∂ ∂ Ex = E0x (x)e j(ωt−βz) = − jβE0x (x)e j(ωt−βz) = − jβEx ∂z ∂z which reduces to multiplication of Ex by − jβ. an electromagnetic wave is assumed to be travelling and the direction of the ﬂow of power. Equation 12.2) ∂ 2 Ex ∂z2 =(−jβ)(−jβ)Ex = −k2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex + (k2 − β2)Ex = 0 ∂x2 ∂ 2 Ex − β2 Ex = −k2 Ex ∂x2 (15.3) 453 . λ g being the wavelength in the waveguide. which represents a travelling wave moving in the +z direction with a propagation constant β = 2π/λ g . In the y direction the waveguide is inﬁnite in extent. is assumed to be in the +z direction. Since we are considering a travelling wave we must apply the Helmholtz equation. applied to the electric. The z and time dependence. Therefore E = E0 (x)e j(ωt−βz) H = H0 (x)e j(ωt−βz) Working with the x component of the electric ﬁeld Helmholtz equation ∇2 Ex = −k2 Ex Since ∂/∂y gives zero. in this case. which applies to waves with sinusoidal oscillations.15. σ ⋍ 107 . The previous equation becomes ∇2 Ex = ∂ 2 Ex ∂ 2 Ex + + ∂x2 ∂y2 =0 (15. Waveguides far oﬀ from the truth. H ﬁelds is ∇2 E = −k2 E ∇2 H = −k2 H (15. In the waveguide. of the E and H ﬁelds is e j(ωt−βz) .71. E and magnetic.
2.7) since Hx is normal and Ez is tangential to the two planes and therefore both must be zero on the two planes. .11) mπ −jβz x e a m=1. To simplify the expression we can set kx = k2 − β 2 (15. .4) Note that exp jωt is implicit (understood to be present).. Applying the ﬁrst condition ﬁrst. The tangential electric ﬁeld and the normal magnetic ﬁeld on a perfect conductor are both zero. E y (x.6) must be zero for x = 0 and x = a for all values of z.) 454 .15.5) The x dependence of the other ﬁelds is similar.8) E y02 cos (kx × 0) = 0 (15. Next we apply the boundary conditions of the waveguide. mπ k2 − β 2 = a m=1.. Waveguides The solution to this equation is (if k > β) Ex (x. (15. .2. E y01 sin (kx x) + E y02 cos (kx x) e−jβz =0 x=0 which is E y01 sin (kx × 0) + E y02 cos (kx × 0) e−jβz = 0 E y02 = 0 since cos( k2 − β2x) = 1 for x = 0. .9) (15. Therefore E y = E y01 sin (kx x) e−jβz Applying the second boundary condition at x = a gives sin(kx a) = 0 kx a = mπ kx = therefore E y = E y01 sin In the same manner Hx = Hx01 sin(kx x)e−jβz Ez = Ez01 sin(kx x)e−jβz (15. Working with E y which is tangential to the two planes. . .10) m=1. z) = E y01 sin (kx x) + E y02 cos (kx x) e−jβz (15. The concept of modes now comes into play. For example when m = 1 1 those 1 (when m = 0 for a sin(. (15.) function means that that particular ﬁeld vanishes and in the case of cos(. z) = Ex01 sin( k2 − β2x) + Ex02 cos( k2 − β2 x) e−jβz (15.2.
Waveguides ﬁelds which have a sin(mπx/a) dependence have a single maximum in the x direction. 1.14) Looking at the internal structure of the ﬁelds given above. We deﬁne the ﬁrst set as Transverse Electric (Ez = 0) ﬁelds (for obvious reasons) while the second set are called the Transverse Magnetic (Hz = 0) ﬁelds.13) Working next with the curl of H ∇ × H = jωεE which become jβH y = jωεEx − jβHx − ∂Hz = jωεE y ∂x ∂H y = jωεEz ∂x (15. and ∂/∂z reduces to multiplication by − jβ these equations become jβE y = − jωµHx − jβEx − ∂Ez = − jωµH y ∂x ∂E y = − jωµHz ∂x (15. If one set is present the other set need not be present. Working ﬁrst with the curl of the electric ﬁeld ∇ × E = − jωµH which is ∂Ez ∂E y − = − jωµHx ∂y ∂z ∂Ex ∂Ez − = − jωµH y ∂z ∂x ∂E y ∂Ex − = − jωµHz ∂x ∂y (15. and they vanish at the end points. This general manner of division is useful in analysis of other waveguide structures as well. Maxwell’s equations have to be taken into account.12) Since ∂/∂y gives zero. Let us start with E y = A sin the ﬁeld reduces to a constant) mπ x e−jβz a (15. H y and Ex form another set. then the ﬁeld will have one maximum and one minimum.15) 455 .15. TE modes. E y . Hz and Hx form one set of ﬁelds while Ez . To proceed further. and so on. While in a similar case when m = 2.
2.16) x 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 a a 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 Ey Hz 0 11111111111111 00000000000000 z 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 (a) y 0 0000000000000 1111111111111 1111111111111 y 0000000000000 z 1111111111111 0000000000000 (b) Figure 15. Waveguides then Hx = −A β mπ −jβz sin x e ωµ a mπ −jβz mπ cos x e Hz = −A jωµa a x (15.17) β mπ −jβz cos x e ωε a mπ mπ sin x e−jβz Ez = A jωεa a (15. as it should be. These two ﬁelds are plotted in Figure 15.15. since the tangential electric ﬁeld must be zero at the walls of the metallic conductor.18) Observing the ﬁelds of the ﬁrst TE mode (m = 1) we ﬁnd that E y is proportional to sin(πx/a) and Hz is proportional to cos(πx/a). (a) E y (b) Hz 2.: Fields for the parallel plate waveguide.2. On the other hand Hz is zero at x = a/2 and has maximum and minimum values at the two walls. 456 . TM modes Here we start with H y = A cos then Ex = A mπ x e−jβz a (15. Due to the presence of Hz there is a y directed surface currents on the two walls at x = 0 and x = a. E y is zero at x = 0 and x = a. These currents change direction every half a wavelength.
Furthermore mπ 2 β= k2 − =k (15.19) What happens when (k = 2π/λ = ω/c) becomes less than mπ/a? We ﬁnd that then β becomes imaginary. Maxwell’s equations are indeed satisﬁed. and the wave is cut oﬀ.22) where λc is the free space wavelength corresponding to the cut oﬀ frequency ωc .21) mπ a 2π mπ = λc a 2a λc = m (15. At that frequency β = 0 β= kc = k2 − c mπ a 2 =0 (15. However when we put m = 0 in the TM modes we ﬁnd that H y = Ae−jβz (15. As the frequency increases.23) and Ex = A β −jβz e ωε (15. TEM mode. the value of k = ω/c is zero. there comes one frequency. that particular mode is evanescent. Such a mode is called an evanescent mode and is said to be cut oﬀ. β = − jα and e−jβz = e−j(−jα)z = e−αz (15. Waveguides Going over to the examination of the modes β is given by the formula β= k2 − mπ a 2 (15. When the frequency is lower than the cut oﬀ frequency.15. 3. What is the cut oﬀ condition? Starting with zero frequency. That is when β passes from being imaginary to being real.25) a m=0 the propagation constant will coincide with the free space propagation con 457 . ωc when the wave just begins to propagate.20) and the wave decays. (both Ez = 0 and Hz = 0) Is there a possibility of m = 0? If we examine the TE modes we ﬁnd that there is no travelling wave which satisﬁes Maxwell’s equations.24) The other ﬁelds being zero.
2 on page 418) Here there are two parallel conductors with conductor radius=a and the spacing between centres=b. Two conductor lines (see Figure 14.2.26) 15. So H y = Ae−jkz k Ex = A e−jkz ωε √ ω µε −jkz e =A ωε µ −jkz e =A ε = AZe−jkz Z = Z0 = 120π = 377 Ω for free space.27) 2.2 on page 418) In this waveguide there are two concentric conductors. Coaxial lines (see Figure 14. Then the parameters L and C are (approximately) L ⋍ µa/w C ⋍ εw/a 4. L = (µ/2π) ln(b/a) C = (2πε)/ ln(b/a) (15. with the inner conductor having a radius=a and the inner surface of the outer conductor having a radius=b. The most important of these are 1. the parallel plate wave guide also supports the TEM mode. These waveguides have equivalent transmission line equivalent circuits. Microstrip Line (See Figure 14. (15. Then the transmission line parameters for the two wire line are L = (µ/π) cosh−1 (b/2a) C = (πε)/ cosh−1 (b/2a) (15.3) Here there are two plates placed a m apart and each of width w. TEM mode Waveguides As we saw in the previous section that apart from supporting higher order modes.28) 3. TEM modes exist on two conductor lines and may be analysed as transmission lines for frequencies starting from dc to the start of the ﬁrst higher order mode. Parallel plate transmission line (See Figure 15.4 on page 425) The Microstrip line has a characteristic impedance given by (15.15. Waveguides stant.29) 458 .
The inner surface of the waveguide is made of some high conductivity material like copper or gold and is rectangular in crosssection.444) h h er +1 −1 h −1/2 + er2 1 + 12 w 2 Table 15.: Characteristic impedance of a Microstrip line Zm is the characteristic impedance of the Microstrip line εr is the dielectric constant of substrate. w is the width of the strip.4. A three dimensional view of the waveguide is shown in Figure 15.15. The Rectangular Waveguide The rectangular waveguide is a hollow pipe of rectangular crosssection.393+ 3 ln( w +1.3.30) 459 . h is the thickness (’height’) of substrate and 15. Waveguides w a Figure 15. We will take a look at the scalar Helmholtz equation ∇2 ψ + k2 ψ = 0 (15.25 w h Zm = √ εe f f = −1 h + er 2 1 + 12 w + . To analyse the waveguide mathematically we need to make a slight detour on the analysis of the Helmholtz’s equation.04 1 − w h 120π 2 εe f f × w +1.1.: The parallel plate transmission line w/h < 1 Zm = √60 ε εe f f = er +1 2 ef f w/h ≥ 1 −1/2 2 h ln 8 w + 0.3. The wave is assumed to be travelling in the z direction with a time dependence of the form exp( jωt) and a z dependence of the type exp(− jβz) where β (= 2π/λ g ) is the propagation constant. capable of conveying travelling waves. The dimensions of the rectangle are a in the xdirection and b in the ydirection as shown with a > b.
. Ex .32) ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z Or ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz + 2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz + 2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz +k2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz = 0 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (15. Y is a function of y and both are multiplied together to give the ﬁelds in the crosssection of the waveguide2 .15.35) 2 This method is called ’the technique of separation of variables’ 460 .33) Or Y(y)e−jβz ∂2 Y(y) ∂2 X(x) +X(x)e−jβz +(− jβ)(− jβ)X(x)Y(y)e−jβz +k2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz = 0 ∂x2 ∂y2 (15.: 3 dimensional view of a rectangular waveguide √ k = ω µε. . E y . ψ may be replaced by any of the ﬁeld components. On substituting this functional dependence of ψ into the Helmholtz equation ∇2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz + k2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz = 0 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz + k2 X(x)Y(y)e−jβz = 0 (15. Waveguides y x a b z Figure 15.34) dividing throughout by X(x)Y(y) exp(− jβz) and simplifying 1 ∂2 Y(y) 1 ∂2 X(x) + + (k2 − β2 ) = 0 X(x) ∂x2 Y(y) ∂y2 (15.31) that is X is a function of x alone.4. or Hz . Since the coordinates of the guide are regular we assume that ψ is of the form ψ = X(x)Y(y)e−jβz (15.
42) kx and k y will be assume deﬁnite values on applying the conditions at the boundaries of the waveguide.39) (15. f1 (x0 ) + f2 (y0 ) + (k2 − β2) = 0 (15. ω is the frequency of oscillation of the ﬁelds in radians/sec.38) Now let x increase to x0 + ∆x then y must change to keep the equation satisﬁed.37) Suppose for the moment that for some value of the pair (x. y) = (x0 .36) (15. and β (= 2π/λ g ) is the propagation constant. unless each of the two functions is equal to a constant: f1 (x) = −k2 (a constant) x f2 (y) = −k2 (another constant) y therefore k2 = β 2 + k2 + k2 x y (15. y0 ) the equation is satisﬁed.40) and going back to the earlier equations 1 ∂2 X(x) = −k2 x X(x) ∂x2 1 ∂2 Y(y) = −k2 y Y(y) ∂y2 (15.15. Let us now consider Maxwell’s equations and the electromagnetic ﬁelds whose time dependence is exp jωt and the z dependence is exp − jβz (which is the condition of a wave travelling in the z direction). The curl of E is ∇ × E = − jωµH 461 .41) The solutions to these equations is (as in the case of the parallel plate waveguide) are X(x) = X01 cos(kx x) + X02 sin(kx x) Y(y) = Y01 cos(k y y) + Y02 sin(k y y) (15. Waveguides Now substituting 1 ∂2 X(x) X(x) ∂x2 1 ∂2 Y(y) f2 (y) = Y(y) ∂y2 f1 (x) = we get f1 (x) + f2(y) + (k2 − β2) = 0 (15. and this will be clear a little later in the discussion.
Waveguides which becomes on replacing ∂/∂z by − jβ ∂Ez + jβE y = − jωµHx ∂y ∂Ez = − jωµH y − jβEx − ∂x ∂E y ∂Ex − = − jωµHz ∂x ∂y Similarly.45) √ where k = ω µε (= 2π/λ0 ). We work with the Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes ﬁrst (Hz = 0).46) page 459 462 . 1. Hx and H y are written in terms of the derivatives of Ez and Hz (this is left as an exercise for the reader to do) jωµ ∂Hz jβ ∂Ez − (k2 − β2) ∂x (k2 − β2 ) ∂y jωε ∂Ez jβ ∂Hz + 2 Hx = − 2 2 ) ∂x (k − β (k − β2 ) ∂y jωµ ∂Hz jβ ∂Ez + 2 Ey = − 2 2 ) ∂y (k − β (k − β2 ) ∂x jβ jωε ∂Ez ∂Hz − 2 Hy = − 2 2 ) ∂y (k − β (k − β2 ) ∂x Ex = − (15. From these equations it is clear that both Ez and Hz cannot both be zero. the curl of H is ∇ × H = jωεE ∂Hz + jβH y = jωεEx ∂y ∂Hz − jβHx − = jωεE y ∂x ∂H y ∂Hx − = jωεEz ∂x ∂y (15.44) We manipulate these equations in such a manner that Ex . E y .15. Starting from Ez we let Ez = XEz (x)YEz (y)e−jβz where XEz (x) = A cos(kx x) + B sin(kx x) YEz (y) = C cos(k y y) + D sin(k y y) 3 See (15.43) (15. Transverse Magnetic (TM) Modes (Hz = 0) Again we use the separation of variables technique3 .
B. Setting Ez = 0 at x = 0 for all values of y and z {A cos(kx x) + B sin(kx x)}x=0 = 0 and for x = a we must have B sin(kx x)x=a = 0 or kx = mπ/a Hence Ez is Ez = BD sin(kx x) sin(k y y)e−jβz mπ nπ = Ez0 sin x sin y e−jβz a b which implies that A = 0 (15. Waveguides where A.48) n=1. Applying the boundary condition (tangential E. Similarly all the other ﬁeld components have a similar functional dependence.47) We now proceed to apply the boundary condition at x = 0 and x = a in a similar manner. . Ez = 0) on guide wall at y = 0 for all values of x and z is (as in the case of the parallel plate waveguide) C cos(k y y) + D sin(k y y) y=0 = 0 C cos(0) = 0 therefore C = 0 Similarly at y = b we set Ez = 0 D sin(k y y) y=b = 0 D sin(k y b) = 0 or k y = nπ/b therefore Ez = {A cos(kx x) + B sin(kx x)} D sin(k y y)e−jβz where k y = nπ/b (15.15. and D are constants. (15. ..2. .49) m=0. (15. .1.2.50) (15. C.51) 463 .
. 2. .57) 464 . jωµ jωµ ∂Hz ′ XHz (x)YHz (y)e−jβz =− 2 (k2 − β2 ) ∂y (k − β2 ) jβ ∂Hz jβ X′ (x)YHz (y)e−jβz Hx = − 2 =− 2 2 ) ∂x (k − β (k − β2 ) Hz jωµ jωµ ∂Hz X′ (x)YHz (y)e−jβz = 2 Ey = 2 2 ) ∂x (k − β (k − β2 ) Hz jβ ∂Hz jβ ′ Hy = − 2 =− 2 XHz (x)YHz (y)e−jβz 2 ) ∂y (k − β (k − β2 ) Ex = − Where ′ XHz = (15.56) dXHz = kx −A′ sin(kx x) + B′ cos(kx x) dx dYHz ′ = k y −C′ sin(k y y) + D′ cos(k y y) YHz = dy (15.55) (15.52) (15. . For the rectangular waveguide there is no TM01 or TM10 mode 2. . we obtain the other ﬁeld components from Equation set 15. 2 2 + where k = β + a b n = 1.45 jβ mπ nπ mπ cos x sin y e−jβz a (k2 − β2) a b jωε mπ nπ nπ sin x cos y e−jβz Hx = Ez0 2 − β2 ) b (k a b jβ nπ nπ mπ x cos y e−jβz E y = −Ez0 sin 2 − β2 ) b (k a b jωε mπ mπ nπ H y = −Ez0 cos x sin y e−jβz 2 − β2 ) a (k a b mπ 2 nπ 2 m = 1.54) where A′ . . Waveguides plugging in this value of Ez into Equation set 15. B′ .15. and D′ are constants. . Since the boundary condition of Hz yields no particular results.45. Transverse Electric (TE) Modes (Ez = 0) Here we start with Hz Hz = XHz (x)YHz (y)e−jβz where XHz (x) = A′ cos(kx x) + B′ sin(kx x) YHz (y) = C′ cos(k y y) + D′ sin(k y y) (15. Ex = −Ez0 (15.53) In these formulae neither m nor n is zero since then Ez is zero and all the ﬁelds become zero. 2. C′ .
62) These ﬁelds and equations do appear complex! The propagation constant in the waveguide is − nπ b 2 (15.. . When we apply the boundary conditions on the other magnetic ﬁeld components (the normal components of the magnetic ﬁeld are zero on the walls of the waveguide) we do not go any further since H y ∝ Ex and Hx ∝ E y . . . .60) (15. b The complete ﬁelds are jωµ mπ nπ nπ cos x sin y e−jβz 2 − β2 ) b (k a b jβ mπ nπ mπ sin x cos y e−jβz Hx = Hz0 a (k2 − β2 ) a b jωµ nπ mπ mπ x cos y e−jβz E y = −Hz0 sin a (k2 − β2) a b jβ nπ nπ mπ x sin y e−jβz H y = Hz0 cos 2 − β2 ) b (k a b m = 0. . 2. . Since the mode starts propagating when β = 0. 2 2 mπ nπ 2 2 where k = β + + n = 0. . 2 .. Similarly applying the boundary condition on E y at x = 0 and x = b we ﬁnd that B′ = 0 and kx = mπ/b m = 0. 1. . . 1. nth TE or TM mode and c 465 .61) (15. n 0 Ex = Hz0 β= k2 − mπ a 2 (15. . 1. . . 1. a b but both m. Therefore Hz = A′ C′ cos(kx x) cos(k y y) = Hz0 cos(kx x) cos(k y y) mπ m = 0. Waveguides Applying the boundary condition on Ex at y = 0 and y = b we ﬁnd that D′ = 0 and k y = nπ/b n = 0.65) where ωcmn is the cutoﬀ radian frequency for the m. .59) (15. 2 .63) Each mode propagates with a certain cutoﬀ frequency. . . therefore kcmn = √ ωcmn µε = ωcmn = c ωcmn = c mπ a mπ a mπ a mπ a 2 + 2 nπ b nπ b nπ b nπ b 2 (15. 1. kx = a nπ ky = n = 0. 2. 2. 2. . 1.58) (15.64) 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 + (15.15.
The ﬁelds of the TE10 mode are Hz = Hz0 cos Ex = 0 Hx = Hz0 jβ π π sin x e−jβz 2 − β2 ) a (k a jωµ π π sin x e−jβz E y = −Hz0 2 − β2 ) a (k a π x e−jβz a (15.67) Degenerate modes are those TE and TM modes which have the same cutoﬀ frequency but have diﬀerent values of m and n. is the TE01 mode.66) Hy = 0 (15.01 = 94. Waveguides is the velocity of light in the medium ﬁlling the waveguide. 466 .15. n=1) for the a = 2b waveguides are degenerate. for this waveguide. The dominant mode (that is the ﬁrst mode with the lowest cutoﬀ frequency) is the TE10 mode. n=1 π = 3 × 108 .25 Grad/s fc10 = 15 GHz 8 For the next higher order mode. For example the TE20 (m=2. n=0 π = 3 × 10 . mπ 2 nπ 2 + ωc10 = c a b m=1. n=0) mode and the TE01 (m=0.5 Grad/s fc01 = 30 GHz In general for the TE10 mode ωc10 = c π a π a 2π fc10 = fc01 λc01 or λc01 = 2a the cutoﬀ wavelength is 2a. Its cutoﬀ frequency is mπ 2 nπ 2 + ωc01 = c a b m=0.005 = 188. For example for a waveguide with a = 2b = 1 cm.
namely the method of separation of variables. Waveguides 15. ψ is written as the multiplication of three functions ψ(ρ. The wave equation in cylindrical coordinates applied to a scalar ψ is ∂2 ψ 1 ∂2 ψ ∂2 ψ 1 ∂ψ + + + = −k2 ψ ∂ρ2 ρ2 ∂φ2 ∂z2 ρ ∂ρ (15.70) (15.: The circular waveguide The circular waveguide is a hollow pipe of circular crosssection made of some high conductivity material like copper.5.71) 467 . We use the same technique as earlier.15.4. φ. To analyse such a waveguide we would have to write the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates.69) (15. z) = R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz Substituting this function in the previous equation ∂2 ψ 1 ∂2 ψ ∂2 ψ 1 ∂ψ + + + = −k2 ψ ∂ρ2 ρ2 ∂φ2 ∂z2 ρ ∂ρ 1 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz + 2 2 R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz + 2 R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz ∂ρ2 ρ ∂φ ∂z 1 ∂ + R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz = −k2 R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz ρ ∂ρ which becomes F(φ)e−jβz ∂2 R(ρ) R(ρ)e−jβz ∂2 F(φ) + + (− jβ)(− jβ)R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz ∂ρ2 ρ2 ∂φ2 + F(φ)e−jβz ∂R(ρ) = −k2 R(ρ)F(φ)e−jβz ρ ∂ρ (15. The Circular Waveguide a x z y Figure 15.68) √ where k = ω µε.
4π to 6π. . as they were from 0 to 2π. Waveguides dividing throughout by R(ρ)F(φ) exp(− jβz) 1 ∂R(ρ) 1 ∂2 F(φ) 1 ∂2 R(ρ) + + k2 − β 2 = 0 + 2 R(ρ) ∂ρ2 ρR(ρ) ∂ρ ρ F(φ) ∂φ2 multiplying this equation throughout by ρ2 ρ ∂R(ρ) ρ2 ∂2 R(ρ) + + ρ2 k2 − β2 2 R(ρ) ∂ρ R(ρ) ∂ρ A function of ρ + 1 ∂2 F(φ) =0 F(φ) ∂φ2 A function of φ hence since the two parts are functions of diﬀerent variables therefore 1 ∂2 F(φ) = −n2 F(φ) ∂φ2 ρ ∂R(ρ) ρ2 ∂2 R(ρ) + + ρ2 k2 − β2 = n2 R(ρ) ∂ρ2 R(ρ) ∂ρ the ﬁrst of these equations integrates to F(φ) = A cos(nφ) + B sin(nφ) (15.73) (15.75) 468 . are ∂2 R(ζρ) n 1 ∂R(ζρ) + R(ζρ) 1 − + 2 (ζρ) ∂(ζρ) (ζρ) ∂(ζρ) =0 (15.Bowman (1968) Bessel functions. as we increase nφ from 0 to 2π the ﬁelds must repeat themselves: they must be identical from 2π to 4π. .72) where n = 0. .15. The second equation becomes ∂2 R(ρ) 1 ∂R(ρ) n + + R(ρ) k2 − β2 = R(ρ) ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ρ2 if we let ζ = k2 − β2 then ∂2 R(ρ) 1 ∂R(ρ) n + + R(ρ)ζ2 = R(ρ) 2 ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ρ or or or ∂2 R(ρ) 1 ∂R(ρ) n + + R(ρ) = R(ρ) 2 ∂ρ2 ζρ ζ∂ρ ζρ ζ 2 2 (15... 1 ..74) 2 ∂2 R(ζρ) 1 ∂R(ζρ) n + + R(ζρ) = R(ζρ) 2 (ζρ) ∂(ζρ) ζρ ∂(ζρ) 2 2 This equation is the Bessel equation. n must be an integer since for any ﬁxed value of ρ. Zn .
each ﬁeld component has the functional form Eρ . .76) This equation. The notation for these functions is Jn (x) (the Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n). θ may be set to be zero. Keeping in mind the discussion given above. Bessel functions of the second kind are inﬁnite at the origin.6 for the ﬁrst few orders. namely. Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind are depicted in Figure 15. Bessel functions of the ﬁrst and second kind.77) (15. being a second order equation has two solutions. so will be of no use to us (None of the ﬁeld components are inﬁnite anywhere within the guide). Waveguides 1 0.6 0 2 4 6 x Figure 15. The very ﬁrst Bessel function is 1 at the origin while it oscillates and decays slowly when the value of x is increased. Eφ .8 0.4 −0. The other ﬁeld components in terms of Ez 469 . All the other higher order Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind are zero at the origin while showing similar behaviour as we move away from the origin.2 0 −0.2 −0.6 0.15. By orienting the x and y axes correctly.78) where A and θ are constants.6.4 Jn (x) J1 (x) J2 (x) J3 (x) J0 (x) 0. Hz = A cos(nφ + θ)Jn(ζρ)e−jβz (15. .: The ﬁrst few Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind 8 10 12 14 deﬁned by 2n Zn x dZn Zn+1 − Zn−1 = −2 dx Zn+1 + Zn−1 = and the diﬀerential equation which deﬁnes Bessel functions is x2 dy d2 y + x + (x2 − n2 )y = 0 2 dx dx (15. ζ = k2 − β2.
82) modes.52) and TM12 (ζ01 a = 7. starting from the lowest to the highest modes. otherwise we have an evanescent (or cutoﬀ) mode.405/a 01 β01 = k2 − (2.41).85). Ez = Ez0 cos(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz (15.81) n=0 n=1 These waves are the TM01 (ζ01 a = 2.83) When k > 2. The boundary condition on Ez is Ez ρ=a = Ez0 cos(nφ)Jn (ζa)e−jβz = 0 which means that Jn (ζa) = 0 (See Figure 15.52 ζ12 a = 7. 470 . Taking a particular example that of the TM01 mode.79) from which we derive the other ﬁeld components. Transverse Magnetic modes (TM) (Hz = 0) In the transverse magnetic modes we start with Ez .405/a)2 (15. Waveguides and Hz are jωε ∂Ez jβ ∂Hz − ζ2 ρ ∂φ ζ2 ∂ρ jβ ∂Ez jωµ ∂Hz + 2 Eφ = − 2 ζ ρ ∂φ ζ ∂ρ jβ ∂Hz jωε ∂Ez − 2 Hφ = − 2 ζ ∂ρ ζ ρ ∂φ jβ ∂Ez jωµ ∂Hz − 2 Eρ = − 2 ζ ∂ρ ζ ρ ∂φ Hρ = 1.02) (15. TM11 (ζ11 a = 3.405/a we have a propagating mode.15. since ζ01 a = 2.80) (15.405 ζ01 = k2 − β2 = 2.85 Second zero ζ02 a = 5.02 (15.6 paying attention to the zeros of J0 (x) and J1 (x) ) First zero ζ01 a = 2. TM02 (ζ01 a = 5.405 ζ11 a = 3.
84) ′ Here Jn (·) is the Bessel function diﬀerentiated with respect to its argument. 471 .84 11 Second max or min ζ′ a = 7.87) (See Figure 15.33 12 n=0 n=1 These waves are the TE11 .85) and the other ﬁeld components are jβ ′ cos(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz ζ jωµ ′ Eφ = Hz0 cos(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz ζ jβn Hφ = Hz0 2 sin(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz ζ ρ jωµn Eρ = Hz0 2 sin(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz ζ ρ Hρ = −Hz0 Applying the boundary condition on Eφ Eφ ρ=a = Hz0 Then jωµ ′ cos(nφ)Jn (ζa)e−jβz = 0 ζ ′ Jn (ζa) = 0 (15.02 02 ζ′ a = 5.83 01 ζ′ a = 1. Comparing the TE and TM modes.6 paying attention to the maximas and minimas of J0 (x) and J1 (x) ) First max or min ζ′ a = 3.15. Waveguides The other ﬁeld components are jωεn sin(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz ζ2 ρ jβn Eφ = Ez0 2 sin(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz ζ ρ jωε ′ cos(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz Hφ = −Ez0 ζ jβ ′ Eρ = −Ez0 cos(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz ζ Hρ = −Ez0 (15.86) (15. TE01 . 2. Transverse Electric Modes (TE) (Ez = 0) Here Hz = Hz0 cos(nφ)Jn (ζρ)e−jβz (15. TE12 and TE02 modes. we can see that the TE11 (ζ′ a = 1.84) is the 11 dominant mode of the circular waveguide. starting from the lowest to the highest modes.
Radiation from Currents 16. but what about the case when the the wave is produced by currents and charges? In this case we have to proceed along a slightly diﬀerent path because the problem becomes more complex.65 on page 372 ∇•B = 0 Since the divergence of B is always zero. Wave Equation due to Charges and Currents1 The above discussion applies well to the case where the wave is travelling in a region free of currents and charges. B must be equal to the curl of some vector2 B = ∇×A (16. Let us start from Equation 12.. when antennas are considered is always zero.16.2) Now from Equation 12.3) = − jω∇ × A Therefore ∇ × E + jω∇ × A = 0 ∇ × E + jωA = 0 E + jωA = −∇φ E = − jωA − ∇φ (16. Since B = µH H= 1 ∇×A µ (16.64 on page 372 ∇ × E = − jωµH = − jωµ 1 ∇×A µ (16.4) where the term −∇φ is placed on the right for the general case. 3 i. section can be read at a later point in time. ∇ × E = ∇ × −jωA − ∇φ = −jω∇ × A 1 This 2 ∇ • (∇ × A) 472 .1. since the curl of the gradient is always identically zero3.1) A has a special name– it is called the vector potential.e.
for which we need to apply the equation derived in Section 16.66 we can get E. Radiation from Currents Substituting these equations in Equation 12.16.2. we can get H from Equation 16. More will be said about this when we actually apply the previous equation. applying Maxwell’s Equation 12.8 becomes (k2 = ω2 µε) ∂2 A ∂2 A ∂2 A + + 2 − k2 A = −µJ ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z Which is three equations ∂ 2 Ax ∂ 2 Ax ∂ 2 Ax + + − k 2 Ax ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 ∂2 A y ∂x2 + ∂2 A y ∂y2 + ∂2 A y ∂z2 − k2 A y = = = −µJx −µJ y −µJz (16. the essential 4 This equation is called the Lorentz’s gauge condition 473 . Next we consider radiation from sinusoidally varying currents.66 on page 372 ∇ × H = jωεE + J ∇× On simplifying 1 ∇ × A = jωε − jωA − ∇φ + J µ (16. From H. Therefore we use a particularly appropriate form of the divergence of A to simplify the above equation 4 : ∇ • A = − jωεµφ (16.9) ∂ 2 Az ∂ 2 Az ∂ 2 Az + + − k 2 Az ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 We will use the equations derived in this chapter in the forthcoming chapters on propagation and radiation since propagating waves as well as radiating waves are governed by these equations. Once A is obtained.6) So far the curl of A has been deﬁned through Equation 16.1 but not its divergence and a vector ﬁeld is not fully deﬁned if both are not deﬁned. Concentrating now on the previous equation Equation 16.8) Which is the frequency domain wave equation with a source term J.10) (16. In that section.5) ∇ × (∇ × A) = ω2 µεA − jωεµ∇φ + µJ ∇ (∇ • A) − (∇ • ∇) A = ω2 µεA − jωεµ∇φ + µJ As usual we can use ∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇ (∇ • A) − (∇ • ∇) A to get (16.1.7) By cancelling ∇ (∇ • A) with − jωε∇φ we get − (∇ • ∇) A = ω2 µεA + µJ (16.
12) V′ 474 . the ﬁeld point is usually much more than tens of wavelengths away. is µ A= 4π where J(r′ ) is the source current density phasor from which the wave emanates is a function of primed coordinates: the position vector r′ J(r′ )e−jkr−r  ′ dV r − r′  ′ (16. A(r). Usually J ﬂows in the metal of the conductor comprising the antenna. The solution to this equation. the vector potential. is Equation 16.1 shows the region of application of the equation A is the vector potential at the ﬁeld point r. The essential equation. which is the source term.11) z J(r′ ) Field Point r−r dV ′ ′ r r′ y x Figure 16. shown shaded in the ﬁgure.16. and which is reproduced here − (∇ • ∇) A = ω2 µεA + µJ = k2 A + µJ (16.: Radiation from a current source Figure 16.8. Radiation from Currents equations involved in the computation of ﬁelds when the source consists of a sinusoidally varying current density ﬂowing in a conductor are derived. r is usually far away from the source. (The importance of the vector potential A is that B = ∇ × A) J is the current density. If the source is of the order of a few wavelengths. given in terms of the vector potential.1.
Area = A ′ J Figure 16. The current density in the conductor is J assumed to be uniform over the crosssection. we need to convert the equation for the vector potential A to another equation which does not contain the current density but rather one which contains a current: in other words. a small current ﬁlament. consider Figure 16. Let us examine this equation in a little more detail. how do we use the current I instead of the current density J in Equation 16. Radiation from Currents The integration is to be performed over the volume containing the sources which is indicated by dV ′ In this equation V′ is the region where the currents lie. Consider the term JdV Since dV = dSdl.: A current carrying conductor Let us apply this equation to the most simple of all cases. If we convert the integral to a summation (which is the reverse process) then µ A≈ 4π J(r′ )e−jkr−r  ∆V ′ r − r′  ′ Which states that the vector potential A consists of a summation of outgoing spherical waves of the type ′ J(r′ )e−jkr−r  r − r′  This factor is a spherical wave with centre r′ (due to the term) e−jkr−r  the wave is streaming away from the source J(r′ ) located at r′ . where dS is an element of the area of crosssection and dl is a small length along the wire. namely.12? To do this.16. JdV = JdSdl 475 .2 where a small shaded section of a current carrying conductor is shown.2. But before we do this. The wave amplitude diminishes far away from the source and is proportional to 1 r − r′  The total wave comprising the vector potential is a vector sum of all these tiny wavelets.
A.13) EXERCISE 16. Radiation from Currents integrating now over the area of crosssection.1 Find the current density J in a wire of diameter 1 mm carrying a current of 1 A. dl = Jdl) where I is the current in the wire and dl is a small section of the wire in the direction of the current ﬂow.16. In particular.3.: An elemental wire carrying a current Now we are in a position to apply Equation 16. of the wire JdSdl = JAdl = ˆ JA Jdl = Idl ˆ (I = JA. The ﬁgure shows the orientation 476 .2. 16. Equation 16.12 becomes µ A= 4π I(r′ )e−jkr−r  ′ dl r − r′  ′ L′ (16. Radiation from a Current Element z Field Point r θ I∆l y x Figure 16. (The integral over the crosssection is JdS = JA since J is constant over the crosssection). we apply the above equation to an elemental wire of length ∆l carrying a current I as shown in Figure 16.13 to a small wire carrying a current. The element dl may be treated as a very small vector.3.
15) The r being considered in the above equation is the r coordinate of spherical coordinates. Therefore A≈ ≈ = µ Ie−jkr−r  az (∆l) 4π r − r′  µ I (∆l) e−jkr az 4π r µ I (∆l) e−jkr az 4π r ′ So far we have been considering a mixed coordinate system.14) Also in the equation for the vector potential A the integration sign may be removed since the region of integration is small: µ 4π µ 4π I(r′ )e−jkr−r  ′ dl r − r′  az (∆l) ′ A= ≈ L′ ′ Ie−jkr−r  r − r′  Because the wire is very small lengthwise. Radiation from Currents of the wire in the z direction dl′ ≈ ∆laz (16.Therefore r − r′ ≈ r = r (16. In the above equation µ I (∆l) e−jkr A = a z Az ≈ az 4π r Expressing Az in spherical coordinates we directly obtain (See ﬁgure) Ar = Az cos θ ≈ µ I (∆l) e−jkr cos θ 4π r µ I (∆l) e−jkr sin θ 4π r (16.16) Aθ = −Az sin θ ≈ − Aφ = 0 Using the relation B = ∇ × A we can obtain the magnetic ﬂux density B 477 .16. the value of r − r′ ≈ r since r ≫ r′ (r′ ≈ 0).
4.: The relationship between Az . Radiation from Currents Az Ar = Az cos θ θ az aθ Aθ = Az cos(π/2 + θ) = −Az sin θ Figure 16.18) r ∂r ∂θ B= 478 . Aθ and Ar ar π/2 B = ∇×A 1 ∂ sin θAφ ∂Aθ 1 1 ∂Ar ∂ rAφ = − − ar + r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − aφ aθ + r ∂r ∂θ (16. Therefore A A ∂Aθ 1 1 ∂Ar ∂ r φ 1 ∂ sin θ φ − B= ar + sin θ ∂φ − ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r = 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − aφ aθ + r ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂Ar ∂Aθ 1 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar 1 − − ar + aθ + aφ r sin θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ r ∂r ∂θ Next we know that neither of Aθ nor Ar are functions of φ 1 1 ∂Ar 1 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar ∂A θ − − ar + aφ aθ + r sin θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ r ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − = aφ (16.17) The above equation is the equation of the curl in spherical coordinates.16. We can proceed to simplify it because we know that Aφ = 0.
19) therefore the magnetic ﬂux density B at a ﬁeld point (r.20) We know the relation between B and H: B = µH so H is H= Using Maxwell’s equation ∇ × H = jωεE 1 1 ∂Hr ∂ rHφ ∂Hθ 1 ∂ sin θHφ − − jωεE = ar + r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r + 1 ∂ (rHθ ) ∂Hr − aφ r ∂r ∂θ aθ sin θ [I (∆l)] jk 1 −jkr + e aφ 4π r r2 (16. θ.21) Where the right hand side is the curl of H in spherical coordinates. Radiation from Currents Therefore the ﬁrst term is sin θ ∂ (−rAz ) 1 ∂ (−rAz sin θ) = r ∂r r ∂r −jkr µ sin θ ∂ −I (∆l) e = 4πr ∂r = jkµ sin θ I (∆l) e−jkr 4πr and the second term is − Az (r) sin θ 1 ∂ (Az (r) cos θ) = r ∂θ r = µ sin θ I (∆l) e−jkr 4π r2 (16.16. φ) due to a current I∆laz located at the origin at r = 0 is B= µ sin θ [I (∆l)] jk 1 −jkr e aφ + 4π r r2 (16. Since 479 .
24) Generally we will be interested in the far ﬁelds.16.23) aθ Considering each term: the ﬁrst term (Term 1) is 1 ∂ sin θHφ r sin θ ∂θ ∂ sin2 θ [I (∆l)] jk 1 −jkr 1 + e ar ar = r sin θ ∂θ 4π r r2 = 1 2 sin θ cos θ [I (∆l)] jk 1 −jkr e ar + r sin θ 4π r r2 cos θ [I (∆l)] jk 1 −jkr + e ar = 2π r2 r3 and the second term (Term 2) is 1 ∂ rHφ − r ∂r ∂ sin θ [I (∆l)] 1 1 − jk + e−jkr aθ = r ∂r 4π r =− sin θ [I (∆l)] ∂ 4πr ∂r jk + 1 −jkr e r =− aθ aθ sin θ [I (∆l)] 2 jk 1 −jkr k − − 2 e aθ 4πr r r 2 jk 1 sin θ [I (∆l)] k =− − 2 − 3 e−jkr aθ 4π r r r Hence E= ∇ × H [I (∆l)] = jωε jωε cos θ jk 1 −jkr sin θ k2 jk 1 −jkr − − + 3 e e ar − aθ 2π r2 r 4π r r2 r3 (16.22) (16. Radiation from Currents Hθ = Hr = 0 & H & H ∂&θ 1 ∂ sin θHφ 1 1 ∂&r ∂ rHφ − jωεE = ar + sin θ ∂φ − ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r & ∂&r H H & 1 ∂ r&θ − aφ r ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂ rHφ 1 ∂ sin θHφ = ar + − r sin θ ∂θ r ∂r + Term 1 Term 2 aθ (16. Neglecting the components which are proportional to 1/r2 and 1/r3 (which become small as r becomes 480 .
Radiation from Currents z ar Hφ θ Eθ y φ Eθ x Hφ ar Figure 16.5.27) The ﬁelds are shown in Figure 16. Some important points are to be noticed in the above equations 481 .16.5.25) and H is H= sin θ [I (∆l)] ( jk/r + 1/r2 )e−jkr aφ 4π neglected ≈ sin θ [I (∆l)] jk −jkr e aφ 4π r (16.26) so the electromagnetic ﬁelds are E H = − k2 sin θ [I (∆l)] / jωε4πr e−jkr aθ = jk sin θ [I (∆l)] /4πr e−jkr aφ (16.: Direction of Eθ and Hφ shown for a spherical wave large) we ﬁnd that cos θ sin θ 2 [I (∆l)] 2 3 −jkr 2 3 −jkr jk/r + 1/r e ar − (k /r − jk/r − 1/r )e aθ E= jωε 2π 4π neglected neglected [I (∆l)] sin θ k2 −jkr ≈ e aθ jωε 4π r (16.
Since we are considering phasors the formula for the Poynting vector is 5 P= substituting the values of E and H jk sin θ [I (∆l)] −jkr 1 k2 sin θ [I (∆l)] −jkr e aθ × e aφ − 2 jωε4πr 4πr ∗ 1 (E × H∗) 2 P= where the star indicates complex conjugation. 5 Note that since we are not considering rms values. and inversely proportional to the square of r. Let us compute the ratio jk sin θ [I (∆l)] −jkr Eθ k2 sin θ [I (∆l)] −jkr = − e e / Hφ jωε4πr 4πr ( jk)( jk)/ jωε k2 /( jk) = jωε jk √ ω µε k = = ωε ωε µ µ0 = (For free space) = ε ε0 = − = Z0 (Characteristic impedence for free space. the factor of 1/2 is present 482 . 2. we do further simpliﬁcation 1 k sin θ P = Z0 I (∆l) ar 2 4πr ∆l sin θ 1 I = Z0 2 2r λ 2 2 (Z0 = k/ωε) ar (W/m2 ) a.16. Radiation from Currents 1. The power streams out in the ar direction. Converting all the j s to − j s in the second bracket P= jk sin θ [I (∆l)] jkr 1 k2 sin θ [I (∆l)] −jkr e aθ × − e aφ − 2 jωε4πr 4πr Next we know that aθ × aφ = ar and on further simpliﬁcation P= 1 k3 sin2 θ [I (∆l)]2 ar 2 ωε(4πr)2 In the next step of the computation. 377 Ω) which is the same result that we got in the case of a plane wave travelling in free space. Let us compute the Poynting vector which denotes the direction of power ﬂow. It is proportional to the squares of I∆l and k.
The power streams out directionally: at θ = 0 and π no power is radiated.5 0 −0. The total power radiated is the ﬂux of the Poynting vector through a sphere of radius r PT = = Since P = U/r2 therefore PT = = U(θ.φ=2π θ=0. Thus an elemental solid angle dΩ = dS/r2 = sin θdθdφ 483 .16. The power radiated per steradian (solid angle) is6 1 ∆l sin θ U(θ. θ. This 3dimensional halfplot of the normalised power density (W/m2 ) as a function θ is shown in Figure 16.5 θ y x 1 1. φ)r2 = Z0 I 2 2 λ 2 3. φ) sin θdθdφ θ=π.φ=0 (Par ) • (ar r2 sin θdθdφ) P • dS 1 ∆l sin θ I Z0 2 2 λ 2 × sin θdθdφ 6A solid angle subtended by some area at the centre of a sphere is the area on the surface of the sphere divided by the square of the radius.5 −1 0 0. while at θ = π/2 maximum power is radiated.6. b.5 0 −0.5 −1 1 0. Radiation from Currents z 1 0. φ) = P(r.6.: Polar plot of the normalised power radiated by an inﬁnitesimal current element.5 2 Figure 16.
Referring to the ﬁgure. which is represents the total power radiated away.: Equivalent circuit of the half wave dipole 7 In actual practise the antenna is modelled as an impedance Z = Rr + jX. which is shown in Figure 16. which is= (total power radiated)/(rms current squared): 2 PT = Irms Rr (16. and the rest. Radiation from Currents Carrying out the integration over φ which is 2π and collecting terms ∆l 1 PT = Z0 I 2 2λ = πZ0 I ∆l 2λ 2 θ=π.16.7 Equivalent circuit of antenna Wave Irms Antenna Rs Irms Source Rs Rr Source Figure 16.29) The radiation resistance of an antenna represents the total power radiated away. the radiation resistance. Rs is the internal resistance of the source and the antenna is modelled as a lossy resistance. Therefore the source and antenna can be modelled as a Thevenin equivalent circuit. Rr .7. is a resistance called the radiation resistance. Rr . 484 .28) 2 Rr = ∆l 2π Z0 3 λ 2 = 80π ∆l λ 2 (16. If we examine the ﬁgure we can see that the source supplies power to the antenna and sees a loss.φ=0 2 θ=π θ=0 sin3 θdθdφ sin3 θdθ The last integration is 4/3. See for example Kraus (1988) Jordan & Balmain (1968) for details.7. Therefore PT = πZ0 I = ∆l 2λ 2 2 θ=π θ=0 2 sin3 θdθ π ∆l Z0 2 λ I √ 2 4 3 √ Here I/ 2 is the rms value of the current.φ=2π θ=0.
Since the wires are limited in extent. The HalfWave Dipole Antenna Dipole z z Current Profile z=L r′ = z′ az Insulator Rs I = I0 sin [k(L − z)] r− r= r ′ ra r Distant Point I(z) z = z′ y r′ = z′ az th Source y x I = I0 sin [k(L + z)] z = −L (a) x (b) Figure 16. (a) closeup details (b) Details with respect to the far ﬁeld The dipole antenna consists of two thin but stiﬀ wires of equal length (= L). the centre conductor of which is connected to one of the wires of the dipole. and which are bent into a shape as shown in Figure 16. However. this is not true for the second function (Function 2).3. is negative. the currents at the ends must be zero. Now at z = L. Generally the feeder is coaxial line. The ends of the two wires are embedded in an insulator which insulates them from each other. that is z < L. I = 0 so sin(kL + θ) = 0.8. or kL + θ = 0. Also the currents are sinusoidally distributed on each of the wires (analogous to the case of transmission lines). Radiation from Currents 16.: The dipole antenna. The most probable current distribution on the upper wire is therefore I = I0 sin(kz + θ) where k is the freespace propagation constant (= 2π/λ). π or θ = −kL. 485 . while the outer conductor is connected to the other.16. I.8. and are fed by a source of microwave frequency. or π − kL So I = I0 sin(kz − kL) or I = I0 sin(kz + π − kL) Function 1 Function 2 Now observing the two functions we know that in the ﬁrst function (Function 1) as z is decreased from its value at the end. then the argument of the sine function k(z − L) becomes negative and the value of the current.
we can proceed to apply Equation 16.31) Once we have obtained the current distribution on the antenna. Radiation from Currents Therefore. which are both quite reasonable: (please refer to Figure 16. The equation then becomes: ′ z′ =L µ I(z′ )e−jkar r−az z  A= az dz′ 4π z′ =−L ar r − az z′  .9.30) By the same reasoning for the lower conductor the current.: Showing the approximation R − R′  ≈ r − z′ cos θ Two approximations are made.9) (1) The term r − r′  is approximated by r − z′ cos θ.8(b). on the upper conductor I = I0 sin(kz + π − kL) = I0 sin [k(L − z)] for 0 ≤ z ≤ L (16.16. I. and r and r′ are shown in Figure 16.13 on page 476 A= µ 4π I(r′ )e−jkr−r  ′ dl r − r′  B ′ L′ z z=L r′ = z′ az z= z′ A C θ os zc r− ′≈ r r − ′ Distant Point D r= ra r th z′ cos θ O y x Dipole z = −L Figure 16. r = ar r and r′ = az z′ . is I = I0 sin [k(L + z)] for − L ≤ z ≤ 0 (16. How? We notice from the 486 In this equation we use the value for the current we just derived earlier.
487 . and r′ = az z′ .32) az µe−jkr = 4πr I(z′ )e jkz ′ cos θ dz′ Now using the value of the current.34) j cos θ sin (k L) − cos(k L) The second integral similarly evaluated is z′ =L z′ =0 az µe−jkr 4πr I0 sin k(L − z′ ) e jkz ′ cos θ dz′ = (16.33) Integrating the ﬁrst integral (by parts) we get z′ =0 z′ =−L az µe−jkr 4πr I0 sin k(L + z′ ) e jkz az µe−jkr I0 4πrk ′ cos θ dz′ = sin2 θ + e−j k cosθ L sin2 θ (16. r = 1000m and θ = π/2 then AB = 1000.0005m and CD = 1000m. let L = 1m.35) az µe−jkr I0 j cos θ sin (k L) + cos(k L) e j k cosθ L + − 4πrk sin2 θ sin2 θ 8 To corroborate this. just calculated az µe−jkr A= 4πr z′ =0 z′ =−L I0 sin k(L + z′ ) e jkz Current for −L≤z′ ≤0 ′ cos θ dz′ az µe−jkr + 4πr z′ =L z′ =0 I0 sin k(L − z′ ) e jkz Current for 0≤z′ ≤L ′ cosθ dz′ (16. With the second approximation A≈ az µ 4π I(z′ )e−jk(r−z r z′ =−L z′ =L z′ =−L z′ =L ′ cosθ) dz′ (16. For the same case for θ = 0 AB = 999m and CD = 999m.8 therefore r − r′ ≈ CD = OD − OC = r − OC = r − z′ cos θ az µ A≈ 4π I(z′ )e−jk(r−z cosθ) ′ dz r − z′ cos θ z′ =−L z′ =L ′ Using this approximation (2) In the second part of the approximation the denominator r − z′ cos θ ≈ r since the integral with or without this approximation gives practically the same result. But the magnitude r − r′  is the distance AB or (approximately) the distance CD since AB ≈ CD. Radiation from Currents ﬁgure that r = ar r (spherical coordinates).16.
(Equation 16. and can be dropped.39) where we have dropped all the terms which are zero9 . to give Ar = µe−jkr I0 cos( π cos θ) cos θ 2 2πrk sin2 θ . Next we examine each of the two terms carefully. All terms in Aφ and 2. Therefore jµe−jkr I0 cos( π cos θ) 1 ∂ (rAθ ) 2 aφ = aφ µH = r ∂r 2πr sin θ je−jkr I0 cos( π cos θ) 2 Hφ = 2πr sin θ 1 ∂ sin θHφ jωεE = r sin θ ∂θ Term 1 (16. All terms which have ∂/∂φ 488 .40) Next we obtain E from the magnetic ﬁeld using Equation 16.16.17 on page 478) µH = ∇ × A = 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − aφ r ∂r ∂θ (16. as before.16 on page 477. we set L = λ/4 or kL = (2π/λ)(λ/4) = π/2 az µe−jkr I0 cos( π cos θ) 2 A= (16. in the spherical coordinate system. The term (1/r)(∂Ar/∂θ) leads to a 1/r2 term.23 on page 480 1 ∂ rHφ ar + − r ∂r Term 2 aθ From inspection.38) and then use the deﬁnition of the curl. (by inspection) which may be dropped (since the ﬁeld is expected to decay as 1/r as in the case of the inﬁnitesimal current element).36) Since we are interested in a halfwave dipole.37) 2πrk sin2 θ We now use the Equation set 16. Term 1 decays as 1/r2 . On the 9 these terms are 1. Aθ = − µe−jkr I0 cos( π cos θ) 2 2πrk sin θ (16. which gives the value of Ar and Aθ in terms of Az . Radiation from Currents Adding these two integrals we get A= = az µe−jkr I0 4πrk sin2 θ az µe−jkr I0 4πrk sin2 θ e−j k cosθ L + e j k cos θ L − 2 cos(kL) {2 cos(kL cos θ) − 2 cos(kL)} (16.
5 −1 0 0. while in the direction θ = π/2 there is maximum radiation.16.: Magnitude of the electric ﬁeld radiated by a halfwave dipole. Radiation from Currents other hand 1 ∂ rHφ jωεE = − r ∂r Eθ = ke−jkr I0 cos( π cos θ) 2 aθ = − aθ 2πr sin θ jZ0 e−jkr I0 cos( π cos θ) 2 2πr sin θ (16. π there is no radiation at all10 . Note that Eθ = Z0 Hφ (16. in the directions of θ = 0.10. To be speciﬁc Eθ is perpendicular to Hφ and both are perpendicular to ar .5 −1 1 0. That is.10. From the computation of these ﬁelds it is clear that (1) The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are proportional to each other. shown as a polar plot. 10 consider the limit of cos( π cos θ)/ sin θ as θ → 0.41) Where Z0 = k/ωε = 120π = 377 Ω for free space. the direction of travel. π 2 489 . and (3) In diﬀerent directions the amplitudes of the ﬁelds are diﬀerent. Only half the plot is shown.5 Dipole 0 −0. These remarks are illustrated in Figure 16.5 x 1 1.5 2 Figure 16. (2) Far away from the source (which is the dipole) the ﬁelds constitute a ’local’ plane wave: that is the electromagnetic ﬁelds are perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to the direction of travel.5 θ y 0 −0.42) z 1 0.
probes are used.ets lindgren. White Paper available on http//www.com The Poynting vector can now be calculated. To accomplish this. they are physically and electrically small as possible so that coupling with the ﬁeld of interest is minimised. by ﬁrst computing the the total power radiated by the dipole. Steve King. Radiation from Currents Did you know? To measure a sinusoidally varying electric ﬁeld. Probes are designed to measure the electromagnetic ﬁeld with minimal of the ﬁeld perturbation. is the total outward ﬂux of the Poynting vector integrated over a sphere of radius r where r ≫ λ 11 PT = Sphere P • dS (16. We are also now in a position to compute the radiation resistance of the antenna. Eﬁeld probes usually use an electrically small dipole coupled with a diode as a sensora a Making Better Electric Field Measurements.44) Thus we ﬁnd that the power streams radially away from the origin. The total power radiated. The Poynting vector at a distant point is 1 P = E × H∗ 2 1 ∗ = (Eθ aθ ) × Hφ aφ 2 1 1 = (Eθ aθ ) × ( E∗ aφ ) 2 Z0 θ ∗ Hφ = 1 (Eθ E∗ )ar θ 2Z0 (since ar = aθ × aφ ) (16.45) 11 r ≫ λ is being considered so that the near ﬁelds are avoided 490 .43) Substituting the value of Eθ P= π 1 Z0 I0 cos( 2 cos θ) 2Z0 2πr sin θ 2 ar = 2 Z0 I0 cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ 2 8π2 r2 ar W/m2 (16. and it is also directional in nature.16. PT .
φ) is the magnitude of Poynting vector. is 2 Rr = PT /Irms ≈ 73 Ω (16. θ.218827 (16.47) So PT = 2 Z0 I0 4π × 1.218827 2 I0 ≈ 60 √ 2 × 1. π and has a single maximum at 491 . φ=2π θ=0. Pn (θ.218827 (Z0 ≈ 120π) √ (Irms = I0 / 2 is the rms current) (16.46) θ=0 4π × cos2 ( π cos θ) 2 sin θ J dθ θ=0 The integration of J can be done by any standard numerical integration software θ=π J= θ=0 cos2 ( π cos θ) 2 sin θ dθ = 1. φ)/Pmax is 8π2 r2 8π2 r2 2 Z0 I0 2 Z0 I0 Pn (θ.12962Irms (W) So the radiation resistance. Radiation from Currents Choosing such a sphere.48) 2 = 73. φ) = cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ 2 2 cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ max = cos( π cosθ) 2 2 sin θ cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ 2 max (16. φ=0 8π2 2 Z0 I0 = = 8π2 2 Z0 I0 × 2π × θ=π cos( π cos θ) 2 r sin θ θ=π 2 cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ ar • ar r2 sin θdθdφ dS 2 sin θdθ (integration over φ) (16. PT = 2 Z0 I0 θ=π. Rr . then the normalised power pattern of the antenna. θ.49) If P(r. we plot the function for the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ π.50) To ﬁnd the maximum of the denominator. The function has zeros at θ = 0.16. φ) = P(r.
When an antenna radiates.6 0. (See Figure 16.5 0. The far ﬁeld electromagnetic ﬁelds.2 0. Basic Antenna Concepts Antennas.3 0. φ) = 2 = max cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ 2 2 =1 θ=π/2 (16. when an antenna is used in the radiating mode.9 Normalised Power Radiated 0. which is equal to one. it does so directionally.11.10 on page 489) That is cos( π cos θ) 2 sin θ So: Pn (θ. in the 492 .4. and the antenna radiates the radiation as eﬃciently as possible.16. or aerials. Typical antennas are shown in Figure 16.12.8 0. from under water.7 0.: Normalised power pattern of a halfwave dipole as a function of θ The function is plotted in Figure 16.51) Normalised Power Radiated by a Half−Wave Dipole 1 0.4 0. In this chapter we will look at the fundamentals of antennas and those concepts which will be useful to a communication engineer.11. Usually antennas operate in air or vacuum (as in the case of antennas used in outer space) but may be also operated in submarine mode. 16. the antenna is excited by a source of electromagnetic waves. That is it radiates more in one direction than another one. Radiation from Currents θ = π/2.1 0 0 π/6 π/3 π/2 θ 2π/3 5π/6 π Figure 16. As in the case of a halfwave dipole. are structures designed to radiate (or receive) electromagnetic radiation in a given direction or directions.
54) 493 . θ. P = E × H is in the direction of ar . then 1 1 K fn (θ. φ) is a real function whose maximum value for all values of θ and φ is unity.53) (16. For example. φ) −jkr e r K fn (θ. The directions of E and H are such that the electric ﬁeld is perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld.: Examples of antennas spherical coordinate system and in phasor notation. fn (θ. And furthermore. Radiation from Currents (a) Dipole (b) Folded dipole (c) Yagi (d) Parabolic dish Figure 16. are invariably of the type K fn (θ. φ) −jkr e H(r. φ) 2 n 2Z0 r (16. the wave decays far away from the source as 1/r. φ) = Z0 r E(r. θ. φ) = where K is a complex constant.16.12. φ) −jkr e Z0 r ∗ = 2 K2 f (θ. the Poynting vector. φ) for an inﬁnitesimal current element is sin θ and in the case of the halfwave dipole it is cos[(π/2) cosθ]/ sin θ Z0 = 377 Ω = 120π. fn (θ. That is P = P(r. φ) −jkr P = EH∗ sin α = e 2 2 r (π/2) K fn (θ. φ)ar (W/m2 ) (16. the intrinsic impedance of free space and k is the freespace propagation constant. and both are perpendicular to ar . As one can see. θ.52) And if α is the angle (which is π/2) from the electric ﬁeld vector to the magnetic ﬁeld vector.
15 shows the same pattern in 3D rectangular coordinates. Some radiation is also in a direction opposite to the main lobes. Radiation from Currents z Direction of propagation ar θ r φ E= x H E y Antenna K fn (θ.14.13. Very often the patterns are shown in the principal planes. Thus the principal planes of the pattern given above are the xy (z = 0) or xz (φ = 0) planes. Figure 16. and having sidelobes or minor lobes pointing in other directions.: The power pattern of an antenna A typical power pattern of an antenna. is given in Figure 16. The ﬁgure shows the main beam of an antenna pointing in the direction of the xaxis.φ) −jkr e .φ) −jkr Z0 r e Figure 16.14. The principal planes are two perpendicular planes which pass through the axis of the main beam. and the electric ﬁeld or power pattern is often given in these planes.: Far ﬁelds of an antenna Main lobe z θ x φ Back lobes y Side lobes Figure 16. r H= K fn (θ. and the ﬁeld or power functions are often given in terms of normalised 494 . and these are called back lobes.16. in a 3D polar form.
57) (16. θ. φ) = r2 P(θ.58) 16. φ) both these functions are of course. We may recover the electric ﬁeld and the power pattern function from E(r. φ) maximum value P(r.59) (V/m) (W/m ) 2 (16.5 3 −3 −2 −1 0 Figure 16. φ) maximum value = K fn (θ. θ.: Power pattern of the same antenna shown in 3D rectangular coordinates functions En (r. θ. φ) The radiation intensity is deﬁned as U(θ. Directivity The directivity of an antenna is deﬁned by the formula D= Maximum power density radiated (W/m2 ) Average power density radiated (W/m2 ) (16. φ) P(r. θ. unitless.55) (16.56) = fn (θ.5 1 1. φ) E(r. Pave .φ) −jkr e r K −jkr re 2 = fn (θ.15. θ. The average power radiated by an antenna. φ0 ). φ) = Emax En (r. φ) (Units= W/str) (16. θ.5 θ 2 2. θ. φ) = Pn (r. Radiation from Currents Main lobe Back lobe 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 0 1 φ Side lobe 2 3 0.60) The maximum power density radiated.5.61) 495 . φ) (16. φ) P(r. θ. φ) = E(r. φ) = Pmax Pn (r.16. θ. is Pave = 4πr2 (=area Total power radiated (W) of the surface of a sphere) (W/m2 ) (16. will be in some speciﬁc direction given by (θ0 . θ.
φ)r2 dΩ (16. φ)dΩ = 4π Pn (θ.64) Pmax Pn (θ.63) = and Pmax Pn (θ.65) 496 . φ)dΩ (16.62) (if we examine the term r2 sin θdθdφ = r2 dΩ "Area" ”Angle”×”Angle” z rdθ dA = r2 sin θdθdφ Solid angle dΩ = sin θdθdφ r r sin θdφ y x Figure 16. φ)r2 dΩ Pmax Pn (θ. θ. The analogy is the circle. φ) r2 sin θdθdφ an element of area (16. An arc rdθ subtends an angle dθ at the centre of a circle. θ. These ideas can be better understood with reference to Figure 16.) Therefore if Ω is the solid angle subtended at the centre of the sphere.16. Radiation from Currents and the total power radiated is an integral of the Poynting vector over the same sphere PT = sphere of radius r P(r. the area r2 sin θdθdφ subtends a solid angle sin θdθdφ at the centre of a sphere. φ)r2 dΩ 1 = 4π 4πr2 therefore the directivity is Pave = D= Pmax 1 4π Pmax Pn (θ. then PT = sphere of radius r P(r.16.: Deﬁnition of a solid angle the area r2 sin θdθdφ subtends a ”solid angle” dΩ = sin θdθdφ at the centre of the sphere. φ)dΩ (16.16. in the same way.
53 = 0. (θ0 . D ≥ 1. that is one where the power spreads equally in all directions.60.16. φ)dΩ (16.53 106 PT = 7. then Pmax = DPisotropiuc (16.159 (W/m2 ) EXAMPLE 16. φ0 ). Beam area = Ω = so D= note that the directivity. it would radiate Pisotropic = The directivity in dB is DdB = 10 log10 (D) so D = 10(DdB /10) = 102. Equation 16. is called the beam area. which radiates 1 MW of power. in the denominator.1 An antenna. has a directivity of 23 dB.3 = 199. If the antenna was an isotropic radiator.66) Of what use is the directivity? If we examine the deﬁnition of the directivity.1λ.96 × 10−4 × 199. Find the power density radiated in the direction of the main beam 10 km from the source. Radiation from Currents the term on the right.2 Find the directivity of an inﬁnitesimal dipole of length 0. 4π Ω Pn (θ. we ﬁnd that the denominator gives us the power density of an ”isotropic” radiator. Pave = Pisotropic = Total output power (W) 4πr2 (W/m2 ) so if Pmax is the power density at a distance r in the direction of the main beam.67) EXAMPLE 16. 497 .96 × 10−4 (W/m2 ) = 2 4πr 4 × π × (104)2 Using this value of directivity PMain beam = DPisotropic = 7.
68) Ω= θ=0. φ=0 Pn (θ. EXAMPLE 16.2 Find the directivity of a half wave dipole. Radiation from Currents The directivity of the inﬁnitesimal dipole is D= Pmax Pav 1 sin θ 2 Z0 2 1 4π 1 sin θ 2 Z0 2 2 sin θ max 3 I I = ∆l λ ∆l λ 2 max 2 sin θdθdφ sin θdθdφ 4π 3 = = 2π(4/3) 2 The directivity is 1. So Pmax = PT 4πr2 = 1 4π where PT is the total power radiated.3 Find the beam area and directivity of an isotropic radiator. (Ans: 1. φ=0 sin θdθdφ θ=π = 2π θ=0 sin θdθ = 4π EXERCISE 16.5 regardless of the length. φ=2π PT 4πr2 (16. An isotropic radiator radiates equally in all directions.16. φ=2π = θ=0. φ) = 1 (Equal power density in all directions) therefore θ=π. φ) sin θdθdφ θ=π.64) 498 . Also the average power radiated is Pave = So therefore D = Pmax /Pave = 1 The beam area may be calculated by considering Pn (θ.
18 illustrates the conﬁguration of two antennas placed a distance r apart directed in such a way that the transmitting antenna points its main beam 12 Though the wave is a spherical wave. Effective Aperture and Friis’ Transmission Formula Direction of maximum radiation Direction of maximum reception z z θ0 Antenna y Antenna θ0 y φ0 x x φ0 Figure 16. is the same direction in which they receive best. it is immersed in electromagnetic radiation coming toward it in the form of a plane wave12 from the direction (θ0 .16. Hence to trap power (watts). This is well illustrated in Figure 16. the direction (θ0 . φ0 ). coming from a great distance. φ0 ). then when used as a receiving antenna it registers maximum radiation from the same direction.6. Ae (m2 ).: Reciprocity property of antennas Antennas are reciprocal elements: the direction in which they radiate best. namely. With this formula we can derive the power received by an antenna when it is transmitted by another.70) for every antenna. it appears to have a plane phase front 499 . φ0 ). the antenna must have what is called an eﬀective aperture. Radiation from Currents 16. Figure 16. The Poynting vector magnitude of the plane wave is P watts/m2 .69) It turns out that the eﬀective aperture and directivity are linked by Ae = λ2 D 4π (m2 ) (16.17.17. When an antenna is used in the receiving mode. Therefore the received power. Thus if an antenna has its main beam in the direction (θ0 . is P r = Ae P (W) (16. Pr .
4 Two halfwave dipoles are placed 1 km apart.71) 4πr2 Let the receiving antenna have an eﬀective area Aer then the power received. after simpliﬁcation becomes Pr = Pt λ 4πr 2 Dt Dr (W) (16.74) This is the Friis’ transmission formula. If the transmitting antenna of directivity Dt broadcasts Pt watts of power.64 The wavelength of the wave in air is 3 × 108 c = 3 (m) = f 100 × 106 500 . Radiation from Currents Pr = Pt Dt Transmitting antenna Pt r Figure 16.73) which. then at the receiving end. and the receiving antenna is oriented to receive maximum radiation.18. Dt = Dr = 1.16. Find the power received by the receiving antenna Both dipoles have directivities of 1. EXAMPLE 16.: Derivation of the Friis’ transmission formula λ 2 4πr Dt Dr Dr Receiving antenna Pr in the direction of the receiving antenna. and the transmitting antenna transmits 1 W of power at 100 MHz. is Pt Pr = (W) (16.72) Dt Aer 4πr2 or substituting the value of Aer Pr == Pt Dr λ2 Dt 4π 4πr2 Aer (16. the Poynting vector magnitude is Pt P(r) = Dt (W/m2 ) (16. Pr .64.
39152 (m2 ) 4π 4π and the Poynting vector at the receiving antenna is P= Pt 1 D = × 1.3051 × 10−7 (W/m2 ) 2 t 4πr 4π × (103)2 Pr = PAer = 1.64 Dr = 3× = 0.11 nW therefore the received power is 501 .16.64 = 1. Radiation from Currents the eﬀective area of the receiving antenna is Aer = λ 1.39152 = 51.3051 × 10−7 × 0.
For the transmitting antenna ◮ Is the shape of the beam properly designed? (Point A on the ﬁgure) ◮ Does the antenna have the required directivity? The distance to the receiving antenna has to be taken into account so that the received power is suﬃcient. (Point B on the ﬁgure) ◮ Does the antenna have the required bandwidth? If the antenna has to be used for high bandwidth applications then this is an important point. The various design criteria which the communication engineer has to take into account are illustrated by Figure 17. On the other hand to receive messages the antenna has to be properly oriented to receive maximum radiation.1. To broadcast messages.1. which have to beamed toward a receiver. xxxx 17. (Point A and B on the ﬁgure) For the receiving antenna ◮ Does the antenna have the required directivity? This point has already been made with respect to the transmitting antenna. (Point C on the ﬁgure) 502 . at some point.2. to deal with using an antenna for the purpose of communication. Introduction Every communication engineer has. an antenna has to convert a current which is the end point in the communication process to electromagnetic waves. (Point C on the ﬁgure) ◮ Is the polarisation correct? The receiving antenna has to match the polarisation of the transmitting antenna. (Point A on the ﬁgure) ◮ Is the sidelobe level as it should be? High sidelobes implies that the power is radiated away in other directions (Point A) ◮ Is the antenna correctly matched to the circuit? An incorrect match implies that the transmitting circuit does not deliver adequate power to the antenna. (Point A on the ﬁgure) ◮ Is the polarisation correct? For example in some applications a circular polarisation may be required in case there are many receiving antennas with diﬀerent polarisations. Chapter Goals 1. Introduction to Antennas 17.17.
: Design criteria of antennas.2. With improper match the power received from the antenna will not be delivered to the circuit (Point D) ◮ Does the antenna have the required bandwidth? If the bandwidth of the received beam is greater than the bandwidth of the receiving antenna then information will be lost. (Point C and D) 503 .17. (Point C) ◮ Is the antenna correctly matched to the circuit? The received power is precious. Introduction to Antennas A Transmitted beam Received radiation C B Circuit Circuit D Figure 17.1.: An equispaced linear array ◮ Is the sidelobe level as it should be? With high sidelobe levels the receiving antenna will receive radiation from other sources which will behave like noise. Radiated far field 1 2 3 Figure 17.
I0 is the current feeding t the antenna and C is some constant. and let E1 be its far ﬁeld electric ﬁeld. Since each radiator is identical.1) where theexp( jωt) term has been omitted. (b) the wave is propagating in the ar direction due to the exp(− jkr) term.2) where ˆ is the unit vector in the direction of E0t . Furthermore.2. what is the far ﬁeld pattern? Let us ﬁrst investigate the problem with only two such radiators.2. and when it is placed at the origin. Since each radiator is identical we may normalise the far ﬁeld without loss of generality and write the far ﬁelds for each radiator as e−jkr (17.1 says that the far ﬁeld for each radiator is (a) independent of θ and φ coordinates of spherical coordinates. From studying equations from the last chapter. Let the ﬁrst radiator be placed at the origin of the x axis as shown in Figure 17.3.17. we can rewrite Equation 17.3) E(r) = ˆI0 t r Now the problem which we have to solve is that when the N radiators are placed in a straight line. it should be clear the both the electric as well as magnetic ﬁelds are proportional to the current feeding the element. is E(r) = E0t e−jkr r (17.4) 1 An element is a radiator 504 . Introduction to Antennas 17. and hence by implication the radiator is isotropic. as shown. Similarly let E2 be the far ﬁeld electric ﬁeld of the second radiator when radiating when at the position vector dax with respect to the ﬁrst. the electric ﬁeld of the far ﬁeld produced by each radiator. Equation 17. and (c) the radiation obeys the inverse square law due to the 1/r term. Linear Antenna Arrays A linear antenna array is modeled as a series of isotropic radiators linearly placed (on the x axis for simplicity) with a interelement1 spacing of d as shown in Figure 17. Then e−jkr r −jkr−ax d e E2 (r) = ˆI2 t r − dax E1 (r) = ˆI1 t ET (r) = E1 (r) + E2(r) = ˆ I1 t e−jkr e−jkr−ax d + I2 r r − dax (17.1 as E(r) = ˆI0 C t e−jkr r (17. the vector E0t is a constant vector oriented in some arbitrary direction but transverse to ar .
Now r − dax = =r r2 − 2rd cosφ + d2 1−2 d d cos φ + r r 2 (17. If the angle between r and r′ is θ. 1 . Treating d/r as a single variable.1 Calculate the error of r − r′  being replaced by r − r′ cos θ where θ is the angle between r and r′ . Introduction to Antennas where ET (r) is the total electric ﬁeld at a distant point. then and r′  = r/100 then √ r − r′ = r2 + r′2 − 2rr′ cos θ (≅ r − r′ cos θ) √ = r 1 + x2 − 2x cosθ x = r′ /r = 0. and is not to be confused with the φ of spherical coordinates. Term A is common to both elements and it is the ﬁeld pattern of an isotropic radiator. for d ≪ r d r − dax ≅ r(1 − cos φ) and r 1 1 d 1 ≅ ≅ (1 + cos φ) r − dax r(1 − (d/r) cosφ) r r 1 ≅ r Using these approximations ET (r) = ˆ I1 t = ˆ I1 t =ˆ t e−jkr−ax d e−jkr + I2 r r − dax (17.01 √ = r 1.6) e−jk(r−d cos φ) e−jkr + I2 r r (17. For now we will drop using the A term.17. the B term is called ’E’ for the electric ﬁeld and it is the factor contributed by the geometry of the array (notice d and cos φ). By convention.0001 − .7) e−jkr I1 + I2e jkd cos φ r A B We notice that there are two terms. EXAMPLE 17.02 cosθ comparing the values for cos θ = −1. 0. while term B is what shapes the pattern. knowing it is there and its importance will be discussed later.5) where the angle φ is the angle from the xaxis. 505 .
7 was obtained using only two elements.8) Hence we can say with a great deal of conﬁdence that r − r′  ≅ r − 2rr′ cos θ. I0 . then by simple logic E = I1 + I2 e jkd cos φ + I3 e j2kd cos φ + · · · + IN e j(N−1)kd cos φ (17. .10. The Array Factor Let us consider Equation 17.99) r(1. . Then In = I0 ∠(n − 1)α = I0 e j(n−1)α n = 1.12) 506 .8 and substitute equal current amplitudes. N (17. 2α.01 Equation 17. .01) r(0. a = 1 and r = exp( jψ).0001) % of error 100 (b − a)/a 0 0 0.4. . (N − 1)α.17. . of a. arN−1 the sum to N terms is 1 − rN (17. ar2 . α. 17. 2 .4. .1. We realise that the above equation is a geometric progression.10) where ψ = kd cos φ + α.11) a 1−r In Equation 17. . So E= = = 1 − e jNψ 1 − eψ (Taking e jNψ/2 out of the bracket) e jψ/2 e jNψ/2 e−jNψ/2 − e jNψ/2 · −jψ/2 jψ/2 e jψ/2 e −e sin(Nψ/2) = sin(ψ/2) e jNψ/2 e−jNψ/2 − e jNψ/2 · e jψ/2 e−jψ/2 − e jψ/2 (since e jNψ/2 = e jψ/2 = 1) (17. ar.9) Then E = I0 e j0α + e jα e jkd cos φ + e j2α e j2kd cos φ + · · · + e j(N−1)α e j(N−1)kd cos φ = I0 1 + e j(kd cosφ+α) + e j2(kd cos φ+α) + · · · + e j(N−1)(kd cos φ+α) = I0 1 + e jψ + e j2ψ + · · · + e j(N−1)ψ (17. but phases which increase in the form of an arithmetical progression: 0. Linear Array with Equal Currents 17. Introduction to Antennas cos θ 1 +1 0 a = r − r′ cos θ r(1.99) r b= √ r2 + r′2 − 2rr′ cos θ r(1. If we consider N elements. For a geometric progression.01) r(0.
5 0.12 507 .5 0.6 0.1 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 17.7 0.6 0.9 0.4 0.: (Top ﬁgure) Plot of sin(Nψ/2)/ sin(ψ/2) for N = 10 (Bottom ﬁgure) Numerator and Denominator of Equation 17.3 0.2 0.3.1 1 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.17. Introduction to Antennas 1 0.2 0.7 0.1 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 1.
13) which means that the maximas are at odd multiples of ±π/N. . ±3 . 1. . . (The lower plot) We can see from the ﬁgure that the numerator  sin(Nψ/2) for N = 10 has 10 maximas. .12) but all placements have to be determined from ψ = kd cos φ + α (17. . . The ﬁrst sidelobe maxima of the ﬁeld pattern occur at ψ ≅ 3π/N. . . the magnitude of the ﬁrst sidelobe with respect to the main beam. as shown by the dashed line in the ﬁgure.15) 508 . . . N N N (17. . ±2 . N N N or it is clear the the zeros are at even multiples of ±π/N. 17. . ± . Similarly. (17.17. But this maximum does not ﬁgure in the ﬁeld pattern. The minimas (zeros) of the numerator occur when Nψ = 0.3. . where the function takes the value 1.4. Our interest in the sidelobes is mainly in the ﬁrst sidelobe adjacent to the principle lobe. . . . ± (2m + 1) . At ψ = 0 the ﬁeld pattern has a magnitude of N. Beam Pointing Angle We are also interested in answering the following points what is the direction of the main beam or principal lobe? the placement of the ﬁrst null and and eﬀectively the beamwidth. ±π. ±(2m + 1) . . . ±4 . except where the denominator also has a zero. 2 π π′ π ψ = 0. . . then the zeros of the numerator are necessarily zeros of the ﬁeld pattern. it is absorbed in the main beam. The other zeros of the numerator are nulls in the ﬁeld pattern. If we consider the zeros of the ﬁeld pattern or nulls. which is a global maximum and constitutes the main beam or principal lobe. 2 2 2 2 π π π ψ = ± .. . . Introduction to Antennas 17. for m = 0. . It should also be clear that the magnitude of the ﬁrst sidelobe can be obtained from this function (Eqn 17. . The maximas are at Nψ π 3π π = ± .14) The ﬁrst maximum of the numerator occurs at ψ = ±π/N. 1. where the function becomes zero in the range −π ≤ ψ ≤ π. the second sidelobe maxima occur at ψ ≅ ±5π/N and so on. Let us further plot the numerator and denominator separately. which occur at ψ = ±2mπ. . 2m . . and the function is periodic with a period of 2π. ±2π.mπ . . Nulls and Sidelobes The function (1/N) sin(Nψ/2)/ sin(ψ/2) is plotted in Figure 17. .3. Near ψ = 0 the numerator is sin(Nψ/2) ≅ Nψ/2 and the denominator is sin(ψ/2) ≅ ψ/2. and 11 minimas.4. for m = 0. . The term 1/N is added to the function to normalise it.2.
the ﬁrst sidelobe in a uniform is about 13.46 509 .2 Find the ﬁrst sidelobe level for N = 4. the sidelobe maximum is at 2ψ = 3π/2. Step 1. Equation 17.46 db down from the principal lobe EXAMPLE 17. Introduction to Antennas The normalsied magnitude of the ﬁrst sidelobe is at Esl ≅ sin(Nψ/2) N sin(ψ/2) ψ=3π/N 1 = N sin(3π/2N) 1 ≅ N(3π/2N) 2 = 3π which is 13. 2 20log(2/3π) = −13. We now look at several aspects of the uniform array. For the ﬁrst sidelobe.12 becomes En (φ) = = sin[N(kd cos φ + α)/2] N sin[(kd cos φ + α)/2] sin[Nkd(cos φ − cosφ0 )/2] N sin[kd(cos φ − cosφ0 )/2] (17. So from Equation 17.46 db down.17. First and foremost what should be the values of the phase progression α to point the beam at a particular direction φ0 ? To do that we know from the ﬁeld pattern E(ψ) that the main beam points to ψ = 0.3536 4 sin(3π/4) where En is the normalised electric ﬁeld pattern.17) α = −kd cos φ0 (17.15. So Eslmax ≅ which is 9.031 dB down.2 (using sin x ≅ x.16) 1 = 0. kd cos φ0 + α = 0 or Hence. The array factor is E= sin(2ψ) 4 sin(ψ/2) Step 2. in the next Eqn) (for large N) For large N. the array factor.
from a linear array is conical. cos φ0 = 1. kd = π.22) Note that the width of the beam in inversely proportional to the length of the antenna. In this pattern.18) Since φ f n is close to φ0 .18.24) 4π = kdN 2λ dN (17.14. For an endﬁre array (where φ0 = 0). . ψ decreases. α = 0 and N = 10.4 shows a three dimensional view of the electric ﬁeld pattern. . From equation 17. Notice that the pattern has circular symmetry since the radiation at an angle. (= dN).23) Figure 17. sin φ0 = 1. .20) The negative sign is taken on the right since when φ increases.. also called the antenna apterture. the ﬁrst null is at ψ = 2π.17.16. Next we consider how the main beam points in diﬀerent directions. φ. 2! cos φ = cos(φ0 ) − sin(φ0 )(φ − φ0) − cos(φ0 )(φ − φ0 )2 /2 + . . ∆φ f n = and the BWFN is 2∆φ f n = 2 2λ dN (17. cos φ0 = 0 ∆φ f n = λ 2π = kdN dN (17. . φ f n = φ0 + ∆φ f n . Or kd(cos φ f n − cos φ0 ) = 2π (17. . From Taylor’s series expansion of f (x) at the point x = a (x − a)2 + .21) and the beamwidth between furst nulls (BWFN) is 2∆φ f n = 2λ dN (17. we can change the 510 .19) cos φ f n = cos(φ0 ) − sin(φ0 )(φ f n − φ0 ) − cos(φ0 )(φ f n − φ0 ) /2 + . If we change the value of α in accordance with Equation 17. f (x) = f (a) + f ′ (a)(x − a) + f ′′(a) 2 or (17. Introduction to Antennas Let us ﬁnd the position of the ﬁrst null. sin φ0 = 0. 2π kd(cos φ f n − cosφ0 ) = − N cos(φ0 )(∆φ f n )2 2π kd − sin(φ0 )∆φ f n − ≅− 2 N (17.. or cos φ f n = cos(φ0 ) − sin(φ0 )∆φ f n − cos(φ0 )(∆φ f n )2 /2 + . substituting in Equation 17. Now for a broadside array (where φ0 = π/2).
05 0. Similarly. d = λ/2 so kd = π. Introduction to Antennas Other sidelobes First sidelobe Main beam 0.22r = −127◦ Step 3. we solve Equation 17. k = 2π/λ. sin(φ0 )∆φ f n + cos(φ0 )(∆φ f n )2 2 ≅ 2π Nkd Step 4.1 0. EXAMPLE 17.17. To obtain the BWFN for this antenna.20. to point the beam at φ = 45◦ angle? What is the BWFN of this antenna? Step 1. cos φ0 = 0. Notice how the beam broadens when pointing in the endﬁre direction (φ0 = 0◦ ). α = 0 means that all the currents are in phase.1 1 0. α = −kd cos φ0 Step 2. what is the progressive phaseshift.. α. where the antenna is oriented vertically.5.. in (b) and (c) the beam is shown pointing at φ = 45◦ and φ = 0◦ .7071. 0 1 Figure 17.4.: 3D view of a broadside pattern. We apply Equation 17.5 Antenna orientation 0. with an interelement spacing of 0.4◦ hence the BWFN is 28. N = 10.5 0 0.3 For 10 istropic radiators. Note the diﬀerence in the scale of the zaxis which has been broadened to show greater particulars of the main beam and sidelobe beam pointing angle. This is shown in Figure 17. The solution to this equation is (for φ0 = π/4. 511 . In the (a) part of the ﬁgure α is set equal to zero (= −kd cos φ0 = −kd cos(π/2)) the beam points at the broadside direction.5 .05 0. and kd = π) ∆φ f n = 0.7071 = −2. So α = −π × 0.5 11 0 0.2512r = 14.16.8◦.5λ.
5. 512 . (a) φ0 = π/2.. α = 0 (b) φ0 = π/4.: Pointing the main beam in diﬀerent directions. α = −0..7071kd (c) φ0 = 0. kd = π.17. α = −kd. For all these plots. N Antenna (a) 8 3 6 2 4 1 2 0 0 2 1 4 2 6 8 10 5 0 5 10 3 10 5 0 5 10 (b) (c) Figure 17. Introduction to Antennas 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 10 5 0 5 10 2 1 3 .
17.25 Obviously N cannot be a fraction.0873) + (. Farﬁeld Pattern We know that as currents oscillate.5. and the BWFN is to be 10◦ .7071)(0.0873)2/2 = 2π πN 2 N= 0.20. they radiate electromagnetic waves. The vector potential A is given by Equation 16. therefore N = 33.6. The required equation is Equation 17. The equation is reproduced here for convenience: A= µ 4π J(r′ )e−jkr−r  ′ dV r − r′  ′ (17.17.0620 N = 32. and which applies to Figure 17.5λ. and the beam should point at φ = 45◦ direction.07071)(0.: Figure to calculate the farﬁeld pattern of current sources EXAMPLE 17.25) V′ 513 .6. Introduction to Antennas z Field Point y x Figure 17.13.4 Design a uniform antenna array with an interelement spacing of 0. (0. How many elements should we use? If the BWFN is to be 10◦ then ∆φ f n = 5◦ .
µ A≅ 4π (17. using Equation set 17.28) since r′ cos χ = r′ • r. c = constant z Jl (z′ ) = 0 elsewhere µe−jkr 4πr µe−jkr 4πr ﬁnd the farﬁeld with respect to this current density. A= = J(x′ . neglecting all terms proportional to 1/r2 and 1/r3 then computing E = H × ar Hφ = Eθ = j k e−j k r sin(θ) sin (kl cos (θ)) r cos(θ) j k e−j k r sin(θ) sin (kl cos (θ)) Z0 r cos(θ) 514 . and r = ax cos θ cos φ + a y cos θ sin φ + az cos θ.26) V′ J(r′ )e−jk(r−r r ′ cos χ) dV ′ (17. y′ . z′ )e jk(x V′ l −l ′ cossin θ cosφ+y′ sin θ sin φ+z′ cos θ) dx′ dy′ dz′ caz e jkz ′ cos θ dz′ =− µe−jkr c sin(kl cos θ) az 2πr k cos θ and using µH = ∇ × A ﬁrst. Introduction to Antennas Using the results of the last section. z′ )e jk(x V′ ′ cos θ cosφ+y′ cos θ sin φ+z′ cosθ) dx′ dy′ dz′ (17. y′ .5 Consider the very simple linear current density ca for − l < z < l.27) and since we are integrating over the primed coordinates A≅ µe−jkr 4πr J(r′ )e jkr V′ ′ cosχ dV ′ which gives a very important result in spherical coordinates: A= µe−jkr 4πr J(x′ . ˆ ˆ EXAMPLE 17.17.6 r − r′ ≅ r − r′ cos χ (r − r′ )−1 ≅ r Using these approximations.
Notice that the pattern resembles the sin x/x function in the farﬁeld.4 0.5 1 1. If we scrutinise the ﬁgure what strikes straight away is that as the length of current element is increased. At every point on the wavefront as shown at A.7.2 0 0. the beam becomes narrower. We can see from the ﬁgure that at t = t0 the wavefront is ABC.2 0. and the directivity of the antenna improves.8. the new wavefront is an envelope of all these little spheres as shown in Figure 17. The new wavefront is A′ B′ C′ . Huygen discussed a new principle whereby if there is a wavefront of light at t = t0 then each point on the wave front acts as a source of a spherical wave which propagates with speed of light.7.: Plot of normalised Eθ versus θ for various values of kl A' A B' B C' C Figure 17.5 3 Figure 17.8 0.6. 0 < θ < π is shown in Figure 17. 17.: Wave propagation based on Huygen’s principle A normalised plot of Eθ vs θ. The surface A′ B′ C′ is slightly diﬀerent from ABC. Aperture antennas are based on the fact that if a travelling electromagnetic wavefront is present on some surface then if those ﬁelds act like a source of 515 . B′ and C′ . Introduction to Antennas 1 0.8.17.4 0 0. Aperture Antennas In his book Traité de la Lumière published in 1690.5 2 2.6 0. B and C small spheres are drawn whose radii are c(t1 − t0 ) and the wavefront advances to A′ . Since each point on the wavefront acts like a source.
then we 3 This is given without proof. then we can deﬁne two surface current densities3 . E f φ = −Z0 H f θ where A is the magnetic vector potential and F is the electric vector potential. If Equation 17. with reference to Figure 17.29) (17.32) (17. E f θ = Z0 H f θ H f θ = − jωFθ . A good example is that of a waveguide antenna.: An aperture with ﬁelds shown waves then what the farﬁeld would like.38) H f φ = − jωFφ . Js = n × Ha ˆ Ms = −n × Ea ˆ (17.33 and 17.9.34. Introduction to Antennas Radiated fields Aperture Figure 17. H f θ = −E f /Z0 or εe−jkr 2πr H f = − jωF F= r M′ e−jkr •ˆ dV ′ s ′ E f θ = − jωAθ . A waveguide antenna consists of a waveguide which is open and in ﬂush with a metal plane.33) (17. since the topic is too advanced for an undergraduate text 516 . The modern theory of diﬀraction and radiation predicts that if the ﬁelds in a plane aperture are Ea and Ha .36 . On the other hand use Equation set 17.9.17.34) E f φ = − jωAφ .31) (17. then from E f we calculate the magnetic ﬁeld from Equations 17.36) (17. The open end of the wavegude radiates into space.35) (17.32 is used. H f φ = E f θ /Z0 (17. We can deﬁne the farﬁeld vector potentials in terms of either of them by µe−jkr 2πr E f = − jωA A= r J′ e−jkr •ˆ dV ′ s ′ (17.37) (17.30) where Js is the surface electric current density and Ms is the surface magnetic current density. Essentially the ﬁelds which exist at the open end act like a source which radiate.
The ﬁelds of the plane wave are E = E0 ax e−jkz E0 ax e−jkz H= Z0 Step 2.40) (17. Find the radiation pattern in the half space z > 0.10. The sheet has a rectangular aperture cut into it with dimensions of −a < x < a and −b < y < b. coincident with the xy plane (the plane is inﬁnite in extent in the x and y directions). on an inﬁnite metal sheet.: Metal sheet with rectangular aperture obtain the ﬁelds as shown in those set of equations.10) propagating in the +z direction. The magetic surface current in the aperture is Ms = −n × Ea = −az × axE0 = −a y E0 ˆ 517 . − b/2 < y < b/2 and z = 0) (17. EXAMPLE 17.17. The aperture ﬁelds are Ea = E0 a x E0 Ha = ay Z0 (exist only in − a/2 < x < a/2.6 A plane wave is incident from the region z < 0 (see Figure 17. Introduction to Antennas x z y Figure 17. Step 1. This discussion applies to spherical coordinates.39) Step 3.
so convenient designs are limited to directivities of around 1015 dB. Introduction Horn antennas are used in the frequency bands right from UHF (300 MHz. the length of the horn and the area of the aperture can become very long and large respectively.42) Step 7.17. Hnφ = ka sin θ and in the φ = π/2 plane. which is the xz plane (0 < θ < π/2) sin(ka sin θ) Hnθ = 0. can have high directivities which can be as high as about 20 dB. Plotting the pattern in the φ = 0 plane. Horn antennas. when well designed. Typical examples of horn antennas are shown in Figure 17.7 cm) where it is used for sattellite applications. then Fθ = cos θ sin φF y Fφ = cos φF y Step 6.11.7. Since F y a y = F y (ar sin θ sin φ + aθ cos θ sin φ + aφ cos φ) Step 6.1. Introduction to Antennas Step 4.7. Hnφ = 0 kb sin θ) 17. Horn Antennas 17. The electric vector potential is F= ′ r εe−jkr M′ e−jkr •ˆ dV ′ s 2πr εe−jkr ′ ′ = (−a yE0 ) e jk(x sin θ cosφ+y sin θ sin φ) dx′ dy′ 2πr aperture a = εe−jkr 2πr (−a yE0 ) e jkx ′ sin θ cosφ dx′ b −b e jky ′ sin θ sin φ dy′ = −a y εE0 e−jkr ab 2 sin(ka sin θ cos φ) 2 sin(kb sin θ sin φ) × × 2πr ka sin θ cos φ kb sin θ sin φ) −a = ayFy Step 5. λ = 1. Hθ = − jω cos θ sin φF y Hφ = − jω cos φF y (17. 518 . The input impedence of these antennas are fairly frequency insensitive showing bandwidths of about 110 f0 with a design frequency of around 34 f0 . λ = 1 m) upto the Ku band.41) (17. As the directivity of the antenna is increased. so. (18 GHz. (0 < θ < π/2) Hnθ = cos θ sin(kb sin θ) . which is the yz plane. One of the advantages of horn antennas is that they exhibit low loss so directivity and gain are interchangeable.
The Eﬁeld distribution across the opening of the horn antenna can be approximated by: The Eﬁeld in the farﬁeld will be linearly polarized. Introduction to Antennas (a) Pyramidal horn (b) Conical horn Figure 17. that I don’t feel sheds a whole lot of light on the patterns.17. The Eﬁeld distribution across the aperture of the horn antenna is what is responsible for the radiation. we’ll analyze that. the resulting ﬁeld functions end up being extremely complex. which also aﬀects the ﬂare angles of the horn). and attempt to provide a feel for the design parameters of horn antennas. as a practicing antenna engineer. We always go on previous experience. ﬁrst the Eﬁeld across the aperture of the horn antenna is assumed to be known. The radiation pattern of a horn antenna will depend on B and A (the dimensions of the horn at the opening) and R (the length of the horn. along with b and a (the dimensions of the waveguide). These parameters are optimized in order to taylor the performance of the horn antenna. ]]]] 519 . I’ll state some results for the horn antenna and show some typical radiation patterns. If you would like to see these derivations.) Instead of the traditional academic derivation approach. In the next section. and the farﬁeld radiation pattern is calculated using the radiation equations. Many textbooks evaluate this integral. While this is conceptually straight forward. and the magnitude will be given by: The above equation states that the farﬁelds of the horn antenna is the Fourier Transform of the ﬁelds at the opening of the horn.: Examples of horn antennas [[[[Fields and Geometrical Parameters for Horn Antennas Antenna texts typically derive very complicated functions for the radiation patterns of horn antennas. and personally I don’t feel add a whole lot of value. Since the pyramidal horn antenna is the most popular. and end up with supremely complicated functions. To do this. and are illustrated in the following Figures. computer simulations and measurements. pick up any antenna textbook that has a section on horn antennas. (Also. I can assure you that we never use radiation integrals to estimate patterns. we’ll look at the radiation patterns for horn antennas.11.
: Parabolic reﬂector 17.8.17. suppose the point source were placed at F and the distance to the reﬂecting surface was L then when a ray would reﬂect oﬀ the surface at O. So on exiting the parabola we get a parallel beam. which is the directrix. FA. Introduction to Antennas Directrix 4 2 0 Focus 2 4 Isotropic radiator 4 2 0 2 4 Parabolic surface Figure 17.12(left). and reach F after reﬂection. It should reach the plane PP′ —which passes through the focus—with the same path length. Parabolic Reﬂector Suppose we have a bulb (a point source) in a ﬂashlight and we want to send out a parallel beam of light using a reﬂecting surface. Putting this in mathematical language. If a ray were to start from F and reach D and then after 4 Fermat’s priciple says that if a ray of light is to go from point A to point B then it will take the shortest path (or least time) if there is no change in medium. Let us take any other ray of light. Which means that FA = AC and distance FAB = CAB.43) 2L 1 + cosθ which is the equation of a parabola. 520 . It is well known that the parabola is the locus of a point which is equidistant from the focus and a line. We can apply Fermat’s principle4 and get the same result by referring to the ﬁgure on the right.12. otherwise it will take the least time. Hence all rays ’seem’ to come from a plane. By this means all rays would reach the plane PP′ in the same phase and therefore we would have a plane wave along the plane PP′ . 2L. Notice that the distance travelled would be 2L: from F to O and back. How would we do it? Referring to Figure 17. R(= FA) plus R cos θ(= AB) is equal to 2L: R + R cos θ = 2L R= (solving for R) (17.
17.: Paraboloid of revolution reﬂection reach B then FAB = FDD′ = 2L and FDD′ < FDB ∴ FAB < FDB and since D can be any point on the parabola except A.17.10. Introduction to Antennas Figure 17. Practice Problems and Self Assessment Review Questions Problems Short Answer Questions with Answers Objective Type Questions 521 . A paraboloid of revolution is shown in Figure 17. Today the principle of the parabola is applied to a paraboloid of revolution and the parabolic antenna is most popular as a dish antenna to receive satellite television Direct To Home (DTH) signals.13.9. List of Formulae xxxx Chapter Summary xxxx 17.13. therefore FAB is the shortest path from F to B.
He used waves of about λ=300 m in length. Introduction That electromagnetic waves may be made to propagate over great distances was ﬁrst proposed Maxwell (of Maxwell’s equations) around 1860s when he predicted wave motion. Each radio or television station will have its own frequency band tailored to the requirements of the bandwidth of the baseband signal. Another application would be the transmission of telephonic signals over large distances where copper wire may have not been laid. and even today there are many phenomena which are not well understood or predicted by theory. shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "In recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy” F Layer 200400 km Ionospheric waves E Layer 100 km 10 km Tro posphere Ground wave 1 hop Tropospheric wave Figure 18. Marconi1 . Distances which Hertz used were of the order a few feet. Italian inventor. Today we understand this achievement in terms of ionospheric wave propagation. the theory of radio propagation sometimes oﬀers no proper explanation of experiments.3). For example a radio or television station may transmit radio signals to homes nearby.1. At that time there was scepticism about this achievement as there was no theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of long distance communication.18. G. Radio Wave Propagation 18. 522 . see Figure 13. in another set of experiments succeeded in his ﬁrst transAtlantic communication using the Morse code in 1901. Just as in the case of Marconi. as the case of transmission over hilly regions— and so on.: Radio wave propagation paths over the earth. Some other applications are long distance point to point communications 1 Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937). or the MF band as is now designated. Power transmitted through electromagnetic waves by a transmitting antenna on the surface of the earth is quite common.1. This prediction was veriﬁed experimentally by Heinrich Hertz in the 1880s using frequencies in the the UHF range (for explanation of UHF.
b) [[[Tropospheric Scatter. is the one shown in Figure 18. The direct path. When the receiver and transmitter are within lineofsight (LOS) of each other. In such a case. Typically these may be divided into (refer Figure 18. The surface wave is the chief method of communication for AM transmission. b) Ground reﬂection. If high power signals of the proper frequency are beamed at this region of the atmosphere which is within 523 . The signal is guided by the ground itself. For example if the diﬀerence in path length plus the change of phase in reﬂection.18. This eﬀect causes a bending of radio waves when waves travel horizontally in the troposphere. the signal travels by ’straight line paths’ between the two.2 and indicated by pd . is half a wavelength. signals travel from the transmitter to the receiver by reﬂection from the ground and may modify the signal which is received from the direct path. Ground wave propagation a) Line of sight. Tropospheric Communication a) Tropospheric Refraction. Radio Wave Propagation radar radio and television broadcasting navigational aids Propagation characteristics which include parameters and methods have a potential of inﬂuencing communication systems design. They are therefore merit attention and are used by the communication systems and propagation specialists. 2. The atmosphere is more dense at lower altitudes than at higher ones.1): [[[This portion to be changed still further. similar to the concept of waves travelling by rays. Put in your own words. the signal cancels completely. Once transmission takes place from an antenna on the earth. we ﬁnd that atmosphere becomes more rareﬁed than that at sea level. This method is the one used by ground to satellite communication links. the pressure falls exponentially and the refractive of air index also falls. The wave which travels by LOS include what is known as sky waves.1). transmitted power may reach the receiving antenna in many ways. Therefore the direct and reﬂected signals (pd and pr ) must be considered in calculating link performance. and when antennas operate near the ground.]]] 1. Along with LOS communication. communication at low frequencies takes place by what is known as a surface wave. the direct (through pd ) and reﬂected wave (through pr ) cancel almost completely (the reader will understand this point when we consider an example: Example 18. As we go vertically up from the ground. Since λ is large at low frequencies (such as at MF) transmitting antennas are big structures erected on the ground or they may be slightly raised. the surface wave is the dominant mechanism. c) At low frequencies. This is known as tropospheric refraction.
Find the resultant electric ﬁeld due to the direct and reﬂected rays. The electric ﬁeld at the receiving antenna consists of the sum of three waves (terms): ER = ED + ER + ES (18.1) of the ionosphere at varying heights. Radio Wave Propagation pd h1 pr1 pr2 θ ψ d d1 d2 θ ψ h2 Figure 18. of 1.1) where ER is the electric ﬁeld at the receiving antenna.1). ER is the electric ﬁeld of the reﬂected wave and ES is the electric ﬁeld of the surface wave. ]]] 3. 2. Ground Wave Propagation Ground wave propagation (or propagation close to the ground) consists of three modes of communication: 1. then a small portion of the incident signal is backscattered to establish communication (See Figure 18. Surface wave communication between the two. both (h) 10 meters above the ground. ED is the electric ﬁeld of the direct wave. The direct path between the two antennas. This eﬀect occurs in the MHz range (typically 1030 MHz or short wave).: Two antennas of heights h1 and h2 in communication the line of sight of both Tx and Rx. Assume a reﬂection coeﬃcient. 18. Ionospheric wave propagation. And 3. Waves are reﬂected back from the ionosphere which lies from 100400 km above the earth’s surface. At low frequencies the electric ﬁelds due to the direct and reﬂected waves cancel out and communication is due to the surface wave alone.2. EXAMPLE 18. 524 . A reﬂection from the surface of the earth going from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. operating at 100 kHz.2. Each of these modes of propagation have their own properties and frequency band requirements.1 Consider two antennas (both omnidirectional. Reﬂection takes place in various regions (called D. for the sake of simplicity) separated by a distance of 10 km.18. R. E and F layers as shown in Figure 18.
02 m. given above. is (2π/λ) × (pd − pr ) ∆φ = −.18. ∆φ. pr = pr1 + pr2 is given by 2 × 10000. Since λ = 3 × 108/105 = 3000 m ∆φ = 4.02 × 2π rad λ p2 /4 + h2 = d Step 4. Step 3.2) R = 4π sin ψ λ A B where R is the ’roughness’ parameter.3. λ is the wavelength and σ (not to be confused with the conductivity) is the standard deviation of the surface irregularities. (See Figure 18. To consider the ﬁrst factor. Earth Reﬂection Smooth ground behaves like a imperfectly conducting dielectric with a dielectric constant εr and a conductivity σ. pd is 10 km= 104 m. (a). σ and ω (the frequency of operation) all taken together. combined with the ground reﬂection aspect of communication. The reﬂected path length. The phasors at the receiving antennas add as ED + ER ≈ = = E0 jθ e + Re jθ+∆φ p2 d E0 jθ jθ+∆φ e −e p2 d (R = −1) E0 j(θ+∆φ/2) −j∆φ/2 j∆φ/2 e −e e p2 d E0 j(θ+∆φ/2) sin ∆φ/2 2 je p2 d =− ≈0 We will now deal with the direct path communication. When the surface is smooth we can consider 525 . For R < 0.2) Step 2. while for R > 10 the surface may be considered rough. The direct path length is. (c) The polarisation of the wave: whether the E ﬁeld is perpendicular or parallel to the plane of incidence.2) . 18.1 we may assume the surface to be ’smooth’. Radio Wave Propagation Step 1. θ is the angle of incidence measured from the grazing angle (ψ is so shown in Figure 18.2 × 10−5 rad. we simply consider the roughness of the ground. The roughness factor R (also called the Raleigh roughness criterion) is given by σ (18. Many factors determine the amount of reﬂection from the ground. The phase diﬀerence. These are (a) The roughness of the ground and (b) εr .
The B factor will be dependent on the soil condition: if the earth is ’smooth’ and strewn with pebbles a few centimetres in size. the wave to be reﬂected in accordance with the laws of EMwaves.2. σ and ε to formulate Maxwell’s equations. If we refer to Equations 13. λ = 100 km) range up to a few GHz (for 3 GHz. Writing out Maxwell’s equations with a consideration of σ incorporated into the equations is: ∇ × H = jωεE + J = jω ε − = jωεE + σE jσ E ω jσ E ωε (18. While if the surface is rough.41 and 13. then sin ψ = 0. the A factor may be small if the distance between the transmitting and receiving antenna is large as compared with the height of the antenna. we may treat the reﬂected wave to be absent or negligible.01. 526 .43 we realise that the ground may be modelled as a lossy dielectric as considered in Section 13.3) = jωε 1 − = jωεC E where εC = ε − jσ/ω is the complex permeability and the other Maxwell’s equations remaining the same as before.3.3. then the ground may be considered smooth for frequencies from the kHz (for 3 kHz. We now take into consideration the electrical parameters of the earth. λ = 10 cm). For example if each antenna is at a height of 10 m and the distance between the two is 1 km. In Equation 18. Radio Wave Propagation Medium 1 Medium 2 (a) Perpendicular polarisation (b) Parallel polarisation Figure 18.: Consideration of a wave obliquely incident on a dielectric interface.18.
: Typical relative dielectric constants of various geological materials comprising the surface of the earth Davis & Annan (1980) For the case of reﬂection from the ground when the wave is obliquely incident upon it. When the wave is incident on the dielectric interface. and (b) with the electric ﬁeld parallel to the plane of incidence. In all cases. in general.4) where R is the reﬂection coeﬃcient. the angle it makes with the normal is θi and the angle it makes with the ground is ψ. we refer to Figure 18. Perpendicular polarisation: Considering the ground as a dielectric which has a complex dielectric constant. the reﬂection coeﬃcient for the perpendicular polarisation is given by cos θi − cos θi + sin ψ + sin ψ − (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi (ε2 /ε1 ) − cos2 ψ (ε2 /ε1 ) − cos2 ψ (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi (18.3. Both types of wave are shown in the ﬁgure. Radio Wave Propagation Material Air Dry sand Dry silt Asphalt Clay Concrete Saturated silt Dry sandy coastal land Average organicrich surface soil Marsh or forested land Organic rich agricultural land Saturated sand Fresh water Sea water εr 1 35 330 35 540 6 1040 10 12 12 15 2030 80 8188 Table 18. is complex. 527 . a part of it is reﬂected with θr = θi and a part is transmitted into the earth. If Ei is the incident electric ﬁeld and Er is the reﬂected electric ﬁeld then Er = REi (18.5) R⊥ = = considering the term ε2 /ε1 when medium 1 is air and medium 2 is the ground. After the wave front meets the ground.1. which. the direction of the vector E × H must be in the direction of wave propagation. The wave is incident in two conﬁgurations (a) with the electric ﬁeld perpendicular to the plane of incidence.18.
6 0. ψ is the approach of the wave above the horizon.18. R⊥ . εr = 15.8 0. x = 18 × 103 σ/ fMHz .7 0. of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is perpendicular to the plane of incidence.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 180 178 176 174 172 170 168 166 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Figure 18. σ = 12 × 10−3 .4. Radio Wave Propagation 1 0.9 0.: Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient. 528 .
of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is parallel to the plane of incidence.5 177 176.96 0. R⊥ .5 178 177.92 0.: Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient.82 0.8 0 180 20 40 60 80 100 179.9 0. σ = 12 × 10−3 . ψ is the approach of the wave above the horizon. Radio Wave Propagation 1 0.86 0.98 0.18. 529 .5 176 0 20 40 60 80 100 Figure 18.94 0. εr = 15.5 179 178.5.84 0.88 0.
6) where ε0 . if the ground is considered to be a dielectric which has a complex dielectric constant.7) Parallel polarisation. Conductivities of the ground vary from 1 × 10−3 S/m to about 30 × 10−3 S/m but a typical value would be about σ = 12 × 10−3 S/m. Radio Wave Propagation then ε2 = εC = ε0 εr − j(σ/ω) ε1 = ε0 (18. the reﬂection coeﬃcient for the perpendicular polarisation is given by (ε2 /ε1 ) cos θi − (ε2 /ε1 ) cos θi + (ε2 /ε1 ) sin ψ + (ε2 /ε1 ) sin ψ − (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi (ε2 /ε1 ) − cos2 ψ (ε2 /ε1 ) − cos2 ψ (ε2 /ε1 ) − sin2 θi R = = = (εr − jx) sinψ − (εr − jx) sinψ + (εr − jx) − cos2 ψ (εr − jx) − cos2 ψ (18. Using this notation sin ψ − (εr − jx) − cos2 ψ R⊥ = sin ψ + (εr − jx) − cos2 ψ In the case of the ground εr vary from 450. the relative dielectric constant and conductivity of the ground respectively.8) where x = σ/ε0 ω and where ε0 . Referring to Figure we can observe for low values of ψ (which is the case for long distance communication) the values of the reﬂection coeﬃcient is close to 1∠180◦ for all frequencies. the relative dielectric constant and conductivity of the ground respectively. εr and σ are the permittivity of vacuum.1) but a typical value is that of εr = 15. These graphs show that the reﬂection coeﬃcient for small values of ψ. εr and σ are the permittivity of vacuum. In Figure 18. (see Table 18. So ε2 /ε1 = εr − j(σ/ε0 ω) if we write ε0 ≈ (1/36π) × 10−9 and specifying f = 2πω then ωε0 ≈ (1/18) fMHz × 10−3 where fMHz is the frequency in MHz. In these graphs the value of R⊥ are shown as a function of frequency but with ψ as a parameter.4 we plot the reﬂection coeﬃcient as a function of the grazing angle of incidence. Further following the notation used in Jordan & Balmain (1968) we use x = σ/ε0 ω = 18σ × 103 / fMHz . For small values of ψ R⊥ ≅ −1 − 2 jψ j x − εr + 1 (18. never departs much from the value of 1∠180◦ .95.5. As earlier.18. 1]. Further graphs are shown in Figure 18. 180◦ ]. ψ. and the range of ∠R⊥ for 0 < ψ < 5◦ is [179◦ . For example the range of R⊥  for 0 < ψ < 5◦ is [0. 530 .
of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is parallel to the plane of incidence.18.4 0.6.6 0. 531 . εr = 15.: Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient. σ = 12 × 10−3 .2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Figure 18. Radio Wave Propagation 1 0. R . x = 18 × 103 σ/ fMHz .8 0. ψ is the angle of grazing incidence of the wave above the horizon.
ψ is the approach of the wave above the horizon.2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 20 40 60 80 100 Figure 18.6 0. R . εr = 15.18.8 0. 532 . Radio Wave Propagation Rv vs frequency 1 0. of a plane wave whose E ﬁeld is perpendicular to the plane of incidence.4 0.7.: Magnitude and phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient. σ = 12 × 10−3 .
ψ. For small values of ψ.4. The surface wave is such that most of the energy of the wave is away from the ground. 1937) Sommerfeld (1909). In the graphs shown in Figure 18.18. though then it remains almost constant with increase in frequency.6 we again plot the reﬂection coeﬃcient (R ) as a function of the grazing angle of incidence. Radio Wave Propagation In Figure 18. while for ψ = 5◦ .8. We can see this last mentioned phenomenon that for ψ = 1◦ we ﬁnd that R ≈ 0.10) sin2 ψ′ u 2 The physical reality of space and surface waves in the radiation ﬁeld of radio antennas. R ≈ 0. never departs much from the value of 1∠180◦ . the value of R changes drastically. The surface wave is guided by the ground which acts like a dielectric medium being diﬀracted over the surface of the earth. 18. These graphs show that the reﬂection coeﬃcient for very small values of ψ(≈ 0◦ ).85 for large frequencies.7 the value of R are shown as a function of frequency but with ψ as a parameter. The reader is advised to compute the reﬂection coeﬃcient using a numerical analysis package like Matlab on a case by case basis.45 for the same set of frequencies.4. k = 2π/λ. Referring to Figure we can observe for low values of ψ(≈ 0◦ ) (which is the case for long distance communication) the values of the reﬂection coeﬃcient is close to 1∠ − 180◦ for all frequencies. The Surface Wave Apart from the two modes of propagation (direct and reﬂected) we also have a third mode of propagation. K A Norton FCC Washington DC 533 . But as the value of ψ is increased even slightly. which is a very large change indeed. which acts as a boundary.9) j x − εr + 1 18. The Surface Wave for the Vertical Dipole For a vertical dipole the surface wave radiation ﬁeld when R ≫ λ is given by 2 Esu = j30kIdl(1 − R)F +ar cos ψ′ 1 + where Esu is the electric ﬁeld of the surface wave at the receiving point as per Figure 18. As the frequency is increased. namely the surface wave which was ﬁrst proposed by various researchers Norton (1936. we ﬁnd that the the magnitude of reﬂection coeﬃcient falls rapidly. 2 e−jkR R ak (1 − u2) 1 − u2 cos2 ψ′ (18. R ≅ −1 + 2 j jx − εr ψ (18. These diﬀraction eﬀects are greater as the radiation frequency go toward the lower frequencies (the kHz range and slightly higher).1.
8. Radio Wave Propagation Vertical dipole Horizontal dipole Earth's surface Figure 18. Then ωψ′ =0 = p1 = − jkR = −j jb R λ jkR u2 (1 − u2) 1 1 =− 1− 2 2 εr − jx εr − jx π 1 1− εr − jx εr − jx The factor a (18.19) where p is known as the numerical distance and b is the phase constant and both 534 .15) and 18 × 103σ fMHz √ √ F = 1 − j πωe−ω erfc( j ω) 2 u2 (1 − u2 cos2 ψ′ ) sin ψ′ ω = − jkR 1 + 2 cos2 ψ′ 2 u 1−u 2 erfc( jω) = √ ω ∞ e−v dv 2 (18.17) (18.12) (18.13) (18.18) = pe (18. R = (εr − jx) sin ψ′ − which has already been introduced.18.11) (18.14) (18.: Coordinate system for the surface wave. u2 = x= 1 (εr − jx) (εr − jx) sin ψ′ + (εr − jx) − cos2 ψ′ (εr − jx) − cos2 ψ′ (18. We also take a look at the surface wave as ψ′ ≈ 0 which is the case for longdistance communication.16) jω we can see from the formulae that the factor F is of great complexity and decays rapidly with increasing value of kR.
10. The factor π 1 1− εr − jx εr − jx R p = a λ εr + 1 b ≅ tan−1 x a= (18.20) (18.1 < A < 1 for 0.21) (18.18.7 (18.2.6p2 (18.1.4. Wave Tilt of the Surface Wave A vertically polarised wave (E ﬁeld which is perpendicular to the earth) develops a horizontal component due to the fact that there is a complex surface 535 .9. A decreases linearly on the logarithmic scale. Since in the calculation of the power carried by the surface only a good approximation is the requirement. In the last range A≅ 1 2p − 3.3p 2 + p + 0.22) is the complex part. The function is almost equal to 1 (no attenuation) for the range 0 < p < 0.26) 18. A perusal of these graphs shows that the factor a has a magnitude which increases from 0 to a maximum of (π/εr )(1 − 1/εr ) as frequency is increased. A ≅ A1 − sin(b) where A1 = p −(5/8)p e 2 (18.24) 2 + 0. A lies in the range 0. The phase b starts at about 0◦ for f ≅ 0 to 90◦ as f → ∞.25) The approximate function A has been plotted in Figure 18.1 < p < 10 for various values of b. Radio Wave Propagation are real and greater than zero. A plot of the magnitude of a and the approximate value of the phase b are shown in Figure 18.23) where A is called the groundwave attenuation factor. If we consider the function Fψ′ =0 then √ √ A = Fψ′ =0 = 1 − j πp1 e−p1 erfc( j p1 ) (18. and for greater values of p.
εr = 15.: (Upper graph) Magnitude of the factor a.18.012 536 .08 0.18 0. p = (R/λ)a. MHz 90 80 Phase constant.) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 frequency. (Lower graph) The phase constant b.1 0.2 0. MHz Figure 18.14 0. b (Deg. For these graphs.04 0.16 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 frequency.9.12 0.06 0. σ = . Radio Wave Propagation 0.
0e+0 Approximate Attenuation factor.0e+4 Numerical Distance.10.0e3 1.0e+3 1.0e+0 1.0e2 1.0e5 1.: Graph of the approximate value of the ground wave attenuation factor A versus the numerical distance p for various values of b.: Wave tilt for a surface wave 537 . Earth Figure 18.0e2 1. A 1.0e+2 1. Radio Wave Propagation 1.11. p Figure 18.0e1 1.18.0e1 1.0e+1 1.0e3 1.0e4 1.
We notice from these functions that (a) the magnitude of Eh increases with increasing frequency and (b) the phase decreases with increasing frequency. And the associated magnetic ﬁeld is Hv = Ev Ev = Z0 377 (18. Radio Wave Propagation impedance of the earth.31) 1 x2 + ε2 r ∠ (18. Eh which is directed towards the direction of propagation Js = or taking magnitudes all throughout. For a surface wave with a vertical electric ﬁeld.18. if Ev = sin t then Eh is the function shown in the ﬁgure. a rough idea of the distance that is covered is approximately given by: R(km) ≅ 200 fMHz 538 . For the three cases. 10 and 100 MHz. 0.12 where the exact polarisation ellipses are shown at three values of frequencies: 0. Hv = or Eh Zs = = Ev Z0 4 Eh Zs (18.32) The results are shown in Figure 18.26 sin(t + 4◦).27) = ∠ + ε2 r ∠ 1 x2 + ε2 r 1 x tan−1 2 εr the manner by which this happens is explained through Figure 18.29) The surface current gives rise to a horizontal component of the electric ﬁeld. namely.5.28) Also a surface current (which is parallel to the ground) is formed due to the presence of this magnetic ﬁeld Js = n × Hv Js = Hv (18. Ev is the electric ﬁeld which is vertical.2 sin(t + 28◦) and 0. The surface impedance is given by Zs ≅ ωµ0 σ2 + ω2 (εr ε0 )2 µ0 ε0 Zs = Z0 σ ωε0 2 ∠ σ 1 tan−1 2 ωεr ε0 x 1 tan−1 2 εr (18. Eh = 0.05 sin(t + 44◦).11.30) Eh Ev = Zs Z0 x 1 tan−1 2 εr (18.
12.05*sin(t+0. Surface Wave for a Horizontal Dipole The surface wave for a horizontal dipole on the surface of the earth is given by (Refer Figure 18. sin(t) 0.35) 539 . sin(t) 10 MHz Figure 18.18.767).34) u sin ψ′ 1 − u2 cos2 ψ 2 ′ (18.5.5 MHz 0. sin(t) 100 MHz 0. 18.069).5. σ = 0.: Wave tilt for a surface wavecalculation for three frequencies: 0.26*sin(t+0.33) √ √ G = 1 − j πve−v erfc( j v) jkR(1 − u2 cos2 ψ′ ) v=− 1 + 2u2 (18.481).012. εr = 15. 10 and 100 MHz.2*sin(t+0.8) Esu = j30kIdlF ′ e−jkR R (1 − R)Fu cos φ 1 − u2 cos2 ψ′ × 1 − sin4 ψ′ − (1−R (1−R⊥ )G 2  )u F) sin2 ψ′ cos ψ 1 + ak + u 2 + sin φ(1 − R⊥)Gaφ where 1 − u2 cos2 ψ′ 1 − u2 cos2 ψ′ aρ (18. Radio Wave Propagation 0.
Then the vertical component of the electric ﬁeld at the receiving antenna is 2 e−jkR1 e−jkR2 e−jkR2 + (1 − R)F Ez = j30kIdl cos ψ + R R1 R2 R2 (18.39) and the wave attenuates much more rapidly.2). it is clear that for ψ′ = 0 the electric ﬁeld becomes Esu = j30kIdlF e−jkR R √ (1 − R)Fu cos φ 1 − u2 × (18. we notice that in the direction φ = 0 both components the ak (vertically polarised) and aρ (horizontally polarised) are present. To compute the attenuation at a distance R from the source.23 is used with πR x λ cos b′ b = 180◦ − b′ εr − 1 b′ = tan−1 x p= (18.41) (18. 18. the frequency which is used is in the high and very high frequency range (HF and VHF).36) ⊥ 1 − (1−R )u2 F)  ak + u aρ + sin φ(1 − R⊥)Gaφ √ 1 − u2 (1−R )G and √ √ G = 1 − j πve−v erfc( j v) v=− jkR(1 − u2) 2u2 (18.43) where the ﬁrst boxed term is the space wave.18. Here R1 = pd and R2 = pr1 + pr2 of the ﬁgure.42) and x = 18 × 103σ/ fMHz . and the second one is the surface wave.6.37) (18. the same factor A of Equation 18. This expression is accurate 540 . For large values of p G ≅ u4 F (18. Radio Wave Propagation from these expressions.38) by observing these equations.40) (18. Computations and experimental results show that the surface wave contributes very slightly to communication using horizontally placed dipoles and instead elevated antennas with considerations of the direct and reﬂected waves are more suitable. Approximations for Ground Wave Propagation Consider two vertical dipole antennas elevated above the surface of the earth at heights of h1 and h2 (Figure 18. In the direction φ = 90◦ only the horizontally polarised component is present.
18. we make the following approximations: cos ψ ≈ 1 (18.47) (18. However since we need to make an approximate computation. Radio Wave Propagation for distances from the antenna larger than a few wavelengths.45) (18.50) 541 .49 becomes Ez = j30kIdle−jkR1 d j30kIdle−jkR1 d 1 + R e−jk(R2 −R1 ) − (1 − R) e−jk(R2 −R1 ) 2ω j jx − εr ψ e−jkR2 2ω (18.46) R1 = R2 ≈ d for large numerical distances where (18.44) (for the denominator only) F ≈ −1/2ω ud ≫ h1 + h2 (18.49) for small values of ψ j x − εr + 1 (h1 − h2)2 2d2 (h1 + h2)2 2d2 d2 + (h1 − h2 )2 ≅ d 1 + d2 + (h1 + h2 )2 ≅ d 1 + (h1 + h2 )2 (h1 − h2 )2 2h1 h2 − = 2d 2d d = We now use the following approximations: R ≅ −1 −jk(2h1 h2 /d) e −jk(2h1 h2 /d) − (1 − R ) 1 + R e 2ω ≅−1 neglected e−jk(2h1 h2 /d) = cos(2kh1 h2 /d) − j sin(2kh1 h2 /d) 2kh1h2 ≅ 1− j d (18.48) ω > 20 With these approximations the received wave for vertical dipoles is Ez = j30kIdl d e−jkR1 + R e−jkR2 − (1 − R) R ≅ −1 + 2 also R1 = R2 = R2 − R1 ≅ so Equation 18.
52) and the results of Figure 18. Since there is a change in the constituents of the troposphere.7. c) For a spherical earth heights h1 and h2 of the transmitting are greater than the corresponding heights for a ’plane earth’ (h′ and h′ as shown in Figure 18. It is the region where clouds are formed and aircraft travel.13.18.51) 18. b) The reﬂected part of the space wave is reﬂected from a curved surface rather than a plane one which causes the energy to be diverged as in the case of a convex mirror and which introduces inaccuracies in the ﬁnal result. these ideas are limited by the fact that we did not take into account the curvature of the earth. n = εr ) is a function of height. 542 .13. extending up to about 10 miles (16 km). pressure and percentage of water vapour content the dielec√ tric constant (and therefore the refractive index.) 2 1 18. Spherical Earth Considerations Though we have considered ground wave propagation based on formulae of a surface and space wave. and ﬁnally. The reason for an error in the results are due to the following. As we go up there is a variation in the physical parameters in the troposphere like temperature. Tropospheric Waves The troposphere is that portion of the Earth’s atmosphere which is closest to the ground. refraction. The rate of change of temperature is about −6. Tropospheric Propagation 18.1.7.10 may be applied only up to these distances. abnormal reﬂection and refraction. Radio Wave Propagation plane 'earth' spherical earth Figure 18.7. wave propagation can be of several types: diﬀraction.2.5◦/km till a minimum of −55◦ to −45◦ C. The distances up to which the surface wave formulae developed earlier give fairly correct results is given by 1/3 d = 50/ fMHz miles (18.: Spherical and plane earth which gives Ez  ≅ 60k2 Ile f f h1 h2 d2 (18. a) These results start diverging from reality in that the surface wave reaches the receiver due to diﬀraction and refraction from the lower atmospheric rather than from the consideration that the earth is a ﬂat plane. the pressure too decreases as one goes up.
P. 658) N is found to be e 77.55) where p and e are the atmospheric pressure and the partial pressure of water vapour in millibars respectively.73 × 105 2 T T We know that the dielectric constant of outer space is one. The atmospheric pressure. the dielectric constant increases very slightly.53) (18.) The nominal value of the pressure at the surface of the earth is about 1 Bar or 1000 millibars and the partial pressure of water vapour is around 640 millibars (more details are available in M. p. If we deﬁne a function.18. Or p ≅ 1000e−(h/8000) (18.54) N= T T Another somewhat more accurate formula is N= 77.6 e p + 3. then (see Jordan & Balmain 1968. The path AB′ has a radius of curvature ρ > R the radius of the earth.56) The refractive index of the atmosphere has a value of approximately 1.6 p + 4810 (18. follow a curved path as shown in AB′ in Figure 18.M Hall 1996). the refractivity to be N = (n − 1)106 (18. N. so the wave bends away from the normal as shown in the inset. falling to 1/e of the surface value at a height of about 8000 m.0003 at the earth’s surface. falls exponentially with height. Radio Wave Propagation A h B B' Earth R Figure 18. pp.14 rather than the straight path as AB.: Bending of rays in the troposphere where n is the refractive index. It has been observed that a radio wave which is launched horizontally above the surface of the earth in the troposphere. 543 .14. and T is the absolute temperature (degrees Kelvin. Why does this happen? The reason is that as we move along the straight line from A to B the wave enters a region where the medium is rarer. From outer space as we come toward the surface of the earth and enter the troposphere.
: Figure to calculate the curvature of rays in the troposphere To calculate the radius of curvature ρ. ρ which is the distance OA is the radius of curvature of the path of the radiated beam.57) where c is the velocity of light. Radio Wave Propagation C A B Earth's surface O' O Figure 18.63) dh 1 =− dn dn/dh (18.59) (18. In a medium with dielectric constant εr .15.62) (18. O′ B is the radius of the earth. we adopt the following method.60) since 1/(n + dn) ≈ 1/n − dn/n2. If the refractive index at A is n and at C is n + dn then ray path from these two points is cdt/n = ρdθ cdt/(n + dn) = (ρ + dh)dθ 1/n − dn/n (c dt) = (ρ + dh)dθ 2 (18. Referring to Figure 18. 544 .2 Calculate the ’nominal’ radius for the bending of rays in the troposphere at the surface of the earth.18. the velocity v is given by √ v = 1/ µ0 ε0 εr = c/n (18.58) (18.15.64) EXAMPLE 18. Subtracting the ﬁrst equation from the second −(dn/n2)(c dt) = dh dθ since c dt = ρ dθ or and since n2 ≈ 1 ρ=− −(dn/n2)(ρ dθ) = dh dθ ρ = −n2 dh dn (18.61) (18.
We would like to deal with straight line paths and not curved paths which are predicted by our theory. the radius of the earth is 6378.092 × 107 m ρ ≅ 4.68) From this calculation.6 p × 10−6 + 1 T (18.18. the radius of curvature of the path. We realise from this that the problem of bending of waves in calculations become more complex. is a function of the rate of change of the dielectric constant with height.85R (18. which is continuously varying.233 × 10−8 so ρ = 3.6 × 10−6 × 300 8 77.65) We know that p ≅ p ≅ 1000e−(h/8000) (18.: Conversion of curved paths to straight paths using an eﬀective radius for the earth e 77.1 km (18. T=300 = −3.67) since R.16. and T = 300◦ K dn dh =− 1 77. The ideal solution would be to make curved paths into straight paths for simplicity. 545 .6 p + 4810 T T omitting the water vapour term (the second term on the right) N = (n − 1)106 = n≅ also so for h = 0. Radio Wave Propagation curved ray path straight line ray path curved ray path Earth's profile Earth's profile Equivalent profile (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 18. ρ.66) h=0. A little thought would tell us is that we would need a mapping where the curved ray paths are made straight. But for calculations a nominal radius of ρ = 4R is used.
16 (a). (i) where the radius is earth’s radius shown in (c) which gives D2 (18. dh = (kR + h)θ2/2 ≅ kRθ2 /2 (18. Now from the (b) diagram. (a) and (b). In this case D2 dhρ = (18. cos θe ≅ 1 − θ2 /2 and so 1/ cosθe ≅ 1 + θ2/2.16(b). ((d) part of the ﬁgure). Radio Wave Propagation Let us visualise a situation where we draw Figure 18. Using these e e results.16.76) 546 .72) (18. The diagram to the left.16(a) on a plane piece of plasticine and then deform the plasticine by bending it upward.70) for small values of θe . (a) is the actual situation while the one on the right (b) is where the radius of the earth has been changed to kR.71) e e since we expect that kR ≫ h. By doing this the earth’s would become ﬂatter and the curved ray paths would become straight lines as in Figure 18. while travelling a distance D.18. To obtain the transformation we proceed as follows.73) From ﬁgure on the left Figure 18. (Referring to Figure 18.69) (18.) we require when the wave travels from A to B the ray remains at the same height in both cases. h and h + dh. θe ≅ sin θe = hence dh = D2 2kR D kR (18.75) 2ρ then dh = dhR − dhρ D2 D2 D2 = − 2kR 2R 2ρ which gives 1 1 1 = − kR R ρ (18. we do exactly the same calculation as for (b) but for two cases. OA = kR + h OB = kR + h + dh kR + h = (kR + h + dh)cos θe from these equations dh = (kR + h) 1 −1 cos θe (18.74) dhR = 2R and the second case where we use the radius as ρ.
and straight line paths may be drawn. 547 . Radio Wave Propagation and therefore k= using ρ = 4R k = 4/3 (18. Marconi managed to broadcast the letter ’S’ by Morse code across the Atlantic which was many thousands of miles away. The case of reﬂection at abrupt changes in the dielectric constant is easily treated using the reﬂection factors developed in Chapter 5. in 1902 Oliver Heaviside proposed the existence of the ionosphere as a part of Earth’s atmosphere.78) 1 1 − R/ρ (18. later in 1912 HF ionospheric wave propagation characteristics were discovered. For a wave propagating in a dielectric medium of permittivity ε1 . Propagation beyond normal ground wave range also results from abnormal refraction in the troposphere. It is obvious that all calculations based on tropospheric propagation fail to account for this successful result. Today the mechanism of wave propagation using the ionosphere accounts for this fact. Ionospheric Propagation In 1901. it is easy to show that eq. the resulting reﬂections can produce usable signals at distances considerably beyond those that result when only ground wave propagation paths are considered. and the incident upon a second medium of permittivity at the layer in the troposphere.77) By using the eﬀective radius (kR) instead of the actual radius (R) in making computations involving the radius of the Earth and the atmosphere close to the ground (and eﬀectively also the troposphere) the bending of the waves in the atmosphere is accounted for. Regarding the history related to the ionosphere. the ﬁeld strength of tropospheric waves can be calculated. These eﬀects are best handled through use of modiﬁed index curves considered next.18. In a much later development. These calculations show that when abrupt changes in permittivity occur in the troposphere. [[[Abnormal Re f raction and Re f lection. ]]] 18. for vertically polarised waves reduces to ∆ǫ ∆ǫ − Rv ≈ 2 4 cos2 θ1 Similarly for horizontally polarised waves the reﬂection coeﬃcient can be reduced to ∆ǫ Rη ≈ − 4 cos2 θ1 Using these reﬂections coeﬃcients and various assumed conditions for ∆ε and reﬂecting layer height. In addition to the systematic refraction of waves that occur in the troposphere under normal conditions there are also the possibilities of abnormal refraction and of reﬂections occurring at places of abrupt change in the refractive index or its gradient. Vitally Ginzberg formulated the mechanism of radio wave propagation in the ionosphere which was seen to be a plasma.8.
F1 and F2 layers.8. The number of electrons at any point in the ionosphere depends on a number of factors which are 1. whether it is summer or winter. E and F1 layers. All these are shown in the form of a table. The pressure of air as we go vertically falls exponentially as given in Equation 18.1. 800◦ K. UV and even Xrays. Generally these dislodged free electrons recombine with the positive ions. Electron density starts at about 100 − 200 electrons/cc at a height of about 90 km above the Earth’s surface and rise to a maximum of a daytime electron density of 106 electrons/cc at 300 km. whether it is day or night. The ionosphere is divided into layers: D. The D layer is accepted as being from 7090 km. Argon and other gases by volume. and 3.18. Radiation from the Sun consists of radio waves.17. 21% Oxygen and about 1% consisting of Carbon Dioxide. (Table 18. the visible region.2) The density of electrons with height gradually increases through the D. where the atmosphere is so thin. which ﬂood the earth with high energy charged particles. 2. The vertical composition of the ionosphere is shown in Figure 18. The atmosphere of the Earth can be roughly divided into the troposphere (012 km). A plasma is a mixture of positive ions and free electrons which are attracted to each other but due to thermal motion they do not always stay together. the stratosphere (1245 km) and the ionosphere (501000 km). E. These ﬁgures stand for daytime electron densities. Sunlight consists of electromagnetic radiation which covers almost the full spectrum and is very similar to that emitted by a black body elevated at a temperature of about 5. Radiation from the Sun reaches the Earth on a perpetual basis and is ﬁltered through the Earth’s atmosphere. The amount of radiation received and which further depends on a) A diurnal variation. This process is a statistical one where the atmosphere comes to be in an equilibrium where there is a sustained density of free electrons. Radio Wave Propagation 18. the E layer is from 90130 km. infrared. The Ionosphere The Earth is enveloped by an atmosphere consisting of about 78% Nitrogen. and the the F2 layer is from 1301000 km. but a further inﬂux of radiation creates more positivenegative ion pairs. undergoes a peak around the F2 layer (where it reaches a maximum 548 . b) A seasonal variation. the F1 layer is from 130200 km. As one goes further up the density declines to 104 electrons/cc at 1000 km above the Earth’s surface. Geographical zone.56. Disturbances such as Solar ﬂares. that the high energy radiation component (UV and above) dislodge electrons from the molecules of air creating a plasma or an electronic gas. whether the point being considered is vertically above the equator or the pole. The density of the the free electrons (and therefore positive ions) is of importance since it has an eﬀect on electromagnetic wave propagation in the ionosphere. As the Sun’s rays enter the ionosphere.
In all the layers there is a great daynight variation of the electron density.0458. the pressure is about 1000 mB. Note that on the ground.045 0.8×10−51.8×10−5 8.17.4 × 10−85.: Vertical composition of the ionosphere Layer D E F1 F2 Height (km) 7090 90130 130200 2001000 Pressure (mB) 0.18.4 × 10−8 1.160. Radio Wave Propagation 1000 400 Night Day 100 200 130 90 70 10 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1e+06 Figure 18.2 × 10−52 Electron density (No/cc) 80200 ≃ 104 ≃ 3 × 104 ≃ 5 × 104 Table 18.: Table showing the daytime properties of the ionospheric layers.2. (The pressure is measure of the number of molecules/cc) 549 .
With this in mind we look at the case of a slab of plasma which is ﬁnite in the x direction and inﬁnite in the y and z directions as shown in Figure 18. suppose the equilibrium of an inﬁnite slab is disturbed in the manner shown in the ﬁgure: an electron sheet is moved to the right of the slab leaving behind a sheet of positive ions on the left side. Let the thickness of the slab be d. and therefore density of electrons/cc is low. Plasma Oscillations The word plasma denotes a gas of charged particles where the number of electrons and positive ions are equal but not bound together and free to move like the molecules in a gas. On the surface of the earth where the pressure is highest there is almost no free electron density.1.18. Radio Wave Propagation Neutral plasma + + + + + + + + + +  + + + + +   Unbalanced charges Figure 18.18. and in doing so the particles undergo oscillations about their equilibrium positions.: Plasma Oscillations of an inﬁnite slab of around 106 electrons/cc) and then falls with height. The explanation is that at great heights the ionising capability of the radiation is intense but the number of normal (nonionised) molecules are few. 18.8. At night. Another way of talking about the charge neutrality is ρv (r) ≅ 0 (18. and the tiny displacement of the charges be x as shown. The time 550 . then surface charge density is ρs  = Nex C/m2 (18. then the charges move back quickly under the inﬂuence of restoring forces to reestablish equilibrium.79) If the distribution of the particles in the plasma is altered so that Equation 18. Just as in the case of a pendulum being disturbed. and e is the electronic charge.18.79 is invalidated. On the other hand at low heights the number of high energy photons have been considerably reduced due to passage through the upper layers.1. the D layer virtually disappears but the E and F layers are still present.80) where N is the charged particle density.
but constant ﬁeld E within the slab is given by E= Nex ax ε0 (18.1.2. the charge densities at a point are n(t) = N0 + Re{n0 e jωt } ρ(t) = en(t) (18. ¨ me x = − Ne2 x ε0 Ne2 ¨ x = −ω2 x x=− p me ε0 Ne2 me ε0 or where (18. Note that this is the same ﬁeld as that inside of a capacitor. but the positive ions being much heavier remain almost stationary. With this in mind. The permittivity ε0 is used since the plasma is assumed to be similar to air.86) .18.83) ωp = ωp is called the plasma frequency.81) for a given value of x. sinusoidally. The solution to this equation is x = C1 sin ωp t + C2 cos ωp t (18. The above equation states that the restoring force on the electron is proportional to the displacement. The surface charges on each side feel the force due to the electric ﬁeld.84) This equation implies that an electron in a plasma undergoes oscillations with frequency ωp when disturbed slightly. An electron on the other hand feels a force Fe = − Ne2 x ax ε0 (18.82) ¨ and an acceleration x = Fe /me . Therefore N0 + n0 > n(t) > N0 − n0 Similarly the velocity of an electron is strictly speaking v(t) = V0 + Re{v0 e jωt } 551 (18.87) (18. Since the wave has an E and H vector both of which are sinusoidal in nature the electrons in the plasma are disturbed about their equilibrium positions. Wave Propagation in a Plasma Let us consider a plasma through which an electromagnetic wave is propagating. Writing the equation of motion.85) where N0 is the statistically constant value of the electron density and n0 is maximum change in this constant value. Radio Wave Propagation varying. 18.8.
95) r r 3 Since a constant electric ﬁeld is absent 552 .93) or that a plasma has a dielectric permittivity (18.94 suggests that ε → −∞ as ω → 0.89) (18.18.91) Where we have dropped the subscript ’0’ on the charge density N. ∇ × H = jωε0 E + Nev = jωε0 E + Ne = jω ε0 − eE jωme = jωεE Ne2 E ω2 me ω2 ε0 − ε0 p E = jω ω2 ω2 1 − p ε = ε0 ω2 (18.88) The equation of motion and Maxwell’s equations now may be written for sinusoidal oscillations for phasors as eE = jωme v ∇ × H = jωε0 E + Nev ∇ × E = − jωµ0 H ne ∇•E = ε0 ∇•H = 0 (18. Radio Wave Propagation but we assume for sake of simplicity that the drift component V0 (statistically constant value) is zero3. Substituting Equation 18.90) (18. but this is not the case.94) In this expression we have not taken into account collisional eﬀects. or v(t) = Re{v0 e jωt } The current density is therefore J(t) ≅ N0 eRe{v0 e jωt } (18.92) (18. Equation 18. ε = εC = ε0 (ε′ − jε′′ ) (18. If ν is the collisional frequency of the electrons with the positive ions then the more accurate formula for a plasma is.90 into the ﬁrst of the equations of Equation set 18.91.
100) since εC is complex therefore k is a complex number. h (km) Collisional frequency.98) ε′′ = r σ= An approximate formula for the collisional frequency is given by ν = ν0 e−h/H (18. As the height increases.18. Manheimer & Stix 1977. N √ increases and the factor ωp (which is proportional to N) increases. then the wave decays while it progresses into the ionosphere as in the case of wave travelling in a metal.97) (18. ω. page 49) Height. ν (s−1 ) 200 103 130 104 95 105 800 50 We can see from this table that ν plays an important role only at the lower heights and that too for frequencies in the kHz range. This can be observed from the ionisation density proﬁle shown in Figure 18. The measured collisional frequency at various heights is given in the following table (N. Conditions for this type of ber haviour are right at heights at the upper end of the D layer and the start of the E layer.96) (18. If k has an imaginary part.94 and 18. and the reﬂection coeﬃcients are given by Equations 18. and becomes smaller and smaller at least upto the F layer.17 and application of Equations 18.96. Low Frequency Propagation For an electromagnetic wave E = E0 e−jkz √ k = ω µ0 εC with (18. Once we cross 250 km ν may be neglected when compared to ω.99) Where ν0 is a constant.5. Radio Wave Propagation where ε′ r ω2 p 1 − = ν2 + ω2 σ ωε0 ω2 ν p ν2 + ω2 (18.101) and ε′ < 0 and k becomes purely imaginary. the refractive index of the ionosphere continually changes. especially when ν2 + ω2 < ω2 p (18. High Frequency Propagation Due to changes in ionisation densities. reﬂection takes place from a layer where there is a change in the properties of a medium. This happens for low frequencies. It is because 553 .5 and 18. Also just as in the case of an air metal boundary.
The ray emerges slightly deviated with angle of φ + dφ and the medium has a refractive index n + dn.19. cancelling terms and neglecting double diﬀerential terms like dn dφ. The diagram on the right shows a ray entering a change of medium from the point A with an angle of incidence φ. AA′ .102) This equation is a very powerful equation which says that starting from some sin φ f sin φi = − ln nf ni = ln ni nf 554 . with the initial and ﬁnal angles of incidences: φi . Let the start in the troposphere at S.19. At any point F the angle of incidence is φ f .18. and enter the ionosphere at an angle φi with respect to the normal at the start of the ionosphere. φ f and initial and ﬁnal refractive indices ni and n f ln therefore n f sin φ f = ni sin φi (18. The medium has a refractive index n. This can be proved as follows.: A high frequency wave travelling in the ionosphere of this that the wave bends away from the normal. −n cos φ dφ = dn sin φ cos φ dφ dn =− sin φ n d(sin φ) dn =− sin φ n integrating this equation. Therefore fron Snell’s law n sin φ = (n + dn) sin(φ + dφ) = n sin(φ + dφ) + dn sin(φ + dφ) ≅ n(sin φ + dφ cos φ) + dn (sinφ + dφ cos φ) where cos(dφ) ≅ 1 and sin(dφ) ≅ dφ. Radio Wave Propagation Increasing ionisation B A A A' S Figure 18. Then we ﬁnd that the ray bends gradually bends as shown. This situation is shown in Figure 18.
107) where Ntb can termed as that electron density where the wave ’turns back. Let us apply the result which we have arrived to the ionosphere. when the wave is launched vertically up. the refractive index is 1. above 200250 km ν ≪ ω (ω is in the order of 107 and ν is of the order of 103 ) 1− 1− ω2 p ω2 81N f2 (18. the ﬁnal angle φ f — with respect to the normal— the wave still obeys Snell’s law. Since a wave is launched from the surface of the earth with an angle of incidence φi . the angle of refraction increases since the ionisation density increases. Suppose we launch the wave vertically upwards. the Ntb will take its maximum value.’ Note that anywhere in the ionosphere where Equation 18.107 is satisﬁed. √ 1− ω2 p ν2 + ω2 (18. the maximum frequency 4 If N is in electrons/m3 then f is in Hz. Radio Wave Propagation point in the ionosphere with refractive index ni and angle of incidence φi and if the ﬁnal refractive index is n f .106) now as the wave propagates through the ionosphere.18.108) Nmax = 81 For any layer. 555 . At that point nf turn back = sin φi or or 1− 81Ntb = sin φi f f 2 cos2 φi 81 Ntb = (18. Therefore n f sin φ f = sin φi (18. the wave turns back and returns to the Earth’s surface.104) (18.105) n≅ = where N is expressed in electrons/cc and f in kHz4 .103) n= εr = as discussed. Since at any point in the ionosphere. Nmax = (Ntb )max that is f2 (18. Therefore there is a point above the earth where the ray is parallel to the earth’s surface and the angle of refraction becomes 90◦ or sin φ f = 1.
08 which makes fMUF. From Equation 18. if we allow allow Ntb to take on the value of Nmax then the √ factror 9 Nmax may be replaced by fcr the critical frequency which means that f takes on a value higher than the critical frequency.8 degrees) and sec φi (max) = 4. If we look at the problem of reﬂection from the ionosphere in another way.20 and suﬀers reﬂection. It turns out that the this frequency is still not the maximum usable frequency. This maximum frequency is fmax = fMUF = fcr sec φi which greater than the critical frequency and is called the maximum usable frequency. If launch a wave horizontally it meets the ionospheric layer at height h as shown in Figure 18.: Diagram for fMUF max which is reﬂected back from that layer is termed the critical frequency and is fcr = 9 Nmax (18. Then sin φi (max) = and the fMUF. max = 4.323 radians (75.18.20.107. max = fcr sec φi (max) (18. R R+h (18.20.109) where Nmax is the maximum ionisation density of that layer5 . 556 .08 fcr . Radio Wave Propagation Ionosph eric l aye r Earth Figure 18. f = 9 Ntb sec φi In this equation. then φi (max) = 1.111) thus if the reﬂection occurs at 200 km. However note that φi has the meaning of an angle which the ray makes with the normal at the point of reﬂection in the ionosphere as shown in Figure 18.110) ∆ 5 It is obvious that N will be maximum when f is maximum.
units are given.1. If the unit of a particular symbol is not given then in that case units are either obvious or irrevelent. List of Symbols A. Wherever it is considered important. In some places the page numbers and equation numbers are included. Symbol ∂x etc a b a b a b Meaning ∂/∂x Column Vector Column Vector Row vector Row vector Determinant Determinant a b a c a c a c a c b d b d b d b d Matrix Matrix 557 .A. Commonly Use Symbols and Nomenclature In the following list the roman typefaced symbols are given ﬁrst. followed by greek symbols and some deﬁnitions. are given last.
see equation (12. page 113 directivity. see equation (1.60). page 61 transpose of a matrix. page 61 magnitude of a vector.7). (m/s2 ) a vector ﬁeld a.55).60). see equation (1. page 354 energy. page 393 a distance or separation a diﬀerential linear vector element a diﬀerential surface vector element a diﬀerential volume element electric ﬁeld.1). page 495 dissipation factor.4). page 313 a typical vector. page 369 eﬀective area of an antenna. see equation (16. see equation (12. page 365 electric ﬂux density. page 499 558 . see equation (12. t) a sinusoidal vector ﬁeld. page 7 ˜ a(t) Ae where B C c D D D d dl dS dV E E E magnetic ﬂux density. page 15 unit vector. + P.9). page 15 ˜ A (R.Speciﬁc Symbols [A] [A]t A ˆ A A matxix. see equation (16. typical scalers.45). see equation (9. page 418 velocity of light. page 113 induced emf generated in a closed loop immersed in a timevarying magnetic ﬁeld.E.E.70)...8). see equation (13. page 15 acceleration. . . a sine or cosine function. Generally the total energy = K. b. see equation (1. page 372 A A a A(r) Vector potential. page 113 distributed capacitance per meter in a transmission line.
see equation (16. page 493 G g H I(z) I. (N) a vector ﬁeld magnetomotive force. see equation (14.52). page 495 F F(r) F f force. page 380 a general constant propagation constants in the x and y directions in a rectangular waveguide.40). see equation (16. page 418 inductance. page 418 acceleration due to gravity (m/s2 ) magnetic ﬁeld. k y L L L l. I− J j Jn (x) K k k kx . see equation (15. i I+ . page 113 √ −1 kinetic energy Freespace proagation constant. page 215 Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n order.41). (= 2π/λ) . φ) normalised function in spherical coordinates which describes the electric or magnetic ﬁeld.30).56). page 426 current density. page 469 559 . page 429 current. List of Symbols e charge on an electron (C). see equation (11.A.68). page 113 total current ﬂowing in a conductor (with the higher potential) of a transmission line. see equation (14. page 385 fn (θ. φ) normalised electric ﬁeld pattern of an antenna. θ. (kg) mass of an electron mass of a proton carrier charge density. Unit (A) amplitudes of the forward and backward current waves. . L M m me mp n distributed conductance per meter in a transmission line. page 461 a line over which an integration is performed distributed inducance per meter in a transmission line. page 125 En (r. page 347 frequency. (H) lengths as along a line mass (kg) mass.
page 491 P+ .122). ∆S. φ). φ) magnitude of the poynting vector of an antenna as a function of spherical coordinates (r. page 427 Pav Pave average power ﬂow in a transmission line. φ) radiation intensity. page 499 total power radiated by an antenna.61). see equation (13. page 491 pec Pt . see equation (16. see equation (16. page 88 S ˆ t T t t u a surface over which an integration is performed unit vector which is tangent to a curve.. page 427 average power density radiated by an antenna (W/m2 ). page 14 position vector. θ. θ. page 52 time the real part of the reﬂection coeﬃcient. page 418 resistance. see equation (14. page 496 Pn (θ. page 495 560 . φ) normalised power pattern of an antenna. see equation (14. θ. page 438 U(θ. φ Rr r′ perfect electric conductor. q r r R R R r r. page 51 reluctance.38).59). Pr PT Q. page 402 transmitted and received power by antennas. . see equation (14. ∆S concerning diﬀerential surface elements.68). Γ. Unit (Ω) normalised resistance. page 437 spherical coordinate system Radiation resistance. see equation (11.66). page 347 distributed resistance per meter in a transmission line. see equation (16.45).65). List of Symbols NA P P P Avagadro’s number polarisation density the Poynting vector. page 80 one period of time (= 2π/ω).A. page 387 a parameter. A conductor in which σ → ∞. see equation (16. P− Power in the forward and reverse waves respectively in a transmission line. page 484 position vector where charges or currents lie ∆S. page 410 potential energy P(r. page 125 is the position vector of a point in 3space. page 490 charges (C). The real part of Zin .50).
see equation (1. Γ. see equation (1. see equation (14. page 365 the nabla operator. page 33 shunt distributed admittance in a transmission line ( /m). see equation (11.46). γ direction cosines. see equation (12. page 13 admittance.18). page 94 velocity (m/s). the attenuation constant. page 437 Cartesian coordinates.124).66).3). The imaginary part of Zin . see equation (14.21). see equation (14.65)..65). page 98 α. Unit (V) sometimes used for volume when the symbol V is being used for the potential in the same equation the imaginary part of the reﬂection coeﬃcient.41). see equation (13. page 251 energy density of the electric ﬁeld. page 337 unit vector in the ’x’ direction. page 438 total voltage across the two conductors in a transmission line. page 251 energy stored in the magnetic ﬁeld. page 421 Zin . ΓL = V− /V+ . page 32 a volume over which an integration is performed voltage or potential. ( ).34). page 429 V+ .22).A. page 425 W We we Wm wm ax x x.13). β. z Y Y work done to move charges. page 13 normalised conductance. y. V− amplitudes of the forward and backward voltage waves. see equation (6. page 250 energy stored in the electric ﬁeld. see equation (14. (Ω) series distributed impedance in a transmission line (Ω/m).. of transmission lines (Neppers/m). page 421 Characteristic impedence of a medium or free space respectively .39). see equation (11. Z normalised input impedence of transmission lines. see equation (14. see equation (2. Z0 ZL α ∇2 ∇ impedance. page 422 the Laplacian. page 50 561 . page 437 Z Z Z. page 429 real part of the complex propagation constant. List of Symbols ∆V v V V v v V(z) diﬀerential volume element. page 382 load impedence of a transmission line. page 337 energy density of the magnetic ﬁeld.
page 497 radian frequency. see equation (13. page 392 permittivity. see equation (14. page 157 magnetic ﬂux. see equation (14.31).65). page 422 the reﬂection coeﬃcient anywhere along the line for the zcoordinate. see equation (1. page 429 free space wavelength. see equation (16.43).43).56). see equation (15. page 29 cutoﬀ (radian) frequency of a waveguide.29). page 395 a small increment in x. see equation (4. z cylindrical coordinates. page 427 reﬂection coeﬃcient at the load impedence of a transmission line. page 334 unit vector along the ρ direction in cylindrical coordinates . see equation (11. see equation (13.18). ρm ρv mobile volume charge density. skin depth. page 392 imaginary part of the complex permittivity. page 113 relative dielectric constant. page 113 beam area. φ. z.55). see equation (4. . page 334 permeability. page 159 permittivity. see equation (13. It may or may not be equal to k . see equation (11.A.49). page 380 electric susceptibility. page 384 wavelength in the guide or transmission line. page 392 complex permittivity.4). page 466 a scalar ﬁeld ﬂux.65). List of Symbols β χe δ ∆x δij ǫ′ ǫ′′ ǫC ǫ ε ǫr γ Γ(z) ΓL λ λg λ µ Ω ω ω ωcmn Φ(r) Ψ Ψm aρ the propagation constant of a transmission line or wave. see equation (4. page 59 ρ. page 113 562 .43). page 214 charge density. page 425 total ﬂux linkages in an inductor.50).35). δij =1 for i = j otherwise it is zero real part of the complex permittivity.5). see equation (13. page 159 complex propagation constant of transmission lines. (rad/s) rotational speed in rad/sec. see equation (14.
curl and laplacian.A. page 100 L L k2 − β2. page 139 conductivity of a material.37).. page 391 sometimes used for surface charge density. page 24 ζ= ∇Φ. List of Symbols ρl ρs Σ σ σ A•B ζ linear charge density C/m. page 21 A × B cross product between two vectors. . . V . see equation (4.. ∇ • F. page 126 surface charge density C/m2 .. page 91 line integral over a vector ﬁeld line integral over a scalar ﬁeld S F • dS S . divergence. .. page 469 . see equation (13. page 93 ABCD B F(r) • dr A B Φ(r)dR A 563 . ∇ × F.2). page 227 dot product between two vectors. .24). dl line integral over a loop L dS surface integral over a surface S dS surface integral over a closed surface S dV volume integral over a volume V Φ(r)dS surface integral. Φ= ﬂux through a surface. dl line integral over a line L .. page 126 a system of charges. S . see equation (1. see equation (1.. ∇2 Φ gradient...1).16). see equation (4.
a j = ax or a y or az ˆ ˆ ai . z) while cylindrical coordinates are (ρ.6) 564 .4) cos(φ) sin(φ) = − sin(φ) cos(φ) 0 0 cos(φ) − sin(φ) = sin(φ) cos(φ) 0 0 (B.1.1) (B. φ. a j = aρ or aφ or az (B.B. y.5) (B. Rectangular to Cylindrical.3) ρ= φ= z= aρ aφ az ax ay az x2 + y2 arctan(y/x) z ax ay az 0 aρ 0 aφ 1 az 0 0 1 (B. Coordinate Systems B. Cylindrical to Rectangular The rectangular coordinate system is represented by (x. × ax ay az ax 0 −az ay ay az 0 −ax az −a y ax 0 aρ aφ az × aρ 0 az aφ x= y= z= aφ az 0 −aρ ρ cos φ ρ sin φ z az −aφ aρ 0 (B. z) ˆ ˆ ai • a j = δij ˆ ˆ ai • a j = δij ˆ ˆ ai .2) Where δij = 1 for i = j otherwise it is zero.
z) while spherical coordinates are (r.12) ax sin θ cos φ cos θ cos φ a sin θ sin φ cos θ sin φ y = az cos θ − sin θ ar a θ aφ (B. The φ coordinate in both systems are identical ρ = r sin θ φ=φ z = r cos θ (B.10) B. φ). a j = ar or aθ or aφ (B. φ.7) Where δij = 1 for i = j otherwise it is zero. z) while spherical coordinates are (r. Spherical to Rectangular The rectangular coordinate system is represented by (x. θ. φ) ˆ ˆ ai • a j = δij ˆ ˆ ai .8) arccos √ x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z= r cos θ ar sin θ cos φ sin θ sin φ cos θ aθ = cos θ cos φ cos θ sin φ − sin θ aφ − sin φ cos φ 0 − sin φ cos φ 0 ax ay az (B.2.11) r= φ=φ ρ2 + z2 (B. y.9) (B. Coordinate Systems B. × ar 0 −aφ aθ aθ aφ 0 −ar aφ −aθ ar 0 x 2 + y 2 + z2 arccos √ z x2 +y2 +z2 x x2 +y2 ar aθ aφ r ≡ R = θ = arccos(z/r) = φ = arccos(x/ρ) = (B. Spherical and Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinate system is represented by (ρ. θ.13) θ = arctan(ρ/z) 565 .3. Rectangular to Spherical.B.
16) ∂A y ∂Ax ∂Ax ∂Az ∂Az ∂A y − − − ax + ay + az ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ax ay az ∇ × A = ∂/∂x ∂/∂y ∂/∂z Ax Ay Az ∇•A = ∇2 Φ = ∂Ax ∂A y ∂Az + + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂2 Φ ∂2 Φ ∂2 Φ + + ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z2 (B. Cylindrical Coordinates ∇Φ = ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ∂Φ aρ + aφ + az ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z (B. Curl and Laplacian in Different Coordinate Systems B.19) (B.14) aρ = aθ cos θ + ar sin θ aφ = aφ az = −aθ sin θ + ar cos θ (B. Grad.17) (B. Coordinate Systems ar = az cos θ + aρ sin θ aθ = −az sin θ + aρ cos θ aφ = aφ (B.B.15) B.20) (B.4.2.22) ∂Aρ ∂Az ∂Aρ 1 ∂ ρAφ 1 ∂Az ∂Aφ − − − aρ +CoordinateSystems aφ + ∇×A = az ρ ∂φ ∂z ∂z ∂ρ ρ ∂ρ ∂φ (B.24) 566 .4. Div.4.1.18) (B. Cartesian Coordinate ∇Φ = ∇×A = ∂Φ ∂Φ ∂Φ ax + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z (B.21) ∇2 A = ∇2 Ax ax + ∇2 A y a y + ∇2 Az az B.23) ∇•A = 1 ∂ ρAρ 1 ∂Aφ ∂Az + + ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z (B.
Coordinate Systems 1 ∂ ∂Φ 1 ∂2 Φ ∂2 Φ + ρ + 2 ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ2 ∂z2 ∇2 Φ = (B.3.29) 567 .28) 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ∂Φ ar + aθ + aφ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (B. Spherical Coordinates ∇Φ = Coordinate Systems 1 1 ∂Ar ∂ rAφ ∂Aθ 1 ∂ sin θAφ − − ∇×A = ar + r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r 1 ∂ (rAθ ) ∂Ar − aφ aθ + r ∂r ∂θ (B.25) B.26) 2 1 ∂ (sin θAθ ) 1 ∂Aφ 1 ∂ r Ar + + ∇•A = 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r ∇2 Φ = 1 ∂ 2 ∂Φ ∂ 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂2 Φ r + 2 sin θ + ∂r ∂θ r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (B.4.27) (B.B.
and C are vector ﬁelds. C.2. b.1. Gradient ∇ (a + b) = ∇a + ∇b ∇ (ab) = b∇a + a∇b ∇ (a/b) = 1 ∇a − ba2 ∇b = b b∇a−a∇b b2 ∇ (an ) = na(n−1) ∇a ∇ (A • B) = (A • ∇) B + (B • ∇) A + A × (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A) C.2.1461 C. When a vector ﬁeld is a constant then ∇ • (· · · ) and ∇ × (· · · ) yield zero results.1. f (x) = f (a) + f ′ (a)(x − a) + f ′′(a) (x−a)2 2 2 .2.. B. f (x) = f (0) + f ′ (0)x + f ′′ (0) x .1. 2 About x = a. Vector Identities In the following equations A. General C.1. Important Constants e = 2.C. Taylor’s Series Expansion About x = 0.1.2. C.2. and c are scalar ﬁelds. Mathematical Reference C.7183 π = 3.3. while a.2. Curl ∇ × (aA) = ∇a × A + a∇ × A ∇ × (A + B) = ∇ × A + ∇ × B 568 . . When a scalar ﬁeld is a constant then ∇(· · · ) gives a zero result. . General A • (B × C) = B • (C × A) = C • (A × B) A × (B × C) = (A • C) B − (A • B) C C..
4. z2 respectively (z1 .5. z2 ).2.C. r1 = a2 + b2 . Double ∇ • (∇a × ∇b) = 0 ∇ • (∇a) = (∇ • ∇) a = ∇2 a ∇ • (∇ × A) = 0 ∇ × (∇a) = 0 ∇2 (a + b) = ∇2 a + ∇2 b ∇2 (ab) = a∇2 b + 2∇a • ∇b + b∇2a ∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇ (∇ • A) − (∇ • ∇) A ∇ • (a∇b − b∇a) = a∇2 b − b∇2 a C. The absolute value has three important properties z ≥ 0.3. General If z1 = a + jb = r1 e jθ1 = r1 (cos θ1 + j sin θ1 ) and z2 = c + jd = r2 e jθ2 = r2 (cos θ2 + j sin θ2 ) √ √ √ where j = −1. Complex Variables C.2. r2 are the absolute values or magnitudes of z1 . Mathematical Reference C.1. Divergence ∇ • (A + B) = ∇ • A + ∇ • B ∇ • (aA) = (∇a) • A + a∇ • A ∇ • (A × B) = B • ∇ × A − A • ∇ × B ∇ × (A × B) = A∇ • B − B∇ • A − (A • ∇)B + (B • ∇)A C. where z = 0 if and only if z = 0 z + w ≤ z + w (triangle inequality) z · w = z · w 569 .3. and θ2 = tan−1 (d/c) then z1 + z2 = (a + jb) + (c + jd) = (a + c) + j(b + d) z1 − z2 = (a + jb) − (c + jd) = (a − c) + j(b − d) (a+jb) (c+jd) z1 · z2 = (a + jb) × (c + jd) = ac + jbc + jad + bd j2 = (ac − bd) + j(bc + ad) = r1 r2 e j(θ1 +θ2 ) z1 /z2 = = ac+bd c2 +d2 +j bc−ad c2 +d2 = (r1 /r2 )e j(θ1 −θ2 ) C. θ1 = tan−1 (b/a). Inequalities r1 .2. r2 = c2 + d2 .3.
C. Double angle formulae sin(2a) = 2 sin a cos a = 2 tan a/(1 + tan2 a) cos(2a) = cos2 a − sin2 a = 1 − 2 sin2 a = 2 cos2 a − 1 = (1 − tan2 a)/(1 + tan2 a) tan(2a) = (2 tan a)/(1 − tan2 a) 570 . z∗ has the properties (z + w)∗ = z∗ + w∗ (z · w)∗ = z∗ · w∗ (z/w)∗ = z∗ /w∗ (z∗ )∗ = z 1 ℜ(z) = 2 (z + z∗) ℑ(z) = 1 (z − z∗) 2 z = z∗  z2 = z · z∗ C. Trigonometry C. Mathematical Reference C.2. Basic formulae sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 tan2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ 1 + cot2 θ = csc2 θ csc θ = 1/ sin θ. sec θ = 1/ cos θ.4.C. tan θ = 1/ cot θ tan θ = sin θ/ cos θ sin (π/2 − θ) = cos θ.4.3. Euler’s Identity cos θ + j sin θ = eiθ . tan (π/2 − θ) = cot θ sin (−θ) = − sin θ.3. Sum and difference formulae cos(a ± b) = cos a cos b ∓ sin a sin b sin(a ± b) = sin a cos b ± cos a sin b tan(a ± b) = (tan a ± tanb)/(1 ∓ tana tan b) C. Complex conjugates The complex conjugate of the complex number z∗ = (x + jy)∗ = x − jy.4. cos (−θ) = cos θ.1. cos (π/2 − θ) = sin θ.3.4.4. tan (−θ) = − tan θ C.3.
4. b and c. 2 1−cos(2a) 1+cos(2a) .4. sin2 (a) = cos2 (a) = tan2 (a) = 1−cos(2a) 2 1+cos(2a) 2 1−cos(2a) 1+cos(2a) C. Differentiation c is a constant. B and C. Powers of the trigonometric functions sin3 θ = 1 (3 sin θ − sin3θ) 4 1 cos3 θ = 4 (3 cos θ + cos3θ) 1 sin4 θ = 8 (cos (4 θ) − 4 cos (2 θ) + 3) cos4 θ = 1 (cos (4 θ) + 4 cos (2 θ) + 3) 8 C.4.6.7.C. Product to sum formulae 1 sin(a) sin(b) = 2 [cos(a − b) − cos(a + b)] 1 cos(a) cos(b) = 2 [cos(a − b) + cos(a + b)] 1 sin(a) cos(b) = 2 [sin(a − b) − + sin(a + b)] C. Half angle formulae sin(a) = cos(a) = tan(a) = 1−cos(2a) .4.5. Sum and difference to product sin(a) + sin(b) = 2 sin sin(a) − sin(b) = 2 cos cos(a) + cos(b) = 2 cos cos(a) − cos(b) = 2 sin a+b 2 a+b 2 a+b 2 a+b 2 cos sin cos sin a−b 2 a−b 2 a−b 2 a−b 2 A sin(a) + B cos(a) = C sin(a + φ) where C = √ A2 + B2 and φ = tan−1 B A C. then a/ sin A = b/ sin B = c/ sin C a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A b2 = a2 + c2 − 2ac cos B c2 = b2 + a2 − 2ba cos C C. Triangle Formulae If in a triangle of sides a. the angles opposite these sides are A.4.8. 2 1+cos(2a) . Mathematical Reference C.5. f and g are functions 571 .4.
c 0 1 (ln x) = 1 . x> x x )′ = xx (1 + lnx) (x (sin x)′ = cos x (arcsin x)′ = (arccosx)′ = (cos x)′ = − sin x √1 1−x2 √ −1 1−x2 ′ = sec2 x = 1 (tan x) cos2 x ′= 1 (arctan x) 1+x2 (sec x)′ = sec x tan x (arcsecx)′ = (csc x)′ = − cscx cot x −1 (arccscx)′ = √ 2 x)′ √1 x x2 −1 x x −1 (cot = − csc2 x = −1 sin2 x −1 ′ (arccotx) = 1+x2 x −x (sinh x)′ = cosh x = e +e 2 572 . Mathematical Reference C. 1 = x−1 = −x−2 = − x2 c −cx−c−1 = − xc+1 ′ c>0 (ex )′ = ex logc x = ′ ′ 1 x ln c . Rules cf ′ = cf′ f + g ′ = f ′ + g′ f g ′ = f ′ g + f g′ 1 ′ f f ′ g = = −f′ f2 f (g) Derivative of inverse function: ( f −1 )′ = Generalised power rule ( f g )′ = f g g′ ln f ′ g− f g′ g2 ′ = f ′ g′ 1 [example f ′ ( f −1 ) g f + f f′ (ln x)′ = 1 eln x 1 = x] C.5.2. Differentiation of Functions c′ = 0 x′ = 1 (cx)′ = c (xc )′ = cxc−1 1 ′ x 1 ′ −c ′ xc = (x ) = (cx )′ = cx ln c.5.C.1. c > 0.
Indeﬁnite Integrals a.6. Integration C. Common Substitutions f (ax + b)dx = 1 f (u)du where u = ax + b a √ √ n n f ax + b dx = n un−1 f (u) du where u = ax + b a √ a2 − x2 dx = a f (a cos u) cos u du where x = a sin u f √ f x2 + a2 dx = a f (a sec u) sec2 u du where x = a tan u √ f x2 − a2 dx = a f (a tan u) sec u tan u du where x = a sec u C. b. Mathematical Reference (arcsinh x)′ = (arccosh x)′ = √1 x2 +1 ex −e−x 2 √1 x2 −1 2 (cosh x)′ = sinh x = (tanh x)′ = sech x 1 (arctanhx)′ = 1−x2 (sech x)′ = − tanh x (sech x)′ = − tanh x sech x (arcsechx)′ = (arccschx)′ = (csch x)′ = − coth x csch x −1 √ x 1+x2 2 −1 √ x 1−x2 (coth x)′ = − csch x 1 (arccothx)′ = 1−x2 C. c are constants.2.C. w are functions of t adt = at a f (t)dx = a f (t)dt udt ± vdt ± wdt ± · · · (u ± v ± w ± · · ·) dx = f (at)dt = 1 a udv = uv − vdu f (u)du F(u) f ′ (t) du a−bt dx = − balog a e−at dx = − e a F{ f (t)}dt = F(u) dxt du = du n+1 t n −1 tn dx = n+1 ln t n = −1 −at −b t 573 . v.6.6.1. u.
use t a dt = 1 arctan a udv = uv − vdu log(t2 ±a2 ) t dt = 2 t2 ±a2 t2 t dt = t − a arctan a t2 +a2 log(t−a) log(t+a) 1 dt = 2 a − 2 a t2 −a2 a log(t−a) a log(t+a) t2 + dt − 2 2 t2 −a2 +t √ √ 1 dt = log 2 t2 − a2 + 2 t t2 −a2 √ √ t dt = t2 ± a2 2 2 t ±a √ 1 dt = a2 −t2 √ 1 dt = t2 +a2 1 arcsin sinh−1 a2 t a t a (a2 −t2 ) 2 1 3 dt = √t a2 −t2 a2 ( 3 t2 −a2 2 ) dt = − dt = a2 √t t2 −a2 1 t (t2 +a2 ) 2 (t2 +a2 ) 2 ( ) 3 √t t2 +a2 t +a2 t a 3 dt = − √ 21 b log t + 2 for 4c − b2 = 0 √ 1 dt = sinh−1 √2 t+b 2 for 4c − b2 > 0 t2 +b t+c √ 4 c−b log 2 t2 + b t + c + 2 t + b for 4c − b2 < 0 − sin−1 √b−2 t for b2 + 4c > 0 4 c+b2 √ 1 dt=− j sinh−1 √ 2 t−b for b2 + 4c < 0 −t2 +b t+c −4 c−b2 j ln x − b for b2 + 4c = 0 2 2b 4t 2 0 4 c−b2 √t2 +b t+c + 4 c−b2 √t2 +b t+c for 4c − b ( ) ) ( 1 1 3 dt= 2=0 − for 4c − b (t2 +b t+c) 2 b 2 2 t+ 2 t2 3 2 +a2 2 t dt = sinh−1 − √ t t2 +a2 574 . Mathematical Reference sin(at + b) dt = − 1 cos(at + b) a f ′ (t) f (t) dt = cos(at + b) dt = 1 sin(at + b) a ln f (t) tan(at + b) = cot(at + b) = sec(at + b) = tn e−at dt 1 t2 +a2 ln[sec(a t+b)] ln[cos(a t+b)] =− a a ln[sin(a t+b)] a ln[tan(a t+b)+sec(a t+b)] a n = positive integer.C.
C. Mathematical Reference 4t 2b 2 0 (−4 c−b2 ) √−t2 +b t+c − (−4 c−b2 ) √−t2 +b t+c for 4c + b 1 dt= j 3 − for 4c + b2 = 0 (−t2 +b t+c) 2 2 t− b 2 2 √ 4 c − b2 −1 2 arctan √2 t+b for 4c − b2 > 0 2 1 √ 4 c−b dt= √ t2 +b t+c b2 − 4 c −1 log 2 t− √b2 −4 c+b for 4c − b2 < 0 eβ x eβx sin α t + φ dt = [β sin(α t+φ)−α cos(α t+φ)] β2 +α2 2 t+ b2 −4 c+b eβx cos α t + φ dt = eβ x [α sin(α t+ϕ)+β cos(α t+ϕ)] β2 +α2 575 .
phyastr. Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis. Kreyszig. IEE. and Samarskii A..P. Norton. Proceedings of the IRE. 1988. 1203–. Chand and Company. 28. 1996. 576 . Asia. Dover Publications. P. S. E. 8th edn. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. The Propagation of Waves in Wireless Telegraphy. S. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems.. Davis. T. 2003. J. IEEE Spectrum. McGraw Hill International Editions. Kraus. 24. Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: measurements in coaxial transmission lines.M Hall. of Surrey). Dover Publications. Ferromagnetism. Richard P. Sommerfeld. McGraw Hill Book Co. Smith. & Stix. G. Bowman. M. K. & Sands. 574–582. IRE. & Finney. & Balmain. Singapore.Bibliography . A. B.. R. J. A Transmission Line Calculator. Robert B. The Propagation of Waves Over the Surface of the Earth and In the Upper Atmosphere. Norton. Narayan. Prentice Hall of India. The propagation of waves over the surface of the Earth and in the upper atmosphere. Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. Spiegel. Published on the Internet by Georgia State University. Schaum Outline Series.N. D. R. P. P. 2001. 1966. 7th edn. Equations of Mathematical Physics. 1939. A. Sze. Frank. Pearson Education. N. 3(3). 12(1). 1909. Annelen der Physik. B. 29–31. 9th edn.M. N. 2nd edn. Manheimer. Thomas. Introduction to Bessel Functions. Antennas. L. 16(3). 1969. K. L. 1968. S. 25. 2001. 1963. Shanti. 1974. published on the Internet.edu. Plasma Science and the Evironment. A. N. Tikhonov. C. 1977. Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers Takes a Stand on Units. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. (eds). Lebedev. Jordan. Physics of Semiconductor Devices. AIP Press. Worked Problems in Applied Mathematics. Propagation of Radio Waves. 1937. 1996. 164. Hewitt. 665–. K. John Wiley and Sons (Asia). I. A. John Wiley. E. 2nd edn. Feynman. 1980. Leighton. 1367. R. M. 2001. /hyperphysics. H. Slalskaya. & Annan. Dover Publications. 1979.gsu. Matthew. Electronics. G. 1936. Magnetic properties of materials. 1968. Y. M. Barrow. & Uflyand. Narosa Publishing House..T. A. Water Resources Research. Clarke (University. The Feynman Lectures on Physics— Volume 2. Proc. L. Sugiyama.
6th edn. Jr. IEEE Transactions MTT. 577 . 2001. W. TataMcgraw Hill. Man S. 631–647. H. 25. & Buck. 2004. John Wiley and Sons. Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices. Hayt. Transmissionline Properties of a Strip on a Dielectric Sheet on a Plane.Bibliography Tyagi. 1977. Egineering Electromagnetics. A. A. H. J. Wheeler.
395 Charge distributions. Circular loop. 324 Charge on an electron. magnetic ﬁeld. 125–ﬀ. 94 Coordinate systems Reference. 230–ﬀ. and B. 225 Conductors. 243–ﬀ. power pattern of. 316–ﬀ.. 239 Conduction band. 299– ﬀ. magnetic ﬁeld. 274 Angle between to vectors. capacitance/m. vector potential. capicitance of. 338 Circular polarisation. Coaxial line. 65 volume elements in. 79–ﬀ.Index IMPORTANT NOTE. Coaxial lines. 467–ﬀ. Coil. 494 B and Biot Savart law. 269–ﬀ. Calculus concepts. vector ﬁelds. Coordinate systems cylindricalEND. cutoﬀ frequencies. inductance of. Capacitance. inductance of. 214–ﬀ. 303–ﬀ. 285–ﬀ. 470 Coaxial line. BiotSavart Law. B. 334–ﬀ. 470 TM modes. 125 Charge. applied to a straight wire. inductance of. 240 Capicitance of concentric spheres. 569 Concentric spheres. Laplace’s equation.. 219–ﬀ. 238–ﬀ. Bessel functions. leaving a closed surface. magnetic ﬂux density. ﬁelds. 56 rectangularSTART. 312–ﬀ. Ampere. 382 Characteristic impedance (complex). 386 Circular waveguide. and Laplace’s equation. coaxial line. 233–ﬀ. 471 TE modes. 564– 578 . 285–ﬀ. 316–ﬀ. 239 Characteristic impedance. cutoﬀ frequencies. 221–ﬀ. –ﬀ. 234–ﬀ. Continuity equation. 49 Antenna. 236–ﬀ. Boundary conditions for electrostatic ﬁelds. 218–ﬀ. 56 rectangularEND. 392 Complex permittivity. Charge. inﬁnite. Coaxial line. applied to a. 400–ﬀ. Conductor in an electrostatic ﬁeld. 70 sphericalSTART. Boundary conditions. of. 239 Capicitance of a sphere. Charge motion. discussion of. of coaxial line. 312 Bands in semiconductors. means and the following pages. 230 Conduction in metals. Andre Marie. 392 Complex propagation constant. 393 Complex variables formulas. 237 Capacitance. 471 TM modes. Capacitance. 217–ﬀ. 335–ﬀ. 126–ﬀ. 458 Coil. 576 Ampere’s law. Capacitance. 5 Analytic functions. 96 Calculus. BiotSavart law. of parallel plate capacitor. TE modes. 48 sphericalEND. 469 Biot Savart law. Complex dielectric constant. 236–ﬀ. B = ∇ × A. Capacitance. of two conductor line. 65 cylindricalSTART.
radiation from a. 233 e. 81 Diﬀerential element. deﬁnition of. 221 Coulomb’s law. ∇•A. 100 ∇2 . 24 Dot productSTART. Diﬀerential element. Gauss’s law. deﬁnition of. Coordinate systemsEND. ∂ D. 146– ﬀ. 139–ﬀ. 159 D = ε0 E+P. 191–ﬀ. gradient. 568 Eﬀective aperture. 483 Current element. 57 displacement current density. 393 Distance between points. ∇φ. 59 Cylindrical coordinates. 111 Divergence. ∇ • (∇ × A) = 0. 125 Curl. Poynting vector. 320 Current sheet. equations describing. 156–ﬀ. ∇ × E. 58 Cylindrical coordinatesEND. 57 Cylindrical coordinates. 178–ﬀ. 226 Electric ﬁeld plot. polar plot. 232–ﬀ. 70 Coordinate systemsSTART. 65 Cylindrical coordinatesSTART. equation leading to electric potential. 110– ﬀ. 312–ﬀ. 403 E × H. Electric ﬁeld direction and potential. 159 εr = 1 + χe. linear. Divergence theorem. 423 Divergence. ∂t ∇ • D. 111 ∇ • B = 0. deﬁnition of. 476–ﬀ. Ampere’s law. Current element. 217–ﬀ. 360 D and E. 94 Diﬀerentiation formulae. 293–ﬀ. power radiated by. 244– ﬀ. magnetic ﬁeld. ∇ • J. rectangular coordinates in. Diﬀerences in potential. magnetic ﬁeld. deﬁnition of. 21 Dot product. ∇ × A. ∇. 50 Directivity. deﬁnition of. deﬁnition of. table of. 100–ﬀ. unit vectors of. Current carrying loop. 194–ﬀ. 233 ∇ × H = J. divergence. 212–ﬀ. E ﬁeld across a boundary tangential component. conductivity of. Faraday’s law. 129–ﬀ. 325 Cylindrical coordinates. 495 Dissipation factor. 100 Current. 98–ﬀ. 101–ﬀ. pair of line charges. Current density. 219–ﬀ. 192 Electric ﬁeld from the potential function. surface of. relationship between. 224–ﬀ. 200 579 . 100 Dot product. 57 Cylindrical coordinates. value of. ∇Φ. 49 Distortion less transmission line. Cyclotron frequency. 308– ﬀ. Current loop. Curl. 291–ﬀ. deﬁnition of. 499 Electric ﬁeld (integral) due to a general charge distribution. deﬁnition of. 110–ﬀ. cross products of unit vectors. 355 ∂t ε. deﬁnition of. 48 Copper. square. curl. 194–ﬀ. commutative property of..Index ﬀ. deﬁnition of. 100 Dielectric constants of materials.. 79. rectangular coordinates. ∇ × (∇Φ) = 0. Electric ﬁeld on a metal surface. 212–ﬀ. 21 Drift velocity. polarisation in dielectrics. Electric ﬁeld across a boundary. 88 Diﬀerential volume element. 307 Current carrying straight wire using Ampere’s law. electric. Coulomb. Direction cosines. 412 E = −N ∂Ψm . 104–ﬀ. 2 Dielectrics. 106 ∇. 571 Dipole. 104–ﬀ. 23 Dot productEND. continuity equation. deﬁnition of.
normalised power pattern. polar plot of farﬁelds. 354 Grad. Div. Equipotential surfaces. current density. Ohm’s law. 100 Gradient. 185 Equipotential surfaces. Michael. 334–ﬀ. magnetic. scalar and vector ﬁeldsSTART. 491 Halfwave dipole. 1 ΓL . 92–ﬀ. Inductance of a coaxial line. 334 Force. applied to a coaxial line. Flux. magnetic ﬁeld. 389 Energy density stored in the electric ﬁeld. 385 Friis’ transmission formula. from the line integral of the current. 188 Electron motion. straight wire. 323 Far ﬁeld approximation for A. Inductance of circular loop. between charges. 251 Energy stored in the electric ﬁeld. Gradient. straight conductor. 156–ﬀ. 228–ﬀ. Helmholtz’s Equation. scalar and vector ﬁeldsEND. 138 Electric ﬁeld. Gauss’s law. 246–ﬀ. Elliptical polarisation. 488 Halfwave dipole. table of. Faraday. Electric ﬁeld. magnetic. 333–ﬀ. 187–ﬀ. 136–ﬀ. 248–ﬀ. method of. J = σE. pair of line charges. IEEE microwave band designations. deﬁnition of. 353–ﬀ. Heinrich. 248– ﬀ. 5 History of electromagnetics. 214–ﬀ. 251 Electric ﬁeld. the vector potential. sheet charge. 347 Flux. Inductance. 129–ﬀ. 497 J. deﬁnition of. 411 Energy density stored in the magnetic ﬁeld. table of. Curl and Laplacian in diﬀerent coordinate systems textbf(formulae). 213–ﬀ. Frequency spectrum. displacement current density. 361 Laplace’s equation applied to two concentric metal spheres. Flux. Electric ﬁeld. 2 H. 154 Electromagnetic induction. farﬁelds. 499 Fundamental constants. 101–ﬀ. Halfwave dipole. Jd . Energy.Index Electric ﬁeld. Lorentz force. 338 Integral property of gradient. Inductance of a coil. Micheal. electric ﬁeld. 103 Greek alphabet. energy density of. 354 Electron motion in an electrostatic ﬁeld. 306 Fields. magnetic ﬁeld. 318 Faraday’s law. Electric ﬁeld. 335–ﬀ. electric ﬁeld. 199 F = q(E + v × B). 124–ﬀ. 48 Fields. 573 Isotropic radiator. integral property of. magnetic ﬁeld. 429 Gauss’s law. 299– ﬀ. 411 Energy density. gravitational ﬁeld analogy. electric. 103 Integration formulae. 160–ﬀ. 221–ﬀ. reﬂection coeﬃcient at the load. Halfwave dipole. potential energy in the electric ﬁeld. 285–ﬀ. 373–ﬀ. 324 Electrostatics. Hertz. electrostatic. metaldielectric interface. 353 Field lines. 270 580 . deﬁnition of. inﬁnite. magnetic ﬁeld. concept of. linked by an inductor. 485–ﬀ. 142 Field lines. 386 Images. 296 Field lines. 489 Helix. energy stored in. 566 Gradient. 5 Faraday. 44 Flux. 236 Generators. 5 I and J.
344–ﬀ. 267 Laplace’s equation. 161–ﬀ. 354 Line charge. 307 Loop. 1. equation of. Laplacian. Parallel plate transmission line. 84 Line. 5 Metal in an electrostatic ﬁeld. timedependent. Magnetic ﬂux. 458 Mmf. 568 Plane. Magnetomotive force. 337 Magnetic ﬁeld of a straight wire using Ampere’s law. in rectangular coordinates. Loop carrying a current. 9 Parallel plate capacitor. relative. 188 µe . square. Line integral. 159 Phasors. deﬁnition of. and analytic functions. pair. 142 List of symbols. discussion of. 293–ﬀ.. 403 Dn behaviour. 356 Lenz. 363 Maxwell’s equations. conduction in. Loop. Metric preﬁxes. 400 Permeabities. Ohm’s law. applied to two inﬁnite plates. 79 Lines in cylindrical coordinates. 333–ﬀ. carrying a current. Nabla. 64 Lines of force. carrying a current in a magnetic ﬁeld. Magnetic materials. 228–ﬀ. 270 Metals. deﬁnition of..Index Laplace’s equation. Loop (circular). 402 Et behaviour. 581 . Line charge. potential function. µe . 458 Parallel plate waveguide. inﬁnite. Separation of variables technique. 337 Magnetic energy density. 557–ﬀ. Lorentz’s gauge condition. 234–ﬀ. Magnetic ﬁeld of a wire of radius a. in a magnetic ﬁeld. 424. 347 Maxwell’s equations. 347 Magnetic ﬂux density. 455 TEM mode. 404 ﬁelds inside of. 280–ﬀ. 452–ﬀ. 1D solutions. table of. magnetic ﬁeld. 323–ﬀ. importance of. 147–ﬀ. 2 Metric units. 403 Ht behaviour. 557–ﬀ. carrying a current. mobility. 354. 296–ﬀ. 283–ﬀ. table of. 224 Nabla. 214–ﬀ. 83–ﬀ. Torque on a. TE modes. 99–ﬀ. 3 Permittivity. 274–ﬀ. solution to. 54 Point charge. inﬁnite. 98–ﬀ. 224 Motion of a charge in an electrostatic ﬁeld. 361 Maxwell. π. 457 TM modes. 329– ﬀ. 225 Metal spheres. Laplace’s equation applied to two concentric. Laplace’s equation. Heinrich. 7 Microstrip line. diﬀerential element. 456 Perfect electric conductor Bn behaviour. 320 Lorentz force. Line Integral. parametric. deﬁnition of. Gauss’s law. 221–ﬀ. 369–ﬀ. James Clerk. Line charges. 197–ﬀ. 166–ﬀ. 266–ﬀ. Nomenclature. 100 Lenz’s law. Gauss’s law. Operator. solved by numerical methods. 344–ﬀ. Laplace’s equation. 473 Magnetic circuits. 328–ﬀ. the value of. Magnetic energy. 312–ﬀ. 100–ﬀ. table of. 113. 269–ﬀ. applied to a coaxial line. Laplace’s equation. analysis. 274 Laplace’s equation. equation of. 347 Mobility. Order of magnitude. Method of images.
154 Sheet charge. 196 Potential and the direction of the electric ﬁeld. capicitance of a. Henry. 219–ﬀ. 187–ﬀ. inﬁnite. 274–ﬀ. frequently used END. 65 Spherical wave. Poynting’s theorem. 70 Spherical coordinatesSTART. 237 Potential due to many point charges. Potential for general charge distribution. 44 Scalar ﬁelds. magnetic ﬁeld. pair of line charges. 465 TE modes. 45 Scalar ﬁeldsEND. 484 Received power. deﬁnition of. 410 Preface. coaxial line. table of. ﬂow of. due to a point charge. 500 Rectangular waveguide. electric ﬁeld. 182 Potential. cutoﬀ frequency. Reluctance. frequently used START. 308– ﬀ. inﬁnite. 202 Potential function.. 3 Relaxation time. electric ﬁeld. Potential. magnetic ﬁeld. manipulation ofSTART. see dot product Scalar triple product. 347 Resistance. Spherical coordinates. cross products of. 163– ﬀ. and additive constant. 66–ﬀ. 409–ﬀ. absolute. table of. 193–ﬀ. 67 Spherical coordinatesEND. 462 Reference material. Sheet of current. Potential. 233–ﬀ. 192 Potential diﬀerence. 139 Point charges. see metric preﬁxes SI units. 7 ScalarsEND. many.Index Point charges. 195–ﬀ. Sheet charge. Potential energy in the electric ﬁeld. between inner and outer conductors. unit vectors. 178– ﬀ. 294 Scalar ﬁelds. applied to Laplace’s equation. 409 Poynting vector. 338 Skin depth. Gauss’s law. inductance of. applied to two inﬁnite plates. 44 Scalar multiplication of a vector. 10 Scalars. 230– ﬀ. 440 Solenoid. 240 Sphere. 178–ﬀ. examples of. 105 582 . 223–ﬀ. 3 Reference material. 410 Poynting. 12 ScalarsSTART. ii Radiation resistance. inﬁnite. Potential function for charged ring. Poisson’s equation. 427 Power pattern of an antenna. Separation of variables technique. Semiconductors. 427 Relative permeabilities. 432 Stokes theorem. 494 Power. 197–ﬀ. 299–ﬀ. 15 Scalar product. Potential (integral) for general charge distribution. 191–ﬀ. Gauss’s law. 481 Standing wave ratio. SI preﬁxes. 459–ﬀ. Reﬂection coeﬃcient. discussion of. 464 TM modes. Potential diﬀerence. Spherical coordinates. 31 Scalar wave equation. by an antenna. 7 Single turn. Γ. 193– ﬀ. Sheet charge. 1–ﬀ. manipulation ofEND. Power ﬂow in transmission line. 366–ﬀ. 152–ﬀ. deﬁnition of. electric. 169–ﬀ. 7 Semiconductors. Eθ and Hφ (ﬁgure). potential due to. charged. 46 Scalar ﬁeldsSTART. Scalars. 483 Sphere. 437–ﬀ. Solid angle. 395 Smith chart. 283 Polarisation. 221 Right hand thumb rule.
technique of writingEND. time domain equation. 24 Vectors. 422 γ. diﬀerential element. 429 reﬂection coeﬃcient. 238–ﬀ. 9 Units and dimensions. 25. technique of writingSTART. characteristic impedance. Two conductor lines. deﬁnition of. 44 Vector identities. 88 Surfaces in cylindrical coordinates. magnetic ﬁeld. Unit vector. Vectors. rectangularcylindrical coordinates. 312–ﬀ. addition of START. spherical coordinates. 16 Vector equations. 24 583 . 426 examples of. 67 Units and dimensions. 444 power ﬂow in. 69 Vectors. cross product of–anticommutative property. 426 input impedance. conversion of. 70 Surfaces. parametric equation in 3space. 63 Surfaces in spherical coordinates. 113–ﬀ. importance ofEND. 16 Vectors. 420 Transmission lines. Taylor’s series expansion. 435 L and C. Vector potential. sphericalrectangular coordinates.Index Stokes’s theorem. 568–ﬀ. equipotential. 293–ﬀ. 329–ﬀ. 424 Microstrip line. velocity. 379–ﬀ. addition of END. 47 Vector ﬁeldsEND. 418 incident and reﬂected waves. α. Transmission line equivalent circuit of. Ampere’s law. 48 Vector ﬁeldsSTART. 51 Straight wire. rectangularcylindrical coordinates. 25. cross product of determinant. 294 Torque on a loop carrying a current. 424 reﬂection coeﬃcient at the load. 17 Vectors. 79 Vector ﬁelds. 68 Unit vectors. examples of. 17 Vector addition. written as. 15 Unit vectors. 417 Trigonometry formulae. 18 Vector equations. sphericalrectangular coordinates. Straight line. 80–ﬀ. 422 load matching. 427 reﬂections from discontinuities. propagation constants. deﬁnition of. 446 where they are used. 27 Vectors. 17 Vector ﬁelds. cross product of–nonassociative property of. 8 Units. conversion of. 418 frequency domain equation. Stream lines. 61 Vectors. 27 Vectors. 44 Vector ﬁelds. cross product ofSTART. calculus of. 423 Helmholtz equation. 142 Surface Integral. cross products. 303–ﬀ. 31 Units and dimensions. 30 Vectors. right hand. conversion of. calculation of. 91–ﬀ. Cartesian coordinate representation of. 568 Thermal motion. importance ofSTART. 60 Unit vectors. Surface. cross product of–memorisation technique. application of. v × B force. of EM ﬁelds. 458 Uniform plane wave. associative property of. 328 Valence band. commutative property of. Γ. 230 Vector addition. in a magnetic ﬁeld. cross product ofEND. 185 Tangent vector. 427–ﬀ. 417–ﬀ. conversion of. 31 Vectors. 13 Vectors. BiotSavart law. 570 Two conductor line. 427 transformer matching. and β. 224 Thumb rule.
deﬁnition of. 224 Volta. 15 Vectors. magnitude of a. 16 Vectors. 391–ﬀ. 13 Vectors. rectangular coordinate representation of. dot product of. 24 Vectors. as a dot product. 473 Wave polarisation. 326 Work done on a charge. 21 Vectors. 432 Volume integral. cyclotron frequency.Index Vectors. 386–ﬀ. magnetic ﬁeld. 398–ﬀ. Volume. 396–ﬀ. 224–ﬀ. deﬁnition of. 400 Wave propagation in low conductivity materials. 432 ωc . skin depth. perpendicular components. Wire. drift. Alessandro Giuseppe. Wave propagation in high conductivity materials. 365–ﬀ. dot product of. 94–ﬀ. dot product of Vectors. 372–ﬀ. supporting TEM modes. diﬀerential elements. electric susceptibility. scalar product of. 452–ﬀ. subtraction of. 15 VectorsEND. due to thermal motion. 94 VSWR. Wave equation for the vector potential. straight. 190 Velocity. Waveguides. Waveguides. scalar multiplication of.. Wire (straight) of radius a. 400 wavelength. 5 Voltage standing wave ratio. Velocity. in a magnetic ﬁeld. 188 Work. 21 χe . 458–ﬀ. 233 Z0 . magnitude of. 13 Vectors. 13 Velocity of escape. using dot product. 18 Vectors. 21 Vectors. deﬁnition of. unit vector. 426 584 . 296–ﬀ. commutative property. cross product. 325 Wave equation. 31 VectorsSTART. 17 Vectors. decomposition into. carrying a current. 21 Vectors. see Vectors. 15. Wave propagation in conducting media. characteristic impedance of in transmission lines.