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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Lucknow, U.P.


(Duration: 25st June 2011 to 24th July 2011)
Submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology In ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY:

ABHISHEK PANDEY
08EI02
Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering, I.E.T., M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly(U.P.)-243006

DECLARATION

I here by declare that project work is an authentic record of my own work carried out at HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMITED, LUCKNOW as requirement of 4 weeks project for the award of degree during 25th JUNE to 24th JULY, 2011.

ABHISHEK PANDEY
08EI02 M.J.P.R.U., BAREILLY

Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief.

Sign._________

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY M.J.P.ROHILKHAND UNIVERSITY BAREILLY-243006

CERTIFICATE
CONCERN TO WHOM IT MAY
This is to certify that Mr. ABHISHEK PANDEY, ROLL NO. 08EI02, B.Tech. final year student of Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering had undergone an Industrial Training at HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LTD. Lucknow, effect 25-06-2011 TO 24-07-2011. He has appeared in the Industrial Training vivavice as partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree in Bachelor of Technology in the Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering of M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly during the Academic year 2011-12.

Mr. Yatendra Kumar H.O.D. (EI Deptt.)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With deep sense of gratitude, first & foremost I express my profound thanks to Mr. Manoj Kumar, Sr. Manager- Training for giving me this very opportunity to do my summer training in the Instrument factory of H.A.L. Lucknow during the summer session- 2011. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Ram Awtar, Head of Instrument factory, our training guide for the valuable guidance , inspiration & enouragenment. Last but not the least, I also wish to acknowledge my indebteness to the staff of H.A.L. without whose co-operation, this training would not have not been successful. The training at H.A.L. Lucknow was full of responsiveness & it gave me the rare opportunity to correlate the theoretical knowledge with the practical one. Being well known company of India & abroad, it gave me the opportunity to learn the work carried out here, got a glimpse of new environment & hard work of industrial unit.

CONTENT

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Preface About H.A.L. Organizational Growth of HAL Our Products The Organization HAL services Airplane parts definitions Major products of the H.A.L. Division H.A.L. Accessories Division - Lucknow Instrument Factory y Clean room y Assembly and test shop 2 & 3 y Electromagnetic rotating shop (E.R.M) y Ground land navigation system shop (G.L.N.S)

11.

Gyroscope y Properties

12.

Actuator y Mechanical actuators y Hydraulic actuators y Piezoelectric actuators y Electro-mechanical actuators y Linear Actuator y Trim Actuator

13. 14. 15. 16.

Flight Data Recorder Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Conclusion References

PREFACE

Last few years have witnessed major changes in economic environment of our country. The industrial and economical policies have been liberalized .Indian industries have become globally competitive, giving boost to the young and small enterprises and thus arises the need of an efficient research and development department. I had done my part of training in INSTRUMENT DEPARTMENT of HAL LUCKNOW. The project I had worked on ALH department, SU30 department. There I had learned a lot of things about Helicopter and Fighter plane. This all, for me, was a memorable experience.

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in 1942.

Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design Canters in 7 locations in India. The Company has an impressive product track record - 12 types of aircraft manufactured with in-house R & D and 14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured over 3550 aircraft, 3600 engines and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engines. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defense and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects:
   

Dhruv, which is Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) Various military and civil upgrades.

Dhruv was delivered to the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and the Coast Guard in March 2002, in the very first year of its production, a unique achievement. HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs by participating in the manufacture of structures for Satellite Launch Vehicles like
   

PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) INSAT (Indian National Satellite)

HAL has formed the following Joint Ventures (JVs):




BAeHAL Software Limited

     

Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd SAMTEL HAL Display System Limited HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd INFOTECH HAL Ltd

Apart from these seven, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and Airport Services. Several Co-production and Joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guards and Border Security Forces. Transport Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness. HAL has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, Managerial Performance, Exports, Energy Conservation, Quality and Fulfillment of Social Responsibilities.  HAL was awarded the INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD for Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency at the International Summit (Global Rating Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating and UK in conjunction with the International Information and Marketing Centre(IIMC).  HAL was presented the International - ARCH OF EUROPE Award in Gold Category in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership,

Technology and Innovation. At the National level, HAL won the "GOLD excellence in Public Sector Management, instituted by the TROPHY" for Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE). The Company scaled new heights in the financial year 2006-07 with a turnover of Rs783.61Crores.

Su 30 MKI
Twin-seater, Multi-role, Long range Fighter / Bomber / Air Superiority Aircraft

MiG-27 M
Single-seater Tactical Fighter / Bomber with variable sweep wings

MiG-21 VARIANTS

Single-seater Front line Tactical Interceptor / Fighter Aircraft

JAGUAR
Stabilized Inertial Platform with Dry-tuned Gyroscopes and Accelerometers

AIRPLANE PARTS DEFINITIONS And their functions

This page shows the parts of an airplane and their functions. Airplanes are transportation devices which are designed to move people and cargo from one place to another. Airplanes come in many different shapes and sizes depending on

the mission of the aircraft. The airplane shown on this slide is a turbine-powered airliner which has been chosen as a representative aircraft. For any airplane to fly, you must lift the weight of the airplane itself, the fuel, the passengers, and the cargo. The wings generate most of the lift to hold the plane in the air. To generate lift, the airplane must be pushed through the air. The jet engines, which are located beneath the wings, provide the thrust to push the airplane forward through the air. The air resists the motion in the form of aerodynamic drag. Some airplanes use propellers for the propulsion system instead of jets. To control and maneuver the aircraft, smaller wings are located at the tail of the plane. The tail usually has a fixed horizontal piece (called the horizontal stabilizer) and a fixed vertical piece (called the vertical stabilizer). The stabilizers' job is to provide stability for the aircraft, to keep it flying straight. The vertical stabilizer keeps the nose of the plane from swinging from side to side, while the horizontal stabilizer prevents an up-and-down motion of the nose. (On the Wright brother's first aircraft, the horizontal stabilizer was placed in front of the wings. Such a configuration is called a canard after the French word for "duck"). At the rear of the wings and stabilizers are small moving sections that are attached to the fixed sections by hinges. In the figure, these moving sections are colored brown. Changing the rear portion of a wing will change the amount of force that the wing produces. The ability to change forces gives us a means of controlling and maneuvering the airplane. The hinged part of the vertical stabilizer is called the rudder; it is used to deflect the tail to the left and right as viewed from the front of the fuselage. The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the elevator; it is used to deflect the tail up and down. The outboard hinged part of the

wing is called the aileron; it is used to roll the wings from side to side. Most airliners can also be rolled from side to side by using the spoilers. Spoilers are small plates that are used to disrupt the flow over the wing and to change the amount of force by decreasing the lift when the spoiler is deployed. The wings have additional hinged, rear sections near the body that are called flaps. Flaps are deployed downward on takeoff and landing to increase the amount of force produced by the wing. On some aircraft, the front part of the wing will also deflect. Slats are used at takeoff and landing to produce additional force. The spoilers are also used during landing to slow the plane down and to counteract the flaps when the aircraft is on the ground. The next time you fly on an airplane, notice how the wing shape changes during takeoff and landing. The fuselage or body of the airplane, holds all the pieces together. The pilots sit in the cockpit at the front of the fuselage. Passengers and cargo are carried in the rear of the fuselage. Some aircraft carry fuel in the fuselage; others carry the fuel in the wings. As mentioned above, the aircraft configuration in the figure was chosen only as an example. Individual aircraft may be configured quite differently from this airliner. The Wright Brothers 1903 Flyer had pusher propellers and the elevators at the front of the aircraft. Fighter aircraft often have the jet engines buried inside the fuselage instead of in pods hung beneath the wings. Many fighter aircraft also combine the horizontal stabilizer and elevator into a single stipulator surface. There are many possible aircraft configurations, but any configuration must provide for the four forces needed for flight.

Aircraft Yaw Motion

In flight, any aircraft will rotate about its center of gravity, a point which is the average location of the mass of the aircraft. We can define a three dimensional coordinate system through the center of gravity with each axis of this coordinate system perpendicular to the other two axes. We can then define the orientation of the aircraft by the amount of rotation of the parts of the aircraft along these

principal axes. The yaw axis is perpendicular to the wings and lies in the plane of the aircraft centerline. A yaw motion is a side to side movement of the nose of the aircraft as shown in the animation. The yawing motion is being caused by the deflection of the rudder of this aircraft. The rudder is a hinged section at the rear of the vertical stabilizer. As described on the shape effects slide, changing the angle of deflection at the rear of an airfoil changes the amount of lift generated by the foil. For the vertical stabilizer and rudder, the orientation of the airfoil causes a side force to be generated. With greater deflection of the rudder to the left, the side force increases to the right. With greater deflection to the right, the side force increases to the left. The lift generated by the rudder acts through the center of pressure of the rudder and vertical stabilizer and is located at some distance from the center of gravity of the aircraft. The change in side force created by deflecting the rudder generates a torque about the center of gravity which causes the airplane to rotate. The pilot uses this ability to keep the nose of the aircraft pointed in the direction of travel. On all aircraft, the vertical stabilizer and rudder create a symmetric airfoil. This produces no side force when the rudder is aligned with the stabilizer and allows the combination to produce either positive or negative side force, depending on the deflection of the rudder. Some fighter planes have two vertical stabilizers and rudders because of the need to control the plane with multiple, very powerful engines

Aircraft Roll Motion

In flight, any aircraft will rotate about its center of gravity, a point which is the average location of the mass of the aircraft. We can define a three dimensional coordinate system through the center of gravity with each axis of this coordinate system perpendicular to the other two axes. We can then define the orientation of the aircraft by the amount of rotation of the parts of the aircraft along these

principal axes. The roll axis lies along the aircraft centerline. A roll motion is an up and down movement of the wings of the aircraft as shown in the animation . The rolling motion is being caused by the deflection of the ailerons of this aircraft. The aileron is a hinged section at the rear of each wing. The ailerons work in opposition; when the right aileron goes up, the left aileron goes down. As described on the shape effects slide, changing the angle of deflection at the rear of an airfoil will change the amount of lift generated by the foil. With greater downward deflection, the lift will increase in the upward direction; with greater upward deflection, the lift will decrease in the upward direction. Since the ailerons work in pairs, the lift on one wing increases as the lift on the opposite wing decreases. Because the forces are not equal, there is a net twist, or torque about the center of gravity and the aircraft rotates about the roll axis. The pilot can use this ability to bank the aircraft which causes the airplane to turn. On this page we have demonstrated an aircraft roll induced by movement of the ailerons, but there are other ways to produce a rolling motion on an aircraft. The Wright brothers used a method called wing warping. Their wings were wired together in such a way that the outer panels of each wing could be twisted relative to the inner panel. The twisting changed the local angle of attack of sections of the wing which changed the lift being generated by that section. Unequal forces on the wings caused the aircraft to roll. Many modern airliners use a spoiler to roll the aircraft. A spoiler is a plate that is raised between the leading and trailing edges of the wing. The spoiler effectively changes the shape of the airfoil, disrupts the flow over the wing, and causes a section of the wing to decrease its lift. This produces an unbalanced force with the other wing, which causes the roll. Airliners use spoilers because spoilers can react more quickly than ailerons and require less

force to activate, but they always decrease the total amount of lift for the aircraft. It's an interesting trade! You can tell whether an airliner is using spoilers or

ailerons by noticing where the moving part is located. At the trailing edge, it's an aileron; between the leading and trailing edges, it's a spoiler. (Now you can dazzle the person sitting next to you on the plane!)

MAJOR PRODUCTS OF THE H.A.L. DIVISION


The major products of the Division are:
        

Undercarriage systems Wheels and Brake systems Hydraulic Systems Aircraft and Engine Fuel Systems Panel Instruments (Barometric and gyroscopic) Electric Power Generation and Control systems Environmental control systems. Flight Control Actuators Ground Support Equipment and test Rigs.

Main Customers:

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

Indian Air Force, Army, Navy, Coast Guard, BSF Defence R&D Laboratories and Deptt of Space; Civil Aviation, State Govt., Ordnance Factories, Corporate Sectors; Flying Academies & Educational Institutions; Airlines, Air Taxi, Air Cargo; Overseas customers for civil and military applications. Collaborators and Licensors.

HAL ACCESSORIES DIVISION - LUCKNOW

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited


Accessories Division Lucknow 226 016 India
The Division was established in 1970 with the primary objective of manufacturing systems and accessories for various aircraft, helicopters and engines with a view to attain self-sufficiency in this field in the country. The Division started with the manufacture of hydro-mechanical accessories and instruments under license for Marut and Kiran aircraft. This was followed by license manufacture of accessories for MiG-21 aircraft, Cheetah/Chetak helicopters, Dornier and other defense

applications. Additionally repair and overhaul of Lucknow manufactured accessories as well as those fitted on directly purchased aircraft, such as Mirage and Sea Harrier was undertaken. At present, it is manufacturing, repairing and overhauling more than 800 different types of systems and accessories under license. The range of items cover units for hydraulics, engine fuel system, environment control system, pressurization system, gyroscopic instruments, barometric instruments, electrical system items, undercarriages, and electronic items. The number of licensors exceeds twenty. From inception, the Division has laid emphasis on developing indigenous capability through design and development of various systems and accessories. This capability has culminated in indigenous design and development of a variety of systems and accessories for the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Advanced Light Helicopter (all versions i.e. Army, Air force, Navy & Civil) and Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT-36). The Division has also developed and has made successful strides into the area of Microprocessor based control systems. Design and Development capabilities include Environmental Control Systems & Pneumatics, Fuel Management, Engine Fuel Control & aircraft fuel systems, Microprocessor based Controllers, Hydraulic System & Power Controls, Wheels and Brakes, Cockpit instruments and sensors, Gyroscopes, Electrical Power Control Protection, Navigation and Display, Land Navigation, Ground support equipment, Dedicated Test rigs, and Computerized test equipment. The Division has diversified in other defence applications like tanks and armored vehicles for Army, and took commercial applications of Hydraulic items, Gyroscopic Equipment, Special Purpose Test Equipment & Ground Support Equipment. The Division has also made steady progress in the area of Exports. The range of products and services available for exports include:

1. Rotables and spares of Jaguar International and Cheetah (Lama), Chetak (Alouette) Helicopters; 2. Ground Support Equipment for MiG 23, 27, 29 Mirage-2000, Jaguar, LCA, Su30, Sea-Harrier, Dornier DO-228, Avro HS-748, Cheetah, Chetak, MI-17, and ALH. 3. Repair and Overhaul of aircraft accessories of MiG series, Jaguar International, Cheetah (Lama), Chetak (Alouette) and Dornier. The Division today has a prime name in the aviation world and a number of international companies are interested to join hands with it for future projects. H.A.L. accessory division, Luknow is divided into three main factories namely 1. Mechanical Factory 2. Instrument Factory 3.FuelFactory

INSTRUMENT FACTORY
This factory deals with the testing and assembly of electronics instruments used in aircraft e.g. Altimeter, RMI, Gyro-magnetic compass , black box etc. This INSTRUMENT FACTORY is further divided into four units which are as follows: y CLEAN ROOMS y ASSEMBLY AND TEST SHOP 2 & 3 y ELECTRO ROTATING MACHINES y GROUND LAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM SHOP (G.L.N.S Shop)

 Clean room
In Clean room those subunits are assembled and tested that are sensitive to dust, temperature and humidity. All these parameters are kept under control because these can have adverse effect on their functional efficiency. The required specification for the instruments assembled and tested are different .so Clean room is further subdivided into three units. The following chart is given for the classification of clean room.

STANDARD CLEAN ROOM CONDITIONS:

ROOM ITEM

Temp Humidity Dust Count R/H % Limits C Particle size 0.5 m/ft3 -55 <100,000 CLASS C

AIRCRAFT

ROOM Gyroscopic 1

15 to 45

MIG 21, 27, AN 32

Instruments of 25 Russian Origin C Barometric Instruments, 45 -55 <100,000 CLASS UNMONITORED

Kiran MK-I&II, B HPT-32, Jaguar, AN-32, Mirage, Dornier, Avro Aircraft, Cheetah, Chetak, ALH

ROOM Accelerometers, 2 RPM Indicator 15 to of Origin Western 25 C

Gyroscopic Instruments of Western Origin 45 -55

Helicopters Kiran MK-I&II, <10,000 CLASS A HPT-32, Jaguar, - AN-32, Mirage, Dornier, Avro Aircraft,Lakshya,

ROOM 3 15 to 25 C

MONITORED

Cheetah, Chetak Helicopters

 Assembly and test shop 2 & 3


The major products of H.A.L. are fighter aircrafts. An aircraft comprises of many small units or accessories, which play significant role in their successful flight. any fault, may lead to an catastrophic end. Here comes the role of assembly and test unit .it forms an integral part of any manufacturing unit. The main instrument were KCN-2 compass system, flight data recorder, gyro magnetic compass, fuel gauging system, radio magnetic indicator, milli voltmeter temperature indicator.

 Electromagnetic rotating shop (E.R.M)


In the E.R.M department of the instrument factory the assembly and testing of the dc Starter Generators, AC Generator system, Constant speed alternator, Regulators, Inverter, of the Russian and French origin. These products are basically those products which takes the principle of the electromagnetic rotating which can be elaborated as follows i.e., electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy or vice versa. These products are of mig-21 & mig-27 aircrafts which is of Russian origin and jaguar aircraft is of France origin.

 Ground land navigation system shop (G.L.N.S)


Ground land navigation system shop is one of the most different & unique shop. As in this shop it manufacture the only ground land navigation system in world. As due the different applicability of the gyros therefore these gyro own s have been placed in the road transportation system which is used in ground e.g. trucks, cars. The instrument which uses the property of any type of gyro and is installed in road transportation system is known as ground land navigation system. The Gyro land navigation system is an electronic navigation device used for guiding any army vehicle to its destination point. The principle objective of system is not only to ease the in more precise and quicker manner whether in plains, hills or sand dunes, where there are no special remarks. In the G.L.N.S shop it assembles and test the ground land navigation system of Vijayanta tank .

Gyroscope
A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of momentum. The device is a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. This orientation changes much less in response to a given external torque than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of spin. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals, its orientation remains nearly fixed, regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted. Gyroscope works in situations when using magnetic compass is not possible at all (as in Hubble telescope). Due to higher precision it is used to maintain direction in tunnel mining.

Description
Within mechanical systems or devices, a conventional gyroscope is a mechanism comprising a rotor journal to spin about one axis, the journals of the rotor being mounted in an inner gimbals or ring, the inner gimbals being journal for oscillation in an outer gimbals which in turn is journal for oscillation relative to a support. The outer gimbals or ring is mounted so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane determined by the support. The outer gimbals possesses one degree of rotational freedom and its axis possesses none. The inner gimbals are mounted in the outer gimbals so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane that is always perpendicular to the pivotal axis of the outer gimbals. The axle of the spinning wheel defines the spin axis. The inner gimbals possess two degrees of rotational freedom and its axis possesses one. The rotor is journal to spin about an axis which is always perpendicular to the axis of the inner gimbals. So, the rotor possesses three degrees of rotational freedom and its axis possesses two. The wheel responds to a force applied about the input axis by a reaction force about the output axis. The behavior of a gyroscope can be most easily appreciated by consideration of the front wheel of a bicycle. If the wheel is leaned away from the vertical so that the top of the wheel moves to the left, the forward rim of the wheel also turns to the left. In other words, rotation on one axis of the turning wheel produces rotation of the third axis. A gyroscope flywheel will roll or resist about the output axis depending upon whether the output gimbals are of a free- or fixed- configuration. Examples

of some free-output-gimbals devices would be the attitude reference gyroscopes used to sense or measure the pitch, roll and yaw attitude angles in a spacecraft or aircraft. The center of gravity of the rotor can be in a fixed position. The rotor simultaneously spins about one axis and is capable of oscillating about the two other axes, and thus, except for its inherent resistance due to rotor spin, it is free to turn in any direction about the fixed point. Some gyroscopes have mechanical equivalents substituted for one or more of the elements, e.g., the spinning rotor may be suspended in a fluid, instead of being pivotally mounted in gimbals. A control moment gyroscope (CMG) is an example of a fixed-output-gimbals device that is used on spacecraft to hold or maintain a desired attitude angle or pointing direction using the gyroscopic resistance force. In some special cases, the outer gimbals (or its equivalent) may be omitted so that the rotor has only two degrees of freedom. In other cases, the center of gravity of the rotor may be offset from the axis of oscillation, and thus the center of gravity of the rotor and the center of suspension of the rotor may not coincide. Properties A gyroscope exhibits a number of behaviors including precession and mutation. Gyroscopes can be used to construct gyrocompasses which complement or replace magnetic compasses (in ships, aircraft and spacecraft, vehicles in general), to assist in stability (bicycle, Hubble Space Telescope, ships, vehicles in general) or be used as part of an inertial guidance system. Gyroscopic effects are used in toys like tops, yo-yos, and Powerballs. Many other rotating devices, such as flywheels, behave gyroscopically although the gyroscopic effect is not used. The fundamental equation describing the behavior of the gyroscope is:

Where the vectors and L are, respectively, the torque on the gyroscope and its angular momentum, the scalar I is its moment of inertia, the vector angular velocity, and the vector that a torque is its

is its angular acceleration. It follows from this

applied perpendicular to the axis of rotation, and therefore

perpendicular to L, results in a rotation about an axis perpendicular to both and L. This motion is called precession. The angular velocity of precession the cross product:
P

is given by

Precession can be demonstrated by placing a spinning gyroscope with its axis horizontal and supported loosely (frictionless toward precession) at one end. Instead of falling, as might be expected, the gyroscope appears to defy gravity by remaining with its axis horizontal, when the other end of the axis is left unsupported and the free end of the axis slowly describes a circle in a horizontal plane, the resulting precession turning. This effect is explained by the above equations. The torque on the gyroscope is supplied by a couple of forces: gravity acting downwards on the device's centre of mass, and an equal force acting upwards to support one end of the device. The rotation resulting from this torque is not downwards, as might be intuitively expected, causing the device to fall, but perpendicular to both the gravitational torque (horizontal and perpendicular to the axis of rotation) and the axis of rotation (horizontal and outwards from the point of support), i.e. about a vertical axis, causing the device to rotate slowly about the supporting point. Under a constant torque of magnitude , the gyroscope's speed of

precession momentum:

is inversely proportional to L, the magnitude of its angular

where

is the angle between the vectors

and L. Thus if the gyroscope's spin

slows down (for example, due to friction), its angular momentum decreases and so the rate of precession increases. This continues until the device is unable to rotate fast enough to support its own weight, when it stops processing and falls off its support, mostly because friction against precession cause another precession that goes to cause the fall. By convention, these three vectors, torque, spin, and precession, are all oriented with respect to each other according to the right-hand rule. To easily ascertain the direction of gyro effect, simply remember that a rolling wheel tends, when entering a corner, to turn over to the inside.

Actuator
A linear actuator is a device that applies force in a linear manner, as opposed to rotationally like an electric motor. There are various methods of achieving this linear motion. Some actually convert rotational motion into linear motion.

Types Mechanical actuators


Mechanical actuators typically convert rotary motion of a control knob or handle into linear displacement via screws and/or gears to which the knob or handle is attached. A jackscrew or car jack is a familiar mechanical actuator. Another family of actuators are based on the segmented spindle. Rotation of the jack handle is converted mechanically into the linear motion of the jack head. Mechanical actuators are also frequently used in the field of lasers and optics to manipulate the position of linear stages, rotary stages, mirror mounts, monometers and other positioning instruments. For accurate and repeatable positioning, index marks may be used on control knobs. Some actuators even include an encoder and digital position readout.[1] These are similar to the adjustment knobs used on micrometers except that their purpose is position adjustment rather than position measurement.

Hydraulic actuators
Hydraulic actuators or hydraulic cylinders typically involve a hollow cylinder having a piston inserted in it. The two sides of the piston are alternately

pressurized/de-pressurized to achieve controlled precise linear displacement of the piston and in turn the entity connected to the piston. The physical linear displacement is only along the axis of the piston/cylinder. This design is based on the principles of hydraulics. A familiar example of a manually operated hydraulic actuator is a hydraulic car jack. Typically though, the term "hydraulic actuator" refers to a device controlled by a hydraulic pump.

Piezoelectric actuators
The piezoelectric effect is a property of certain materials in which application of a voltage to the material causes it to expand. Very high voltages correspond to only tiny expansions. As a result, piezoelectric actuators can achieve extremely fine positioning resolution, but also have a very short range of motion. In addition, piezoelectric materials exhibit hysteresis which makes it difficult to control their expansion in a repeatable manner.

Electro-mechanical actuators
Electro-mechanical actuators are similar to mechanical actuators except that the control knob or handle is replaced with an electric motor. Rotary motion of the motor is converted to linear displacement of the actuator. There are many designs of modern linear actuators and every company that manufactures them tends to have their own proprietary method. The following is a generalized description of a very simple electro-mechanical linear actuator.

Linear Actuator VL13A4Aircraft Jaguar


The linear actuator VL13A4 is destined to operate the elevator trim. This actuator is assembled with two motors and a differential planet gear arrangement which converts the rotary motion of motor to linear motion. As the motors are bidirectional it shows the progressive working in both the directions. For normal working of the unit only, one motor is energized at a time. The second motor is called the sub motor which works in case of failure of main motor.

Specifications
Nominal Load Maximum Load : 20 Dan : 40 Dan

Operating Voltage : 18V to 29V Stroke Length Motor RPM Rated current Power : 44+/-1.25mm : 25000 : 0.85 Amp : 5.2 Watt

Trim Actuator
Aircraft ALH
A set of trim / force feel system(FFS) consists of four actuators namely collective, pitch, roll and yaw actuator corresponding to the four body axis of the helicopter. These actuators are electromechanical units interfaced with the mechanical as well as with automatic flight control system. The conventional mechanical control leakages in pitch, roll, collective and yaw axis are fitted with one corresponding trim.

Functions
1.) Engagement/disengagement of anchor point by means of an electrically operated clutch. This anchor point can be displaced either automatically or mechanically. 2.) Artificial force feel about the anchor point generating a predetermined feel force. The artificial feel is proportional to the displacement in pitch, roll and collective trim actuator as they are spring based. The force feel is a constant friction in the yaw axis. 3.) Pilot controlled displacement of the anchor point by means of an electrical motor (manual trim function) or by declutching the artificial feels. 4.) Automatic displacement of the anchor point so as to maintain the series actuators around there centre position (auto trim) .

Flight Data Recorder


Purpose and working:
System records automatically 6 continuously changing parameters which are:
     

Altitude Engine speed Aircraft speed Vertical acceleration Horizontal acceleration Turn Angle of stabilizer

Five single command signal, Eight single command signals superimposed on Three continuously variable parameters, and timer line to indicate the time on black and white aero photo film and preserves it in normal and crash conditions for study and analysis of flight conditions.

Working:
In this, mechanical motion is converted into electrical signals and then it is converted in to optical signals,. There is a fixed mirror in the vibrator which moves accordingly to the moving light beam. The light beam is moved under the effect of a permanent magnetic field and flux and shifts the light beam accordingly. Now the mirror will move and thus light will move and thus further the photographic film is printed.

ADVANCED LIGHT HELICOPTER (ALH)

Advanced Light Helicopter is a multirole, multimission helicopter designed & developed by HAL. The design of this 5.5-ton class, twin-engine helicopter incorporates several state of the art technologies. Extensive use of composites high cruise speed, long range & endurance, excellent high altitude performance and capability to operate in hot & humid environment are the key design features. ALH has been designed for both civil & military applications in large variety of roles overland & sea.

Performance:Maximum cruise speed at maximum load : 250 km/hr Maximum rate of climb : 10 m/sec Range with 20 min reserve : 650 km Endurance : 4 hrs Hover in ground effect : 1500 m Hover out of ground effect : 1000m

Leading Particulars: Overall length : 15.87 m  Overall height : 4.91 m  Width : 3.19 m  Empty weight : 2500 kg  Fuel capacity : 1100 kg  Maximum take-off weight : 5500 kg  Maximum under slung weight : 1500 kg  Maximum height : 25000 HT

Roles:Military Role( unarmed): Heliborne attack  Reconnaissance  Logistics support  Casualty evacuation  Air observation post

Military Role (Armed): Anti tank  Close air support  Anti submarine warfare  Anti surface vessel warfare

Civil Role: Commuter / VIP  Search & rescue  Disaster relief  Air ambulance  Offshore operations

Salient Features: Ergonomically designed cockpit  Extensive use if composites, reduced radar signature  Large cabin volume  Ballistic damage tolerant  Greater system redundancy  Provision for weapons hard points  Twin engine with full authority digital electronic control  Adequate safety margin for single engine operation  Four axes automatic flying control system  Crash worthy crew seats, under floor & fuel tank  Hinge less main rotor & bearing less tail rotor  Excellent handling qualities at low as well as high speeds  Low maintenance cost & high fuel efficiency

CONCLUSION

Finally we may conclude that HAL Accessories Division, Lucknow is a Government undertaking, which is entitled to perform the making of the accessories used in the fighter aircraft. Although the whole assembly of the aircraft is not done in HAL Lucknow but there are plans to launch Sukhois full assembly in HAL Lucknow Thus HAL Lucknow would be entitled to work on latest technology of Sukhoi aircraft in the coming future.

References

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http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/airplane.html http://www.alibaba.com/countrysearch/IN-suppliers/Alternator_Manufacturers.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyroscope http://www.aircraftspruce.com/menus/ps/oxygensystems.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actuator en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_regulator

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited


Accessories Division Lucknow-226 016 India