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STORYLINE After the final closing arguments are presented, the judge gives his instructions to the jury: The question they are deciding is whether the defendant—a teenage boy from a city slum—stabbed and killed his father. The jury is further instructed that a guilty verdict will be accompanied by a mandatory death sentence. The jury of 12 retires to the jury room, where they spend a short while getting acquainted before they are called to order. It is immediately apparent that they have already found the defendant guilty and intend to return their verdict to the court without taking time for discussion--with the sole exception of Juror number 8 (Mr. K. K Raina). His is the only "not guilty" in a preliminary vote. His stated reason is that there is too much at stake for him to go along with the verdict without at least talking about it first. His vote annoys several of the others, the most vociferous of whom is Juror number 7 who has tickets for the evening's baseball game. The film then revolves around the jury's difficulty in reaching a unanimous verdict, mainly due to several of the jurors' personal prejudices. Juror number 8 says that the evidence presented is circumstantial, and the boy deserves a fair deliberation—whereupon he questions the accuracy and reliability of the only two witnesses to the murder, the fact that the knife used in the murder is not as unusual as testimony promotes (to prove his point, he produces an identical one from his pocket), and the overall questionable circumstances (the fact that an elevated train was passing by at the time of the crime calls the two witnesses' testimonies into doubt). Having argued several points and gotten no favorable response from other jurors, he reluctantly agrees that all he seems to be accomplishing is hanging the jury. He takes a bold gamble: he requests another vote, this time by secret ballot. He proposes that he will abstain from voting, and if the other 11 jurors vote guilty unanimously, then he will acquiesce to their decision. However, they will continue deliberating if at least one juror votes “not guilty.” In a secret ballot, Juror 9 is the first to support Juror 8, not necessarily believing the accused is not guilty, but feeling that Juror 8's points deserve further discussion. After Juror 8 presents a convincing argument that a witness who claimed to have heard the murder taking place could not have heard the voices as
was able to stab him in such a way as to inflict the downward stab wound found on the body. Juror 10 proceeds to go into a bigoted and narrow-minded rage on why people from the slums cannot be trusted. it starts to rain during deliberation which means the game he is looking forward to will be postponed making his selfish reasons now moot. and no one so much shorter than his opponent would have held a switchblade in such a way as to stab downward. Soon afterward. When scathingly pressed by Juror 11. and 10. one by one the other jurors turn their backs to him . Juror 3 attempts to physically assault Juror 8. questioning whether the defendant would have reasonably fled the scene and come back three hours later to retrieve his knife. The next jurors to change their votes are Jurors 12 and 1. This revelation augments the certainty of several of the jurors in their belief that the defendant is not guilty. After Jurors 2 and 6 also decide to vote “not guilty” to tie the vote at 6–6. 4. making the vote 9–3. increasingly impatient Juror 7 becomes tired and also changes his vote just so that the deliberation may end. At that. At this Juror 3. Juror 11. Juror 8 quietly points to his outburst as a demonstration of the kind of hyperbole that could well apply to the threats the witness claimed to have heard shouted by the defendant at the time of the murder. who accuses him of switching only because he has sympathy for slum children. calling him a "selfappointed public avenger" and a sadist. The only dissenters left are Jurors 3. Outraged at how the proceedings have gone. who has been growing increasingly emotional and irrational as deliberations progressed. in addition. of how they are little better than animals who gleefully kill each other off for fun—and as he speaks. Juror 2 calls into question the prosecution's claim that the accused. also changes his vote. Juror 5 then explains that he had grown up amidst knife fights in his neighborhood. he had gone to the door of his apartment and seen the defendant running out of the building. which earns him nothing but shame. who was nearly a half a foot shorter than the victim. Juror 8 then conducts an experiment that casts serious doubt upon the witness' other claim: that upon hearing the murder.clearly as he had testified. Juror 7 insists that he truly believes the defendant is not guilty because he has come to have a reasonable doubt as the other jurors pore over the facts. as it would have been too awkward. however. explodes in a rant: "He's got to burn! He's slipping through our fingers!" Juror 8 takes him to task. Juror 5—who grew up in a slum—changes his vote to “not guilty. shouting "I'll kill him!" and is restrained by two others.” This earns intense criticism from Juror 3.
Finally emerges with two general personality traits. "I have. Then Juror 8 says that so there is no reason to expect or think that the witness to wear her glasses while trying to sleep. the only juror still facing him. (b) those who fail in that duty for whatever reason. Juror 3 sobs over the loss of his love for his son and changes his vote to “not guilty. realizes that like Juror 4. he states that his belief is that despite all the other evidences the fact remains that the woman who saw the murder from her bedroom window across the street (through a passing train) still stands as solid evidence. he then asks Juror 4 if he wears his eyeglasses when going to sleep. but out of smugness did not wear them in court. Juror 12 changes his vote back to "guilty" and make the vote 8–4 again. in fact he said that no one does like that. The friendly Jurors 8 and 9 exchange names (all jurors having remained nameless throughout the movie) and the movie ends with all jurors getting down the courthouse steps to return to their individual lives. After he points this out. Jurors 12. After this Juror 9. (a) those who take the job seriously enough to weigh the evidence and work in line as required." Juror 3 was the Last of all to agree. Now please sit down and don't open your mouth again. while Juror 8 helps the distressed Juror 3 with his coat. after a long argument with Juror 8. concluding with the entreaty.. After he points this out. Then all jurors leave and the defendant is found not guilty off-screen.!" Juror 4. the witness who supposedly saw the murder had impressions in the sides of her nose.” leaving the final vote to be unanimous for release. . abruptly responds. It was after tearing up the picture. finally breaks down after glancing at and angrily tearing a picture of himself and his son. "Listen to me! Listen. The theme of the movies actually stresses the importance of the jury system and pitfalls of rushing to judgment.until only Juror 4 remains. then Juror 4 admits that he don’t wear them when he goes to sleep. and 4 all change their vote to "not guilty. The movie actually depicts various personalities of people. 10. Confused and disturbed by this reaction.. thus indicating that she wore glasses. It was shown earlier in the film that Juror 3 did not had a good relationship with the boy so he wanted the accused boy to be guilty." When Juror 4 is asked as to why he still maintains his vote. and he points out that the attack that happened was so quick that she would not have had any time to put them on. Juror 10 continues in a weakening voice. after seeing Juror 4 rubs his nose (as was getting irritated by his glasses).
criticizing and was the shouting member of the group. thereby influencing his vote. and is happy with the authority he had. As time goes on he becomes more personally involved with the case. He emerges as a rigid proud person who is not open to new data and bases his judgment on old material. He was very keen was usefully taking part in the discussion. his only son deserted him. but in the film he is very sensitive and sulks when his attempt to stick to the way they had agreed to proceed is questioned. so this painful relationship with his son caused anger toward all young people. he would have done so from the doorknob. His contribution in the film comes when they are discussing how long the killer would have taken to get downstairs. He is over emotional and takes the case very personally. he speaks up about some evidence that bothered him. But finally. He tries hard to keep up with the group. Though he plays the role of the most divisive character who is falsely convinced that the accused is the murderer. His vote along with two others make the total nine to three for freeing the guily.Character Profiles Foreman: The foreman is a man who is small. The foreman points out that since the killer wiped his fingerprints off the knife. Juror 3 . He does not listen to any points made by the people in favor of the accused. Juror 1 He is a shy person who is easily convinced and influenced during stressed moments. He depicts an active-destructive personality. He also tries to keep the discussion peaceful. Most of the times it seemed that he is a good follower and used to get influenced by the majority and was more willing to receive than to give. He is very active in the decision making process but in a destructive way by having an attacking and commanding attitude. His part in the movie is affronted by the Juror #3. his dissentious stand was because. He had good analytical skills and he came up with some good and valid point about the time taken by the lady witness to observe the entire situation. Juror 2 He is the arrogant. He tries to run the meeting in an arranged fashion. which would have taken him some time.
Juror 5 He plays a secondary role in the movie. Although he is marginally biased against the accused but he is open to counter arguments and listened to them attentively. than any other in the jury member. He actively takes part in the discussions. He also demonstrates a passive constructive personality. All his statements and comments all were backed by logic and rationales. Initially he was also against the accused but with the rational logics given by juror #8 he was convinced that the boy is not guilty.He is the well-dressed stockbroker who comes off as conceited and unemotional. giving some valid points related to the proper use of the switch knife etc. He shows least concern about the case even though a life was dependent on it. He is curt. stoic and self-assured. Since he hails from a similar background he is in a better position to understand the accused situations and empathize with him. He relies on his logics and rationales ad is finally convinced that the boy is not guilty only because of the valid points that juror #8 provided. This character does not shy away from voicing his opinions and likes to maintain decorum during the discussions. During the entire decision making process he is very patient and calm. Juror 7 . with no substantial contributions. Juror 6 He very effortlessly demonstrates the role of a self-centered person who is more worried about his own comforts and leisure than being fair and detailed. He is least bother about the importance of the decisions taken with respect to the accused person’s life. He snubbed all the suggestions and throws tantrums every time the group follows an order that is against his comforts and expectations. He demonstrates an active constructive personality. He show no regard to protocols or justice and does not actively support the decision making process. Juror 4 He comes from the same slum as the defendant and does not react well to others prejudice. He based his decisions on hardcore facts and adheres to rules and regulations. He proves to be a good team member leading the side who wanted to prove the accused guilty of all charges. His personal affairs are more important to him than the life of that boy. He demonstrates a passive constructive personality.
. Along with this. He demonstrates a typical child ego state. His community biases lead to many verbal conflicts resulting in an aggressive approach. Juror 9 He is the most actively destructive juror having his original opinions and prejudices which are biased in nature. cool. Juror 8 He is the old and wise juror who proves to be open to difference in opinions and supports them. and collected. excited but not serious. Juror 10 He is also one of the characters which show an adult ego state almost throughout the decision making process. and plays the most crucial role. His passion for truth and justice drives his decision making process and helps him to logically analyse all the facts. He is calm. calmly and competently by scrutinizing each and every fact discussed during the trial. so that they are doubly sure that they haven’t left any loop-hole during their decision making process. This character shows a lot of patience but is still agitated due to inappropriate behaviour on the part of other jurors.He is the voice of reason. This proves to be a blessing in disguise for a situation like this wherein there are some elements who do not take their roles seriously resulting in an aggressive environment which is required to be controlled and pacified. By saying that it's not easy for him sentence a boy to death without even discussing the facts he opens the other jury member's minds to the possibility that the accused may not be guilty. He brings along with him loads of wisdom and experience which eventually helps the jury members to come to a conclusion regarding a faulty witness. he is the only member of the jury who votes ‘not guilty' and withstands all the pressure from the other jury members. He demonstrates a clear cut example of a personalized approach leading to destructive behavior. Juror 11 He portrays the role of the most indifferent character who is busy doodling away his time and has agreed to be a member just for the fun and money. At the beginning. he approaches the trial logically. which is playful. and is probably one of the few jury members who fully understand his role as a jury.
He approaches the trial in a very logical and organized manner. For example. style and approach are discussed below: Openness and ability to voice opinions: He is the voice of reason. cool. All that Juror 8 wants is to give the accused a fair chance by structurally going forward with the process of scrutinizing every fact and detail. Believed in Fair and Wise Judgments – Ethics and Justice: Juror #8 proves to be an ethical person. He is the first to question the evidence that is brought forward. he is the only member of the jury who votes ‘not guilty' and withstands pressure from all other eleven jury members. he opens the other jury members to the possibility that the accused may not be guilty. He stood out due to his ethics. and the most crucial character in the movie. He tries to convince Juror #3 to think about the case leaving all prejudices behind. He went to lengths to prove his point and to convince people of his opinions. The major attributes. By doing this. he never budged from his values and ethics. and continued looking forward to a just and fair discussion. His calm. He proved this wrong by buying the same kind of knife from a local shop. and collected demeanor infuses confidence in the audience. motives. the knife which was the weapon of crime was supposed to be unique and rare to find. K K Raina.The main protagonist was the Juror #8. Logical and Rational Approach: An architect by profession he brings with him a logical. In the beginning. passion for fair and just hearing. played by Mr. For example. and shows that he is probably one of the few jury members who fully understand his role. He told them that he was not entirely convinced and considers it ethically wrong to sentence a boy to such a fate without discussing about the case properly. This is reinforced by the fact that despite of so many ethical dilemmas encountered by the protagonists. even when 11 out of 12 jury members were against him he did not get intimidated by numbers. In some parts of the movie he acts like a counselor too. and rational approach. Right from the beginning he says that he does not . rational and analytical way of going forward with the procedure.
Finally. peaceful and pleasant demeanor throughout the procedure despite of being . He believes in logically approaching the discussion and hence convinced everyone to do the same. walking with the help of a stick. he eventually convinced people that the case is not as simple and straight as it has laid out to be. the witnesses and the crime scene to come up with any loop-holes which will help them to reach a conclusion about the case.know for sure whether the accused is guilty or not. He contributes some very logical and valid counter arguments that ven thought of by others. he devotedly does his studies the case. he believes in his gut feeling and follows it right from the beginning till the end. For him sentencing someone to a death penalty is a huge decision and he would require pure logic and valid reasons to prove him that the accused deserves such a harsh penalty. he was the only person against 11 jurors. this character proves to be a go-getter. The old man who lived in the apartment exactly below the crime scene. had heard the accused shouting just few seconds before he heard someone scream and fall with a thud. But the juror 8 proved that for a person that old. and neither does he have any valid points to put forward but all that he wants is a discussion about the same so that they are able to validate their beliefs. cannot reach the staircase in just 15 seconds. Being the leader that he is. In fact he himself demonstrated that it will take minimum of 41 seconds to reach there. to reach the point where he saw the boy running away from home. Being a performer and a through and through hard worker. All this according to him took 15-20 sec. Even though in the beginning. and an initiator who actively seeks truth while maintaining a calm. He likes to overanalyze the facts so that every aspect of the problem is studied in detail. His greatest strength was the ability to positively influence others. He tells them that according to him there are various loop-holes in the case which need to be discussed and scrutinized in order to reach a fair judgment. or the time taken by the old man with an injured leg. Leadership and Influence: The character demonstrates great leadership skills and influencing capabilities. For example the fact that the lady witness wore spectacles and it would have been difficult for her to recognize the killer from such a far away distance. He said that he then saw the young boy running from the stairs.
The jurors. “going deeper. Persuasion is the process by which attitudes are changed. plays an integral aspect in the intriguing nature of the movie. Lastly. The central route is the process by which a person carefully ponders upon a communication and is eventually influenced by the power of argument. and encourages them to think and rationalize. Juror #10 and 7 display this kind of an approach. Juror #8 appeals for the accused’s innocence in a well-thought. The peripheral route of persuasion is characterized by superficial cues surrounding the argument rather than validity of the facts presented in the argument. Juror #8 and Juror #4. the businessman uses his curt. Upon examination. the film highlights social psychology theories in areas of attitude change. both follow this approach towards attitudinal change. Juror #7 asks them to get away with the decision as soon as possible since there is no use in discussing the facts as maximum number of them were convinced the boy was guilty. The central route to persuasion characterized Fonda’s approach. take pride in their intellect regardless of . who care deeply about the fate of the accused boy. He stipulates his points through empirical evidence and eventually sways the other jurors. Juror #11 applies the central route to persuasion when he advocates. Attitudinal Change: Persuasion. They are the tools through which people persuade others to agree with what is right and just or apt. Where on one hand Juror #10 very inappropriately urges other jurors to construe an attitude based on peripheral ethnic and racial cues. are concerned with justice. conformity. environmental cues. organized and elucidated manner. Through the use of non-factual. Route selection is another component of relevance in the movie.provoked a number of times. Likewise. and group process. being a function of attitude.” in reference to an examination of the facts. Being an achiever and a confident man he actively listens to his fellow jurors’ opinions and point of views. convincing argument based on facts. stoic and inductive nature to create a strong. the sick gentleman utilizes the peripheral route to persuasion. There are two ways to persuasion: peripheral and central.
Normative social influence is a theory that states the cause of individual conformity is due to the possibility of appearing deviant. This phenomenon is exemplified by the Juror #10 who complains about his business being interrupted and speaks English poorly. a component of social facilitation. . presence of others hinders performance on difficult tasks but enhances performance on easy tasks. According to informational social influence individuals conform because they come to a conclusion that the other’s interpretation of the ambiguous situation at hand is more valid. valid response. So it can be seen that the way a group works can highly influence the working capacity and the effectiveness of the decisions made by them. Conformity: the film demonstrates the power of social influences and shows us how prejudices and biases can cloud our decision making capacities. This character believes in the justice and morality implied within the constitutional guarantee afforded by the jury process. This timid first-timer establishes his intellect later in the film but initially.social status. Juror #7 who urgently wants to make it to the movie theatre and finally by Juror #3 who is distracted by his own personal rage. This demonstrates evaluation apprehension theory. time constraints. importance of being correct. brought forth by the young accused boy. Group Process: Social facilitation theory states. This is intensified by the ambiguity of situation. than their own. he is unable to come up with viable. Juror #8’s adherence and conviction to evaluating the case is an example of social compensation. Those who are not able to understand the complexity of the trial. and are involved in discussion susceptible to the central route. Informational social influence and normative social influence are the two theories of conformity that can be studies here. are distracted and pressed for time tend to take the peripheral route. and presence of those perceived as experts. This theory states that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects when the audience is perceived as potential evaluators. under the scrutiny of others. Within the film a meek man of high intellect is left speechless and apprehensive when approached by the group for a valuation of his opinion.
Experience trust. Hence it becomes emperative for any team to give their team members the following: Equal and fair chance to voice their opinions i. good space for Self-Observation.e. Share other people’s experiences.e. The movie initially exemplifies this process but with consistent contempt is suppressed by Juror #8 and the people who support him. a chance to pick up skills and attitudes from others. A welcoming and supporting environment i. Good insight to expand self-knowledge.concerns. Vicarious learning i. a conducive environment for Self-Disclosure. This will indeed make the team an effective medium of change. Group polarization is the concept that group discussion generally serves to strengthen the already dominant point of view. . This often leads to risky shift.e. acceptance and understanding within the team. difficulties and hopes.
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