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Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + kuru / iku 60.44. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + inai 55. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + iru 54. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + miru 61. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + shimau 64. Base 5 50.
which can end in u. bu. ichidan. tsu. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . but to be more precise. Ta Form + ra 72. Ta Form + to shitara 75. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. not u. Ta Form + rashii 73. mu.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Remembering this will make further study much easier. gu. Ta Form + tokoro 78. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. Ta Form + bakari 70. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. Ta Form + ri 74." for example: it ends in ku.67. su. Ta Form + toki 77. ku. Let's take the verb aruku. which means "to walk. and irregular. desu. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. nu.
but there is no difference. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb .) Naomi wa terebi o miru. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. unless it was from another foreigner. (Naomi will watch TV. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form.) This is very simple Japanese.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru." Interestingly. (Jim will read a comic book. (Grandpa will return soon. Some sources call these verbs godan. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. and also very juvenile or "familiar. (I'll eat an apple. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago.) Jim wa manga o yomu.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look.
) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. (Jim will read a comic book. the present polite ending. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.their "Base 2" form -.before the masu ending is added. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . (Grandpa will return soon. "adult" Japanese. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end.
(I'll decide tomorrow. which is the negative form of masu. (He won't wait.) Kare wa machimasen. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. and should not be worried about at this stage. (Jerry will come out soon.) Now. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. (Ayako watches the TV every day.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. let's try masen. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu.) . but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one.
(Miki wants to see that movie.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. (The children want to play. (The children didn't play at the park. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. (Bob wants to eat tempura. . Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. etc. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita.) Easy enough. (I want to buy an umbrella.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. To make them polite.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. masen shows negative tense. (I'm not going to eat now.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) The above examples are plain forms. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu.
)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.) Simple enough.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. In fact. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. It simply means "let's (do something).) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu.) Yasumimashou. in this example. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you).Please note that tai is only used with verbs. (I'll fix your bicycle. (The children don't want to play. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai." This structure will be covered later on. . (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. and two use ichidan." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. (Let's go." For example: • • • Ikimashou./I'll help you fix your bicycle.) Tabemashou. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. (Let's get you some food. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.) As in English.) * In Japanese. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. (I'll carry this/these [for you].) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. but either way this one is easy to remember. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. Add desu to make it polite. and is never used alone with an object. For example. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. (Let's eat." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. (Let's take a break.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
(Sachiko won't be coming. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. konai (won't come)." as a matter of personal policy. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. Etc. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. As in English. (Jim doesn't read comic books.) Sachiko wa konai. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). kuru (come). and should only be used in very informal settings. which we already covered in Lesson 4.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. Depending on the situation. shinai (won't do). (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. For example. (I'm not going to watch TV. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. and suru (do). .taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. like Base 2 + masen. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. Jim wa manga o yomimasen.
(Grandpa will probably return soon. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. etc.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. hail.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. snow.) Actually. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. (It probably won't snow. Look at these examples: .) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.what will happen if something doesn't happen.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. (Sachiko will probably come. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.
which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. when speaking to that person. especially when talking to an individual. chan.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. . (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. Additionally." Actually.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. names are usually not used alone.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). so it is omitted. For example. The ones you'll hear the most are san. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. as in English. and kun. Generally speaking. Once a person's name is known. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. sama.
and children add it to the words for father. names are often shortened before adding chan. and playmates. more familiar (and. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. real or pretended. kun with boys. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known." This is normal and good. company. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. because san shows that a closer. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. grandfather. Parents add chan to their children's names. adult male neighbor. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. use san with colleague's names. aunt. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. chan to female students. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. After the sale is made. Family. at any rate. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. adult female neighbor. unless an individual prefers chan. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. cousins. For example. but would also . where anata is used for "you. let's get back to you. Again. uncle. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. older brother or sister (but not younger). grandmother. etc. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. but to the title of those older. mother. And. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. time passes. For those older. though san is probably more common for females. Now." but is now a "san. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. As a safe rule. and chan with girls. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. however. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". hopefully. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. you can always ask. Customarily. of course.for a while. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. Also." This Japanese would be understood.
There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. It works fine. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. Yes.. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. however. which is the best choice when talking to large.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. the fact is that it is very rarely used. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). (Jim has to return now. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. it's a bit of a tongue twister. change it to Base 1 ika.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). Accordingly.. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. and very odd. because it means "must do. the one left would be kimitachi." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. and narimasen means "will not become".anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. (The children must eat. which shows familiarity. So. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -.) Looking at it literally." Let's take iku (to go). Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. It's used quite a lot. mixed groups. (I have to go. there's no problem. formal. the nakereba means "if one does not. Anatatachi could be used. even some affection. but it conveys a certain distance.". It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. toward the group concerned. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. I may as well say here that much. This can be handy when . So. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen.sound very stiff. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do.
) With "suru verbs. "I'll let him go to the store". (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. (Grandpa lets the children play. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. (Jim probably has to return now. "I'll have him go to the store". however. and saseru.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella.adding other endings. In Japanese. for the others." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. or feelings. seru. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. as in "let him" or "make him.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. mastering a clean. (I'll have him come tomorrow. (I'll have John decide by next week. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru." can be conveyed. like deshou from Lesson 14. More than memorizing its meaning.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (The children probably need to eat. are used for all of these. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. Accordingly.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. for yodan verbs.
like miseru. etc. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come . which is signified by adding ni afterwards. which means "to show" or "to let see.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. although miru is an ichidan verb. (He lets them watch TV every day. past tense. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative.) So.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. (I want to have Kenji study English." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. (I'll have her do it.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. (Let's have John go to the store. (Dad will make Bob study. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita.) Kanojo ni saseru. you won't hear or see "misaseru. kimeru: to decide kare: he. polite.) As you can see. by tomorrow.
) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (It will probably rain tomorrow. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. as explained in Lesson 1. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. Let's get back to deshou. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. so it is often omitted. Watashi wa ringo o taberu." For example. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. means "to fall. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. As in English." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). But before we begin. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. . her karera: they.the plain. making the verb unnecessary. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. Not only should you be able to translate these.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she.) The verb furu.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). Naomi wa terebi o miru. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. shown in the last example above.
) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be." etc. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. etc.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. Please note that ka is not added at the end. (Bob will probably also want to go. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. (You ought to study English more.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. (John should be coming soon.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. like . Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. snow.. as we would use tag questions in English.
) Inu no hou ga ii. and according to the grammar books." and ii means "good" or "better. (I should call her.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. frankly." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. which was covered in Lesson 20. (It would be better to do it next week.ni natte iru or beki.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do".) As with most verb endings. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. should happen. but. I hope to cover them in more detail later on.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii..) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. (It would be better to eat later. When you hear it. "would rather do. "had better do".) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.should do.should be. practice makes perfect. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. (It would be better to go by train today.) When showing personal preference.. As usual. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. (I'd rather get a dog. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -.while hazu is more passive -. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. Word Check .way is good/better." Actually. the hou means "way" or "method. (We had better rest a little. (You should study Japanese more. prefer -.
(I don't know yet if we are going. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. him dekiru: can. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not.) As can be seen in the examples above. It's like using "whether or not" in English." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. Word Check kare: he. but connects two phrases which contain verbs.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou.kanojo: she. to understand inu: dog ima: now . (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.
(We may eat out tonight.taberu: to eat miru: to see. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. so you'll want to master it right away. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. perhaps. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen)." Since this verb ending is rather long.) As you sharp ones have noticed. (It might rain tomorrow. As such.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). (Jack may also come.) . watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and is conjugated accordingly. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. so please be careful when pronouncing.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. Simply put.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. this one is used frequently. look. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. yes. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. where it is converted to shireru (can know). when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. meaning that. (It might snow tomorrow. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week." These are incorrect. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). Therefore. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister.
" It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. Word Check komban: this evening. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. (Since it will probably rain. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. signified by kara at the end. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff.I suggest. In this case. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. (Beth is always late. they each become separate sentences. Itsumo okureru kara. (We don't have any milk. with its reason. so his English is good. grammatically speaking. given after. let's take umbrellas. so I'll call her. denwa shimasu. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. Tabun ame ga furu kara.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. kasa o motte ikimashou. so I'm going to the store. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara.) Jisho o kaitai kara.) . (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. Terebi o mitakunai kara.) In spoken Japanese. mise ni ikimasu. eigo ga jouzu desu.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. you'll often hear the action stated first.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. however. honya ni ikimasu. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. (I don't want to go to Mr.) Ongaku o kikimasu.
nasty. home iya na: bad. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. heta desu.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. (He speaks Japanese.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. but he's not good at it. as well as its shorter forms. yoku byouki shimasu. Again. but she doesn't get any better.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but." so. it comes between the contrasting phrases.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. he gets sick a lot. . disgusting mono: thing. keredo and kedo. no problem. Like "but" in English. (Although Jack is careful about his health. etc. jouzu ni narimasen. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as you can imagine." Just like English. which means "from. it's used a lot. just like English. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. snow. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at.
this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. Like our ing. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. Next. I like reading as a thing to do. Let's move on. a lot. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. it really doesn't change the verb. (I like reading. If you have to have a translation. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb.. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. not good at something. But first. It'll come. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . No. Well." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. no problem.. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. like reading in the sentence I like reading. In English." Does this help? If not. let's look at each part.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. Better than all this talk would be an example.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. koto has no practical use by itself. Here are some examples: . First is koto.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading.) Finally.
• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. (Keiko can play the piano. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one).) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. for kicks -. you can just omit suru. It does not . (I can read Japanese." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita." Denwa is a noun. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. With "suru verbs. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. (Bob was able to call Junko. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. expressions.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. For example." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. Kinou. (I can translate French into Japanese." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. actually for review -.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.let's try some other endings on dekiru. etc. meanings. (I can't read French. they're both used. and adding the suru makes it a verb. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. in that case the suru is omitted.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. There is a short alternative for other verbs. it's a long ending for just "can.no.) Either way. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. long or short. essences. actions. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of.) Now." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. Again.
) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. koto ni suru is the plain. and it shows that the decision was yours. As I'm sure you know by now.) . It shows that you have made a decision. koto ni shimasu is the polite form.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can.
(Wait until dinner. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. periods.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. watch (something) .) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. etc. to let (someone) see.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) As in English. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. Made means "until.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (We have to wait until Bob calls.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. (Mr.
like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. This is one that will probably not be used very often. as with English. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. you could say."don't do's" -. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. and to whom. However. but if you do. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after.) Base 3 + na This.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. First. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. . be careful how. you use it. Stay away from here!. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored.
) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken.) Ame ga furu nara. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. which is just a slight variation. he'll let me know. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. kuru deshou." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. (If the kids eat a snack now.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. they probably won't eat dinner. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If you call John he'll probably come. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. but nara is more common. He thought he said. (If he sees Yuko. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.sentences with "if.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. watashi ni shirasemasu.) John ni denwa suru nara.
. things I'd like to explain. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . respectively. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. And.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. I can see several things which need to be explained. Japanese English.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. which are examples involving a thing. explanations. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. a place. But. to make matters worse. words that connect a noun to an action. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. like in the first example above. there are no "relative pronouns. to offer very general." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. As a quick review." Of course." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. and a person. For example. that's another story.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. In Japanese. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. but hopefully sufficient for the present. a time. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. and lengthy. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. page." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam.
since he or she will surely be hearing both. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. Continuing with the above example. The problem is that the rules are . the English "where. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. a "sub-subject. Kobe is a place. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. or a noun which needs emphasis. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. they do not mean the same thing. a truer English translation would be." you might say. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. but since Japanese has no equivalent. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. and is handled by the final verb. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. automatically designates a place. and so it would most likely be omitted. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. Ga or no could be used here. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both.) Since this is natural Japanese.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted.) In this sentence. a substitute noun must be used. No is often used in place of ga. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu.) In this one. like our 's. and therefore omitted. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. densha (train) is the main subject. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. especially in informal spoken Japanese. back to the lesson: First. For example. As you can see. ga tells us who will take the train.) Now. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu." as a relative pronoun. As you may have noticed. so tokoro is used after the verb.
Please come back regularly to review as necessary. I hope this lesson was clear enough. Finally. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave.to high-intermediate Japanese.) This one is pretty straightforward. and shouldn't be too difficult. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. (Spring is the season that brings new life. As a general. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. produce. and when trying to make sense of one.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. and are in the realm of mid. . semi-accurate rule. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about.totally different in each language. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. you must forget all the rules of the other. and vice versa.
Word Check anta: familiar form of "you".) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. need. (She IS coming.) Remember these? I hope so. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. fist pounding. etc. (I tell you. it IS going to rain tomorrow. or habits of the speaker. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. (Jim will read a comic book. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. However. (Grandpa will return soon. unexcited intonation. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. stomping around.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. Japanese English. (Jim will read a comic book.) . and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions.) As in any other language.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. writhing. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. if you want to emphasize something. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). (Grandpa will return soon.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. you need to review. If not. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.
(It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. specifically.) . considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses." which we will cover later on.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. Please consult a dictionary for more. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. essential kanji: Chinese characters. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. Takamatsu-yuki. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. meaning "in spite of.) densha: train noru: to ride. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. rather. etc.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. There's nothing really tricky about it.
the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. (Speaking Japanese is easy. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. mainly the one used for possessives.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu.).Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. Wa is the subject indicator. like our 's. the greatest. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. to not exist tabi: trip . (Jim's dictionary is blue. (Reading is enjoyable. boku no wa aka desu.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. still not fukanou: not possible. impossible saikou: great. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. mine is red.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. (It really was a problem-free trip.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's.
what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. (Since Eiko can speak English. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job .) So.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. For example.prefix makes it "honorific. In other words. If kara was used instead. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. which is used to show reasons or causes. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. In this lesson we will take a look at node. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. use node. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. the o.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. she'll probably find a good job.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed.
she won't listen. kanojo wa kikimasen. to follow rules or orders. For example: . understand to be.) kiku: to listen. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. this short lesson is about noni.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.) asoko: there. Word Check yameru: to stop something. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something.) annani: that much. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. rumors. (Despite my telling her to stop.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. (I was late even though I got up early. for the plain past.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. etc. which is used for plain past structures.
and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. a student will say baito.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. sou desu. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. They use a noun geared to their type of job. it usually means "for the purpose of. but is more often than not shortened to baito. The actual word is arubaito. A full-time employee will use shigoto." and is often followed by the optional ni. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. Japanese German.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. in order to.) As you have probably guessed. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets." (Yes. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). Takada's quitting." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. that's right.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan.) Tame is a very handy word. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. (I heard that Mr.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. Japanese English. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. Here are some popular ones: . meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". Word Check hiru kara: from noon.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. as in "Hai.
) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. (Kimiko came with Bob.) For the curious. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. (This is for you. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. that's pronounced "toh.") It can mean and. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. with. In this case.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. or if. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. when. Mom. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.) .]) Hai. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. receive. (This is for you. (Okay. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. (Remember. [plain. have (an interview). (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get.
to go) + taku (tai. (I think Eiko can speak English.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).) . to become to want to go -.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be).) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou." Iki (Base 2 of iku. Sasaki will call us soon. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. especially in the workplace. Now that it's been explained. Japanese English.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. While not specifically covered. and expected. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. (I think Koji will be late. When referring to the beach in Japanese.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It's okay to have an opinion. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. to want to do. use umi. It means simply "I think. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. things you can do. begin to want. takunaru puts tai and naru together. meaning "come to want. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. of "party. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. (I think Ms. but it is not generally used.
(I think it would be better to go by train today.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. goes back. towards me.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . People will use to omoimasu even when they know. or have some control. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Accordingly. (I thought it would rain today [. or don't really have any control over something. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. don't really care. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here.) Again. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. this ending is a lot like deshou. and it did. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.]) In a way.As you can see from the last examples. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. which was covered in Lesson 19. but it didn't.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. omou can be used for plain speech. care.
) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. which means "to accumulate. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. hairu: to go inside (a room). no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. S.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. that was a short one. In case you're wondering.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. however. their meanings are completely different. add desu to make it polite. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. day. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U.) . hear the other verb tsumoru. etc. build up.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. While sounding alike. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. Always use daigaku for university. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. technically speaking. Deshita. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. so please be careful not to confuse them. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. Well. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. yes. You will. as you should know by now. to enter/enroll in (a school)." used a lot. is for past tense.
. Simply put." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai..• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. etc. baka: idiot. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. 3.) To be honest. a as in father EE. e as in red OH. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. 2. sou desu means you heard. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. u as in mule EH. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. directly or indirectly. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. 5. First. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. said so]. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. "you look like an idiot. and show what Base 4 looks like. that something is or will be. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. e as in see OO.) mitai: it looks like.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. o as in mode . (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. 4. AH. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu.) Ame ga furu you desu. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements.
except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 ." or "dictionary form. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. Now.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. it's where you start." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up.
Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. As we learned in the last lesson. kuru deshou. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. Do you remember Base 3 + nara.) John ni denwa sureba. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. covered in Lesson 30? Well. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (I want to call Grandma." as shown in these examples: . (If he sees Yuko.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba.) Handy." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. (If you call John he'll probably come. (If the kids eat a snack now. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) Ame ga fureba. watashi ni shirasemasu.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. they probably won't eat dinner. Here. he'll let me know. Ii is Japanese for "good..?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. however. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. let's do a simple and useful conjugation...]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba.
Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. By this stage of Japanese study. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. (I wish we had gone to the park. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. is used after ba -. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. (We should have come at 8:00. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied .) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. yoi is not used with noni. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. yes. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. they are not completely interchangeable. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. In those situations different constructions would be used. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. no. quirky ii does not. However. soto de asobeba ii. (I wish I had ordered the steak. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. (We want to watch TV. yokatta.) Naoko. (Now would be a good time to study. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. [I still wish you would play outside. they both mean "good". Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. (Around five.) • As you can see. (It would be good if you played outside.) Kids: Terebi mitai.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. (The weather's nice. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. so it would be good to play outside. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed.) Mom.
just use Base 4. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness.) light shokuji: food. Or. It's simple: no subject or object needed. Actually. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. this is a form you really don't want to use. if you look and act like you know what you're saying.and known to all concerned. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form." . If you do. and maybe even get into a fight.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event.very handy when you get used to it. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs.
it was like opening a new door. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. Now. they can be treated like plain ichidans. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. too. Here we realize an important point -. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Simply put. I remember when I first learned this one -. .) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. very useful. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (He might be able to go next month. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. which was covered back in Lesson 26. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. It's very. just like most ichidans. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka.) Now. It shows ability to do something. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. (I can read Japanese. (Keiko can play the piano. As such. (Keiko can't play the violin. For example.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. No problem.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. Take a good look. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. (Keiko can play the piano.
As you may have guessed. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. If it helps. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. the "cannot do" plain form. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. this form is only meant for yodans.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. (As you remember.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. and I hope it will make sense to you. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. which was covered in Lesson 13.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. this is wasei eigo.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. (Keiko can't play the piano. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. (I can't read Japanese." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. (Jack probably won't be able to come. there are other nai-related endings that will work here.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). It made sense to me. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai.) .) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. For example.
) . I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. an example of which was included in the last lesson. you may wonder. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but there are exceptions like the last example above. so I do too. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. So.) Again.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. this form is mainly for yodans. but who cares? Everyone uses it. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. energetic. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't).
Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.kari.tabe. First.koyou .kimeru kimerededederu derekari.kime. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. If you don't mind.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.oboe.oboeru oboerekime.taberu tabereoboe.
." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something).shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. oh. but is converted as necessary: . (Let's go.) Terebi o miyou ka na. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. Also. oo. (Let's eat. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound." Suru is shown plain. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. ee. (I think I'll go shopping..) Tabeyou.. (I wonder if I should go shopping. eh. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. (Maybe I'll watch TV. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka.." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. (Let's take a break.) Yasumou. I just made that up. arukou ka na. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. (I wonder if I should call Bob.
one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. (I think John will try to come. but he couldn't. As you have most likely guessed. (Naoto tried to see the airplane.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. miemasen deshita.
matte. tashite. tonde. motsu (to hold). kiite.aruite. not tsu). Yodan verbs that end in bu. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde.kashite. katte. like au (to meet). Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. kau (to buy). to ask). right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. Yodan verbs that end in ku. yonde..e. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. tsunaide. tsunagu (to connect). nuide. like kasu (to lend). nutte.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. kesu (to turn off. kiku (to listen. like isogu (to hurry). . nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. yobu (to call out). not iite. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. It's important because it's used a lot. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. katte. like asobu (to play).asonde. like matsu (to wait).atte. like aruku (to walk).isoide. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. to put out [a fire]). tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. hataraite. motte. Yodan verbs that end in gu. Please note this one important exception: iku. keshite.
(Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. and kiru (to cut). but in Japanese we do. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. (Come here.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect." "to lower (something). Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something." etc. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. momu (to massage). Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. tabete. haitte. like kaeru (to return). toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -." There are several handy variations of kudasai. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. (Wait. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. As you can see.) Matte.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. humble me. When you start learning kanji.yonde. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched.) Chotto matte kudasai. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. tabete kudasai. It means "under. Yodan verbs that end in ru. (Please come at six o'clock. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. please eat. like yomu (to read). and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. (Go ahead and eat.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. kiku (to listen).kaette. (Listen to this. (Go ahead. depending on the tone of voice used." "to go down.) Kore o kiite. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself.) Douzo. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. For practice let's use kuru (to come). Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. tsutsunde. (Come at six o'clock. kiite. (Please come at six o'clock. totte.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. hairu (to enter). tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. monde.) . (Please wait a bit. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai.
it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. (Cut this. you use the Te Form + kudasai. (If you don't want to eat it. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. (I'll give you this pen. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often.) .) Kono pen o agemasu. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables." but it means "to raise.• Kore o kitte. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone.) As you can see. Now. just like counting 1-2-3." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. to show respect.) Tabetakunakereba. If you ask someone to do something for you. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. to give (up to someone). as covered in the last lesson. I'll eat it for you. (I'll call you later. giving each equal time while making them short. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. kiite: KEE-EETEH. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. showing a "humbler" position. (Please give me that pen. (I'll wait for you. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible." Ageru also means "to give.). tabete ageru.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. and kitte: KEET-TEH.
It's for "talking down" to. in cases where there's a third person. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. However. . but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. string. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. which are chosen depending on the situation. as these examples show.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. laces musubu: to tie.In Japanese. Finally. and showing contempt for others. as a general rule. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. and.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese.) Notes 1. it's a great convenience besides. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope." It is disrespectful at best. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. (Lend Bob your pen. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. Don't use it. and will work nicely in most cases. the position of the giver or receiver.
Itte goran nasai. usually in short. (It says he's 38. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. (Taste it and see if you like it. (Try calling Sanae. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. (Ask Bob and see what he says. Yonde goran nasai.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look.) That's how we use goran nasai.) Tabete goran.) Te Form + iru . See for yourself. Go and see for yourself. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. You never use it on yourself. (There is salt on the shelf. Mite goran nasai.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.) Mite goran.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. Read it for yourself. (Take a look." You use it to ask someone to try something. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. mild command-like sentences. which is used to prove a point.
"). when they really should use sunde iru. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. as in the fourth example above. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. (Bill is studying Japanese. (He's not studying French. (I'm reading the newspaper. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. This is probably the most used verb form of them all." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). it works like English. As you already know." So. and not shiru.) Kinou nete imashita. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. we say "I know.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. For example.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. mashita. (We live in Takamatsu. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere])." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. masen. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. [We are living in Takamatsu.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. [I wasn't watching TV today. we can get away with using just "live" in English. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . to exist.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. in English we would normally ask a person. "I'm knowing [it]. (I am walking. in a way.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. (I didn't watch TV today.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. (Shizuko is eating. Because of this. (She is eating sushi. Especially important are masu. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. (I am here. (They are reading a magazine. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. and masen deshita. (Yesterday I slept all day.) Watashi wa aruite iru.
(What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. child Note: Strangely. there is no single. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. it is even written this way -.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. Finally.with the i in iru omitted -. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here.imashita ka. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. like "kid" in English." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. so I'll tell you: "to play. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. For example. (I was watching TV.) I know you're wondering. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. "woman-child" / "man-child"). there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. imouto: little (younger) sister . In fact. but. to do (something) ko: kid. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu.
(We don't live in Okayama.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. First let's do some plain negative examples. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba.Note: In Japanese. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. to exist. Please look at the following examples. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. ane for older sister. (Sam's not here. (The kids probably aren't studying. there are many that can. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. infinitive and progressive: . as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. (Sam's not here.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. which makes them present or past progressive. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. (They aren't reading a magazine. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. nani o shite iru deshou ka." As such. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. (We don't live in Okayama. otouto for younger brother. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. and imouto for younger sister. (They aren't reading a magazine. and adding ra makes it conditional.) Benkyou shite inakereba. (If they're not studying. present and past.
" as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. (I haven't eaten yet. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. "we could" could be "he could. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. since it is not only a Te Form ending. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. but also a much- . Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. The last two above are good examples of this. To make the meaning perfectly clear. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. It's for asking questions. which can be convenient at times. to be able).) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be).) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai." depending on the actual situation.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. Dekita. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. and goes especially well with plain ones. (I wasn't eating then. (I'm not eating [now]. In either. (I didn't eat an apple. However. vague and troublesome at others. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. (I'm not eating [now]. (I didn't eat an apple. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. (I wasn't eating then. which appears in the last example.
(Bill was studying.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. (Really? I washed my car.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita.used element of conversational Japanese. (I was doing shopping. I decided to go ahead and cover it here.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. (They were reading a magazine. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. Put simply.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta.are going to speak so grammatically correct.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation.) That's real Japanese. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. ita is the plain past form of iru. As I'm sure you know by now. Soshite terebi o mite ita. this would be two males speaking. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. Also. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. I include the usual English translation. in settings where polite speech is called for.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. Just for the fun of it. Soshite terebi miteta. (Really? I was washing my car. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi.]) Yes. [I went shopping. [Really? I washed my car. but no real friends or family members -. (John was watching TV. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. (I went shopping. In fact. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. upgrade ita to imashita.
) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. Here are some examples. meaning something like "I humbly partake. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. Oboete imasen ka. (Would you please call Mr. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. as covered in Lesson 50. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. Don't you remember?) (If necessary.) As in English. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. however. It can.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. Because itadaku is a very polite word. . (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received.
I realize that all of this sounds complicated. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable." With itadakimasu. Traditionally. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. (I'm doing homework now. Morau is okay when referring to other things. it's just plain.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. itadakimasu is always used with food. However.) . Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. use morau instead of itadaku. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me." When there's no need to be very polite. (I'm doing homework now. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go.) This is a family situation.as itadakimasu. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. Also. With kudasai. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. (Ken's not here now. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. even when the giver is not present. Get Ken to go. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. No particular reservations are needed here. and it can be at times.) This is the same family.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. this would be the best way to go.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. I'll get Grandpa to go. but not quite as polite -. Make no mistake. morau is not impolite. As usual. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. morau works best when talking about a third party. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.not as "respectful" -. but since we can't do that now. adding a masu ending makes it polite. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. Ken ni itte moratte.
(Yes.) oshieru: to teach.) Itadakimashita. office.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. documents. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. (I'll give you a pen. (I got one [already].) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. each home. and these two are being courteous. itadakimashita is the nicest reply.prefix is used with strangers. but she already has one and doesn't want another. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. tell shorui: forms. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. Just like anywhere else. Murai go. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu.Itadakimasu is always used with food. moraimashita.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. etc. clients. (May I please have your name?) Hai. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. (I had Ms. company.) This is at the office. customers. I got one. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. (Sure. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. They probably don't see each other every day.
You can't use it directly after nouns. (John's coming over after he does his homework.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.) .) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. you just make them the subject/object with ga..) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. Simple and useful. Word Check kaeru: to return.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later).." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).) Te Form + kara This one's a snap.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru." There are other ways to do that. such as those two common ones work and school. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. such as summer to mean "after summer. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. (After I eat I'm going shopping. to come home owaru: to end. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]..) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). (Let's eat after Naomi comes back.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. then add the Te Form of owaru. (Let's go see a movie after work.
but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita.) And finally. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. and it would be offensive in some cases. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. ogotte kureru no?. this is the "command" form of kureru. For example. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. repeated request.) Matte kure. In fact. (Please come here. you might say Ah. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. Again.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. It's good for family members and close friends. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . Some people add the question-forming no on the end. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. (Please wait. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. Kureru is used in generally the same way. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. which literally means "Oh. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai.
Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. expresses future plans. (Because of that. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. dreams. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. (I have been studying German history.sound nicer than with kure." Usually upgraded with masu. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. assumptions. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies." (If you say just ikimasu. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. etc. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. you'll see what I mean.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita.) Sono tame. I think that the number of PC users will increase.) As can be seen. depending on intonation.
asobi ni kite kudasai. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. combined with naru: to become. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita."going away and not coming back.) Accordingly.. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. but when uncertain. (Let's go eat Chinese food. food..) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.) Shirabete kuru.) shiraberu: to check (something).): cheap. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita." See Lesson 40. (I came to borrow a textbook." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. (I'll go check it [then come back].) Douzo. (I ate before coming over. or cuisine. inexpensive. to examine. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history).) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. (Please come over [sometime]. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. but should be easily understood.
to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb." meaning that we'll give something a try.) Te Form + miru As you know. Well. For example." ..) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. (I'll try to talk to John. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. Or. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. but it's not. but he wasn't in. miru means "to see. Either way. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. (Let's give this new PC a try.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga.kariru: to borrow douzo: please." but technically it's not one of those either. go ahead asobu: to play. rusu deshita. and adding miru. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu." which makes this one easy to remember.. (I'll try to read these kanji. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit.) Simple enough. to entertain oneself. In Japanese grammar. but don't take it literally. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form." You may hear it often. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. (I tried calling him. it acts like a "quasi adjective.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. with its own set phrases.
" "fine. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to.) ... you can watch TV.. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. so you should be a little familiar with it.. It's an adjective which means "good.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay." "it's okay if (someone does something). so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. positive response.. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. As with most Japanese.) Hai. (Sure.) (Yes. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo.. like the object indicator o. There's usually something else added on. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. you can also get away with omitting particles. terebi mite ii. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. (Yeah. in familiar situations as in the last example above. as with all adjectives.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. Yes. As I've probably mentioned before. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka." Accordingly.." etc. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). however. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. you can use my dictionary. (You may go home early today.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii." etc.).?). Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. (You can use my PC.(Verbs are shown in their plain form." "okay. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.. that is the way it works grammatically. In the workplace.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. do not add the plain. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. (Well." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone.) Actually. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. If you break a bone in Japanese. polite. of course. you can say it. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. You can omit the desu ka for plain." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. familiar talk. If you do. You can say dou ka. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. Instead.these don't use it. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. question-forming no -. but usually alone. You can't just say "I broke my arm.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but not ikaga ka. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. if you're going to use it in this way. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa.
if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. iken (Okayama). A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). "You mustn't do that!". Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . "Thou shalt not. akan (Osaka). plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo.. everyday setting. (You can't take pictures. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. "Naughty!". and you're bound to hear either of these. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. especially ikenai. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. used in a normal.. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. In fact. like ikan (Takamatsu). (Don't be late. When placed after the Te Form with wa. Also. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". So. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. to make it even more colorful. etc. etc.
many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. hachiji ni ie o demashita. First. and left home at eight. (I've got to call Shizu." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. because tooru is a totally different vowel. the kanji used for each meaning are different. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so).Note: The verb toru has many different usages. ate breakfast. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. heya o katazukete.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete.) As you can see. (I got up at seven o'clock. and I'm going shopping. meaning "to pass (by/over something). kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. like "take a bath.) Also. to take a picture with a camera. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. to take (steal) something from someone. which is easy to do. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. then go shopping. fed him. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. and [then] made my dinner. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. heya o katazukete moratte. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. some simple ones. However.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu.) . straighten up the room.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. esa o ataete. choushoku o tabete.
Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. to straighten up. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. past. and simple. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. When you're not sure. just start a new sentence. a house deru: to leave. Just for a quick check. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. whose major purpose is to make things plain. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form.
you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. there are limits. (My goldfish died. There are cases where particles would never be cut. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. Also. . In the long run. (I ate lunch.) Hon yonda. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I read a book. and only omit them when everyone else does.) Boku no kingyo shinda.) Ginkou itta.) Kami kitta. Let's do some real basic.) Ohiru tabeta. (I got a haircut. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. (I did it. (I went to the bank. Once again. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta.) Terebi mita. even by the fastest-talking Japanese.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. (I watched TV.
roku nen mae ni katta. I had someone cut my hair.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. kiru: to cut. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. hon becomes the subject." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday.) Shinda kingyo wa. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. Although it literally means "I cut my hair." it is used for "I got a haircut. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. use kami. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. (The cake Joy made was delicious. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. literally "hairbug.) Boku ga katta PC wa.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. Ke alone is hair — any hair. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. For example. anywhere. beforehand." There are a few of these." and is less formal than chuushoku.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen." If we switch these around to yonda hon. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do." Very handy. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. even on a caterpillar.) . Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. juu hachi man en deshita.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book.
) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. Due to this. One past tense element is enough. because deshita is the past form of desu.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. (He's supposed to come at six.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. the rest really isn't too difficult. Since we have already covered these. (He was supposed to come at six. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. which will serve as a nice review. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. .) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. And. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. Base 3 is used for the plain future. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. use desu to make it polite. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. (If necessary. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. not deshita. For a more detailed review. these two share many add-ons and endings. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. Carefully note the similarities and differences. please click the lesson links. Instead. as in the last example above. Again.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. root form of Japanese verbs. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review.
(It would be better to go by train today. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. I'm late every day. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): .) Hayaku okita noni okureta. Takada quit.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. For expressing regret. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu..) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) Kinou no ban. I was late.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (I should have taken the train today.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. sensei ga okoru.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (Even though I got up early.) Beth wa okureta kara. (I heard that Mr.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (It would be better to go by train today.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. Takada's quitting. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. sensei ga okotta. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late.) Note: Yes. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai." Please don't make this mistake. (Even though I get up early. (I heard that Mr. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta.
(John just left.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) Ame ga futta mitai.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can.) In fact.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. not with people or objects. etc. (It looks like it's going to rain. now that I think of it. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) yameru: to quit a job.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. (I just cleaned this room.) John wa deta bakari.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. snow. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. (Mom just got back. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. like something memorized from a grammar book.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. (I just bought that umbrella. . In other words.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. mai is used with units of time. (I just ate. (It looks like it rained.
I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. This is used after the Te Form. (All you ever do is eat. I have. arimasu. The first is that when you ask "have you been to.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. (Yes.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here.. (Yes. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. First. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. I'd like to try it.) As you can see. (All Shizuka ever does is study English.. though.. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there).) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. you'll find them very useful. to do (familiar. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return.. Tabete mitai kedo. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form." in Japanese. (All that kid does is play computer games. I've been twice. to go/come back deru: to leave. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. tabeta koto ga nai. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). Once you get these sorted and memorized.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. you use the verb iku (to go) . the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom." usually as a complaint. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. I haven't. Nikai ikimashita.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced.. (No.
kare wa kuru deshou. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. The second is that in using this form. to me. First.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. See Lessons 7 and 60. you don't use this form. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been.) kedo: however.) John ni denwa suru nara.. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. I haven't read it yet.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. not yet.) .) John ni denwa sureba. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. they probably won't eat lunch. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. (No." Finally.) Next.and literally ask "have you gone to. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. [No. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru." which. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. kare wa kuru deshou. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. (If you call John he'll probably come.. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. mada yonde inai. but regular past tense. (If the kids eat a snack. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. As in B's reply above. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two." but "I went twice. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.
(I hear that Ken bought a new PC. they probably won't eat lunch. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. According to the books. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu." etc...) Again. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. (If the kids eat a snack. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. kare wa kuru deshou. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. to inform.. Yes. familiar conversation.) John ni denwa shitara. meaning "It seems that. making it more formal than rashii. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. they probably won't eat lunch.." "I hear that. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. but I personally have never heard it.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). (I heard that Mr.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara.) . desu can added after rashii to make it polite. (I heard that Mr. (If the kids eat a snack.. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37).• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. (If you call John he'll probably come. Takada's quitting. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii.) Desu is usually used after sou.. Word Check oshieru: to tell. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Takada's quitting.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai.
you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. yuushoku o tabeta. (I watched TV and stuff. ongaku o kiitari. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. some cleaning. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. (Jim buys and sells old things. It can also be used for present or future happenings. souji shitari. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. (Last night I watched TV. (I read comics and stuff.) Now. listened to some music. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. then ate dinner. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and watch TV. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. shukudai o shitari shite imashita.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. terebi o mitari suru deshou. If you want. (Last night after dinner I . ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita.That's all there is to it. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. Word Check daibun: considerably. and did some homework. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past.
I'd really be at a loss. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. then she made dinner. * Note: While unnatural in English. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house.) .) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. ate lunch. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite.watched TV. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. listened to music for about two hours. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. then did homework until one o'clock. chuushoku o tabete. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. practiced the piano and things. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. (If Bob were to come tomorrow.
(If you were to go swimming now. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. (Even if you studied Spanish." As usual. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.) As you can see.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. tabun koukai suru deshou.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.. etc.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. snow. Word Check hontou ni: really. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form.. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). In fact.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. you'd probably regret it. (Supposing it rains this afternoon.. without doubt komaru: to be confused. you must remember that (something else). dou shimashou ka.
(John's pants were torn when he fell. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. (Even if I read the manual. (When I read that.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. zenzen ippai ni naranai. For example.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo.. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. (I laughed when I heard that.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book.. After the Ta Form. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred.) While not covered before. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. he never gets full. I can't understand this software. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: .. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. (No matter how much he eats. I was very surprised." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta.
) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. However. One similar to this. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it's still brand-new. was already covered in Lesson 69. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. while tokoro really means just now. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. add desu to make a statement polite. or. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . (I just got back now. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. that the person had just arrived home from buying it.) However. (I just cleaned this room. to is usually used because of its flexibility. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. the Ta Form + bakari.) As usual. For example. (The kids just finished eating. in the least recent sense.
Tanaka.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Bob wa byouki desu. aru is a yodan. (There's a big tree in the park. After nouns and adjectives.) desu. desu makes things polite. Tom wa iru yo.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. (Yes. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. iru and aru As you know. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. (No.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. iru is used for people and animals. (Tomorrow it will rain.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (Carol is 25 years old. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. (He is Mr. [I don't want to.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. is.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu.) The plain form of desu is da. (There's a big tree in the park. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. (That school is old. like something from the masu group.. (The dictionary is on the desk. etc. Tom's here.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . (There's a spider on the wall." Generally speaking. are. (Bob's sick.) Ashita wa ame desu.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu.) (Iru is an ichidan verb.
" as in being in a certain position.) Now. Again.. it is rarely used these days. ima Tom wa imasen.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. getting back to desu. If you're really interested in the technical background.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. (I don't have a dictionary..) Jisho wa nai. one is "as. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable.) Jisho wa arimasen. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. unpleasant. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). Tom's not here now. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. (Sorry.• • Sumimasen. and is especially used by children. Japanese is no exception.. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use." So. (I don't have a dictionary. ima Tom wa inai. Tom's not here now.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. . here it is: Among the several roles of de. This is one that is rarely used these days. state or condition. (Sorry. Use desu instead.
very rarely will they correct you.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. (Wendy collects old stamps. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru.What makes it worse is the fact that very. active/passive forms. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. which is intransitive (has no direct object). They are not conjugations. agaru and ageru.) Hai." When exchanging gifts. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. (Here. agaru is used for "come inside. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. have close ties with Japanese culture. (Please come in. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru.) Note: These two.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. to give • • Agatte kudasai. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. ageru. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. So that there is no misunderstanding. This is certainly not a complete list. Accordingly. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. I'll give you this.) . to go/come up ageru: to raise up. (Please make up your mind quickly.
to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. Strangely.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. when you find something that was lost. You were really a great help. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). to help • • Arigatou. etc.. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. to arrive (a package.. (Please continue looking for it." it's not. (Thank you. » -su / -u . like helping in the kitchen. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). Also.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. as if it just found itself. tasukaru: to be of help. (I found a pimple.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. use tetsudau. For routine helping. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally.. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send.. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble.
) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind.) herasu: to decrease. (Be back by ten o'clock. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. Please don't leave any. (Eat all this.) Kaigi ga owattara. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. Nokosanaide kudasai. (Grandpa went outside. (Please cut down on your spending. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. use okiwasureru (oku: to put.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. (The copier is broken. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. to get off or get out of a vehicle . okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. to put down oriru: to go/come down.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (Let the dog out.
) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. dress. like a belt. For most standard verbs. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. like pants.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. etc. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. (Put it down here.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. (If you wear those glasses.) Of course there are others. a skirt. (This cake probably won't be eaten. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. like a name tag or pin . like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body.) Kemushi ga ugoita.• • Koko ni oroshite. (My hat got dirty. necktie. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. warawareru deshou. but these should give you a good start. socks. (The caterpillar moved. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. jacket. hameru: to wear on a finger. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. etc. obi. you'll probably be laughed at. like a shirt. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. (Don't move that machine. kimono. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. shoes. etc.
Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. suru is often used instead of the bottom four.Besides these. This completes Japanese Verbs. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . and especially when talking about accessories.
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