Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Base 5 50. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + kara 58. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 4 + ru 47. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + kuru / iku 60.44. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + shimau 64.

Remembering this will make further study much easier. ichidan. but to be more precise. bu. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. ku. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. desu. nu. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. and irregular. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. not u. which can end in u. Ta Form + ra 72.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Let's take the verb aruku. su. Ta Form + rashii 73. tsu.67. which means "to walk. mu. Ta Form + tokoro 78." for example: it ends in ku. gu. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + bakari 70. Ta Form + to shitara 75. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) .

(Jim will read a comic book.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru.) This is very simple Japanese." Interestingly. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. but there is no difference." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (Grandpa will return soon. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. (I'll eat an apple. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb . and also very juvenile or "familiar. Some sources call these verbs godan. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. unless it was from another foreigner. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Naomi wa terebi o miru.) Jim wa manga o yomu. (Naomi will watch TV.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru.

yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. (Grandpa will return soon. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. the present polite ending. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Since masu requires the Base 2 form.their "Base 2" form -.before the masu ending is added.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. "adult" Japanese. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu .) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. (Jim will read a comic book.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite.

there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. (I'll decide tomorrow.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. and should not be worried about at this stage.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. which is the negative form of masu.) Kare wa machimasen.) Now. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. let's try masen. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. (Jerry will come out soon. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.) . but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. (Ayako watches the TV every day. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. (He won't wait.

Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. To make them polite. (Bob wants to eat tempura. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (Miki wants to see that movie. . etc. (The children didn't play at the park. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) The above examples are plain forms. (I want to buy an umbrella. masen shows negative tense. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (I'm not going to eat now.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (The children want to play.) Easy enough. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.

(Let's eat. in this example. For example. (I'll fix your bicycle. .) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious." For example: • • • Ikimashou." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. It simply means "let's (do something)." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) * In Japanese. (The children don't want to play. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou.) As in English.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. Add desu to make it polite. (I don't want to buy an umbrella.) Tabemashou.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. (Let's go.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). but either way this one is easy to remember. (Let's take a break./I'll help you fix your bicycle.) Simple enough. and two use ichidan. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. In fact. (Let's get you some food. and is never used alone with an object." This structure will be covered later on.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. (I'll carry this/these [for you].) Yasumimashou. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

(Grandpa isn't going to return soon. Depending on the situation. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. (I'm not going to watch TV. Etc. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow).) Jim wa manga o yomanai. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai." as a matter of personal policy. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. shinai (won't do). like Base 2 + masen. which we already covered in Lesson 4.) Sachiko wa konai. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. .taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). konai (won't come). (Jim doesn't read comic books.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. and should only be used in very informal settings. (Sachiko won't be coming. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. As in English. For example. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. kuru (come). (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. and suru (do).

) Yuki wa furanai deshou. (It probably won't snow. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. etc.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one.what will happen if something doesn't happen.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form. hail. (Grandpa will probably return soon.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (Sachiko will probably come.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. Look at these examples: . or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.) Actually. snow.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou.

when speaking to that person. especially when talking to an individual. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. Once a person's name is known. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it)." Actually.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. Additionally.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Generally speaking. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. . as in English. sama. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. and kun. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. The ones you'll hear the most are san. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. names are usually not used alone.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. For example. chan. so it is omitted. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it.

Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix." This is normal and good. older brother or sister (but not younger). You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. company. where anata is used for "you. and playmates. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. more familiar (and. etc. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". mother. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. you can always ask. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. unless an individual prefers chan. After the sale is made. kun with boys. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. chan to female students. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. and children add it to the words for father. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. cousins. uncle." but is now a "san. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. but would also . within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. grandfather. And. As a safe rule. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. For example. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. Customarily. Also. however. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. For those older. adult female neighbor. of course. but to the title of those older.for a while. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. because san shows that a closer. Family. names are often shortened before adding chan. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. Now. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. adult male neighbor. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. and chan with girls. Parents add chan to their children's names. use san with colleague's names. time passes. aunt. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. real or pretended. at any rate. though san is probably more common for females. hopefully." This Japanese would be understood. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. let's get back to you. grandmother. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. Again.

". When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. change it to Base 1 ika. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. even some affection.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. (I have to go.sound very stiff. This can be handy when . (Laura has to buy an umbrella. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. the one left would be kimitachi. the nakereba means "if one does not. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). and very odd.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence.. It's used quite a lot. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen).. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. it's a bit of a tongue twister. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. which shows familiarity.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen." Let's take iku (to go). but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. Anatatachi could be used. because it means "must do. formal. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". Accordingly." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. mixed groups. toward the group concerned.) Looking at it literally. but it conveys a certain distance. the fact is that it is very rarely used. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). however. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. (Jim has to return now. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. there's no problem. I may as well say here that much. which is the best choice when talking to large. (The children must eat. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. Yes. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. So. So. It works fine. and narimasen means "will not become". this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do.

) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. In Japanese. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. Good luck with nakereba narimasen." can be conveyed.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. (I'll have him come tomorrow. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. mastering a clean. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. (Jim probably has to return now. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. for the others. (Grandpa lets the children play. "I'll let him go to the store". and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. for yodan verbs.adding other endings. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. "I'll have him go to the store". or feelings. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. as in "let him" or "make him." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. and saseru. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. More than memorizing its meaning. are used for all of these. Accordingly.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. (I'll have John decide by next week. like deshou from Lesson 14. however. seru. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (The children probably need to eat.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru.) With "suru verbs.

you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. (I'll have her do it.) Kanojo ni saseru. etc. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. past tense. like miseru. (Dad will make Bob study." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. by tomorrow. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka.) As you can see. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita.) So. (I want to have Kenji study English. (Let's have John go to the store. polite. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. although miru is an ichidan verb. (He lets them watch TV every day. which means "to show" or "to let see. you won't hear or see "misaseru. kimeru: to decide kare: he. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru.

her karera: they. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. shown in the last example above. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. making the verb unnecessary. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store).) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (It will probably rain tomorrow. as explained in Lesson 1." For example. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. so it is often omitted.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Mama wa mise de banana o kau. As in English. Not only should you be able to translate these. But before we begin.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Naomi wa terebi o miru.the plain. means "to fall.) The verb furu. . Let's get back to deshou. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week.

) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. (Bob will probably also want to go. (You ought to study English more. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. as we would use tag questions in English. (John should be coming soon. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. snow. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome.." etc. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. etc. like . isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. Please note that ka is not added at the end. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu.) John wa sugu kuru hazu.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something.

frankly..) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. Word Check . If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ".) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. (You should study Japanese more.way is good/better. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite." Actually. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. As usual.should be.) As with most verb endings. practice makes perfect. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. (It would be better to eat later. "would rather do. (It would be better to go by train today. (We had better rest a little. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. (It would be better to do it next week. When you hear it. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. which was covered in Lesson 20.) Inu no hou ga ii. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.ni natte iru or beki. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. (I should call her.while hazu is more passive -.) When showing personal preference. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. prefer -. the hou means "way" or "method." and ii means "good" or "better. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". (I'd rather get a dog.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. "had better do".should do.. should happen.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. and according to the grammar books.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. but.

(I don't know yet if we are going. to understand inu: dog ima: now . (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. Word Check kare: he. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. him dekiru: can.) As can be seen in the examples above. It's like using "whether or not" in English. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. ka dou ka does not end a sentence.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.kanojo: she.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not.

) . this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. meaning that. look." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. perhaps. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. where it is converted to shireru (can know).) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. so you'll want to master it right away.) As you sharp ones have noticed.taberu: to eat miru: to see. so please be careful when pronouncing. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). this one is used frequently. As such. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known." These are incorrect. and is conjugated accordingly." Since this verb ending is rather long. Simply put.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). (Jack may also come. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. (It might rain tomorrow. yes. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). (It might snow tomorrow. (We may eat out tonight. Therefore.

Word Check komban: this evening.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. Itsumo okureru kara. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. kasa o motte ikimashou. however.) Ongaku o kikimasu. with its reason. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. grammatically speaking. signified by kara at the end. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. (Beth is always late. mise ni ikimasu. you'll often hear the action stated first. so I'm going to the store. denwa shimasu. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. honya ni ikimasu. In this case. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. let's take umbrellas. Terebi o mitakunai kara. so his English is good. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings.I suggest. (Since it will probably rain. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain.) In spoken Japanese.) Jisho o kaitai kara. given after. (Kenji went to a Canadian school.) . they each become separate sentences. so I'll call her.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. (I don't want to go to Mr.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. eigo ga jouzu desu. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. Tabun ame ga furu kara. (We don't have any milk. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary.

Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. nasty.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. . stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. heta desu. (Although Jack is careful about his health. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. snow. but she doesn't get any better. it comes between the contrasting phrases. (He speaks Japanese. which means "from. yoku byouki shimasu.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. he gets sick a lot. it's used a lot.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. but he's not good at it. just like English. as you can imagine.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. keredo and kedo. disgusting mono: thing. home iya na: bad." so.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. no problem. Like "but" in English. Again. (Keiko practices the piano a lot.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but. as well as its shorter forms. jouzu ni narimasen." Just like English.

no problem. it really doesn't change the verb. (I like reading. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. First is koto. Like our ing.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. No. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. Well. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. I like reading as a thing to do. not good at something." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Better than all this talk would be an example. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. It'll come. koto has no practical use by itself.) Finally. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. If you have to have a translation. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. like reading in the sentence I like reading. let's look at each part. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. In English. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns." Does this help? If not. Next. Let's move on. skilled (direct opposite of heta) .. Here are some examples: . a lot. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to.. But first. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading.

(I can't read French. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one)." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. actually for review -. expressions. you can just omit suru. Kinou. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. for kicks -.) Now. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. (I can translate French into Japanese. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. (Richard couldn't eat the squid.no. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. they're both used.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. etc.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. in that case the suru is omitted." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing." It generally means intangible "things": ideas.let's try some other endings on dekiru.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. meanings. (I can read Japanese." Denwa is a noun. actions." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. (Keiko can play the piano. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing.) Either way. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. It does not . There is a short alternative for other verbs. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. Again. With "suru verbs. For example. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. essences. (Bob was able to call Junko. and adding the suru makes it a verb. long or short. it's a long ending for just "can.

It shows that you have made a decision. and it shows that the decision was yours.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. As I'm sure you know by now. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. koto ni suru is the plain. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have.) . There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. (I'll go shopping tomorrow.

(I've decided to study Japanese every day. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. periods.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. Made means "until. watch (something) . Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. (We have to wait until Bob calls.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (Wait until dinner. to let (someone) see.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. (Mr. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) As in English. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes.

yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored.) Base 3 + na This.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. and to whom. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. This is one that will probably not be used very often. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Stay away from here!. you could say. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -."don't do's" -. be careful how. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. However. but if you do. First. as with English. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. you use it. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. .

(If it rains we're sure to get wet." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -.) Ame ga furu nara.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara.sentences with "if.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. he'll let me know. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. He thought he said. kuru deshou. they probably won't eat dinner. which is just a slight variation. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. (If the kids eat a snack now. (If you call John he'll probably come. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. watashi ni shirasemasu. but nara is more common. They are used the same way and mean the same thing.) John ni denwa suru nara.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. (If he sees Yuko. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.

like in the first example above. Japanese English. In Japanese. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. which are examples involving a thing. and a person." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. a place.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. And. there are no "relative pronouns. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. But. to make matters worse. things I'd like to explain. a time. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. that's another story." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. As a quick review. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. but hopefully sufficient for the present. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. respectively. to offer very general.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. explanations.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question.. or omit them completely when they can get away with it.. and lengthy. I can see several things which need to be explained. page." Of course." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. For example. words that connect a noun to an action.

(Kobe is where she'll take the exam. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present.) In this sentence.) Now. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. As you can see. like our 's. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. Ga or no could be used here. For example. and therefore omitted. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. or a noun which needs emphasis." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. but since Japanese has no equivalent. since he or she will surely be hearing both. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. a truer English translation would be. and so it would most likely be omitted. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. especially in informal spoken Japanese.) Since this is natural Japanese." you might say. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. so tokoro is used after the verb. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do." as a relative pronoun. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. densha (train) is the main subject. a "sub-subject. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. No is often used in place of ga. The problem is that the rules are . As you may have noticed. the English "where. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. they do not mean the same thing. ga tells us who will take the train. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. automatically designates a place. back to the lesson: First. and is handled by the final verb.) In this one. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). (My train leaves at eight o'clock. a substitute noun must be used. Continuing with the above example. Kobe is a place.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above.

what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other.to high-intermediate Japanese. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. semi-accurate rule. (Spring is the season that brings new life. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. As a general. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. . I hope this lesson was clear enough. and when trying to make sense of one. and are in the realm of mid. you must forget all the rules of the other. and vice versa.totally different in each language. produce.) This one is pretty straightforward. and shouldn't be too difficult. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. Finally. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer.

it IS going to rain tomorrow.) Remember these? I hope so. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. writhing. (Grandpa will return soon. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.) As in any other language. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). you need to review.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. unexcited intonation. (I tell you.) . or habits of the speaker. (Grandpa will return soon.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. (She IS coming. need. etc. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. (Jim will read a comic book. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you".) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. However. if you want to emphasize something. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. stomping around. If not. (Jim will read a comic book. Japanese English. fist pounding. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.

There's nothing really tricky about it. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. essential kanji: Chinese characters." which we will cover later on. specifically.) densha: train noru: to ride. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. meaning "in spite of. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence.) . Please consult a dictionary for more.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). remember daibun (or daibu): quite. etc. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. Takamatsu-yuki. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. rather.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru.

which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. (It really was a problem-free trip. still not fukanou: not possible. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. like our 's. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. (Jim's dictionary is blue.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. mainly the one used for possessives. impossible saikou: great. Wa is the subject indicator.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. boku no wa aka desu.). as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. (Speaking Japanese is easy. mine is red. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. the greatest. (Reading is enjoyable. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. to not exist tabi: trip .

If kara was used instead. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. which is used to show reasons or causes. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. the o. In this lesson we will take a look at node.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. For example. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. use node. she'll probably find a good job. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. In other words.) So. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead.prefix makes it "honorific.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. (Since Eiko can speak English. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen.

this short lesson is about noni. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. which is used for plain past structures. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33. she won't listen.) asoko: there.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. etc. understand to be. kanojo wa kikimasen. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. (Despite my telling her to stop. to quit a job or habit iu: to say.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. (I was late even though I got up early. For example: .) kiku: to listen.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. rumors. to follow rules or orders. Word Check yameru: to stop something.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. for the plain past.) annani: that much. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.

) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The actual word is arubaito. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. it usually means "for the purpose of. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. that's right. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". Word Check hiru kara: from noon.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. Here are some popular ones: . but is more often than not shortened to baito.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife.) Tame is a very handy word. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon." (Yes.) As you have probably guessed.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. Japanese German.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school".) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. sou desu. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. (I heard that Mr. A full-time employee will use shigoto. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time).) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. Japanese English. They use a noun geared to their type of job." and is often followed by the optional ni. Takada's quitting. as in "Hai. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. a student will say baito. in order to.

After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. Mom. In this case.) . here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. have (an interview). (Okay.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. that's pronounced "toh. when. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. (Kimiko came with Bob. or if. (This is for you. receive. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru.) For the curious. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. [plain. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.]) Hai. (This is for you. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. with. (Remember. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish.") It can mean and.

ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. It means simply "I think.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). Japanese English." Iki (Base 2 of iku.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. but it is not generally used.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. Sasaki will call us soon. (I think Koji will be late. (I think Eiko can speak English.) . especially in the workplace. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. When referring to the beach in Japanese. to become to want to go -. begin to want. of "party.it's as simple as that.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. While not specifically covered. and expected. to want to do.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. Now that it's been explained. to go) + taku (tai. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. takunaru puts tai and naru together." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). (I think Ms. use umi. It's okay to have an opinion. meaning "come to want. things you can do.

comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree).) Base 3 + tsumori desu . and it did. (I thought it would rain today [. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. or don't really have any control over something.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. but it didn't.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. this ending is a lot like deshou.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni.]) In a way. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. care. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. (I think it would be better to go by train today. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. goes back.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. towards me. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. omou can be used for plain speech. don't really care. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. or have some control. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.As you can see from the last examples.) Again. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. Accordingly. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. which was covered in Lesson 19. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added.

College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. that was a short one. S. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. While sounding alike. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. so please be careful not to confuse them. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. Deshita. hear the other verb tsumoru. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. technically speaking.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. as you should know by now. which means "to accumulate.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. their meanings are completely different. Well. to enter/enroll in (a school).) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. add desu to make it polite. etc. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. however." used a lot. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. yes.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. In case you're wondering. build up. hairu: to go inside (a room). You will. and other countries where the word college is used loosely.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru.) . Always use daigaku for university. day. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. is for past tense.

let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. "you look like an idiot.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. said so]. etc. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. First. e as in red OH. 5. e as in see OO. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. 3..) To be honest. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. AH. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. o as in mode . (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming].) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. 2. u as in mule EH." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. Simply put. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. baka: idiot. sou desu means you heard.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. that something is or will be.) Ame ga furu you desu." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. and show what Base 4 looks like. 4. a as in father EE. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). In its place you'll hear mitai a lot.) mitai: it looks like. directly or indirectly.

You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs." or "dictionary form. Now. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 ." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. it's where you start.

Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning.. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. they probably won't eat dinner. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. As we learned in the last lesson. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour.) John ni denwa sureba..koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. Do you remember Base 3 + nara.) Ame ga fureba.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. (If the kids eat a snack now.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba.) Handy. (If he sees Yuko. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. (If you call John he'll probably come. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta.. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. however.. watashi ni shirasemasu. yuushoku o tabenai deshou." as shown in these examples: .) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. Ii is Japanese for "good. kuru deshou. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. Here. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. covered in Lesson 30? Well. he'll let me know. (I want to call Grandma. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.

It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. quirky ii does not.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. yes. (We should have come at 8:00. they both mean "good".) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. soto de asobeba ii.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. [I still wish you would play outside. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. (Around five.) • As you can see. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. no. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision.) Mom. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (I wish I had ordered the steak. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. (Now would be a good time to study. By this stage of Japanese study. (I wish we had gone to the park.) Naoko. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . (The weather's nice. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. (Even though it would be nice to play outside.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta.) Kids: Terebi mitai.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. yokatta. they are not completely interchangeable. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. is used after ba -. (It would be good if you played outside. In those situations different constructions would be used. so it would be good to play outside.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. However. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. (We want to watch TV. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. yoi is not used with noni.

) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. Or. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. Actually." . It's simple: no subject or object needed. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj.and known to all concerned. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event.) light shokuji: food. this is a form you really don't want to use. If you do. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form.very handy when you get used to it. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. and maybe even get into a fight. just use Base 4. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look.

/ Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. very useful. As such. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. (I can read Japanese. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. I remember when I first learned this one -. It's very. too.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending.it was like opening a new door.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. For example.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. (He might be able to go next month. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. Here we realize an important point -. (Keiko can't play the violin. just like most ichidans. Simply put. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. . they can be treated like plain ichidans. No problem. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. It shows ability to do something. Now. which was covered back in Lesson 26. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru.) Now. (Keiko can play the piano. (Keiko can play the piano.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. Take a good look.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard.

) Keiko wa piano o hikenai.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. and I hope it will make sense to you. (I can't read Japanese. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. this form is only meant for yodans.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form.) . there are other nai-related endings that will work here. For example. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep).) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. It made sense to me. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. this is wasei eigo. (Jack probably won't be able to come. As you may have guessed. (As you remember. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. which was covered in Lesson 13.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. the "cannot do" plain form. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. (Keiko can't play the piano. If it helps.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou.

as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. So. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. energetic.) Again. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. this form is mainly for yodans.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. you may wonder. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. but there are exceptions like the last example above. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). so I do too.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. an example of which was included in the last lesson. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. but who cares? Everyone uses it.) .

taberu tabereoboe.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.kime. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.koyou . Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.tabe. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.oboe.kari. If you don't mind. First.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.oboeru oboerekime.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.

. (I think I'll go shopping. (I wonder if I should go shopping. oo.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. ee. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. (Let's go. I just made that up. (Maybe I'll watch TV. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound." Suru is shown plain.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. (I wonder if I should call Bob. but is converted as necessary: . Also." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.) Yasumou. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should..shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. arukou ka na. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. oh.) Tabeyou. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. (Let's take a break.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. eh... (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.) Terebi o miyou ka na. (Let's eat.

You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. As you have most likely guessed. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. miemasen deshita. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. but he couldn't.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde .) These are the more useful Base 5 forms.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. (I think John will try to come. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.

like matsu (to wait).matte.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. Please note this one important exception: iku. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. Yodan verbs that end in bu. tashite. kiku (to listen. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. keshite. . We'll cover pronunciation a little later. tonde. kiite. like asobu (to play). to put out [a fire]). tsunaide. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -.kashite. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. hataraite. nutte. yonde. Yodan verbs that end in gu. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. motsu (to hold). katte. Yodan verbs that end in ku.asonde.aruite. not iite. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. It's important because it's used a lot. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. to ask). motte. tsunagu (to connect). not tsu). like au (to meet). yobu (to call out). nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. kesu (to turn off.isoide. nuide. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. like kasu (to lend). like isogu (to hurry).atte. katte.. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. like aruku (to walk). right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out.e. kau (to buy).

tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -.yonde. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. (Come here.) . So when you say chotto matte kudasai. (Please wait a bit. and kiru (to cut). (Come at six o'clock. momu (to massage). depending on the tone of voice used. hairu (to enter). (Go ahead. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. As you can see. (Listen to this.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. tabete. (Please come at six o'clock. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite.) Kore o kiite. It means "under. kiku (to listen).) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. tabete kudasai.) Matte. (Please come at six o'clock." "to lower (something). like yomu (to read). it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite.) Chotto matte kudasai. like kaeru (to return). but in Japanese we do. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply." There are several handy variations of kudasai. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars.) Douzo. Yodan verbs that end in ru. For practice let's use kuru (to come).) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. kiite. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans.kaette. monde. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. humble me. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. (Wait." etc. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. When you start learning kanji. please eat. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. haitte. tsutsunde. (Go ahead and eat.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. totte." "to go down. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. which was introduced back in Lesson 10.

as covered in the last lesson. to give (up to someone). Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai.) Ato de denwa shite ageru.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. showing a "humbler" position. I'll eat it for you. (Cut this. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). you use the Te Form + kudasai." Ageru also means "to give. (I'll call you later. (I'll wait for you." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. (I'll give you this pen. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6.). while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. Now.) . showing that someone is going to do something for someone else.) Kono pen o agemasu. to show respect. If you ask someone to do something for you. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. tabete ageru. kiite: KEE-EETEH. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give.) As you can see. giving each equal time while making them short." but it means "to raise.• Kore o kitte. (Please give me that pen. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. and kitte: KEET-TEH. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. (If you don't want to eat it.) Tabetakunakereba. just like counting 1-2-3.

laces musubu: to tie." It is disrespectful at best. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. Finally. (Lend Bob your pen. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. the position of the giver or receiver. in cases where there's a third person. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. It's for "talking down" to. and. . string. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all.) Notes 1. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. and showing contempt for others. as a general rule. Don't use it. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. which are chosen depending on the situation.In Japanese. and will work nicely in most cases. it's a great convenience besides. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. as these examples show. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. However.

Go and see for yourself. which is used to prove a point. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. (Take a look.) Tabete goran. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. (Taste it and see if you like it. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. Read it for yourself. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome." You use it to ask someone to try something. See for yourself. (Ask Bob and see what he says.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. (There is salt on the shelf.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.) Te Form + iru . Yonde goran nasai. (It says he's 38.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. mild command-like sentences. usually in short. You never use it on yourself. Mite goran nasai. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. (Try calling Sanae.) Mite goran.) That's how we use goran nasai. Itte goran nasai.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo.

(Bill is studying Japanese. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. (I am walking. For example.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. (I didn't watch TV today. it works like English. we say "I know. in English we would normally ask a person. As you already know. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite .) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. (He's not studying French.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. "I'm knowing [it]. (She is eating sushi.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. (We live in Takamatsu. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. masen."). and not shiru. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. [We are living in Takamatsu. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. Especially important are masu. (Yesterday I slept all day.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. (Shizuko is eating. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese.) Kinou nete imashita. mashita. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). (They are reading a magazine. as in the fourth example above. to exist. in a way. and masen deshita. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. when they really should use sunde iru. Even though living in a place is present and progressive." So.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something)." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. (I am here. Because of this. (I'm reading the newspaper. [I wasn't watching TV today. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. we can get away with using just "live" in English.) Watashi wa aruite iru.

Finally. but. imouto: little (younger) sister ." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. like "kid" in English.) I know you're wondering. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game.with the i in iru omitted -. For example.imashita ka. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. (I was watching TV. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. In fact. child Note: Strangely. to do (something) ko: kid. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. there is no single. "woman-child" / "man-child"). simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. it is even written this way -. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. so I'll tell you: "to play.

While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. and adding ra makes it conditional. infinitive and progressive: .Note: In Japanese. nani o shite iru deshou ka.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. (Sam's not here. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. and imouto for younger sister. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. otouto for younger brother. Please look at the following examples. (We don't live in Okayama. ane for older sister. (The kids probably aren't studying. (They aren't reading a magazine. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. (They aren't reading a magazine. which makes them present or past progressive. there are many that can. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. present and past. Nakatta is used for plain negative past.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen.) Benkyou shite inakereba. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. (We don't live in Okayama.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. (Sam's not here. (Bill isn't studying Japanese." As such. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. (If they're not studying.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. to exist. First let's do some plain negative examples. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.

" as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. In either. To make the meaning perfectly clear. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. which appears in the last example. since it is not only a Te Form ending.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (I'm not eating [now]. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. which can be convenient at times. (I didn't eat an apple. to be able). I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. (I'm not eating [now].) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. and goes especially well with plain ones. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. The last two above are good examples of this. It's for asking questions.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. (I wasn't eating then. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. vague and troublesome at others. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. Dekita. "we could" could be "he could." depending on the actual situation. but also a much- . (I didn't eat an apple. However. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. (I wasn't eating then.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. (I haven't eaten yet. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

In fact. [Really? I washed my car. ita is the plain past form of iru. (Bill was studying. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. Soshite terebi miteta. (Really? I was washing my car.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. Just for the fun of it. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. (Really? I washed my car. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. (They were reading a magazine.are going to speak so grammatically correct.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. Soshite terebi o mite ita.) That's real Japanese. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really .]) Yes. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. As I'm sure you know by now. [I went shopping. Also.used element of conversational Japanese.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. but no real friends or family members -. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. (John was watching TV. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. (I went shopping. upgrade ita to imashita. I include the usual English translation. Put simply. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. (I was doing shopping. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. in settings where polite speech is called for. this would be two males speaking.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta.

) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. however. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. Oboete imasen ka. Because itadaku is a very polite word. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. .kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English.) As in English. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. Here are some examples. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. as covered in Lesson 50. It can. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. meaning something like "I humbly partake. (Would you please call Mr.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone.

I'll get Grandpa to go. Get Ken to go. adding a masu ending makes it polite. No particular reservations are needed here. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.not as "respectful" -. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. Make no mistake. morau works best when talking about a third party. I realize that all of this sounds complicated.) .as itadakimasu. Morau is okay when referring to other things. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. (I'm doing homework now.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. and it can be at times. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. Ken ni itte moratte." When there's no need to be very polite. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot." With itadakimasu. use morau instead of itadaku.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. it's just plain. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.) This is the same family. even when the giver is not present. (I'm doing homework now.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. this would be the best way to go. morau is not impolite. but since we can't do that now. However.) This is a family situation. With kudasai. Traditionally. itadakimasu is always used with food. As usual. but not quite as polite -. Also. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. (Ken's not here now.

(I'll give you a pen. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. Just like anywhere else. tell shorui: forms. company. but she already has one and doesn't want another. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . etc. clients. I got one. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. Murai go.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. (I had Ms. customers.Itadakimasu is always used with food. (May I please have your name?) Hai. (I got one [already]. office.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. moraimashita. documents. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. They probably don't see each other every day.prefix is used with strangers. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. each home. (Yes. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. and these two are being courteous. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (Sure.) Itadakimashita. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka.) oshieru: to teach.) This is at the office. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka.

which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. (After I eat I'm going shopping. you just make them the subject/object with ga." There are other ways to do that.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. to come home owaru: to end. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. (Let's go see a movie after work.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form... such as summer to mean "after summer. Word Check kaeru: to return. (Let's play baseball after school['s over].. (John's coming over after he does his homework. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something).) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). such as those two common ones work and school. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. Simple and useful.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. then add the Te Form of owaru.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You can't use it directly after nouns.) .

A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. ogotte kureru no?. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent.) And finally.) Matte kure. this is the "command" form of kureru. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. It's good for family members and close friends. which literally means "Oh. In fact. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. (Please come here. and it would be offensive in some cases. Again. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. repeated request. Kureru is used in generally the same way. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). you might say Ah. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. (Please wait. For example. Some people add the question-forming no on the end.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town.

to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. you'll see what I mean. expresses future plans. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. depending on intonation.sound nicer than with kure." Usually upgraded with masu. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time." (If you say just ikimasu. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. (I have been studying German history. etc. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. dreams. I think that the number of PC users will increase.) As can be seen.) Sono tame. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. (Because of that. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. assumptions.

There are several "set combinations" where it is used. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.): cheap. (I'll go check it [then come back]. to examine.. food.) shiraberu: to check (something). combined with naru: to become." See Lesson 40. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. (Please come over [sometime]. or cuisine. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. inexpensive.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. but should be easily understood. (I came to borrow a textbook. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history)."going away and not coming back. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. asobi ni kite kudasai.. (Let's go eat Chinese food. but when uncertain.) Shirabete kuru.) Douzo. (I ate before coming over. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo.) Accordingly.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj.

the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now.. For example. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. Well. (Let's give this new PC a try.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. but it's not." but technically it's not one of those either. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. it acts like a "quasi adjective." . Either way. but don't take it literally. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. In Japanese grammar. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. to entertain oneself.) Te Form + miru As you know. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. and adding miru. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. go ahead asobu: to play. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it." meaning that we'll give something a try. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. (I'll try to talk to John. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb.. (I'll try to read these kanji." which makes this one easy to remember.. miru means "to see. (I tried calling him. Or. with its own set phrases. rusu deshita. but he wasn't in.) Simple enough." You may hear it often.

). (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.. As with most Japanese.) (Yes. (Yeah. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission... that is the way it works grammatically. positive response.. (Sure. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. or ka: ii desu ka (May I.." "it's okay if (someone does something). (You may go home early today. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo." Accordingly. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii." etc.. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. In the workplace. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English.) .) Hai. you can also get away with omitting particles.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. There's usually something else added on. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii." "fine. (You can use my PC. in familiar situations as in the last example above." "okay. Yes. It's an adjective which means "good. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. however.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. as with all adjectives. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to." etc. you can watch TV. you can use my dictionary.?). As I've probably mentioned before. so you should be a little familiar with it.. terebi mite ii.. like the object indicator o.

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

do not add the plain. Instead. You can't just say "I broke my arm. but not ikaga ka.these don't use it. but usually alone. You can say dou ka. polite.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. of course. if you're going to use it in this way. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. If you do. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. question-forming no -. you can say it. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. You can omit the desu ka for plain. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. familiar talk. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. (Well. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. If you break a bone in Japanese.) Actually.

Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. Also. akan (Osaka). used in a normal. "You mustn't do that!". and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations.. etc. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. (You can't take pictures.. When placed after the Te Form with wa.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. everyday setting. iken (Okayama)." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. (Don't be late. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . etc.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. "Thou shalt not. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. In fact.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. like ikan (Takamatsu). "Naughty!". and you're bound to hear either of these. especially ikenai. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. to make it even more colorful. So. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form.

straighten up the room. (I got up at seven o'clock. heya o katazukete. and left home at eight. choushoku o tabete. and [then] made my dinner. meaning "to pass (by/over something).) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. First. (I've got to call Shizu. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. some simple ones. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. esa o ataete. like "take a bath. ate breakfast. heya o katazukete moratte. to take a picture with a camera. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go].Note: The verb toru has many different usages. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. fed him. and I'm going shopping. watashi wa kaimono ni iku.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete.) . then go shopping. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. hachiji ni ie o demashita. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. which is easy to do. the kanji used for each meaning are different.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions.) Also. because tooru is a totally different vowel. to take (steal) something from someone. However. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu.) As you can see. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one.

It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. a house deru: to leave. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. Just for a quick check. past. just start a new sentence. and simple. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . When you're not sure. whose major purpose is to make things plain. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. to straighten up. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form.

Once again.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. there are limits. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. . (I went to the bank.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form.) Kami kitta.) Ohiru tabeta. Also. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. (I ate lunch. (I watched TV. In the long run.) Hon yonda. There are cases where particles would never be cut. even by the fastest-talking Japanese.) Terebi mita. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. Let's do some real basic. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. (My goldfish died. and only omit them when everyone else does. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I did it. (I read a book. (I got a haircut.) Ginkou itta.) Boku no kingyo shinda.

I had someone cut my hair. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. use kami.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. beforehand. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read.) Shinda kingyo wa." Very handy. Ke alone is hair — any hair. yonda modifies hon like an adjective.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. even on a caterpillar." it is used for "I got a haircut." and is less formal than chuushoku. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. juu hachi man en deshita. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. kiru: to cut. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. anywhere.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta.) Boku ga katta PC wa. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. hon becomes the subject. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. literally "hairbug. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. (The cake Joy made was delicious. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago." If we switch these around to yonda hon. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6." There are a few of these.) . that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. For example. roku nen mae ni katta.

) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. which will serve as a nice review.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. as in the last example above. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. Base 3 is used for the plain future. Since we have already covered these.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. Instead. (If necessary. One past tense element is enough. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. Carefully note the similarities and differences. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. not deshita. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. use desu to make it polite. Again. (He was supposed to come at six. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. please click the lesson links. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. Due to this. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. these two share many add-ons and endings. (He's supposed to come at six. the rest really isn't too difficult. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. For a more detailed review. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. because deshita is the past form of desu. . root form of Japanese verbs.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. And.

(I should have taken the train today.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) Note: Yes.) Kinou no ban.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. I'm late every day. (I heard that Mr." Please don't make this mistake.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (Even though I get up early.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.. Takada quit.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. sensei ga okotta. Takada's quitting. (I heard that Mr.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Beth wa okureta kara. For expressing regret. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. sensei ga okoru. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . (Even though I got up early.. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. I was late. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. (It would be better to go by train today. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai. (It would be better to go by train today.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.

snow.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. (It looks like it rained. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. (I just ate.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. like something memorized from a grammar book.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. .) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. mai is used with units of time. not with people or objects.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) Ame ga futta mitai.) John wa deta bakari. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari.) yameru: to quit a job.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. (I just cleaned this room. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. now that I think of it.) In fact. (Mom just got back. (John just left.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. In other words.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. (I just bought that umbrella. etc. (It looks like it's going to rain. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can.

though.. you'll find them very useful." in Japanese. I've been twice. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.. tabeta koto ga nai.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. (All that kid does is play computer games. Once you get these sorted and memorized. I'd like to try it. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Nikai ikimashita. to do (familiar. (All you ever do is eat. arimasu.) As you can see. I have. (No.. Tabete mitai kedo. The first is that when you ask "have you been to.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. you use the verb iku (to go) . the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. (Yes. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. like this: • • • Tabete bakari... This is used after the Te Form. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). (Yes. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. I haven't. (All Shizuka ever does is study English.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced." usually as a complaint. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. First. to go/come back deru: to leave.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.

Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. See Lessons 7 and 60. (No. kare wa kuru deshou..) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. you don't use this form.. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two.) Ta Form + ra Simply said.) . you're admitting having experienced something at least once.and literally ask "have you gone to. they probably won't eat lunch. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The second is that in using this form. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai." Finally. not yet. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) John ni denwa suru nara. to me. (If the kids eat a snack." but "I went twice.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. [No. mada yonde inai.) kedo: however." which.) Next. but regular past tense. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been.) John ni denwa sureba.. As in B's reply above. (If you call John he'll probably come. (If you call John he'll probably come. kare wa kuru deshou. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. First.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. I haven't read it yet.

) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. but I personally have never heard it. they probably won't eat lunch. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.. According to the books. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. kare wa kuru deshou.) . (I heard that Mr. Takada's quitting...• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. meaning "It seems that. Word Check oshieru: to tell. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC." "I hear that. Yes.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. making it more formal than rashii. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). they probably won't eat lunch. to inform.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (I heard that Mr.) Desu is usually used after sou.. (If the kids eat a snack. Now that all the explaining is out of the way.. Takada's quitting. familiar conversation. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight." etc. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Again. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.) John ni denwa shitara. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42).) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara.

and did some homework. ongaku o kiitari. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. It can also be used for present or future happenings.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. Word Check daibun: considerably. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. listened to some music.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. (I read comics and stuff.That's all there is to it.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. (Jim buys and sells old things. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. (Last night after dinner I . yuushoku o tabeta. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. souji shitari. terebi o mitari suru deshou. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. and watch TV.) Now. If you want. (I watched TV and stuff. then ate dinner. (Last night I watched TV.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. some cleaning. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past.

Please review Lessons 53 and 55. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. (If Bob were to come tomorrow.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. chuushoku o tabete.) . approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. ate lunch. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. practiced the piano and things. then did homework until one o'clock. I'd really be at a loss. then she made dinner. listened to music for about two hours. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.watched TV. * Note: While unnatural in English. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical.

• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. Word Check hontou ni: really. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food..) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work.. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. you must remember that (something else). (Even if you studied Spanish. you'd probably regret it.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . In fact. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.) As you can see. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen." As usual. (If you were to go swimming now. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou.. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. dou shimashou ka. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. tabun koukai suru deshou.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. snow. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. etc. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. without doubt komaru: to be confused. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).

one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. (When I read that. For example. I was very surprised. After the Ta Form. (No matter how much he eats. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo..) While not covered before. (John's pants were torn when he fell. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. (I laughed when I heard that.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. I can't understand this software. he never gets full. zenzen ippai ni naranai. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that.. (Even if I read the manual. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job.

add desu to make a statement polite. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. in the least recent sense. the Ta Form + bakari. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. was already covered in Lesson 69. while tokoro really means just now. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. it's still brand-new.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. For example. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. (The kids just finished eating. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. (I just got back now. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. However.) As usual. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. to is usually used because of its flexibility. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. or. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. One similar to this.) However. (I just cleaned this room.

etc. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. (Bob's sick.) The plain form of desu is da. (There's a big tree in the park.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . are.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. Tanaka.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. (He is Mr.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. iru and aru As you know. (That school is old.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. (There's a spider on the wall.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru.) Ashita wa ame desu.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. (The dictionary is on the desk. (Tomorrow it will rain. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. is. aru is a yodan.) desu. You can add it to many statements to make them polite." Generally speaking. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. (No. iru is used for people and animals.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. like something from the masu group. Tom wa iru yo. desu makes things polite. (Carol is 25 years old. [I don't want to.) Bob wa byouki desu. (There's a big tree in the park. Tom's here.. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. After nouns and adjectives. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da.. (Yes.

" as in being in a certain position. one is "as... getting back to desu. Tom's not here now.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru..• • Sumimasen. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. here it is: Among the several roles of de. ima Tom wa inai. ima Tom wa imasen. and is especially used by children.) Jisho wa arimasen. it is rarely used these days. Tom's not here now. (I don't have a dictionary. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. (I don't have a dictionary. Use desu instead. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. Again. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable.) Jisho wa nai. (Sorry. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. Japanese is no exception. If you're really interested in the technical background. This is one that is rarely used these days. . The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. (Sorry.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. state or condition. unpleasant. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature.) Now." So.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something.

the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. active/passive forms. (Please make up your mind quickly. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. (Please come in. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. So that there is no misunderstanding. Accordingly." When exchanging gifts. This is certainly not a complete list. have close ties with Japanese culture. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. agaru is used for "come inside. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. which is intransitive (has no direct object). (Here. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. ageru.) Note: These two. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji.) Hayaku kimete kudasai.) Hai. agaru and ageru. very rarely will they correct you. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51).What makes it worse is the fact that very. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. They are not conjugations. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. I'll give you this.) . (Let's all meet at seven thirty. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. to give • • Agatte kudasai. (Wendy collects old stamps.

. when you find something that was lost. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. tasukaru: to be of help. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. (I found a pimple.. to help • • Arigatou. For routine helping. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). » -su / -u . Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). You were really a great help. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. to arrive (a package. Strangely. (Thank you.. etc. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. as if it just found itself.. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. like helping in the kitchen. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find." it's not. Also. in Japanese you use mitsukaru.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. use tetsudau.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. (Please continue looking for it.

kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (Be back by ten o'clock. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. (Please cut down on your spending.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. Nokosanaide kudasai. (Eat all this. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. use okiwasureru (oku: to put.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. to put down oriru: to go/come down.) Kaigi ga owattara. to get off or get out of a vehicle .) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. Please don't leave any. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. (Let the dog out.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai.) herasu: to decrease. (The copier is broken. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. (Grandpa went outside.

you'll probably be laughed at. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. like pants. but these should give you a good start. (Don't move that machine. etc. etc. (My hat got dirty. etc. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. kimono. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. a skirt. obi. like a belt. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. hameru: to wear on a finger. socks. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. For most standard verbs. (Put it down here. warawareru deshou. (The caterpillar moved." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. like a name tag or pin . shoes. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara.) Of course there are others.• • Koko ni oroshite. necktie. (If you wear those glasses. dress. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. (This cake probably won't be eaten.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. jacket.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai.) Kemushi ga ugoita. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. like a shirt.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. where there is no special intransitive or passive form.

Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. This completes Japanese Verbs. and especially when talking about accessories. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! .Besides these.

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