Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form + ita 56.44. Base 5 50. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 4 + ru 47. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form for Continuing Statements
. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + shimau 64.
Remembering this will make further study much easier. ichidan. su. Ta Form + tokoro 78. tsu. and irregular. or ru:
• • • • • • • • •
kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. not u. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. bu.67. ku. Ta Form + toki 77.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. which can end in u." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form + to shitara 75. mu. iru and aru
The Plain Form
Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + ra 72. which means "to walk. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. Ta Form + rashii 73. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Ta Form + bakari 70. nu. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. gu. desu. but to be more precise. Ta Form + ri 74.
" Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb
This is very simple Japanese. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1." Interestingly. watch) kariru (borrow)
Watashi wa ringo o taberu.) Jim wa manga o yomu. (Jim will read a comic book.)
Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. Some frequently used ones are:
• • • •
taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. Some sources call these verbs godan.Let's try some in sentences:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. (I'll eat an apple. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. and also very juvenile or "familiar. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. but there is no difference. (Grandpa will return soon. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. (Naomi will watch TV. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. unless it was from another foreigner.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs.
Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.before the masu ending is added. (Grandpa will return soon. the present polite ending.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change:
Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri
Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu
Now we're ready to speak polite. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2:
Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat)
Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu
Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu.)
Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
Ichidan verbs are a snap. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. (Jim will read a comic book.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.their "Base 2" form -. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. Since masu requires the Base 2 form.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. "adult" Japanese.
watch) Here are some examples:
• • •
oboe kime de kari mi
oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu
Watashi wa ashita kimemasu.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave.) Kare wa machimasen. (He won't wait.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (Ayako watches the TV every day. Look at these yodan examples:
• • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. let's try masen. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. (Jerry will come out soon.)
Now. which is the negative form of masu.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. (I'll decide tomorrow.
Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day
Base 2 + masen
Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. and should not be worried about at this stage. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True.)
. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.
which is used to show that you want to do something:
• • • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. masen shows negative tense. (The children want to play. (Miki wants to see that movie.And some ichidan:
Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (I want to buy an umbrella.)
Easy enough. (The children didn't play at the park. etc. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. To make them polite.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5:
• • •
John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.
.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. (I'm not going to eat now.
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow
Base 2 + masen deshita
As you recall from Lesson 4.)
Base 2 + tai / tai desu
Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.)
The above examples are plain forms.
We'll make the first two plain:
Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. For example. (I'll fix your bicycle. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you).)
As in English. (Let's eat.)
* In Japanese." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa hakobimashou.
. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.) Yasumimashou. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. In fact. and is never used alone with an object.) Tabemashou. in this example." This structure will be covered later on. and two use ichidan. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.
Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu
These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.)
Now let's make the next two polite:
Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. (The children don't want to play. (Let's go. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. (I'll carry this/these [for you]. Add desu to make it polite. but either way this one is easy to remember." For example:
• • •
Ikimashou. (Let's take a break.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. It simply means "let's (do something)./I'll help you fix your bicycle. (Let's get you some food.)
Simple enough. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. Can you still tell them apart?
Base 2 + mashou
Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou." you would use the adjective hoshii and say.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kuru suru
Base 2 kishi-
Base 1 koshi-
Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. kuru (come). (Sachiko won't be coming. which we already covered in Lesson 4.) Sachiko wa konai. shinai (won't do).)
It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. and suru (do). or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. (I'm not going to watch TV. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). Jim wa manga o yomimasen. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. For example.
Etc.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. Look at these example sentences:
• • • • •
John wa kasa o kawanai. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. Depending on the situation." as a matter of personal policy. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. As in English. (Jim doesn't read comic books. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai:
John wa kasa o kaimasen.
. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. and should only be used in very informal settings. like Base 2 + masen. konai (won't come).
) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. snow.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen:
• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here?
Base 1 + nai deshou
Here's an easy one.)
Base 1 + nakereba
Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. etc. or that something is not likely to happen:
• • •
John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. (It probably won't snow.)
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. (Grandpa will probably return soon. hail.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. Look at these examples:
.what will happen if something doesn't happen.)
Actually. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. (Sachiko will probably come.
and kun." Actually. chan. when speaking to that person. For example. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. Additionally.)
About You and Name Suffixes
In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.)
A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. sama. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. names are usually not used alone.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. especially when talking to an individual. as in English. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. Generally speaking.• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. Once a person's name is known. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. The ones you'll hear the most are san.
. so it is omitted. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element.
names are often shortened before adding chan. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. aunt. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. Now. of course. but to the title of those older. more familiar (and. cousins. Parents add chan to their children's names. adult female neighbor.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. Teachers add kun to the names of male students." This is normal and good. After the sale is made. uncle. etc. time passes. And. Customarily. grandfather. these are commonly used:
• • • • • • • •
otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. unless an individual prefers chan. use san with colleague's names. For those older. real or pretended. grandmother. you can always ask. mother. Family. at any rate. adult male neighbor. let's get back to you. For example. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. Again. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life." but is now a "san. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. however. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. friend's mother)
Chan is also used with the names of pets. kun with boys. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. where anata is used for "you.for a while." This Japanese would be understood. though san is probably more common for females. hopefully. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. and playmates. but would also
. As a safe rule. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. and children add it to the words for father. because san shows that a closer. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. older brother or sister (but not younger). and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. and chan with girls. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. company. chan to female students. Also.
but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so.. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. even some affection. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. formal. (I have to go.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence.sound very stiff. however. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. Yes. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). It works fine.) Looking at it literally." Let's take iku (to go). the fact is that it is very rarely used. change it to Base 1 ika. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. and narimasen means "will not become". and very odd. Anatatachi could be used. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. It's used quite a lot. the one left would be kimitachi. Accordingly. because it means "must do. So. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. there's no problem. which is the best choice when talking to large. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. mixed groups. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. This can be handy when
. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. which shows familiarity. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. it's a bit of a tongue twister.)
You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here.". where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka".) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. So. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. (The children must eat. toward the group concerned. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. but it conveys a certain distance. (Jim has to return now.. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone)." Let's look at some more examples:
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. I may as well say here that much.
Base 1 + nakereba narimasen
This verb ending is not only a long one. the nakereba means "if one does not.
"I'll let him go to the store".)
As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. More than memorizing its meaning. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. (The children probably need to eat. are used for all of these. In Japanese.adding other endings. seru. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened":
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. or feelings." can be conveyed. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. Good luck with nakereba narimasen.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. (I'll have John decide by next week. "I'll have him go to the store". mastering a clean. (Grandpa lets the children play. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. (Jim probably has to return now. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou.)
With "suru verbs. as in "let him" or "make him. and saseru. like deshou from Lesson 14. for the others. Accordingly. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. like this:
• • •
Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. (I'll have him come tomorrow. however.)
And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru :
• • •
Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru." suru is simply replaced with saseru :
.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou.
Base 1 + seru / saseru
These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. for yodan verbs. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up.
So. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come
. although miru is an ichidan verb.• •
Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?)
Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. (Let's have John go to the store. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (I want to have Kenji study English.)
As you can see. which means "to show" or "to let see.) Kanojo ni saseru. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. past tense." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. like miseru.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. (I'll have her do it. kimeru: to decide kare: he. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. etc. you won't hear or see "misaseru. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. and etc:
• • • • •
Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. (He lets them watch TV every day. polite. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. (Dad will make Bob study. by tomorrow.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu." as in:
Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou.
The verb furu. making the verb unnecessary. As in English. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. so it is often omitted. But before we begin. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru).
. Naomi wa terebi o miru. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. her karera: they. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. Let's do a few more:
• • •
Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou." For example.) Remember these examples?
• • • • •
Jim wa manga o yomu.)
Base 3 + deshou
Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings.
Not only should you be able to translate these. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). shown in the last example above. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. a shop iku: to go
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. (It will probably rain tomorrow.the plain.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. the fact that the rain will fall is understood.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. as explained in Lesson 1. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. Let's get back to deshou. means "to fall.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou.
" etc. right?)
Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming.)
Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms:
Bob mo ikitai hazu. etc. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. Please note that ka is not added at the end.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. (Bob will probably also want to go.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. (You ought to study English more..) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on:
• • •
(Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?)
While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. snow.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. a rising intonation is used instead:
• • •
Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. (John should be coming soon. like
. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework
Base 3 + hazu desu
When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. as we would use tag questions in English. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred.
) Inu no hou ga ii.)
Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method:
• • •
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. which was covered in Lesson 20.)
When showing personal preference.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". Word Check
.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. (I'd rather get a dog.)
As with most verb endings.while hazu is more passive -.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii." and ii means "good" or "better. and according to the grammar books.ni natte iru or beki. As usual." Examples:
• • •
(Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. (It would be better to eat later." Actually. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. should happen. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.should be. but.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu... As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. (I should call her. prefer -. (You should study Japanese more. When you hear it. practice makes perfect.
Base 3 + hou ga ii
This one is used for "should do". "had better do". you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no:
• • •
Yakiniku no hou ga ii. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. (It would be better to go by train today. (We had better rest a little. (It would be better to do it next week. the hou means "way" or "method. "would rather do. frankly.way is good/better.should do.
him dekiru: can.kanojo: she.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou.)
Base 3 + ka dou ka
Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not." It's straightforward enough and easy to use:
• • •
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. to understand inu: dog ima: now
As can be seen in the examples above. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I don't know yet if we are going. It's like using "whether or not" in English. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. Word Check kare: he.
(Jack may also come. (It might snow tomorrow. watch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary)." Since this verb ending is rather long.)
Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). Kamo shiremasen means "maybe.taberu: to eat miru: to see. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite:
Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. where it is converted to shireru (can know). meaning that. perhaps. yes. so you'll want to master it right away.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. Simply put. As such." Let's look at a few examples:
• • •
Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen.)
Base 3 + kamo shiremasen
Though a bit of a tongue twister. look. as in:
Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo." These are incorrect. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known.)
As you sharp ones have noticed. and is conjugated accordingly.)
. Therefore. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. (It might rain tomorrow. this one is used frequently. so please be careful when pronouncing. (We may eat out tonight.
(I don't want to go to Mr.)
. so I'm going to the store. however. let's take umbrellas.) Jisho o kaitai kara. kasa o motte ikimashou. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. given after. (Beth is always late. mise ni ikimasu. the reason or cause of the action:
Tabun ame ga furu kara. (We don't have any milk. so I'll call her. denwa shimasu. with its reason. tonight soto: outside kara: from
Base 3 + kara
Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since.) Ongaku o kikimasu. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. (Since it will probably rain.I suggest. Word Check komban: this evening. they each become separate sentences. grammatically speaking. Let's do this to the above examples:
Kasa o motte ikimashou.)
In spoken Japanese. honya ni ikimasu. you'll often hear the action stated first. signified by kara at the end. so his English is good." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. Terebi o mitakunai kara.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff.
Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Let's look at a few examples:
• • • • •
Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. Itsumo okureru kara. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. eigo ga jouzu desu. In this case.
heta desu. Again. it's used a lot. just like English. keredo and kedo. which means "from. he gets sick a lot. Like "but" in English. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo.)
Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often." Just like English. as you can imagine. etc.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. no problem. but he's not good at it. Let's try some examples:
• • •
Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. (He speaks Japanese. disgusting mono: thing. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. (Although Jack is careful about his health. nasty. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning." so. but she doesn't get any better.)
Base 3 + keredomo
This one is used for "although" or "but. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. yoku byouki shimasu. snow.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. skilled
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. jouzu ni narimasen. it comes between the contrasting phrases.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. home iya na: bad. as well as its shorter forms.
. Better than all this talk would be an example. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. If you have to have a translation. No. a lot. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. Like our ing. Let's move on. I like reading as a thing to do..Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. it really doesn't change the verb. In English. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. let's look at each part. First is koto." Does this help? If not. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading.)
Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu
Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. be sick
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Finally. reading as a noun [gerund])
Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. Well.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. But first. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. like reading in the sentence I like reading. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. (I like reading. It'll come. koto has no practical use by itself. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. no problem. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. Next.)
The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. not good at something. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . Here are some examples:
it's a long ending for just "can.)
Either way. There is a short alternative for other verbs.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. For example. and see what happens:
• • •
Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. (I can't read French." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. (I can translate French into Japanese. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. they're both used. and adding the suru makes it a verb. Here are a couple more:
Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu.)
Now. actions. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. actually for review -. It is generally not used for physical things or objects." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. etc." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. for kicks -. essences.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita.• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Kinou." Denwa is a noun. in that case the suru is omitted. you can just omit suru. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing.let's try some other endings on dekiru." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. expressions.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. (I can read Japanese. long or short. (Richard couldn't eat the squid.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. It does not
. With "suru verbs. (Keiko can play the piano. Again. meanings." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb.)
And let's throw in one with a plain ending:
(one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!)
Yes.no. (Bob was able to call Junko.
(I'll go shopping tomorrow. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. Here are some polite present and past tense examples:
Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. koto ni suru is the plain.)
. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. and it shows that the decision was yours. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. It shows that you have made a decision. As I'm sure you know by now.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have.)
Base 3 + koto ni shimasu
The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru.
) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.)
Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. etc.)
As in English.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. to let (someone) see. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen." and is added after the plain form of a verb:
• • •
Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.• •
Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (Mr.)
Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. watch (something)
Base 3 + made
This one is very easy. (We have to wait until Bob calls. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. Made means "until.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (Wait until dinner. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. periods. or seasons:
• • •
Yuushoku made machinasai.
it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression.)
Base 3 + na
This. Stay away from me!)
Now let's add a few more:
• • •
Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!)
And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan:
Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!)
This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. However. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. as with English. This is one that will probably not be used very often. you could say. but if you do. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. let's make the above examples negative:
• • •
Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. First.
. you use it. and to whom."don't do's" -. like:
• • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
In this lesson we will make short negative commands -.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. Stay away from here!.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. be careful how. a week-long period haru: spring
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after.
(If he sees Yuko.) Ame ga furu nara. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. which is just a slight variation. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. they probably won't eat dinner.) John ni denwa suru nara. kuru deshou. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones:
• • • • •
Isogu nara. (If the kids eat a snack now. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.)
Sooner or later you will run into naraba. watashi ni shirasemasu.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train
. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. he'll let me know.)
Base 3 + nara
This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. but nara is more common. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. He thought he said. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.sentences with "if.
) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. As a quick review. and lengthy. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. For example. I can see several things which need to be explained. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. words that connect a noun to an action. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. page.. there are no "relative pronouns. that's another story. respectively."
Of course. Japanese English. they are like:
• • •
which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. But.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo.. In Japanese. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here:
. a time. things I'd like to explain.) yuushoku: dinner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. like in the first example above. to offer very general. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. and a person. And. which are examples involving a thing. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam.)
Base 3 + (any noun)
In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. but hopefully sufficient for the present. to make matters worse. a place. explanations. Let's look at these simple phrases:
• • • •
watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet)
In this one. and so it would most likely be omitted. like our 's. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. As you may have noticed." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. No is often used in place of ga." you might say. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. densha (train) is the main subject. especially in informal spoken Japanese. a "sub-subject. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. or a noun which needs emphasis. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. back to the lesson: First. automatically designates a place. Ga or no could be used here. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. since he or she will surely be hearing both. they do not mean the same thing. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. the English "where." as a relative pronoun.)
Since this is natural Japanese. so tokoro is used after the verb." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. Continuing with the above example. ga tells us who will take the train. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. a substitute noun must be used. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train.) Now. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. and therefore omitted. The problem is that the rules are
. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. For example. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my).) In this sentence. As you can see. but since Japanese has no equivalent. and is handled by the final verb. a truer English translation would be. Kobe is a place. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. let's translate the first example at the top of the page:
Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page:
Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu.
and when trying to make sense of one. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. (Spring is the season that brings new life. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. I hope this lesson was clear enough. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". produce. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. Finally. you must forget all the rules of the other.)
Base 3 + no desu
There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences.)
This one is pretty straightforward. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. and shouldn't be too difficult. to cause to happen kisetsu: season
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
. and are in the realm of mid. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. and vice versa. semi-accurate rule. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. As a general.totally different in each language.to high-intermediate Japanese. the last example from the top:
Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu.
etc. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. writhing.) katsu: to win
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. like this:
• • •
Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. if you want to emphasize something. or habits of the speaker. If not. unexcited intonation.)
As in any other language. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. (Grandpa will return soon. (Jim will read a comic book.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. stomping around. Japanese English. However. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. it IS going to rain tomorrow. need.)
The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. (She IS coming.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.)
Remember these? I hope so.)
. (Grandpa will return soon. (Jim will read a comic book. you need to review. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). (I tell you. you put stress on the verb before no desu:
• • •
Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!)
A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. fist pounding. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu.
A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works:
• • •
Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. it's usually found somewhere near the middle.Base 3 + no ni
No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). specifically.) densha: train noru: to ride. essential kanji: Chinese characters. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time).) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. rather. Takamatsu-yuki. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. remember daibun (or daibu): quite.)
. meaning "in spite of. There's nothing really tricky about it. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question.)
Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. etc." which we will cover later on. Please consult a dictionary for more.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
Base 3 + no wa
Do you remember koto. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. (It really was a problem-free trip. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. (Speaking Japanese is easy.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!)
Please remember that there are other no's. mainly the one used for possessives. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. impossible saikou: great. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. the greatest. (Reading is enjoyable. Wa is the subject indicator.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu.)
Word Check tanoshii: fun.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). to not exist tabi: trip
. like our 's. as in:
Jim no jisho wa ao de.
and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. still not fukanou: not possible. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu.). as in:
Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. (Jim's dictionary is blue. boku no wa aka desu. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. mine is red. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Yomu no wa tanoshii desu.
(I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. the o. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. as in:
Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. which is used to show reasons or causes.)
So. In other words.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. use node. For example. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. In this lesson we will take a look at node.)
Base 3 + node
Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job
. (Since Eiko can speak English. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. If kara was used instead. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.prefix makes it "honorific. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. she'll probably find a good job. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way:
• • •
O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead.
) annani: that much. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. (Despite my telling her to stop. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. to quit a job or habit iu: to say.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome:
Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!)
Noni is used a lot. to follow rules or orders. etc. rumors.)
Base 3 + noni
As promised in Lesson 33. which is used to mean "in spite of":
"Yamenasai" to iu noni. (I was late even though I got up early. this short lesson is about noni. Word Check yameru: to stop something. she won't listen. understand to be. for the plain past. kanojo wa kikimasen.) asoko: there.)
Base 3 + sou desu
Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something.) kiku: to listen. For example:
. which is used for plain past structures. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. over there (usually emphasizes distance)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. sou desu. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. It means "that's right" and often follows hai.) As you have probably guessed. (I heard that Mr.)
Base 3 + tame ni
When you see tame. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. Takada's quitting.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee".• • •
Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita.)
Tame is a very handy word. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite." and is often followed by the optional ni. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). Japanese German.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. but is more often than not shortened to baito. A full-time employee will use shigoto. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. that's right. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". Take a look at these:
• • •
Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu.)
Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. as in "Hai.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. a student will say baito.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. The actual word is arubaito. Word Check hiru kara: from noon." hajimeru: to begin
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. it usually means "for the purpose of. Japanese English." (Yes. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. in order to. Here are some popular ones:
. They use a noun geared to their type of job.
.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. [plain. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. (Remember. (This is for you. when. with. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. or even both:
• • •
Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. receive. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. (This is for you.]) Hai.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain])
Tame is used a lot. or if. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. (Kimiko came with Bob. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu.)
Base 3 + to
There are four basic uses for to.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. In this case. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. Mom. that's pronounced "toh.• • • •
Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.") It can mean and. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added.)
For the curious. have (an interview). here are sample sentences with to as and and with:
Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita.
When promoting your own ideas or opinions." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. to go) + taku (tai. but it is not generally used. I think it can be applied very easily:
• • • • •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. Sasaki will call us soon. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. (I think Eiko can speak English. begin to want. (I think Ms. Now that it's been explained.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. especially in the workplace.it's as simple as that. things you can do. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. While not specifically covered. takunaru puts tai and naru together. use umi.)
Base 3 + to omoimasu
For better or worse. to become to want to go -." Iki (Base 2 of iku.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. When referring to the beach in Japanese. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. Japanese English.")
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. and expected. to want to do. It means simply "I think.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. meaning "come to want. (I think Koji will be late. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. It's okay to have an opinion. of "party.
]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. towards me. (I thought it would rain today [. (I think it would be better to go by train today. or have some control. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know.)
Again.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. care. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. goes back.])
In a way. like:
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. omou can be used for plain speech. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here.As you can see from the last examples. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. Accordingly. us
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. or don't really have any control over something.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. the other Base 2 endings also apply:
• • • •
Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. this ending is a lot like deshou. and it did. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. don't really care. which was covered in Lesson 19. but it didn't.)
Base 3 + tsumori desu
and other countries where the word college is used loosely. as you should know by now. however. to enter/enroll in (a school). (I plan to be back by three o'clock. to join (a club)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In case you're wondering. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. You will. build up. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!)
As usual. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. yes. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. day. etc. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. technically speaking. While sounding alike. add desu to make it polite. which means "to accumulate. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu.)
Base 3 + you desu
You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English:
Mary wa ashita kuru you desu.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. Deshita. so please be careful not to confuse them. hairu: to go inside (a room). College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention:
• • • •
Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. that was a short one.)
. S. Always use daigaku for university. is for past tense. Well." used a lot. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. their meanings are completely different. hear the other verb tsumoru.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh.
I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples.. AH.)
Base 4 + ba
After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. "you look like an idiot. 2. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. Simply put. 3. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. e as in see OO. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. o as in mode
. baka: idiot. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. fool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. e as in red OH.)
To be honest. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. directly or indirectly. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). (It looks like Ken can play the piano. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. etc.. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be:
Ame ga furu sou desu. that something is or will be.) Ame ga furu you desu. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. First. 5.) mitai: it looks like. a as in father EE.)
You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. 4. u as in mule EH. said so]. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. and show what Base 4 looks like." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. sou desu means you heard.•
Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai.
(There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. it's where you start.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. Now. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary." or "dictionary form. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs:
Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi-
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru
Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire-
Base 3 (plain form)
tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. Ii is Japanese for "good." as shown in these examples:
Now that we know how to make Base 4. Here. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. As we learned in the last lesson. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.?":
• • •
Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. o'clock] + han [half])
Base 4 + ba ii
In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta.. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something.)
Handy. converted to Base 4 + ba:
• • • • •
Isogeba. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if.])
This form of suggestion does not include the speaker.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. (I want to call Grandma. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. kuru deshou. however.) John ni denwa sureba.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. they probably won't eat dinner.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. (If he sees Yuko. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. he'll let me know. (If you call John he'll probably come..) Ame ga fureba. (If the kids eat a snack now.. covered in Lesson 30? Well. watashi ni shirasemasu. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.
]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. is used after ba -. (I wish we had gone to the park. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. soto de asobeba ii. yes. I have done this with most of the examples on this page.) Mom.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. (I wish I had ordered the steak. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. By this stage of Japanese study. quirky ii does not. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. [I still wish you would play outside. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. they are not completely interchangeable.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. yoi is not used with noni. (We should have come at 8:00. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. (Around five. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. (The weather's nice. However. (Now would be a good time to study. (We want to watch TV. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. they both mean "good".) Kids: Terebi mitai.) Naoko.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. so it would be good to play outside.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. no.)
For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi.• • •
Soto de asobeba ii. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied
. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (It would be good if you played outside. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made:
• • •
Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. yokatta. as in these example conversations:
Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.)
Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. (Even though it would be nice to play outside.)
As you can see.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. In those situations different constructions would be used. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.
just use Base 4."
. this is a form you really don't want to use.very handy when you get used to it. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. It's simple: no subject or object needed.and known to all concerned. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative
If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look.) light shokuji: food. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out:
• • •
Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!)
One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. Or. and maybe even get into a fight. If you do. Actually. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -.
/ Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. It's very. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.)
Now. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. It shows ability to do something.)
Base 4 + ru
You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. (Keiko can play the piano.
. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita.it was like opening a new door. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned:
• • • • •
Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. Take a good look. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. just like most ichidans. they can be treated like plain ichidans. I remember when I first learned this one -. too. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. No problem.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. Here we realize an important point -. (I can read Japanese. to not give up
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru:
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. For example.)
Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. (Keiko can play the piano. (He might be able to go next month. which was covered back in Lesson 26. very useful. As such. Simply put. (Keiko can't play the violin.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. Now.
) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. there are other nai-related endings that will work here.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. this form is only meant for yodans. (Keiko can't play the piano. Here are two we've already covered:
Jack wa korenai deshou. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.) raigetsu: next month
Base 4 + nai
In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative:
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai.)
See how that works? As mentioned last time. the "cannot do" plain form. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form.)
Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. For example. If it helps. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. (As you remember. It made sense to me. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. (Jack probably won't be able to come." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it.)
. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. (I can't read Japanese. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. and I hope it will make sense to you. this is wasei eigo.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. As you may have guessed. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. which was covered in Lesson 13.
Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. an example of which was included in the last lesson. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.noru: to ride aruku: to walk
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. but there are exceptions like the last example above. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara.)
Base 4 + reba
To be frank. this form is mainly for yodans.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou.)
Again.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. so I do too. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. but who cares? Everyone uses it. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can":
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often.)
. So. you may wonder. energetic.
Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.oboeru oboerekime.taberu tabereoboe.tabe. If you don't mind. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson. First.oboe.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.koyou
I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.kime.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs:
Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.kari.
It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). (I wonder if I should call Bob. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa
This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. oh.) Yasumou. ee. (Let's eat...) Base 5 + ka
Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions:
• • •
Ikou ka. but is converted as necessary:
. (I think I'll go shopping. I just made that up. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. eh. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (Let's take a break. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara.) Base 5 + to suru
This one is to express "try to do (something). (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. (Let's go. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite:
• • •
Ikou." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. oo. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure:
• • • • •
Kaimono ni ikou ka na.. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. arukou ka na. Also.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. (I wonder if I should go shopping.) Terebi o miyou ka na.shi-
As you can see.. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.) Tabeyou." Suru is shown plain. (Maybe I'll watch TV. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments.
the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te.• •
John wa koyou to suru to omou.)
These are the more useful Base 5 forms. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize.)
Te Form + kudasai
Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. (Naoto tried to see the airplane.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu
Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde
. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. (I think John will try to come. miemasen deshita. but he couldn't. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. As you have most likely guessed.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga.
tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. katte. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. Please note this one important exception: iku. yobu (to call out).atte. hataraite. keshite. nutte. motte. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. like asobu (to play). to ask). The only yodan verb that ends in nu.asonde. not tsu).
. motsu (to hold). The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite
Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
Te Form kite shite
Those yodans look pretty scary.isoide. Yodan verbs that end in ku. nuide. yonde. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. tsunaide.e.. like au (to meet).kashite. like kasu (to lend). katte.aruite. kiku (to listen. like aruku (to walk). kau (to buy). tsunagu (to connect). like matsu (to wait). katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. like isogu (to hurry). kesu (to turn off. It's important because it's used a lot.matte. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. to put out [a fire]). kiite. Let's take a closer look:
• • •
Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. tonde. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. not iite. Yodan verbs that end in bu. Yodan verbs that end in gu. tashite.
Koko ni kite. (Please wait a bit. kiite. totte.)
In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai." "to lower (something).)
Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. (Come at six o'clock. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. but in Japanese we do. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. When you start learning kanji. (Please come at six o'clock. Yodan verbs that end in ru.) Chotto matte kudasai. For practice let's use kuru (to come). humble me. (Listen to this. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something.
As you can see." etc. (Wait. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. depending on the tone of voice used.• •
Yodan verbs that end in mu. tabete kudasai. It means "under. hairu (to enter).) Kore o kiite.yonde. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?)
I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. please eat. tabete. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. like yomu (to read).kaette. momu (to massage). These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities:
• • • •
Rokuji ni kite kudasai." There are several handy variations of kudasai. which was introduced back in Lesson 10.)
.) Matte. tsutsunde. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. like kaeru (to return). kiku (to listen). the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. (Please come at six o'clock. haitte. (Go ahead. and kiru (to cut). The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. (Go ahead and eat. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. (Come here.) Douzo. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request:
• • •
Douzo. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. monde." "to go down.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. mild commands in familiar settings:
• • •
Rokuji ni kite.
If you ask someone to do something for you." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour])
Te Form + ageru
In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). just like counting 1-2-3. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. showing a "humbler" position. (If you don't want to eat it. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples:
Sono pen o kudasai. (Cut this. Now. tabete ageru. to show respect. you use the Te Form + kudasai. (I'll call you later. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. kiite: KEE-EETEH. (Please give me that pen. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down.) Tabetakunakereba." but it means "to raise.) Kono pen o agemasu. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form.)
. and kitte: KEET-TEH.)
As you can see.). while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. as covered in the last lesson. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons." Ageru also means "to give. you use the Te Form + ageru:
• • •
The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. I'll eat it for you. to give (up to someone). giving each equal time while making them short. (I'll give you this pen.•
Kore o kitte. (I'll wait for you. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else.
It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. it's a great convenience besides. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. as a general rule. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. and will work nicely in most cases. Finally." It is disrespectful at best. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. Don't use it. to connect
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. It's for "talking down" to. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru.)
Notes 1. which are chosen depending on the situation. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else:
Bob ni pen o kashite agete. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete.)
There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. the position of the giver or receiver. whether or not he or she is in hearing range.
. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. and showing contempt for others. in cases where there's a third person. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all.In Japanese. as these examples show. string. However. and. (Lend Bob your pen. laces musubu: to tie.
Te Form + goran nasai
Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. (Ask Bob and see what he says. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are):
• • • • • • •
Bob ni kiite goran. Yonde goran nasai. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. (Taste it and see if you like it. Go and see for yourself. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. Mite goran nasai. pretty
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. usually in short. Read it for yourself.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. mild command-like sentences.)
Te Form + iru
." You use it to ask someone to try something. (It says he's 38.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful.) Tabete goran. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. (Try calling Sanae.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. See for yourself. (There is salt on the shelf. which is used to prove a point.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. (Take a look. Itte goran nasai.) Mite goran.)
That's how we use goran nasai. You never use it on yourself.
]) Shizuko wa tabete iru.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. (I am here.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. as in the fourth example above. (Bill is studying Japanese. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). (Shizuko is eating. and masen deshita." So." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. we say "I know. (She is eating sushi. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. it works like English.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru.) Kinou nete imashita. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite
. mashita.) Watashi wa aruite iru. (I am walking. Because of this.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru.)
These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. to exist. and not shiru. (Yesterday I slept all day. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. in a way. As you already know.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. (I'm reading the newspaper. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. we can get away with using just "live" in English. "I'm knowing [it].])
It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. [I wasn't watching TV today. (He's not studying French. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. masen. Especially important are masu. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made."). Look at these examples:
• • • • • • •
Watashi wa koko ni iru." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). For example. (They are reading a magazine. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. Let's review these through some Te Form examples:
• • • •
Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. [We are living in Takamatsu. (We live in Takamatsu. in English we would normally ask a person. This is probably the most used verb form of them all.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. when they really should use sunde iru. which were covered in the Base 2 endings.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. (I didn't watch TV today.
child Note: Strangely. like "kid" in English. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. so I'll tell you: "to play. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. These can be shortened to ko in many situations." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game.)
I know you're wondering. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. it is even written this way -. Finally. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English:
Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. (I was watching TV.with the i in iru omitted -. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. For example. but. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine.imashita ka.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. to do (something) ko: kid. imouto: little (younger) sister
. "woman-child" / "man-child"). there is no single. In fact. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU.
(Sam's not here. nani o shite iru deshou ka. and imouto for younger sister. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. what are they doing?)
Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. which makes them present or past progressive. (We don't live in Okayama. (If they're not studying. Please look at the following examples.)
We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. (We don't live in Okayama. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. present and past. there are many that can.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen." As such. to exist. (They aren't reading a magazine. and adding ra makes it conditional. otouto for younger brother.Note: In Japanese. ane for older sister. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (The kids probably aren't studying. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. which were covered in the Base 1 endings:
Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. First let's do some plain negative examples.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. which are based on those used in the last lesson:
• • • • •
Sam wa koko ni inai.) Benkyou shite inakereba. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. infinitive and progressive:
. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara.)
Te Form + inai
As mentioned in the last lesson.)
Remember to use masen for polite speech:
• • •
Sam wa koko ni imasen. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. (Sam's not here. (They aren't reading a magazine.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.
(If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. In either. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. (I wasn't eating then. To make the meaning perfectly clear. "we could" could be "he could. However. (I didn't eat an apple." depending on the actual situation.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?)
The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka.)
Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be).) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. (I didn't eat an apple. (I haven't eaten yet. (I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. to be able). and goes especially well with plain ones. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. vague and troublesome at others.• • • • • • • •
Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. but also a much-
. It's for asking questions. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. Dekita. (I'm not eating [now]. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. which appears in the last example. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. which can be convenient at times. The last two above are good examples of this. since it is not only a Te Form ending." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa mada tabete inai. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I wasn't eating then. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can.)
Te Form + ita
Since ita is the Ta Form of iru.
) That's real Japanese. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. in settings where polite speech is called for.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. (They were reading a magazine. Also.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. but no real friends or family members -. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. upgrade ita to imashita. (Bill was studying.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta.are going to speak so grammatically correct. this would be two males speaking. ita is the plain past form of iru. Soshite terebi miteta. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. (Really? I was washing my car. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. In fact. [I went shopping. As I'm sure you know by now. (John was watching TV. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. (I went shopping. Just for the fun of it. (I was doing shopping. I include the usual English translation. Soshite terebi o mite ita. Put simply.used element of conversational Japanese.]) Yes. [Really? I washed my car. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. (Really? I washed my car. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used.)
There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. The above example conversation looks all proper when written.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form:
• • •
John wa terebi o mite ita. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really
as covered in Lesson 50. It can. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. meaning something like "I humbly partake. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point.
. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. Oboete imasen ka. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. Here are some examples.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. Because itadaku is a very polite word. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation:
• • •
Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka.kuruma: car arau: to wash
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. (Would you please come at two o'clock?)
And here are a few more variations that are often used:
• • •
Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. (Would you please call Mr. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English.)
As in English.)
Te Form + itadaku / morau
Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. however.
Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. it's just plain.)
This is the same family. Also. I realize that all of this sounds complicated.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Ken ni itte moratte. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. As usual. and it can be at times." With itadakimasu. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal.not as "respectful" -. Get Ken to go. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. Make no mistake.)
This is a family situation. No particular reservations are needed here. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. With kudasai. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. but since we can't do that now.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. morau works best when talking about a third party. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. I'll get Grandpa to go. Traditionally.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. adding a masu ending makes it polite. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. Morau is okay when referring to other things.as itadakimasu. (I'm doing homework now. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. use morau instead of itadaku. itadakimasu is always used with food. even when the giver is not present. However. but not quite as polite -.)
. (Ken's not here now. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. this would be the best way to go. (I'm doing homework now. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. morau is not impolite. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me." When there's no need to be very polite.
(I'll give you a pen. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka.) oshieru: to teach. clients. documents. office.)
This is at the office. Just like anywhere else. but she already has one and doesn't want another. They probably don't see each other every day.) Itadakimashita. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms)
. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. customers. Murai go.)
Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. company.)
Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. (Sure. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. and these two are being courteous. I got one. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. each home.)
Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. (I got one [already]. (Yes. moraimashita. (I had Ms. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. etc. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out.Itadakimasu is always used with food. tell shorui: forms. (May I please have your name?) Hai.prefix is used with strangers. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms.
.. (John's coming over after he does his homework. (Let's play baseball after school['s over].)
Te Form + kara
This one's a snap.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). Word Check kaeru: to return. then add the Te Form of owaru.)
Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form." There are other ways to do that.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. such as those two common ones work and school.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.)
. which means "to finish":
Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). to come home owaru: to end.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). (Let's eat after Naomi comes back..) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou." as in:
• • •
Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. You can't use it directly after nouns. such as summer to mean "after summer. (After I eat I'm going shopping. you just make them the subject/object with ga. Simple and useful. (Let's go see a movie after work. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).
(Please wait. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. repeated request. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can
. especially one that's already been turned down:
Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. (Won't you please come with us?)
(Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. which literally means "Oh. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request.)
Use plain negative nai for an urgent. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others:
Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. this is the "command" form of kureru. (Please come here. For example. ogotte kureru no?. you might say Ah. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru.Te Form + kureru
In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation.) And finally. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. and it would be offensive in some cases.)
I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. It's good for family members and close friends. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure.) Matte kure. the "kure command":
Kite kure. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences:
Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?)
You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). In fact. Kureru is used in generally the same way. Again.
and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. assumptions. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. depending on intonation. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time." Usually upgraded with masu." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as
. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. you'll see what I mean. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out.) Sono tame.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou.sound nicer than with kure. (I have been studying German history. etc.)
As can be seen. dreams. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. expresses future plans. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. (Because of that.)
Te Form + kuru / iku
As you already know.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. with matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one:
• • • •
Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. I think that the number of PC users will increase. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese." (If you say just ikimasu.
inexpensive." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. (I ate before coming over." See Lesson 40. We'll finish up with a few examples of these:
• • • •
Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. (I'll go check it [then come back].) Douzo. to examine. or cuisine.. but when uncertain. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. (Please come over [sometime]."going away and not coming back.)
Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj.)
Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. (I came to borrow a textbook. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook
..) Shirabete kuru. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). but should be easily understood. asobi ni kite kudasai.): cheap. combined with naru: to become. food. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. (Let's go eat Chinese food.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita.) Accordingly. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are:
Tabete kita.) shiraberu: to check (something).
" You may hear it often." but technically it's not one of those either. (Let's give this new PC a try.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. Or." which makes this one easy to remember. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. go ahead asobu: to play. For example. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion:
• • • • •
Kono kanji o yonde miru. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can.. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. and adding miru. it acts like a "quasi adjective. In Japanese grammar. rusu deshita. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. (I tried calling him. but it's not. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. Either way. (I'll try to read these kanji. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it.)
Te Form + miru
As you know. miru means "to see.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga.. to entertain oneself. but he wasn't in. (I'll try to talk to John."
.. Well." meaning that we'll give something a try. but don't take it literally. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now.)
Simple enough. with its own set phrases.
adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay.)
(Yes. (Yeah. positive response." etc.)
You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. (You may go home early today. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas:
Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka." etc. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.. (Sure. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation:
Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo.. terebi mite ii.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?)
There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. (You can use my PC. In the workplace. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. like the object indicator o. you can watch TV. as in:
• • •
Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English." Accordingly. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.) Hai. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite.)
. There's usually something else added on." "fine.. Yes... It's an adjective which means "good. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.. as with all adjectives." "okay.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.?).. As I've probably mentioned before." "it's okay if (someone does something).)
Te Form + mo ii
This one is used to ask or give permission. As with most Japanese. you can also get away with omitting particles. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44).). that is the way it works grammatically. so you should be a little familiar with it. you can use my dictionary. in familiar situations as in the last example above. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. however.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
Instead. of course." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. but usually alone. If you do. do not add the plain." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. You can omit the desu ka for plain.)
Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka
These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?":
• • •
Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka.these don't use it. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. If you break a bone in Japanese.) Actually. question-forming no -. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. but not ikaga ka. (What do you think about buying a new TV?)
These are. you can say it. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. You can't just say "I broke my arm. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. familiar talk. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go
. polite. if you're going to use it in this way. (Well. You can say dou ka. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
Also. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten:
Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. used in a normal. etc. to make it even more colorful... (You can't take pictures. especially ikenai.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo.)
Te Form + wa ikemasen
Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". akan (Osaka). ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take
. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. So.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. "You mustn't do that!". there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!)
Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. like ikan (Takamatsu). everyday setting. "Thou shalt not. In fact. iken (Okayama). and you're bound to hear either of these. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). When placed after the Te Form with wa. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!)
Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. etc. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. (Don't be late. "Naughty!". ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises:
• • •
Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this.
to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. then go shopping. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. esa o ataete. fed him." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. First. and left home at eight. (I got up at seven o'clock. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation.)
As you can see. hachiji ni ie o demashita. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning.)
. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). choushoku o tabete. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. and [then] made my dinner. to take (steal) something from someone. some simple ones. heya o katazukete moratte. like "take a bath. ate breakfast. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue:
Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. the kanji used for each meaning are different.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. which is easy to do.) Also. meaning "to pass (by/over something). and I'm going shopping. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. However.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete.)
Te Form for Continuing Statements
Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. heya o katazukete.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. to take a picture with a camera. straighten up the room.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. (I've got to call Shizu.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. Let's combine three actions into one statement:
Shizu ni denwa shite. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. because tooru is a totally different vowel.
to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta
. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. whose major purpose is to make things plain. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. a house deru: to leave. to straighten up. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. past. and simple.)
Ta Form: The Plain Past
We finally arrive at the Ta Form. Just for a quick check. When you're not sure. just start a new sentence.
Let's do some real basic.)
Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. (I got a haircut. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. (I did it. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. There are cases where particles would never be cut.) Ginkou itta. In the long run. (I went to the bank.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
shinda asonda yonda kaetta
Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita
Ta Form kita shita
As with the Te Form.) Ohiru tabeta. (I watched TV. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. (My goldfish died. Once again.) Terebi mita. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out:
• • • • • • •
Shita. there are limits.
. and only omit them when everyone else does.) Hon yonda. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I ate lunch.) Boku no kingyo shinda.) Kami kitta. Also. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I read a book.
(The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's." If we switch these around to yonda hon. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. literally "hairbug. beforehand. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often.)
As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday." Very handy. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. Ke alone is hair — any hair.) Boku ga katta PC wa.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. For example." it is used for "I got a haircut. right? Let's do some more:
• • • • •
Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. use kami. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier." and is less formal than chuushoku. roku nen mae ni katta. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. even on a caterpillar. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. (The cake Joy made was delicious. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do.) Shinda kingyo wa. hon becomes the subject. juu hachi man en deshita. kiru: to cut.)
. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. I had someone cut my hair. anywhere." There are a few of these. yonda modifies hon like an adjective.
For a more detailed review. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. as in the last example above. the rest really isn't too difficult. (He was supposed to come at six. use desu to make it polite. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. Instead. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions.
. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form.)
Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite.)
» hazu desu (Lesson 20):
Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. these two share many add-ons and endings. Base 3 is used for the plain future. because deshita is the past form of desu.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. » deshou (Lesson 19):
Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. root form of Japanese verbs. One past tense element is enough. (He's supposed to come at six. please click the lesson links. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. which will serve as a nice review. And. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. Since we have already covered these. Carefully note the similarities and differences. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. Due to this. (If necessary.)
Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3
Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. not deshita. Again. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou.
(The teacher was angry because Beth was late.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21):
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. For expressing regret. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.)
» noni (Lesson 36):
Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (Even though I got up early. (I heard that Mr. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40):
. Takada quit. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. I'm late every day.) Kinou no ban. sensei ga okotta.)
Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (I heard that Mr. Takada's quitting.)
» sou desu (Lesson 37):
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22):
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (It would be better to go by train today. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. I was late.. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight.)
» kara (Lesson 24):
Beth wa itsumo okureru kara..)
Note: Yes. (It would be better to go by train today. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late.)
» kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23):
Konban. (I should have taken the train today. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. sensei ga okoru.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. (Even though I get up early.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.) Beth wa okureta kara. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai." Please don't make this mistake.
In other words." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it.• •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. (I just ate. snow. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward.) Ame ga futta mitai. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.)
» mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42):
Ame ga furu mitai. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. mai is used with units of time.)
Ta Form + bakari
To express "(did something) just now. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. (It looks like it's going to rain. like something memorized from a grammar book.) yameru: to quit a job. not with people or objects.
. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii.)
In fact. now that I think of it. (I just cleaned this room. (It looks like it rained.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.) John wa deta bakari.) Sono kasa o katta bakari." put bakari after a verb in its ta form:
• • • • •
Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari.)
Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day].) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. (I just bought that umbrella. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. etc. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Mom just got back.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. (John just left.
(No. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. I have.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari..) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. (All you ever do is eat. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. I haven't. tabeta koto ga nai.. Once you get these sorted and memorized. like this:
• • •
Tabete bakari. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. to go/come back deru: to leave. Tabete mitai kedo. (All that kid does is play computer games.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie." in Japanese. I'd like to try it. you use the verb iku (to go)
. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki.. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is." usually as a complaint.. This is used after the Te Form.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). First. arimasu. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return.)
As you can see.)
Ta Form + koto ga aru
To talk about things you or others have experienced. you'll find them very useful.. (Yes.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. to do (familiar. though. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. I've been twice. (Yes. Nikai ikimashita.
they probably won't eat lunch. As in B's reply above. not yet. kare wa kuru deshou.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.) kedo: however." which. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. [No. (No.)
Next.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. (If the kids eat a snack. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. you don't use this form." Finally. let's review Base 3 + nara:
• • •
Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai." but "I went twice. See Lessons 7 and 60.. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. The second is that in using this form. (If you call John he'll probably come.and literally ask "have you gone to.) John ni denwa sureba. but regular past tense. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. First. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba:
Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai.) John ni denwa suru nara. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.. I haven't read it yet. kare wa kuru deshou.)
Ta Form + ra
Simply said. to me. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. (If you call John he'll probably come.)
. mada yonde inai..
) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara.)
Again. Takada's quitting.. According to the books. (I heard that Mr. Takada's quitting. meaning "It seems that." etc. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu:
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. they probably won't eat lunch. they probably won't eat lunch. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). to inform.. kare wa kuru deshou.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal.) John ni denwa shitara. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. (I heard that Mr. Word Check oshieru: to tell.•
Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. Yes. making it more formal than rashii. but I personally have never heard it." "I hear that.. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada..)
And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra:
• • •
Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.)
Desu is usually used after sou.)
. (If the kids eat a snack. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. familiar conversation. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If you call John he'll probably come..) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples:
• • •
Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.)
Ta Form + rashii
Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42).) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii..
Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one:
Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari.)
If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. (Last night after dinner I
. some cleaning. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. listened to some music.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. Word Check daibun: considerably. It can also be used for present or future happenings. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. then ate dinner. souji shitari. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common.That's all there is to it. (Jim buys and sells old things. ongaku o kiitari.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. (I watched TV and stuff. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66):
Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. yuushoku o tabeta. right? This is where you control the tense:
Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I read comics and stuff.)
Ta Form + ri
Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary.)*
This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. and did some homework. If you want. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. and watch TV. (Last night I watched TV. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. terebi o mitari suru deshou. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer:
Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita.
Please review Lessons 53 and 55. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. chuushoku o tabete. use the Ta Form with to shitara:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. listened to music for about two hours. then did homework until one o'clock. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. then she made dinner.)
. ate lunch.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready:
Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. I'd really be at a loss.)
Ta Form + to shitara
For suppositional statements.watched TV. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.)
I realize that this is a run-on sentence. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. * Note: While unnatural in English. practiced the piano and things.
I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. you must remember that (something else). watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. you'd probably regret it. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. (Supposing it rains this afternoon.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Ta Form + to shite mo
This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. (Even if you studied Spanish.• •
Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. let's look at some examples to help make it clear:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo..) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. Word Check hontou ni: really. In fact. without doubt komaru: to be confused. dou shimashou ka. tabun koukai suru deshou. snow.)
To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara.. (If you were to go swimming now. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning:
. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work.." As usual. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. etc.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.)
As you can see.
zenzen ippai ni naranai. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. he never gets full. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39:
.. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. I was very surprised.." Here are some examples:
• • •
Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective])
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta.) Sore o kiita toki waratta..)
Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. (I laughed when I heard that.• •
Setsumeisho o yonde mo. (Even if I read the manual. I can't understand this software. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that.)
Ta Form + toki
There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. (No matter how much he eats. After the Ta Form.)
While not covered before. (When I read that. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. For example.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. (John's pants were torn when he fell. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.
to is usually used because of its flexibility. However. (I just cleaned this room. (The kids just finished eating. it's still brand-new. or. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event:
• • •
Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago.)
As usual. sickness
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I just got back now. while tokoro really means just now.)
Ta Form + tokoro
This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. add desu to make a statement polite. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns])
. For example. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return.•
Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. was already covered in Lesson 69. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. the Ta Form + bakari. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. One similar to this. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. in the least recent sense.
) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai:
. aru is a yodan.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu.) Ashita wa ame desu.)
(Iru is an ichidan verb.)
The plain form of desu is da. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.])
Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. You can add it to many statements to make them polite." Generally speaking. [I don't want to. (There's a spider on the wall. (Bob's sick.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective):
• • • • •
Kare wa Tanaka-san desu.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (Tomorrow it will rain. etc. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. (There's a big tree in the park. iru is used for people and animals. are. (No.)
desu. (There's a big tree in the park. and aru for everything else:
• • • • •
Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. (The dictionary is on the desk. (He is Mr. like something from the masu group.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. iru and aru
As you know.. (That school is old.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. desu makes things polite. (Yes. Tom wa iru yo. After nouns and adjectives.) Bob wa byouki desu. is. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings:
Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da.. Tom's here. Tanaka. (Carol is 25 years old.)
You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu:
Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru.
Notes on Japanese Verbs
In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. excuse me jisho: dictionary
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru." as in being in a certain position. here it is: Among the several roles of de.. Again. (Sorry. Tom's not here now. Connected with aru it means "to exist as.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. Tom's not here now.)
Now. If you're really interested in the technical background..) Jisho wa nai. This is one that is rarely used these days. and is especially used by children. unpleasant. it is rarely used these days. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. Japanese is no exception.. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. ima Tom wa inai. state or condition. ima Tom wa imasen. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature.) Jisho wa arimasen. one is "as.
And the polite forms would be:
Sumimasen. Use desu instead. (I don't have a dictionary. getting back to desu. (Sorry. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs." So. (I don't have a dictionary.• •
Sumimasen. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something.
and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. very rarely will they correct you. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51).) Hayaku kimete kudasai.)
. I'll give you this. This is certainly not a complete list.)
Note: These two. ageru. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. (Here. agaru and ageru. to give
Agatte kudasai. (Wendy collects old stamps. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. Accordingly. They are not conjugations. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. (Please come in. have close ties with Japanese culture. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. active/passive forms. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage." When exchanging gifts. agaru is used for "come inside. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. which is intransitive (has no direct object). They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. » -aru / -eru In these pairs.) Hai. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. to collect
Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou.What makes it worse is the fact that very.)
kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide
Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. So that there is no misunderstanding. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. (Please make up your mind quickly.
Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble.)
Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling.. use tetsudau.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find
Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?)
Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. not a person)
Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!)
tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own)
Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai.. when you find something that was lost. (I found a pimple. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. (Thank you.. to arrive (a package. Strangely. as if it just found itself.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!)
Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. For routine helping. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. to help
Arigatou. (Please continue looking for it. » -su / -u
. tasukaru: to be of help. etc. Also. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. like helping in the kitchen. You were really a great help. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally." it's not..
no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!)
orosu: to lower.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita.)
nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind
Zenbu tabete. (Eat all this.)
herasu: to decrease.)
Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. (Let the dog out.) Kaigi ga owattara. to place + wasureru: to forget):
Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. (Please cut down on your spending. (Be back by ten o'clock. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (The copier is broken.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own)
Shuppi o herashite kudasai. Nokosanaide kudasai. (Grandpa went outside. to force out deru: to come/go out
Inu o dashinasai. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong)
Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. to get off or get out of a vehicle
. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. to put down oriru: to go/come down.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. okay?)
kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken
Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?)
Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. Please don't leave any.
okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. like a name tag or pin
. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. etc. necktie.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. For most standard verbs. (My hat got dirty. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. a skirt.) Kemushi ga ugoita. shoes. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. socks. obi. Here they are:
• • • • • • •
kiru: to wear around one's body. kimono." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn.)
yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty
Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne.)
ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own)
Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. (The caterpillar moved. as in:
• • •
Sono megane o kaketara. etc. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. you'll probably be laughed at. (Put it down here. like a shirt.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. hameru: to wear on a finger. like a belt. dress. etc. warawareru deshou. like pants. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face.• •
Koko ni oroshite. (This cake probably won't be eaten. (If you wear those glasses. jacket.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?)
Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. (Don't move that machine. but these should give you a good start.)
Of course there are others. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. conversion can be done by:
• • •
yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru
and then conjugate accordingly.
Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai!
. and especially when talking about accessories. This completes Japanese Verbs.Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four.