Introduction Table of Contents
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Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form for Continuing Statements
. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Base 5 50. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + ita 56. Base 4 + reba 49. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + inai 55. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57.44. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66.
which can end in u. Ta Form + tokoro 78. su. Ta Form + ri 74. tsu. not u. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan.67.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. nu. Ta Form + toki 77. and irregular. or ru:
• • • • • • • • •
kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
. ichidan. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form + bakari 70. mu. iru and aru
The Plain Form
Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form + rashii 73. Ta Form + ra 72. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. gu. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. Remembering this will make further study much easier. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. desu. ku. bu. but to be more precise. Ta Form + to shitara 75. which means "to walk.
" Interestingly. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb
. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. (Grandpa will return soon.) Naomi wa terebi o miru." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Some sources call these verbs godan. Some frequently used ones are:
• • • •
taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. watch) kariru (borrow)
Watashi wa ringo o taberu. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. and also very juvenile or "familiar.)
This is very simple Japanese.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. but there is no difference. (Naomi will watch TV.)
Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. unless it was from another foreigner. (Jim will read a comic book. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Jim wa manga o yomu. (I'll eat an apple.Let's try some in sentences:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau.
) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2:
Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat)
Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu
. (Jim will read a comic book. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change:
Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri
Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu
Now we're ready to speak polite. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu.their "Base 2" form -. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.)
Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
Ichidan verbs are a snap.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. "adult" Japanese. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.
Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. the present polite ending. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. (Grandpa will return soon.before the masu ending is added.
. which is the negative form of masu. (Jerry will come out soon. Look at these yodan examples:
• • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.)
Now.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. let's try masen. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. (He won't wait.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. (Ayako watches the TV every day. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.) Jerry wa sugu demasu.
Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day
Base 2 + masen
Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.) Kare wa machimasen. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. watch) Here are some examples:
• • •
oboe kime de kari mi
oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu
Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. and should not be worried about at this stage. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. (I'll decide tomorrow.
(John didn't go to Hiroshima.)
Easy enough.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.)
The above examples are plain forms.And some ichidan:
Watashi wa ima tabemasen. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. etc. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5:
• • •
John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow
Base 2 + masen deshita
As you recall from Lesson 4. which is used to show that you want to do something:
• • • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaitai.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (I want to buy an umbrella. masen shows negative tense.)
Base 2 + tai / tai desu
Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. (I'm not going to eat now. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. (Miki wants to see that movie. (The children didn't play at the park.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. To make them polite.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (The children want to play.
. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.
As in English.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. (Let's get you some food. It simply means "let's (do something).
./I'll help you fix your bicycle.) Tabemashou.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. (I'll fix your bicycle. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). (Let's go. (Let's take a break." you would use the adjective hoshii and say.) Yasumimashou.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.)
Now let's make the next two polite:
Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. Can you still tell them apart?
Base 2 + mashou
Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o. In fact. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. but either way this one is easy to remember. (Let's eat." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa hakobimashou.)
Simple enough. and two use ichidan. For example. We'll make the first two plain:
Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. Add desu to make it polite. and is never used alone with an object.)
* In Japanese. (The children don't want to play. in this example." For example:
• • •
Ikimashou." This structure will be covered later on.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. (I'll carry this/these [for you].
Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu
These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
(Jim doesn't read comic books. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow).
.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. As in English. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella.)
It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. and should only be used in very informal settings. Depending on the situation. shinai (won't do).) Sachiko wa konai. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. (I'm not going to watch TV. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. (Sachiko won't be coming. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. and suru (do). which we already covered in Lesson 4. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai:
John wa kasa o kaimasen. konai (won't come).
Etc. For example. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer." as a matter of personal policy.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kuru suru
Base 2 kishi-
Base 1 koshi-
Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. kuru (come). like Base 2 + masen. Look at these example sentences:
• • • • •
John wa kasa o kawanai.
Actually. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here?
Base 1 + nai deshou
Here's an easy one. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. Look at these examples:
.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. hail. or that something is not likely to happen:
• • •
John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen:
• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.)
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella.what will happen if something doesn't happen. (Grandpa will probably return soon.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. (Sachiko will probably come.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It probably won't snow. snow. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.)
Base 1 + nakereba
Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. etc.
so it is omitted. Once a person's name is known. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. especially when talking to an individual.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. Additionally. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. sama. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. Generally speaking. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it).
. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. and kun. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. when speaking to that person. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance." Actually. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. chan. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. For example. as in English.• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu.)
A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. names are usually not used alone.)
About You and Name Suffixes
In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. The ones you'll hear the most are san.
unless an individual prefers chan. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. hopefully. etc. company. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. because san shows that a closer. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. though san is probably more common for females. For example." This is normal and good. names are often shortened before adding chan. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. adult male neighbor. however. more familiar (and. time passes. at any rate. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. After the sale is made. let's get back to you. chan to female students. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. and playmates. Now. you can always ask. adult female neighbor. For those older. mother. aunt. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. but would also
. of course. older brother or sister (but not younger).for a while. use san with colleague's names." but is now a "san. these are commonly used:
• • • • • • • •
otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. Family. Customarily. uncle. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. grandfather. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. And." This Japanese would be understood. kun with boys. and children add it to the words for father. where anata is used for "you. Also. grandmother. cousins. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. As a safe rule. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. real or pretended. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. but to the title of those older. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. and chan with girls. Again. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. Parents add chan to their children's names. friend's mother)
Chan is also used with the names of pets.
The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". as you'll remember from Lesson 15. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. I may as well say here that much. Yes. which is the best choice when talking to large. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. the fact is that it is very rarely used. which shows familiarity. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. the one left would be kimitachi. the nakereba means "if one does not. and narimasen means "will not become".sound very stiff. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). it's a bit of a tongue twister.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. there's no problem. (Jim has to return now. (The children must eat. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. Accordingly.)
You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here.. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. It works fine.) Looking at it literally. Anatatachi could be used. but it conveys a certain distance. and very odd. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. So.. toward the group concerned. So. because it means "must do. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. (I have to go. This can be handy when
."." Let's take iku (to go). in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. mixed groups. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. change it to Base 1 ika. even some affection. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. formal." Let's look at some more examples:
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. It's used quite a lot.
Base 1 + nakereba narimasen
This verb ending is not only a long one. however. the ending becomes nakereba naranai.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9.
Base 1 + seru / saseru
These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. like deshou from Lesson 14. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. like this:
• • •
Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru.)
As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. Accordingly. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou." can be conveyed. for the others. In Japanese. "I'll have him go to the store". and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. mastering a clean. for yodan verbs. (Grandpa lets the children play. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. seru. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. are used for all of these.)
With "suru verbs. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. "I'll let him go to the store". however.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened":
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru." suru is simply replaced with saseru :
. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. (The children probably need to eat. (I'll have him come tomorrow. More than memorizing its meaning. Good luck with nakereba narimasen.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. (Jim probably has to return now. and saseru.)
And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru :
• • •
Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. (I'll have John decide by next week.adding other endings. or feelings. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. as in "let him" or "make him.
like miseru. (I want to have Kenji study English.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen.)
So. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning.) Kanojo ni saseru. which means "to show" or "to let see. (Dad will make Bob study. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. (He lets them watch TV every day.)
As you can see.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu.• •
Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. although miru is an ichidan verb. by tomorrow. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. etc. kimeru: to decide kare: he. (I'll have her do it. and etc:
• • • • •
Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come
. past tense. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. polite. (Let's have John go to the store." as in:
Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. you won't hear or see "misaseru.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?)
Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy.
please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru).)
Base 3 + deshou
Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. Naomi wa terebi o miru. As in English. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. so it is often omitted. her karera: they. (It will probably rain tomorrow.)
The verb furu. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. making the verb unnecessary. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. But before we begin. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. means "to fall. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1.) Remember these examples?
• • • • •
Jim wa manga o yomu. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. shown in the last example above. Let's do a few more:
• • •
Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou.the plain. a shop iku: to go
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
. Let's get back to deshou. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. Mama wa mise de banana o kau." For example. Watashi wa ringo o taberu.
Not only should you be able to translate these. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. as explained in Lesson 1.
Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms:
Bob mo ikitai hazu. (John should be coming soon. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. etc.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something." etc. right?)
Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. snow..) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on:
• • •
(Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. a rising intonation is used instead:
• • •
Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?)
While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. (Bob will probably also want to go. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. Please note that ka is not added at the end. like
.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. (You ought to study English more.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework
Base 3 + hazu desu
When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. as we would use tag questions in English.
" so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ".should be. but.. When you hear it. As usual. should happen. I hope to cover them in more detail later on.. "had better do".) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii.)
Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method:
• • •
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (I'd rather get a dog.
Base 3 + hou ga ii
This one is used for "should do". practice makes perfect.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.)
As with most verb endings. prefer -." Examples:
• • •
(Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. and according to the grammar books. "would rather do.way is good/better. (You should study Japanese more.while hazu is more passive -. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.)
When showing personal preference." Actually." and ii means "good" or "better.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them.should do. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no:
• • •
Yakiniku no hou ga ii.ni natte iru or beki. (It would be better to go by train today. which was covered in Lesson 20.) Inu no hou ga ii. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. the hou means "way" or "method. (We had better rest a little.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. Word Check
.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. (It would be better to eat later. (I should call her. frankly. (It would be better to do it next week.
ka dou ka does not end a sentence. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know." It's straightforward enough and easy to use:
• • •
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. to understand inu: dog ima: now
. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.kanojo: she. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. It's like using "whether or not" in English. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now.)
As can be seen in the examples above. him dekiru: can.)
Base 3 + ka dou ka
Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. (I don't know yet if we are going. Word Check kare: he.
perhaps. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. Therefore.)
." Since this verb ending is rather long.taberu: to eat miru: to see. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite:
Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things).)
Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). (We may eat out tonight. yes. as in:
Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. watch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. meaning that. (It might rain tomorrow.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen." These are incorrect. and is conjugated accordingly.)
Base 3 + kamo shiremasen
Though a bit of a tongue twister. where it is converted to shireru (can know). so please be careful when pronouncing. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. this one is used frequently. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. look. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. so you'll want to master it right away.)
As you sharp ones have noticed." Let's look at a few examples:
• • •
Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. As such. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). Simply put.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. (Jack may also come. (It might snow tomorrow. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow.
denwa shimasu.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. with its reason. Terebi o mitakunai kara. eigo ga jouzu desu. honya ni ikimasu.I suggest. (Beth is always late. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate.
Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. signified by kara at the end. they each become separate sentences. let's take umbrellas. given after. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain.) Jisho o kaitai kara.) Ongaku o kikimasu. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. Tabun ame ga furu kara. however. mise ni ikimasu. Itsumo okureru kara. (Since it will probably rain. Let's do this to the above examples:
Kasa o motte ikimashou.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. (I don't want to go to Mr. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. so I'm going to the store. tonight soto: outside kara: from
Base 3 + kara
Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. In this case. (Kenji went to a Canadian school.)
. Let's look at a few examples:
• • • • •
Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. so his English is good." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies.)
In spoken Japanese. kasa o motte ikimashou. Word Check komban: this evening.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. you'll often hear the action stated first. (We don't have any milk. grammatically speaking. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. the reason or cause of the action:
Tabun ame ga furu kara. so I'll call her. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary.
Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. jouzu ni narimasen.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. as well as its shorter forms. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. etc.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. (Although Jack is careful about his health. he gets sick a lot.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. just like English. yoku byouki shimasu.)
Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. Again. skilled
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. snow. as you can imagine. (He speaks Japanese. it comes between the contrasting phrases.)
Base 3 + keredomo
This one is used for "although" or "but. but she doesn't get any better. Let's try some examples:
• • •
Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo." so. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. Like "but" in English.
. home iya na: bad. heta desu." Just like English. nasty. disgusting mono: thing. keredo and kedo.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. but he's not good at it. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. which means "from. it's used a lot. no problem. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But.
(I like reading. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. not good at something. it really doesn't change the verb. let's look at each part. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. reading as a noun [gerund])
Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. Like our ing. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible." Does this help? If not. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. Here are some examples:
.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. a lot. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase.)
The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. But first. I like reading as a thing to do. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. No. Let's move on. no problem. Next. Well. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. It'll come.)
Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu
Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. Better than all this talk would be an example.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite.. In English. be sick
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. koto has no practical use by itself. If you have to have a translation.. First is koto. like reading in the sentence I like reading. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form.) Finally. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun.
actually for review -. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. it's a long ending for just "can. With "suru verbs." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita.)
Either way. in that case the suru is omitted. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. Kinou. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. long or short." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. they're both used. expressions. meanings. actions. and see what happens:
• • •
Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. There is a short alternative for other verbs. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings.)
Now.let's try some other endings on dekiru. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.)
And let's throw in one with a plain ending:
(one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!)
Yes. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. and adding the suru makes it a verb.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. Again." Denwa is a noun.• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). Here are a couple more:
Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. (I can translate French into Japanese. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. (Keiko can play the piano. For example. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. (Bob was able to call Junko." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. It does not
.no. (I can't read French. you can just omit suru. for kicks -. etc. (I can read Japanese. essences.
As I'm sure you know by now. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. and it shows that the decision was yours. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. koto ni suru is the plain. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. It shows that you have made a decision. Here are some polite present and past tense examples:
Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu.)
Base 3 + koto ni shimasu
The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can.)
(It'll probably be best to wait until spring. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes.)
Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. (Mr. (I've decided to study Japanese every day.)
Base 3 + made
This one is very easy.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (Wait until dinner.• •
Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (We have to wait until Bob calls. to let (someone) see.)
Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.)
As in English.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. or seasons:
• • •
Yuushoku made machinasai.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. etc. watch (something)
. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. Made means "until." and is added after the plain form of a verb:
• • •
Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. periods.
It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. you could say.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. let's make the above examples negative:
• • •
Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. like:
• • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. Stay away from here!.
. as with English."don't do's" -. but if you do. a week-long period haru: spring
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. be careful how. This is one that will probably not be used very often.)
Base 3 + na
This.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. and to whom.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. First. you use it. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. Stay away from me!)
Now let's add a few more:
• • •
Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!)
And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan:
Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!)
This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. However.
Base 3 + nara
This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train
. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones:
• • • • •
Isogu nara.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. which is just a slight variation. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. kuru deshou. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If you call John he'll probably come.sentences with "if." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15.) John ni denwa suru nara. He thought he said. he'll let me know. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. (If the kids eat a snack now.) Ame ga furu nara.)
Sooner or later you will run into naraba.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. watashi ni shirasemasu. (If he sees Yuko. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. they probably won't eat dinner. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. but nara is more common.
but hopefully sufficient for the present. Japanese English. I can see several things which need to be explained. as I sit here and look at these four phrases." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. which are examples involving a thing. a time. words that connect a noun to an action.)
Base 3 + (any noun)
In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. a place. like in the first example above. that's another story.) yuushoku: dinner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to make matters worse. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. In Japanese.. page. respectively. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. But. explanations. to offer very general. and a person. Let's look at these simple phrases:
• • • •
watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet)
Now. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo."
Of course. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here:
. And.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. there are no "relative pronouns." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. things I'd like to explain. they are like:
• • •
which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present.. and lengthy. As a quick review. For example. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above.
Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page:
Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. No is often used in place of ga. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. Kobe is a place. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. and therefore omitted. and is handled by the final verb. a substitute noun must be used. automatically designates a place. back to the lesson: First. As you may have noticed.)
Since this is natural Japanese. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. the English "where.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. Continuing with the above example. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. ga tells us who will take the train. a "sub-subject. As you can see." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase." you might say. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. and so it would most likely be omitted.)
In this one.) Now. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. so tokoro is used after the verb. The problem is that the rules are
. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted." as a relative pronoun. or a noun which needs emphasis. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. let's translate the first example at the top of the page:
Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. especially in informal spoken Japanese." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. densha (train) is the main subject. like our 's. they do not mean the same thing. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. but since Japanese has no equivalent. a truer English translation would be. Ga or no could be used here.) In this sentence. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. since he or she will surely be hearing both. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. For example.
to high-intermediate Japanese. the last example from the top:
Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. to cause to happen kisetsu: season
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. and vice versa. (Spring is the season that brings new life. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about.
. As a general. and when trying to make sense of one. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. you must forget all the rules of the other. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other.)
This one is pretty straightforward. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". I hope this lesson was clear enough.)
Base 3 + no desu
There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult.totally different in each language. semi-accurate rule. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. and shouldn't be too difficult. and are in the realm of mid. Finally. produce. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer.
Japanese English. it IS going to rain tomorrow. If not. (She IS coming. need.)
The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. fist pounding.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.)
As in any other language. unexcited intonation. you put stress on the verb before no desu:
• • •
Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!)
A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. writhing. stomping around. (Grandpa will return soon. (Jim will read a comic book. if you want to emphasize something. like this:
• • •
Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu.) katsu: to win
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. (Grandpa will return soon.)
Remember these? I hope so.)
. etc. (I tell you. (Jim will read a comic book. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. or habits of the speaker. However. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. you need to review.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.
where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary.)
. Please consult a dictionary for more. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence.) densha: train noru: to ride. etc. Takamatsu-yuki. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. There's nothing really tricky about it.Base 3 + no ni
No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). remember daibun (or daibu): quite.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). it's usually found somewhere near the middle. meaning "in spite of. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works:
• • •
Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen.)
Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. essential kanji: Chinese characters. rather. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses." which we will cover later on. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. specifically. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. (Jim's dictionary is blue.
and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). still not fukanou: not possible. as in:
Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita.). mainly the one used for possessives. boku no wa aka desu. like our 's. impossible saikou: great. (Reading is enjoyable.Base 3 + no wa
Do you remember koto.)
Word Check tanoshii: fun.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. (Speaking Japanese is easy.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. Wa is the subject indicator. the greatest. mine is red. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. as in:
Jim no jisho wa ao de. (It really was a problem-free trip. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!)
Please remember that there are other no's. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. to not exist tabi: trip
. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult.
) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. use node. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way:
• • •
O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey.)
But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. In other words. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. she'll probably find a good job. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job
So. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. the o. as in:
Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. (Since Eiko can speak English. For example.)
Base 3 + node
Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. which is used to show reasons or causes. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.prefix makes it "honorific. If kara was used instead. In this lesson we will take a look at node.
which is used for plain past structures. rumors.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. understand to be. Word Check yameru: to stop something.) kiku: to listen.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. over there (usually emphasizes distance)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to follow rules or orders.)
Base 3 + sou desu
Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. (I was late even though I got up early. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. she won't listen.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. for the plain past.) annani: that much. kanojo wa kikimasen. etc. which is used to mean "in spite of":
"Yamenasai" to iu noni.) asoko: there.)
Base 3 + noni
As promised in Lesson 33. For example:
. (Despite my telling her to stop. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. this short lesson is about noni.)
Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome:
Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!)
Noni is used a lot.
It means "that's right" and often follows hai. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife.• • •
Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns." and is often followed by the optional ni. but is more often than not shortened to baito." hajimeru: to begin
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. in order to. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time).)
Base 3 + tame ni
When you see tame.)
Tame is a very handy word. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. Take a look at these:
• • •
Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. Japanese English. sou desu. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita." (Yes. as in "Hai. a student will say baito. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee".)
Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. Takada's quitting.) As you have probably guessed. that's right. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. Word Check hiru kara: from noon.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. (I heard that Mr. Japanese German. The actual word is arubaito. Here are some popular ones:
. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. A full-time employee will use shigoto. They use a noun geared to their type of job. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. it usually means "for the purpose of.
receive. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. or even both:
• • •
Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.)
For the curious. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.)
Base 3 + to
There are four basic uses for to.)
. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. (Kimiko came with Bob. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. when. [plain. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. have (an interview).]) Hai.") It can mean and. In this case. (Okay. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. Mom. with. that's pronounced "toh. here are sample sentences with to as and and with:
Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. (This is for you. or if.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.• • • •
Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. (This is for you.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain])
Tame is used a lot. here are your air tickets to Hawaii.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. (Remember.
to become to want to go -. but it is not generally used." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. takunaru puts tai and naru together.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. (I think Koji will be late.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable.)
Base 3 + to omoimasu
For better or worse. use umi. Sasaki will call us soon." Iki (Base 2 of iku. When referring to the beach in Japanese. (I think Ms.)
. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. (I think it'll rain tomorrow.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. begin to want. I think it can be applied very easily:
• • • • •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. and expected. While not specifically covered. Now that it's been explained. It's okay to have an opinion. (I think Eiko can speak English. meaning "come to want. Japanese English. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. of "party. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). to go) + taku (tai. It means simply "I think.")
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. especially in the workplace. things you can do. to want to do.
goes back. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. care. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. Accordingly. don't really care. or don't really have any control over something. which was covered in Lesson 19. like:
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations.As you can see from the last examples. us
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I thought it would rain today [. the other Base 2 endings also apply:
• • • •
Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic.)
Again.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). this ending is a lot like deshou.])
In a way. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. (I think it would be better to go by train today.)
Base 3 + tsumori desu
. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. towards me. but it didn't. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. and it did. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. or have some control. omou can be used for plain speech. (I don't think Eiko can speak English.
(I think Steve plans to go to Canada. their meanings are completely different." used a lot.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention:
• • • •
Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. You will. While sounding alike. In case you're wondering. however. build up. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. Deshita. that was a short one. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. to enter/enroll in (a school). as you should know by now. yes. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru.)
Base 3 + you desu
You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English:
Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. Always use daigaku for university. Well. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.)
. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!)
As usual. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. day. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. add desu to make it polite. so please be careful not to confuse them. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. hear the other verb tsumoru. is for past tense. technically speaking. etc. which means "to accumulate. hairu: to go inside (a room). in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. S. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. to join (a club)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
and show what Base 4 looks like. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.) Ame ga furu you desu. directly or indirectly. AH. a as in father EE..) mitai: it looks like. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. "you look like an idiot. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be:
Ame ga furu sou desu.•
Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. 5.)
Base 4 + ba
After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms.)
You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. e as in red OH. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. e as in see OO. o as in mode
. said so]. baka: idiot." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. 2. 4.. that something is or will be. Simply put.)
To be honest. 3. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. u as in mule EH. etc. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. First. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). sou desu means you heard." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. fool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
" or "dictionary form. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. it's where you start. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs:
Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi-
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru
Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire-
Base 3 (plain form)
. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. Now.
yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. converted to Base 4 + ba:
• • • • •
Isogeba. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. (I want to call Grandma. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. watashi ni shirasemasu. (If you call John he'll probably come.koshi-
Now that we know how to make Base 4. Ii is Japanese for "good. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) Ame ga fureba. covered in Lesson 30? Well.. As we learned in the last lesson. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.?":
• • •
Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.])
This form of suggestion does not include the speaker.) John ni denwa sureba." as shown in these examples:
... (If he sees Yuko.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. kuru deshou. he'll let me know. Here. however. they probably won't eat dinner. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. (If the kids eat a snack now. o'clock] + han [half])
Base 4 + ba ii
In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you.)
Handy.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba.
) Ima benkyou sureba ii.)
For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. soto de asobeba ii. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. no. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. (It would be good if you played outside. yes.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.) Mom. By this stage of Japanese study. quirky ii does not. (We want to watch TV. In those situations different constructions would be used. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. as in these example conversations:
Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (Now would be a good time to study. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. (We should have come at 8:00.)
As you can see. [I still wish you would play outside. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. is used after ba -.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. (I wish we had gone to the park. (I wish I had ordered the steak.) Naoko. (Around five. yokatta.• • •
Soto de asobeba ii. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made:
• • •
Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. they are not completely interchangeable. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.there is no such Japanese as ikatta.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied
. (The weather's nice.)
Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.) Kids: Terebi mitai. so it would be good to play outside.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. However. yoi is not used with noni. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. they both mean "good".
you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. Or.very handy when you get used to it. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. It's simple: no subject or object needed. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out:
• • •
Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!)
One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event."
.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs.) light shokuji: food. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. just use Base 4. you will definitely become unpopular quickly.)
Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative
If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. this is a form you really don't want to use. Actually. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. and maybe even get into a fight.and known to all concerned. If you do.
Simply put. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. Take a good look. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. For example. too. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. As such. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. Now. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru:
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. It's very.it was like opening a new door. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. (Keiko can play the piano. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka.)
Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. very useful. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned:
• • • • •
Keiko wa piano o hikemasu.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. to not give up
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima.
. they can be treated like plain ichidans. (I can read Japanese. just like most ichidans. Here we realize an important point -. No problem. (Keiko can play the piano.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.)
Now. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. (Keiko can't play the violin. I remember when I first learned this one -. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. It shows ability to do something.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs.)
Base 4 + ru
You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. which was covered back in Lesson 26. (He might be able to go next month.
) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou.) raigetsu: next month
Base 4 + nai
In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. (As you remember.)
Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. this is wasei eigo. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.)
. this form is only meant for yodans. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. (Jack probably won't be able to come.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. which was covered in Lesson 13. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative:
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. For example. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending.)
See how that works? As mentioned last time." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. and I hope it will make sense to you.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. Here are two we've already covered:
Jack wa korenai deshou.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. (Keiko can't play the piano. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. (I can't read Japanese.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. If it helps. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. It made sense to me. there are many exceptions among the ichidans.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. As you may have guessed. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). the "cannot do" plain form. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways.
(If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.noru: to ride aruku: to walk
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Again.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. so I do too. you may wonder. but there are exceptions like the last example above. this form is mainly for yodans.)
Base 4 + reba
To be frank. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. but who cares? Everyone uses it. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). energetic. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. an example of which was included in the last lesson. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. So. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can":
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't).)
. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this.
I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.Base 5
I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.tabe. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.kime. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs:
Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure. If you don't mind. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.oboeru oboerekime.koyou
.oboe.taberu tabereoboe.kari. First.
arukou ka na. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite:
• • •
Ikou. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. I just made that up. oh. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure:
• • • • •
Kaimono ni ikou ka na.) Base 5 + ka
Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions:
• • •
Ikou ka.) Terebi o miyou ka na. (Let's take a break. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something).. ee. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. (Let's eat.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound.) Tabeyou." Suru is shown plain. (I think I'll go shopping... in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa
This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. oo." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.) Base 5 + to suru
This one is to express "try to do (something)." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. Also. (Let's go. eh. (Maybe I'll watch TV. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice.) Yasumou. but is converted as necessary:
.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. (I wonder if I should call Bob. (I wonder if I should go shopping.shi-
As you can see..) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.
Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu
Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde
. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly.• •
John wa koyou to suru to omou.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. miemasen deshita.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. (I think John will try to come. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. but he couldn't. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.)
Te Form + kudasai
Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings.)
These are the more useful Base 5 forms. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. As you have most likely guessed.
. kau (to buy). tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. kiite. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte.kashite. like aruku (to walk). Let's take a closer look:
• • •
Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. nutte. katte. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. It's important because it's used a lot. like au (to meet). Yodan verbs that end in bu.atte. Yodan verbs that end in gu.. tonde. keshite. hataraite. kiku (to listen. Yodan verbs that end in ku. kesu (to turn off. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. motte. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. nuide.aruite. not tsu). to put out [a fire]).matte. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. tsunagu (to connect).yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite
Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
Te Form kite shite
Those yodans look pretty scary.e. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. tsunaide. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. motsu (to hold). like kasu (to lend). yobu (to call out). nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. yonde. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. like asobu (to play). like isogu (to hurry). tashite. katte. to ask).asonde.isoide. Please note this one important exception: iku. not iite. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. like matsu (to wait).
(Please wait a bit. tsutsunde. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. (Go ahead and eat." There are several handy variations of kudasai.
As you can see. When you start learning kanji. hairu (to enter). toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. (Go ahead. totte. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities:
• • • •
Rokuji ni kite kudasai. Yodan verbs that end in ru. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request:
• • •
Douzo. humble me. like kaeru (to return). For practice let's use kuru (to come). So when you say chotto matte kudasai. haitte. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. tabete kudasai. (Please come at six o'clock. mild commands in familiar settings:
• • •
Rokuji ni kite.• •
Yodan verbs that end in mu. (Listen to this.yonde. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time.) Douzo.)
.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. tabete. and kitte:
Koko ni kite.)
Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. depending on the tone of voice used. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. (Come at six o'clock. (Please come at six o'clock." etc. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. like yomu (to read).)
In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. but in Japanese we do. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. (Come here. and kiru (to cut).kaette. It means "under. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. kiite. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself.) Kore o kiite." "to go down. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. kiku (to listen).) Matte.) Chotto matte kudasai. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?)
I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. (Wait.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. momu (to massage). please eat. monde." "to lower (something).
(I'll give you this pen. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. (I'll call you later. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. (Cut this.)
As you can see. just like counting 1-2-3.).)
.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. you use the Te Form + ageru:
• • •
Matte ageru. (I'll wait for you." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down." but it means "to raise.)
The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour])
Te Form + ageru
In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me).) Tabetakunakereba. to show respect. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. Now. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. showing a "humbler" position. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else." Ageru also means "to give. kiite: KEE-EETEH. tabete ageru. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often.•
Kore o kitte. I'll eat it for you. (If you don't want to eat it. as covered in the last lesson. and kitte: KEET-TEH. (Please give me that pen." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. If you ask someone to do something for you. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. you use the Te Form + kudasai. giving each equal time while making them short. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples:
Sono pen o kudasai.) Kono pen o agemasu. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. to give (up to someone).
the position of the giver or receiver. to connect
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Finally. and. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else:
Bob ni pen o kashite agete." It is disrespectful at best. (Lend Bob your pen. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope.In Japanese.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. in cases where there's a third person. as these examples show.)
Notes 1. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. Don't use it.)
There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese.
. It's for "talking down" to. as a general rule. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. it's a great convenience besides. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. laces musubu: to tie. which are chosen depending on the situation. string. However. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. and will work nicely in most cases. and showing contempt for others.
(It says he's 38. You never use it on yourself.) Mite goran. (There is salt on the shelf.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. Go and see for yourself. Read it for yourself.)
That's how we use goran nasai." You use it to ask someone to try something. which is used to prove a point.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. Itte goran nasai. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. mild command-like sentences. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are):
• • • • • • •
Bob ni kiite goran. pretty
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Yonde goran nasai.) Tabete goran. (Try calling Sanae. See for yourself.Te Form + goran nasai
Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. (Take a look. Mite goran nasai. usually in short. (Ask Bob and see what he says.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. (Taste it and see if you like it.)
Te Form + iru
Because of this. as in the fourth example above.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]).A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. For example. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. (He's not studying French.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). it works like English. in a way. in English we would normally ask a person. when they really should use sunde iru.])
It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. "I'm knowing [it]. (She is eating sushi. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. (Bill is studying Japanese. (I am here.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. (We live in Takamatsu. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. we say "I know. (I am walking.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru.) Watashi wa aruite iru. and masen deshita. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. masen.) Kinou nete imashita. to exist. (I'm reading the newspaper. and not shiru. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. Look at these examples:
• • • • • • •
Watashi wa koko ni iru. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. Especially important are masu. we can get away with using just "live" in English.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. [We are living in Takamatsu. (Shizuko is eating. (Yesterday I slept all day. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite
. Let's review these through some Te Form examples:
• • • •
Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu.")." So. (They are reading a magazine.)
These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. As you already know. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. mashita." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. (I didn't watch TV today. [I wasn't watching TV today. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day.
"to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. like "kid" in English. to do (something) ko: kid. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. (I was watching TV. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together.imashita ka. For example. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English:
Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. it is even written this way -. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. imouto: little (younger) sister
.with the i in iru omitted -. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. "woman-child" / "man-child"). but. Finally. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. child Note: Strangely. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. In fact.)
I know you're wondering." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. there is no single. so I'll tell you: "to play.
(Bill isn't studying Japanese. Please look at the following examples.) Benkyou shite inakereba. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. which were covered in the Base 1 endings:
Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.Note: In Japanese.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. (The kids probably aren't studying. (Sam's not here. otouto for younger brother. and imouto for younger sister. ane for older sister.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (We don't live in Okayama." As such.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. and adding ra makes it conditional. what are they doing?)
Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.)
Te Form + inai
As mentioned in the last lesson. nani o shite iru deshou ka. which makes them present or past progressive. there are many that can.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. (If they're not studying. (They aren't reading a magazine. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. First let's do some plain negative examples. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. present and past. to exist. infinitive and progressive:
. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.)
Remember to use masen for polite speech:
• • •
Sam wa koko ni imasen. (Sam's not here.)
We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. (We don't live in Okayama. (They aren't reading a magazine. which are based on those used in the last lesson:
• • • • •
Sam wa koko ni inai.
(I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. (I wasn't eating then. It's for asking questions. However. Dekita. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. and goes especially well with plain ones. (I didn't eat an apple. (I didn't eat an apple.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa mada tabete inai. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. "we could" could be "he could.• • • • • • • •
Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. since it is not only a Te Form ending. (I haven't eaten yet. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. (I wasn't eating then. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. to be able). but also a much-
. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. To make the meaning perfectly clear. which appears in the last example.)
Te Form + ita
Since ita is the Ta Form of iru.)
Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). (I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. vague and troublesome at others." depending on the actual situation. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?)
The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. The last two above are good examples of this. which can be convenient at times. In either. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.
Just for the fun of it. Soshite terebi o mite ita. Put simply. ita is the plain past form of iru. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. [Really? I washed my car. Soshite terebi miteta.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. upgrade ita to imashita.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -.)
There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. this would be two males speaking. (Really? I washed my car. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. [I went shopping. As I'm sure you know by now.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita.used element of conversational Japanese. (They were reading a magazine. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation.are going to speak so grammatically correct. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi.]) Yes. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. in settings where polite speech is called for. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really
. I include the usual English translation. (John was watching TV.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. but no real friends or family members -. (I went shopping. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. Also. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. In fact.) That's real Japanese. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form:
• • •
John wa terebi o mite ita. (I was doing shopping. (Really? I was washing my car. (Bill was studying.
The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. Because itadaku is a very polite word. as covered in Lesson 50. however. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation:
• • •
Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. (Would you please come at two o'clock?)
And here are a few more variations that are often used:
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Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. Here are some examples. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point.)
As in English. It can.
. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. (Would you please call Mr. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings.)
Te Form + itadaku / morau
Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. meaning something like "I humbly partake.kuruma: car arau: to wash
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Oboete imasen ka. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver.
" With itadakimasu. Morau is okay when referring to other things. but not quite as polite -. use morau instead of itadaku. As usual. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. morau is not impolite. With kudasai. I'll get Grandpa to go. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. even when the giver is not present. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. Ken ni itte moratte. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal.)
This is the same family. adding a masu ending makes it polite. Get Ken to go. Also." When there's no need to be very polite.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. it's just plain.)
This is a family situation. (Ken's not here now.as itadakimasu. Traditionally. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. morau works best when talking about a third party. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. but since we can't do that now.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable.not as "respectful" -. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. (I'm doing homework now. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. (I'm doing homework now.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. this would be the best way to go. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. itadakimasu is always used with food. However. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. No particular reservations are needed here. and it can be at times. Make no mistake. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this.)
. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go.
(Yes. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. Murai go.)
Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. customers. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. (I had Ms. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms)
Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. etc. clients. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. Just like anywhere else. but she already has one and doesn't want another. tell shorui: forms.)
Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. company.)
This is at the office. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita.) Itadakimashita. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka.prefix is used with strangers. and these two are being courteous. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. documents. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. (I'll give you a pen. office.Itadakimasu is always used with food.) oshieru: to teach. (I got one [already]. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. (Sure. moraimashita. (May I please have your name?) Hai. I got one. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. each home. They probably don't see each other every day.
(Let's go see a movie after work..senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. Simple and useful.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.. You can't use it directly after nouns." as in:
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Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. (After I eat I'm going shopping.)
.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. Word Check kaeru: to return.)
Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). you just make them the subject/object with ga. which means "to finish":
Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. such as those two common ones work and school. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. such as summer to mean "after summer. (John's coming over after he does his homework. to come home owaru: to end.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.)
Te Form + kara
This one's a snap." There are other ways to do that. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).. then add the Te Form of owaru. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something).
this is the "command" form of kureru. It's good for family members and close friends. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. ogotte kureru no?. In fact. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about.)
I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used.) Matte kure. repeated request. Again. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. Some people add the question-forming no on the end.)
Use plain negative nai for an urgent. which literally means "Oh. especially one that's already been turned down:
Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. (Won't you please come with us?)
(Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru.) And finally. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences:
Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?)
You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. For example. and it would be offensive in some cases. (Please wait. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation.Te Form + kureru
In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. Kureru is used in generally the same way. the "kure command":
Kite kure. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others:
Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. you might say Ah. (Please come here. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can
. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no.
while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. (Because of that. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. depending on intonation. the literal equivalent of "I'm going.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. assumptions. etc." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as
. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. I think that the number of PC users will increase. you'll see what I mean. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. (I have been studying German history. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. dreams.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita." Usually upgraded with masu. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. expresses future plans. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together.) Sono tame. with matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.sound nicer than with kure." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement." (If you say just ikimasu. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one:
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Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita.)
Te Form + kuru / iku
As you already know. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place.)
As can be seen.
Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. combined with naru: to become. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). to examine. but when uncertain.): cheap. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are:
Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku.) Accordingly. (I ate before coming over. inexpensive.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. asobi ni kite kudasai.. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. but should be easily understood.) Shirabete kuru." See Lesson 40.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita.. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming.) shiraberu: to check (something). (I came to borrow a textbook. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. There are several "set combinations" where it is used.) Douzo. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. or cuisine. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. (I'll go check it [then come back]. We'll finish up with a few examples of these:
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Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou."going away and not coming back. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook
. (Let's go eat Chinese food. (Please come over [sometime].
go ahead asobu: to play.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. to entertain oneself. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion:
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Kono kanji o yonde miru. (Let's give this new PC a try." which makes this one easy to remember." but technically it's not one of those either. but don't take it literally. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. Well.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form."
. Either way. but he wasn't in. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars... you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form..) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. In Japanese grammar. (I'll try to read these kanji. Or. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. it acts like a "quasi adjective. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it." You may hear it often. miru means "to see.kariru: to borrow douzo: please.)
Simple enough. and adding miru. For example. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. (I tried calling him. rusu deshita. but it's not. (I'll try to talk to John. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. with its own set phrases." meaning that we'll give something a try.)
Te Form + miru
As you know. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it.
It's an adjective which means "good. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner. (You can use my PC.)
... We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). As I've probably mentioned before.. however. you can watch TV. as with all adjectives. you can use my dictionary.?). (Yeah.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English." etc.. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation:
Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo." Accordingly. Yes.)
Te Form + mo ii
This one is used to ask or give permission. As with most Japanese. you can also get away with omitting particles." "it's okay if (someone does something).. terebi mite ii.) Hai." "fine. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. in familiar situations as in the last example above. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. that is the way it works grammatically. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite." "okay. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. (You may go home early today. (Sure.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?)
There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you.). like the object indicator o. There's usually something else added on. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. so you should be a little familiar with it. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou.)
You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas:
Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. positive response... In the workplace." etc. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. as in:
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Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo.. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
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Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
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Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
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Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
If you break a bone in Japanese.)
Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka
These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?":
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Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone.) Actually. You can omit the desu ka for plain." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. (Well. but not ikaga ka. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. if you're going to use it in this way. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. You can say dou ka. do not add the plain.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go
. Instead. polite. If you do. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. question-forming no -. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. You can't just say "I broke my arm. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. but usually alone. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. familiar talk. (What do you think about buying a new TV?)
These are. of course. you can say it. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return.these don't use it. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However.
plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. everyday setting. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten:
Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. etc. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!)
Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. to make it even more colorful. etc. akan (Osaka). like ikan (Takamatsu). used in a normal. "You mustn't do that!".. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. and you're bound to hear either of these. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take
. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). When placed after the Te Form with wa. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. In fact.. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises:
• • •
Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. iken (Okayama).)
Te Form + wa ikemasen
Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. So.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!)
Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. (You can't take pictures. Also. "Naughty!". "Thou shalt not.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. especially ikenai. (Don't be late.
ate breakfast. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue:
Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. and left home at eight. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room.) Also. (I've got to call Shizu. heya o katazukete. and I'm going shopping. the kanji used for each meaning are different.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. to take a picture with a camera.)
As you can see. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. hachiji ni ie o demashita. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. (I got up at seven o'clock. choushoku o tabete.)
Te Form for Continuing Statements
Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. because tooru is a totally different vowel. First. then go shopping.)
. some simple ones. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. fed him. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. heya o katazukete moratte.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. to take (steal) something from someone.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. like "take a bath. However. which is easy to do. Let's combine three actions into one statement:
Shizu ni denwa shite. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. esa o ataete. meaning "to pass (by/over something)." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). straighten up the room.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. and [then] made my dinner.
You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. a house deru: to leave. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English.)
Ta Form: The Plain Past
We finally arrive at the Ta Form. and simple. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta
. just start a new sentence. Just for a quick check. When you're not sure. past. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. whose major purpose is to make things plain. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to straighten up.
(My goldfish died. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. Let's do some real basic.) Ginkou itta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. and only omit them when everyone else does.
. In the long run. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. (I ate lunch. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out:
• • • • • • •
Shita. There are cases where particles would never be cut. Also. (I went to the bank. (I read a book. (I watched TV. (I did it.)
Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. there are limits. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. even by the fastest-talking Japanese.) Kami kitta.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
shinda asonda yonda kaetta
Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita
Ta Form kita shita
As with the Te Form. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense.) Terebi mita.) Boku no kingyo shinda. (I got a haircut. Once again.) Hon yonda.) Ohiru tabeta.
hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. anywhere. literally "hairbug. hon becomes the subject.) Boku ga katta PC wa.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. (The cake Joy made was delicious. roku nen mae ni katta." Very handy. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy." If we switch these around to yonda hon.) Shinda kingyo wa. I had someone cut my hair. Ke alone is hair — any hair. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. right? Let's do some more:
• • • • •
Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no." it is used for "I got a haircut.)
As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier." There are a few of these. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. use kami. juu hachi man en deshita. (The things Bob studied were very helpful." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. beforehand. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. For example." and is less formal than chuushoku. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. kiru: to cut. even on a caterpillar.)
which will serve as a nice review. use desu to make it polite. these two share many add-ons and endings. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary.)
Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3
Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. Again. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. For a more detailed review. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. (He was supposed to come at six. the rest really isn't too difficult. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form.)
» hazu desu (Lesson 20):
Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. (He's supposed to come at six. Since we have already covered these. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. Instead. And. please click the lesson links. Carefully note the similarities and differences. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. » deshou (Lesson 19):
Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. as in the last example above.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary.)
Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. because deshita is the past form of desu. Due to this. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. One past tense element is enough. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. (If necessary.
. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. Base 3 is used for the plain future.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. not deshita. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. root form of Japanese verbs. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto.
» kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23):
» noni (Lesson 36):
Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru.)
» kara (Lesson 24):
Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.. sensei ga okoru.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21):
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. Takada quit.) Beth wa okureta kara. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. (I should have taken the train today. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if.)
Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (I heard that Mr. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. (It would be better to go by train today. For expressing regret. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. (It would be better to go by train today. Takada's quitting. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40):
. (Even though I got up early.) Kinou no ban.. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. I'm late every day. I was late. (Even though I get up early." Please don't make this mistake.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.)
» sou desu (Lesson 37):
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22):
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (I heard that Mr.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. sensei ga okotta. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.
(It looks like it's going to rain. (I just ate.) John wa deta bakari. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. not with people or objects.) Ame ga futta mitai. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii.• •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. mai is used with units of time. snow.)
Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. etc. (Mom just got back. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day].) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. like something memorized from a grammar book.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. now that I think of it.) Sono kasa o katta bakari." put bakari after a verb in its ta form:
• • • • •
Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.)
Ta Form + bakari
To express "(did something) just now. In other words. (I just cleaned this room.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
. (I just bought that umbrella.)
In fact. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.)
» mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42):
Ame ga furu mitai. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. (It looks like it rained. (John just left.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward.) yameru: to quit a job.
though.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. I'd like to try it.." usually as a complaint. This is used after the Te Form. (Yes. you'll find them very useful.. Nikai ikimashita.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. First. I haven't. you use the verb iku (to go)
.." in Japanese. Once you get these sorted and memorized. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. I've been twice.)
As you can see. (No.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. to go/come back deru: to leave.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. tabeta koto ga nai. arimasu. I have.. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. (All that kid does is play computer games. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. (Yes. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. (All you ever do is eat. like this:
• • •
Tabete bakari. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to do (familiar. Tabete mitai kedo.)
Ta Form + koto ga aru
To talk about things you or others have experienced.
. kare wa kuru deshou. The second is that in using this form.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. I haven't read it yet. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.)
." Finally. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. (No. not yet. let's review Base 3 + nara:
• • •
Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai." which. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. As in B's reply above. you don't use this form. (If you call John he'll probably come. kare wa kuru deshou. mada yonde inai.. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals.) John ni denwa suru nara.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru." but "I went twice. See Lessons 7 and 60.)
Ta Form + ra
Simply said.) John ni denwa sureba. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been.)
Next. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. [No. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba:
Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. (If you call John he'll probably come. (If the kids eat a snack. First.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.and literally ask "have you gone to.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. they probably won't eat lunch.) kedo: however. to me.. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. but regular past tense. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something.
) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. According to the books." "I hear that. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples:
• • •
Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.. making it more formal than rashii." etc. meaning "It seems that. but I personally have never heard it.) John ni denwa shitara.)
And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra:
• • •
Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai.. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC.•
Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. Yes.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. Takada's quitting. (If the kids eat a snack. (I heard that Mr. to inform.)
Ta Form + rashii
Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. (I heard that Mr. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu:
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. familiar conversation.. kare wa kuru deshou. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. (If the kids eat a snack. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. they probably won't eat lunch. Takada's quitting. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. they probably won't eat lunch.)
Again.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara.)
Desu is usually used after sou....)
. Word Check oshieru: to tell.
please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. and watch TV. and did some homework. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. ongaku o kiitari.)*
This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done.That's all there is to it. souji shitari. (Jim buys and sells old things. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer:
Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. (I read comics and stuff. (Last night after dinner I
. then ate dinner. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. If you want. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one:
Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari.)
Ta Form + ri
Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. listened to some music.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. yuushoku o tabeta. (I watched TV and stuff. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66):
Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. some cleaning. right? This is where you control the tense:
Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. terebi o mitari suru deshou. (Last night I watched TV.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying.)
Now. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. It can also be used for present or future happenings.)
If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. Word Check daibun: considerably. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita.
watashi wa hontou ni komaru. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite.watched TV. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. use the Ta Form with to shitara:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. I'd really be at a loss.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready:
Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite.)
. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. listened to music for about two hours. * Note: While unnatural in English. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. then did homework until one o'clock. ate lunch. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. then she made dinner.)
Ta Form + to shitara
For suppositional statements.)
I realize that this is a run-on sentence. practiced the piano and things. chuushoku o tabete.
let's look at some examples to help make it clear:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form.)
To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. dou shimashou ka. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).• •
Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. without doubt komaru: to be confused.. (Even if you studied Spanish. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. In fact.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.)
As you can see. snow. etc.)
Ta Form + to shite mo
This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. (If you were to go swimming now. tabun koukai suru deshou. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise." As usual. you must remember that (something else). perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. you'd probably regret it. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow.. Word Check hontou ni: really. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning:
. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen.
it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items. I can't understand this software. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. (I laughed when I heard that. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective])
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. I was very surprised.. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. (Even if I read the manual. he never gets full. (No matter how much he eats. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. For example.. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39:
. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. (John's pants were torn when he fell. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. (When I read that. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen." Here are some examples:
• • •
Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.)
While not covered before. zenzen ippai ni naranai. After the Ta Form.)
Ta Form + toki
There are several ways to translate time into Japanese.)
Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes.) Sore o kiita toki waratta.• •
Setsumeisho o yonde mo.. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet.
Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. (I just got back now. One similar to this. to is usually used because of its flexibility. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. (The kids just finished eating. or. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event:
• • •
Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. sickness
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it.•
Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. However. (I just cleaned this room. add desu to make a statement polite. in the least recent sense.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.)
However. For example. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. the Ta Form + bakari. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish.)
Ta Form + tokoro
This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now.)
As usual. was already covered in Lesson 69. it's still brand-new. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns])
. while tokoro really means just now. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick.
are. [I don't want to. like something from the masu group. and aru for everything else:
• • • • •
Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.)
You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu:
Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu..)
desu. (Bob's sick.) Bob wa byouki desu.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.])
Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. desu makes things polite. You can add it to many statements to make them polite.)
The plain form of desu is da. After nouns and adjectives. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. Tanaka." Generally speaking.. iru is used for people and animals.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai:
. (That school is old. is. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings:
Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective):
• • • • •
Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. (There's a big tree in the park. iru and aru
As you know. etc. (Yes. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form.)
(Iru is an ichidan verb. (The dictionary is on the desk.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (Carol is 25 years old.) Ashita wa ame desu. Tom's here. (Tomorrow it will rain. (There's a big tree in the park. (He is Mr.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. Tom wa iru yo. (No. (There's a spider on the wall. aru is a yodan.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations.
here it is: Among the several roles of de.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. one is "as. Again. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. and is especially used by children. If you're really interested in the technical background. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. state or condition." So. ima Tom wa inai. unpleasant.) Jisho wa arimasen.)
And the polite forms would be:
Sumimasen. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. excuse me jisho: dictionary
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. ima Tom wa imasen. (Sorry.. (Sorry.)
Notes on Japanese Verbs
In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. getting back to desu. This is one that is rarely used these days.)
Now.) Jisho wa nai. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. Japanese is no exception.. Use desu instead. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough.
." as in being in a certain position. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use.. Tom's not here now. (I don't have a dictionary. (I don't have a dictionary. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. Tom's not here now.• •
Sumimasen. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. it is rarely used these days. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student).
Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. Accordingly. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive.)
Note: These two. to collect
Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. They are not conjugations. very rarely will they correct you. have close ties with Japanese culture. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. I'll give you this. ageru. which is intransitive (has no direct object). the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. This is certainly not a complete list. (Wendy collects old stamps. So that there is no misunderstanding. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. agaru and ageru.)
kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide
Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. active/passive forms. agaru is used for "come inside.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. to give
Agatte kudasai. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. (Please make up your mind quickly. to go/come up ageru: to raise up." When exchanging gifts. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. (Please come in.What makes it worse is the fact that very. (Here. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together.) Hai.
Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). tasukaru: to be of help. For routine helping. when you find something that was lost.. like helping in the kitchen. to arrive (a package.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find
Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. » -su / -u
. Also. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally.. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?)
Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. as if it just found itself. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. Strangely. (Thank you." it's not. not a person)
Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!)
tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own)
Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. (I found a pimple. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is).. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. etc.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!)
Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. (Please continue looking for it. use tetsudau.. You were really a great help.)
Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. to help
to force out deru: to come/go out
Inu o dashinasai.)
nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind
Zenbu tabete.) Kaigi ga owattara. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?)
Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. (Please cut down on your spending. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own)
Shuppi o herashite kudasai. Nokosanaide kudasai. Please don't leave any. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!)
orosu: to lower. (The copier is broken. (Be back by ten o'clock. (Eat all this. (Grandpa went outside. (Let the dog out. okay?)
kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken
Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. to get off or get out of a vehicle
. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong)
Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. to place + wasureru: to forget):
Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita.)
Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out.)
herasu: to decrease. to put down oriru: to go/come down.
where there is no special intransitive or passive form. but these should give you a good start. (My hat got dirty." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?)
Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. etc. For most standard verbs. Here they are:
• • • • • • •
kiru: to wear around one's body. obi. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. (This cake probably won't be eaten. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station.)
Of course there are others. etc.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. etc. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. like pants. (If you wear those glasses. conversion can be done by:
• • •
yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru
and then conjugate accordingly. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. dress. like a name tag or pin
. warawareru deshou. kimono.) Kemushi ga ugoita. (Don't move that machine. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. as in:
• • •
Sono megane o kaketara. like a shirt.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. (The caterpillar moved.)
yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty
Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. socks. necktie.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. (Put it down here. like a belt. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. (Don't get your new shoes dirty.)
ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own)
Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. a skirt. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. jacket. shoes.• •
Koko ni oroshite. you'll probably be laughed at. hameru: to wear on a finger.
Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. This completes Japanese Verbs. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai!
.Besides these. and especially when talking about accessories. suru is often used instead of the bottom four.