Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + miru 61. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 5 50. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + iru 54.44. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + oku 63.

Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. Ta Form + ri 74. and irregular. ichidan. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan." for example: it ends in ku.67. Let's take the verb aruku. gu. desu. nu. Ta Form + bakari 70. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. bu. ku. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. which means "to walk. Ta Form + tokoro 78. tsu. but to be more precise. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. not u.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + rashii 73. su. mu. Ta Form + to shitara 75. Remembering this will make further study much easier. Ta Form + ra 72. which can end in u. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71.

) This is very simple Japanese. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. (Grandpa will return soon.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. Some sources call these verbs godan." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. unless it was from another foreigner. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. and also very juvenile or "familiar. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb .) Jim wa manga o yomu. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. (Jim will read a comic book. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. (Naomi will watch TV." Interestingly.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. but there is no difference. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. (I'll eat an apple.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way.

) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.their "Base 2" form -. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. (Grandpa will return soon. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu .before the masu ending is added. (Jim will read a comic book. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. "adult" Japanese.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. the present polite ending. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.

and should not be worried about at this stage. which is the negative form of masu. (He won't wait.) Now. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. (Jerry will come out soon.) Kare wa machimasen. let's try masen. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. (I'll decide tomorrow. (Ayako watches the TV every day. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.) .) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen.

masen shows negative tense. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (I want to buy an umbrella.) Easy enough. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. (I'm not going to eat now.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.) The above examples are plain forms. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. . etc.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. To make them polite. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. (The children didn't play at the park. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (Miki wants to see that movie. (The children want to play.

" For example: • • • Ikimashou. (I'll carry this/these [for you]. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog.) As in English.) Simple enough.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. Add desu to make it polite. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou." This structure will be covered later on." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. (Let's take a break.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. For example. (I'll fix your bicycle." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu.) Yasumimashou. In fact.) * In Japanese. . We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. (Let's get you some food.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. but either way this one is easy to remember. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). and is never used alone with an object. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. It simply means "let's (do something).) Tabemashou. (Let's go. (The children don't want to play. in this example./I'll help you fix your bicycle. (Let's eat. and two use ichidan.

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

shinai (won't do).) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. and should only be used in very informal settings. and suru (do). or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. like Base 2 + masen. (I'm not going to watch TV. kuru (come).) Sachiko wa konai. . konai (won't come). Etc. Depending on the situation. As in English.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future." as a matter of personal policy. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. which we already covered in Lesson 4. For example. (Jim doesn't read comic books. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. (Sachiko won't be coming. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain.) Jim wa manga o yomanai.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form.

or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.) Actually.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. (Grandpa will probably return soon.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. snow. (Sachiko will probably come.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.what will happen if something doesn't happen. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (It probably won't snow. Look at these examples: . Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. hail. etc. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.

Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. . an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. The ones you'll hear the most are san. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. Once a person's name is known. Generally speaking. especially when talking to an individual.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. For example.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Additionally. sama. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. names are usually not used alone. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. and kun. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). as in English." Actually. chan. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. so it is omitted. when speaking to that person. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element.

uncle. and playmates. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. grandfather." This is normal and good. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. For those older. etc. Parents add chan to their children's names. Again. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. And. time passes. real or pretended. more familiar (and. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner.for a while. grandmother. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. kun with boys. hopefully. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. where anata is used for "you. and children add it to the words for father. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". because san shows that a closer. chan to female students. you can always ask." but is now a "san. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki." This Japanese would be understood. Also. As a safe rule. let's get back to you. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. adult male neighbor. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. however. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. Customarily. but to the title of those older. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. mother. though san is probably more common for females. Family. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. of course. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. older brother or sister (but not younger). aunt. For example. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. but would also .Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. use san with colleague's names. After the sale is made. adult female neighbor. at any rate. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. and chan with girls. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. cousins. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. company. names are often shortened before adding chan. unless an individual prefers chan. Now.

It's used quite a lot. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. and narimasen means "will not become".) Looking at it literally. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. Anatatachi could be used." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. even some affection. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. I may as well say here that much. there's no problem. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. which is the best choice when talking to large. it's a bit of a tongue twister. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. It works fine. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. however. Accordingly. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka".". (The children must eat. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). the one left would be kimitachi. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. So. (Laura has to buy an umbrella.sound very stiff. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. toward the group concerned. mixed groups. but it conveys a certain distance. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. (Jim has to return now. formal. and very odd.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen.. (I have to go. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. So.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. This can be handy when . because it means "must do. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). Yes. the nakereba means "if one does not.. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. which shows familiarity." Let's take iku (to go). change it to Base 1 ika. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. the fact is that it is very rarely used. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. as you'll remember from Lesson 15.

(Jim probably has to return now. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. mastering a clean. Accordingly. (Grandpa lets the children play. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. like deshou from Lesson 14.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . More than memorizing its meaning. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. for yodan verbs. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. seru." can be conveyed.adding other endings.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. however. (I'll have him come tomorrow. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. for the others.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. are used for all of these.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou.) With "suru verbs. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. "I'll let him go to the store". "I'll have him go to the store". (The children probably need to eat. as in "let him" or "make him. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. (I'll have John decide by next week. and saseru. In Japanese. or feelings. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru.

past tense. etc. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. (I'll have her do it." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. polite. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy.) Kanojo ni saseru. (I want to have Kenji study English.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. by tomorrow. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. (Dad will make Bob study. kimeru: to decide kare: he. like miseru." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (He lets them watch TV every day. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of.) As you can see. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. you won't hear or see "misaseru. (Let's have John go to the store.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. although miru is an ichidan verb.) So. which means "to show" or "to let see. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead.

As in English. so it is often omitted. her karera: they.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. as explained in Lesson 1. shown in the last example above. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. means "to fall. (Kenji will probably buy a new car.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Mama wa mise de banana o kau.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. the fact that the rain will fall is understood.the plain. Watashi wa ringo o taberu.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. Naomi wa terebi o miru. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). making the verb unnecessary. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. But before we begin.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru." For example. Not only should you be able to translate these. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. (It will probably rain tomorrow.) The verb furu. . please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. Let's get back to deshou." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru).

(Bob will probably also want to go. like . (You ought to study English more.) John wa sugu kuru hazu.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. Please note that ka is not added at the end. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. etc. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. as we would use tag questions in English.. snow.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka." etc. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. (John should be coming soon.

"had better do". frankly.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on.. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. (It would be better to eat later. Word Check . the hou means "way" or "method.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. prefer -. (I'd rather get a dog." Actually. but.way is good/better. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.ni natte iru or beki.should be. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". should happen.) Inu no hou ga ii. (It would be better to do it next week.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation.while hazu is more passive -. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. which was covered in Lesson 20.should do. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. As usual. practice makes perfect." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.. When you hear it. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. (We had better rest a little.) When showing personal preference. "would rather do. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. (I should call her. (It would be better to go by train today." and ii means "good" or "better." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ".) As with most verb endings. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. (You should study Japanese more. and according to the grammar books. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -.

It's like using "whether or not" in English.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. Word Check kare: he.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. him dekiru: can.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. to understand inu: dog ima: now .) As can be seen in the examples above. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. (I don't know yet if we are going." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.kanojo: she. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. yes. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). (Jack may also come.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. Simply put. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. As such. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Therefore. meaning that. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo." Since this verb ending is rather long. perhaps. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week.) . so you'll want to master it right away. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen.) As you sharp ones have noticed.taberu: to eat miru: to see. (We may eat out tonight. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. where it is converted to shireru (can know). this one is used frequently. look." These are incorrect. (It might snow tomorrow." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). and is conjugated accordingly. so please be careful when pronouncing.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen).) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. (It might rain tomorrow. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai.

I suggest. Terebi o mitakunai kara. with its reason. Itsumo okureru kara." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. so I'm going to the store.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. honya ni ikimasu. (I'll call Beth because she's always late.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. grammatically speaking.) Jisho o kaitai kara. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. (Since it will probably rain.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. (Beth is always late. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. given after.) In spoken Japanese. kasa o motte ikimashou. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. In this case. eigo ga jouzu desu. Word Check komban: this evening. (We don't have any milk. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. let's take umbrellas. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. so I'll call her. so his English is good. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. signified by kara at the end. Tabun ame ga furu kara.) . mise ni ikimasu. (I don't want to go to Mr. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. denwa shimasu. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. you'll often hear the action stated first. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since.) Ongaku o kikimasu. however. they each become separate sentences.

it comes between the contrasting phrases.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. yoku byouki shimasu." so.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. snow. . as well as its shorter forms. Again. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. but she doesn't get any better. no problem. (Although Jack is careful about his health. home iya na: bad. etc.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. (He speaks Japanese. as you can imagine. heta desu. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. he gets sick a lot." Just like English.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. just like English.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. which means "from. Like "but" in English. disgusting mono: thing. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. jouzu ni narimasen. but he's not good at it. nasty. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. it's used a lot. keredo and kedo.

Next." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. Like our ing. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. no problem. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. like reading in the sentence I like reading. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb.. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. In English. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3.. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. But first.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. (I like reading. Well. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . If you have to have a translation. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. not good at something. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. a lot. I like reading as a thing to do. No. Let's move on. First is koto. Here are some examples: . it really doesn't change the verb.) Finally. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. Better than all this talk would be an example. It'll come. koto has no practical use by itself." Does this help? If not. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. let's look at each part.

(Keiko can play the piano. long or short.) Either way. and adding the suru makes it a verb. it's a long ending for just "can. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. etc. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. (Bob was able to call Junko. There is a short alternative for other verbs. in that case the suru is omitted. With "suru verbs." Denwa is a noun. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one).) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. for kicks -.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. meanings. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. actually for review -. expressions.let's try some other endings on dekiru. For example. actions. essences. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. they're both used." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. (I can't read French. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. Kinou.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. (I can translate French into Japanese. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. It does not ." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. Again.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. you can just omit suru. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of.no.) Now. (I can read Japanese.

but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. It shows that you have made a decision. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) . koto ni suru is the plain. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. and it shows that the decision was yours. As I'm sure you know by now. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. koto ni shimasu is the polite form.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu.

(It'll probably be best to wait until spring. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. watch (something) . (Mr." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy. Made means "until. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (Wait until dinner.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. to let (someone) see. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) As in English. (We have to wait until Bob calls. etc.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. periods.

yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. be careful how. First. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. but if you do.) Base 3 + na This. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. you use it. . and to whom. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. However. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. This is one that will probably not be used very often. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months."don't do's" -.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. Stay away from here!. as with English. you could say. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger.

yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . which is just a slight variation. He thought he said." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara.sentences with "if. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara.) John ni denwa suru nara. (If the kids eat a snack now. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. he'll let me know. (If he sees Yuko. kuru deshou. (If you call John he'll probably come.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. They are used the same way and mean the same thing.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.) Ame ga furu nara.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. watashi ni shirasemasu. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. but nara is more common. they probably won't eat dinner.

but hopefully sufficient for the present. page." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. which are examples involving a thing.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. In Japanese." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. there are no "relative pronouns. For example. explanations.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. And. to make matters worse. a time. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . Japanese English. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. a place. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. and lengthy." Of course. respectively. As a quick review. and a person. that's another story. words that connect a noun to an action. like in the first example above. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. I can see several things which need to be explained. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. to offer very general.. But.. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. things I'd like to explain.

as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu.) In this sentence. For example. As you can see. As you may have noticed. Ga or no could be used here. since he or she will surely be hearing both. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. No is often used in place of ga. (My train leaves at eight o'clock.) Now. especially in informal spoken Japanese. The problem is that the rules are . they do not mean the same thing. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. densha (train) is the main subject. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. a "sub-subject. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. automatically designates a place. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense." you might say. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu." as a relative pronoun.) In this one. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. ga tells us who will take the train. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. and so it would most likely be omitted. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. and therefore omitted. or a noun which needs emphasis. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train.) Since this is natural Japanese. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. so tokoro is used after the verb. a truer English translation would be. a substitute noun must be used. Continuing with the above example. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. and is handled by the final verb. like our 's. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. the English "where. but since Japanese has no equivalent. Kobe is a place. back to the lesson: First. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence.

and shouldn't be too difficult. and vice versa. and are in the realm of mid. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". and when trying to make sense of one. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. you must forget all the rules of the other. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. produce. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Spring is the season that brings new life. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. I hope this lesson was clear enough. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. Finally.) This one is pretty straightforward.totally different in each language. As a general. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. . to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. semi-accurate rule.to high-intermediate Japanese.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences.

writhing. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. need. if you want to emphasize something.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. stomping around.) As in any other language.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. (Grandpa will return soon. (I tell you.) . sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. If not. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. Japanese English. fist pounding. it IS going to rain tomorrow. you need to review. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". (She IS coming.) Remember these? I hope so. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. (Grandpa will return soon. However.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. etc. (Jim will read a comic book. unexcited intonation. (Jim will read a comic book. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. or habits of the speaker. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.

These are easy to keep straight when used in context. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. rather.) .) densha: train noru: to ride. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. etc.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. essential kanji: Chinese characters. specifically. meaning "in spite of. There's nothing really tricky about it. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question." which we will cover later on. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Please consult a dictionary for more. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. Takamatsu-yuki.

(Getting up early is sometimes difficult. (Jim's dictionary is blue. impossible saikou: great. Wa is the subject indicator.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. boku no wa aka desu. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. mine is red.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. (Reading is enjoyable. (It really was a problem-free trip. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. mainly the one used for possessives. to not exist tabi: trip .) Word Check tanoshii: fun. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. the greatest. still not fukanou: not possible. like our 's. (Speaking Japanese is easy.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. (Living on Mars is not yet possible.).

and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. In other words. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara.prefix makes it "honorific. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. she'll probably find a good job. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. If kara was used instead. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. (Since Eiko can speak English. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. In this lesson we will take a look at node. For example.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. use node.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. the o.) So. which is used to show reasons or causes.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. and is therefore preferred when people are involved.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite.

over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to follow rules or orders. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. (I was late even though I got up early. she won't listen.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.) asoko: there. this short lesson is about noni. etc. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. rumors. for the plain past. kanojo wa kikimasen.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. (Despite my telling her to stop.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. Word Check yameru: to stop something. For example: .) Hayaku okita noni okureta. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. which is used for plain past structures.) annani: that much. understand to be.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard.) kiku: to listen. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.

They use a noun geared to their type of job. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. that's right.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. in order to." and is often followed by the optional ni. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. sou desu. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. but is more often than not shortened to baito.) As you have probably guessed. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. Japanese German. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. as in "Hai. Japanese English. it usually means "for the purpose of.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. Here are some popular ones: . Takada's quitting.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. A full-time employee will use shigoto. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school".) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a student will say baito. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita.) Tame is a very handy word. (I heard that Mr. It means "that's right" and often follows hai.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan." (Yes. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. The actual word is arubaito.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. Word Check hiru kara: from noon. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time).

) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added.") It can mean and. have (an interview). (This is for you.) For the curious. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. (Remember.]) Hai. that's pronounced "toh. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. In this case. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. (Kimiko came with Bob. or if.) .]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. receive. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. when. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. (This is for you. [plain.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. Mom. with. (Okay.

using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that. (I think Koji will be late. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. It means simply "I think. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. (I think Ms. (I think Eiko can speak English. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu." Iki (Base 2 of iku.) . When referring to the beach in Japanese. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. of "party.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. meaning "come to want. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. Sasaki will call us soon.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. to become to want to go -. It's okay to have an opinion. things you can do. to go) + taku (tai. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. Japanese English. use umi. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. While not specifically covered.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). begin to want." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be).") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to want to do. but it is not generally used. Now that it's been explained. and expected. takunaru puts tai and naru together. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. especially in the workplace.

this ending is a lot like deshou. omou can be used for plain speech. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . but it didn't. and it did.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. (I thought it would rain today [. which was covered in Lesson 19. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). or have some control. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. don't really care. or don't really have any control over something. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. (I think the kids want to go to the beach.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Again. Accordingly.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations.As you can see from the last examples.]) In a way. goes back. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. (I think it would be better to go by train today.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. towards me. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. care.

Deshita.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. day. Always use daigaku for university. which means "to accumulate.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. While sounding alike. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. is for past tense. S. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. add desu to make it polite. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. In case you're wondering. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. Well. build up. however. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. that was a short one. hear the other verb tsumoru. hairu: to go inside (a room). as you should know by now. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. to enter/enroll in (a school). and other countries where the word college is used loosely.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. their meanings are completely different. yes. You will." used a lot. technically speaking. so please be careful not to confuse them.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U.) . tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.

) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. e as in red OH. baka: idiot.." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot.) To be honest. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. 5. Simply put. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. "you look like an idiot. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. a as in father EE. and show what Base 4 looks like. u as in mule EH." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. 3. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation.. 2. directly or indirectly. e as in see OO.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. that something is or will be. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. First. said so].) mitai: it looks like. 4. sou desu means you heard. o as in mode .) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. AH. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples.) Ame ga furu you desu. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). etc. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.

and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. Now." or "dictionary form. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 . (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. it's where you start.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form.

) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. Here.. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If he sees Yuko.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. As we learned in the last lesson. watashi ni shirasemasu.. (I want to call Grandma." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour." as shown in these examples: .koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. (If you call John he'll probably come. Ii is Japanese for "good. they probably won't eat dinner.) John ni denwa sureba. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.) Ame ga fureba. he'll let me know. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba... however. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. kuru deshou. (If the kids eat a snack now.) Handy.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. covered in Lesson 30? Well. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.

like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. By this stage of Japanese study. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. no.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. yes. yokatta. quirky ii does not. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. they both mean "good". is used after ba -. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. (Around five. (I wish we had gone to the park. soto de asobeba ii. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. (We should have come at 8:00. (We want to watch TV. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. However. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. they are not completely interchangeable. (I wish I had ordered the steak. [I still wish you would play outside.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. (The weather's nice. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi.) Kids: Terebi mitai. so it would be good to play outside. (Now would be a good time to study.) • As you can see.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. In those situations different constructions would be used. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara.) Mom. (It would be good if you played outside. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. (Even though it would be nice to play outside.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi.) Naoko.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. yoi is not used with noni. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.

Or. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. this is a form you really don't want to use.) light shokuji: food. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. If you do.very handy when you get used to it. just use Base 4.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. and maybe even get into a fight." . It's simple: no subject or object needed.and known to all concerned. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. Actually. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki.

) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. just like most ichidans. Here we realize an important point -.it was like opening a new door. . Simply put. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. too. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. they can be treated like plain ichidans. Now. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. No problem. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. (Keiko can't play the violin. It's very. (Keiko can play the piano. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. very useful. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. (I can read Japanese.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. It shows ability to do something. As such. which was covered back in Lesson 26. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. Take a good look. (Keiko can play the piano. (He might be able to go next month.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. For example.) Now.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. I remember when I first learned this one -.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen.

(If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. the "cannot do" plain form.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) . and I hope it will make sense to you.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. which was covered in Lesson 13. For example. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. (I can't read Japanese. It made sense to me. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. (As you remember.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. (Jack probably won't be able to come. (Keiko can't play the piano. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. As you may have guessed. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. this is wasei eigo.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. this form is only meant for yodans.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. If it helps.

what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. an example of which was included in the last lesson.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can).) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. so I do too. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. So. this form is mainly for yodans. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. but there are exceptions like the last example above.) Again. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. energetic. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy.) .) Base 4 + reba To be frank. but who cares? Everyone uses it. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. you may wonder. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't).

oboe.kime. First.tabe.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe. If you don't mind.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.oboeru oboerekime. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.kari. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.taberu tabereoboe.koyou .

oo.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou. (Let's go. eh.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. so stretch it out a bit when you use it.) Terebi o miyou ka na. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. (Let's eat. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). (Maybe I'll watch TV.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. Also. arukou ka na." Suru is shown plain.) Yasumou. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah..) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound.. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. (I wonder if I should call Bob. I just made that up. but is converted as necessary: . ee. (I think I'll go shopping. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me.) Tabeyou.. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. (Let's take a break.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. oh.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. (I wonder if I should go shopping. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.

I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. but he couldn't. miemasen deshita.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. As you have most likely guessed. (I think John will try to come. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde .

kesu (to turn off. tsunaide. like asobu (to play). like aruku (to walk). katte. motsu (to hold). Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. kiku (to listen. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. hataraite. yobu (to call out). right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. to ask). tsunagu (to connect).asonde. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. Please note this one important exception: iku.. like au (to meet). kiite. nutte. tonde. not tsu).kashite.atte.isoide. tashite. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. Yodan verbs that end in bu. like kasu (to lend). shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. to put out [a fire]).e. motte. like isogu (to hurry). .matte. yonde. It's important because it's used a lot. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. katte. kau (to buy). not iite. nuide. like matsu (to wait).aruite. Yodan verbs that end in ku. Yodan verbs that end in gu. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. keshite.

please eat. momu (to massage). Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans.kaette.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. depending on the tone of voice used. (Go ahead. Yodan verbs that end in ru. (Come at six o'clock." "to go down. and kiru (to cut). Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite.) Douzo. It means "under. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. like yomu (to read). mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite.yonde.) Chotto matte kudasai. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite.) . (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. (Please wait a bit. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. hairu (to enter). When you start learning kanji. monde. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu." "to lower (something). (Wait. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. kiku (to listen). tsutsunde. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. tabete kudasai. which was introduced back in Lesson 10.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. but in Japanese we do. (Listen to this. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. As you can see.) Matte. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something." There are several handy variations of kudasai. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. haitte. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. (Please come at six o'clock. (Come here. humble me. tabete. (Please come at six o'clock. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. like kaeru (to return). For practice let's use kuru (to come). These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. (Go ahead and eat.) Kore o kiite. kiite." etc. totte.

I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up.) . a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). If you ask someone to do something for you." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. (I'll wait for you." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. (Cut this. and kitte: KEET-TEH. showing a "humbler" position. just like counting 1-2-3.• Kore o kitte.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. (If you don't want to eat it. giving each equal time while making them short. tabete ageru. you use the Te Form + kudasai. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. (I'll call you later. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible.) Kono pen o agemasu. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. kiite: KEE-EETEH. (Please give me that pen.) As you can see." but it means "to raise. (I'll give you this pen. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. as covered in the last lesson. I'll eat it for you." Ageru also means "to give. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. Now. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. to give (up to someone).). to show respect.) Tabetakunakereba.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH.

It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. it's a great convenience besides.In Japanese. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces." It is disrespectful at best. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. Don't use it. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. string. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the position of the giver or receiver. It's for "talking down" to. (Lend Bob your pen.) Notes 1. as a general rule.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. . use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. which are chosen depending on the situation. in cases where there's a third person. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. and showing contempt for others. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. and. However. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. laces musubu: to tie.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. and will work nicely in most cases. Finally. as these examples show. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru.

) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran.) Tabete goran. (Taste it and see if you like it. (There is salt on the shelf.) Te Form + iru .) Mite goran. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. Go and see for yourself. (Ask Bob and see what he says. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome." You use it to ask someone to try something. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. (It says he's 38.) That's how we use goran nasai.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. (Try calling Sanae.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. usually in short. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. See for yourself. which is used to prove a point. (Take a look. mild command-like sentences. Read it for yourself. Yonde goran nasai. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. Mite goran nasai. Itte goran nasai. You never use it on yourself.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful.

in a way. "I'm knowing [it]. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). (They are reading a magazine. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]).) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita."). (I'm reading the newspaper. we can get away with using just "live" in English. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be.) Kinou nete imashita." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. as in the fourth example above. masen. For example.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. [I wasn't watching TV today. mashita. Because of this. (He's not studying French. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. we say "I know. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. to exist. (Bill is studying Japanese. (I am walking. (I didn't watch TV today. [We are living in Takamatsu.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . Even though living in a place is present and progressive. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. (She is eating sushi. (We live in Takamatsu. and not shiru.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. in English we would normally ask a person. Especially important are masu. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. when they really should use sunde iru. it works like English. (Yesterday I slept all day. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. (Shizuko is eating. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. which were covered in the Base 2 endings." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru.) Watashi wa aruite iru. As you already know.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru." So.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. (I am here. and masen deshita. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know.

(The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. For example." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. like "kid" in English.with the i in iru omitted -. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. Finally.imashita ka. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. there is no single. "woman-child" / "man-child"). the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. imouto: little (younger) sister .in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. In fact. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. (I was watching TV. child Note: Strangely. but. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu.) I know you're wondering. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. it is even written this way -. so I'll tell you: "to play. to do (something) ko: kid.

iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. to exist. there are many that can. (If they're not studying.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. (They aren't reading a magazine. (The kids probably aren't studying. and adding ra makes it conditional.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. (Sam's not here. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara." As such.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. (They aren't reading a magazine. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. (We don't live in Okayama. First let's do some plain negative examples. which makes them present or past progressive. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. and imouto for younger sister. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. present and past.) Benkyou shite inakereba.Note: In Japanese. Please look at the following examples.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. ane for older sister. infinitive and progressive: . which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. (Sam's not here. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. (We don't live in Okayama. nani o shite iru deshou ka. otouto for younger brother. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

To make the meaning perfectly clear. since it is not only a Te Form ending. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. However. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. (I haven't eaten yet." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. (I didn't eat an apple. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. (I wasn't eating then. It's for asking questions. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. which appears in the last example. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. vague and troublesome at others. but also a much- . We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. Dekita. The last two above are good examples of this. which can be convenient at times.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. In either. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. and goes especially well with plain ones. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. to be able). "we could" could be "he could. (I'm not eating [now]. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it." depending on the actual situation. (I didn't eat an apple. (I wasn't eating then. (I'm not eating [now].

there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. I include the usual English translation. ita is the plain past form of iru. (They were reading a magazine. Also.used element of conversational Japanese. (Really? I washed my car. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. in settings where polite speech is called for.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. As I'm sure you know by now.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. (John was watching TV. but no real friends or family members -.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. [Really? I washed my car. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used.]) Yes. (I was doing shopping. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta.are going to speak so grammatically correct. Soshite terebi miteta. Put simply. this would be two males speaking. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type.) That's real Japanese. Soshite terebi o mite ita. Just for the fun of it. upgrade ita to imashita. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. [I went shopping. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. (I went shopping.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. (Really? I was washing my car.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. (Bill was studying. In fact.

) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. . Don't you remember?) (If necessary. Here are some examples. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. as covered in Lesson 50. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. however. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. (Would you please call Mr. Oboete imasen ka. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors.) As in English. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. Because itadaku is a very polite word. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. It can. meaning something like "I humbly partake.

Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. but not quite as polite -. (Ken's not here now. Ken ni itte moratte. Morau is okay when referring to other things. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. As usual. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis.) This is the same family. (I'm doing homework now. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa.as itadakimasu. No particular reservations are needed here. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. and it can be at times. even when the giver is not present. use morau instead of itadaku. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. morau works best when talking about a third party. adding a masu ending makes it polite. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. I realize that all of this sounds complicated.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Also. this would be the best way to go. morau is not impolite. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this." With itadakimasu. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. it's just plain. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.) This is a family situation.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai.not as "respectful" -. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. With kudasai.) Ima shukudai o shite iru.) . but since we can't do that now." When there's no need to be very polite. I'll get Grandpa to go. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. (I'm doing homework now. Get Ken to go. Make no mistake. However. Traditionally. itadakimasu is always used with food.

Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. (Sure. (May I please have your name?) Hai. I got one. customers.) Itadakimashita. moraimashita. (I'll give you a pen. (Yes.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. company. Just like anywhere else. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. office. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. They probably don't see each other every day. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o.) oshieru: to teach. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . etc. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. tell shorui: forms. Murai go. but she already has one and doesn't want another. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. and these two are being courteous.prefix is used with strangers. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. each home. documents. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. (I got one [already]. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita.Itadakimasu is always used with food.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. itadakimashita is the nicest reply.) This is at the office. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. (I had Ms. clients.

You can't use it directly after nouns. such as those two common ones work and school. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).) Te Form + kara This one's a snap. then add the Te Form of owaru. Simple and useful. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something).) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.. such as summer to mean "after summer. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back." There are other ways to do that. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject.. (After I eat I'm going shopping. Word Check kaeru: to return. (Let's play baseball after school['s over].) . to come home owaru: to end. you just make them the subject/object with ga..) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (John's coming over after he does his homework.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. (Let's go see a movie after work.

Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. ogotte kureru no?. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. (Please wait. and it would be offensive in some cases. (Please come here. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation.) Matte kure.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita.) And finally. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. Again. repeated request. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. Kureru is used in generally the same way. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. In fact. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). Some people add the question-forming no on the end. For example. It's good for family members and close friends. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. which literally means "Oh. this is the "command" form of kureru. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. you might say Ah. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected.

dreams. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. expresses future plans.sound nicer than with kure. (Because of that. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as .) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita." (If you say just ikimasu. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita." Usually upgraded with masu. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. etc. (I have been studying German history. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. assumptions. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. I think that the number of PC users will increase. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. depending on intonation. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time.) As can be seen. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou.) Sono tame. you'll see what I mean.

) Shirabete kuru.) Accordingly. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). to examine.) Douzo. (Please come over [sometime]." See Lesson 40. but should be easily understood. (I came to borrow a textbook.) shiraberu: to check (something). use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. asobi ni kite kudasai. (I'll go check it [then come back].. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. combined with naru: to become. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. (Let's go eat Chinese food. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . (I ate before coming over. inexpensive. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. food.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. or cuisine.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. There are several "set combinations" where it is used.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons.): cheap. but when uncertain.."going away and not coming back.

" You may hear it often. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. In Japanese grammar. Well. and adding miru. For example. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. it acts like a "quasi adjective. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb." but technically it's not one of those either. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru." . the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now." meaning that we'll give something a try. (I tried calling him.. Or. with its own set phrases." which makes this one easy to remember. but it's not.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. miru means "to see.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. (I'll try to read these kanji. (Let's give this new PC a try. go ahead asobu: to play. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk.. rusu deshita. (I'll try to talk to John.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. to entertain oneself.) Te Form + miru As you know. but he wasn't in.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. Either way. but don't take it literally.) Simple enough..

In the workplace.) Hai. (You may go home early today. so you should be a little familiar with it. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you.. as with all adjectives." "okay. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. As with most Japanese. (Sure.. you can use my dictionary. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. in familiar situations as in the last example above..?).) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. like the object indicator o.)." etc. As I've probably mentioned before. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). you can also get away with omitting particles. There's usually something else added on. Yes." Accordingly. (You can use my PC.. you can watch TV. (Yeah. positive response. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. It's an adjective which means "good. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii." etc.. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. terebi mite ii. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner..) (Yes." "fine. that is the way it works grammatically. however. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission.) ..." "it's okay if (someone does something). like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can.

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. familiar talk. you can say it.) Actually.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. You can omit the desu ka for plain. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. If you break a bone in Japanese. if you're going to use it in this way.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but not ikaga ka. question-forming no -. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. (Well.these don't use it. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. but usually alone. You can't just say "I broke my arm. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. Instead." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. polite. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go .heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. You can say dou ka. do not add the plain. If you do. of course.

A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. When placed after the Te Form with wa. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . everyday setting. iken (Okayama). especially ikenai.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. akan (Osaka). and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. and you're bound to hear either of these. In fact.. (Don't be late. to make it even more colorful. So. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. "You mustn't do that!". ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. etc. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. used in a normal. Also. etc. like ikan (Takamatsu). no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. "Thou shalt not. "Naughty!".. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. (You can't take pictures.

like "take a bath. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. fed him. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. because tooru is a totally different vowel. However. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. heya o katazukete moratte. and [then] made my dinner. to take (steal) something from someone. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. and left home at eight.) Also. (I got up at seven o'clock. First. choushoku o tabete.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. straighten up the room." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). ate breakfast. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita.) . just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite.) As you can see. esa o ataete. which is easy to do. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. meaning "to pass (by/over something). heya o katazukete.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. the kanji used for each meaning are different. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. then go shopping.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. to take a picture with a camera. hachiji ni ie o demashita. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. some simple ones. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. and I'm going shopping. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. (I've got to call Shizu.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite.

to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. past. to straighten up. Just for a quick check. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. just start a new sentence. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. and simple. whose major purpose is to make things plain. a house deru: to leave. When you're not sure. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English.

Once again. (I read a book. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita.) Boku no kingyo shinda. In the long run. (My goldfish died. Let's do some real basic. there are limits.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. even by the fastest-talking Japanese.) Ohiru tabeta. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. Also. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them.) Hon yonda. (I watched TV. and only omit them when everyone else does. (I ate lunch. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. (I did it. (I went to the bank. .) Terebi mita.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples.) Ginkou itta.) Kami kitta. There are cases where particles would never be cut. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. (I got a haircut. there are a few weird ones among the yodans.

) Shinda kingyo wa.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. For example. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. roku nen mae ni katta.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. even on a caterpillar. anywhere. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. Ke alone is hair — any hair. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7.) . and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. I had someone cut my hair. juu hachi man en deshita." it is used for "I got a haircut. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. beforehand." and is less formal than chuushoku. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta." There are a few of these. literally "hairbug. (The cake Joy made was delicious. use kami. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons." Very handy. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. hon becomes the subject. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book.) Boku ga katta PC wa.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. kiru: to cut. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta." If we switch these around to yonda hon.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before.

For a more detailed review.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. Due to this. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. not deshita. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. Carefully note the similarities and differences. Base 3 is used for the plain future. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. as in the last example above. Since we have already covered these. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. Instead. (If necessary. these two share many add-ons and endings.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. (He's supposed to come at six. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. One past tense element is enough. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. please click the lesson links. use desu to make it polite. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. the rest really isn't too difficult. root form of Japanese verbs. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. Again. (He was supposed to come at six. And. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. because deshita is the past form of desu. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. . which will serve as a nice review.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou.

" Please don't make this mistake. (I should have taken the train today. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. (It would be better to go by train today. I was late.) Beth wa okureta kara. I'm late every day. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. sensei ga okotta. (I heard that Mr. (Even though I get up early. For expressing regret.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru.) Kinou no ban. Takada's quitting.. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. (Even though I got up early. sensei ga okoru. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) Note: Yes. Takada quit.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (I heard that Mr.. (It would be better to go by train today. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): .

• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can.) John wa deta bakari." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it.) yameru: to quit a job. . like something memorized from a grammar book. (It looks like it's going to rain. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. (I just cleaned this room. etc. (I just bought that umbrella.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. mai is used with units of time. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. In other words. not with people or objects.) Sono kasa o katta bakari.) Ame ga futta mitai. (Mom just got back.) In fact. (I just ate." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. now that I think of it. (John just left. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. (It looks like it rained. snow.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari.

) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. I've been twice. (All that kid does is play computer games. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. (No. tabeta koto ga nai. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports)." in Japanese. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). like this: • • • Tabete bakari. This is used after the Te Form. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. (Yes. (All you ever do is eat. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari." usually as a complaint. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. Nikai ikimashita. to go/come back deru: to leave. Tabete mitai kedo. you use the verb iku (to go) . you'll find them very useful. to do (familiar. arimasu. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. The first is that when you ask "have you been to.) As you can see.. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. First.. I haven't.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.. (Yes.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I have. I'd like to try it. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. Once you get these sorted and memorized.. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka..There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. though.

I haven't read it yet.. chuushoku o tabenai deshou." but "I went twice. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. but regular past tense. you don't use this form.) John ni denwa suru nara. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. First. (If you call John he'll probably come." which. they probably won't eat lunch." Finally. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.and literally ask "have you gone to. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. kare wa kuru deshou.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. See Lessons 7 and 60. to me. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. kare wa kuru deshou..) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. The second is that in using this form. (If you call John he'll probably come. [No. (No. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. As in B's reply above.) John ni denwa sureba. not yet..) .) Next.) kedo: however. mada yonde inai. (If the kids eat a snack. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.

they probably won't eat lunch. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. I think you'll find it easy enough to master.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. familiar conversation. According to the books..) . this one seems to be preferred in everyday. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. (I heard that Mr. to inform. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. but I personally have never heard it. Yes.) John ni denwa shitara. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. (If you call John he'll probably come. Takada's quitting. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii." etc. (If the kids eat a snack. they probably won't eat lunch.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. Takada's quitting..• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. making it more formal than rashii.) Again. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37).. kare wa kuru deshou." "I hear that.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. (I heard that Mr.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara.) Desu is usually used after sou. Word Check oshieru: to tell. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko... meaning "It seems that. (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight..

just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite.That's all there is to it. (I read comics and stuff. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. listened to some music.) Now. (I watched TV and stuff. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. souji shitari. (Last night after dinner I . It can also be used for present or future happenings. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. yuushoku o tabeta. some cleaning. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. (Jim buys and sells old things. Word Check daibun: considerably. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. ongaku o kiitari. terebi o mitari suru deshou. and did some homework. and watch TV. then ate dinner. If you want. (Last night I watched TV.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. shukudai o shitari shite imashita.

tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. ate lunch. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. chuushoku o tabete. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. practiced the piano and things. then did homework until one o'clock. listened to music for about two hours. Please review Lessons 53 and 55.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. then she made dinner.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements.) . sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I'd really be at a loss. * Note: While unnatural in English. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this.watched TV.

(Even if you were to eat lots of health food." As usual.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. Word Check hontou ni: really. snow.. without doubt komaru: to be confused. (If you were to go swimming now. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. In fact...) As you can see. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. (Supposing it rains this afternoon.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. dou shimashou ka. tabun koukai suru deshou. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. etc. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. you must remember that (something else). this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. you'd probably regret it. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . (Even if you studied Spanish.

a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. (No matter how much he eats.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. zenzen ippai ni naranai. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . (John's pants were torn when he fell. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. (When I read that. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. (Even if I read the manual. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. I was very surprised. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. I can't understand this software. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book.. he never gets full.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. After the Ta Form.) Sore o kiita toki waratta..) While not covered before.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. (I laughed when I heard that. For example..

(I just got back now. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. One similar to this. For example. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. to is usually used because of its flexibility. in the least recent sense. the Ta Form + bakari.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru.) However. (I just cleaned this room. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. add desu to make a statement polite. while tokoro really means just now. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago.) As usual. was already covered in Lesson 69.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . that the person had just arrived home from buying it. or. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. (The kids just finished eating. it's still brand-new. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. However.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now.

which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. (Yes. [I don't want to.) Ashita wa ame desu.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form." Generally speaking.. etc.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (Tomorrow it will rain. (He is Mr. (Carol is 25 years old. like something from the masu group. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.. are.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. is. (The dictionary is on the desk. (There's a big tree in the park. Tom's here. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. (No.) Bob wa byouki desu. After nouns and adjectives.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. You can add it to many statements to make them polite.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. aru is a yodan. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. (That school is old.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . desu makes things polite.) The plain form of desu is da. Tom wa iru yo. (There's a big tree in the park. iru and aru As you know.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. Tanaka.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. (Bob's sick. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. iru is used for people and animals. (There's a spider on the wall. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.) desu.

You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen.." as in being in a certain position. If you're really interested in the technical background. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something.) Jisho wa nai. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. (Sorry. Use desu instead. ima Tom wa inai. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. Tom's not here now. and is especially used by children. (Sorry. (I don't have a dictionary. it is rarely used these days.) Jisho wa arimasen.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. .. Tom's not here now. getting back to desu. (I don't have a dictionary.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years." So. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). unpleasant.) Now. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. Japanese is no exception. Again. state or condition.. This is one that is rarely used these days. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. one is "as. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. here it is: Among the several roles of de.• • Sumimasen. ima Tom wa imasen. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.

to go/come up ageru: to raise up. This is certainly not a complete list. So that there is no misunderstanding. ageru. (Here.) . active/passive forms. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. (Wendy collects old stamps." When exchanging gifts.What makes it worse is the fact that very. which is intransitive (has no direct object). It only represents the tip of the iceberg. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. agaru and ageru. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. (Please come in. to give • • Agatte kudasai. agaru is used for "come inside. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. very rarely will they correct you. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. Accordingly.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. (Please make up your mind quickly. have close ties with Japanese culture. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji.) Note: These two. They are not conjugations. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form.) Hai. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. I'll give you this.

to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. tasukaru: to be of help. to arrive (a package.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. etc. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). when you find something that was lost. (I found a pimple.. (Thank you. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. You were really a great help.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. For routine helping. Strangely. in Japanese you use mitsukaru.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. to help • • Arigatou." it's not. (Please continue looking for it. as if it just found itself.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. use tetsudau. » -su / -u ... It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble.. like helping in the kitchen. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. Also.

chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. (Eat all this. to put down oriru: to go/come down. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. (Please cut down on your spending. (Grandpa went outside. (Be back by ten o'clock.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita.) Kaigi ga owattara.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out.) herasu: to decrease. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. Please don't leave any. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. to get off or get out of a vehicle . to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. (Let the dog out. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. (The copier is broken. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. Nokosanaide kudasai. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne.

like a shirt. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. hameru: to wear on a finger.) Of course there are others. etc.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. socks. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. like a name tag or pin .) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. like a belt. etc. (The caterpillar moved. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. (My hat got dirty. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. you'll probably be laughed at. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. (If you wear those glasses.• • Koko ni oroshite.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. kimono. warawareru deshou. dress. shoes. jacket. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head.) Kemushi ga ugoita. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. For most standard verbs.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. obi. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. a skirt. (Put it down here.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. (This cake probably won't be eaten. like pants." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. but these should give you a good start. (Don't move that machine. necktie. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. etc.

suru is often used instead of the bottom four. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.Besides these. and especially when talking about accessories. This completes Japanese Verbs. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! .

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