Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kudasai 51.44. Base 5 50. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + shimau 64. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + inai 55. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + iru 54. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + miru 61.

tsu.67. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. nu. Ta Form + rashii 73. Ta Form + toki 77. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + bakari 70." for example: it ends in ku.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. ku. Remembering this will make further study much easier. ichidan. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. Ta Form + tokoro 78. which means "to walk. Ta Form + ra 72. not u. bu. which can end in u. su. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. but to be more precise. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + to shitara 75. mu. and irregular. gu. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. desu.

" Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. but there is no difference. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. (I'll eat an apple. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. unless it was from another foreigner. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.) Jim wa manga o yomu.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb .) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru." Interestingly.) This is very simple Japanese. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. (Jim will read a comic book. Some sources call these verbs godan. (Naomi will watch TV. (Grandpa will return soon. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. and also very juvenile or "familiar.

Since masu requires the Base 2 form. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. the present polite ending. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . (Jim will read a comic book.their "Base 2" form -. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. "adult" Japanese. (Grandpa will return soon. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu.before the masu ending is added.

(He won't wait. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. and should not be worried about at this stage. (Jerry will come out soon.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. let's try masen.) Kare wa machimasen. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu.) Now.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen.) . (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. which is the negative form of masu. (Ayako watches the TV every day. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. (I'll decide tomorrow.

) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (I want to buy an umbrella. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai.) Easy enough. (Miki wants to see that movie. (I'm not going to eat now. To make them polite. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. . (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. masen shows negative tense. (The children didn't play at the park.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (Bob wants to eat tempura.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. (The children want to play.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.) The above examples are plain forms. etc.

) * In Japanese. and is never used alone with an object. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). In fact. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. (I'll carry this/these [for you].) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu./I'll help you fix your bicycle. in this example." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. . We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. but either way this one is easy to remember.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai." This structure will be covered later on. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. (I'll fix your bicycle.) As in English.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. Add desu to make it polite. (Let's go." For example: • • • Ikimashou. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. (Let's take a break. It simply means "let's (do something). (Let's get you some food. For example." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) Tabemashou. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.) Simple enough. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs.) Yasumimashou. (Let's eat. (The children don't want to play. and two use ichidan.

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. As in English. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. Etc.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. and should only be used in very informal settings. For example. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. which we already covered in Lesson 4. konai (won't come). or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. .) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. shinai (won't do). or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). Jim wa manga o yomimasen.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). (I'm not going to watch TV. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. (Jim doesn't read comic books. like Base 2 + masen.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. (Sachiko won't be coming. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. Depending on the situation.) Sachiko wa konai. and suru (do). kuru (come)." as a matter of personal policy.

) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. (It probably won't snow.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. (Grandpa will probably return soon. (Sachiko will probably come. Look at these examples: . snow. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Actually.what will happen if something doesn't happen. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. etc.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. hail. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.

Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. so it is omitted. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. and kun. when speaking to that person. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. Once a person's name is known. Additionally. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. The ones you'll hear the most are san. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. as in English. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day." Actually. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. chan. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. For example. . Generally speaking. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. sama. especially when talking to an individual. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. names are usually not used alone. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element.

As a safe rule. and playmates. For those older. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. at any rate. Now. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. Also. of course. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. adult male neighbor.for a while. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. but would also ." This Japanese would be understood. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. Customarily. mother. you can always ask. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. etc. kun with boys. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. aunt. and children add it to the words for father. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. use san with colleague's names. grandmother. cousins. because san shows that a closer. older brother or sister (but not younger). friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. where anata is used for "you. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. though san is probably more common for females. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework." but is now a "san. And. however. Family. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. chan to female students. and chan with girls. company. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". Again. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. let's get back to you. hopefully. unless an individual prefers chan. time passes. adult female neighbor." This is normal and good. For example. real or pretended. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. grandfather. more familiar (and. After the sale is made. Parents add chan to their children's names. but to the title of those older. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. uncle. names are often shortened before adding chan.

the fact is that it is very rarely used.. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. because it means "must do. Yes. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. the nakereba means "if one does not. toward the group concerned. but it conveys a certain distance. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one." Let's take iku (to go). but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. (Jim has to return now.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. which is the best choice when talking to large. mixed groups. (The children must eat.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. there's no problem. So. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. and very odd. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. It works fine. It's used quite a lot.sound very stiff. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. Accordingly. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. Anatatachi could be used. I may as well say here that much. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. (I have to go." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. formal. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". it's a bit of a tongue twister. however.) Looking at it literally. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen).) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). (Laura has to buy an umbrella. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. and narimasen means "will not become". the one left would be kimitachi. which shows familiarity. So. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. This can be handy when . change it to Base 1 ika. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. even some affection."..

" suru is simply replaced with saseru : .) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns.) With "suru verbs.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. however. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. are used for all of these. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. (The children probably need to eat. for the others. "I'll have him go to the store".) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. like deshou from Lesson 14. In Japanese. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. or feelings. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. as in "let him" or "make him. "I'll let him go to the store". for yodan verbs. More than memorizing its meaning. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. Good luck with nakereba narimasen." can be conveyed. (Jim probably has to return now.adding other endings.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. mastering a clean. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. (I'll have John decide by next week.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. seru. and saseru.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. Accordingly. (Grandpa lets the children play. (I'll have him come tomorrow. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella.

which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (He lets them watch TV every day. etc.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. (Dad will make Bob study. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. (Let's have John go to the store. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. (I want to have Kenji study English. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. past tense.) Kanojo ni saseru.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. kimeru: to decide kare: he. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. although miru is an ichidan verb.) As you can see. which means "to show" or "to let see. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. like miseru.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. (I'll have her do it. by tomorrow. you won't hear or see "misaseru. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. polite.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka.) So. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00.

But before we begin. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. (It will probably rain tomorrow. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Naomi wa terebi o miru. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Not only should you be able to translate these." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. means "to fall. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. Let's get back to deshou. . them eigo: the English language mise: a store. her karera: they." For example.) The verb furu. the fact that the rain will fall is understood.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. so it is often omitted.the plain. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. As in English. shown in the last example above. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. making the verb unnecessary. as explained in Lesson 1.

(You ought to study English more. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome.. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu." etc. snow. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. Please note that ka is not added at the end. etc. like . right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. as we would use tag questions in English.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. (Bob will probably also want to go. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. (John should be coming soon.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu.

(You should study Japanese more. (It would be better to eat later. As usual. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ".ni natte iru or beki.." Actually. prefer -. practice makes perfect. When you hear it. frankly.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.way is good/better.should do. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. "would rather do. "had better do". desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. and according to the grammar books. which was covered in Lesson 20. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". I hope to cover them in more detail later on." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. but.) As with most verb endings. (We had better rest a little.) When showing personal preference. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables.) Inu no hou ga ii. (It would be better to do it next week." and ii means "good" or "better..) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.while hazu is more passive -.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. (I should call her. Word Check . (I'd rather get a dog.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. should happen. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. (It would be better to go by train today.should be. the hou means "way" or "method.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.

but connects two phrases which contain verbs.kanojo: she.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check kare: he. It's like using "whether or not" in English.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. him dekiru: can.) As can be seen in the examples above. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. to understand inu: dog ima: now . (I don't know yet if we are going. ka dou ka does not end a sentence.

) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. As such. so please be careful when pronouncing. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. this one is used frequently. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. (We may eat out tonight.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai).taberu: to eat miru: to see. so you'll want to master it right away. meaning that.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. Therefore.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. and is conjugated accordingly. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen.) As you sharp ones have noticed. (It might snow tomorrow." These are incorrect. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. Simply put. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. (It might rain tomorrow. look. perhaps. where it is converted to shireru (can know).) ." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. yes. (Jack may also come. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow." Since this verb ending is rather long.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen).

Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. In this case. (I don't want to go to Mr. grammatically speaking. Itsumo okureru kara. (Kenji went to a Canadian school.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru.) In spoken Japanese. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. Terebi o mitakunai kara.) Jisho o kaitai kara. (Since it will probably rain. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. so I'll call her. (We don't have any milk. however. denwa shimasu.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. (Beth is always late. mise ni ikimasu. so I'm going to the store. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural.I suggest. so his English is good. Tabun ame ga furu kara. kasa o motte ikimashou. honya ni ikimasu. you'll often hear the action stated first. let's take umbrellas.) Ongaku o kikimasu. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. Word Check komban: this evening. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. signified by kara at the end. given after.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. eigo ga jouzu desu. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. with its reason.) . they each become separate sentences.

disgusting mono: thing. as well as its shorter forms." Just like English. nasty.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. etc. which means "from.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. no problem. but he's not good at it. heta desu. but she doesn't get any better. . as you can imagine. snow. jouzu ni narimasen. keredo and kedo. it comes between the contrasting phrases.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. Like "but" in English. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. (He speaks Japanese. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. Again. just like English. (Although Jack is careful about his health. yoku byouki shimasu. home iya na: bad." so.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. he gets sick a lot. it's used a lot.

in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form.. If you have to have a translation. I like reading as a thing to do.) Finally. Well.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. like reading in the sentence I like reading. Better than all this talk would be an example. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. it really doesn't change the verb. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading." Does this help? If not. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. no problem. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. No. not good at something. Here are some examples: . we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. a lot. But first. Next. let's look at each part. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. In English. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. It'll come. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. First is koto. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. Let's move on. koto has no practical use by itself.. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. Like our ing. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. skilled (direct opposite of heta) .) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. (I like reading. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway.

• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. (I can translate French into Japanese." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. in that case the suru is omitted. meanings. (Bob was able to call Junko. (Keiko can play the piano. essences." Denwa is a noun. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. and adding the suru makes it a verb. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. With "suru verbs. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. (I can't read French.) Either way. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. Again. expressions. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. you can just omit suru. long or short.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. etc. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. Kinou. For example.no.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita.let's try some other endings on dekiru. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. actions.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one).) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. It does not . actually for review -.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. There is a short alternative for other verbs.) Now. they're both used." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. (I can read Japanese." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. for kicks -. it's a long ending for just "can." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru.

but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. It shows that you have made a decision. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. As I'm sure you know by now. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. and it shows that the decision was yours.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru.) . koto ni suru is the plain. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka.

etc. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. to let (someone) see. (Wait until dinner.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. periods. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.) As in English. (Mr. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. watch (something) . (We have to wait until Bob calls. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. Made means "until.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. (I've decided to study Japanese every day.

First.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. . It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. be careful how. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. However. you could say. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai."don't do's" -. as with English.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!.) Base 3 + na This. and to whom. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. you use it. This is one that will probably not be used very often. Stay away from here!. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. but if you do.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. is the counterpart to Lesson 10.

) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara.sentences with "if. but nara is more common." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. He thought he said.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. he'll let me know. (If he sees Yuko.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. kuru deshou. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If the kids eat a snack now. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. watashi ni shirasemasu.) Ame ga furu nara.) John ni denwa suru nara. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. (If you call John he'll probably come. they probably won't eat dinner.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train .) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. which is just a slight variation. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara.

but hopefully sufficient for the present.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. there are no "relative pronouns. For example." Of course. words that connect a noun to an action. As a quick review.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new.. like in the first example above. and lengthy." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. to make matters worse. a time. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. and a person. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . a place. which are examples involving a thing.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. that's another story. to offer very general.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. In Japanese. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. things I'd like to explain." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them.. respectively. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. And. But. page. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. Japanese English. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. explanations. I can see several things which need to be explained.

) In this sentence." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. so tokoro is used after the verb. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. but since Japanese has no equivalent. they do not mean the same thing. densha (train) is the main subject. or a noun which needs emphasis. a truer English translation would be. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. Kobe is a place. As you can see. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). (My train leaves at eight o'clock. like our 's. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. ga tells us who will take the train.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. automatically designates a place.) Now. and therefore omitted. a substitute noun must be used.) In this one. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language.) Since this is natural Japanese." as a relative pronoun. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. and is handled by the final verb. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. Continuing with the above example. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. Ga or no could be used here. since he or she will surely be hearing both. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. back to the lesson: First. No is often used in place of ga. especially in informal spoken Japanese. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works." you might say. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. As you may have noticed. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. and so it would most likely be omitted. the English "where. For example." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. a "sub-subject. The problem is that the rules are .

. and are in the realm of mid. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. and when trying to make sense of one. As a general. produce. and vice versa. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. I hope this lesson was clear enough.totally different in each language. (Spring is the season that brings new life. semi-accurate rule. Finally. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive.to high-intermediate Japanese.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. Please come back regularly to review as necessary.) This one is pretty straightforward. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. you must forget all the rules of the other. and shouldn't be too difficult.

If not. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. if you want to emphasize something. you need to review. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. (Jim will read a comic book. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. (I tell you.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. However. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". stomping around.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular.) . as well as supporting body language like hand waving. etc. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu.) As in any other language. unexcited intonation.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (She IS coming. writhing. or habits of the speaker. (Jim will read a comic book. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) Remember these? I hope so. fist pounding. Japanese English. it IS going to rain tomorrow.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of).We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. (Grandpa will return soon. need. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions.

) . considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). meaning "in spite of. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. rather. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence." which we will cover later on. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. specifically. essential kanji: Chinese characters. etc. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever).) densha: train noru: to ride. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. Takamatsu-yuki. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. There's nothing really tricky about it. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. Please consult a dictionary for more. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru.

the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. (Jim's dictionary is blue. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. mainly the one used for possessives. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. like our 's. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. (It really was a problem-free trip. the greatest.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. Wa is the subject indicator.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. (Reading is enjoyable.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. to not exist tabi: trip . enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. (Speaking Japanese is easy.). impossible saikou: great.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. boku no wa aka desu. mine is red.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. still not fukanou: not possible.

the o. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. For example.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. which is used to show reasons or causes. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. (Since Eiko can speak English. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou.prefix makes it "honorific.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. In other words. In this lesson we will take a look at node. If kara was used instead. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen.) So. use node. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. she'll probably find a good job. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.

(I was late even though I got up early. understand to be. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. for the plain past.) annani: that much. For example: .mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Despite my telling her to stop. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it.) kiku: to listen.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. this short lesson is about noni.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.) asoko: there.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. kanojo wa kikimasen. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. rumors. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. to follow rules or orders. Word Check yameru: to stop something. she won't listen. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. which is used for plain past structures.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form.

(I waited quite a while to buy tickets. Japanese German. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. Takada's quitting.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. The actual word is arubaito.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). (I heard that Mr. it usually means "for the purpose of. a student will say baito.) As you have probably guessed.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. Here are some popular ones: . that's right. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. Word Check hiru kara: from noon." and is often followed by the optional ni. sou desu. It means "that's right" and often follows hai.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. but is more often than not shortened to baito. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon." (Yes. as in "Hai. Japanese English.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked.) Tame is a very handy word.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. in order to. They use a noun geared to their type of job. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". A full-time employee will use shigoto.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee".

(Remember. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. here are your air tickets to Hawaii.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. Mom. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get.) For the curious. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita.") It can mean and. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. receive. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu.]) Hai. (Okay. [plain. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Kimiko came with Bob.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. when. (This is for you. that's pronounced "toh. with. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. In this case. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. (This is for you. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. or if. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.) .) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. have (an interview). (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.

use umi. Sasaki will call us soon. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. Japanese English. It means simply "I think. takunaru puts tai and naru together. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. meaning "come to want. Now that it's been explained. It's okay to have an opinion.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. (I think Eiko can speak English. especially in the workplace. to go) + taku (tai.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. but it is not generally used.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. (I think Koji will be late.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. (I think it'll rain tomorrow.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. (I think Ms.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). When referring to the beach in Japanese. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. and expected. things you can do. of "party. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. begin to want. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on.it's as simple as that. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. While not specifically covered. to want to do." Iki (Base 2 of iku.) ." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). to become to want to go -. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.

]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. or don't really have any control over something. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. (I think it would be better to go by train today. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. omou can be used for plain speech. care.]) In a way. or have some control. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). People will use to omoimasu even when they know. don't really care. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. which was covered in Lesson 19. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. goes back. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. Accordingly. but it didn't. towards me. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.) Again. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. (I thought it would rain today [. this ending is a lot like deshou. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . and it did.As you can see from the last examples. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic.

add desu to make it polite.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. as you should know by now. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. their meanings are completely different. technically speaking. Well. Always use daigaku for university. hairu: to go inside (a room). no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. etc. In case you're wondering. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to enter/enroll in (a school). (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. however.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu.) . hear the other verb tsumoru. which means "to accumulate. day. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. While sounding alike. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. yes. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. is for past tense. so please be careful not to confuse them. build up.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu." used a lot. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. Deshita. S. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. that was a short one. You will.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh.

I think it's about time to start on Base 4. said so]. 2. that something is or will be. directly or indirectly. Simply put. "you look like an idiot. u as in mule EH. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3.. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) To be honest..) Ame ga furu you desu. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. e as in red OH. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. 4. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). a as in father EE. 3. etc. o as in mode . which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. 5. sou desu means you heard." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. e as in see OO. baka: idiot. AH.) mitai: it looks like. and show what Base 4 looks like. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. First.

Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. it's where you start. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 ." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. Now.) Think of Base 3 as the "root." or "dictionary form.

covered in Lesson 30? Well. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Handy.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.. Here. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. As we learned in the last lesson. (I want to call Grandma. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. they probably won't eat dinner. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. Do you remember Base 3 + nara.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. watashi ni shirasemasu. (If he sees Yuko. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. yuushoku o tabenai deshou..) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. Ii is Japanese for "good. watashitachi wa nureru deshou... o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. however." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. kuru deshou." as shown in these examples: . he'll let me know.) Ame ga fureba. (If the kids eat a snack now.) John ni denwa sureba.

(I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi.) Kids: Terebi mitai. yes. soto de asobeba ii. (The weather's nice. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . they are not completely interchangeable. By this stage of Japanese study. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (We should have come at 8:00. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. they both mean "good". in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. (Around five. (I wish we had gone to the park.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. so it would be good to play outside. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. (It would be good if you played outside. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. (Now would be a good time to study. quirky ii does not. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. In those situations different constructions would be used. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. (We want to watch TV. yokatta.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. (I wish I had ordered the steak. no. However.) • As you can see. yoi is not used with noni. [I still wish you would play outside.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. is used after ba -. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed.) Naoko. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due.) Mom. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni.) Ima benkyou sureba ii.

please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. Or. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability." . this is a form you really don't want to use. just use Base 4.very handy when you get used to it. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Actually. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies.and known to all concerned.) light shokuji: food. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. If you do.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. It's simple: no subject or object needed. and maybe even get into a fight.

too. (Keiko can't play the violin. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. No problem. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. (I can read Japanese. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Now. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. As such. Simply put.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima.) Now. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. (Keiko can play the piano.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. . / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. It's very. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. they can be treated like plain ichidans. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. Take a good look. I remember when I first learned this one -.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. For example. very useful. just like most ichidans. which was covered back in Lesson 26. (Keiko can play the piano. Here we realize an important point -.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. (He might be able to go next month. It shows ability to do something. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru.it was like opening a new door.

and I hope it will make sense to you.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. which was covered in Lesson 13. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. (I can't read Japanese." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. As you may have guessed.) . Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. this form is only meant for yodans.) See how that works? As mentioned last time." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. (Jack probably won't be able to come. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. If it helps.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. this is wasei eigo. (Keiko can't play the piano.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. For example. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. It made sense to me. the "cannot do" plain form. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. (As you remember. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans.

But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). but there are exceptions like the last example above.) Again. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. an example of which was included in the last lesson. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. this form is mainly for yodans. so I do too.) . So. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. you may wonder. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. but who cares? Everyone uses it.) Base 4 + reba To be frank.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. energetic. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often.

oboe.koyou .tabe.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.taberu tabereoboe. If you don't mind.oboeru oboerekime.kime.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. First.kari.

Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou. I just made that up.) Terebi o miyou ka na. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. (I wonder if I should call Bob.. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. eh. ee. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). (I think I'll go shopping. (Let's take a break. (Let's eat..) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). (I wonder if I should go shopping. Also. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. but is converted as necessary: ." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou." Suru is shown plain." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Yasumou. (Let's go.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. oo.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see... arukou ka na. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. oh.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. (Maybe I'll watch TV. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na.) Tabeyou.

• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . (Naoto tried to see the airplane. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. As you have most likely guessed.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. (I think John will try to come. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. miemasen deshita. but he couldn't.

tsunaide. kesu (to turn off. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. Yodan verbs that end in ku. not tsu). hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. motte. to put out [a fire]).. not iite. It's important because it's used a lot. to ask). Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. kau (to buy). like aruku (to walk). Yodan verbs that end in gu. katte.aruite.e.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary.matte.asonde. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. kiku (to listen. tsunagu (to connect). yonde. hataraite. Yodan verbs that end in bu.atte.kashite. kiite. tashite. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. nuide. like kasu (to lend). like au (to meet). Please note this one important exception: iku. like isogu (to hurry). nutte. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -.isoide. like asobu (to play). yobu (to call out). The only yodan verb that ends in nu. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. like matsu (to wait). katte. keshite. . motsu (to hold). We'll cover pronunciation a little later. tonde. Yodan verbs that end in tsu.

) Chotto matte kudasai. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. hairu (to enter). like yomu (to read).) Rokuji ni kite kudasai." There are several handy variations of kudasai.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. kiite. humble me. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. (Come at six o'clock. For practice let's use kuru (to come). (Please wait a bit. like kaeru (to return). (Please come at six o'clock. tabete kudasai. totte. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. (Come here. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched.) Matte. but in Japanese we do. (Listen to this. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. When you start learning kanji. It means "under. momu (to massage)." etc. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. depending on the tone of voice used. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. tabete. and kiru (to cut). It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. (Go ahead. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. which was introduced back in Lesson 10.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. Yodan verbs that end in ru. tsutsunde.kaette. So when you say chotto matte kudasai.) Douzo." "to go down. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. (Please come at six o'clock. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain." "to lower (something). Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars.) Kore o kiite. kiku (to listen). The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time.) . please eat. As you can see.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. (Go ahead and eat. haitte. (Wait.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. monde.yonde. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -.

while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. just like counting 1-2-3. (If you don't want to eat it." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often.) Kono pen o agemasu. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. tabete ageru. Now. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. (I'll give you this pen. to give (up to someone). it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. (Please give me that pen.). giving each equal time while making them short.• Kore o kitte. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. and kitte: KEET-TEH." but it means "to raise.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. If you ask someone to do something for you. showing a "humbler" position. you use the Te Form + kudasai. to show respect.) . kiite: KEE-EETEH. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. (Cut this.) Tabetakunakereba. as covered in the last lesson.) As you can see. (I'll call you later. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. (I'll wait for you. I'll eat it for you." Ageru also means "to give.

Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. Don't use it. it's a great convenience besides. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. and will work nicely in most cases. Finally. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope.) Notes 1. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. which are chosen depending on the situation.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. . to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. However. and. (Lend Bob your pen.In Japanese." It is disrespectful at best. laces musubu: to tie. and showing contempt for others. It's for "talking down" to. in cases where there's a third person. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. the position of the giver or receiver. string. as these examples show. as a general rule.

Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.) That's how we use goran nasai. usually in short. (Try calling Sanae. mild command-like sentences." You use it to ask someone to try something. (Take a look.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Read it for yourself.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo.) Mite goran. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. See for yourself.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. (Ask Bob and see what he says.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. Go and see for yourself. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. (Taste it and see if you like it. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It says he's 38. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.) Tabete goran.) Te Form + iru . You never use it on yourself. (There is salt on the shelf. Yonde goran nasai. Mite goran nasai. which is used to prove a point.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. Itte goran nasai.

in English we would normally ask a person. As you already know.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. to exist. we can get away with using just "live" in English.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. For example. (Bill is studying Japanese.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. in a way. Because of this. (We live in Takamatsu.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. (I am walking. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. (Shizuko is eating. and masen deshita.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. masen. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. "I'm knowing [it]. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite .) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). Even though living in a place is present and progressive. as in the fourth example above." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. mashita. (Yesterday I slept all day.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. Especially important are masu.) Kinou nete imashita. (I didn't watch TV today. (I am here.")." So. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese.) Watashi wa aruite iru. we say "I know. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. and not shiru. (She is eating sushi. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. when they really should use sunde iru. (He's not studying French. (I'm reading the newspaper. [We are living in Takamatsu.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). (They are reading a magazine. it works like English. [I wasn't watching TV today.

(The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. "woman-child" / "man-child"). "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. but. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. child Note: Strangely.) I know you're wondering. Finally. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. imouto: little (younger) sister . it is even written this way -. For example.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. so I'll tell you: "to play. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally.imashita ka. In fact.with the i in iru omitted -. there is no single. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. to do (something) ko: kid. (I was watching TV. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. like "kid" in English.

) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Please look at the following examples. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. (Sam's not here. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. (The kids probably aren't studying.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. present and past.) Benkyou shite inakereba. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. (They aren't reading a magazine.Note: In Japanese. ane for older sister. otouto for younger brother. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. which makes them present or past progressive. (Sam's not here. First let's do some plain negative examples. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (We don't live in Okayama. and adding ra makes it conditional. (We don't live in Okayama.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. there are many that can.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form." As such. nani o shite iru deshou ka. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. (If they're not studying. infinitive and progressive: . sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. and imouto for younger sister. (They aren't reading a magazine. to exist.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu.

Dekita. In either. since it is not only a Te Form ending." depending on the actual situation. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. which can be convenient at times. (I'm not eating [now]. (I wasn't eating then. vague and troublesome at others. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. (I didn't eat an apple. to be able).) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. It's for asking questions. and goes especially well with plain ones. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (I wasn't eating then. but also a much- . [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. (I'm not eating [now]. "we could" could be "he could. The last two above are good examples of this. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. (I didn't eat an apple. (I haven't eaten yet. which appears in the last example. However.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. To make the meaning perfectly clear.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta.

(John was watching TV. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. (They were reading a magazine.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -.) That's real Japanese. Also. I include the usual English translation. but no real friends or family members -. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. this would be two males speaking. Put simply.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita.]) Yes. upgrade ita to imashita. Just for the fun of it. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. As I'm sure you know by now. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. (I was doing shopping. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. Soshite terebi o mite ita. in settings where polite speech is called for. [Really? I washed my car. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. Males usually use boku in familiar settings.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. (I went shopping. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. (Bill was studying.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. Soshite terebi miteta.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. ita is the plain past form of iru. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type.used element of conversational Japanese.are going to speak so grammatically correct. In fact. (Really? I was washing my car. [I went shopping. (Really? I washed my car.

I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word.) As in English. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. meaning something like "I humbly partake. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. Oboete imasen ka. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. Because itadaku is a very polite word. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. Here are some examples. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. as covered in Lesson 50. It can. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. (Would you please call Mr. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. .) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. however.

not as "respectful" -. Get Ken to go.) Ima shukudai o shite iru." With itadakimasu. (I'm doing homework now. However. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa.) Ima shukudai o shite iru.as itadakimasu.) This is the same family. I'll get Grandpa to go. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. Make no mistake. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. use morau instead of itadaku. Also. No particular reservations are needed here. but not quite as polite -. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. morau is not impolite. Morau is okay when referring to other things. Ken ni itte moratte. Traditionally. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. but since we can't do that now. adding a masu ending makes it polite. this would be the best way to go. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. As usual.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. (I'm doing homework now. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. morau works best when talking about a third party. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. (Ken's not here now.) . it's just plain. With kudasai. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. itadakimasu is always used with food.) This is a family situation. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. and it can be at times. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis." When there's no need to be very polite. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. even when the giver is not present.

) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. (I'll give you a pen. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. documents.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. each home. tell shorui: forms. customers. moraimashita. itadakimashita is the nicest reply.Itadakimasu is always used with food.) Itadakimashita. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. but she already has one and doesn't want another. company.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities.) This is at the office. office.prefix is used with strangers. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. and these two are being courteous. (Sure. Murai go. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms.) oshieru: to teach. I got one. (I had Ms. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (Yes. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. They probably don't see each other every day. clients. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. etc. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. (May I please have your name?) Hai. Just like anywhere else. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. (I got one [already]. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o.

then add the Te Form of owaru. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. such as those two common ones work and school. (Let's go see a movie after work. (John's coming over after he does his homework." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap. you just make them the subject/object with ga.." There are other ways to do that. to come home owaru: to end. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. Simple and useful. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.. such as summer to mean "after summer.) .) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). You can't use it directly after nouns. (After I eat I'm going shopping. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).. Word Check kaeru: to return.

the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. the "kure command": • • Kite kure.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. which literally means "Oh. Kureru is used in generally the same way. repeated request. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). (Please wait. For example. and it would be offensive in some cases. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. this is the "command" form of kureru.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. In fact. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. you might say Ah. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can .) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. It's good for family members and close friends.) And finally. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. (Please come here.) Matte kure. ogotte kureru no?. Again. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request.

dreams. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou.) As can be seen. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. etc. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. I think that the number of PC users will increase. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. (Because of that. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. (I have been studying German history.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. expresses future plans. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell.sound nicer than with kure.) Sono tame. assumptions. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together." Usually upgraded with masu. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. depending on intonation. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go." (If you say just ikimasu.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. you'll see what I mean.

. but should be easily understood. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). food. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. to examine. or cuisine. (I came to borrow a textbook. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it."going away and not coming back. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. inexpensive." See Lesson 40. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. combined with naru: to become. (I ate before coming over.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. (I'll go check it [then come back].) Accordingly.) Douzo.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku.. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita.) Shirabete kuru. but when uncertain. asobi ni kite kudasai. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.): cheap. (Let's go eat Chinese food.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that.) shiraberu: to check (something). (Please come over [sometime].

) Simple enough. it acts like a "quasi adjective. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. Either way..) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. Or. and adding miru. miru means "to see. to entertain oneself.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. go ahead asobu: to play. In Japanese grammar. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit.. (Let's give this new PC a try. but it's not.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now." meaning that we'll give something a try. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu." which makes this one easy to remember. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk.. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form." but technically it's not one of those either. (I'll try to read these kanji. Well. but he wasn't in. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. (I tried calling him. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. (I'll try to talk to John. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. For example. rusu deshita.) Te Form + miru As you know.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. but don't take it literally. (Verbs are shown in their plain form." You may hear it often." . with its own set phrases.

so you should be a little familiar with it. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou.." Accordingly. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. In the workplace. you can also get away with omitting particles. There's usually something else added on.) . adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay." etc. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo.. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo.) Hai. (You may go home early today. As with most Japanese. positive response. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.) (Yes. (You can use my PC. or ka: ii desu ka (May I.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. Yes..." etc. like the object indicator o. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.. It's an adjective which means "good. (Yeah. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. you can use my dictionary. however. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. as with all adjectives." "okay." "it's okay if (someone does something).. in familiar situations as in the last example above. (Sure." "fine.. As I've probably mentioned before. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44).) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. terebi mite ii.. you can watch TV.). that is the way it works grammatically.?).

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. familiar talk. but not ikaga ka. If you break a bone in Japanese. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. do not add the plain. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. of course. You can't just say "I broke my arm. If you do. Instead. but usually alone.) Actually. you can say it. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. question-forming no -. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However.these don't use it. (Well." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. You can omit the desu ka for plain. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. polite.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. You can say dou ka. if you're going to use it in this way.

"Thou shalt not. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. (You can't take pictures. etc. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. everyday setting. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. used in a normal. (Don't be late. especially ikenai.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen.. to make it even more colorful. like ikan (Takamatsu). etc. When placed after the Te Form with wa. "Naughty!". ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame).. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. "You mustn't do that!"." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. and you're bound to hear either of these. In fact. akan (Osaka). chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. iken (Okayama). Also. So.

To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. some simple ones. esa o ataete. and I'm going shopping. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. heya o katazukete moratte. and left home at eight. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. to take a picture with a camera.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. the kanji used for each meaning are different. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. like "take a bath.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. First. then go shopping.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. hachiji ni ie o demashita. which is easy to do. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. straighten up the room. ate breakfast.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite.) Also. and [then] made my dinner. heya o katazukete. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. (I've got to call Shizu. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. because tooru is a totally different vowel. to take (steal) something from someone.) . However. meaning "to pass (by/over something). choushoku o tabete.) As you can see. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). (I got up at seven o'clock. fed him.

to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. whose major purpose is to make things plain.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. and simple. just start a new sentence. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. a house deru: to leave. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . past. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. to straighten up. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. When you're not sure. Just for a quick check.

.) Ohiru tabeta. (I read a book.) Kami kitta. Let's do some real basic. (I went to the bank. There are cases where particles would never be cut.) Ginkou itta.) Hon yonda. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. (I got a haircut. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I ate lunch.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. Once again. (I watched TV.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. there are limits. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. (My goldfish died. In the long run. and only omit them when everyone else does.) Terebi mita.) Boku no kingyo shinda. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. Also. (I did it.

ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. kiru: to cut. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi." it is used for "I got a haircut. beforehand. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head." and is less formal than chuushoku.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7." There are a few of these.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. anywhere. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. roku nen mae ni katta. For example." If we switch these around to yonda hon.) Boku ga katta PC wa. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. literally "hairbug. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. (The cake Joy made was delicious. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. use kami.) Shinda kingyo wa." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese.) . that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. juu hachi man en deshita. Ke alone is hair — any hair." Very handy. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. I had someone cut my hair. hon becomes the subject. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. even on a caterpillar.

) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. please click the lesson links. Instead. (He was supposed to come at six. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. (He's supposed to come at six. . and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. And. Due to this. Base 3 is used for the plain future. not deshita. Since we have already covered these. (If necessary. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. because deshita is the past form of desu.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. these two share many add-ons and endings. Again. For a more detailed review. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. use desu to make it polite. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. Carefully note the similarities and differences.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the rest really isn't too difficult. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. One past tense element is enough. root form of Japanese verbs.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. which will serve as a nice review. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. as in the last example above.

sensei ga okotta. I'm late every day.) Beth wa okureta kara. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. Takada quit.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. For expressing regret.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (It would be better to go by train today.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. (I heard that Mr.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) Kinou no ban.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu." Please don't make this mistake. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai.) Note: Yes..) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. (I should have taken the train today. (Even though I got up early. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. (Even though I get up early. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): .. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. sensei ga okoru. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. (It would be better to go by train today. I was late. (I heard that Mr. Takada's quitting.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.

. snow. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. (I just cleaned this room. (Mom just got back. In other words. (It looks like it's going to rain. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. (John just left. etc." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. mai is used with units of time.) Ame ga futta mitai.) John wa deta bakari.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. like something memorized from a grammar book.) In fact.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. (I just ate. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. (I just bought that umbrella. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.) yameru: to quit a job.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. not with people or objects.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. (It looks like it rained." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. now that I think of it.

. tabeta koto ga nai.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. (Yes.. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). Tabete mitai kedo.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. arimasu.) As you can see. (Yes. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. to go/come back deru: to leave.. (No." usually as a complaint. This is used after the Te Form. Nikai ikimashita. (All you ever do is eat. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. I've been twice. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom.. I'd like to try it. you'll find them very useful. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports).) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. to do (familiar. (All that kid does is play computer games. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. you use the verb iku (to go) ." in Japanese. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. Once you get these sorted and memorized. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. I haven't. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. First. I have. though. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here.

As in B's reply above. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. (If you call John he'll probably come. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. (No. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but regular past tense. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. (If the kids eat a snack. mada yonde inai. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. you don't use this form.) Next.) . See Lessons 7 and 60. not yet. [No. kare wa kuru deshou.) John ni denwa sureba.. First. I haven't read it yet.) kedo: however." which. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice.) John ni denwa suru nara.and literally ask "have you gone to. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals." but "I went twice.. they probably won't eat lunch. The second is that in using this form. kare wa kuru deshou." Finally. to me. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.. (If you call John he'll probably come. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.

they probably won't eat lunch. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal.) .. Takada's quitting. Now that all the explaining is out of the way..) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. (I heard that Mr. Yes.) Desu is usually used after sou.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. meaning "It seems that. making it more formal than rashii.. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. they probably won't eat lunch. According to the books.. (I heard that Mr. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu." "I hear that... (I hear that Ken bought a new PC.) Again.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. (If the kids eat a snack. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. Takada's quitting. Word Check oshieru: to tell. to inform. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. kare wa kuru deshou. (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. but I personally have never heard it.) John ni denwa shitara. (If you call John he'll probably come. familiar conversation. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37).) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai." etc.

) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. (Jim buys and sells old things. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. yuushoku o tabeta.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. (Last night after dinner I .) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary.) Now. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. terebi o mitari suru deshou. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. souji shitari. (I watched TV and stuff. Word Check daibun: considerably. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. (I read comics and stuff. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. ongaku o kiitari. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and did some homework. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita.That's all there is to it. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. It can also be used for present or future happenings. If you want. some cleaning. listened to some music. (Last night I watched TV. then ate dinner. and watch TV. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite.

hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. ate lunch. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. listened to music for about two hours. then she made dinner.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. * Note: While unnatural in English. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this.watched TV. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. I'd really be at a loss. then did homework until one o'clock. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. practiced the piano and things.) .) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. chuushoku o tabete. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house.

) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara.) As you can see. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. dou shimashou ka. etc." As usual. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. Word Check hontou ni: really. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. In fact. snow. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow.. (If you were to go swimming now. (Even if you studied Spanish.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. you'd probably regret it. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. you must remember that (something else). shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . without doubt komaru: to be confused.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara.. tabun koukai suru deshou. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.

) While not covered before. I was very surprised. zenzen ippai ni naranai." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. I can't understand this software.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. (When I read that. (Even if I read the manual.. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. For example.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . (No matter how much he eats. (John's pants were torn when he fell. he never gets full. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. After the Ta Form.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta.. (I laughed when I heard that. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.

to is usually used because of its flexibility. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. (I just cleaned this room.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. the Ta Form + bakari.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. or.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. (I just got back now. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. (The kids just finished eating. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. it's still brand-new. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. in the least recent sense.) As usual. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. add desu to make a statement polite. For example.) However. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. One similar to this. while tokoro really means just now. was already covered in Lesson 69. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. However. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally.

.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (Tomorrow it will rain. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. like something from the masu group.. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. are. (Bob's sick.) Ashita wa ame desu.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. (Carol is 25 years old. After nouns and adjectives.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . (There's a big tree in the park.) desu." Generally speaking. Tom's here. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. Tom wa iru yo. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. (No.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. (The dictionary is on the desk. [I don't want to. (That school is old.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. iru is used for people and animals. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. iru and aru As you know. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. (There's a spider on the wall.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (He is Mr.) Bob wa byouki desu.) The plain form of desu is da.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. (Yes. etc. desu makes things polite. aru is a yodan. is. (There's a big tree in the park. Tanaka.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu.

(I don't have a dictionary. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. state or condition.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. Tom's not here now. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it is rarely used these days. Tom's not here now.." So..) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. If you're really interested in the technical background. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. Japanese is no exception. ima Tom wa inai. getting back to desu.) Jisho wa arimasen. Use desu instead. and is especially used by children. This is one that is rarely used these days.) Jisho wa nai. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student)." as in being in a certain position.. (I don't have a dictionary. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. ima Tom wa imasen. (Sorry. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use.• • Sumimasen. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. (Sorry. one is "as.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. unpleasant. Connected with aru it means "to exist as.) Now. here it is: Among the several roles of de. . Again.

They are not conjugations. (Please come in. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. agaru and ageru. agaru is used for "come inside. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. very rarely will they correct you. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. (Here. which is intransitive (has no direct object).) Hayaku kimete kudasai. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. This is certainly not a complete list. It only represents the tip of the iceberg.) Note: These two. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. ageru. Accordingly.) Hai. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. I'll give you this.What makes it worse is the fact that very. (Wendy collects old stamps. have close ties with Japanese culture. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. active/passive forms. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. So that there is no misunderstanding.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like.) . to go/come up ageru: to raise up. (Please make up your mind quickly. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru." When exchanging gifts. to give • • Agatte kudasai.

» -su / -u . Strangely. (Please continue looking for it. (Thank you. as if it just found itself. For routine helping. Also.. to arrive (a package. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai... (I found a pimple. use tetsudau.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru." it's not. etc. to help • • Arigatou. when you find something that was lost. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. You were really a great help. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. Hontou ni tasukarimashita.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. tasukaru: to be of help. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). like helping in the kitchen.. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally.

Please don't leave any. to get off or get out of a vehicle .) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. (Please cut down on your spending.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete.) Kaigi ga owattara.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru.) herasu: to decrease. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. (Grandpa went outside. (Eat all this.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. (Let the dog out. to put down oriru: to go/come down.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. (Be back by ten o'clock. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. (The copier is broken. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. Nokosanaide kudasai. use okiwasureru (oku: to put.

(This cake probably won't be eaten. socks." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. (The caterpillar moved.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. warawareru deshou. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. kimono. necktie. like a name tag or pin . Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. shoes. (Put it down here. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head.) Kemushi ga ugoita.) Of course there are others.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. like a belt.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. etc. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. etc. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. a skirt. obi. (Don't move that machine. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. etc. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. (My hat got dirty. hameru: to wear on a finger. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. For most standard verbs. you'll probably be laughed at. (If you wear those glasses. dress. like a shirt.• • Koko ni oroshite. jacket. but these should give you a good start. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. like pants.

This completes Japanese Verbs. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . and especially when talking about accessories.Besides these. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. suru is often used instead of the bottom four.

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