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Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + kuru / iku 60.44. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Base 5 50. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kureru 59. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + inai 55. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Base 4 + ru 47. Base 4 + ba ii 45.
Ta Form + ra 72. nu. which can end in u. Ta Form + to shitara 75. Ta Form + bakari 70. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. Ta Form + toki 77. but to be more precise. not u. Ta Form + ri 74. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. ku. tsu. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. mu. gu. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69." for example: it ends in ku. su.67. Let's take the verb aruku. and irregular. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. Remembering this will make further study much easier. Ta Form + tokoro 78. which means "to walk. Ta Form + rashii 73. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. bu. ichidan. desu.
watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (Grandpa will return soon. but there is no difference. unless it was from another foreigner. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb . the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. Some sources call these verbs godan." Interestingly. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them.) Naomi wa terebi o miru.) Jim wa manga o yomu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. (I'll eat an apple.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago.) This is very simple Japanese. (Naomi will watch TV. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. (Jim will read a comic book. and also very juvenile or "familiar. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1.
before the masu ending is added. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . Since masu requires the Base 2 form. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. the present polite ending.their "Base 2" form -. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. (Jim will read a comic book. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. "adult" Japanese. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers.
Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. (He won't wait.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. (Ayako watches the TV every day. (I'll decide tomorrow.) . (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. (Jerry will come out soon.) Kare wa machimasen. let's try masen. which is the negative form of masu. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. and should not be worried about at this stage.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu.) Now.
etc. (The children didn't play at the park. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.) The above examples are plain forms. . (I'm not going to eat now. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. masen shows negative tense. (Bob wants to eat tempura.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (The children want to play. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. (Miki wants to see that movie. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. (John didn't go to Hiroshima.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. To make them polite.) Easy enough.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (I want to buy an umbrella.
) Yasumimashou.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu.) Simple enough.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. It simply means "let's (do something). (Let's get you some food. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. For example." This structure will be covered later on.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. (Let's take a break. but either way this one is easy to remember. (The children don't want to play. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. and two use ichidan. (Let's eat. in this example. and is never used alone with an object.) As in English./I'll help you fix your bicycle. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie." For example: • • • Ikimashou. (I'll fix your bicycle.) * In Japanese. (I'll carry this/these [for you]. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). Add desu to make it polite.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. . (Let's go.) Tabemashou. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. In fact. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o." you would use the adjective hoshii and say.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
) Watashi wa terebi o minai. . Jim wa manga o yomimasen. As in English. konai (won't come). (Sachiko won't be coming. (Jim doesn't read comic books. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. which we already covered in Lesson 4. (I'm not going to watch TV.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). and should only be used in very informal settings. For example.) Jim wa manga o yomanai." as a matter of personal policy. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. like Base 2 + masen. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. shinai (won't do). and suru (do). kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. Etc.) Sachiko wa konai. kuru (come). Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. Depending on the situation.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai.
(Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. (Sachiko will probably come.) Actually. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form. hail.what will happen if something doesn't happen.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (Grandpa will probably return soon. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. Look at these examples: .) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. (It probably won't snow.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. snow. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. etc.
In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. Generally speaking. Additionally. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. chan. so it is omitted. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). especially when talking to an individual. and kun. The ones you'll hear the most are san.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. . sama. Once a person's name is known. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. as in English. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. For example. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. names are usually not used alone. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day." Actually. when speaking to that person.
and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. cousins. at any rate. company. aunt. Also. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. hopefully. Again. And. let's get back to you. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki." but is now a "san. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. mother. but to the title of those older. more familiar (and. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. Customarily. grandfather. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. but would also . Now. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. where anata is used for "you. uncle. For example. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. names are often shortened before adding chan. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt." This is normal and good. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". and chan with girls. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. use san with colleague's names. adult female neighbor." This Japanese would be understood. time passes. however. grandmother. etc. real or pretended. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. chan to female students. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. and children add it to the words for father. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. As a safe rule. Parents add chan to their children's names. adult male neighbor. After the sale is made. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service.for a while. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. older brother or sister (but not younger). older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. though san is probably more common for females. and playmates. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. unless an individual prefers chan. you can always ask. Family. of course. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. For those older. kun with boys. because san shows that a closer.
When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. Yes. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. So. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. and narimasen means "will not become".. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. which is the best choice when talking to large. the nakereba means "if one does not.". much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. toward the group concerned.. (The children must eat. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. formal.) Looking at it literally." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. but it conveys a certain distance.sound very stiff. So. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here." Let's take iku (to go). the ending becomes nakereba naranai. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. mixed groups. Accordingly. because it means "must do.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. This can be handy when . change it to Base 1 ika. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). (I have to go. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. even some affection. I may as well say here that much. It works fine. It's used quite a lot. there's no problem. Anatatachi could be used. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. which shows familiarity. (Jim has to return now. the fact is that it is very rarely used.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. however. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. and very odd. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. it's a bit of a tongue twister. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. the one left would be kimitachi. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so.
mastering a clean. (Jim probably has to return now. for yodan verbs. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. More than memorizing its meaning.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. and saseru.adding other endings. (I'll have John decide by next week. (I'll have him come tomorrow. as in "let him" or "make him. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. (Grandpa lets the children play.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. however. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. Accordingly. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. are used for all of these. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. In Japanese." can be conveyed. "I'll have him go to the store". Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. seru. like deshou from Lesson 14. "I'll let him go to the store". for the others. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. or feelings. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. (The children probably need to eat.) With "suru verbs.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru.
(Let's have John go to the store. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. (Dad will make Bob study. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. although miru is an ichidan verb. you won't hear or see "misaseru. which means "to show" or "to let see. past tense. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. kimeru: to decide kare: he. (I'll have her do it. (I want to have Kenji study English. polite.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru.) So. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come ." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru.) Kanojo ni saseru. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. (He lets them watch TV every day.) As you can see. by tomorrow." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. like miseru. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. etc.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy.
(Kenji will probably buy a new car. shown in the last example above. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. . a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings.the plain. Naomi wa terebi o miru. As in English. her karera: they. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. the fact that the rain will fall is understood." For example. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week.) The verb furu. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. Let's get back to deshou. as explained in Lesson 1. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. Not only should you be able to translate these. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. so it is often omitted. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. making the verb unnecessary. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Watashi wa ringo o taberu. means "to fall. (It will probably rain tomorrow. But before we begin.
(Bob will probably also want to go. as we would use tag questions in English. Please note that ka is not added at the end.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. like . (You ought to study English more.) John wa sugu kuru hazu.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.. snow. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples." etc. (John should be coming soon.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. etc.
prefer -. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. (We had better rest a little. but. and according to the grammar books. frankly." and ii means "good" or "better. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. (You should study Japanese more. practice makes perfect.way is good/better. (It would be better to eat later.) As with most verb endings.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". I hope to cover them in more detail later on.. As usual.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. (It would be better to do it next week. (I should call her. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. When you hear it.should be. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii.while hazu is more passive -.should do. (I'd rather go to Hawaii." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -." Actually. which was covered in Lesson 20.ni natte iru or beki..) Inu no hou ga ii. (I'd rather get a dog.) When showing personal preference. the hou means "way" or "method. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. "had better do".) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (It would be better to go by train today. Word Check .) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. "would rather do. should happen. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation.
him dekiru: can. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. (I don't know yet if we are going.) As can be seen in the examples above." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. but connects two phrases which contain verbs.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.kanojo: she. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. to understand inu: dog ima: now .) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. Word Check kare: he. It's like using "whether or not" in English. only the component order is opposite in Japanese.
) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. As such. (Jack may also come. and is conjugated accordingly. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary).) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai)." Since this verb ending is rather long.) . so please be careful when pronouncing. (We may eat out tonight. perhaps. (It might rain tomorrow. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. yes." These are incorrect. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. look. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). (It might snow tomorrow. this one is used frequently." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. so you'll want to master it right away. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. Therefore. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen.) As you sharp ones have noticed. Simply put.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. where it is converted to shireru (can know). when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known.taberu: to eat miru: to see.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. meaning that.
that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. with its reason. Itsumo okureru kara. so his English is good. In this case. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. (Beth is always late. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou.) Jisho o kaitai kara.) In spoken Japanese. eigo ga jouzu desu. grammatically speaking. Word Check komban: this evening. however.I suggest. so I'll call her. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. mise ni ikimasu. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. so I'm going to the store.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. kasa o motte ikimashou. honya ni ikimasu.) . given after. (Since it will probably rain." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. signified by kara at the end. they each become separate sentences. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara.) Ongaku o kikimasu. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Terebi o mitakunai kara. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. (I don't want to go to Mr. let's take umbrellas. (We don't have any milk. denwa shimasu. you'll often hear the action stated first.
but he's not good at it. no problem." so. just like English. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. disgusting mono: thing. nasty. which means "from.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. jouzu ni narimasen. keredo and kedo. (Although Jack is careful about his health. snow. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. as well as its shorter forms. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but she doesn't get any better. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. . (Keiko practices the piano a lot. Again.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. home iya na: bad. it's used a lot. Like "but" in English. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. (He speaks Japanese.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. etc." Just like English. it comes between the contrasting phrases. as you can imagine. heta desu.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but. yoku byouki shimasu.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. he gets sick a lot.
no problem. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. koto has no practical use by itself. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. First is koto. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. Better than all this talk would be an example. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. Let's move on. (I like reading. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form.. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. Like our ing.) Finally.. Well. If you have to have a translation." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. It'll come. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one." Does this help? If not.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. In English. not good at something. But first. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. No. let's look at each part.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. a lot. Next. like reading in the sentence I like reading. I like reading as a thing to do. Here are some examples: . it really doesn't change the verb. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get.
) Now." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. actions. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. etc.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. (I can read Japanese. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one)." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. There is a short alternative for other verbs. It does not .) Either way. Again. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. they're both used. actually for review -. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. (Keiko can play the piano. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. expressions.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. For example.no. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. (I can translate French into Japanese." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. essences.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. for kicks -." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. (I can't read French. long or short. With "suru verbs. meanings." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. and adding the suru makes it a verb. you can just omit suru. (John wasn't able to study yesterday." Denwa is a noun. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. it's a long ending for just "can. in that case the suru is omitted. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.let's try some other endings on dekiru. (Bob was able to call Junko.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. Kinou.
) . koto ni suru is the plain. As I'm sure you know by now. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. It shows that you have made a decision.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. and it shows that the decision was yours. (I'll go shopping tomorrow.
) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. watch (something) . to let (someone) see.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.) As in English. Made means "until. periods. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. (Mr. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. (We have to wait until Bob calls. (Wait until dinner.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. etc." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show.
you use it. This is one that will probably not be used very often. but if you do. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -.) Base 3 + na This. and to whom. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. . you could say. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. However. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. Stay away from here!.") ni: two shuu kan: a week."don't do's" -. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. as with English. First. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. be careful how. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
"Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. watashi ni shirasemasu.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara.sentences with "if. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. they probably won't eat dinner. he'll let me know. which is just a slight variation. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. He thought he said.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. but nara is more common. (If the kids eat a snack now. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara.) Ame ga furu nara. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. kuru deshou. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If he sees Yuko.) John ni denwa suru nara. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.
but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. In Japanese. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. respectively. But. page." Of course. Japanese English. and a person." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. that's another story.." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. things I'd like to explain.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. a place. As a quick review. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. to make matters worse.. I can see several things which need to be explained. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. And. which are examples involving a thing. and lengthy. explanations.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. but hopefully sufficient for the present. For example." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. there are no "relative pronouns. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. to offer very general. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. words that connect a noun to an action. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. a time. like in the first example above.
back to the lesson: First. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. For example. or a noun which needs emphasis. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense." as a relative pronoun." you might say. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. densha (train) is the main subject.) In this one. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. the English "where. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. they do not mean the same thing. The problem is that the rules are .) Since this is natural Japanese. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu.) In this sentence. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. and therefore omitted. As you may have noticed.) Now. Continuing with the above example. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. like our 's." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. especially in informal spoken Japanese. As you can see. since he or she will surely be hearing both. a substitute noun must be used. automatically designates a place. No is often used in place of ga. so tokoro is used after the verb.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). a "sub-subject. and is handled by the final verb. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. Kobe is a place. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. ga tells us who will take the train. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. Ga or no could be used here. a truer English translation would be. but since Japanese has no equivalent. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. and so it would most likely be omitted.
and when trying to make sense of one. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. Finally. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. I hope this lesson was clear enough. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". and shouldn't be too difficult. . These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. produce. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. and are in the realm of mid. semi-accurate rule. you must forget all the rules of the other. (Spring is the season that brings new life.to high-intermediate Japanese. As a general.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. and vice versa.totally different in each language. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive.) This one is pretty straightforward.
) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. need.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Jim will read a comic book. (She IS coming. (Grandpa will return soon. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. writhing. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. unexcited intonation. fist pounding. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. (I tell you. etc. (Grandpa will return soon. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). you need to review. Japanese English. If not.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. if you want to emphasize something.) Remember these? I hope so. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. (Jim will read a comic book. it IS going to rain tomorrow. However. stomping around.) . Word Check anta: familiar form of "you".) As in any other language. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. or habits of the speaker. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation.
remember daibun (or daibu): quite. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. specifically. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. meaning "in spite of. etc. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. There's nothing really tricky about it.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen." which we will cover later on. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. essential kanji: Chinese characters.) . the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. rather.) densha: train noru: to ride. Takamatsu-yuki. Please consult a dictionary for more.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni.
(Getting up early is sometimes difficult.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). impossible saikou: great. (Reading is enjoyable. to not exist tabi: trip . enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. (Speaking Japanese is easy. (It really was a problem-free trip. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. mine is red.). and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. still not fukanou: not possible. like our 's.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. the greatest. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. (Jim's dictionary is blue. Wa is the subject indicator. boku no wa aka desu.) Word Check tanoshii: fun.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. mainly the one used for possessives.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu.
use node. (Since Eiko can speak English.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to.) So. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. she'll probably find a good job. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. In other words.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. which is used to show reasons or causes. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite.prefix makes it "honorific. If kara was used instead. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. For example. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. the o. In this lesson we will take a look at node.
) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33. to follow rules or orders. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. rumors. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. this short lesson is about noni.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (Despite my telling her to stop. For example: . which is used for plain past structures. for the plain past. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. etc.) kiku: to listen.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. she won't listen. (I was late even though I got up early. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. understand to be. kanojo wa kikimasen. to quit a job or habit iu: to say.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot.) asoko: there.) annani: that much. Word Check yameru: to stop something.
which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time).) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. A full-time employee will use shigoto. It means "that's right" and often follows hai." (Yes. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. it usually means "for the purpose of. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. Here are some popular ones: . Japanese English.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu.) Tame is a very handy word. but is more often than not shortened to baito. The actual word is arubaito. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. a student will say baito. Takada's quitting. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita." and is often followed by the optional ni. that's right.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. as in "Hai. in order to. Word Check hiru kara: from noon. Japanese German. They use a noun geared to their type of job.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu.) As you have probably guessed." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. sou desu. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". (I heard that Mr.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns.
have (an interview).) For the curious. (This is for you. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. (Okay. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. (Remember.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita.) .) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. (This is for you.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. or if. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. receive. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. with. when. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. (Kimiko came with Bob. [plain.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. Mom. that's pronounced "toh. [Use no when putting a noun after tame.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru.") It can mean and. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. In this case. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something.]) Hai.
(I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. It means simply "I think. things you can do. begin to want.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).") (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. Now that it's been explained. (I think Eiko can speak English.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. to want to do. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. takunaru puts tai and naru together. (I think Koji will be late.) . to go) + taku (tai. It's okay to have an opinion. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. use umi." Iki (Base 2 of iku. but it is not generally used. meaning "come to want. especially in the workplace. When referring to the beach in Japanese. Japanese English. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. to become to want to go -. Sasaki will call us soon.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. of "party. and expected. While not specifically covered. (I think Ms. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. When promoting your own ideas or opinions.
Accordingly. towards me. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. omou can be used for plain speech. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. care. which was covered in Lesson 19. or don't really have any control over something. (I think the kids want to go to the beach.) Again.As you can see from the last examples. (I think it would be better to go by train today.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. don't really care. or have some control. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added.]) In a way. and it did. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. (I thought it would rain today [. (I thought/knew it would rain today [.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. but it didn't. this ending is a lot like deshou. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. goes back.) Base 3 + tsumori desu .
(Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. as you should know by now. is for past tense. yes. Deshita.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. In case you're wondering.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. S. technically speaking. etc. that was a short one. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. Well.) . Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. which means "to accumulate. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. so please be careful not to confuse them. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. build up. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou." used a lot. their meanings are completely different. hear the other verb tsumoru. You will. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. to enter/enroll in (a school). tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. While sounding alike. day. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. hairu: to go inside (a room). however. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. Always use daigaku for university. add desu to make it polite.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu.
e as in red OH. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. o as in mode . which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. that something is or will be. said so]. sou desu means you heard. First. and show what Base 4 looks like. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. etc. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to).• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. e as in see OO.) Ame ga furu you desu." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. a as in father EE. 5. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. 2. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3..) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. AH. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. u as in mule EH.) mitai: it looks like.) To be honest. "you look like an idiot.. baka: idiot. directly or indirectly. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. Simply put. 3. 4.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai.
You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. it's where you start. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 . Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs." or "dictionary form. Now. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it.
) Handy. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. they probably won't eat dinner. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. however. covered in Lesson 30? Well.) Ame ga fureba.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.. (If you call John he'll probably come. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4.. (If he sees Yuko. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. kuru deshou. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. watashi ni shirasemasu. (I want to call Grandma. As we learned in the last lesson. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.) John ni denwa sureba. Ii is Japanese for "good." as shown in these examples: .) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. Here.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler.. (If the kids eat a snack now. he'll let me know.
especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. By this stage of Japanese study.) Mom.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. yoi is not used with noni. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. (Around five. (The weather's nice.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. However. so it would be good to play outside. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. [I still wish you would play outside. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. (Now would be a good time to study. is used after ba -.) • As you can see. (It would be good if you played outside.) Kids: Terebi mitai. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. (We want to watch TV. they are not completely interchangeable. (I wish we had gone to the park. soto de asobeba ii.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. no. they both mean "good".there is no such Japanese as ikatta. quirky ii does not.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. In those situations different constructions would be used. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. (I wish I had ordered the steak. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. yokatta.) Naoko. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. yes.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. (We should have come at 8:00. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . (It'd be nice if you could come earlier.
You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. you will definitely become unpopular quickly.very handy when you get used to it. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Or.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time.and known to all concerned." . and maybe even get into a fight. just use Base 4. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. It's simple: no subject or object needed. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. this is a form you really don't want to use. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally.) light shokuji: food. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. Actually. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. If you do. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability.
For example. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu.it was like opening a new door. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. which was covered back in Lesson 26.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. Take a good look. It shows ability to do something. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. (Keiko can play the piano. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. Now. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. they can be treated like plain ichidans. (I can read Japanese.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. . too.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. (He might be able to go next month. Here we realize an important point -.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. (Keiko can't play the violin. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. just like most ichidans. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. Simply put.) Now. very useful.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. I remember when I first learned this one -. (Keiko can play the piano. It's very. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. No problem.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. As such.
which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. For example. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. If it helps. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. As you may have guessed. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. this is wasei eigo. this form is only meant for yodans.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. the "cannot do" plain form. (I can't read Japanese. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). (Keiko can't play the piano.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. It made sense to me.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. (Jack probably won't be able to come.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) . (As you remember. and I hope it will make sense to you. which was covered in Lesson 13.
to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. so I do too. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. this form is mainly for yodans. So. energetic. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. an example of which was included in the last lesson. but there are exceptions like the last example above. but who cares? Everyone uses it. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can).) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. you may wonder.) .) Again.) Base 4 + reba To be frank.
kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. If you don't mind.oboeru oboerekime.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.taberu tabereoboe.tabe. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.oboe.koyou .kime. First.kari.
) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (I wonder if I should go shopping." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. (Let's eat. oo. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. (I wonder if I should call Bob." Suru is shown plain. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should.) Yasumou. (Let's go.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something).." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. eh. ee.. but is converted as necessary: . (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.) Tabeyou. (I think I'll go shopping. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. (Let's take a break. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. I just made that up. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. (Maybe I'll watch TV. Also. oh.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara.. arukou ka na..) Terebi o miyou ka na. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments.
I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. but he couldn't.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. miemasen deshita.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . As you have most likely guessed.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. (I think John will try to come.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.
kesu (to turn off. hataraite. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. katte. kau (to buy). yobu (to call out). Please note this one important exception: iku. kiku (to listen. Yodan verbs that end in ku. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. like aruku (to walk). like kasu (to lend). Yodan verbs that end in tsu.matte. We'll cover pronunciation a little later.aruite. motsu (to hold). Yodan verbs that end in bu. tsunaide. tsunagu (to connect).e.isoide. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. to put out [a fire]). Yodan verbs that end in gu. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. nuide. not iite. katte.atte. kiite. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. It's important because it's used a lot. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. yonde. motte. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. like isogu (to hurry). katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -.asonde. not tsu).yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. to ask). like matsu (to wait). tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. keshite. like au (to meet). tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -.. tashite.kashite. like asobu (to play). tonde. . nutte. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -.
monde. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. but in Japanese we do. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. For practice let's use kuru (to come).) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. like kaeru (to return). It means "under. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. like yomu (to read). kiite. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite." "to lower (something). (Go ahead and eat." There are several handy variations of kudasai. humble me. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. (Come here. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. tabete. (Please come at six o'clock. totte. (Go ahead.kaette.) Chotto matte kudasai. tsutsunde. When you start learning kanji. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. (Please wait a bit. (Please come at six o'clock.) Matte. Yodan verbs that end in ru.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. momu (to massage). technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. (Listen to this. kiku (to listen). please eat.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans.) Douzo.yonde. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite." "to go down. haitte.) Kore o kiite. tabete kudasai. and kiru (to cut)." etc. (Come at six o'clock. depending on the tone of voice used. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. As you can see.) . hairu (to enter). tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. (Wait. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai.
(I'll give you this pen.) As you can see. and kitte: KEET-TEH. (I'll wait for you. kiite: KEE-EETEH. you use the Te Form + kudasai. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables.• Kore o kitte. tabete ageru. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little." Ageru also means "to give. to give (up to someone).) Tabetakunakereba. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. (I'll call you later. If you ask someone to do something for you.) Kono pen o agemasu." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. giving each equal time while making them short. (If you don't want to eat it. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. as covered in the last lesson." but it means "to raise. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me)." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. Now. I'll eat it for you.) . showing a "humbler" position. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. (Cut this.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. to show respect. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons.). but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. just like counting 1-2-3. (Please give me that pen.
as these examples show.In Japanese.) Notes 1. Don't use it. and will work nicely in most cases. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. which are chosen depending on the situation. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. in cases where there's a third person. string. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. laces musubu: to tie. Finally." It is disrespectful at best. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. and showing contempt for others. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the position of the giver or receiver. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. and. it's a great convenience besides. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. However. It's for "talking down" to. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. (Lend Bob your pen. as a general rule.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. .
mild command-like sentences. You never use it on yourself. (Try calling Sanae. which is used to prove a point. (Ask Bob and see what he says.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Read it for yourself. (Take a look.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo.) Tabete goran. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. usually in short.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. (It says he's 38. See for yourself. Yonde goran nasai. Mite goran nasai. (There is salt on the shelf. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element." You use it to ask someone to try something. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. Go and see for yourself.) That's how we use goran nasai.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. Itte goran nasai.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. (Taste it and see if you like it. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be.) Te Form + iru .) Mite goran.
it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. (I am walking.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). (I'm reading the newspaper. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. as in the fourth example above. (They are reading a magazine.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. and not shiru. [We are living in Takamatsu. Because of this. when they really should use sunde iru. masen.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. in a way. (She is eating sushi. mashita. (Bill is studying Japanese. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. (Shizuko is eating. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. it works like English." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. For example.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. [I wasn't watching TV today. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). [Yesterday I was sleeping all day.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. Especially important are masu.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. As you already know. we can get away with using just "live" in English."). It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . Since iru is a plain ichidan verb.) Kinou nete imashita. and masen deshita.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. "I'm knowing [it].) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. to exist. (He's not studying French.) Watashi wa aruite iru." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. (Yesterday I slept all day. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. (I didn't watch TV today. (We live in Takamatsu. (I am here. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. in English we would normally ask a person. we say "I know. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be." So. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense.
Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. like "kid" in English. it is even written this way -. to do (something) ko: kid. Finally. so I'll tell you: "to play. In fact. For example.with the i in iru omitted -. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu.imashita ka.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy.) I know you're wondering. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. "woman-child" / "man-child"). Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. there is no single. child Note: Strangely. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. but. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. (I was watching TV. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. imouto: little (younger) sister .
which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.Note: In Japanese. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. there are many that can. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. nani o shite iru deshou ka. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (They aren't reading a magazine.) Benkyou shite inakereba. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. which makes them present or past progressive.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. present and past. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. Please look at the following examples. (We don't live in Okayama.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. ane for older sister. (The kids probably aren't studying. (They aren't reading a magazine. (Bill isn't studying Japanese.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. (Sam's not here. (If they're not studying. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. First let's do some plain negative examples. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. and imouto for younger sister. and adding ra makes it conditional. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. otouto for younger brother. (We don't live in Okayama. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. infinitive and progressive: . to exist." As such. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. (Sam's not here.
• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. (I wasn't eating then. and goes especially well with plain ones. which can be convenient at times. Dekita. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. It's for asking questions. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. vague and troublesome at others. (I haven't eaten yet. (I didn't eat an apple. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. To make the meaning perfectly clear.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. which appears in the last example. (I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. The last two above are good examples of this. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. (I wasn't eating then. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. In either. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. "we could" could be "he could." depending on the actual situation.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. to be able).) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. (I'm not eating [now]. since it is not only a Te Form ending.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. but also a much- . (I didn't eat an apple. However.
]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. upgrade ita to imashita. Just for the fun of it. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. I include the usual English translation. Soshite terebi o mite ita. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. In fact. [I went shopping. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. As I'm sure you know by now. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. Put simply. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. (I went shopping.) That's real Japanese. (Really? I was washing my car.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. (John was watching TV. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. this would be two males speaking. Also.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . (I was doing shopping. The above example conversation looks all proper when written.]) Yes. (Really? I washed my car. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. [Really? I washed my car.used element of conversational Japanese. (Bill was studying. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. but no real friends or family members -. (They were reading a magazine. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here.are going to speak so grammatically correct. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. Soshite terebi miteta. ita is the plain past form of iru. in settings where polite speech is called for.
and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. however. (Would you please call Mr. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. Oboete imasen ka. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. as covered in Lesson 50. Here are some examples. Because itadaku is a very polite word. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. It can.) As in English. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. meaning something like "I humbly partake. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. . itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita.
Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. I'll get Grandpa to go. Get Ken to go. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. morau is not impolite. As usual. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. but not quite as polite -.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. Traditionally. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. Make no mistake. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. No particular reservations are needed here. (Ken's not here now. Also. morau works best when talking about a third party. (I'm doing homework now. adding a masu ending makes it polite.not as "respectful" -. it's just plain. Ken ni itte moratte. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa.as itadakimasu. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka.) This is a family situation. and it can be at times." When there's no need to be very polite. With kudasai. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. even when the giver is not present. Morau is okay when referring to other things. but since we can't do that now.) This is the same family. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu." With itadakimasu. this would be the best way to go. use morau instead of itadaku.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. itadakimasu is always used with food. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go.) .) Ima shukudai o shite iru. However. (I'm doing homework now.
If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. company. Just like anywhere else. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. Murai go. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. moraimashita. tell shorui: forms. each home. (I got one [already].) Itadakimashita. office. customers.Itadakimasu is always used with food. (I had Ms. (May I please have your name?) Hai. (Yes. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. I got one. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. but she already has one and doesn't want another.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko.) This is at the office.prefix is used with strangers.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. and these two are being courteous. (I'll give you a pen. clients. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. documents. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. They probably don't see each other every day. etc. (Sure.) oshieru: to teach. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two.
such as summer to mean "after summer.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. Simple and useful. to come home owaru: to end.) .) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou.. (Let's go see a movie after work. You can't use it directly after nouns.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (After I eat I'm going shopping. then add the Te Form of owaru. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. (John's coming over after he does his homework. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. you just make them the subject/object with ga.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something)... to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain)." There are other ways to do that.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou. Word Check kaeru: to return. such as those two common ones work and school.
This is the simplest way to ask a favor. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. and it would be offensive in some cases. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. ogotte kureru no?. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka.) And finally. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. this is the "command" form of kureru. repeated request. In fact. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. you might say Ah. It's good for family members and close friends. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. which literally means "Oh. (Please wait. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. For example. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. (Please come here.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. Kureru is used in generally the same way. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind).Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. Again. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent.) Matte kure. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room.
) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. (Because of that. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. you'll see what I mean.) As can be seen. dreams." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as .) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. I think that the number of PC users will increase. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. (I have been studying German history.) Sono tame." (If you say just ikimasu. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. assumptions. expresses future plans. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. depending on intonation." Usually upgraded with masu. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou.sound nicer than with kure.
) Accordingly. or cuisine. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. (I'll go check it [then come back]. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history).) shiraberu: to check (something). but should be easily understood. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. to examine. but when uncertain.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. inexpensive.. asobi ni kite kudasai.) Shirabete kuru. (I came to borrow a textbook. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. combined with naru: to become." See Lesson 40. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku.) Douzo.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. (Please come over [sometime]. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. food.."going away and not coming back. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. (Let's go eat Chinese food.): cheap. (I ate before coming over." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . There are several "set combinations" where it is used. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming.
the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. to entertain oneself.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. (Let's give this new PC a try. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. but he wasn't in. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb.. Or. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu.. miru means "to see. but don't take it literally.. (I'll try to talk to John.) Simple enough. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu." meaning that we'll give something a try.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. go ahead asobu: to play. (I tried calling him. and adding miru.) Te Form + miru As you know. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. (I'll try to read these kanji. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. In Japanese grammar." which makes this one easy to remember. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. with its own set phrases. Either way. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. it acts like a "quasi adjective. (Verbs are shown in their plain form." ." but technically it's not one of those either.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga." You may hear it often. Well. rusu deshita. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. but it's not. For example.
like the object indicator o. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. (You can use my PC. positive response. As with most Japanese.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission.). Yes. In the workplace." "okay. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. in familiar situations as in the last example above. (Yeah." "it's okay if (someone does something)... (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. you can use my dictionary. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. you can watch TV. (You may go home early today. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite." "fine. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.." Accordingly.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to.. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. There's usually something else added on.. terebi mite ii. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44).) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you.) Hai. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. as with all adjectives. so you should be a little familiar with it.. that is the way it works grammatically..?)." etc. you can also get away with omitting particles. As I've probably mentioned before. (Sure.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission.. however. It's an adjective which means "good. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii.) .) (Yes. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner." etc.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. do not add the plain. (Well. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. You can omit the desu ka for plain. If you do." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. of course. but usually alone.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. you can say it." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . If you break a bone in Japanese. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression.) Actually.these don't use it. question-forming no -. but not ikaga ka. if you're going to use it in this way. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. You can't just say "I broke my arm. familiar talk.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. Instead. polite. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. You can say dou ka.
" in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. (Don't be late. to make it even more colorful. like ikan (Takamatsu). chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. In fact. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). used in a normal. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. When placed after the Te Form with wa. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. (You can't take pictures.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. "Naughty!".) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. Also. akan (Osaka). there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. and you're bound to hear either of these. So. etc. etc.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. everyday setting.. iken (Okayama). "Thou shalt not. "You mustn't do that!".. especially ikenai. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take .
and left home at eight." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji.) As you can see. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. the kanji used for each meaning are different. like "take a bath. to take (steal) something from someone. then go shopping. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. because tooru is a totally different vowel. some simple ones. (I got up at seven o'clock. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go].) Also. to take a picture with a camera.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. hachiji ni ie o demashita. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. meaning "to pass (by/over something). choushoku o tabete. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. ate breakfast. watashi wa kaimono ni iku.) . To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. straighten up the room. heya o katazukete moratte.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. heya o katazukete. However. and [then] made my dinner. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. which is easy to do. (I've got to call Shizu. fed him. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. esa o ataete. First. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. and I'm going shopping.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take.
Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. just start a new sentence. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . When you're not sure. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. past. to straighten up. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. whose major purpose is to make things plain. and simple.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. Just for a quick check. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. a house deru: to leave.
you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. . (I watched TV. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I ate lunch. and only omit them when everyone else does. (I read a book.) Ohiru tabeta. There are cases where particles would never be cut. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. Once again. there are limits.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. (I did it. (I got a haircut. (My goldfish died.) Boku no kingyo shinda. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita.) Hon yonda. In the long run.) Kami kitta. Also. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. (I went to the bank.) Terebi mita.) Ginkou itta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. Let's do some real basic.
even on a caterpillar. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. (The cake Joy made was delicious. anywhere." Very handy. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. For example. literally "hairbug. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. hon becomes the subject.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. beforehand. use kami. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do.) Shinda kingyo wa.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. roku nen mae ni katta. Ke alone is hair — any hair.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. yonda modifies hon like an adjective.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. I had someone cut my hair. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. kiru: to cut." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before." If we switch these around to yonda hon." There are a few of these. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta.) ." and is less formal than chuushoku. juu hachi man en deshita." it is used for "I got a haircut. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built.) Boku ga katta PC wa.
(He's supposed to come at six. not deshita. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. which will serve as a nice review. as in the last example above. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. Base 3 is used for the plain future. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. And. One past tense element is enough. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. Since we have already covered these.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. because deshita is the past form of desu. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. Carefully note the similarities and differences.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. Instead. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. root form of Japanese verbs.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. . Again. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. For a more detailed review. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. the rest really isn't too difficult.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. (If necessary. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. (He was supposed to come at six. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. Due to this. these two share many add-ons and endings. use desu to make it polite. please click the lesson links. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou.
) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. Takada's quitting. Takada quit.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu.. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. sensei ga okoru. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night.) Kinou no ban. I'm late every day. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Note: Yes. sensei ga okotta. I was late.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai.) Beth wa okureta kara. (Even though I get up early. For expressing regret.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. (It would be better to go by train today. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (I should have taken the train today. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii." Please don't make this mistake. (I heard that Mr. (It would be better to go by train today. (I heard that Mr. (Even though I got up early.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.
it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. etc. now that I think of it." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. not with people or objects.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. mai is used with units of time. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly.) In fact. (I just bought that umbrella. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. In other words.) Ame ga futta mitai.) John wa deta bakari. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. (It looks like it's going to rain. (I just ate. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. (I just cleaned this room. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. (It looks like it rained.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.) yameru: to quit a job.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. (Mom just got back.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. (John just left. .) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.) Sono kasa o katta bakari.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. snow. like something memorized from a grammar book.
This is used after the Te Form. (Yes. I'd like to try it.) As you can see. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. (No.. Tabete mitai kedo.. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form..) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced." in Japanese. I've been twice. to go/come back deru: to leave. Nikai ikimashita." usually as a complaint. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. (All that kid does is play computer games. (All Shizuka ever does is study English.. though. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). Once you get these sorted and memorized. to do (familiar. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports).) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.. (All you ever do is eat. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. I haven't. you'll find them very useful. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. you use the verb iku (to go) . (Yes. I have. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. First.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. tabeta koto ga nai.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. arimasu. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb.
although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. kare wa kuru deshou. First. (No.) Next.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru." Finally. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. but regular past tense. The second is that in using this form." which. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) John ni denwa suru nara.and literally ask "have you gone to.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. As in B's reply above. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. I haven't read it yet. you don't use this form. kare wa kuru deshou.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. (If you call John he'll probably come. not yet." but "I went twice. (If you call John he'll probably come. mada yonde inai. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. [No.) kedo: however. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals.. to me. they probably won't eat lunch. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai.. See Lessons 7 and 60. (If the kids eat a snack.) John ni denwa sureba. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.) . but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.
) .) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. they probably won't eat lunch.) John ni denwa shitara. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Desu is usually used after sou.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. Yes.. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). (I heard that Mr.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. Takada's quitting. (If you call John he'll probably come. (If the kids eat a snack. Word Check oshieru: to tell. Takada's quitting. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. According to the books. but I personally have never heard it..) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara." "I hear that.. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. familiar conversation.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. they probably won't eat lunch. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). (Please tell me if you see Yukiko." etc. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. (I heard that Mr. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada... kare wa kuru deshou.) Again. making it more formal than rashii.. to inform. meaning "It seems that. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.
)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. some cleaning. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. then ate dinner. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. and did some homework. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. (Last night I watched TV. (I watched TV and stuff. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. listened to some music.That's all there is to it.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. (Jim buys and sells old things. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. terebi o mitari suru deshou. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. (Last night after dinner I . right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. ongaku o kiitari. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. If you want. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. It can also be used for present or future happenings. Word Check daibun: considerably. and watch TV. yuushoku o tabeta. souji shitari.) Now. (I read comics and stuff.
but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence.) . (If Bob were to come tomorrow. practiced the piano and things. then did homework until one o'clock. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. * Note: While unnatural in English. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. listened to music for about two hours. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. I'd really be at a loss.watched TV. then she made dinner. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. chuushoku o tabete. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. ate lunch.
you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. dou shimashou ka. you must remember that (something else). (Supposing it rains this afternoon. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. Word Check hontou ni: really.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. (If you were to go swimming now. (Even if you studied Spanish. you'd probably regret it. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . without doubt komaru: to be confused.. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. etc. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. snow." As usual.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. In fact..) As you can see.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. tabun koukai suru deshou.
.. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. (I laughed when I heard that. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. (No matter how much he eats. (When I read that. I can't understand this software. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes.) While not covered before.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. I was very surprised. After the Ta Form.. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. (John's pants were torn when he fell. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. (Even if I read the manual.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. he never gets full.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. zenzen ippai ni naranai. For example. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.
(I just cleaned this room. to is usually used because of its flexibility.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. or. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro.) However. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . in the least recent sense. (The kids just finished eating. One similar to this. the Ta Form + bakari.) As usual. add desu to make a statement polite. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. (I just got back now. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. However. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. For example. was already covered in Lesson 69. it's still brand-new.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. while tokoro really means just now.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari.
and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.) Bob wa byouki desu.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. (Yes. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da.) Ashita wa ame desu." Generally speaking. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. (Carol is 25 years old. (Bob's sick.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu.. (There's a big tree in the park. Tom's here. etc. You can add it to many statements to make them polite.) desu.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (The dictionary is on the desk. (Tomorrow it will rain.) The plain form of desu is da.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. aru is a yodan. is. After nouns and adjectives.. desu makes things polite. [I don't want to. are. like something from the masu group. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. iru is used for people and animals.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . (No. (There's a spider on the wall. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. iru and aru As you know.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. (There's a big tree in the park. Tanaka. Tom wa iru yo. (That school is old. (He is Mr.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
one is "as. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs.. getting back to desu. ima Tom wa imasen. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. (I don't have a dictionary. If you're really interested in the technical background.. it is rarely used these days. (I don't have a dictionary. Tom's not here now. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough.. Tom's not here now. .) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. state or condition. unpleasant. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. ima Tom wa inai.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. and is especially used by children." as in being in a certain position. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. Japanese is no exception." So. Again. (Sorry. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. Use desu instead. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. (Sorry.) Now.• • Sumimasen. Connected with aru it means "to exist as.) Jisho wa nai.) Jisho wa arimasen. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). This is one that is rarely used these days. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. here it is: Among the several roles of de.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry.
Accordingly. They are not conjugations. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. very rarely will they correct you. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like.) . one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. This is certainly not a complete list. active/passive forms.) Hai. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. which is intransitive (has no direct object). atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. agaru and ageru. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou.) Hayaku kimete kudasai.) Note: These two. have close ties with Japanese culture. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. I'll give you this.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. to go/come up ageru: to raise up.What makes it worse is the fact that very. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. (Here. (Please come in. ageru. (Please make up your mind quickly. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. to give • • Agatte kudasai. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. agaru is used for "come inside.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. So that there is no misunderstanding." When exchanging gifts. (Wendy collects old stamps.
when you find something that was lost. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. use tetsudau. (I found a pimple. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue.. (Thank you.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. etc.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai.. tasukaru: to be of help. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. Also." it's not. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). like helping in the kitchen. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. (Please continue looking for it. Strangely.. as if it just found itself.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky.. to help • • Arigatou. » -su / -u . For routine helping. You were really a great help. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. to arrive (a package.
kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. (Let the dog out.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. Please don't leave any. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased.) Kaigi ga owattara.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete.) herasu: to decrease.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. (Grandpa went outside. to put down oriru: to go/come down. to get off or get out of a vehicle . (The copier is broken. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (Please cut down on your spending. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. (Eat all this. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. (Be back by ten o'clock. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. Nokosanaide kudasai. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta.
kimono. etc. like a belt. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. socks. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. For most standard verbs.) Of course there are others. like pants." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. etc.• • Koko ni oroshite. dress. (My hat got dirty. (Don't move that machine. where there is no special intransitive or passive form.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. but these should give you a good start.) Kemushi ga ugoita. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. obi. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. necktie.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. etc. (Put it down here.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. you'll probably be laughed at. a skirt. warawareru deshou. (The caterpillar moved.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. (If you wear those glasses. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. like a shirt.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. shoes. (This cake probably won't be eaten. jacket. hameru: to wear on a finger. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. like a name tag or pin .
Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. This completes Japanese Verbs. and especially when talking about accessories. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! .
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