Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + kudasai 51.44. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Base 5 50. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + shimau 64. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + iru 54. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + kureru 59. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + ita 56.

desu.67. Ta Form + tokoro 78. but to be more precise. not u. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . tsu. gu. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. Ta Form + rashii 73. ichidan. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + bakari 70. Ta Form + to shitara 75. su. bu." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + ra 72. which can end in u. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. Remembering this will make further study much easier. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. nu. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. mu. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. and irregular.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. ku. which means "to walk.

" Interestingly.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. (Grandpa will return soon. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. (I'll eat an apple. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb . and also very juvenile or "familiar. unless it was from another foreigner." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. Some sources call these verbs godan. (Naomi will watch TV. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1.) This is very simple Japanese. but there is no difference. (Jim will read a comic book. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru.) Jim wa manga o yomu. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them.

instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end.before the masu ending is added. "adult" Japanese. the present polite ending.their "Base 2" form -. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. Since masu requires the Base 2 form.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. (Jim will read a comic book. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap.

(He won't wait. and should not be worried about at this stage. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. (Ayako watches the TV every day. which is the negative form of masu.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. let's try masen.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. (Jerry will come out soon.) Kare wa machimasen. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru.) Now.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.) . (I'll decide tomorrow. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one.

Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. (Miki wants to see that movie.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (I want to buy an umbrella.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. masen shows negative tense.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Easy enough. (The children want to play. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. etc.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. To make them polite. . (The children didn't play at the park. (I'm not going to eat now.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.) The above examples are plain forms.

(Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.) * In Japanese." This structure will be covered later on./I'll help you fix your bicycle. (Let's eat. For example.) Simple enough. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. It simply means "let's (do something). (Let's go. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. but either way this one is easy to remember.Please note that tai is only used with verbs.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. Add desu to make it polite.) Yasumimashou. In fact." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. (I don't want to buy an umbrella.) Tabemashou. (Let's get you some food. (The children don't want to play.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. and two use ichidan." For example: • • • Ikimashou. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. in this example. (I'll fix your bicycle. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. (I'll carry this/these [for you]. and is never used alone with an object. (Let's take a break.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. .) As in English.

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

(Grandpa isn't going to return soon.) Watashi wa terebi o minai.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. and suru (do). Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. Depending on the situation.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. (Jim doesn't read comic books." as a matter of personal policy. As in English.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). konai (won't come).) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). which we already covered in Lesson 4.) Sachiko wa konai. and should only be used in very informal settings. For example. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. shinai (won't do). (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. (Sachiko won't be coming. . Etc. (I'm not going to watch TV. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. like Base 2 + masen. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. kuru (come).

like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (Grandpa will probably return soon.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one.) Actually.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.what will happen if something doesn't happen. Look at these examples: . or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. snow. (Sachiko will probably come. hail. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. (It probably won't snow.

" Actually. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. The ones you'll hear the most are san. and kun. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. as in English. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. Additionally. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. sama. chan.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. . Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. so it is omitted. Once a person's name is known. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. For example. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. Generally speaking. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. names are usually not used alone. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. when speaking to that person. especially when talking to an individual.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.

cousins. For example. at any rate. you can always ask. Again. of course. Customarily. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. aunt. hopefully. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother." but is now a "san. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. where anata is used for "you. For those older. and playmates.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. more familiar (and. grandfather. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. etc. And. chan to female students. but to the title of those older. let's get back to you. kun with boys. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. adult female neighbor. though san is probably more common for females. grandmother. As a safe rule. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. use san with colleague's names.for a while. Family. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. company. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister." This is normal and good. unless an individual prefers chan. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. Also. uncle. After the sale is made. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. and children add it to the words for father. older brother or sister (but not younger). names are often shortened before adding chan. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. real or pretended. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. Now. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. because san shows that a closer. time passes. mother. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. but would also . a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. and chan with girls. Parents add chan to their children's names. adult male neighbor." This Japanese would be understood. however.

A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. I may as well say here that much. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. as you'll remember from Lesson 15.) Looking at it literally. change it to Base 1 ika.. (I have to go. which is the best choice when talking to large. the one left would be kimitachi. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. Accordingly. there's no problem.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. So. and very odd. however. Yes. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen).". I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. even some affection.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. which shows familiarity. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. and narimasen means "will not become". It works fine. It's used quite a lot.sound very stiff. (Laura has to buy an umbrella.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. formal. (Jim has to return now. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. because it means "must do.. mixed groups. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". the nakereba means "if one does not. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. it's a bit of a tongue twister. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). toward the group concerned. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. the fact is that it is very rarely used. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. So. but it conveys a certain distance. Anatatachi could be used. This can be handy when ." Let's take iku (to go).anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. (The children must eat.

(Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. (I'll have him come tomorrow.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns.) With "suru verbs. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. (I'll have John decide by next week. Accordingly.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. or feelings. In Japanese.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. as in "let him" or "make him. for the others. and saseru. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. mastering a clean. for yodan verbs.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. like deshou from Lesson 14. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. More than memorizing its meaning. however." can be conveyed. "I'll have him go to the store". (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. (The children probably need to eat. are used for all of these. "I'll let him go to the store". The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. (Jim probably has to return now.adding other endings. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. seru. (Grandpa lets the children play.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances.

past tense.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. (I want to have Kenji study English. you won't hear or see "misaseru.) So.) Kanojo ni saseru. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. kimeru: to decide kare: he." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. (I'll have her do it. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00.) As you can see.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. etc. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. (He lets them watch TV every day. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. polite. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come . (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. although miru is an ichidan verb. (Let's have John go to the store. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. by tomorrow. (Dad will make Bob study." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. like miseru. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. which means "to show" or "to let see.

(It will probably rain tomorrow. so it is often omitted. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings.) The verb furu. Not only should you be able to translate these. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. her karera: they. But before we begin. as explained in Lesson 1. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. As in English." For example. . Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. making the verb unnecessary. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store).) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Let's get back to deshou. means "to fall.the plain. shown in the last example above. Naomi wa terebi o miru.

isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. (You ought to study English more. snow.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. like . right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. as we would use tag questions in English." etc.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. Please note that ka is not added at the end.. (Bob will probably also want to go. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. (John should be coming soon.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. etc. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu.

practice makes perfect. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii." Actually." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". (It would be better to go by train today. Word Check . When you hear it.) When showing personal preference. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. (It would be better to do it next week. (It would be better to eat later.) As with most verb endings. should happen." and ii means "good" or "better. "had better do". If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do".) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii.. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.should be. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. but. and according to the grammar books. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.ni natte iru or beki.while hazu is more passive -.) Inu no hou ga ii. As usual. the hou means "way" or "method. (We had better rest a little. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. frankly. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. prefer -.should do.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. "would rather do.way is good/better. (You should study Japanese more.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. which was covered in Lesson 20. (I should call her. (I'd rather get a dog.. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.

to understand inu: dog ima: now . her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I don't know yet if we are going. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. but connects two phrases which contain verbs.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not.) As can be seen in the examples above. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. Word Check kare: he. It's like using "whether or not" in English." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now.kanojo: she. him dekiru: can. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. only the component order is opposite in Japanese.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou.

Kamo shiremasen means "maybe.) As you sharp ones have noticed.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. look. where it is converted to shireru (can know). Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). Therefore.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). (It might rain tomorrow. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow." These are incorrect. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. and is conjugated accordingly.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. As such.taberu: to eat miru: to see. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). (We may eat out tonight.) . (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. so you'll want to master it right away. so please be careful when pronouncing. this one is used frequently. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen." Since this verb ending is rather long. (Jack may also come. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. Simply put. perhaps. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. yes.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. (It might snow tomorrow. meaning that." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen.

tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. kasa o motte ikimashou.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. (We don't have any milk. they each become separate sentences. signified by kara at the end.) In spoken Japanese.) Ongaku o kikimasu. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. Itsumo okureru kara. so his English is good. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. grammatically speaking. you'll often hear the action stated first. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. with its reason. mise ni ikimasu.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. let's take umbrellas. denwa shimasu. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. (Beth is always late.) Jisho o kaitai kara. In this case. however. given after. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Terebi o mitakunai kara. (Since it will probably rain. Word Check komban: this evening. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. so I'll call her. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. so I'm going to the store.I suggest. eigo ga jouzu desu. honya ni ikimasu. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. (I don't want to go to Mr.) .

) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy." so. (Although Jack is careful about his health. Like "but" in English. jouzu ni narimasen. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. but she doesn't get any better. no problem.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. it's used a lot." Just like English. heta desu. but he's not good at it.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. (He speaks Japanese. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. yoku byouki shimasu. home iya na: bad.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. disgusting mono: thing. . it comes between the contrasting phrases. he gets sick a lot. keredo and kedo. nasty. etc. Again. snow. just like English. which means "from. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. as you can imagine. as well as its shorter forms. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at.

Better than all this talk would be an example. But first. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. (I like reading. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. koto has no practical use by itself. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's move on. If you have to have a translation. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3.) Finally. it really doesn't change the verb. a lot. First is koto. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. I like reading as a thing to do. Like our ing. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. In English.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading.. Here are some examples: . (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. Well." Does this help? If not.. let's look at each part. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. No. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. no problem. Next. It'll come. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. not good at something. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. like reading in the sentence I like reading.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something.

let's try some other endings on dekiru." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. actions.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. (Richard couldn't eat the squid.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. long or short. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. it's a long ending for just "can. meanings. essences. With "suru verbs." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives.) Now. For example.no. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. There is a short alternative for other verbs. actually for review -. etc.) Either way." Denwa is a noun. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). they're both used. It does not . (Bob was able to call Junko. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. Kinou. (I can't read French. Again.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. (Keiko can play the piano. for kicks -.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. (I can translate French into Japanese. expressions. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. in that case the suru is omitted. (I can read Japanese. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. you can just omit suru.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. and adding the suru makes it a verb. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation.

and it shows that the decision was yours. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can.) . (I'll go shopping tomorrow. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. koto ni suru is the plain. It shows that you have made a decision. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. As I'm sure you know by now.

or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. to let (someone) see.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. (Mr. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. watch (something) .• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. (We have to wait until Bob calls.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen.) As in English.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. etc.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. periods.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. (Wait until dinner. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. Made means "until.

First. Stay away from here!. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. This is one that will probably not be used very often. . a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. be careful how. and to whom. you use it. However. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. you could say."don't do's" -. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. but if you do.) Base 3 + na This. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. as with English. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs.

"Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) John ni denwa suru nara. (If the kids eat a snack now. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken.sentences with "if." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. but nara is more common. kuru deshou. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If he sees Yuko. they probably won't eat dinner. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. he'll let me know. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. (If you call John he'll probably come. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. He thought he said.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.) Ame ga furu nara. which is just a slight variation.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. watashi ni shirasemasu.

we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. a place..) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. and a person. that's another story. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. For example. As a quick review.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. which are examples involving a thing. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. there are no "relative pronouns. And. Japanese English. to make matters worse. words that connect a noun to an action. I can see several things which need to be explained. respectively. things I'd like to explain. explanations. page. a time." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. to offer very general." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. and lengthy.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question." Of course. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. but hopefully sufficient for the present. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. like in the first example above. But. In Japanese..

As you may have noticed. a truer English translation would be.) Now. a substitute noun must be used. especially in informal spoken Japanese. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. back to the lesson: First. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. automatically designates a place. For example. and is handled by the final verb.) In this sentence. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. Continuing with the above example. like our 's. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. the English "where. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. The problem is that the rules are . Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. Kobe is a place." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. or a noun which needs emphasis.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. No is often used in place of ga. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. ga tells us who will take the train. and therefore omitted. a "sub-subject. and so it would most likely be omitted. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. they do not mean the same thing. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. densha (train) is the main subject." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English.) Since this is natural Japanese." you might say. Ga or no could be used here. since he or she will surely be hearing both. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. so tokoro is used after the verb.) In this one." as a relative pronoun. As you can see. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. but since Japanese has no equivalent.

depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". Finally. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and are in the realm of mid. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. .to high-intermediate Japanese. (Spring is the season that brings new life. and vice versa. and when trying to make sense of one. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about.totally different in each language. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. produce.) This one is pretty straightforward. I hope this lesson was clear enough. As a general. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. you must forget all the rules of the other. semi-accurate rule. and shouldn't be too difficult. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult.

Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. or habits of the speaker.) As in any other language. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. etc.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. writhing. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. (I tell you. you need to review. Japanese English. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu.) Remember these? I hope so. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. If not.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.) . However.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. (Jim will read a comic book. (She IS coming. it IS going to rain tomorrow. (Jim will read a comic book.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). stomping around. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". (Grandpa will return soon. fist pounding. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. if you want to emphasize something. unexcited intonation. need.

Takamatsu-yuki. meaning "in spite of. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji." which we will cover later on.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. rather. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. There's nothing really tricky about it.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Please consult a dictionary for more. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. essential kanji: Chinese characters.) densha: train noru: to ride.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. specifically. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. etc.) . to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses.

Wa is the subject indicator. to not exist tabi: trip . (Living on Mars is not yet possible. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. the greatest.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. (Jim's dictionary is blue.). (Reading is enjoyable.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. impossible saikou: great. (It really was a problem-free trip.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. mainly the one used for possessives. still not fukanou: not possible. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. boku no wa aka desu.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. mine is red. like our 's. (Speaking Japanese is easy. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de.

) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . the o. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. and is therefore preferred when people are involved.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. (Since Eiko can speak English. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now.) So. which is used to show reasons or causes. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. In other words. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. In this lesson we will take a look at node.prefix makes it "honorific. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. she'll probably find a good job. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. For example.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. If kara was used instead. use node. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara.

For example: . she won't listen. (I was late even though I got up early. rumors. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. to follow rules or orders.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33. which is used for plain past structures. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. Word Check yameru: to stop something. this short lesson is about noni.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. for the plain past. understand to be. kanojo wa kikimasen. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form.) kiku: to listen. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) annani: that much.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. (Despite my telling her to stop.) asoko: there. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.

that's right. Japanese German. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. but is more often than not shortened to baito.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay." (Yes. sou desu.) Tame is a very handy word.) As you have probably guessed.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. Takada's quitting. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). They use a noun geared to their type of job. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. Japanese English. Here are some popular ones: .) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. as in "Hai. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". in order to. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form." and is often followed by the optional ni. it usually means "for the purpose of. a student will say baito. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". Word Check hiru kara: from noon. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. (I heard that Mr. A full-time employee will use shigoto.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. The actual word is arubaito. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita.

After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. In this case. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu.]) Hai. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. have (an interview). or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. with. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. when. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. (Kimiko came with Bob. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. or if. Mom. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. (Okay.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. (Remember.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to.) For the curious. [plain. (This is for you. receive. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita.) .") It can mean and. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. that's pronounced "toh. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (This is for you. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get.

Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. It's okay to have an opinion.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. (I think Koji will be late.) . use umi. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. It means simply "I think.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). When referring to the beach in Japanese. to want to do. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). meaning "come to want. takunaru puts tai and naru together.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo." Iki (Base 2 of iku.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. things you can do. Japanese English. Sasaki will call us soon. (I think Eiko can speak English. While not specifically covered. to go) + taku (tai. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. (I think Ms. Now that it's been explained. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. and expected. especially in the workplace. but it is not generally used. begin to want. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. to become to want to go -. of "party.

this ending is a lot like deshou. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. (I think it would be better to go by train today. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. don't really care. omou can be used for plain speech. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. (I thought it would rain today [.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. which was covered in Lesson 19. goes back. towards me. care. and it did. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). Accordingly. or have some control. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic.) Again. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. but it didn't. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. (I didn't think that Koji would be late.As you can see from the last examples. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. or don't really have any control over something.]) In a way.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible.

technically speaking. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as you should know by now. is for past tense.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. In case you're wondering. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. to enter/enroll in (a school). no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. which means "to accumulate. Deshita.) . College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. and other countries where the word college is used loosely.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. day." used a lot.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. etc. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. While sounding alike.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. so please be careful not to confuse them.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. that was a short one. Well. hear the other verb tsumoru. S. You will. their meanings are completely different. yes. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. hairu: to go inside (a room). especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. add desu to make it polite. build up. however. Always use daigaku for university.

u as in mule EH. AH. that something is or will be. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to).. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman.) mitai: it looks like. directly or indirectly." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. a as in father EE. e as in red OH. sou desu means you heard. baka: idiot.) Ame ga furu you desu.) To be honest. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. 4. said so]. "you look like an idiot.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. etc. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. Simply put.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. o as in mode .) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. 2. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. 3. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. 5. e as in see OO. First. and show what Base 4 looks like.

look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary." or "dictionary form. it's where you start." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 .) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Now. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.

(If the kids eat a snack now. (If he sees Yuko. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if.) John ni denwa sureba. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. watashi ni shirasemasu. kuru deshou. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. he'll let me know. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something.) Ame ga fureba. (I want to call Grandma.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. they probably won't eat dinner..?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.. As we learned in the last lesson.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. Here.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba." as shown in these examples: .koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. covered in Lesson 30? Well. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Ii is Japanese for "good. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.) Handy. (If you call John he'll probably come.. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. however. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.

and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. they are not completely interchangeable. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. [I still wish you would play outside. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. quirky ii does not. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. soto de asobeba ii. (We want to watch TV.there is no such Japanese as ikatta.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. In those situations different constructions would be used.) Mom. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (I wish I had ordered the steak. (Now would be a good time to study. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. (I wish we had gone to the park. so it would be good to play outside. yokatta. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. (Around five. By this stage of Japanese study.) Naoko.) • As you can see.) Kids: Terebi mitai. they both mean "good". (Even though it would be nice to play outside. yes. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. (It would be good if you played outside. is used after ba -. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . (We should have come at 8:00. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. yoi is not used with noni. However. (The weather's nice. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. no. I have done this with most of the examples on this page.

you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. and maybe even get into a fight. If you do. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. this is a form you really don't want to use.and known to all concerned. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. It's simple: no subject or object needed.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. Or. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look.very handy when you get used to it. Actually. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs." . There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally.) light shokuji: food. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. just use Base 4. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -.

too. . Take a good look. Simply put.) Now. No problem. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru.it was like opening a new door.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. very useful. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. just like most ichidans.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. they can be treated like plain ichidans. (Keiko can play the piano. For example. (Keiko can't play the violin. Here we realize an important point -. which was covered back in Lesson 26. As such. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. (He might be able to go next month. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. Now. (I can read Japanese.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. It shows ability to do something. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. (Keiko can play the piano. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. I remember when I first learned this one -. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. It's very. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.

you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. which was covered in Lesson 13.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. this is wasei eigo. If it helps. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. As you may have guessed." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. (Keiko can't play the piano. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. and I hope it will make sense to you.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. (Jack probably won't be able to come. there are other nai-related endings that will work here.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. (As you remember. this form is only meant for yodans. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. It made sense to me. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. (I can't read Japanese.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people.) .) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. the "cannot do" plain form. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. For example.) See how that works? As mentioned last time.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs.

(If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). you may wonder.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. So. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). but there are exceptions like the last example above. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii.) Base 4 + reba To be frank.) . so I do too. an example of which was included in the last lesson. energetic. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet.) Again.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. but who cares? Everyone uses it. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. this form is mainly for yodans.

let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.kime. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.taberu tabereoboe. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. First.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.tabe.oboeru oboerekime.kari.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.oboe. If you don't mind.koyou .

(I wonder if I should call Bob.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. (Let's eat.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. oh. eh." Suru is shown plain.. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou. arukou ka na. I just made that up. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see.) Terebi o miyou ka na. (Let's go. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka.. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. (Let's take a break. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should.) Tabeyou. but is converted as necessary: .) Yasumou. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. (Maybe I'll watch TV.. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something)." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. (I think I'll go shopping.. oo.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). (I wonder if I should go shopping. ee. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. Also.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound.

As you have most likely guessed.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. but he couldn't.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. miemasen deshita. (I think John will try to come. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.

. kiku (to listen. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. to ask). like asobu (to play). Yodan verbs that end in ku. kau (to buy).aruite. nutte. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. Yodan verbs that end in bu. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -.isoide. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. like aruku (to walk). not tsu).yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. tashite.asonde.kashite. kiite. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. It's important because it's used a lot.matte. yonde. like au (to meet). tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. katte.. hataraite. Please note this one important exception: iku. katte. like kasu (to lend). not iite. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. kesu (to turn off. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. motte. tsunagu (to connect). like matsu (to wait). Yodan verbs that end in gu. tsunaide. keshite. motsu (to hold). hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. like isogu (to hurry). yobu (to call out). tonde. to put out [a fire]). Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u.e. nuide. The only yodan verb that ends in nu.atte. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -.

like kaeru (to return). Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. humble me. haitte. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. (Please come at six o'clock.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. As you can see. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. hairu (to enter)." "to go down." "to lower (something).) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka.) Matte. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. When you start learning kanji. kiite.) Douzo. tabete. (Wait. kiku (to listen). technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. (Please wait a bit. but in Japanese we do. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite.) Kore o kiite. (Go ahead. depending on the tone of voice used. Yodan verbs that end in ru. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai.) . Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. momu (to massage). tabete kudasai. (Please come at six o'clock. (Come here." There are several handy variations of kudasai. For practice let's use kuru (to come). (Go ahead and eat. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. totte. (Listen to this. (Come at six o'clock. monde. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. It means "under. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time.yonde. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. and kiru (to cut). Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. tsutsunde. please eat." etc. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. like yomu (to read).) Chotto matte kudasai. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai.kaette.

while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible.• Kore o kitte. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form." but it means "to raise.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH." Ageru also means "to give." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. just like counting 1-2-3. If you ask someone to do something for you. and kitte: KEET-TEH.). (I'll wait for you. to show respect. showing a "humbler" position. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. to give (up to someone). showing that someone is going to do something for someone else." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. (Cut this.) Tabetakunakereba. Now.) Kono pen o agemasu. (If you don't want to eat it. (I'll call you later. (Please give me that pen. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. I'll eat it for you. (I'll give you this pen.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai.) . I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. giving each equal time while making them short. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. you use the Te Form + kudasai. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). kiite: KEE-EETEH. tabete ageru. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. as covered in the last lesson.) As you can see. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons.

but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. . (Lend Bob your pen. which are chosen depending on the situation. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. as a general rule. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies.In Japanese. in cases where there's a third person. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. It's for "talking down" to. laces musubu: to tie. as these examples show.) Notes 1. the position of the giver or receiver. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. However. it's a great convenience besides. and. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. string. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and showing contempt for others.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. Don't use it. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. Finally." It is disrespectful at best. and will work nicely in most cases. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope.

Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.) That's how we use goran nasai. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now.) Mite goran.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. (Ask Bob and see what he says. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran.) Te Form + iru . Go and see for yourself.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. You never use it on yourself. (Take a look. (Taste it and see if you like it. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. Read it for yourself. (Try calling Sanae.) Tabete goran.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. (There is salt on the shelf.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. which is used to prove a point. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Itte goran nasai. Mite goran nasai. mild command-like sentences. (It says he's 38.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo." You use it to ask someone to try something. See for yourself. Yonde goran nasai. usually in short. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.

]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. [I wasn't watching TV today. As you already know. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day.) Watashi wa aruite iru.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. (I didn't watch TV today. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. (He's not studying French. (Bill is studying Japanese. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. we say "I know. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. as in the fourth example above. [We are living in Takamatsu. "I'm knowing [it]. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. to exist. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. (I'm reading the newspaper.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). and not shiru. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. and masen deshita. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. in English we would normally ask a person. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. (She is eating sushi." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. we can get away with using just "live" in English. (Shizuko is eating.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. when they really should use sunde iru.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. Because of this.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . (They are reading a magazine. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. (I am here. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. (I am walking. Especially important are masu." So. masen.) Kinou nete imashita. in a way. it works like English. mashita. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. For example. (Yesterday I slept all day."). like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]).) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. (We live in Takamatsu.

Finally. (I was watching TV. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine.imashita ka.) I know you're wondering.with the i in iru omitted -. but.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. child Note: Strangely. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. imouto: little (younger) sister . so I'll tell you: "to play. For example. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. to do (something) ko: kid. it is even written this way -." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. "woman-child" / "man-child"). Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. like "kid" in English. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. In fact. there is no single. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy.

which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. present and past. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. (We don't live in Okayama. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. infinitive and progressive: . Nakatta is used for plain negative past.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. to exist.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. and adding ra makes it conditional. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. otouto for younger brother. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. Please look at the following examples. (They aren't reading a magazine. (Sam's not here. (If they're not studying.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (The kids probably aren't studying.Note: In Japanese. and imouto for younger sister.) Benkyou shite inakereba. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara." As such. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. there are many that can. First let's do some plain negative examples.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. (They aren't reading a magazine. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Sam's not here. (We don't live in Okayama. nani o shite iru deshou ka. ane for older sister. which makes them present or past progressive.

(I'm not eating [now]. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. and goes especially well with plain ones.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. To make the meaning perfectly clear.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. (I didn't eat an apple. which can be convenient at times." depending on the actual situation.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. but also a much- . is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. (I haven't eaten yet. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. However. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. (I didn't eat an apple. The last two above are good examples of this. (I'm not eating [now]. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. which appears in the last example. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. (I wasn't eating then. Dekita. to be able).) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. It's for asking questions. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. In either. vague and troublesome at others. since it is not only a Te Form ending. "we could" could be "he could. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. (I wasn't eating then. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.

(Really? I washed my car. in settings where polite speech is called for. but no real friends or family members -. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. Soshite terebi o mite ita. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita.used element of conversational Japanese. (They were reading a magazine.) That's real Japanese. Just for the fun of it. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. (I was doing shopping.are going to speak so grammatically correct.]) Yes. (Bill was studying. [Really? I washed my car. (I went shopping. upgrade ita to imashita. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . Soshite terebi miteta. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. ita is the plain past form of iru.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. I include the usual English translation. As I'm sure you know by now. Also. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. (Really? I was washing my car. In fact. The above example conversation looks all proper when written.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. I decided to go ahead and cover it here.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. Males usually use boku in familiar settings.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. [I went shopping. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. (John was watching TV. Put simply. this would be two males speaking.

itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. Here are some examples. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. meaning something like "I humbly partake. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. It can. as covered in Lesson 50. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. (Would you please call Mr. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. Oboete imasen ka. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka.) As in English. however. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. . the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. Because itadaku is a very polite word. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points.

) This is the same family. (Ken's not here now. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. this would be the best way to go. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot.as itadakimasu. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. morau is not impolite. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. Also." When there's no need to be very polite. even when the giver is not present. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. I'll get Grandpa to go. With kudasai. but not quite as polite -. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. No particular reservations are needed here." With itadakimasu. However. it's just plain. adding a masu ending makes it polite. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka.) This is a family situation.) . Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. (I'm doing homework now. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. itadakimasu is always used with food.not as "respectful" -. Ken ni itte moratte. As usual. use morau instead of itadaku. morau works best when talking about a third party. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. Morau is okay when referring to other things. (I'm doing homework now. but since we can't do that now. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. Traditionally. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Get Ken to go. and it can be at times. Make no mistake. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.

office.) oshieru: to teach. customers. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. tell shorui: forms. (Yes. moraimashita. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. (I got one [already]. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. I got one. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. each home. They probably don't see each other every day.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. (Sure.) This is at the office. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. but she already has one and doesn't want another. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. Just like anywhere else. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. documents. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. (I had Ms.prefix is used with strangers. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. Murai go.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. etc. (I'll give you a pen. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) .) Itadakimashita. company. (May I please have your name?) Hai. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. and these two are being courteous. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. clients. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka.Itadakimasu is always used with food. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out.

(After I eat I'm going shopping. Simple and useful. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou. You can't use it directly after nouns.) ... to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). Word Check kaeru: to return. (Let's go see a movie after work. such as those two common ones work and school.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]." There are other ways to do that.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (John's coming over after he does his homework. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). to come home owaru: to end. such as summer to mean "after summer. then add the Te Form of owaru. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). you just make them the subject/object with ga. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back.." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.

Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . It's good for family members and close friends. For example. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. this is the "command" form of kureru. (Please wait. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. In fact. you might say Ah. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. Again. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. Kureru is used in generally the same way. which literally means "Oh. and it would be offensive in some cases. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka.) Matte kure.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. ogotte kureru no?. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. repeated request.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). (Please come here. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about.) And finally. Some people add the question-forming no on the end.

expresses future plans. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back." (If you say just ikimasu. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. you'll see what I mean. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. etc. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou.) Sono tame. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time.) As can be seen. depending on intonation. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. assumptions.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time." Usually upgraded with masu. (Because of that." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese.sound nicer than with kure." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. dreams. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. I think that the number of PC users will increase. (I have been studying German history.

) Shirabete kuru. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no.) Accordingly. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history)."going away and not coming back. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons.): cheap.. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook .) shiraberu: to check (something). combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. food. or cuisine.. asobi ni kite kudasai.) Douzo. but should be easily understood. inexpensive.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj." See Lesson 40. (Please come over [sometime]. combined with naru: to become. to examine. (Let's go eat Chinese food. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. There are several "set combinations" where it is used.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. (I ate before coming over. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. (I'll go check it [then come back]. (I came to borrow a textbook. but when uncertain.

(Let's give this new PC a try. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. (I'll try to talk to John. Or. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. (I'll try to read these kanji. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit." You may hear it often." .. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing." which makes this one easy to remember. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. (I tried calling him.) Te Form + miru As you know.) Simple enough.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. rusu deshita. it acts like a "quasi adjective.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. In Japanese grammar. miru means "to see." but technically it's not one of those either." meaning that we'll give something a try.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. to entertain oneself. Well. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and adding miru. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. For example. go ahead asobu: to play. with its own set phrases. but it's not. Either way. but don't take it literally. but he wasn't in... right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk.

) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. that is the way it works grammatically.." "fine. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. terebi mite ii.. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. as with all adjectives. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English.. like the object indicator o." etc. however. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. In the workplace. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. As with most Japanese. (Sure. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use.?)." "it's okay if (someone does something)..) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. There's usually something else added on. As I've probably mentioned before. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. (You can use my PC. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission.). Yes. It's an adjective which means "good. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. so you should be a little familiar with it.." etc.. (Yeah." Accordingly.) Hai.. you can watch TV.." "okay. in familiar situations as in the last example above.) (Yes. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. you can use my dictionary.) . you can also get away with omitting particles. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). (You may go home early today. positive response.

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Instead. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. but usually alone. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. You can omit the desu ka for plain. familiar talk. You can't just say "I broke my arm. of course. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. If you do. You can say dou ka. (Well.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. but not ikaga ka. do not add the plain. you can say it." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go .) Actually. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. if you're going to use it in this way.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. question-forming no -.these don't use it. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. If you break a bone in Japanese. polite. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better.

etc. iken (Okayama). (Don't be late. So. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. and you're bound to hear either of these. everyday setting. "Thou shalt not. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . (You can't take pictures. Also. When placed after the Te Form with wa. like ikan (Takamatsu).atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. especially ikenai. etc. "Naughty!". akan (Osaka). and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. "You mustn't do that!"..) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!".. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. to make it even more colorful. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. used in a normal. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. In fact. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai.

) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. However.) As you can see. (I've got to call Shizu.) .) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. to take a picture with a camera. fed him. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. heya o katazukete moratte. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita.) Also." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. (I got up at seven o'clock. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. and left home at eight. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. the kanji used for each meaning are different.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. and I'm going shopping. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go].Note: The verb toru has many different usages. heya o katazukete. because tooru is a totally different vowel. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. esa o ataete. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. then go shopping. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. meaning "to pass (by/over something).) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. First. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. ate breakfast.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. and [then] made my dinner. hachiji ni ie o demashita. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. to take (steal) something from someone." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). which is easy to do. straighten up the room. some simple ones. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. like "take a bath. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. choushoku o tabete.

to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. whose major purpose is to make things plain. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. Just for a quick check. When you're not sure. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. to straighten up. and simple. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . just start a new sentence.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. past. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. a house deru: to leave.

) Hon yonda. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita.) Kami kitta. (My goldfish died.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. there are limits. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. (I read a book.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples.) Ginkou itta. and only omit them when everyone else does. (I ate lunch. Once again. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense.) Terebi mita. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them.) Boku no kingyo shinda. . (I watched TV. (I did it. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. Let's do some real basic. In the long run. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I got a haircut. (I went to the bank. Also. There are cases where particles would never be cut.) Ohiru tabeta.

where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. I had someone cut my hair.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. roku nen mae ni katta.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta." There are a few of these. hon becomes the subject." If we switch these around to yonda hon. anywhere. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's." and is less formal than chuushoku. Ke alone is hair — any hair. literally "hairbug.) ." it is used for "I got a haircut. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday." Very handy. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. beforehand. kiru: to cut. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. juu hachi man en deshita.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier.) Boku ga katta PC wa. use kami. (The cake Joy made was delicious. For example. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no.) Shinda kingyo wa. even on a caterpillar.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese.

) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. please click the lesson links. not deshita.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. Since we have already covered these. Carefully note the similarities and differences. Due to this. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. root form of Japanese verbs. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. the rest really isn't too difficult. Again. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. (If necessary.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. Base 3 is used for the plain future. use desu to make it polite. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. For a more detailed review.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. (He was supposed to come at six. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. . these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. And. as in the last example above. (He's supposed to come at six. these two share many add-ons and endings. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. One past tense element is enough. Instead. because deshita is the past form of desu.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. which will serve as a nice review.

) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. sensei ga okotta. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta.. (Even though I got up early. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. (Even though I get up early.) Note: Yes. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.. Takada quit. I was late. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . I'm late every day.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. Takada's quitting. (It would be better to go by train today.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) Beth wa okureta kara. (I should have taken the train today. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. (I heard that Mr.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. sensei ga okoru. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same." Please don't make this mistake. (I heard that Mr.) Kinou no ban. For expressing regret.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (It would be better to go by train today. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.

(I just ate. . (Mom just got back. now that I think of it.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. like something memorized from a grammar book. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) yameru: to quit a job.) In fact. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. etc.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. (It looks like it's going to rain. mai is used with units of time. In other words.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. (I just bought that umbrella.) Ame ga futta mitai." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. (I just cleaned this room. (It looks like it rained. snow. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly.) John wa deta bakari.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. (John just left.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. not with people or objects. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day].) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai.) Sono kasa o katta bakari.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

you'll find them very useful. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). I haven't.. (Yes. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru.. The first is that when you ask "have you been to.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. (All you ever do is eat.. First. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. to do (familiar. to go/come back deru: to leave. I have. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. (Yes. I've been twice. you use the verb iku (to go) . I'd like to try it.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. This is used after the Te Form." in Japanese. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain.. Tabete mitai kedo." usually as a complaint. though. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. arimasu. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. Once you get these sorted and memorized. tabeta koto ga nai. Nikai ikimashita. (No.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.) As you can see. (All that kid does is play computer games..

(If the kids eat a snack." but "I went twice. (If you call John he'll probably come. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. I haven't read it yet. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.) John ni denwa suru nara. As in B's reply above. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. kare wa kuru deshou. kare wa kuru deshou. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. See Lessons 7 and 60. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. [No. mada yonde inai. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something.) kedo: however. they probably won't eat lunch. you don't use this form. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice." Finally.and literally ask "have you gone to. but regular past tense. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Ta Form + ra Simply said.. not yet.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.) Next. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been.. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two.) . to me.) John ni denwa sureba. First. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. The second is that in using this form. (No.." which.

kare wa kuru deshou. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. they probably won't eat lunch.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii..) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42).. Yes. Word Check oshieru: to tell. desu can added after rashii to make it polite." etc. (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. (If the kids eat a snack. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. making it more formal than rashii.. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii.. (If you call John he'll probably come. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. Now that all the explaining is out of the way.) Again..) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. Takada's quitting. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.) Desu is usually used after sou. (I heard that Mr. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu.) John ni denwa shitara. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal.) . but I personally have never heard it. familiar conversation. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form." "I hear that. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii.. Takada's quitting. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I heard that Mr. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). to inform. According to the books.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. meaning "It seems that. they probably won't eat lunch.

) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. (I read comics and stuff. It can also be used for present or future happenings. (Jim buys and sells old things. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. yuushoku o tabeta. then ate dinner. listened to some music. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned.That's all there is to it. ongaku o kiitari. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. souji shitari. (Last night I watched TV. (Last night after dinner I .) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. some cleaning. Word Check daibun: considerably.) Now. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. terebi o mitari suru deshou. and did some homework. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. (I watched TV and stuff.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. If you want.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. and watch TV. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru.

) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. I'd really be at a loss. listened to music for about two hours. chuushoku o tabete.) .watched TV. then did homework until one o'clock.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. * Note: While unnatural in English. ate lunch. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. then she made dinner. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. practiced the piano and things. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this.

what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise." As usual. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. without doubt komaru: to be confused. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. Word Check hontou ni: really. (If you were to go swimming now. you must remember that (something else).. snow.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. dou shimashou ka. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. In fact. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. tabun koukai suru deshou..) As you can see. etc.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. (Even if you studied Spanish. you'd probably regret it.

I can't understand this software. (John's pants were torn when he fell. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items. (When I read that.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. he never gets full.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form..) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred.) While not covered before.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. (No matter how much he eats. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book..• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta.. (Even if I read the manual. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . (I laughed when I heard that. zenzen ippai ni naranai. I was very surprised. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. After the Ta Form. For example." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.

(I just cleaned this room. (I just got back now. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. One similar to this. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. (The kids just finished eating. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. in the least recent sense. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. while tokoro really means just now. However. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. For example. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) .) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. to is usually used because of its flexibility. the Ta Form + bakari. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.) As usual. add desu to make a statement polite. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. or. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. was already covered in Lesson 69.) However. it's still brand-new.

After nouns and adjectives.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. iru and aru As you know.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. are.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. (There's a big tree in the park. like something from the masu group.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) Ashita wa ame desu. (There's a big tree in the park. aru is a yodan. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai." Generally speaking. (Tomorrow it will rain. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. desu makes things polite.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. (There's a spider on the wall. (He is Mr. (Carol is 25 years old.) desu. (No.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu.. Tom's here. is. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. etc.) The plain form of desu is da. [I don't want to. Tom wa iru yo. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. (That school is old. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. You can add it to many statements to make them polite.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: .. iru is used for people and animals. (Bob's sick. (Yes. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Bob wa byouki desu. Tanaka.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (The dictionary is on the desk.

ima Tom wa imasen. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. Use desu instead. (Sorry.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. Tom's not here now. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). getting back to desu... Japanese is no exception. ima Tom wa inai. . Tom's not here now." as in being in a certain position. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. This is one that is rarely used these days.) Now. (Sorry. and is especially used by children. Again.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. unpleasant.) Jisho wa arimasen. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry.) Jisho wa nai. (I don't have a dictionary. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something." So. (I don't have a dictionary. If you're really interested in the technical background. Connected with aru it means "to exist as..• • Sumimasen. it is rarely used these days. here it is: Among the several roles of de. state or condition. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. one is "as.

) . agaru and ageru. very rarely will they correct you. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). to go/come up ageru: to raise up. have close ties with Japanese culture.) Note: These two. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. I'll give you this. to give • • Agatte kudasai.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. They are not conjugations. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. Accordingly." When exchanging gifts. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. ageru.) Hai. (Please come in. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. agaru is used for "come inside. (Here. (Please make up your mind quickly. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. which is intransitive (has no direct object). So that there is no misunderstanding. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. active/passive forms.What makes it worse is the fact that very. (Wendy collects old stamps. This is certainly not a complete list.

to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. (Please continue looking for it.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. use tetsudau. For routine helping." it's not.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. tasukaru: to be of help... Also. Strangely.. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is).) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. (Thank you. to help • • Arigatou. (I found a pimple.. etc. » -su / -u .) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). like helping in the kitchen. when you find something that was lost. to arrive (a package. You were really a great help. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. as if it just found itself.

) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. (Let the dog out. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. to get off or get out of a vehicle . (Please cut down on your spending.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. (Eat all this. (Grandpa went outside. Nokosanaide kudasai. to put down oriru: to go/come down.) herasu: to decrease. (Be back by ten o'clock.) Kaigi ga owattara. (The copier is broken.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. Please don't leave any. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta.

necktie. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. like a name tag or pin . like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. (If you wear those glasses. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. dress. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head.• • Koko ni oroshite.) Of course there are others." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. etc.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. socks.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. (The caterpillar moved. shoes. like pants. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. like a shirt. (My hat got dirty. (Put it down here. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. but these should give you a good start. like a belt. etc. a skirt. etc. obi. you'll probably be laughed at. warawareru deshou.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. kimono. For most standard verbs. (This cake probably won't be eaten.) Kemushi ga ugoita. hameru: to wear on a finger. (Don't move that machine. jacket.

This completes Japanese Verbs. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . and especially when talking about accessories.Besides these.

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