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Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form + goran nasai 53. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + ita 56. Base 4 + reba 49. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + kureru 59. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Base 5 50. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form for Continuing Statements .44. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + inai 55.
su. Ta Form + ri 74. bu.67. Ta Form + tokoro 78. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. desu. Ta Form + ra 72. Let's take the verb aruku. which can end in u. but to be more precise. Ta Form + to shitara 75. Ta Form + toki 77. which means "to walk. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . Ta Form + bakari 70. ichidan. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. tsu. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. ku." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. mu. gu. Ta Form + rashii 73. nu. and irregular.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Remembering this will make further study much easier. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. not u.
" Interestingly. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb . Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.) This is very simple Japanese. (Jim will read a comic book. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them.) Naomi wa terebi o miru.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. and also very juvenile or "familiar.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. (I'll eat an apple. Some sources call these verbs godan. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. unless it was from another foreigner. (Grandpa will return soon. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. but there is no difference. (Naomi will watch TV. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1.) Jim wa manga o yomu.
Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. the present polite ending. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . Since masu requires the Base 2 form. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. (Jim will read a comic book. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. "adult" Japanese.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers.their "Base 2" form -.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap.before the masu ending is added. (Grandpa will return soon. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.
(He won't wait. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.) Jerry wa sugu demasu.) . there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. (Ayako watches the TV every day. and should not be worried about at this stage. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2.) Kare wa machimasen.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. (Jerry will come out soon.) Now. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. which is the negative form of masu. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. let's try masen. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. (I'll decide tomorrow.
(The children didn't play at the park. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. .And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen. (I want to buy an umbrella. (Bob wants to eat tempura.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. masen shows negative tense. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (The children want to play.) The above examples are plain forms. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (I'm not going to eat now.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) Easy enough. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. etc. To make them polite. (Miki wants to see that movie.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai.
(Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) Simple enough. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something." For example: • • • Ikimashou. (Let's take a break. but either way this one is easy to remember." This structure will be covered later on. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.) Yasumimashou. (I'll carry this/these [for you]. . right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. (The children don't want to play." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. in this example. and two use ichidan. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. It simply means "let's (do something). (Let's get you some food. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you).) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. and is never used alone with an object. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. (I'll fix your bicycle. (Let's go. Add desu to make it polite. For example./I'll help you fix your bicycle.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. In fact. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. (Let's eat.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou." you would use the adjective hoshii and say.) * In Japanese.) Tabemashou. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.) As in English.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
and suru (do). (Sachiko won't be coming. Depending on the situation." as a matter of personal policy. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon.) Jim wa manga o yomanai.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. kuru (come). like Base 2 + masen. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. shinai (won't do). which we already covered in Lesson 4. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. konai (won't come).) Sachiko wa konai. As in English.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. For example. .taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). and should only be used in very informal settings. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. Etc. (Jim doesn't read comic books. (I'm not going to watch TV.
like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. snow.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (It probably won't snow.what will happen if something doesn't happen.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. (Grandpa will probably return soon.) Actually. (Sachiko will probably come. hail.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Look at these examples: . (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. etc. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.
Generally speaking. chan. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. Additionally. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. as in English. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. sama. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. . Once a person's name is known. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. so it is omitted. and kun. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. The ones you'll hear the most are san. For example. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. especially when talking to an individual. when speaking to that person." Actually. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. names are usually not used alone. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it).
anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". cousins. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. chan to female students. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. more familiar (and. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. at any rate. aunt. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. and children add it to the words for father. adult male neighbor. company. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. grandmother. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. but to the title of those older. Customarily. mother." This Japanese would be understood. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service.for a while. Parents add chan to their children's names. of course. because san shows that a closer. kun with boys. uncle. Also. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. you can always ask. etc. Again. though san is probably more common for females. adult female neighbor. For those older. grandfather. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. Now. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. real or pretended. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. time passes. As a safe rule. unless an individual prefers chan. however. For example. but would also . Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard." but is now a "san. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. and chan with girls.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. hopefully. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. Family. and playmates. And. names are often shortened before adding chan. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. let's get back to you." This is normal and good. older brother or sister (but not younger). older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. use san with colleague's names. where anata is used for "you. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. After the sale is made. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle.
and very odd. the nakereba means "if one does not. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. the fact is that it is very rarely used. (I have to go. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. it's a bit of a tongue twister. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural.. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. and narimasen means "will not become". as you'll remember from Lesson 15. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. (Jim has to return now. toward the group concerned. however.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. mixed groups.". change it to Base 1 ika. formal.. So.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. there's no problem. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. I may as well say here that much. which is the best choice when talking to large. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. It's used quite a lot. Anatatachi could be used. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. It works fine. This can be handy when . Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen.sound very stiff." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen.) Looking at it literally. but it conveys a certain distance. because it means "must do. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. even some affection. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. (The children must eat. So. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. Yes. the one left would be kimitachi. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. which shows familiarity. Accordingly." Let's take iku (to go). even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this.
"I'll have him go to the store". and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. "I'll let him go to the store". In Japanese.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. Accordingly. as in "let him" or "make him. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. (I'll have John decide by next week.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. or feelings.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. More than memorizing its meaning. like deshou from Lesson 14. Good luck with nakereba narimasen.adding other endings. are used for all of these. (Grandpa lets the children play. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister." can be conveyed. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. (I'll have him come tomorrow.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou.) With "suru verbs. mastering a clean. (The children probably need to eat. however. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. for yodan verbs. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. and saseru. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. (Jim probably has to return now. seru. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. for the others.
(Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. past tense.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. like miseru.) As you can see. (I'll have her do it. (Let's have John go to the store.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. (He lets them watch TV every day. etc. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (I want to have Kenji study English. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object.) So. which means "to show" or "to let see. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. by tomorrow. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. kimeru: to decide kare: he. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru.) Kanojo ni saseru.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. polite. (Dad will make Bob study. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. although miru is an ichidan verb. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. you won't hear or see "misaseru.
(To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. . Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Let's get back to deshou. shown in the last example above. means "to fall. (It will probably rain tomorrow. Not only should you be able to translate these.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. Mama wa mise de banana o kau." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). As in English. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. so it is often omitted. as explained in Lesson 1. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan.the plain. Naomi wa terebi o miru. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. making the verb unnecessary.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. But before we begin. her karera: they.) The verb furu. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store).) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. the fact that the rain will fall is understood." For example. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. them eigo: the English language mise: a store.
like .) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. as we would use tag questions in English. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. Please note that ka is not added at the end. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming.. (Bob will probably also want to go. snow. (John should be coming soon. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. (You ought to study English more." etc.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. etc. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan.) John wa sugu kuru hazu.
and according to the grammar books.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. prefer -." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.) When showing personal preference. should happen. When you hear it. the hou means "way" or "method. but. (It would be better to eat later. (It would be better to go by train today. (I'd rather get a dog. "had better do". I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation..while hazu is more passive -. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu." Actually. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii.way is good/better. (You should study Japanese more.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii..) Inu no hou ga ii. (I should call her." and ii means "good" or "better. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do".) Raishuu suru hou ga ii." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ".ni natte iru or beki. which was covered in Lesson 20.) As with most verb endings. practice makes perfect. (We had better rest a little. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables.should do. (It would be better to do it next week.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. As usual. "would rather do.should be. Word Check . just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. frankly. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.
(Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form.kanojo: she. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. Word Check kare: he." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (I don't know yet if we are going. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. only the component order is opposite in Japanese.) As can be seen in the examples above. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. him dekiru: can.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. It's like using "whether or not" in English. to understand inu: dog ima: now .) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. but connects two phrases which contain verbs.
so you'll want to master it right away.taberu: to eat miru: to see. (It might rain tomorrow.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. Therefore. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. (It might snow tomorrow.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. As such. so please be careful when pronouncing. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. this one is used frequently. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai." Since this verb ending is rather long. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). meaning that." These are incorrect. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen.) . it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen.) As you sharp ones have noticed. and is conjugated accordingly. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). yes. look.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai)." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. Simply put. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. (Jack may also come. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. (We may eat out tonight. perhaps. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). where it is converted to shireru (can know).
I suggest. given after." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. denwa shimasu. let's take umbrellas. eigo ga jouzu desu. Itsumo okureru kara.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara.) Ongaku o kikimasu. (Beth is always late. signified by kara at the end. honya ni ikimasu. In this case. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV.) Jisho o kaitai kara. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. so his English is good. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. Terebi o mitakunai kara. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. so I'll call her. with its reason. they each become separate sentences. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. (I don't want to go to Mr. (Since it will probably rain.) In spoken Japanese.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. kasa o motte ikimashou. mise ni ikimasu. grammatically speaking.) . (Kenji went to a Canadian school.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. so I'm going to the store. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Word Check komban: this evening. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. you'll often hear the action stated first. (We don't have any milk. however. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou.
Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. just like English." Just like English.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. nasty. but he's not good at it. yoku byouki shimasu.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. as well as its shorter forms. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. home iya na: bad. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. jouzu ni narimasen. heta desu. but she doesn't get any better. Like "but" in English. snow. it comes between the contrasting phrases. he gets sick a lot." so. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. as you can imagine. disgusting mono: thing. (He speaks Japanese. etc.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. it's used a lot. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. (Although Jack is careful about his health. keredo and kedo. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. . no problem. which means "from. Again. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at.
I like reading as a thing to do.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. (I like reading." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one.. Better than all this talk would be an example. Well. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite." Does this help? If not. no problem. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. Let's move on. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns.. it really doesn't change the verb.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. koto has no practical use by itself. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. No. a lot. In English. not good at something. Like our ing. Next. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading.) Finally. Here are some examples: . unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. But first. let's look at each part. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. It'll come. like reading in the sentence I like reading. First is koto. If you have to have a translation. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki.
(Richard couldn't eat the squid. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. expressions.) Now. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. There is a short alternative for other verbs. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. Again. (Keiko can play the piano. they're both used. Kinou. etc. (I can't read French." Denwa is a noun.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. (I can translate French into Japanese.no. For example. you can just omit suru. It does not . you can drop the suru and just add dekiru." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. With "suru verbs. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. it's a long ending for just "can. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. (John wasn't able to study yesterday.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. actions. for kicks -. and adding the suru makes it a verb. actually for review -.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. long or short.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. (Bob was able to call Junko. It is generally not used for physical things or objects.) Either way. in that case the suru is omitted.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. meanings. (I can read Japanese.let's try some other endings on dekiru. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. essences." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing.
There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. As I'm sure you know by now. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. It shows that you have made a decision. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. koto ni suru is the plain. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. and it shows that the decision was yours. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have.) .
(It'll probably be best to wait until spring. periods. Made means "until. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. (Mr.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. to let (someone) see.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san.) As in English. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. etc.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (We have to wait until Bob calls. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. (Wait until dinner." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. watch (something) .• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita.
") ni: two shuu kan: a week. and to whom. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. you could say. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. This is one that will probably not be used very often. First. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression.) Base 3 + na This. as with English. Stay away from here!. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. . you use it. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. but if you do.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. However. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -."don't do's" -. be careful how.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai.
they probably won't eat dinner. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train .) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. he'll let me know.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara.) Ame ga furu nara. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba.) John ni denwa suru nara. (If the kids eat a snack now. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. kuru deshou. He thought he said. which is just a slight variation. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. but nara is more common. (If you call John he'll probably come. watashi ni shirasemasu.sentences with "if. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. (If he sees Yuko.
but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. and a person. a place. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. In Japanese. For example. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. Japanese English.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. As a quick review. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. there are no "relative pronouns.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a time. explanations. which are examples involving a thing. And.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. to make matters worse.." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. to offer very general. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. but hopefully sufficient for the present. respectively." Of course. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. like in the first example above. things I'd like to explain. But. and lengthy. I can see several things which need to be explained. that's another story." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. words that connect a noun to an action.." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. page.
so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. The problem is that the rules are . I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. densha (train) is the main subject. Kobe is a place. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). a truer English translation would be. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. No is often used in place of ga. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. a "sub-subject. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. As you can see. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu." as a relative pronoun. automatically designates a place.) Now. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu.) Since this is natural Japanese. the English "where. like our 's. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train.) In this sentence. For example. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. since he or she will surely be hearing both. or a noun which needs emphasis. (That is Kimiko's umbrella." you might say. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. especially in informal spoken Japanese. and is handled by the final verb. and therefore omitted. As you may have noticed. and so it would most likely be omitted. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. they do not mean the same thing. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. a substitute noun must be used. back to the lesson: First. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase.) In this one. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. so tokoro is used after the verb. Ga or no could be used here. but since Japanese has no equivalent. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. ga tells us who will take the train. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. Continuing with the above example.
totally different in each language. (Spring is the season that brings new life. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. and when trying to make sense of one. you must forget all the rules of the other. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. and shouldn't be too difficult. and vice versa. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. Finally.to high-intermediate Japanese. and are in the realm of mid. . semi-accurate rule. produce. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. As a general. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. I hope this lesson was clear enough. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer.) This one is pretty straightforward. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum".
(Jim will read a comic book. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. (Jim will read a comic book.) . especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of).We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you".) As in any other language. (I tell you. fist pounding.) Remember these? I hope so. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. writhing. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. stomping around. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. etc. (Grandpa will return soon. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. Japanese English. it IS going to rain tomorrow. if you want to emphasize something. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. However. as well as supporting body language like hand waving.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. need. or habits of the speaker. If not.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. (Grandpa will return soon. (She IS coming. you need to review. unexcited intonation. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu.
it's usually found somewhere near the middle. There's nothing really tricky about it. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) densha: train noru: to ride. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. etc. essential kanji: Chinese characters. Please consult a dictionary for more. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn.) . (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. Takamatsu-yuki. rather.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. meaning "in spite of.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time)." which we will cover later on. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. specifically.
and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. mine is red. (Jim's dictionary is blue. (It really was a problem-free trip. (Reading is enjoyable.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's.) Word Check tanoshii: fun.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. the greatest.). which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. still not fukanou: not possible. to not exist tabi: trip . Wa is the subject indicator. like our 's. mainly the one used for possessives. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. (Speaking Japanese is easy. impossible saikou: great.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. boku no wa aka desu.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.
if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. (Since Eiko can speak English.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. she'll probably find a good job. For example. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . and is therefore preferred when people are involved.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. which is used to show reasons or causes. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In this lesson we will take a look at node. In other words. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question.) So. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something.prefix makes it "honorific. the o. If kara was used instead. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. use node.
to quit a job or habit iu: to say.) asoko: there.) kiku: to listen.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. which is used for plain past structures. (Despite my telling her to stop.) annani: that much. this short lesson is about noni.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. rumors. etc. (I was late even though I got up early. to follow rules or orders. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. for the plain past. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. understand to be.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. she won't listen. Word Check yameru: to stop something. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. kanojo wa kikimasen. For example: .
) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. in order to. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. a student will say baito. A full-time employee will use shigoto. sou desu. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. Japanese German. it usually means "for the purpose of." and is often followed by the optional ni. but is more often than not shortened to baito. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. Japanese English. (I heard that Mr. They use a noun geared to their type of job. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee".) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). as in "Hai.) As you have probably guessed.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". The actual word is arubaito.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. Takada's quitting. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. Here are some popular ones: . that's right. Word Check hiru kara: from noon." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu." (Yes.) Tame is a very handy word.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan.
After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.") It can mean and. that's pronounced "toh. [plain. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. with. or if. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. In this case. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. Mom.) For the curious.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. (This is for you. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. (Okay. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.]) Hai.) . talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. (Kimiko came with Bob. when. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. receive. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. have (an interview). here are your air tickets to Hawaii. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. (Remember. (This is for you.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. [Use no when putting a noun after tame.
sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. Sasaki will call us soon. and expected.it's as simple as that. to go) + taku (tai. (I think it'll rain tomorrow.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It's okay to have an opinion.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou.) . It means simply "I think. things you can do. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. While not specifically covered.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. When referring to the beach in Japanese. Now that it's been explained.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. meaning "come to want. (I think Eiko can speak English.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. (I think Koji will be late. but it is not generally used. of "party. (I think Ms. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. takunaru puts tai and naru together. to become to want to go -. to want to do. Japanese English." Iki (Base 2 of iku. especially in the workplace. use umi. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. begin to want. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.
(I think it would be better to go by train today. care. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns.) Again. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. which was covered in Lesson 19.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou.]) In a way. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . omou can be used for plain speech. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. but it didn't. (I thought it would rain today [.As you can see from the last examples. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. or don't really have any control over something. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. this ending is a lot like deshou. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. don't really care. and it did. or have some control. towards me. Accordingly. goes back. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita.
tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. etc.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. S. to enter/enroll in (a school). but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. You will.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. Well.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. their meanings are completely different. as you should know by now. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. Always use daigaku for university. is for past tense. however. hairu: to go inside (a room). build up. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. day. While sounding alike. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. so please be careful not to confuse them. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. add desu to make it polite." used a lot. In case you're wondering. hear the other verb tsumoru. technically speaking. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual.) .Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. which means "to accumulate. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. yes. that was a short one. Deshita.
4. AH.." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. a as in father EE.) Ame ga furu you desu. baka: idiot. etc.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. directly or indirectly. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.) To be honest. and show what Base 4 looks like.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. sou desu means you heard." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. 2. 3. First.) mitai: it looks like. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. e as in red OH. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. 5. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. Simply put. "you look like an idiot. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. o as in mode . that something is or will be. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). said so]. u as in mule EH. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. e as in see OO.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. (It looks like Ken can play the piano.. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements.
look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. it's where you start. Now.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up." or "dictionary form. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 .
) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. Here. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.) Handy. he'll let me know. Do you remember Base 3 + nara.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. (If the kids eat a snack now. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. As we learned in the last lesson. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. however. kuru deshou.. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour.) John ni denwa sureba.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. watashi ni shirasemasu. (If you call John he'll probably come.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai..) Ame ga fureba.." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. covered in Lesson 30? Well. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If he sees Yuko.. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something." as shown in these examples: . Ii is Japanese for "good. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. they probably won't eat dinner. (I want to call Grandma. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.
and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. However.) • As you can see. (I wish we had gone to the park. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong.) Ima benkyou sureba ii.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni.) Mom. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. (We want to watch TV. (It would be good if you played outside.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.• • • Soto de asobeba ii.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. (I wish I had ordered the steak. In those situations different constructions would be used. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. they both mean "good". (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. so it would be good to play outside. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. is used after ba -.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. yoi is not used with noni. (Now would be a good time to study. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . yes. they are not completely interchangeable. quirky ii does not. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. [I still wish you would play outside. no. By this stage of Japanese study.) Kids: Terebi mitai.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. (The weather's nice.) Naoko. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. (Around five. (We should have come at 8:00. soto de asobeba ii. yokatta.
) light shokuji: food. Or. Actually. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. you will definitely become unpopular quickly.very handy when you get used to it. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs.and known to all concerned. just use Base 4. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. It's simple: no subject or object needed. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. If you do." . and maybe even get into a fight. this is a form you really don't want to use. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki.
) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. too. As such. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. It's very. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. Simply put.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. (Keiko can't play the violin. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. (He might be able to go next month. just like most ichidans. It shows ability to do something. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. which was covered back in Lesson 26.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. Here we realize an important point -. (Keiko can play the piano. Take a good look. they can be treated like plain ichidans. Now. . For example. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. No problem. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. (I can read Japanese. I remember when I first learned this one -. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. very useful. (Keiko can play the piano.it was like opening a new door. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru.) Now.
you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. this is wasei eigo. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. the "cannot do" plain form. As you may have guessed. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou.) . (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. which was covered in Lesson 13. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. (Jack probably won't be able to come. and I hope it will make sense to you.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. this form is only meant for yodans. (As you remember.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). For example.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. It made sense to me. (Keiko can't play the piano. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. If it helps.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. (I can't read Japanese.
to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet.) Again.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. but there are exceptions like the last example above. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. this form is mainly for yodans. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. So. so I do too. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. an example of which was included in the last lesson. energetic.) . you may wonder. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't).noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. but who cares? Everyone uses it.
Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. First. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.tabe.kime.oboeru oboerekime.taberu tabereoboe. If you don't mind.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.oboe.kari. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.koyou . I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.
(I wonder if I should go shopping..) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa.) Yasumou. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. oh.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou." Suru is shown plain. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). (Let's go. Also. (Let's eat.. (I wonder if I should call Bob. ee. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. but is converted as necessary: . oo.. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. (I think I'll go shopping. arukou ka na. I just made that up.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated.. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. (Maybe I'll watch TV.) Tabeyou. eh." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (Let's take a break.) Terebi o miyou ka na. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.
Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . As you have most likely guessed. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. (I think John will try to come. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. miemasen deshita. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. but he couldn't.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often.
nutte.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary.e. keshite. tsunagu (to connect). Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -.kashite. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -.atte. tsunaide.asonde. Yodan verbs that end in gu. Yodan verbs that end in ku. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. to put out [a fire]). tashite. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. motte. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. like matsu (to wait). It's important because it's used a lot. kiku (to listen. kiite. yobu (to call out). We'll cover pronunciation a little later.matte. tonde. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. like asobu (to play). kau (to buy). motsu (to hold).aruite. like aruku (to walk). kesu (to turn off. hataraite. to ask). Please note this one important exception: iku.isoide. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. Yodan verbs that end in bu. nuide. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde.. like kasu (to lend). nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. katte. . not tsu). katte. like isogu (to hurry). not iite. like au (to meet). hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. yonde.
When you start learning kanji. tabete. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. kiite. It means "under. haitte.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. humble me.) . (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. (Listen to this. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. and kiru (to cut). momu (to massage). Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. For practice let's use kuru (to come). monde." There are several handy variations of kudasai. (Wait.) Matte. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. kiku (to listen). like kaeru (to return). tsutsunde. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. (Please wait a bit.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. please eat. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly." "to go down. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai.yonde." "to lower (something). So when you say chotto matte kudasai. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. Yodan verbs that end in ru. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. (Go ahead and eat. like yomu (to read). (Come at six o'clock.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. (Go ahead. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. (Please come at six o'clock. As you can see. depending on the tone of voice used.) Douzo. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. tabete kudasai. (Come here. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. but in Japanese we do.kaette.) Kore o kiite." etc. hairu (to enter). The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. totte.) Chotto matte kudasai. (Please come at six o'clock.
while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. (Please give me that pen. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables.• Kore o kitte. (If you don't want to eat it.) Kono pen o agemasu. tabete ageru. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. showing a "humbler" position. to show respect. (I'll give you this pen. as covered in the last lesson.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH.). Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. kiite: KEE-EETEH. you use the Te Form + kudasai." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. (Cut this.) As you can see. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. to give (up to someone). a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. I'll eat it for you." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. Now.) ." Ageru also means "to give. (I'll wait for you. just like counting 1-2-3. giving each equal time while making them short." but it means "to raise. and kitte: KEET-TEH. (I'll call you later.) Ato de denwa shite ageru.) Tabetakunakereba. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. If you ask someone to do something for you.
the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. and will work nicely in most cases. it's a great convenience besides.In Japanese. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all.) Notes 1. as a general rule. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. Finally. in cases where there's a third person. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. Don't use it. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. . It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. and showing contempt for others. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. as these examples show. which are chosen depending on the situation. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. It's for "talking down" to." It is disrespectful at best. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. the position of the giver or receiver. laces musubu: to tie. (Lend Bob your pen. string. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. However. and.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese.
which is used to prove a point.) Mite goran.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Mite goran nasai. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. (Take a look.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. (Ask Bob and see what he says.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. mild command-like sentences.) Te Form + iru . usually in short. Go and see for yourself. You never use it on yourself. (Taste it and see if you like it. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. See for yourself.) That's how we use goran nasai. Yonde goran nasai. (There is salt on the shelf.) Tabete goran. Itte goran nasai. Read it for yourself. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. (It says he's 38." You use it to ask someone to try something. (Try calling Sanae. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. (Bill is studying Japanese. (I am walking. (I didn't watch TV today. in a way. mashita. (They are reading a magazine. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. (She is eating sushi.) Watashi wa aruite iru." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). Because of this." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases.) Kinou nete imashita. [I wasn't watching TV today. masen. (I'm reading the newspaper.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. and not shiru.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. to exist. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. For example. in English we would normally ask a person. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. As you already know. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. [We are living in Takamatsu.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. it works like English. when they really should use sunde iru. we say "I know." So. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . (Yesterday I slept all day. and masen deshita. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. "I'm knowing [it].) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. (We live in Takamatsu. as in the fourth example above.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. (I am here. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. (Shizuko is eating. which were covered in the Base 2 endings."). Especially important are masu. (He's not studying French. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. we can get away with using just "live" in English. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day.
imouto: little (younger) sister . These can be shortened to ko in many situations. "woman-child" / "man-child"). it is even written this way -. For example.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. (I was watching TV. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. In fact. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. there is no single. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. Finally.imashita ka. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita.) I know you're wondering. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. but. like "kid" in English.with the i in iru omitted -. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. to do (something) ko: kid. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. so I'll tell you: "to play. child Note: Strangely.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese.
Nakatta is used for plain negative past.Note: In Japanese.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. which makes them present or past progressive. (We don't live in Okayama. (If they're not studying. otouto for younger brother. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. (We don't live in Okayama.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. (Sam's not here. (They aren't reading a magazine. (The kids probably aren't studying. to exist. ane for older sister. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. First let's do some plain negative examples." As such.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. (Sam's not here. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. nani o shite iru deshou ka.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. there are many that can. infinitive and progressive: . carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. and adding ra makes it conditional.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. and imouto for younger sister. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. (They aren't reading a magazine. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. present and past.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. Please look at the following examples.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings.) Benkyou shite inakereba.
which can be convenient at times. which appears in the last example. "we could" could be "he could. It's for asking questions. The last two above are good examples of this. However.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. (I didn't eat an apple. (I wasn't eating then. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (I haven't eaten yet. To make the meaning perfectly clear. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. and goes especially well with plain ones. (I'm not eating [now]. (I didn't eat an apple. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. Dekita. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. vague and troublesome at others. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou." depending on the actual situation." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. (I wasn't eating then. but also a much- . [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. to be able). since it is not only a Te Form ending. (I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. In either.
(Really? I washed my car. Just for the fun of it.) That's real Japanese. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. (John was watching TV. this would be two males speaking. (Bill was studying. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. ita is the plain past form of iru. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. I include the usual English translation. Put simply. Soshite terebi miteta.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -.used element of conversational Japanese. In fact. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. Soshite terebi o mite ita. [Really? I washed my car. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. in settings where polite speech is called for. (I went shopping. As I'm sure you know by now.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. Also. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. (They were reading a magazine. Males usually use boku in familiar settings.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . (Really? I was washing my car.are going to speak so grammatically correct. but no real friends or family members -. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. upgrade ita to imashita. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. [I went shopping. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English.]) Yes. (I was doing shopping.
please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. as covered in Lesson 50. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. It can. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. Here are some examples. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added.) As in English. . (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. (Would you please call Mr. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. meaning something like "I humbly partake. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. however. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. Oboete imasen ka.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. Because itadaku is a very polite word." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka.
While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. use morau instead of itadaku. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. but since we can't do that now. this would be the best way to go. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. even when the giver is not present. morau is not impolite. adding a masu ending makes it polite. Also.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. No particular reservations are needed here. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. Traditionally. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. but not quite as polite -. Make no mistake. and it can be at times.) This is a family situation. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.) This is the same family. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. Morau is okay when referring to other things. itadakimasu is always used with food.not as "respectful" -. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. (I'm doing homework now.) . As usual. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. (I'm doing homework now. (Ken's not here now. With kudasai. However. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai." With itadakimasu. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. Ken ni itte moratte. it's just plain. I'll get Grandpa to go." When there's no need to be very polite. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. morau works best when talking about a third party. Get Ken to go.as itadakimasu. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this.
documents. (I had Ms. Murai go. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. I got one. company. but she already has one and doesn't want another.) oshieru: to teach.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. Just like anywhere else. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. each home. (May I please have your name?) Hai.Itadakimasu is always used with food. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. customers. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. tell shorui: forms. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. office. moraimashita. and these two are being courteous. (I got one [already].) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. (I'll give you a pen. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech.prefix is used with strangers. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) .) This is at the office. clients. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. etc. (Sure. They probably don't see each other every day. (Yes. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka.) Itadakimashita.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use.
such as those two common ones work and school. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. Simple and useful.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou. to come home owaru: to end.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form." There are other ways to do that.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru..) .senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]..) Te Form + kara This one's a snap.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). (John's coming over after he does his homework. such as summer to mean "after summer. You can't use it directly after nouns.." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. (After I eat I'm going shopping. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. you just make them the subject/object with ga. Word Check kaeru: to return. (Let's go see a movie after work. then add the Te Form of owaru. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).
Kureru is used in generally the same way. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. Again.) And finally. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. repeated request.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. In fact. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. and it would be offensive in some cases. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. you might say Ah. this is the "command" form of kureru. which literally means "Oh. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. For example. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. (Please come here. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). It's good for family members and close friends. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. ogotte kureru no?. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. (Please wait. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received.) Matte kure. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. Some people add the question-forming no on the end.
you'll see what I mean. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. expresses future plans. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. depending on intonation.) As can be seen. dreams. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese.) Sono tame. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. I think that the number of PC users will increase.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. assumptions.sound nicer than with kure. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. (I have been studying German history. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . (Because of that.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou." (If you say just ikimasu. the literal equivalent of "I'm going." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. etc.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form." Usually upgraded with masu.
but when uncertain. (Let's go eat Chinese food.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. inexpensive. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. but should be easily understood. combined with naru: to become.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. food.) Douzo. (I ate before coming over.): cheap."going away and not coming back. to examine. (Please come over [sometime].) shiraberu: to check (something). as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). or cuisine." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.) Accordingly. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou.. asobi ni kite kudasai. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. (I came to borrow a textbook. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming.) Shirabete kuru.. (I'll go check it [then come back].) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general." See Lesson 40.
" which makes this one easy to remember. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. In Japanese grammar. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. but it's not. Or. but he wasn't in. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu.. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it.) Simple enough. with its own set phrases. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars.) Te Form + miru As you know. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. rusu deshita. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. miru means "to see. (Let's give this new PC a try. go ahead asobu: to play. For example." You may hear it often. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. (I'll try to talk to John.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. to entertain oneself..) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu." . (I tried calling him. but don't take it literally. (I'll try to read these kanji. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb.kariru: to borrow douzo: please.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga." meaning that we'll give something a try. Either way. Well." but technically it's not one of those either. and adding miru.. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. it acts like a "quasi adjective.
positive response. (Sure. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. It's an adjective which means "good.?). like the object indicator o. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44)..) Hai." "fine. In the workplace. you can also get away with omitting particles. however.) (Yes." etc." etc. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. terebi mite ii. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. Yes.. There's usually something else added on..) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. As I've probably mentioned before. (Yeah. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. you can watch TV. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to." "okay. As with most Japanese..) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission." "it's okay if (someone does something).) . or ka: ii desu ka (May I.). in familiar situations as in the last example above. so you should be a little familiar with it.. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. that is the way it works grammatically.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. (You may go home early today. as with all adjectives.. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay." Accordingly. (You can use my PC.. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. you can use my dictionary.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
if you're going to use it in this way." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. of course. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. (Well.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better.these don't use it. If you break a bone in Japanese. You can omit the desu ka for plain. You can say dou ka. If you do. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. but not ikaga ka. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka.) Actually.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. familiar talk. you can say it. Instead. do not add the plain. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. question-forming no -. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . polite. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. You can't just say "I broke my arm. but usually alone.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). used in a normal. to make it even more colorful. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. "Thou shalt not. In fact. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. akan (Osaka). everyday setting.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". especially ikenai. "You mustn't do that!". and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. So. etc. Also. and you're bound to hear either of these. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh.. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take .. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. (You can't take pictures. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. etc." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. (Don't be late. "Naughty!". there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. When placed after the Te Form with wa. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. iken (Okayama). like ikan (Takamatsu).
and left home at eight. fed him. First. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. some simple ones. esa o ataete. and I'm going shopping. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. hachiji ni ie o demashita. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. straighten up the room.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. heya o katazukete. heya o katazukete moratte. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go].) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. and [then] made my dinner. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. to take a picture with a camera. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. because tooru is a totally different vowel. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person.) Also. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. choushoku o tabete. to take (steal) something from someone. meaning "to pass (by/over something).) As you can see. However.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. ate breakfast. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. (I've got to call Shizu. which is easy to do." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). (I got up at seven o'clock. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. then go shopping. like "take a bath. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. the kanji used for each meaning are different.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions.) .
just start a new sentence. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a house deru: to leave. Just for a quick check. to straighten up. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. past. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . whose major purpose is to make things plain. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. When you're not sure. and simple.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form.
In the long run. (My goldfish died. Let's do some real basic. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. (I watched TV.) Boku no kingyo shinda. and only omit them when everyone else does. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. (I ate lunch. (I got a haircut. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. there are limits. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I went to the bank. There are cases where particles would never be cut.) Ginkou itta. Once again. (I read a book.) Terebi mita.) Kami kitta. (I did it. . you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang.) Ohiru tabeta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans.) Hon yonda. Also.
ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. literally "hairbug. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. hon becomes the subject. yonda modifies hon like an adjective." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. anywhere. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head.) Shinda kingyo wa. beforehand. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. I had someone cut my hair. (The things Bob studied were very helpful." There are a few of these." If we switch these around to yonda hon. For example. Although it literally means "I cut my hair.) . Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. roku nen mae ni katta.) Boku ga katta PC wa. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. juu hachi man en deshita." Very handy. Ke alone is hair — any hair. (The cake Joy made was delicious. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read." it is used for "I got a haircut.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. use kami." and is less formal than chuushoku. kiru: to cut. even on a caterpillar.
Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. these two share many add-ons and endings. because deshita is the past form of desu. One past tense element is enough. For a more detailed review. Due to this.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. the rest really isn't too difficult. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. please click the lesson links.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. Carefully note the similarities and differences. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. Base 3 is used for the plain future. as in the last example above. Again. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. Instead.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. root form of Japanese verbs. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. And. (If necessary. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. use desu to make it polite. not deshita. Since we have already covered these. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. (He's supposed to come at six. (He was supposed to come at six. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. which will serve as a nice review. . it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions.
Takada's quitting." Please don't make this mistake. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. (Even though I get up early. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. Takada quit. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): .) Kinou no ban.) Note: Yes.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii.. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. sensei ga okoru.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. I was late. (It would be better to go by train today. (Even though I got up early.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. For expressing regret. (It would be better to go by train today. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (I should have taken the train today.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. sensei ga okotta..) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (I heard that Mr. (I heard that Mr. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai.) Beth wa okureta kara. I'm late every day.
• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.) In fact.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) yameru: to quit a job.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. (I just bought that umbrella. now that I think of it.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. (I just ate. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. like something memorized from a grammar book. (John just left.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari.) John wa deta bakari. mai is used with units of time. . while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. not with people or objects.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. etc. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. (Mom just got back. snow. (It looks like it rained.) Sono kasa o katta bakari.) Ame ga futta mitai. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. (I just cleaned this room.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. In other words. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. (It looks like it's going to rain.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.
) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. (Yes. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. you'll find them very useful. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.. Tabete mitai kedo. Nikai ikimashita.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. (No. (Yes. tabeta koto ga nai. First. I haven't. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. though.. I have." in Japanese.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. you use the verb iku (to go) .) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. (All that kid does is play computer games. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports).) As you can see. to go/come back deru: to leave.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. (All you ever do is eat. to do (familiar. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. I'd like to try it.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. arimasu. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain.. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. Once you get these sorted and memorized... I've been twice. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. This is used after the Te Form. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form." usually as a complaint.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari.
[No. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.. mada yonde inai. to me. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. not yet. First.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. kare wa kuru deshou. you don't use this form. (If you call John he'll probably come. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai.) John ni denwa sureba.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54." Finally. you're admitting having experienced something at least once." which. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.. (If the kids eat a snack. kare wa kuru deshou.) John ni denwa suru nara. See Lessons 7 and 60. (If you call John he'll probably come. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice." but "I went twice.) .) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai..and literally ask "have you gone to.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. they probably won't eat lunch.) kedo: however. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. The second is that in using this form. but regular past tense. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. As in B's reply above. (No.) Next. I haven't read it yet.
(I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii.) Again." "I hear that.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara..) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. they probably won't eat lunch. (If you call John he'll probably come. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). chuushoku o tabenai deshou. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai.) John ni denwa shitara. (If the kids eat a snack.) Desu is usually used after sou. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. Takada's quitting. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. but I personally have never heard it. meaning "It seems that. making it more formal than rashii. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu." etc. familiar conversation.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42).• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. kare wa kuru deshou. Takada's quitting.) . (I heard that Mr. Word Check oshieru: to tell. (I heard that Mr. to inform.. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. (If the kids eat a snack.. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. According to the books.. they probably won't eat lunch.. Yes.. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. (Last night I watched TV. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. terebi o mitari suru deshou. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. and did some homework. Word Check daibun: considerably. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. (Last night after dinner I . (I read comics and stuff. and watch TV. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. It can also be used for present or future happenings. If you want.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. souji shitari.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. then ate dinner. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. ongaku o kiitari. (I watched TV and stuff. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. (Jim buys and sells old things. some cleaning.That's all there is to it.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. yuushoku o tabeta.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done.) Now. listened to some music.
hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. I'd really be at a loss. chuushoku o tabete. practiced the piano and things. ate lunch. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. * Note: While unnatural in English. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara.) . but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. then she made dinner.watched TV.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. listened to music for about two hours. then did homework until one o'clock. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. (If Bob were to come tomorrow.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements.
• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. Word Check hontou ni: really. (If you were to go swimming now. you'd probably regret it.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. etc. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.) As you can see. (Even if you studied Spanish. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen.. tabun koukai suru deshou. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. In fact. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: .. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. without doubt komaru: to be confused. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain." As usual. snow. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. you must remember that (something else).) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo.. dou shimashou ka. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
.) While not covered before. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items. (John's pants were torn when he fell. (I laughed when I heard that. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all.) Sore o kiita toki waratta.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. (When I read that. he never gets full. I was very surprised. For example. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. After the Ta Form. zenzen ippai ni naranai. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred..) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. (Even if I read the manual. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I can't understand this software. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. (No matter how much he eats.. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo.
• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish.) However.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. add desu to make a statement polite. the Ta Form + bakari. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. while tokoro really means just now. One similar to this. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it.) As usual. or. However. it's still brand-new. was already covered in Lesson 69. For example. (I just cleaned this room. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. (I just got back now. (The kids just finished eating. to is usually used because of its flexibility. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. in the least recent sense. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. that the person had just arrived home from buying it.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.
) The plain form of desu is da. (No.) Bob wa byouki desu." Generally speaking.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. (Bob's sick.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. (He is Mr.) Ashita wa ame desu.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: .) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. [I don't want to. You can add it to many statements to make them polite.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (There's a big tree in the park.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. Tom's here. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. desu makes things polite. like something from the masu group. (There's a big tree in the park. After nouns and adjectives. (The dictionary is on the desk.) desu. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. iru is used for people and animals.. Tanaka. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. (Tomorrow it will rain. are. (There's a spider on the wall. is.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. (That school is old. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. aru is a yodan. Tom wa iru yo. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. (Yes..]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. (Carol is 25 years old. iru and aru As you know.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. etc.
getting back to desu.• • Sumimasen.. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). state or condition. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. it is rarely used these days. This is one that is rarely used these days. Tom's not here now..) Jisho wa arimasen. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. . (Sorry. Japanese is no exception. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. (I don't have a dictionary. ima Tom wa inai. (Sorry. ima Tom wa imasen. here it is: Among the several roles of de. Again. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough.) Now.) Jisho wa nai. (I don't have a dictionary. and is especially used by children. one is "as.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. unpleasant. Connected with aru it means "to exist as." as in being in a certain position. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. If you're really interested in the technical background. Tom's not here now.. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. Use desu instead." So.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen.
" When exchanging gifts. So that there is no misunderstanding. agaru and ageru. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). (Wendy collects old stamps. They are not conjugations. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. active/passive forms. (Please come in. (Here. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. (Let's all meet at seven thirty.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. I'll give you this. have close ties with Japanese culture.) Note: These two. (Please make up your mind quickly. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. which is intransitive (has no direct object). (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. Accordingly. This is certainly not a complete list. to give • • Agatte kudasai. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. ageru. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house.) . very rarely will they correct you.) Hai. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. agaru is used for "come inside.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage.What makes it worse is the fact that very.
mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. when you find something that was lost.. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. etc.. like helping in the kitchen. as if it just found itself. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). Hontou ni tasukarimashita. Strangely. (I found a pimple. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. to help • • Arigatou. » -su / -u . tasukaru: to be of help.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. use tetsudau. in Japanese you use mitsukaru..) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. Also. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. You were really a great help.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. to arrive (a package. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for).." it's not. For routine helping. (Please continue looking for it. (Thank you.
(Grandpa went outside.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (Let the dog out. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. (Eat all this.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out.) herasu: to decrease. (Please cut down on your spending. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. (Be back by ten o'clock. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. Please don't leave any. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. Nokosanaide kudasai. (The copier is broken. to put down oriru: to go/come down.) Kaigi ga owattara. to get off or get out of a vehicle .
(This cake probably won't be eaten. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. etc. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. etc. For most standard verbs. (Put it down here.• • Koko ni oroshite. like pants. like a name tag or pin .) Of course there are others. obi. a skirt. dress. (My hat got dirty. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. but these should give you a good start. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs.) Kemushi ga ugoita." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. (If you wear those glasses. etc. like a shirt. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. jacket.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. (The caterpillar moved. necktie. like a belt.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. socks. you'll probably be laughed at. (Don't move that machine. kimono. hameru: to wear on a finger. warawareru deshou. shoes.
This completes Japanese Verbs.Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . and especially when talking about accessories. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.