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Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + ita 56. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 4 + nai 48. Base 5 50. Te Form + kureru 59. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + shimau 64. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + goran nasai 53.44. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + kara 58.
ku. bu.67. ichidan. nu. and irregular. desu. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. which can end in u. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. Ta Form + ra 72. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. tsu. su. Ta Form + toki 77. Remembering this will make further study much easier. which means "to walk. Ta Form + rashii 73. mu. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71." for example: it ends in ku. not u. Ta Form + to shitara 75. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + tokoro 78. Ta Form + to shite mo 76.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + bakari 70. but to be more precise. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. gu.
many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb . unless it was from another foreigner. (I'll eat an apple. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way.) Jim wa manga o yomu.) This is very simple Japanese. Some sources call these verbs godan. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. (Jim will read a comic book. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look." Interestingly. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. and also very juvenile or "familiar. (Naomi will watch TV. (Grandpa will return soon. but there is no difference.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago.
(Jim will read a comic book.their "Base 2" form -.before the masu ending is added. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. the present polite ending. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. (Grandpa will return soon. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. "adult" Japanese. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu .
) . come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. (He won't wait. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu.) Jerry wa sugu demasu.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. and should not be worried about at this stage. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. (I'll decide tomorrow. which is the negative form of masu.) Kare wa machimasen. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.) Now.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. (Jerry will come out soon. (Ayako watches the TV every day. let's try masen. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.
(John didn't go to Hiroshima. (I'm not going to eat now. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (Miki wants to see that movie. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (I want to buy an umbrella. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (The children didn't play at the park. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen. (The children want to play.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. To make them polite.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.) The above examples are plain forms. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. (Bob wants to eat tempura. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. masen shows negative tense.) Easy enough.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. . etc.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai.
) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o. Add desu to make it polite. and is never used alone with an object. (Let's take a break. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). (The children don't want to play.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. In fact. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. (I'll fix your bicycle.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient.) Yasumimashou. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. in this example. but either way this one is easy to remember. and two use ichidan. It simply means "let's (do something). you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. For example. . Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie./I'll help you fix your bicycle." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. (Let's go." This structure will be covered later on.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. (Let's get you some food.) Simple enough.) Tabemashou.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. (Let's eat. (I'll carry this/these [for you].)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou.) * In Japanese.) As in English." For example: • • • Ikimashou.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
(Grandpa isn't going to return soon. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow).) Watashi wa terebi o minai.) Jim wa manga o yomanai.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). kuru (come). Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. For example. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. As in English. shinai (won't do).) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. konai (won't come). Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. like Base 2 + masen. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. (Jim doesn't read comic books. (Sachiko won't be coming. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. . Depending on the situation. and should only be used in very informal settings. which we already covered in Lesson 4. (I'm not going to watch TV.) Sachiko wa konai. and suru (do). Etc." as a matter of personal policy.
Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. Look at these examples: .) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (Grandpa will probably return soon.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. hail. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.) Actually.what will happen if something doesn't happen. (Sachiko will probably come.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. etc. (It probably won't snow. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. snow.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.
(If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. names are usually not used alone. sama.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. chan. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. For example. so it is omitted. and kun. Once a person's name is known. The ones you'll hear the most are san. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. especially when talking to an individual. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Additionally. .• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. as in English. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it).) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. when speaking to that person.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. Generally speaking. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you." Actually.
Parents add chan to their children's names. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. however. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. but to the title of those older. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. hopefully. company. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. cousins. Family. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. time passes. and children add it to the words for father. grandfather. you can always ask. names are often shortened before adding chan." but is now a "san. older brother or sister (but not younger). anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". use san with colleague's names. let's get back to you. and playmates. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. Also. Again. grandmother. After the sale is made. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. As a safe rule. and chan with girls. kun with boys. adult female neighbor. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. uncle. For example. because san shows that a closer. aunt. though san is probably more common for females. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know.for a while. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. mother. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. For those older. but would also . at any rate. where anata is used for "you. more familiar (and. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. adult male neighbor." This Japanese would be understood. Customarily. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. real or pretended. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. Now. unless an individual prefers chan." This is normal and good. And. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. etc. of course. chan to female students.
(Jim has to return now. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do.. (The children must eat. toward the group concerned. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. mixed groups. Yes. there's no problem. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). change it to Base 1 ika. I may as well say here that much. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). which is the best choice when talking to large. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen.". the nakereba means "if one does not. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. It's used quite a lot. So.sound very stiff. which shows familiarity. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. formal. This can be handy when . it's a bit of a tongue twister. So. even some affection. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone).anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen." Let's take iku (to go). A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful.. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. the fact is that it is very rarely used. the one left would be kimitachi. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. Anatatachi could be used. and narimasen means "will not become". It works fine. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. (I have to go. and very odd. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi.) Looking at it literally. because it means "must do. however. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. but it conveys a certain distance. Accordingly.
you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. like deshou from Lesson 14." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . seru. mastering a clean. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru.adding other endings. (Jim probably has to return now. as in "let him" or "make him. (Grandpa lets the children play. and saseru. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. More than memorizing its meaning.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. "I'll have him go to the store".) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. or feelings. (The children probably need to eat.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. "I'll let him go to the store". Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. Good luck with nakereba narimasen.) With "suru verbs. are used for all of these.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. for yodan verbs. In Japanese. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. for the others. (I'll have John decide by next week. however. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something." can be conveyed. (I'll have him come tomorrow. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. Accordingly.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings.
) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka.) So. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come . which is signified by adding ni afterwards. although miru is an ichidan verb. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. which means "to show" or "to let see. past tense.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. (I want to have Kenji study English.) As you can see. by tomorrow. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. kimeru: to decide kare: he. (I'll have her do it. you won't hear or see "misaseru. (He lets them watch TV every day. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. (Let's have John go to the store. etc.) Kanojo ni saseru. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. like miseru.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. (Dad will make Bob study. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. polite." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou.
" For example. . (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. her karera: they.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. Not only should you be able to translate these.the plain. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings.) The verb furu. Watashi wa ringo o taberu.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. But before we begin. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store).) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. (It will probably rain tomorrow. Naomi wa terebi o miru. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. making the verb unnecessary. as explained in Lesson 1. the fact that the rain will fall is understood." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Let's get back to deshou.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. means "to fall. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. As in English. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. so it is often omitted. shown in the last example above.
isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. Please note that ka is not added at the end.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something." etc. (John should be coming soon.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome..) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. (Bob will probably also want to go. like . Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. snow.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. (You ought to study English more. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. as we would use tag questions in English. etc. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples.
) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. Word Check . you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on.) As with most verb endings. (I'd rather get a dog. should happen. the hou means "way" or "method. "would rather do.way is good/better. (I should call her. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation.ni natte iru or beki. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. and according to the grammar books. (It would be better to go by train today.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii." Actually. frankly.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. As usual. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". (We had better rest a little. When you hear it.should be. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. (It would be better to do it next week. practice makes perfect." and ii means "good" or "better.) Inu no hou ga ii. prefer -.while hazu is more passive -. (It would be better to eat later. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. (You should study Japanese more. "had better do". (I'd rather go to Hawaii. but." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. which was covered in Lesson 20." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ".should do..) When showing personal preference.. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings.
to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not.) As can be seen in the examples above.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.kanojo: she. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. him dekiru: can.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. Word Check kare: he. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (I don't know yet if we are going. ka dou ka does not end a sentence." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. It's like using "whether or not" in English. to understand inu: dog ima: now . only the component order is opposite in Japanese.
so you'll want to master it right away. (It might snow tomorrow. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on." These are incorrect. (Jack may also come. and is conjugated accordingly. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things).taberu: to eat miru: to see. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. (We may eat out tonight. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. yes." Since this verb ending is rather long. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. this one is used frequently. As such. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. meaning that. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo.) .) As you sharp ones have noticed. Therefore.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. Simply put. (It might rain tomorrow. where it is converted to shireru (can know). (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. perhaps.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). look. so please be careful when pronouncing.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen.
(I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. (Beth is always late. eigo ga jouzu desu. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. honya ni ikimasu. Tabun ame ga furu kara. let's take umbrellas. kasa o motte ikimashou. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. Word Check komban: this evening. (I don't want to go to Mr.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. so his English is good. they each become separate sentences. denwa shimasu. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. grammatically speaking. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since.) Jisho o kaitai kara. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. however. Itsumo okureru kara. (We don't have any milk. so I'll call her. you'll often hear the action stated first. (I'll call Beth because she's always late.I suggest.) Ongaku o kikimasu. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. mise ni ikimasu.) . (Since it will probably rain. In this case.) In spoken Japanese. Terebi o mitakunai kara. so I'm going to the store. signified by kara at the end. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. with its reason.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. given after.
just like English. no problem. which means "from. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (He speaks Japanese.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. Like "but" in English. home iya na: bad.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. it's used a lot. but he's not good at it. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. as well as its shorter forms. Again. . as you can imagine. (Although Jack is careful about his health. he gets sick a lot. but she doesn't get any better. disgusting mono: thing. yoku byouki shimasu. it comes between the contrasting phrases. etc." so. keredo and kedo. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain." Just like English.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. heta desu.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. nasty. jouzu ni narimasen. snow.
Let's move on. a lot. I like reading as a thing to do. Better than all this talk would be an example. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. Like our ing.) Finally. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. In English. No." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. it really doesn't change the verb..) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. Next. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. Here are some examples: . (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. But first. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. If you have to have a translation. Well.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. First is koto. no problem. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. not good at something. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to." Does this help? If not. It'll come. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. like reading in the sentence I like reading.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. (I like reading..ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. koto has no practical use by itself. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. let's look at each part.
It is generally not used for physical things or objects. essences.no. you can just omit suru. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. expressions. Kinou. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. in that case the suru is omitted. actions. for kicks -. it's a long ending for just "can." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen.let's try some other endings on dekiru.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. etc. (Keiko can play the piano. Again. (I can read Japanese. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. (I can translate French into Japanese. (I can't read French. long or short. meanings. (Bob was able to call Junko. and adding the suru makes it a verb." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one)." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. they're both used.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing." Denwa is a noun.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu.) Now. With "suru verbs. It does not . For example. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. There is a short alternative for other verbs.) Either way. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. actually for review -.
As I'm sure you know by now. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It shows that you have made a decision. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. and it shows that the decision was yours. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. koto ni suru is the plain.) . (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. (I'll go shopping tomorrow.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono.
) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. (Mr.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. watch (something) . Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. etc. (We have to wait until Bob calls. (Wait until dinner. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) As in English. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. periods.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. to let (someone) see.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. Made means "until.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
First. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. and to whom.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after."don't do's" -. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. you use it. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. However. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. but if you do. you could say.) Base 3 + na This. . be careful how. This is one that will probably not be used very often. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. as with English. Stay away from here!.
(If he sees Yuko. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look.) Ame ga furu nara. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. they probably won't eat dinner. he'll let me know. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.sentences with "if. which is just a slight variation. He thought he said. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. watashi ni shirasemasu.) John ni denwa suru nara. (If the kids eat a snack now. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If you call John he'll probably come. but nara is more common. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. kuru deshou.
.." Of course. But. that's another story. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. Japanese English. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. a place. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. there are no "relative pronouns.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. words that connect a noun to an action. page. a time. to make matters worse.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. I can see several things which need to be explained." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. And. which are examples involving a thing. things I'd like to explain.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. like in the first example above. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. As a quick review. to offer very general. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . respectively. In Japanese. and a person. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. and lengthy.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. explanations. For example. but hopefully sufficient for the present. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well.
One more point of interest is the word purezento here. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. Kobe is a place.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. Ga or no could be used here. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. like our 's. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu.) Since this is natural Japanese. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). since he or she will surely be hearing both. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. automatically designates a place. the English "where. a "sub-subject. For example. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. they do not mean the same thing. Continuing with the above example. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. especially in informal spoken Japanese. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. and is handled by the final verb. As you can see. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. so tokoro is used after the verb. or a noun which needs emphasis. but since Japanese has no equivalent. The problem is that the rules are . and therefore omitted. and so it would most likely be omitted. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above.) In this sentence.) Now. back to the lesson: First. densha (train) is the main subject. ga tells us who will take the train." you might say." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. a truer English translation would be.) In this one." as a relative pronoun. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. a substitute noun must be used. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. As you may have noticed. No is often used in place of ga.
. As a general. Finally.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. and when trying to make sense of one. (Spring is the season that brings new life. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. I hope this lesson was clear enough. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones.to high-intermediate Japanese. Please come back regularly to review as necessary.totally different in each language. you must forget all the rules of the other. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". semi-accurate rule. and shouldn't be too difficult.) This one is pretty straightforward. produce. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. and are in the realm of mid. and vice versa. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave.
you need to review. (Grandpa will return soon. stomping around.) . (Grandpa will return soon. (I tell you. fist pounding. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. If not. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. etc.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. if you want to emphasize something. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. need. Japanese English.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. (She IS coming. as well as supporting body language like hand waving.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. writhing.) Remember these? I hope so. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. However. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. unexcited intonation.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. it IS going to rain tomorrow. (Jim will read a comic book.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. or habits of the speaker. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". (Jim will read a comic book.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular.) As in any other language. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of).
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. rather. specifically. Takamatsu-yuki. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). meaning "in spite of. essential kanji: Chinese characters. There's nothing really tricky about it. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. remember daibun (or daibu): quite.) .Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever).) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru.) densha: train noru: to ride. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. etc. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen." which we will cover later on. Please consult a dictionary for more.
mine is red.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. (It really was a problem-free trip. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. mainly the one used for possessives. like our 's. (Jim's dictionary is blue. boku no wa aka desu. (Speaking Japanese is easy. Wa is the subject indicator. to not exist tabi: trip .) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. the greatest.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. impossible saikou: great. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. still not fukanou: not possible.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role.). (Living on Mars is not yet possible. (Reading is enjoyable. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet.
Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason.) So.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. (Since Eiko can speak English. she'll probably find a good job.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. For example. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. which is used to show reasons or causes.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. In this lesson we will take a look at node. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. In other words. the o.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . use node. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara.prefix makes it "honorific. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. If kara was used instead.
which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. (I was late even though I got up early. she won't listen. etc. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it.) annani: that much.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. understand to be. to follow rules or orders. to quit a job or habit iu: to say.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. For example: . to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) kiku: to listen. kanojo wa kikimasen. rumors.) asoko: there. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. Word Check yameru: to stop something. (Despite my telling her to stop. which is used for plain past structures.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. for the plain past. this short lesson is about noni.
Japanese German. They use a noun geared to their type of job. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee".) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. that's right. it usually means "for the purpose of. Takada's quitting.) Tame is a very handy word. The actual word is arubaito. in order to. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. as in "Hai.) As you have probably guessed.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time).) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita." (Yes. but is more often than not shortened to baito.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. A full-time employee will use shigoto. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. Here are some popular ones: . It means "that's right" and often follows hai. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. sou desu. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. Word Check hiru kara: from noon. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese." and is often followed by the optional ni.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. Japanese English. a student will say baito. (I heard that Mr.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school".
) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something.") It can mean and. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park.) . (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. have (an interview). [Use no when putting a noun after tame. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. In this case. (Kimiko came with Bob. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu.]) Hai. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. or if. that's pronounced "toh. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. (Okay. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. (This is for you. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. when. (This is for you.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. [plain.) For the curious. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. Mom. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. (Remember. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. with. receive.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.
Sasaki will call us soon. (I think Koji will be late. It means simply "I think. but it is not generally used. It's okay to have an opinion. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I think Eiko can speak English.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. of "party. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. meaning "come to want. begin to want. to go) + taku (tai.) ." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be).) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. While not specifically covered. things you can do. use umi.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. especially in the workplace. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. Japanese English.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. (I think Ms. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable.it's as simple as that. Now that it's been explained. takunaru puts tai and naru together. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. (I think it'll rain tomorrow." Iki (Base 2 of iku. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. to want to do. When referring to the beach in Japanese. and expected. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. to become to want to go -.
or have some control. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. which was covered in Lesson 19. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. omou can be used for plain speech.) Base 3 + tsumori desu .) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. care.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). don't really care. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. this ending is a lot like deshou. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. towards me.As you can see from the last examples. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. but it didn't. (I thought it would rain today [. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni.) Again. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. or don't really have any control over something. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. Accordingly. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. and it did.]) In a way. (I think it would be better to go by train today. goes back.
etc. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. add desu to make it polite. Deshita. is for past tense. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. their meanings are completely different. Well. While sounding alike. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. day. build up. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. yes. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. however. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. hear the other verb tsumoru.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu." used a lot.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. technically speaking. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. that was a short one. In case you're wondering. Always use daigaku for university. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. You will. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. S.) . in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. hairu: to go inside (a room). which means "to accumulate. to enter/enroll in (a school). so please be careful not to confuse them. as you should know by now.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu.
) Ame ga furu you desu. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). "you look like an idiot. e as in red OH. said so]. sou desu means you heard. u as in mule EH. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. and show what Base 4 looks like. etc.. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. o as in mode .. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. a as in father EE.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. 2. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. 4.) mitai: it looks like. directly or indirectly. AH.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. First. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. e as in see OO. baka: idiot.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. Simply put. 5. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. 3. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu.) To be honest. that something is or will be. (It looks like Ken can play the piano.
look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. Now." or "dictionary form. it's where you start. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 .
) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. Do you remember Base 3 + nara.. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If the kids eat a snack now.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. covered in Lesson 30? Well.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.. (I want to call Grandma. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. however. kuru deshou.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.. they probably won't eat dinner. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. (If you call John he'll probably come. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. (If he sees Yuko.) Handy. watashi ni shirasemasu. As we learned in the last lesson. Here. he'll let me know. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba." as shown in these examples: . huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. Ii is Japanese for "good. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4.) Ame ga fureba.) John ni denwa sureba.
yoi is not used with noni. they are not completely interchangeable.) • As you can see.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. soto de asobeba ii.) Naoko. no.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. so it would be good to play outside. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. (The weather's nice.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense.) Mom.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. (We want to watch TV.) Kids: Terebi mitai. (I wish we had gone to the park. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. In those situations different constructions would be used. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. is used after ba -. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. (We should have come at 8:00.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. (Now would be a good time to study.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. yes.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (I wish I had ordered the steak. yokatta. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. (It would be good if you played outside. By this stage of Japanese study. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. However. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . (Around five. they both mean "good". quirky ii does not. [I still wish you would play outside.
Actually. If you do.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. just use Base 4. It's simple: no subject or object needed. this is a form you really don't want to use.) light shokuji: food. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event." .and known to all concerned. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. and maybe even get into a fight.very handy when you get used to it. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. Or. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look.
) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. I remember when I first learned this one -. (I can read Japanese.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. Here we realize an important point -.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. just like most ichidans. Simply put. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. .it was like opening a new door. too.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. very useful. For example. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. Now.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.) Now. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. (Keiko can play the piano. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. (Keiko can play the piano. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. (Keiko can't play the violin. Take a good look. It's very. No problem. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. which was covered back in Lesson 26.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. (He might be able to go next month.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. As such. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. they can be treated like plain ichidans. It shows ability to do something.
We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. (Keiko can't play the piano. (Jack probably won't be able to come. (As you remember. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. this is wasei eigo. If it helps. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. and I hope it will make sense to you. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. (I can't read Japanese.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it.) . which was covered in Lesson 13. For example. As you may have guessed. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. this form is only meant for yodans. It made sense to me. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. the "cannot do" plain form.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs.
what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet.) . but who cares? Everyone uses it. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. energetic. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't).) Again. an example of which was included in the last lesson. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. but there are exceptions like the last example above. so I do too. So. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. this form is mainly for yodans. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. you may wonder.
If you don't mind. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.tabe.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.koyou .Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.kime.oboe.taberu tabereoboe. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.oboeru oboerekime.kari. First.
the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. oh. (Let's go.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka.. (I wonder if I should call Bob. eh.. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou..) Tabeyou. oo.) Yasumou. but is converted as necessary: . so stretch it out a bit when you use it.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. (Let's take a break. (Maybe I'll watch TV. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated.) Terebi o miyou ka na. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something).) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me.. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. I just made that up. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. (I think I'll go shopping. (Let's eat. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. (I wonder if I should go shopping.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara." Suru is shown plain.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). ee. Also. arukou ka na.
I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . but he couldn't. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. miemasen deshita. As you have most likely guessed.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. (I think John will try to come. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou.
nuide. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. yobu (to call out). keshite. tashite. katte. to ask).atte.isoide. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. motte. like au (to meet). like asobu (to play). like matsu (to wait). Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. kiite. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. nutte. Yodan verbs that end in gu. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. The only yodan verb that ends in nu.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. We'll cover pronunciation a little later.asonde. motsu (to hold). It's important because it's used a lot. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. like kasu (to lend). tsunaide. kiku (to listen. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -.e. yonde. Yodan verbs that end in bu. . Please note this one important exception: iku. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. to put out [a fire]). like isogu (to hurry).. katte. hataraite. tonde. kesu (to turn off. kau (to buy). not tsu). Yodan verbs that end in ku.kashite. not iite.matte. tsunagu (to connect). like aruku (to walk).aruite.
(Please come at six o'clock.kaette. (Come here. Yodan verbs that end in ru. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched.) . kiku (to listen). The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time.) Douzo.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. depending on the tone of voice used. like kaeru (to return). It means "under. (Please come at six o'clock.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants.) Kore o kiite. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. For practice let's use kuru (to come). kiite. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. like yomu (to read). (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. (Come at six o'clock. but in Japanese we do. (Go ahead and eat. monde. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. haitte. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. tsutsunde. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. (Wait." "to lower (something). When you start learning kanji. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. totte. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. and kiru (to cut). it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. humble me. momu (to massage). (Listen to this. tabete.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. (Go ahead. hairu (to enter). mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect.yonde.) Matte. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. tabete kudasai.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. please eat. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. So when you say chotto matte kudasai.) Chotto matte kudasai. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -." "to go down. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo." etc." There are several handy variations of kudasai. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. (Please wait a bit. As you can see.
(Please give me that pen. to show respect." Ageru also means "to give." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. Now.). Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. as covered in the last lesson.) . Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. (I'll call you later." but it means "to raise. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). I'll eat it for you. showing a "humbler" position. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. giving each equal time while making them short.) Tabetakunakereba. kiite: KEE-EETEH. just like counting 1-2-3. (I'll give you this pen. (I'll wait for you. you use the Te Form + kudasai. and kitte: KEET-TEH.) As you can see. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6.• Kore o kitte.) Kono pen o agemasu. to give (up to someone). kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. (Cut this.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. If you ask someone to do something for you." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. (If you don't want to eat it. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. tabete ageru.
as a general rule.) Notes 1. However. the position of the giver or receiver. and showing contempt for others. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. as these examples show.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all.In Japanese. laces musubu: to tie. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. and will work nicely in most cases. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete." It is disrespectful at best. Finally. string. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. . Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. it's a great convenience besides. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. and. (Lend Bob your pen. which are chosen depending on the situation. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. Don't use it. in cases where there's a third person. It's for "talking down" to.
pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. usually in short.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. (Take a look.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.) That's how we use goran nasai. Read it for yourself. (Try calling Sanae.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. You never use it on yourself. (There is salt on the shelf. Itte goran nasai.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. Go and see for yourself." You use it to ask someone to try something. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. (Taste it and see if you like it. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. (Ask Bob and see what he says. which is used to prove a point. Yonde goran nasai.) Tabete goran. (It says he's 38.) Te Form + iru . Mite goran nasai. mild command-like sentences.) Mite goran. See for yourself. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo.
Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . (I'm reading the newspaper." So. we say "I know. (I am walking. (I am here.) Kinou nete imashita. As you already know. For example.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. (I didn't watch TV today. (They are reading a magazine." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. (Yesterday I slept all day. (She is eating sushi.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. Because of this. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. (We live in Takamatsu. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. (Bill is studying Japanese. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. to exist. (He's not studying French. we can get away with using just "live" in English. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. [I wasn't watching TV today.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. This is probably the most used verb form of them all."). but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. [We are living in Takamatsu.) Watashi wa aruite iru. "I'm knowing [it]. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. (Shizuko is eating. and masen deshita. as in the fourth example above.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. in a way.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. when they really should use sunde iru.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). Especially important are masu. in English we would normally ask a person.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something).]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. mashita. masen. it works like English. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. and not shiru.
to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. "woman-child" / "man-child"). like "kid" in English. but. so I'll tell you: "to play.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. These can be shortened to ko in many situations.with the i in iru omitted -. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. In fact. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. there is no single. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU.) I know you're wondering. (I was watching TV." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. imouto: little (younger) sister . to do (something) ko: kid. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. it is even written this way -. For example. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. Finally. child Note: Strangely. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game.imashita ka.
) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. otouto for younger brother. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. ane for older sister. (They aren't reading a magazine. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. there are many that can.Note: In Japanese. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. to exist. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. (If they're not studying.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. (Sam's not here. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object.) Benkyou shite inakereba. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. (Sam's not here. nani o shite iru deshou ka." As such. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (The kids probably aren't studying. First let's do some plain negative examples. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. (They aren't reading a magazine. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. which makes them present or past progressive.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. and adding ra makes it conditional.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. (We don't live in Okayama. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. and imouto for younger sister. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. infinitive and progressive: . present and past. Please look at the following examples. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. (We don't live in Okayama. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson.
) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. (I wasn't eating then. In either. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. which can be convenient at times. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. To make the meaning perfectly clear. since it is not only a Te Form ending. The last two above are good examples of this." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. but also a much- . [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. (I didn't eat an apple. "we could" could be "he could.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. (I wasn't eating then. to be able). vague and troublesome at others. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. which appears in the last example. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. (I haven't eaten yet. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. It's for asking questions. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. However. (I'm not eating [now]. and goes especially well with plain ones." depending on the actual situation. (I didn't eat an apple. Dekita. (I'm not eating [now].) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be).) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai.
(John was watching TV. Males usually use boku in familiar settings.) That's real Japanese. [Really? I washed my car. Also. upgrade ita to imashita. (Really? I washed my car. ita is the plain past form of iru.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. Soshite terebi miteta. I include the usual English translation. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type.]) Yes.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. [I went shopping.used element of conversational Japanese.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. In fact. (They were reading a magazine.are going to speak so grammatically correct. (Really? I was washing my car. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. but no real friends or family members -.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. Just for the fun of it.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. this would be two males speaking. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. Soshite terebi o mite ita. (I was doing shopping. (I went shopping. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. in settings where polite speech is called for. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . As I'm sure you know by now. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. (Bill was studying. Put simply.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -.
as covered in Lesson 50." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. Here are some examples. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. (Would you please call Mr. meaning something like "I humbly partake. It can. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings.) As in English. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. however. . particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. Because itadaku is a very polite word. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. Oboete imasen ka.
" With itadakimasu. Traditionally. I'll get Grandpa to go.) This is a family situation. but since we can't do that now. this would be the best way to go. itadakimasu is always used with food. morau is not impolite." When there's no need to be very polite. it's just plain.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. adding a masu ending makes it polite. No particular reservations are needed here. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. morau works best when talking about a third party. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. (I'm doing homework now. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu.as itadakimasu.not as "respectful" -. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. As usual. (I'm doing homework now. Get Ken to go. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. Also.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. and it can be at times. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. use morau instead of itadaku.) This is the same family. With kudasai. Morau is okay when referring to other things. Ken ni itte moratte. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. However. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. even when the giver is not present. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. (Ken's not here now. Make no mistake. but not quite as polite -. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable.) Ima shukudai o shite iru.) .
or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. (Sure. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities.) This is at the office. customers. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . moraimashita. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka.Itadakimasu is always used with food.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. clients. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. tell shorui: forms. Murai go. but she already has one and doesn't want another. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. and these two are being courteous.) Itadakimashita. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. office. Just like anywhere else.prefix is used with strangers. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. (May I please have your name?) Hai. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. (I'll give you a pen. (I got one [already]. documents. (I had Ms. They probably don't see each other every day.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. each home.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. I got one. (Yes. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita.) oshieru: to teach. company. etc. even if all you're taking is a potato chip.
to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). With nouns that require the active participation of the subject.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. such as summer to mean "after summer. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). Simple and useful.. (After I eat I'm going shopping.." There are other ways to do that. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. (Let's go see a movie after work.." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. (John's coming over after he does his homework. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. such as those two common ones work and school. Word Check kaeru: to return.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. You can't use it directly after nouns. to come home owaru: to end. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). then add the Te Form of owaru.) .) Te Form + kara This one's a snap. you just make them the subject/object with ga.
which literally means "Oh. It's good for family members and close friends. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. Some people add the question-forming no on the end.) And finally. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. For example. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. (Please come here. (Please wait. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. ogotte kureru no?. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). repeated request. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita.) Matte kure.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . Kureru is used in generally the same way. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. this is the "command" form of kureru. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. In fact. Again. you might say Ah. and it would be offensive in some cases. This is the simplest way to ask a favor.
(PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. dreams. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. etc." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . (Because of that. assumptions. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. you'll see what I mean. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. I think that the number of PC users will increase. (I have been studying German history. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell.sound nicer than with kure. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form." Usually upgraded with masu.) Sono tame. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. the literal equivalent of "I'm going." (If you say just ikimasu. depending on intonation.) As can be seen. expresses future plans. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go.
"going away and not coming back. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. or cuisine. (Please come over [sometime]. to examine. (I came to borrow a textbook. but when uncertain. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). (I went to see the tiger in the zoo.) Douzo. combined with naru: to become. asobi ni kite kudasai.) shiraberu: to check (something). (Let's go eat Chinese food. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. but should be easily understood.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj.): cheap." See Lesson 40. (I'll go check it [then come back]. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. (I ate before coming over. There are several "set combinations" where it is used.) Shirabete kuru.. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. inexpensive.) Accordingly. food. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita.. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it.
) Te Form + miru As you know. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. but it's not." . In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it." You may hear it often. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru.. rusu deshita. miru means "to see. Or. with its own set phrases. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. (I'll try to read these kanji. (I tried calling him. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing." which makes this one easy to remember. (Let's give this new PC a try. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. (I'll try to talk to John..) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. to entertain oneself. go ahead asobu: to play. Either way." meaning that we'll give something a try.." but technically it's not one of those either. In Japanese grammar. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. but don't take it literally. For example. and adding miru. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. Well. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form.) Simple enough. but he wasn't in. it acts like a "quasi adjective.
" Accordingly. however. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.?). you can also get away with omitting particles." "okay. terebi mite ii. in familiar situations as in the last example above. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.) . that is the way it works grammatically.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission..) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission..(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Sure. Yes. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. you can watch TV. (Yeah. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner. It's an adjective which means "good..) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii." etc. positive response.) Hai. you can use my dictionary. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can.). hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. There's usually something else added on." etc." "fine. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. As I've probably mentioned before...) (Yes. (You can use my PC. As with most Japanese. (You may go home early today. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. In the workplace.. so you should be a little familiar with it. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to." "it's okay if (someone does something). the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. like the object indicator o... Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. as with all adjectives.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
(Well. You can omit the desu ka for plain. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. do not add the plain. polite. familiar talk. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. You can't just say "I broke my arm. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. but usually alone. if you're going to use it in this way.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart.these don't use it. question-forming no -. Instead. you can say it. If you do. If you break a bone in Japanese. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. but not ikaga ka. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. of course.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You can say dou ka.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka.) Actually. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression.
When placed after the Te Form with wa. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this.. In fact. "Thou shalt not. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take .) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. like ikan (Takamatsu). Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. (Don't be late. akan (Osaka). if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. iken (Okayama). ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. "You mustn't do that!". Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. etc. everyday setting. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. Also. and you're bound to hear either of these. used in a normal. to make it even more colorful. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. etc. especially ikenai. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen.. So. (You can't take pictures. "Naughty!".
to take a picture with a camera. meaning "to pass (by/over something). and left home at eight.) As you can see. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it.) . and I'm going shopping.) Also.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. First." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. heya o katazukete moratte. the kanji used for each meaning are different. esa o ataete. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. which is easy to do. heya o katazukete. to take (steal) something from someone. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. However." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. then go shopping.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. (I got up at seven o'clock. choushoku o tabete. like "take a bath. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. fed him. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. some simple ones. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. because tooru is a totally different vowel. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. and [then] made my dinner. (I've got to call Shizu. ate breakfast. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. hachiji ni ie o demashita. straighten up the room.
You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . to straighten up. a house deru: to leave. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. just start a new sentence. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. and simple. Just for a quick check. past.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. When you're not sure. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. whose major purpose is to make things plain.
even by the fastest-talking Japanese. there are limits.) Ginkou itta. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. Once again.) Terebi mita. and only omit them when everyone else does. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. Let's do some real basic. (I watched TV.) Ohiru tabeta. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. .) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. (I went to the bank. (My goldfish died. (I got a haircut. There are cases where particles would never be cut. In the long run.) Hon yonda. (I read a book. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. (I ate lunch. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita.) Boku no kingyo shinda. (I did it.) Kami kitta. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. Also.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form.
(The cake Joy made was delicious.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta." Very handy." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday.) Boku ga katta PC wa. For example. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese.) Shinda kingyo wa. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. anywhere.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. Although it literally means "I cut my hair.) .) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. even on a caterpillar. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. I had someone cut my hair. literally "hairbug. beforehand. juu hachi man en deshita." If we switch these around to yonda hon. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. use kami. (The things Bob studied were very helpful." There are a few of these. roku nen mae ni katta. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. kiru: to cut.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. Ke alone is hair — any hair. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's." it is used for "I got a haircut. hon becomes the subject." and is less formal than chuushoku.
please click the lesson links. Due to this.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. these two share many add-ons and endings. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. One past tense element is enough. as in the last example above. because deshita is the past form of desu. the rest really isn't too difficult. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. Since we have already covered these. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. use desu to make it polite.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. For a more detailed review. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. (He was supposed to come at six. Base 3 is used for the plain future.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. root form of Japanese verbs. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. And. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. not deshita. Again. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. Instead. (He's supposed to come at six.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. Carefully note the similarities and differences. which will serve as a nice review. (If necessary. . Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense.
the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. (I should have taken the train today. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. Takada's quitting. For expressing regret. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . I'm late every day.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai..) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. sensei ga okoru.) Kinou no ban. I was late. (I heard that Mr. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (Even though I get up early. Takada quit.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu.) Note: Yes." Please don't make this mistake. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. sensei ga okotta. (I heard that Mr.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (It would be better to go by train today. (Even though I got up early. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (It would be better to go by train today.) Beth wa okureta kara. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban..
(I just ate. (I just cleaned this room.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. (It looks like it rained.) Ame ga futta mitai.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. (It looks like it's going to rain. like something memorized from a grammar book. now that I think of it. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. mai is used with units of time.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. .) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can.) In fact.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. (John just left.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. not with people or objects.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.) John wa deta bakari. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.) yameru: to quit a job. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. etc. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. snow. (I just bought that umbrella. (Mom just got back.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. In other words.
sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. (Yes.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. tabeta koto ga nai. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. to do (familiar.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). to go/come back deru: to leave. First.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. Nikai ikimashita. you use the verb iku (to go) . (All you ever do is eat. I haven't... (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. arimasu. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. (No. I have. you'll find them very useful. (All that kid does is play computer games." usually as a complaint. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there)." in Japanese. This is used after the Te Form. Tabete mitai kedo..) As you can see. Once you get these sorted and memorized. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. I've been twice. I'd like to try it. though. (Yes..
and literally ask "have you gone to. The second is that in using this form.) Next. See Lessons 7 and 60. I haven't read it yet. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. [No. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals.) .) Ta Form + ra Simply said." Finally. to me. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. but regular past tense. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. (If you call John he'll probably come..) John ni denwa sureba. kare wa kuru deshou.) John ni denwa suru nara. First. (No. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. chuushoku o tabenai deshou..) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. (If the kids eat a snack." which.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. As in B's reply above. not yet. (If you call John he'll probably come.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. they probably won't eat lunch. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) kedo: however. kare wa kuru deshou." but "I went twice. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. mada yonde inai. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. you don't use this form. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai.
(I heard that Mr. making it more formal than rashii. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. (If the kids eat a snack.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. kare wa kuru deshou. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. (I heard that Mr.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). but I personally have never heard it. to inform.. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.. Yes.. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. Now that all the explaining is out of the way.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. Word Check oshieru: to tell. (If you call John he'll probably come.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group." etc. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37)... to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (If the kids eat a snack.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara." "I hear that. they probably won't eat lunch.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal.) .. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. familiar conversation. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. meaning "It seems that. Takada's quitting.) Desu is usually used after sou.) Again. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. Takada's quitting.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii.) John ni denwa shitara. According to the books. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. they probably won't eat lunch.
just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. terebi o mitari suru deshou. and watch TV. yuushoku o tabeta. (Jim buys and sells old things. Word Check daibun: considerably. (Last night I watched TV. listened to some music. It can also be used for present or future happenings. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. then ate dinner. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. some cleaning. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari.) Now. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. (I read comics and stuff.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. ongaku o kiitari.That's all there is to it. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. (Last night after dinner I .) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. souji shitari.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. and did some homework. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. If you want. (I watched TV and stuff.
but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. practiced the piano and things. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. watashi wa hontou ni komaru.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. * Note: While unnatural in English. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. I'd really be at a loss. then she made dinner. chuushoku o tabete.) . tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. (If Bob were to come tomorrow.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. ate lunch.watched TV. listened to music for about two hours. then did homework until one o'clock. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite.
In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). In fact. (If you were to go swimming now. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form.. tabun koukai suru deshou." As usual. you must remember that (something else). (Even if you studied Spanish. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou..• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. without doubt komaru: to be confused. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. you'd probably regret it. snow. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. etc. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain.. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. dou shimashou ka.) As you can see. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. Word Check hontou ni: really.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
kono sofuto ga wakarimasen.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . he never gets full.) While not covered before. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. After the Ta Form. I was very surprised.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo.. I can't understand this software. (I laughed when I heard that. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.. (John's pants were torn when he fell. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo.. (Even if I read the manual. (When I read that. (No matter how much he eats. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. zenzen ippai ni naranai. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. For example. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book.
in the least recent sense. However. to is usually used because of its flexibility. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. add desu to make a statement polite. For example.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. the Ta Form + bakari. One similar to this. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. (I just got back now. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. or.) However. (The kids just finished eating. it's still brand-new. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. was already covered in Lesson 69. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. (I just cleaned this room.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall.) As usual.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. while tokoro really means just now.
(There's a big tree in the park. is. (There's a big tree in the park. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. like something from the masu group. Tom's here. After nouns and adjectives.. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. (Carol is 25 years old." Generally speaking.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. are.) Ashita wa ame desu.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Bob wa byouki desu.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. desu makes things polite. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. Tom wa iru yo. (That school is old. etc. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (He is Mr. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. Tanaka.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. iru is used for people and animals. (Tomorrow it will rain.) The plain form of desu is da. (No.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. (The dictionary is on the desk.) desu.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. [I don't want to. aru is a yodan. (There's a spider on the wall.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Bob's sick. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. (Yes.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . iru and aru As you know.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu..) (Iru is an ichidan verb.
" So. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. getting back to desu. it is rarely used these days. ima Tom wa imasen. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. Tom's not here now. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature.) Now.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. Japanese is no exception. (I don't have a dictionary. This is one that is rarely used these days. (Sorry. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something.) Jisho wa nai. and is especially used by children. (I don't have a dictionary. unpleasant.. ima Tom wa inai. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student).) Jisho wa arimasen. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. here it is: Among the several roles of de.• • Sumimasen. If you're really interested in the technical background." as in being in a certain position. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. Use desu instead. Again. (Sorry. state or condition. .. one is "as.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. Tom's not here now. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use..
agaru and ageru. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. active/passive forms. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. (Wendy collects old stamps. have close ties with Japanese culture. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. ageru.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou.What makes it worse is the fact that very. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). » -aru / -eru In these pairs.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. very rarely will they correct you. So that there is no misunderstanding. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. I'll give you this. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. to give • • Agatte kudasai. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru.) Hai. This is certainly not a complete list." When exchanging gifts. agaru is used for "come inside. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. which is intransitive (has no direct object). (Please make up your mind quickly. (Here.) . (Please come in.) Note: These two. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. Accordingly. They are not conjugations.
(I found a pimple.. like helping in the kitchen. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. » -su / -u . in Japanese you use mitsukaru. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. (Please continue looking for it..) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. as if it just found itself. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. when you find something that was lost. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. to help • • Arigatou. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). For routine helping. use tetsudau.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. to arrive (a package." it's not. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. Strangely. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. etc.. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. You were really a great help.. tasukaru: to be of help. (Thank you. Also.
to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. (Be back by ten o'clock. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. to get off or get out of a vehicle . kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. to put down oriru: to go/come down. (Grandpa went outside. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. (Please cut down on your spending.) Kaigi ga owattara. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. (Eat all this. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (Let the dog out.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete.) herasu: to decrease. use okiwasureru (oku: to put.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. Please don't leave any. Nokosanaide kudasai. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. (The copier is broken.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out.
kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. dress. (My hat got dirty. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. like a name tag or pin . like pants. (Put it down here. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. etc.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai.) Of course there are others. hameru: to wear on a finger. a skirt. like a shirt. like a belt. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs.• • Koko ni oroshite. socks. (This cake probably won't be eaten." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. etc. but these should give you a good start.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. you'll probably be laughed at. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. (Don't move that machine. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. kimono. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. (The caterpillar moved. necktie. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. etc. obi. warawareru deshou. (If you wear those glasses. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. jacket. For most standard verbs. shoes.) Kemushi ga ugoita. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara.
My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . suru is often used instead of the bottom four. and especially when talking about accessories. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. This completes Japanese Verbs.Besides these.
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