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Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + kudasai 51. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Base 5 50. Base 4 + reba 49. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + kuru / iku 60.44. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + iru 54.
67.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. desu. mu. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. which means "to walk. Ta Form + to shitara 75. Ta Form + ra 72. Ta Form + bakari 70. ichidan. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Ta Form + tokoro 78. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + rashii 73. Remembering this will make further study much easier. nu. not u. but to be more precise. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. and irregular. gu. which can end in u. su. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . Ta Form + to shite mo 76. ku. bu. tsu. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form + ri 74.
) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. (Jim will read a comic book. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. but there is no difference. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. (I'll eat an apple. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb .Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. and also very juvenile or "familiar.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru.) Jim wa manga o yomu. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. Some sources call these verbs godan. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. unless it was from another foreigner.) This is very simple Japanese." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. (Grandpa will return soon. (Naomi will watch TV." Interestingly.
their "Base 2" form -. Since masu requires the Base 2 form.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. (Grandpa will return soon. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. (Jim will read a comic book.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers.before the masu ending is added. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. "adult" Japanese. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu .) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. the present polite ending.
) Kare wa machimasen.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. (Jerry will come out soon. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. and should not be worried about at this stage.) Now.) .) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. which is the negative form of masu.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. (I'll decide tomorrow. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. (He won't wait. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. let's try masen. (Ayako watches the TV every day.
masen shows negative tense. (The children want to play.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. etc.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. . To make them polite.) Easy enough. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (Miki wants to see that movie.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. (I'm not going to eat now. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. (The children didn't play at the park. (John didn't go to Hiroshima.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. (I want to buy an umbrella. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.) The above examples are plain forms.
. and two use ichidan. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs./I'll help you fix your bicycle. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. For example. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). (Let's take a break." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. (I'll carry this/these [for you]. (Let's eat.) Yasumimashou. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie.) Tabemashou." For example: • • • Ikimashou. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.) Simple enough.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. In fact. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. (Let's get you some food. and is never used alone with an object.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. It simply means "let's (do something). in this example. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. (I'll fix your bicycle. but either way this one is easy to remember. (The children don't want to play.) As in English.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. (Let's go.) * In Japanese. Add desu to make it polite." you would use the adjective hoshii and say." This structure will be covered later on.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
and should only be used in very informal settings. konai (won't come). Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future." as a matter of personal policy.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. shinai (won't do).taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). (Sachiko won't be coming. (I'm not going to watch TV. As in English. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. .) Watashi wa terebi o minai. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. For example. Depending on the situation. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. kuru (come). Etc. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. which we already covered in Lesson 4. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. (Jim doesn't read comic books. and suru (do). (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. like Base 2 + masen. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella.) Sachiko wa konai. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai.
(John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. hail. etc. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.what will happen if something doesn't happen.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. (Sachiko will probably come.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Look at these examples: . (Grandpa will probably return soon.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. (It probably won't snow.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. snow.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.) Actually.
you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. as in English. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. names are usually not used alone. The ones you'll hear the most are san. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. when speaking to that person. sama. Generally speaking. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. . (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -." Actually.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. chan. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. Once a person's name is known. so it is omitted. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. Additionally. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. especially when talking to an individual. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and kun. For example.
" but is now a "san. you can always ask. time passes. etc. Now. grandfather. however. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. of course. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -." This Japanese would be understood. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. Parents add chan to their children's names. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members.for a while. kun with boys. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. but to the title of those older. adult male neighbor. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. cousins. company. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. real or pretended. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. and children add it to the words for father. Customarily. and playmates. unless an individual prefers chan.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. uncle. Also. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. use san with colleague's names. where anata is used for "you. older brother or sister (but not younger). Again. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. aunt. As a safe rule. grandmother. hopefully. but would also . though san is probably more common for females. For those older. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known." This is normal and good. more familiar (and. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. and chan with girls. because san shows that a closer. mother. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. After the sale is made. chan to female students. names are often shortened before adding chan. at any rate. And. let's get back to you. For example. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. adult female neighbor. Family.
It works fine.". the one left would be kimitachi.sound very stiff. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. however. the nakereba means "if one does not. This can be handy when . (The children must eat. Accordingly. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. because it means "must do. it's a bit of a tongue twister. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. toward the group concerned. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. which is the best choice when talking to large. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. (Jim has to return now." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here.) Looking at it literally. It's used quite a lot. and very odd. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). So. I may as well say here that much. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. which shows familiarity. change it to Base 1 ika. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. and narimasen means "will not become".) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. formal. even some affection. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. the fact is that it is very rarely used. Yes.. (I have to go. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. So. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. Anatatachi could be used. but it conveys a certain distance." Let's take iku (to go).anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. there's no problem. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students.. mixed groups.
(Grandpa lets the children play. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. More than memorizing its meaning.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. (The children probably need to eat. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. or feelings.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. In Japanese. Accordingly. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. "I'll let him go to the store"." can be conveyed. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. mastering a clean.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. however. for the others. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. (I'll have John decide by next week. (I'll have him come tomorrow. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . as in "let him" or "make him. for yodan verbs.) With "suru verbs. "I'll have him go to the store". seru.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. (Jim probably has to return now. and saseru.adding other endings. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. are used for all of these. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. like deshou from Lesson 14.
" as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. you won't hear or see "misaseru. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. etc. polite.) Kanojo ni saseru.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. which means "to show" or "to let see. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb.) As you can see. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. (I want to have Kenji study English. (Let's have John go to the store. although miru is an ichidan verb. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. (He lets them watch TV every day.) So.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. kimeru: to decide kare: he. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. past tense. (Dad will make Bob study. like miseru. (I'll have her do it. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. by tomorrow. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object.
) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu." For example. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. Naomi wa terebi o miru. As in English. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary.the plain. her karera: they." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. shown in the last example above.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. (It will probably rain tomorrow. Not only should you be able to translate these. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. making the verb unnecessary. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. Mama wa mise de banana o kau.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. Let's get back to deshou. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. . as explained in Lesson 1. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan.) The verb furu. But before we begin.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. means "to fall. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). them eigo: the English language mise: a store.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. so it is often omitted. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations.
) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. (John should be coming soon. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. as we would use tag questions in English. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. snow. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. (Bob will probably also want to go. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. etc." etc. like .. (You ought to study English more. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. Please note that ka is not added at the end. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu.
Word Check .ni natte iru or beki.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. frankly. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. (It would be better to go by train today. should happen.should do. When you hear it. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. "would rather do." Actually. (I'd rather get a dog. prefer -.. (It would be better to do it next week. and according to the grammar books. As usual." and ii means "good" or "better.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.) Inu no hou ga ii. which was covered in Lesson 20. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. (We had better rest a little.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. "had better do".) As with most verb endings. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. (I should call her. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do".way is good/better. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu.while hazu is more passive -.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. (It would be better to eat later.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. but. practice makes perfect.should be..) Hawaii no hou ga ii.) When showing personal preference. (You should study Japanese more. the hou means "way" or "method." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -.
her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. Word Check kare: he. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. (I don't know yet if we are going.) As can be seen in the examples above. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. It's like using "whether or not" in English. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not.kanojo: she. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. to understand inu: dog ima: now . him dekiru: can.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.
(Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. so please be careful when pronouncing. look." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. Simply put.) As you sharp ones have noticed. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). (It might rain tomorrow. (Jack may also come.taberu: to eat miru: to see.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. yes.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. perhaps. so you'll want to master it right away. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. this one is used frequently. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow." Since this verb ending is rather long. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. meaning that.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. (It might snow tomorrow. Therefore. As such.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form." These are incorrect. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. and is conjugated accordingly. where it is converted to shireru (can know). (We may eat out tonight. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) . Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen).
) Ongaku o kikimasu. however. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. eigo ga jouzu desu. signified by kara at the end. (I'll call Beth because she's always late." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. you'll often hear the action stated first. honya ni ikimasu. (Since it will probably rain. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. with its reason.) .) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. given after. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. Word Check komban: this evening.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. (We don't have any milk. In this case. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. let's take umbrellas.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. Itsumo okureru kara. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. so his English is good. kasa o motte ikimashou.I suggest. (I don't want to go to Mr. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. denwa shimasu. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. so I'll call her. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. Terebi o mitakunai kara. mise ni ikimasu. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. (Beth is always late.) In spoken Japanese. so I'm going to the store. grammatically speaking.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. they each become separate sentences.) Jisho o kaitai kara.
etc. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. nasty.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. which means "from. disgusting mono: thing. Again. (Although Jack is careful about his health. heta desu." Just like English. but she doesn't get any better. jouzu ni narimasen." so. he gets sick a lot. . snow. (He speaks Japanese. as you can imagine. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. as well as its shorter forms. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. home iya na: bad. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. it comes between the contrasting phrases. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. but he's not good at it. just like English. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. yoku byouki shimasu. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. Like "but" in English. keredo and kedo. it's used a lot. no problem. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning.
let's look at each part. Next. No. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. no problem. If you have to have a translation. not good at something. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often." Does this help? If not. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase.. koto has no practical use by itself. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. Let's move on. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. Better than all this talk would be an example. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. Well. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. a lot. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3.. In English. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. Here are some examples: . the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. like reading in the sentence I like reading. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. (I like reading. But first.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. First is koto. It'll come.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. it really doesn't change the verb. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. I like reading as a thing to do.) Finally. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. Like our ing.
meanings. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. essences. (Keiko can play the piano. (I can read Japanese. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one).) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. they're both used." It generally means intangible "things": ideas.no. With "suru verbs.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. There is a short alternative for other verbs. expressions. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. (I can't read French.let's try some other endings on dekiru. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. (I can translate French into Japanese. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation.) Now. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. you can just omit suru." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. Kinou. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes.) Either way. actions. and adding the suru makes it a verb." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. Again. long or short. etc. in that case the suru is omitted." Denwa is a noun. For example.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. actually for review -. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. for kicks -. It does not . "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. (Bob was able to call Junko. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. it's a long ending for just "can." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing.
koto ni suru is the plain. As I'm sure you know by now.) . It shows that you have made a decision. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. koto ni shimasu is the polite form.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. and it shows that the decision was yours. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson.
(It's two weeks until summer vacation. watch (something) ." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. etc. (Mr. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. (We have to wait until Bob calls.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. to let (someone) see.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. periods. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (Wait until dinner. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. Made means "until.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.) As in English.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.
is the counterpart to Lesson 10.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. However. be careful how. First. you use it. This is one that will probably not be used very often.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. as with English. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. and to whom. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression."don't do's" -. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored.) Base 3 + na This. but if you do. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. Stay away from here!. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. you could say.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. .
Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. (If he sees Yuko. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. He thought he said. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. (If the kids eat a snack now.) John ni denwa suru nara. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. he'll let me know. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If you call John he'll probably come. but nara is more common.) Ame ga furu nara.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. they probably won't eat dinner." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form.sentences with "if. watashi ni shirasemasu. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. which is just a slight variation.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. kuru deshou.
a time. explanations. like in the first example above.. and a person. page. to make matters worse..noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo." Of course. but hopefully sufficient for the present. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . But.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. For example. there are no "relative pronouns. words that connect a noun to an action. Japanese English. a place. As a quick review. to offer very general. I can see several things which need to be explained. things I'd like to explain. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. respectively. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. and lengthy. that's another story. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. And. which are examples involving a thing. as I sit here and look at these four phrases." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. In Japanese.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English.
I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. the English "where. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later.) Now. ga tells us who will take the train. (That is Kimiko's umbrella." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. No is often used in place of ga.) In this one. or a noun which needs emphasis. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. especially in informal spoken Japanese. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. densha (train) is the main subject. For example. a "sub-subject. back to the lesson: First. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense." as a relative pronoun. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. The problem is that the rules are . (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. like our 's. As you can see. they do not mean the same thing. automatically designates a place." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. Ga or no could be used here. and is handled by the final verb. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. Continuing with the above example. As you may have noticed. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. but since Japanese has no equivalent. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. Kobe is a place. and therefore omitted. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. so tokoro is used after the verb.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence.) Since this is natural Japanese. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). since he or she will surely be hearing both. a truer English translation would be.) In this sentence." you might say. and so it would most likely be omitted. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. a substitute noun must be used.
what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. (Spring is the season that brings new life. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. I hope this lesson was clear enough. you must forget all the rules of the other. .totally different in each language. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. Finally. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and shouldn't be too difficult.to high-intermediate Japanese. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. semi-accurate rule. produce. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. and are in the realm of mid. As a general. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. and vice versa.) This one is pretty straightforward.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". and when trying to make sense of one.
Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. Japanese English. as well as supporting body language like hand waving.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. if you want to emphasize something.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. (Jim will read a comic book. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu.) As in any other language. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. you need to review. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). stomping around. (Grandpa will return soon. writhing. (I tell you. If not. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". (Grandpa will return soon. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. However. or habits of the speaker. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. (She IS coming.) . (Jim will read a comic book. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) Remember these? I hope so.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. fist pounding. etc.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. it IS going to rain tomorrow. need.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. unexcited intonation.
) . where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. Takamatsu-yuki. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. etc. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. meaning "in spite of. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. rather. There's nothing really tricky about it.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo." which we will cover later on. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. essential kanji: Chinese characters. Please consult a dictionary for more.) densha: train noru: to ride. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). it's usually found somewhere near the middle. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. specifically.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji.
the greatest. (Reading is enjoyable. mine is red. to not exist tabi: trip . (Speaking Japanese is easy.). enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. still not fukanou: not possible. impossible saikou: great. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]).) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. boku no wa aka desu. like our 's. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. mainly the one used for possessives. Wa is the subject indicator. (Jim's dictionary is blue.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. (It really was a problem-free trip.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu.
) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In other words. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead.) So. the o. In this lesson we will take a look at node. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. which is used to show reasons or causes. use node. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. For example. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. she'll probably find a good job.prefix makes it "honorific. (Since Eiko can speak English. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. If kara was used instead. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou.
Word Check yameru: to stop something.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) asoko: there. rumors. this short lesson is about noni. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. to quit a job or habit iu: to say.) kiku: to listen. kanojo wa kikimasen.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. (I was late even though I got up early. etc.) annani: that much. understand to be. to follow rules or orders. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. which is used for plain past structures. for the plain past. she won't listen. For example: .) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Despite my telling her to stop. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.
) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu." and is often followed by the optional ni. Word Check hiru kara: from noon. in order to. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee".) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. Here are some popular ones: . the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. sou desu.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. They use a noun geared to their type of job. but is more often than not shortened to baito. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). a student will say baito. as in "Hai." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Tame is a very handy word. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. A full-time employee will use shigoto. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. Japanese German.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. (I heard that Mr. Japanese English. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. Takada's quitting. The actual word is arubaito.) As you have probably guessed. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets." (Yes. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. that's right. it usually means "for the purpose of.
) For the curious. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. (Okay. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. (Kimiko came with Bob. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. when.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. In this case.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. (This is for you. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park.) .) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. receive. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. have (an interview). with.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. Mom.") It can mean and. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. (Remember. or if.]) Hai.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. that's pronounced "toh. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. [plain. (This is for you.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.
with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. but it is not generally used. Now that it's been explained. Sasaki will call us soon.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that. and expected. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. begin to want. When referring to the beach in Japanese. takunaru puts tai and naru together." Iki (Base 2 of iku.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. meaning "come to want. of "party. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. use umi. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) .) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. to become to want to go -. It's okay to have an opinion. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. Japanese English.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. (I think Koji will be late. While not specifically covered.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. things you can do. (I think Ms. It means simply "I think. (I think Eiko can speak English. to go) + taku (tai. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. especially in the workplace. to want to do." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be).
which was covered in Lesson 19. (I thought/knew it would rain today [.]) In a way. and it did.As you can see from the last examples. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. (I thought it would rain today [. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . don't really care. goes back. towards me. or have some control. care.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. but it didn't. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. or don't really have any control over something. omou can be used for plain speech. Accordingly. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. this ending is a lot like deshou.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. (I think it would be better to go by train today. (I think the kids want to go to the beach.) Again.
) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow." used a lot. S. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. which means "to accumulate. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.) . day.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. etc. technically speaking. Well. is for past tense. to enter/enroll in (a school). add desu to make it polite. their meanings are completely different. as you should know by now. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. hear the other verb tsumoru. While sounding alike. that was a short one. hairu: to go inside (a room). In case you're wondering. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. build up. Always use daigaku for university. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. You will.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. Deshita. so please be careful not to confuse them.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. yes. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. however.
) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms.) mitai: it looks like. First. Simply put. 2. AH. e as in red OH.. a as in father EE. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu.) To be honest. etc. 3. directly or indirectly. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. 4. said so]. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. o as in mode . you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. e as in see OO. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. sou desu means you heard. and show what Base 4 looks like." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. that something is or will be. u as in mule EH. "you look like an idiot. 5." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. baka: idiot..• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot.) Ame ga furu you desu. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). (It's going to rain [because the weatherman.
it's where you start. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form." or "dictionary form. Now. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 . Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up.) Think of Base 3 as the "root.
Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30. As we learned in the last lesson. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. he'll let me know.) Handy. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. Ii is Japanese for "good. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If you call John he'll probably come. (I want to call Grandma. they probably won't eat dinner. however. kuru deshou.. covered in Lesson 30? Well.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba.) Ame ga fureba.. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta.) John ni denwa sureba. watashi ni shirasemasu. let's do a simple and useful conjugation." as shown in these examples: . (If he sees Yuko. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. (If the kids eat a snack now. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. Here.. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her.
) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. However. (We want to watch TV. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. (Around five. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. [I still wish you would play outside. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. they are not completely interchangeable. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro.) Kids: Terebi mitai.) • As you can see. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. (I wish we had gone to the park. (We should have come at 8:00. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. yokatta. quirky ii does not. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. soto de asobeba ii. yes.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied .) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.) Mom. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. (The weather's nice. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. so it would be good to play outside. In those situations different constructions would be used.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. By this stage of Japanese study. (I wish I had ordered the steak. no. yoi is not used with noni.) Naoko. (It would be good if you played outside.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. they both mean "good".there is no such Japanese as ikatta. is used after ba -. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (Now would be a good time to study.
and maybe even get into a fight. Or.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form.and known to all concerned. just use Base 4. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look.very handy when you get used to it. Actually.) light shokuji: food. If you do. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. if you look and act like you know what you're saying." . and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. It's simple: no subject or object needed. this is a form you really don't want to use. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj.
) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. For example. (I can read Japanese. too. It's very.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. No problem. Here we realize an important point -. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. Take a good look.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. (Keiko can play the piano.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. just like most ichidans. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. very useful. It shows ability to do something. . Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.it was like opening a new door.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. they can be treated like plain ichidans. which was covered back in Lesson 26. Simply put. (He might be able to go next month. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. (Keiko can't play the violin.) Now. As such. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. I remember when I first learned this one -. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. Now. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. (Keiko can play the piano. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru.
) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep).) . there are other nai-related endings that will work here. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. which was covered in Lesson 13. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. As you may have guessed.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. this form is only meant for yodans." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. If it helps. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form.) See how that works? As mentioned last time.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. (I can't read Japanese. (Jack probably won't be able to come. the "cannot do" plain form. this is wasei eigo. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. For example. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. and I hope it will make sense to you.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. (As you remember. It made sense to me. (Keiko can't play the piano.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways.
to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. an example of which was included in the last lesson.) Again. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. So. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). energetic. but there are exceptions like the last example above. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. so I do too. you may wonder. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. but who cares? Everyone uses it. this form is mainly for yodans.) .
kime.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.kari.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.tabe.oboeru oboerekime.oboe.koyou . First.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. If you don't mind.taberu tabereoboe. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.
which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. Also." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.. (I think I'll go shopping. (Let's take a break. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. (Maybe I'll watch TV. (I wonder if I should call Bob. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Terebi o miyou ka na. oo. ee.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see.. (Let's eat.. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. oh.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara.. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated.) Yasumou. (Let's go. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. arukou ka na. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something).) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. but is converted as necessary: .) Tabeyou. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. (I wonder if I should go shopping.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). eh. I just made that up.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka." Suru is shown plain.
) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. As you have most likely guessed.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. (I think John will try to come. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. but he couldn't. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. miemasen deshita. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te.
Yodan verbs that end in bu. katte. like asobu (to play).matte. to ask). hataraite..aruite. like kasu (to lend). kiite. nutte. yonde. nuide. keshite. Yodan verbs that end in tsu.e. It's important because it's used a lot. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. kau (to buy). kiku (to listen. tonde. tashite. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte.atte. yobu (to call out). tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. like aruku (to walk). motsu (to hold). Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. to put out [a fire]). The only yodan verb that ends in nu. tsunagu (to connect). motte. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. . right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. like matsu (to wait).kashite. Yodan verbs that end in gu. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. like au (to meet). katte.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. Yodan verbs that end in ku. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. not tsu). like isogu (to hurry).isoide.asonde. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. not iite. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. Please note this one important exception: iku. kesu (to turn off. tsunaide.
toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. (Please wait a bit. Yodan verbs that end in ru. It means "under. momu (to massage). haitte. (Go ahead and eat. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly.) Kore o kiite. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. (Please come at six o'clock. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo." "to go down. humble me. (Come at six o'clock. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. kiite.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. (Come here. please eat. (Go ahead.) Matte. tabete. kiku (to listen). the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself.) Douzo. depending on the tone of voice used.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. As you can see.) . (Please come at six o'clock. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain.kaette. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants.yonde. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. When you start learning kanji. monde. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite.) Chotto matte kudasai. hairu (to enter). (Listen to this. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched." There are several handy variations of kudasai. like kaeru (to return). So when you say chotto matte kudasai. totte. tsutsunde. For practice let's use kuru (to come)." "to lower (something). which was introduced back in Lesson 10.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect." etc. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. and kiru (to cut). like yomu (to read). (Wait. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. tabete kudasai. but in Japanese we do. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite.
I'll eat it for you. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. If you ask someone to do something for you." Ageru also means "to give. showing a "humbler" position. to show respect.) .• Kore o kitte. to give (up to someone). a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). (If you don't want to eat it." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up.) Tabetakunakereba. and kitte: KEET-TEH. Now. just like counting 1-2-3. you use the Te Form + kudasai. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6.). (I'll call you later. tabete ageru.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. giving each equal time while making them short. (I'll give you this pen. kiite: KEE-EETEH.) Kono pen o agemasu. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. (Cut this. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form.) Ato de denwa shite ageru.) As you can see." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. as covered in the last lesson. (Please give me that pen." but it means "to raise. (I'll wait for you. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible.
string. in cases where there's a third person. as these examples show. and will work nicely in most cases. as a general rule. laces musubu: to tie. it's a great convenience besides. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form." It is disrespectful at best.) Notes 1. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. whether or not he or she is in hearing range.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. and showing contempt for others. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. (Lend Bob your pen. However. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. which are chosen depending on the situation. It's for "talking down" to. . the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. and. Don't use it. the position of the giver or receiver. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete.In Japanese. Finally.
) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. Itte goran nasai. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. Yonde goran nasai. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. See for yourself. Go and see for yourself. (It says he's 38. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.) Mite goran. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. Read it for yourself.) That's how we use goran nasai. (Try calling Sanae.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. mild command-like sentences. which is used to prove a point. You never use it on yourself. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. (Taste it and see if you like it. (There is salt on the shelf. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. (Ask Bob and see what he says. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Take a look. usually in short.) Tabete goran.) Te Form + iru .Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Mite goran nasai." You use it to ask someone to try something.
"). (Bill is studying Japanese. (He's not studying French. (I am here. (We live in Takamatsu. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]).) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. (Yesterday I slept all day. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. (I didn't watch TV today. (She is eating sushi. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. in a way. "I'm knowing [it].) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. to exist.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. as in the fourth example above. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite .]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb." So. Because of this." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. and masen deshita.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru.) Watashi wa aruite iru. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. we say "I know. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. As you already know. (They are reading a magazine. masen. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. we can get away with using just "live" in English.) Kinou nete imashita.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. (I am walking. in English we would normally ask a person. (I'm reading the newspaper. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). Especially important are masu. [We are living in Takamatsu. mashita.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. and not shiru. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. [I wasn't watching TV today. (Shizuko is eating. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. For example. when they really should use sunde iru. it works like English. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. This is probably the most used verb form of them all.
(I was watching TV. imouto: little (younger) sister . to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. to do (something) ko: kid. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. For example. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita.with the i in iru omitted -. there is no single. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. "woman-child" / "man-child").in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. it is even written this way -. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. Finally. child Note: Strangely. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here.) I know you're wondering. so I'll tell you: "to play. These can be shortened to ko in many situations.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. In fact. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine.imashita ka. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. but. like "kid" in English.
Note: In Japanese. (Sam's not here. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. (We don't live in Okayama. nani o shite iru deshou ka. there are many that can. Nakatta is used for plain negative past.) Benkyou shite inakereba. and adding ra makes it conditional.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. present and past.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. otouto for younger brother. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. (Sam's not here. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. First let's do some plain negative examples. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. (The kids probably aren't studying. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. (They aren't reading a magazine. and imouto for younger sister. (If they're not studying.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. infinitive and progressive: . as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. to exist. (We don't live in Okayama. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. which makes them present or past progressive. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. Please look at the following examples. ane for older sister." As such. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. (They aren't reading a magazine.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.
Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but also a much- . (I'm not eating [now]. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita." depending on the actual situation. (I didn't eat an apple. vague and troublesome at others. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. which can be convenient at times. (I wasn't eating then. (I wasn't eating then. In either. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. However. "we could" could be "he could. (I'm not eating [now]. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. (I haven't eaten yet. and goes especially well with plain ones. to be able).) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. since it is not only a Te Form ending. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. It's for asking questions. (I didn't eat an apple. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. The last two above are good examples of this.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). which appears in the last example. Dekita.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. To make the meaning perfectly clear. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.
(I was doing shopping. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. (They were reading a magazine.are going to speak so grammatically correct.) That's real Japanese. Just for the fun of it. in settings where polite speech is called for. ita is the plain past form of iru. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. but no real friends or family members -. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type.]) Yes. [I went shopping. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. (Bill was studying. this would be two males speaking. (I went shopping. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita.used element of conversational Japanese. (Really? I washed my car.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. I include the usual English translation. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. [Really? I washed my car. In fact. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. Soshite terebi miteta. Put simply. (John was watching TV. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . upgrade ita to imashita. (Really? I was washing my car. As I'm sure you know by now. Soshite terebi o mite ita. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. Also.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. Males usually use boku in familiar settings.
please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan.) As in English. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. Here are some examples. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. ." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. however. Oboete imasen ka. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. as covered in Lesson 50. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. Because itadaku is a very polite word. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. (Would you please call Mr.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. meaning something like "I humbly partake. It can. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka.
I'll get Grandpa to go. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. However. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. Also. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot.as itadakimasu. Morau is okay when referring to other things." When there's no need to be very polite.) .) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. this would be the best way to go. and it can be at times. As usual.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. even when the giver is not present. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot.) This is the same family. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. Make no mistake. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. morau is not impolite. No particular reservations are needed here.not as "respectful" -. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. itadakimasu is always used with food. use morau instead of itadaku. (I'm doing homework now. morau works best when talking about a third party. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.) This is a family situation. but not quite as polite -. With kudasai. Get Ken to go. (Ken's not here now. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. Traditionally." With itadakimasu. it's just plain.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. adding a masu ending makes it polite. (I'm doing homework now. but since we can't do that now. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. Ken ni itte moratte.
) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms.prefix is used with strangers. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. They probably don't see each other every day.) Itadakimashita. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. (I'll give you a pen. moraimashita.Itadakimasu is always used with food.) oshieru: to teach. each home. office. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. customers. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. etc. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. but she already has one and doesn't want another. documents. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. (Sure. (I had Ms. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. (I got one [already]. tell shorui: forms. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. and these two are being courteous.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. I got one. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. (Yes. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. clients. Just like anywhere else. Murai go. company. (May I please have your name?) Hai.) This is at the office. itadakimashita is the nicest reply.
" as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun)." There are other ways to do that. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. You can't use it directly after nouns..) . the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something).) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (After I eat I'm going shopping.. to come home owaru: to end.. (John's coming over after he does his homework. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). Simple and useful. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). such as those two common ones work and school. then add the Te Form of owaru. you just make them the subject/object with ga. (Let's go see a movie after work.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. Word Check kaeru: to return. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. such as summer to mean "after summer.
(Please wait. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka.) And finally.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. you might say Ah. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. Kureru is used in generally the same way. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. For example. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. (Please come here. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. this is the "command" form of kureru. Again. and it would be offensive in some cases. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. repeated request.) Matte kure. which literally means "Oh. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. ogotte kureru no?. In fact. It's good for family members and close friends. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request.
Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. assumptions. etc. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. dreams." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . the literal equivalent of "I'm going." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time." Usually upgraded with masu." (If you say just ikimasu. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou.sound nicer than with kure. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. depending on intonation. expresses future plans. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. (Because of that. (I have been studying German history. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time.) Sono tame. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell.) As can be seen. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. I think that the number of PC users will increase.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. you'll see what I mean.
) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita." See Lesson 40. but when uncertain."going away and not coming back." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. food. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. (Let's go eat Chinese food.) shiraberu: to check (something). to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history).) Accordingly. combined with naru: to become.. asobi ni kite kudasai.) Shirabete kuru. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. inexpensive. or cuisine. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . to examine. (I ate before coming over. but should be easily understood. (I came to borrow a textbook.) Douzo. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. (Please come over [sometime].): cheap. (I'll go check it [then come back]. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no.. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. There are several "set combinations" where it is used.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. (I'll try to talk to John. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. rusu deshita.. but don't take it literally. go ahead asobu: to play. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. (I'll try to read these kanji. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu." which makes this one easy to remember. with its own set phrases. Or. Well." but technically it's not one of those either.." meaning that we'll give something a try." . (Let's give this new PC a try. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. and adding miru. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. but he wasn't in. it acts like a "quasi adjective. to entertain oneself.) Simple enough.. but it's not. For example. In Japanese grammar. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. Either way. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars.) Te Form + miru As you know. (I tried calling him.kariru: to borrow douzo: please.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. miru means "to see." You may hear it often.
but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite.. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Yeah. however. in familiar situations as in the last example above. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. There's usually something else added on.) Hai..). like the object indicator o.. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.. In the workplace.. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44)..) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka." etc. It's an adjective which means "good. you can watch TV." "it's okay if (someone does something).) . (You can use my PC. Yes. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. As with most Japanese.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to." etc.) (Yes. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. As I've probably mentioned before.?). you can use my dictionary. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. (You may go home early today. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can." "fine." Accordingly. that is the way it works grammatically.." "okay.. positive response.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. terebi mite ii. (Sure. as with all adjectives. so you should be a little familiar with it. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. you can also get away with omitting particles.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
familiar talk.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. you can say it." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. question-forming no -. if you're going to use it in this way. If you break a bone in Japanese. polite.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. If you do. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. but usually alone. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. You can't just say "I broke my arm.) Actually. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go .these don't use it. but not ikaga ka. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. do not add the plain. You can say dou ka. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. of course. Instead. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. (Well.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. You can omit the desu ka for plain.
ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. iken (Okayama). ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). used in a normal. especially ikenai. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. "Naughty!". "You mustn't do that!".. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. In fact. (You can't take pictures. and you're bound to hear either of these." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. "Thou shalt not. etc. everyday setting. (Don't be late. to make it even more colorful. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. When placed after the Te Form with wa.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Also. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. akan (Osaka).) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. like ikan (Takamatsu).) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!".) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take .. So. etc.
to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. meaning "to pass (by/over something).) Also.) As you can see. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. to take (steal) something from someone. esa o ataete. then go shopping. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. some simple ones. (I got up at seven o'clock. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. and I'm going shopping. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. hachiji ni ie o demashita. (I've got to call Shizu. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. choushoku o tabete. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. straighten up the room. and left home at eight. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. because tooru is a totally different vowel. fed him. to take a picture with a camera. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. which is easy to do." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.) .) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. heya o katazukete. and [then] made my dinner. like "take a bath. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. However. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. First.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so).) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. the kanji used for each meaning are different. ate breakfast.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. heya o katazukete moratte.
whose major purpose is to make things plain. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. a house deru: to leave. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. to straighten up. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. just start a new sentence. past. Just for a quick check. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. When you're not sure. and simple. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
(I did it. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I watched TV. (I went to the bank.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. and only omit them when everyone else does. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta.) Hon yonda. In the long run. Once again. Also. (My goldfish died. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. there are limits. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I read a book.) Ginkou itta. Let's do some real basic. (I ate lunch. .) Ohiru tabeta. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense.) Kami kitta. (I got a haircut.) Terebi mita.) Boku no kingyo shinda. There are cases where particles would never be cut. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita.
anywhere. I had someone cut my hair. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. use kami. kiru: to cut. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. Ke alone is hair — any hair." and is less formal than chuushoku.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta." There are a few of these.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta.) . right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. even on a caterpillar.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. literally "hairbug. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's." it is used for "I got a haircut.) Shinda kingyo wa. roku nen mae ni katta. hon becomes the subject.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. beforehand. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi.) Boku ga katta PC wa. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. (The cake Joy made was delicious. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. For example." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. Although it literally means "I cut my hair." Very handy. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before." If we switch these around to yonda hon. juu hachi man en deshita.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese.
not deshita. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. Due to this.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. Since we have already covered these. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. (If necessary. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. Base 3 is used for the plain future. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. And. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. root form of Japanese verbs. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. For a more detailed review. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. use desu to make it polite.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. Instead. these two share many add-ons and endings. One past tense element is enough.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. . (He was supposed to come at six. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. which will serve as a nice review. Again. Carefully note the similarities and differences. please click the lesson links. the rest really isn't too difficult. (He's supposed to come at six. because deshita is the past form of desu.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. as in the last example above. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense.
" Please don't make this mistake. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. Takada's quitting. (It would be better to go by train today.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (I heard that Mr.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.. I'm late every day.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. For expressing regret.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) Note: Yes. sensei ga okoru. sensei ga okotta. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. (I should have taken the train today.) Beth wa okureta kara. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . (Even though I got up early. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (Even though I get up early. Takada quit..) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. (It would be better to go by train today.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. I was late.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.) Kinou no ban. (I heard that Mr.
mai is used with units of time.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. etc. (I just ate. (It looks like it rained.) yameru: to quit a job.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day].) John wa deta bakari. snow. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. (John just left. . it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. In other words.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.) Ame ga futta mitai. (It looks like it's going to rain. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. not with people or objects.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. like something memorized from a grammar book. (I just bought that umbrella. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. (I just cleaned this room. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. now that I think of it. (Mom just got back.) In fact.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.
) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. you'll find them very useful. arimasu. This is used after the Te Form. I've been twice. I have.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced.. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. to do (familiar.. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there).. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.. (All you ever do is eat. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. you use the verb iku (to go) .. Once you get these sorted and memorized. (All that kid does is play computer games. Nikai ikimashita. (Yes.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. I'd like to try it. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. (No. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. though.) As you can see.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie." in Japanese.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. I haven't. First. Tabete mitai kedo. The first is that when you ask "have you been to." usually as a complaint. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. tabeta koto ga nai. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. (Yes. to go/come back deru: to leave. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child.
let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. you don't use this form.and literally ask "have you gone to. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. As in B's reply above. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. kare wa kuru deshou.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. First. (If you call John he'll probably come. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures.. See Lessons 7 and 60. (If you call John he'll probably come. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.) Next. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.) . but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. not yet." but "I went twice. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been.) John ni denwa suru nara. [No.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. mada yonde inai. but regular past tense. (No.) John ni denwa sureba. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. kare wa kuru deshou. they probably won't eat lunch. (If the kids eat a snack. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. to me.) kedo: however. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. I haven't read it yet.) Ta Form + ra Simply said.. The second is that in using this form." Finally." which..
) . but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. (I heard that Mr. Takada's quitting.. I think you'll find it easy enough to master.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba.." "I hear that. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.) Desu is usually used after sou.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. making it more formal than rashii. but I personally have never heard it. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. Yes. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC.. Word Check oshieru: to tell. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. Takada's quitting.. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. meaning "It seems that.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). you can make it plain by using da instead of desu.) John ni denwa shitara. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). this one seems to be preferred in everyday.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. kare wa kuru deshou. familiar conversation. to inform. (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. (I heard that Mr. (If you call John he'll probably come." etc. (If the kids eat a snack. According to the books. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. they probably won't eat lunch.) Again. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form... they probably won't eat lunch. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.
(Last night after dinner I . then ate dinner.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru.) Now. ongaku o kiitari. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check daibun: considerably. souji shitari.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. yuushoku o tabeta. (I read comics and stuff. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari.That's all there is to it. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. (I watched TV and stuff. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. terebi o mitari suru deshou. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. and watch TV. It can also be used for present or future happenings. some cleaning. (Jim buys and sells old things. If you want. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. and did some homework. (Last night I watched TV. listened to some music. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying.
chuushoku o tabete. practiced the piano and things. * Note: While unnatural in English.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. then she made dinner.) . listened to music for about two hours.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. I'd really be at a loss. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara.watched TV. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. ate lunch. then did homework until one o'clock.
(Supposing it rains this afternoon. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. tabun koukai suru deshou. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. In fact.) As you can see. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If you were to go swimming now. Word Check hontou ni: really. you must remember that (something else). you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow.. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea..• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . (Even if you studied Spanish.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. dou shimashou ka..) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. without doubt komaru: to be confused. snow." As usual. you'd probably regret it. etc. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.
• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo.) While not covered before. (John's pants were torn when he fell. I was very surprised. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: .. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. (I laughed when I heard that. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items..) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Even if I read the manual. After the Ta Form. he never gets full. I can't understand this software. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. (No matter how much he eats. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that..) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. zenzen ippai ni naranai. (When I read that. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. For example. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.
to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall.) However. in the least recent sense. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.) As usual. or. (I just got back now. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. the Ta Form + bakari. was already covered in Lesson 69. (The kids just finished eating. that the person had just arrived home from buying it.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. However. (I just cleaned this room. add desu to make a statement polite. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. For example. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. to is usually used because of its flexibility. while tokoro really means just now.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. One similar to this. it's still brand-new.
(There's a big tree in the park. Tom's here. is.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: .) desu.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. (No. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. Tanaka.. [I don't want to.) The plain form of desu is da.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (There's a spider on the wall. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. (Carol is 25 years old. iru is used for people and animals.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu..) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (That school is old. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. (The dictionary is on the desk. (He is Mr. desu makes things polite.) Ashita wa ame desu.) Bob wa byouki desu." Generally speaking. aru is a yodan.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. (Tomorrow it will rain. etc. like something from the masu group. are. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. (Yes. (There's a big tree in the park. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. After nouns and adjectives. iru and aru As you know.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. Tom wa iru yo. (Bob's sick. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) (Iru is an ichidan verb.
one is "as. Japanese is no exception. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. ima Tom wa inai. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. If you're really interested in the technical background.. (Sorry.) Jisho wa arimasen. unpleasant. Tom's not here now. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). (Sorry. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. getting back to desu.• • Sumimasen. Use desu instead.) Jisho wa nai.. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. (I don't have a dictionary. ima Tom wa imasen. here it is: Among the several roles of de. and is especially used by children." as in being in a certain position. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Now. (I don't have a dictionary. it is rarely used these days.. Again. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. This is one that is rarely used these days. . Tom's not here now." So. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. state or condition.
the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. very rarely will they correct you. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. to go/come up ageru: to raise up.What makes it worse is the fact that very.) . (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. (Let's all meet at seven thirty.) Hai. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. have close ties with Japanese culture. agaru is used for "come inside. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. agaru and ageru. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. This is certainly not a complete list. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. So that there is no misunderstanding.) Note: These two. (Please make up your mind quickly. active/passive forms. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). which is intransitive (has no direct object). which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. (Wendy collects old stamps. (Here. ageru.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house." When exchanging gifts. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. I'll give you this. They are not conjugations. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. Accordingly. to give • • Agatte kudasai. (Please come in.
when you find something that was lost. to help • • Arigatou.... to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. to arrive (a package. » -su / -u . not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). Hontou ni tasukarimashita. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling." it's not. Also. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. etc. (I found a pimple. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). For routine helping. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. (Thank you. Strangely. as if it just found itself.. in Japanese you use mitsukaru.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. (Please continue looking for it. like helping in the kitchen. use tetsudau.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. tasukaru: to be of help. You were really a great help.
Please don't leave any.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. (Be back by ten o'clock. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. (Please cut down on your spending. (The copier is broken. Nokosanaide kudasai.) herasu: to decrease. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. to put down oriru: to go/come down. (Eat all this.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. to get off or get out of a vehicle .) Kaigi ga owattara. (Grandpa went outside. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. (Let the dog out. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh.
(If you wear those glasses. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. (Put it down here. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. you'll probably be laughed at. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. like a name tag or pin .) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. like pants. but these should give you a good start. (Don't move that machine. For most standard verbs. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. dress. shoes. (The caterpillar moved. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face.) Kemushi ga ugoita. warawareru deshou. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. etc.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. a skirt. necktie. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes.• • Koko ni oroshite. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. etc. jacket. obi. like a shirt. kimono. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. etc. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. where there is no special intransitive or passive form.) Of course there are others. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. (This cake probably won't be eaten. hameru: to wear on a finger. (My hat got dirty. like a belt. socks.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou.
Besides these. This completes Japanese Verbs. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . suru is often used instead of the bottom four. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. and especially when talking about accessories.