Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + shimau 64. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + oku 63.44. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kara 58. Base 5 50. Te Form + miru 61. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + kureru 59. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form for Continuing Statements
. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + mo ii 62. Base 4 + nai 48.
nu. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. but to be more precise. bu. su. desu. and irregular.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Ta Form + ri 74. ichidan. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. which can end in u. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. Ta Form + bakari 70. Remembering this will make further study much easier. iru and aru
The Plain Form
Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + tokoro 78. Ta Form + toki 77. which means "to walk. tsu. or ru:
• • • • • • • • •
kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
. Ta Form + to shitara 75. Ta Form + rashii 73. not u. gu. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69.67." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form + ra 72. mu. ku. Let's take the verb aruku.
(Naomi will watch TV. (I'll eat an apple. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. watch) kariru (borrow)
Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (Jim will read a comic book." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru." Interestingly. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. Some sources call these verbs godan.Let's try some in sentences:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau.) Jim wa manga o yomu. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. Some frequently used ones are:
• • • •
taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb
. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. and also very juvenile or "familiar.)
This is very simple Japanese.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. but there is no difference. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. (Grandpa will return soon. unless it was from another foreigner.)
Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru.
Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change:
Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri
Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu
Now we're ready to speak polite. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2:
Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat)
Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu
.their "Base 2" form -. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. (Jim will read a comic book. (Grandpa will return soon.before the masu ending is added. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end.)
Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
Ichidan verbs are a snap.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.
Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. "adult" Japanese.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. the present polite ending.
(I'll decide tomorrow. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. (Ayako watches the TV every day. and should not be worried about at this stage. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. watch) Here are some examples:
• • •
oboe kime de kari mi
oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu
Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. let's try masen.
Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day
Base 2 + masen
Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. (He won't wait.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.)
Now. Look at these yodan examples:
• • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.)
. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True.) Kare wa machimasen. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. which is the negative form of masu.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (Jerry will come out soon. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.
(The children didn't play at the park. (I want to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. (I'm not going to eat now. which is used to show that you want to do something:
• • • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. masen shows negative tense. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5:
• • •
John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai.)
Base 2 + tai / tai desu
Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. To make them polite. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. etc. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.And some ichidan:
Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (Bob wants to eat tempura. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu.
The above examples are plain forms.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (John didn't go to Hiroshima.
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow
Base 2 + masen deshita
As you recall from Lesson 4.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (Miki wants to see that movie. (The children want to play.
Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. (I'll carry this/these [for you].) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. We'll make the first two plain:
Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. (Let's go.)
Now let's make the next two polite:
Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. in this example. (The children don't want to play. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. (Let's take a break. (Let's eat.) Tabemashou.) Yasumimashou. Can you still tell them apart?
Base 2 + mashou
Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o. For example. but either way this one is easy to remember. and two use ichidan. (I'll fix your bicycle. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. Add desu to make it polite.
. It simply means "let's (do something). right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu.)
As in English. and is never used alone with an object./I'll help you fix your bicycle." you would use the adjective hoshii and say.Please note that tai is only used with verbs." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa hakobimashou. (Let's get you some food.)
Simple enough." This structure will be covered later on. In fact. (I don't want to buy an umbrella.)
* In Japanese." For example:
• • •
Ikimashou.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie.
Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu
These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
(Grandpa isn't going to return soon.)
It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kuru suru
Base 2 kishi-
Base 1 koshi-
Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy).
Etc. and suru (do). (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. shinai (won't do). (Sachiko won't be coming.) Sachiko wa konai.) Watashi wa terebi o minai.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai:
John wa kasa o kaimasen. and should only be used in very informal settings. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. Depending on the situation.
. As in English." as a matter of personal policy. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. Look at these example sentences:
• • • • •
John wa kasa o kawanai. For example. like Base 2 + masen. kuru (come). (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. (Jim doesn't read comic books.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. konai (won't come). which we already covered in Lesson 4. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. (I'm not going to watch TV.
) Yuki wa furanai deshou.)
Actually. snow. etc. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here?
Base 1 + nai deshou
Here's an easy one. hail. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. or that something is not likely to happen:
• • •
John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. Look at these examples:
.what will happen if something doesn't happen. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. (Grandpa will probably return soon. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen:
• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (It probably won't snow.)
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Base 1 + nakereba
Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. (Sachiko will probably come.
Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. especially when talking to an individual.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu.)
About You and Name Suffixes
In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you.
. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. chan. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. sama. Generally speaking. so it is omitted. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. For example. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. and kun. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. Additionally. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.)
A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it." Actually. names are usually not used alone. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. Once a person's name is known. The ones you'll hear the most are san. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. when speaking to that person. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. as in English.
though san is probably more common for females. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. but to the title of those older. time passes. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. more familiar (and. For those older. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. adult male neighbor. Again. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. older brother or sister (but not younger). as well as classmates and co-workers later in life.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. real or pretended. Parents add chan to their children's names. let's get back to you. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. and children add it to the words for father. of course. Family. Customarily. And. For example. aunt. company. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. friend's mother)
Chan is also used with the names of pets. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". grandfather. adult female neighbor. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. these are commonly used:
• • • • • • • •
otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. and playmates. because san shows that a closer. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. mother. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. unless an individual prefers chan. cousins. kun with boys. etc. After the sale is made. hopefully. chan to female students. you can always ask. and chan with girls. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. uncle. Now. however. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki.for a while. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. at any rate. Also. grandmother. use san with colleague's names." This is normal and good." but is now a "san. Teachers add kun to the names of male students." This Japanese would be understood. As a safe rule. names are often shortened before adding chan. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. but would also
. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. where anata is used for "you. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider.
the nakereba means "if one does not. This can be handy when
. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". but it conveys a certain distance. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen).". however.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen." Let's take iku (to go). it's a bit of a tongue twister. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. because it means "must do. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. and very odd. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. the one left would be kimitachi.)
You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. It's used quite a lot. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. (I have to go. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. So. there's no problem. So. the fact is that it is very rarely used. and narimasen means "will not become". Accordingly. even some affection. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. (Jim has to return now. change it to Base 1 ika. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. toward the group concerned. formal.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. Anatatachi could be used. mixed groups. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural.. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). which shows familiarity. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone).anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. It works fine. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. which is the best choice when talking to large. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. (The children must eat.. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful.) Looking at it literally." Let's look at some more examples:
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. I may as well say here that much.sound very stiff.
Base 1 + nakereba narimasen
This verb ending is not only a long one. Yes.
(Grandpa lets the children play. seru." can be conveyed. or feelings. for the others.
Base 1 + seru / saseru
These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. are used for all of these. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened":
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. mastering a clean. "I'll let him go to the store".) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. (I'll have John decide by next week." suru is simply replaced with saseru :
As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. (Jim probably has to return now. like deshou from Lesson 14. Accordingly.)
With "suru verbs.adding other endings. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. for yodan verbs.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. (The children probably need to eat. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. In Japanese. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. (I'll have him come tomorrow.)
And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru :
• • •
Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. and saseru. like this:
• • •
Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. as in "let him" or "make him.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. "I'll have him go to the store". (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. More than memorizing its meaning. however. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey.
(Let's have John go to the store. which is signified by adding ni afterwards.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object." as in:
Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. although miru is an ichidan verb.)
As you can see.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?)
Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. you won't hear or see "misaseru. like miseru. (Dad will make Bob study. etc. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come
So. (He lets them watch TV every day.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu.) Kanojo ni saseru. by tomorrow. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. (I want to have Kenji study English. and etc:
• • • • •
Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. kimeru: to decide kare: he. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. polite. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen.• •
Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. (I'll have her do it. past tense. which means "to show" or "to let see." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions.
means "to fall. as explained in Lesson 1. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store).
. As in English. a shop iku: to go
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Base 3 + deshou
Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. (It will probably rain tomorrow. Naomi wa terebi o miru.the plain. But before we begin. Let's do a few more:
• • •
Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. them eigo: the English language mise: a store.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. shown in the last example above. Let's get back to deshou.) Remember these examples?
• • • • •
Jim wa manga o yomu.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. so it is often omitted. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. making the verb unnecessary. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. her karera: they.
Not only should you be able to translate these. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru." For example.)
The verb furu.
(John should be coming soon.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. (You ought to study English more.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?)
While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. (Bob will probably also want to go. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on:
• • •
(Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework
Base 3 + hazu desu
When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome.)
Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms:
Bob mo ikitai hazu.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred.. snow. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. like
. a rising intonation is used instead:
• • •
Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka." etc. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. Please note that ka is not added at the end. right?)
Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. as we would use tag questions in English. etc. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka.
As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on.)
Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method:
• • •
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.should be.)
When showing personal preference. frankly. As usual. should happen. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. but.. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no:
• • •
Yakiniku no hou ga ii. which was covered in Lesson 20. "would rather do. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. (You should study Japanese more. (It would be better to eat later. (I'd rather get a dog. practice makes perfect.should do. (We had better rest a little.." and ii means "good" or "better. and according to the grammar books.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.) Inu no hou ga ii. When you hear it. "had better do". I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation.ni natte iru or beki. prefer -. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". Word Check
.while hazu is more passive -." Actually.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. (It would be better to do it next week. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. (It would be better to go by train today.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -.way is good/better. (I should call her. the hou means "way" or "method.
Base 3 + hou ga ii
This one is used for "should do". which makes it easier to catch than many other endings." Examples:
• • •
(Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.)
As with most verb endings.
(Let's see if the dog wants to eat now.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. Word Check kare: he.kanojo: she.)
Base 3 + ka dou ka
Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not." It's straightforward enough and easy to use:
• • •
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. only the component order is opposite in Japanese.)
As can be seen in the examples above. him dekiru: can. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. (I don't know yet if we are going. It's like using "whether or not" in English. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. to understand inu: dog ima: now
the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. (It might rain tomorrow.)
Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. Therefore.taberu: to eat miru: to see.)
As you sharp ones have noticed. meaning that.)
Base 3 + kamo shiremasen
Though a bit of a tongue twister. look. As such. yes. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). Simply put. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. so please be careful when pronouncing." These are incorrect.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. (It might snow tomorrow." Since this verb ending is rather long. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. where it is converted to shireru (can know)." Let's look at a few examples:
• • •
Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). as in:
Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. watch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. perhaps.)
. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. this one is used frequently. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite:
Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. and is conjugated accordingly. so you'll want to master it right away. (Jack may also come. (We may eat out tonight.
signified by kara at the end. Word Check komban: this evening. eigo ga jouzu desu. so his English is good. Itsumo okureru kara.)
. given after. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. with its reason. Let's look at a few examples:
• • • • •
Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. so I'll call her. (Beth is always late.)
In spoken Japanese. Let's do this to the above examples:
Kasa o motte ikimashou.
Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. (We don't have any milk. Terebi o mitakunai kara.I suggest. you'll often hear the action stated first.) Ongaku o kikimasu.) Jisho o kaitai kara. however." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. Tabun ame ga furu kara. they each become separate sentences. (Since it will probably rain. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. so I'm going to the store. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. let's take umbrellas. tonight soto: outside kara: from
Base 3 + kara
Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. denwa shimasu. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. (I don't want to go to Mr. In this case. honya ni ikimasu.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. kasa o motte ikimashou. the reason or cause of the action:
Tabun ame ga furu kara. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. grammatically speaking. mise ni ikimasu.
) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. Again." so. just like English. (He speaks Japanese. it comes between the contrasting phrases. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.)
Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. disgusting mono: thing. it's used a lot. skilled
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. keredo and kedo. heta desu. yoku byouki shimasu. which means "from. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. snow. as well as its shorter forms.)
Base 3 + keredomo
This one is used for "although" or "but. he gets sick a lot.
. nasty. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. no problem. jouzu ni narimasen. Let's try some examples:
• • •
Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. (Although Jack is careful about his health. home iya na: bad.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. but she doesn't get any better. but he's not good at it. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. Like "but" in English. as you can imagine." Just like English. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. etc. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at.
Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu
Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. Let's move on. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to.. like reading in the sentence I like reading. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. If you have to have a translation. Here are some examples:
. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. I like reading as a thing to do. let's look at each part. First is koto. It'll come. Well.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. koto has no practical use by itself." Does this help? If not. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. In English. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. Next.. no problem. Better than all this talk would be an example. reading as a noun [gerund])
Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. Like our ing. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. No. it really doesn't change the verb. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. But first. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb.) Finally. not good at something. be sick
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. a lot.)
The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. (I like reading.
Either way.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. for kicks -. Again." Denwa is a noun. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. With "suru verbs. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. actually for review -. (I can translate French into Japanese." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. and adding the suru makes it a verb. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. expressions." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. meanings. (Keiko can play the piano. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.)
Now." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives.no. (Bob was able to call Junko.let's try some other endings on dekiru. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. and see what happens:
• • •
Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen.• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. in that case the suru is omitted. There is a short alternative for other verbs. Here are a couple more:
Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. it's a long ending for just "can. they're both used." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. (I can read Japanese. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. actions.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. etc. It does not
." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. (I can't read French. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. long or short. you can just omit suru. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. (Richard couldn't eat the squid.)
And let's throw in one with a plain ending:
(one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!)
Yes. Kinou. essences. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. For example. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.
koto ni suru is the plain. and it shows that the decision was yours.)
Base 3 + koto ni shimasu
The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. Here are some polite present and past tense examples:
Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. As I'm sure you know by now. (I'll go shopping tomorrow.)
. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. It shows that you have made a decision. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson.
Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. to let (someone) see.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. (Mr. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. or seasons:
• • •
Yuushoku made machinasai. periods. Made means "until.)
Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu.)
As in English. etc. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. (We have to wait until Bob calls.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.• •
Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita." and is added after the plain form of a verb:
• • •
Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (Wait until dinner. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.)
Base 3 + made
This one is very easy.
you use it. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. you could say. Stay away from me!)
Now let's add a few more:
• • •
Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!)
And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan:
Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!)
This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. Stay away from here!. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger."don't do's" -. but if you do. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. as with English. This is one that will probably not be used very often.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. However.)
Base 3 + na
• • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. and to whom.
. let's make the above examples negative:
• • •
Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. be careful how.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. First. a week-long period haru: spring
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
he'll let me know. they probably won't eat dinner. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones:
• • • • •
Isogu nara. watashi ni shirasemasu. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train
." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. kuru deshou.) John ni denwa suru nara. but nara is more common. (If you call John he'll probably come. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. They are used the same way and mean the same thing.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.)
Base 3 + nara
This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken.sentences with "if. (If he sees Yuko.)
Sooner or later you will run into naraba. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. He thought he said. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. which is just a slight variation. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. (If the kids eat a snack now.) Ame ga furu nara. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.
) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. they are like:
• • •
which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present."
Of course. Let's look at these simple phrases:
• • • •
watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet)
Now.. to make matters worse. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. there are no "relative pronouns. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. and lengthy. For example. As a quick review." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. a place. page. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here:
. I can see several things which need to be explained. like in the first example above.. and a person. But. a time." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. that's another story. to offer very general. things I'd like to explain.)
Base 3 + (any noun)
In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. explanations." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. but hopefully sufficient for the present.) yuushoku: dinner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Japanese English. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. words that connect a noun to an action. In Japanese. respectively. which are examples involving a thing. And.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well.
back to the lesson: First. For example. Continuing with the above example. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu.) Now. let's translate the first example at the top of the page:
Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. a "sub-subject. ga tells us who will take the train. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. they do not mean the same thing. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. The problem is that the rules are
. Ga or no could be used here. As you may have noticed.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. a truer English translation would be. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. As you can see. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page:
Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. a substitute noun must be used. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). and so it would most likely be omitted. automatically designates a place. like our 's. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. since he or she will surely be hearing both." you might say." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English.)
In this one.) In this sentence. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. No is often used in place of ga. but since Japanese has no equivalent. especially in informal spoken Japanese. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. densha (train) is the main subject. and is handled by the final verb. the English "where. Kobe is a place. or a noun which needs emphasis. and therefore omitted.)
Since this is natural Japanese. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. so tokoro is used after the verb. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu." as a relative pronoun. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker.
you must forget all the rules of the other. (Spring is the season that brings new life. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. Finally.
. I hope this lesson was clear enough. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive.totally different in each language. As a general. and when trying to make sense of one. to cause to happen kisetsu: season
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Base 3 + no desu
There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences.to high-intermediate Japanese. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. produce.)
This one is pretty straightforward. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. semi-accurate rule. and vice versa. and shouldn't be too difficult. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. the last example from the top:
Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". and are in the realm of mid. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult.
(Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (I tell you.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. unexcited intonation.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.)
Remember these? I hope so. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.)
As in any other language. you need to review. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). stomping around. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. (Grandpa will return soon.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. writhing. it IS going to rain tomorrow. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. If not.)
The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. (Jim will read a comic book. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Japanese English. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. need. However. if you want to emphasize something. or habits of the speaker. (She IS coming.)
.) katsu: to win
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. you put stress on the verb before no desu:
• • •
Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!)
A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. (Jim will read a comic book. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. like this:
• • •
Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. fist pounding.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. specifically. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. meaning "in spite of.)
Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence.Base 3 + no ni
No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). it's usually found somewhere near the middle. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. Takamatsu-yuki. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. essential kanji: Chinese characters.)
. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works:
• • •
Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru.) densha: train noru: to ride. rather. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki." which we will cover later on. Please consult a dictionary for more. There's nothing really tricky about it. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time).
(Speaking Japanese is easy. (It really was a problem-free trip.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu.)
Word Check tanoshii: fun. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). (Reading is enjoyable. impossible saikou: great.
and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. Wa is the subject indicator. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be.).Base 3 + no wa
Do you remember koto. to not exist tabi: trip
. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. like our 's. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. still not fukanou: not possible. mainly the one used for possessives. as in:
Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. as in:
Jim no jisho wa ao de. mine is red. (Jim's dictionary is blue.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!)
Please remember that there are other no's. the greatest. boku no wa aka desu.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.
if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. which is used to show reasons or causes. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. the o.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.)
Base 3 + node
Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. In other words.)
So. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way:
• • •
O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. (Since Eiko can speak English. use node. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job
. For example. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. as in:
Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu.prefix makes it "honorific.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. she'll probably find a good job.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. If kara was used instead. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit.)
But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In this lesson we will take a look at node. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to.
) annani: that much. rumors. understand to be. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) asoko: there. (I was late even though I got up early. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. Word Check yameru: to stop something. etc. to follow rules or orders.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. For example:
. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. (Despite my telling her to stop. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it.)
Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome:
Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!)
Noni is used a lot. for the plain past. over there (usually emphasizes distance)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. which is used for plain past structures.)
Base 3 + sou desu
Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. this short lesson is about noni. kanojo wa kikimasen. which is used to mean "in spite of":
"Yamenasai" to iu noni.)
Base 3 + noni
As promised in Lesson 33. she won't listen. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form.) kiku: to listen. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"].
" and is often followed by the optional ni. Takada's quitting.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita.)
Tame is a very handy word. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview.) As you have probably guessed. but is more often than not shortened to baito. that's right." hajimeru: to begin
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. in order to. sou desu. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). The actual word is arubaito.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. Japanese English. Japanese German.)
Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. A full-time employee will use shigoto. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". a student will say baito. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. Take a look at these:
• • •
Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. Here are some popular ones:
. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. Word Check hiru kara: from noon. They use a noun geared to their type of job.)
Base 3 + tame ni
When you see tame.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo.• • •
Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu." (Yes. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. it usually means "for the purpose of.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. as in "Hai. (I heard that Mr.
or even both:
• • •
Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. (This is for you. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. have (an interview). (Kimiko came with Bob. (Remember. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. here are your air tickets to Hawaii.)
For the curious. that's pronounced "toh. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. or if. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita.)
.]) Hai.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. [plain. (This is for you. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. (Okay.") It can mean and. when. Mom. with. here are sample sentences with to as and and with:
Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain])
Tame is used a lot. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. receive. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park.)
Base 3 + to
There are four basic uses for to. In this case.• • • •
Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.
meaning "come to want. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. especially in the workplace.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. Sasaki will call us soon. to want to do. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. When referring to the beach in Japanese. to become to want to go -. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing.)
. Japanese English. use umi. It means simply "I think. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. Now that it's been explained." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). and expected. things you can do. takunaru puts tai and naru together. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. to go) + taku (tai. but it is not generally used. (I think Ms. begin to want. of "party. (I think Eiko can speak English." Iki (Base 2 of iku. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8.")
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.)
Base 3 + to omoimasu
For better or worse.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. (I think Koji will be late. While not specifically covered.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that. It's okay to have an opinion. I think it can be applied very easily:
• • • • •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.
(I think it would be better to go by train today.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). Accordingly.)
Again. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. but it didn't. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. or don't really have any control over something. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. the other Base 2 endings also apply:
• • • •
Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. this ending is a lot like deshou. (I thought it would rain today [.])
In a way. and it did. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. like:
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. which was covered in Lesson 19. omou can be used for plain speech. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. or have some control.)
Base 3 + tsumori desu
.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. don't really care.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. goes back.As you can see from the last examples. towards me. care.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. us
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.
Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention:
• • • •
Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!)
Base 3 + you desu
You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English:
Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. that was a short one. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. While sounding alike. so please be careful not to confuse them. day. build up. is for past tense.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. add desu to make it polite. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. however." used a lot. yes. to enter/enroll in (a school). especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. etc. Well.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. hear the other verb tsumoru. S.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. technically speaking. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. their meanings are completely different. Deshita. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools.)
. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. You will. which means "to accumulate. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. In case you're wondering.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. as you should know by now. to join (a club)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. Always use daigaku for university. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. hairu: to go inside (a room).
4. e as in red OH. sou desu means you heard. o as in mode
.) Ame ga furu you desu.. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be:
Ame ga furu sou desu. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. "you look like an idiot.)
You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). Simply put.•
Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai.)
To be honest. said so]. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. directly or indirectly.) mitai: it looks like. AH. baka: idiot. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. fool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. that something is or will be. etc. u as in mule EH. 5. (It looks like Ken can play the piano.)
Base 4 + ba
After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. 3. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. 2. and show what Base 4 looks like.. First. a as in father EE. e as in see OO.
Now. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up." or "dictionary form. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. it's where you start. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs:
Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi-
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru
Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire-
Base 3 (plain form)
. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.
(If it rains we're sure to get wet. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.. (If he sees Yuko. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.) John ni denwa sureba. they probably won't eat dinner.. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. kuru deshou.)
Handy." as shown in these examples:
. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. watashi ni shirasemasu.koshi-
Now that we know how to make Base 4.) Ame ga fureba. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if.. converted to Base 4 + ba:
• • • • •
Isogeba.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. (I want to call Grandma. he'll let me know.. Ii is Japanese for "good. o'clock] + han [half])
Base 4 + ba ii
In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. covered in Lesson 30? Well. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you.?":
• • •
Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. however. Here. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. As we learned in the last lesson.])
This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. (If the kids eat a snack now.
(It'd be nice if you could come earlier. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known.)
As you can see. quirky ii does not. (Around five. as in these example conversations:
Mom: Tenki ga ii kara.) Mom.)
Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied
.there is no such Japanese as ikatta.)
For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. (We want to watch TV. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. is used after ba -. soto de asobeba ii. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. (We should have come at 8:00. no. By this stage of Japanese study. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. so it would be good to play outside.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. (I wish I had ordered the steak.) Kids: Terebi mitai. (It would be good if you played outside.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. In those situations different constructions would be used. [I still wish you would play outside.• • •
Soto de asobeba ii. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. yokatta. they both mean "good". Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made:
• • •
Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. (The weather's nice. yes. (I wish we had gone to the park.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. However. they are not completely interchangeable. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (Now would be a good time to study. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. yoi is not used with noni.) Naoko.
.and known to all concerned. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out:
• • •
Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!)
One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. It's simple: no subject or object needed. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time.) light shokuji: food. Actually. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki.very handy when you get used to it. Or. this is a form you really don't want to use. If you do. and maybe even get into a fight. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability.)
Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative
If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. just use Base 4. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj.
/ Keiko wa piano o hikeru.)
Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. (Keiko can play the piano. I remember when I first learned this one -. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. which was covered back in Lesson 26. No problem. As such. very useful. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru:
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Now. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. too.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. (Keiko can play the piano.)
Now. It's very. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. they can be treated like plain ichidans. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. Take a good look. (Keiko can't play the violin. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. For example. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned:
• • • • •
Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. (I can read Japanese. Here we realize an important point -.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru.)
Base 4 + ru
You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. to not give up
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.it was like opening a new door. just like most ichidans. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. (He might be able to go next month. Simply put. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. It shows ability to do something.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen.
.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.
Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. this form is only meant for yodans." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. (As you remember. (Jack probably won't be able to come. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative:
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. and I hope it will make sense to you.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. Here are two we've already covered:
Jack wa korenai deshou.)
.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. which was covered in Lesson 13. If it helps. For example. this is wasei eigo. As you may have guessed. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). (Keiko can't play the piano.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. It made sense to me. (I can't read Japanese. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. the "cannot do" plain form.)
Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) raigetsu: next month
Base 4 + nai
In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru.)
See how that works? As mentioned last time.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai.
(If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. So. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. energetic.noru: to ride aruku: to walk
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. an example of which was included in the last lesson. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara.)
. this form is mainly for yodans. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). so I do too. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.)
Base 4 + reba
To be frank. you may wonder. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. but there are exceptions like the last example above. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can":
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). but who cares? Everyone uses it. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods.)
I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. First.oboeru oboerekime.oboe. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe. If you don't mind. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.taberu tabereoboe.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs:
Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.kime.
Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. arukou ka na. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. I just made that up. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. eh." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. oo.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something)..) Base 5 + ka
Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions:
• • •
Ikou ka. Also. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite:
• • •
Ikou.) Terebi o miyou ka na...) Base 5 + to suru
This one is to express "try to do (something). but is converted as necessary:
. (I wonder if I should go shopping." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. (Let's take a break. ee.shi-
As you can see. (Let's eat.) Yasumou.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound." Suru is shown plain. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa
This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. (Let's go. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara.) Tabeyou. (I wonder if I should call Bob.. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure:
• • • • •
Kaimono ni ikou ka na. (I think I'll go shopping.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. oh. (Maybe I'll watch TV.
You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. As you have most likely guessed. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.)
These are the more useful Base 5 forms. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu
Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde
. miemasen deshita.• •
John wa koyou to suru to omou. but he couldn't.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. (I think John will try to come. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. (Naoto tried to see the airplane.)
Te Form + kudasai
Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings.
. It's important because it's used a lot. kau (to buy). tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. yonde. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. Yodan verbs that end in ku.e. Yodan verbs that end in bu. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. tsunagu (to connect). like matsu (to wait). kiku (to listen. tsunaide. to put out [a fire]).isoide. not iite. katte. Let's take a closer look:
• • •
Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. tashite. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. like kasu (to lend).kashite. not tsu). tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -.
.asonde.aruite. like asobu (to play). Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. tonde. kiite. katte. kesu (to turn off. Please note this one important exception: iku. like au (to meet).yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite
Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
Te Form kite shite
Those yodans look pretty scary. motte. nutte. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. nuide.matte. hataraite. to ask). keshite. Yodan verbs that end in gu. like aruku (to walk). right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. We'll cover pronunciation a little later.atte. yobu (to call out). motsu (to hold). like isogu (to hurry).
tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. tabete. For practice let's use kuru (to come). humble me. (Come here. (Listen to this. like yomu (to read). you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched.
As you can see. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. depending on the tone of voice used.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. haitte. kiite. and kitte:
Koko ni kite.• •
Yodan verbs that end in mu. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here.yonde. like kaeru (to return). kiku (to listen). technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something." "to go down. (Go ahead and eat.) Matte. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -.)
In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. So when you say chotto matte kudasai.) Douzo. (Please come at six o'clock. mild commands in familiar settings:
• • •
Rokuji ni kite. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. hairu (to enter). momu (to massage). It means "under.)
Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities:
• • • •
Rokuji ni kite kudasai. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. When you start learning kanji." "to lower (something). Yodan verbs that end in ru. (Wait. but in Japanese we do.) Kore o kiite. (Go ahead. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai.) Chotto matte kudasai. (Please wait a bit. please eat.)
. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?)
I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. (Please come at six o'clock. tsutsunde. tabete kudasai. which was introduced back in Lesson 10." etc." There are several handy variations of kudasai. (Come at six o'clock. monde. totte. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request:
• • •
Douzo.kaette. and kiru (to cut). Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans.
I'll eat it for you. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often.)
As you can see. (Please give me that pen. kiite: KEE-EETEH. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. Now. and kitte: KEET-TEH. (I'll give you this pen. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. you use the Te Form + kudasai.) Kono pen o agemasu. giving each equal time while making them short. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. to give (up to someone).) Ato de denwa shite ageru. (If you don't want to eat it. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone.•
Kore o kitte. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour])
Te Form + ageru
In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). (I'll wait for you. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. you use the Te Form + ageru:
• • •
Matte ageru. as covered in the last lesson." but it means "to raise. tabete ageru. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6.). (Cut this. to show respect. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. (I'll call you later. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver.) Tabetakunakereba. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples:
Sono pen o kudasai.)
The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH." Ageru also means "to give. If you ask someone to do something for you. showing a "humbler" position.)
. just like counting 1-2-3.
. laces musubu: to tie. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. it's a great convenience besides. which are chosen depending on the situation. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. Finally. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. It's for "talking down" to. to connect
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere." It is disrespectful at best. the position of the giver or receiver. as a general rule. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru.)
Notes 1. and. string. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. as these examples show. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. (Lend Bob your pen. and will work nicely in most cases. Don't use it.)
There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. in cases where there's a third person. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else:
Bob ni pen o kashite agete. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies.In Japanese. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. and showing contempt for others. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. However.
Read it for yourself. which is used to prove a point. (Take a look. (Taste it and see if you like it. pretty
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.)
That's how we use goran nasai. Itte goran nasai. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are):
• • • • • • •
Bob ni kiite goran. usually in short.) Mite goran.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo.) Tabete goran.)
Te Form + iru
. (Try calling Sanae. Mite goran nasai. You never use it on yourself. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. Go and see for yourself.Te Form + goran nasai
Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. (There is salt on the shelf. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. (It says he's 38. (Ask Bob and see what he says. See for yourself. Yonde goran nasai.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran." You use it to ask someone to try something.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. mild command-like sentences.
" and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). in a way. (I am walking.) Kinou nete imashita.) Watashi wa aruite iru. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite
These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. as in the fourth example above. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). which were covered in the Base 2 endings. (I didn't watch TV today. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. (I am here. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. we say "I know. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. [We are living in Takamatsu.])
It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. (We live in Takamatsu. As you already know.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. we can get away with using just "live" in English." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. Look at these examples:
• • • • • • •
Watashi wa koko ni iru. (Shizuko is eating. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. it works like English. masen. [I wasn't watching TV today."). When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. (He's not studying French. Because of this." So.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. mashita.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. (They are reading a magazine. to exist. Let's review these through some Te Form examples:
• • • •
Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. and not shiru. in English we would normally ask a person. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. Especially important are masu. (She is eating sushi. (Yesterday I slept all day. when they really should use sunde iru. "I'm knowing [it].A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. (I'm reading the newspaper. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. and masen deshita. (Bill is studying Japanese. For example. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite.
it is even written this way -. but. "woman-child" / "man-child"). imouto: little (younger) sister
I know you're wondering.with the i in iru omitted -. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here.imashita ka. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. like "kid" in English. there is no single. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. In fact." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. child Note: Strangely. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. to do (something) ko: kid. so I'll tell you: "to play. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English:
Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. For example. Finally. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. (I was watching TV.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita.
there are many that can. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. what are they doing?)
Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. which are based on those used in the last lesson:
• • • • •
Sam wa koko ni inai.)
Te Form + inai
As mentioned in the last lesson. and imouto for younger sister. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.)
Remember to use masen for polite speech:
• • •
Sam wa koko ni imasen. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. to exist. which were covered in the Base 1 endings:
Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. (Sam's not here.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen.Note: In Japanese. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. (The kids probably aren't studying.)
We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba." As such. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. and adding ra makes it conditional. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. (We don't live in Okayama.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. (If they're not studying. which makes them present or past progressive.) Benkyou shite inakereba. (We don't live in Okayama. Please look at the following examples. infinitive and progressive:
. ane for older sister. otouto for younger brother. (They aren't reading a magazine. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (Sam's not here. First let's do some plain negative examples. nani o shite iru deshou ka. (They aren't reading a magazine. present and past.
(If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball.)
Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). "we could" could be "he could. (I wasn't eating then. To make the meaning perfectly clear. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. to be able). we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. (I'm not eating [now]. (I didn't eat an apple. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. which can be convenient at times." depending on the actual situation. Dekita. However. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. (I wasn't eating then. In either. The last two above are good examples of this. since it is not only a Te Form ending. but also a much-
. (I didn't eat an apple. (I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + ita
Since ita is the Ta Form of iru." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa mada tabete inai. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?)
The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. vague and troublesome at others. which appears in the last example.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. It's for asking questions. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. and goes especially well with plain ones.• • • • • • • •
Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. (I haven't eaten yet.
Just for the fun of it. [Really? I washed my car. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita.]) Yes. (They were reading a magazine. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. (John was watching TV. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form:
• • •
John wa terebi o mite ita.used element of conversational Japanese. Put simply. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. [I went shopping. Soshite terebi miteta. Soshite terebi o mite ita. (Really? I was washing my car. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. (Really? I washed my car. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. In fact. (Bill was studying.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. (I was doing shopping. ita is the plain past form of iru. in settings where polite speech is called for.) That's real Japanese. As I'm sure you know by now. but no real friends or family members -. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really
. this would be two males speaking. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. I decided to go ahead and cover it here.are going to speak so grammatically correct.)
There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. Also.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. (I went shopping. I include the usual English translation. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. upgrade ita to imashita.
As in English. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. It can.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request.kuruma: car arau: to wash
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. (Would you please call Mr. (Would you please come at two o'clock?)
And here are a few more variations that are often used:
• • •
Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation:
• • •
Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. Because itadaku is a very polite word. Here are some examples. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. meaning something like "I humbly partake. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point.)
Te Form + itadaku / morau
Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. however.
. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. Oboete imasen ka. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. as covered in Lesson 50. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. Don't you remember?) (If necessary.
use morau instead of itadaku. (Ken's not here now. morau works best when talking about a third party. Make no mistake. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. As usual. Traditionally. but since we can't do that now. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. morau is not impolite. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. but not quite as polite -. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. Also. and it can be at times. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. I'll get Grandpa to go. With kudasai. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. No particular reservations are needed here. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.)
This is the same family. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. it's just plain. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka.as itadakimasu.not as "respectful" -. Ken ni itte moratte.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. (I'm doing homework now. (I'm doing homework now. Get Ken to go. However. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. even when the giver is not present. itadakimasu is always used with food. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. adding a masu ending makes it polite." With itadakimasu.)
This is a family situation.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me." When there's no need to be very polite. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go.)
. this would be the best way to go. Morau is okay when referring to other things.) Ima shukudai o shite iru.
Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. (Sure.prefix is used with strangers. (May I please have your name?) Hai. tell shorui: forms. office. (Yes. (I'll give you a pen. but she already has one and doesn't want another. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. each home. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. I got one. documents. Murai go. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. They probably don't see each other every day. itadakimashita is the nicest reply.)
This is at the office.Itadakimasu is always used with food. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. etc.) Itadakimashita. (I had Ms. company.) oshieru: to teach. and these two are being courteous. Just like anywhere else. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. customers. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. clients. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms)
Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms.)
Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens.)
Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. (I got one [already]. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita.
to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). you just make them the subject/object with ga. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].)
Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. which means "to finish":
Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). (Let's go see a movie after work.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.. such as those two common ones work and school." There are other ways to do that.)
Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later).. such as summer to mean "after summer. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. You can't use it directly after nouns. then add the Te Form of owaru.)
Te Form + kara
This one's a snap. to come home owaru: to end.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
. (John's coming over after he does his homework." as in:
• • •
Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. (After I eat I'm going shopping. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. Word Check kaeru: to return.. Simple and useful. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).
you might say Ah. the "kure command":
Kite kure. For example. repeated request. It's good for family members and close friends.Te Form + kureru
In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. Kureru is used in generally the same way. and it would be offensive in some cases. (Please wait. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. ogotte kureru no?. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request.) And finally. which literally means "Oh. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. this is the "command" form of kureru. This is the simplest way to ask a favor.) Matte kure. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no.)
I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can
Use plain negative nai for an urgent. especially one that's already been turned down:
Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. In fact. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). Some people add the question-forming no on the end.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. (Won't you please come with us?)
(Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. Again. (Please come here. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences:
Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?)
You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others:
Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka.
expresses future plans. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. depending on intonation.)
Te Form + kuru / iku
As you already know. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. assumptions. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. etc. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. you'll see what I mean.)
As can be seen. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. I think that the number of PC users will increase. with matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. dreams. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as
.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. (Because of that." (If you say just ikimasu. (I have been studying German history." Usually upgraded with masu.) Sono tame. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one:
• • • •
Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita.sound nicer than with kure. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time.
. combined with naru: to become.) Accordingly. (I'll go check it [then come back].)
Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. inexpensive.)
Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. We'll finish up with a few examples of these:
• • • •
Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. (Please come over [sometime]. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. (I came to borrow a textbook. (I ate before coming over..) shiraberu: to check (something).) Douzo."going away and not coming back.): cheap. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. asobi ni kite kudasai. or cuisine. but when uncertain.) Shirabete kuru. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. (Let's go eat Chinese food.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it." See Lesson 40. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook
. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are:
Tabete kita. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. but should be easily understood.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). food. to examine.
right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk.)
Te Form + miru
As you know.)
Simple enough. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars.. Either way. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing.. go ahead asobu: to play." but technically it's not one of those either. but it's not. (I tried calling him. (I'll try to talk to John. Well."
. miru means "to see." meaning that we'll give something a try. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. with its own set phrases. but he wasn't in. it acts like a "quasi adjective.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can.." which makes this one easy to remember. and adding miru. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. but don't take it literally.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. For example. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. to entertain oneself. (I'll try to read these kanji. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion:
• • • • •
Kono kanji o yonde miru.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. (Let's give this new PC a try. Or." You may hear it often. In Japanese grammar. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. rusu deshita. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now.
ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii.)
Te Form + mo ii
This one is used to ask or give permission." etc. in familiar situations as in the last example above..)
You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission." Accordingly.)
(Yes. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to." etc. or ka: ii desu ka (May I.. (You may go home early today. As I've probably mentioned before. Yes. (Yeah. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. positive response. so you should be a little familiar with it." "it's okay if (someone does something). so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation:
Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo." "okay.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii..(Verbs are shown in their plain form. It's an adjective which means "good.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?)
There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. like the object indicator o. terebi mite ii. you can also get away with omitting particles... In the workplace. you can use my dictionary.?). There's usually something else added on. that is the way it works grammatically. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). as in:
• • •
Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. As with most Japanese.)
.). you can watch TV. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use.) Hai." "fine. (Sure. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas:
Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. however.. as with all adjectives. (You can use my PC.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
but I doubt that you'll ever hear it.) Actually. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. but not ikaga ka. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. (Well. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. You can say dou ka." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. polite. (What do you think about buying a new TV?)
These are. You can't just say "I broke my arm. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. If you break a bone in Japanese. but usually alone. Instead.these don't use it." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. if you're going to use it in this way. do not add the plain. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go
Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka
These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?":
• • •
Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. If you do. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. question-forming no -. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. of course. you can say it. familiar talk. You can omit the desu ka for plain.
"You mustn't do that!". no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy
(Verbs are shown in their plain form..) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!)
Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. So. (Don't be late. "Naughty!". Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten:
Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!)
Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. iken (Okayama). "Thou shalt not. In fact. akan (Osaka). plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. especially ikenai. (You can't take pictures. When placed after the Te Form with wa. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. everyday setting. to make it even more colorful. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. and you're bound to hear either of these. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take
.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. used in a normal. Also. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form.)
Te Form + wa ikemasen
Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises:
• • •
Shashin o totte wa ikemasen." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai.. like ikan (Takamatsu). Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. etc. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. etc. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame).
However. and I'm going shopping." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. heya o katazukete.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. some simple ones. and [then] made my dinner. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. like "take a bath. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. the kanji used for each meaning are different. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. fed him. First. which is easy to do. heya o katazukete moratte. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. choushoku o tabete. straighten up the room. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji.Note: The verb toru has many different usages.) Also. esa o ataete. and left home at eight.)
. hachiji ni ie o demashita.)
Te Form for Continuing Statements
Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. to take a picture with a camera. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete.)
As you can see. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. then go shopping. meaning "to pass (by/over something)." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. (I got up at seven o'clock. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. ate breakfast. to take (steal) something from someone. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. (I've got to call Shizu. Let's combine three actions into one statement:
Shizu ni denwa shite. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue:
Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. because tooru is a totally different vowel.
Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food.)
Ta Form: The Plain Past
We finally arrive at the Ta Form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. a house deru: to leave. whose major purpose is to make things plain. When you're not sure. just start a new sentence. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta
. Just for a quick check. and simple. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. past. to straighten up.
) Hon yonda. (I read a book.) Kami kitta. and only omit them when everyone else does. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I got a haircut. there are limits. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. Let's do some real basic. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. (I ate lunch. (I watched TV.) Ohiru tabeta. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta.
.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
shinda asonda yonda kaetta
Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita
Ta Form kita shita
As with the Te Form.) Boku no kingyo shinda. There are cases where particles would never be cut. Also. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out:
• • • • • • •
Shita. (My goldfish died. In the long run. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I did it. (I went to the bank.)
Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang.) Terebi mita. Once again.) Ginkou itta.
right? Let's do some more:
• • • • •
Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. For example. Although it literally means "I cut my hair." If we switch these around to yonda hon. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. use kami.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. anywhere. roku nen mae ni katta.) Boku ga katta PC wa. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head.)
As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. I had someone cut my hair. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. kiru: to cut. literally "hairbug. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book." There are a few of these. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta." Very handy. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. Ke alone is hair — any hair. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read.) Shinda kingyo wa. juu hachi man en deshita.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. hon becomes the subject. (The cake Joy made was delicious.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier." it is used for "I got a haircut. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen." and is less formal than chuushoku.)
. beforehand. even on a caterpillar.
and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. as in the last example above. Due to this. For a more detailed review. One past tense element is enough. Since we have already covered these. the rest really isn't too difficult. because deshita is the past form of desu. There are a few "ta form only" combinations.)
Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3
Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. » deshou (Lesson 19):
Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.
. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. please click the lesson links. Instead. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. which will serve as a nice review. these two share many add-ons and endings. Base 3 is used for the plain future. (If necessary.)
» hazu desu (Lesson 20):
Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. (He's supposed to come at six. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. use desu to make it polite. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. Carefully note the similarities and differences. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section.)
Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. Again. (He was supposed to come at six. root form of Japanese verbs. And. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. not deshita.
) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. Takada quit. (I heard that Mr.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22):
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40):
. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. Takada's quitting. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. sensei ga okotta. (I heard that Mr. I was late.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Beth wa okureta kara. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai. (I should have taken the train today. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. I'm late every day.)
» sou desu (Lesson 37):
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.)
» noni (Lesson 36):
Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight.)
» kara (Lesson 24):
Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. (It would be better to go by train today.. sensei ga okoru." Please don't make this mistake..)
Note: Yes. For expressing regret.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21):
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (Even though I get up early.)
» kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23):
Konban. (It would be better to go by train today.) Kinou no ban.)
Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (Even though I got up early.
etc. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji.)
Ta Form + bakari
To express "(did something) just now. (I just bought that umbrella. snow.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. (John just left. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. mai is used with units of time.)
In fact. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.) John wa deta bakari. (Mom just got back.)
Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. (It looks like it's going to rain.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In other words. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. now that I think of it.
. (I just cleaned this room. (It looks like it rained.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii.• •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. not with people or objects." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. like something memorized from a grammar book.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.) Ame ga futta mitai.) yameru: to quit a job. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. (I just ate.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain.)
» mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42):
Ame ga furu mitai." put bakari after a verb in its ta form:
• • • • •
Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.
. Nikai ikimashita. Once you get these sorted and memorized.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. Tabete mitai kedo. I'd like to try it. arimasu.)
As you can see. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. I have. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. First.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.)
Ta Form + koto ga aru
To talk about things you or others have experienced. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. (No. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports).) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari.. I've been twice. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. (All Shizuka ever does is study English.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. This is used after the Te Form.. (All that kid does is play computer games. though.. to do (familiar. (Yes. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). (All you ever do is eat. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. to go/come back deru: to leave. I haven't. tabeta koto ga nai. The first is that when you ask "have you been to." usually as a complaint. (Yes. like this:
• • •
Tabete bakari. you use the verb iku (to go)
. you'll find them very useful. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out." in Japanese..
) John ni denwa sureba." which.. (If the kids eat a snack." but "I went twice.)
Next. but regular past tense.) kedo: however. not yet. (No. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. kare wa kuru deshou. The second is that in using this form. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru." Finally. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. you don't use this form. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. let's review Base 3 + nara:
• • •
Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai..)
Ta Form + ra
. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. they probably won't eat lunch. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. kare wa kuru deshou.. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. (If you call John he'll probably come. I haven't read it yet. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. See Lessons 7 and 60. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.and literally ask "have you gone to.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. First. [No. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. As in B's reply above. (If you call John he'll probably come. mada yonde inai.) John ni denwa suru nara.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba:
Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. to me.
chuushoku o tabenai deshou. making it more formal than rashii. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu:
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. kare wa kuru deshou..)
Desu is usually used after sou..) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples:
• • •
Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. Word Check oshieru: to tell. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. chuushoku o tabenai deshou." etc. (If the kids eat a snack. to inform.•
Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. meaning "It seems that.)
. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. familiar conversation. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. desu can added after rashii to make it polite.)
Again. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. Takada's quitting.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. Takada's quitting. (If you call John he'll probably come. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. (If the kids eat a snack.. According to the books. Yes. but I personally have never heard it. they probably won't eat lunch. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37).." "I hear that.. they probably won't eat lunch. (I heard that Mr.)
Ta Form + rashii
Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). (I heard that Mr. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal.)
And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra:
• • •
Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii..) John ni denwa shitara.
listened to some music. (I watched TV and stuff. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. (Jim buys and sells old things. (I read comics and stuff.)*
This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer:
Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. terebi o mitari suru deshou. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. some cleaning. ongaku o kiitari. souji shitari. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one:
Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari.)
Now. right? This is where you control the tense:
Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. and did some homework. If you want. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.That's all there is to it. (Last night after dinner I
. yuushoku o tabeta.)
If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. (Last night I watched TV. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. then ate dinner. and watch TV. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66):
Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. shukudai o shitari shite imashita.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. It can also be used for present or future happenings. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. Word Check daibun: considerably.)
Ta Form + ri
Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari.
practiced the piano and things. chuushoku o tabete. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. use the Ta Form with to shitara:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara.)
Ta Form + to shitara
For suppositional statements. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready:
Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite.)
I realize that this is a run-on sentence. ate lunch. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this.watched TV. then did homework until one o'clock. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. then she made dinner. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical.)
. listened to music for about two hours. I'd really be at a loss. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. * Note: While unnatural in English.
you must remember that (something else). (Supposing it rains this afternoon. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). let's look at some examples to help make it clear:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. you'd probably regret it. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. snow.. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning:
. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise.)
As you can see.)
Ta Form + to shite mo
This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. tabun koukai suru deshou. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food.. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. etc.• •
Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.)
To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. without doubt komaru: to be confused. Word Check hontou ni: really. (If you were to go swimming now. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. In fact. (Even if you studied Spanish.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. dou shimashou ka." As usual.
(John's pants were torn when he fell. (When I read that. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. (No matter how much he eats. zenzen ippai ni naranai.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items. he never gets full. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective])
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I laughed when I heard that. (Even if I read the manual. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39:
.. For example. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that.. After the Ta Form.• •
Setsumeisho o yonde mo.)
Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. I was very surprised." Here are some examples:
• • •
Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. I can't understand this software..)
Ta Form + toki
There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.)
While not covered before.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo.
while tokoro really means just now. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event:
• • •
Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. (The kids just finished eating. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. (I just cleaned this room. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return.)
As usual. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. add desu to make a statement polite. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. was already covered in Lesson 69. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. However. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. to is usually used because of its flexibility. (I just got back now. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. For example. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu.•
Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. in the least recent sense.)
Ta Form + tokoro
This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now.)
However. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. or. One similar to this. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns])
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. it's still brand-new. the Ta Form + bakari.
" Generally speaking. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. Tanaka.) Ashita wa ame desu.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective):
• • • • •
Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. desu makes things polite. Tom wa iru yo.) Bob wa byouki desu. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (That school is old. (Yes. [I don't want to.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form.)
(Iru is an ichidan verb. iru and aru
As you know. After nouns and adjectives.)
You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu:
Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai:
. (Tomorrow it will rain. (No.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru.)
The plain form of desu is da.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. iru is used for people and animals.)
desu.. aru is a yodan. is. (He is Mr. (There's a spider on the wall. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. (The dictionary is on the desk.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. are. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings:
Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. (There's a big tree in the park. Tom's here. (Bob's sick. etc. (There's a big tree in the park. like something from the masu group. (Carol is 25 years old.])
Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. and aru for everything else:
• • • • •
Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.
. it is rarely used these days. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. Tom's not here now..)
Now." as in being in a certain position.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. state or condition. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable.) Jisho wa arimasen. one is "as. This is one that is rarely used these days. (I don't have a dictionary. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. (I don't have a dictionary.. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. getting back to desu. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough.." So.• •
Sumimasen. If you're really interested in the technical background. Again. (Sorry. unpleasant. here it is: Among the several roles of de. ima Tom wa imasen. Tom's not here now.)
Notes on Japanese Verbs
In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. (Sorry. Japanese is no exception. ima Tom wa inai. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. excuse me jisho: dictionary
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.)
And the polite forms would be:
Sumimasen. Use desu instead.) Jisho wa nai. and is especially used by children. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use.
the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru.)
kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide
Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. (Wendy collects old stamps. They are not conjugations. (Please make up your mind quickly. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. very rarely will they correct you. which is intransitive (has no direct object). they are already divided into transitive/intransitive.)
Note: These two. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. ageru. Accordingly. to give
Agatte kudasai. So that there is no misunderstanding.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. have close ties with Japanese culture.What makes it worse is the fact that very. This is certainly not a complete list. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. agaru is used for "come inside.)
.) Hai. agaru and ageru. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. to collect
Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. (Here. (Please come in. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). active/passive forms. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house." When exchanging gifts. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. I'll give you this.
in Japanese you use mitsukaru. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for).) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!)
Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. tasukaru: to be of help.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?)
Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). Also.. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find..)
Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling.. like helping in the kitchen. (I found a pimple. when you find something that was lost. to arrive (a package. (Please continue looking for it." it's not. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. to help
Arigatou. For routine helping. You were really a great help. as if it just found itself. Strangely. use tetsudau. etc. » -su / -u
.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find
Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue.. (Thank you. not a person)
Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!)
tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own)
Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai.
to get off or get out of a vehicle
. to place + wasureru: to forget):
Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh.)
Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?)
Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind.) Kaigi ga owattara. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong)
Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. to put down oriru: to go/come down.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. to force out deru: to come/go out
Inu o dashinasai. Please don't leave any. (Let the dog out. (Please cut down on your spending. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. use okiwasureru (oku: to put.)
herasu: to decrease.)
nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind
Zenbu tabete. (Grandpa went outside. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own)
Shuppi o herashite kudasai.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. okay?)
kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken
Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. (Eat all this.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. (Be back by ten o'clock. (The copier is broken. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. Nokosanaide kudasai. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!)
orosu: to lower.
etc. like a shirt. etc. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head.)
yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty
Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. jacket.• •
Koko ni oroshite. but these should give you a good start. conversion can be done by:
• • •
yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru
and then conjugate accordingly. etc. socks. (The caterpillar moved. For most standard verbs.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?)
Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. obi. (My hat got dirty.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. (This cake probably won't be eaten. like a belt. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. like a name tag or pin
. (If you wear those glasses. kimono. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. dress. (Put it down here. necktie. warawareru deshou." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn.)
ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own)
Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. a skirt. shoes. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. (Don't move that machine. Here they are:
• • • • • • •
kiru: to wear around one's body. like pants. you'll probably be laughed at. hameru: to wear on a finger.)
Of course there are others. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet.) Kemushi ga ugoita. as in:
• • •
Sono megane o kaketara.
This completes Japanese Verbs. and especially when talking about accessories. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai!
. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four.