Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + kureru 59. Base 5 50. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + inai 55. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + oku 63.44. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + kara 58. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + goran nasai 53.

Ta Form + to shite mo 76. su. nu. Ta Form + rashii 73. which can end in u. gu. Ta Form + to shitara 75. but to be more precise. Ta Form + tokoro 78. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + bakari 70. which means "to walk. mu. Ta Form + toki 77. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u." for example: it ends in ku. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. desu.67. ku. Let's take the verb aruku. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . bu. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. and irregular. not u. tsu. Ta Form + ra 72. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. ichidan. Remembering this will make further study much easier.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs.

unless it was from another foreigner.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. (Naomi will watch TV. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb . many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. (I'll eat an apple. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. (Jim will read a comic book.) This is very simple Japanese." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Some sources call these verbs godan. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. but there is no difference." Interestingly.) Jim wa manga o yomu. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. and also very juvenile or "familiar. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way.

instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu .before the masu ending is added.their "Base 2" form -. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. the present polite ending. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. (Grandpa will return soon. (Jim will read a comic book. "adult" Japanese. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.

(He won't wait. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (Jerry will come out soon. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. and should not be worried about at this stage. (I'll decide tomorrow.) Kare wa machimasen. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. (Ayako watches the TV every day.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu.) Jerry wa sugu demasu.) .oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. let's try masen. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.) Now. which is the negative form of masu.

And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. etc.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (I want to buy an umbrella. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. (The children didn't play at the park.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. . (I'm not going to eat now. (The children want to play. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. (Miki wants to see that movie.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai.) The above examples are plain forms. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) Easy enough. To make them polite. (John didn't go to Hiroshima.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. masen shows negative tense.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.

) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. It simply means "let's (do something). . and is never used alone with an object. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai.) Tabemashou. Add desu to make it polite. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) * In Japanese." This structure will be covered later on. and two use ichidan. but either way this one is easy to remember. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. in this example. (Let's go. (The children don't want to play." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou./I'll help you fix your bicycle. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. (Let's take a break. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you).) Yasumimashou. For example.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. In fact. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. (Let's eat. (Let's get you some food. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. (I'll fix your bicycle." For example: • • • Ikimashou. (I'll carry this/these [for you].) As in English.) Simple enough.

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

For example. Depending on the situation. Etc. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. konai (won't come). (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. (Jim doesn't read comic books. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. which we already covered in Lesson 4.) Sachiko wa konai.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. like Base 2 + masen. shinai (won't do). Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. . and should only be used in very informal settings. (Sachiko won't be coming. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. As in English.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy).) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. kuru (come). or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). Jim wa manga o yomimasen.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. (I'm not going to watch TV. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. and suru (do)." as a matter of personal policy. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu.

(Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. hail. (Sachiko will probably come.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (It probably won't snow.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Actually. etc. (Grandpa will probably return soon. Look at these examples: . or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.what will happen if something doesn't happen.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. snow. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella.

Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation." Actually. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. sama. so it is omitted. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Additionally. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. especially when talking to an individual. and kun.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. names are usually not used alone. The ones you'll hear the most are san. Once a person's name is known.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. as in English. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. when speaking to that person. For example. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. Generally speaking. chan.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. .

more familiar (and. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. kun with boys. Again." This is normal and good. though san is probably more common for females. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. Customarily. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. and children add it to the words for father. let's get back to you. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. grandmother. but would also .Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. Parents add chan to their children's names. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. older brother or sister (but not younger). adult female neighbor." This Japanese would be understood. Family. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. etc. For example. And. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. Now. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. names are often shortened before adding chan. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. use san with colleague's names. where anata is used for "you. you can always ask. As a safe rule. but to the title of those older. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. and playmates. grandfather. adult male neighbor. chan to female students. unless an individual prefers chan." but is now a "san. because san shows that a closer. cousins. real or pretended. hopefully. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. time passes. company. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. and chan with girls. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. mother. For those older. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. however. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. After the sale is made. of course. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. Also. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki.for a while. aunt. uncle. at any rate.

It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. because it means "must do. the one left would be kimitachi. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. I may as well say here that much. Anatatachi could be used. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. mixed groups. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. toward the group concerned. So.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai).) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. This can be handy when . and narimasen means "will not become". Accordingly. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. formal. the nakereba means "if one does not. Yes." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. change it to Base 1 ika. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone).sound very stiff.. there's no problem. (Jim has to return now. the fact is that it is very rarely used. It's used quite a lot. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. (Laura has to buy an umbrella.. So. which is the best choice when talking to large. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen." Let's take iku (to go). The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. (I have to go. which shows familiarity. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. it's a bit of a tongue twister.) Looking at it literally.". however. but it conveys a certain distance. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. It works fine. and very odd.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. even some affection. (The children must eat. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural.

and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. or feelings.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. "I'll have him go to the store". By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. In Japanese. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. like deshou from Lesson 14. (Jim probably has to return now.adding other endings. as in "let him" or "make him. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . for the others. (Grandpa lets the children play. and saseru.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. "I'll let him go to the store". (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. seru. are used for all of these.) With "suru verbs. (The children probably need to eat. mastering a clean. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (I'll have John decide by next week. Accordingly. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. More than memorizing its meaning. (I'll have him come tomorrow. for yodan verbs." can be conveyed. Good luck with nakereba narimasen.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. however.

etc.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. past tense.) As you can see. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb.) So. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. (Dad will make Bob study.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. (I'll have her do it. (I want to have Kenji study English." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. although miru is an ichidan verb. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. like miseru. polite. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. you won't hear or see "misaseru.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. kimeru: to decide kare: he." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. by tomorrow. (Let's have John go to the store.) Kanojo ni saseru. (He lets them watch TV every day. which means "to show" or "to let see.

This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. her karera: they. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. the fact that the rain will fall is understood.the plain. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. making the verb unnecessary." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru).benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. Let's get back to deshou. shown in the last example above." For example. so it is often omitted. As in English. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru.) The verb furu.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Not only should you be able to translate these. means "to fall. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. as explained in Lesson 1. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). Naomi wa terebi o miru. But before we begin. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. . (It will probably rain tomorrow. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. (You ought to study English more. Please note that ka is not added at the end. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. etc.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. snow. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. as we would use tag questions in English.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. (Bob will probably also want to go. like . (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. (John should be coming soon..Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka." etc. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu.

) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. (It would be better to go by train today. When you hear it." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". (You should study Japanese more. should happen.should do. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. (It would be better to do it next week. and according to the grammar books.) When showing personal preference. As usual.) Inu no hou ga ii. "had better do". (I should call her. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii. prefer -. practice makes perfect. which was covered in Lesson 20. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. but. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii.should be... "would rather do." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. frankly. (It would be better to eat later.while hazu is more passive -. (We had better rest a little.ni natte iru or beki.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables.) As with most verb endings. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. Word Check .way is good/better." Actually." and ii means "good" or "better. the hou means "way" or "method. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. (I'd rather get a dog.

only the component order is opposite in Japanese. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (I don't know yet if we are going. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. him dekiru: can. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check kare: he.) As can be seen in the examples above.kanojo: she. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. ka dou ka does not end a sentence.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. to understand inu: dog ima: now . It's like using "whether or not" in English. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know.

(Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen).taberu: to eat miru: to see.) . Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things)." Since this verb ending is rather long.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. (Jack may also come. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on." These are incorrect.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. look. meaning that.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. perhaps. where it is converted to shireru (can know).) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. (We may eat out tonight. (It might snow tomorrow." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. so please be careful when pronouncing. and is conjugated accordingly. this one is used frequently.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. so you'll want to master it right away. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. Therefore. Simply put. As such.) As you sharp ones have noticed. (It might rain tomorrow. yes. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form.

the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. kasa o motte ikimashou. (Since it will probably rain. (Beth is always late. denwa shimasu.) In spoken Japanese. so I'm going to the store. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. however. given after. grammatically speaking. signified by kara at the end. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since.) Jisho o kaitai kara. you'll often hear the action stated first. so I'll call her. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara.) . Word Check komban: this evening. so his English is good. with its reason. Itsumo okureru kara. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Terebi o mitakunai kara. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. In this case. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. let's take umbrellas." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. honya ni ikimasu. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. they each become separate sentences.) Ongaku o kikimasu. (I don't want to go to Mr. eigo ga jouzu desu. (We don't have any milk.I suggest. mise ni ikimasu.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru.

no problem.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo." so. .) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. he gets sick a lot. home iya na: bad. but she doesn't get any better. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. as you can imagine. Again. it comes between the contrasting phrases. heta desu.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23." Just like English. as well as its shorter forms. (Although Jack is careful about his health. (He speaks Japanese. snow. just like English. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. disgusting mono: thing. jouzu ni narimasen. which means "from. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. it's used a lot. Like "but" in English. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. yoku byouki shimasu. but he's not good at it. etc. nasty. keredo and kedo.

(If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. If you have to have a translation. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. Let's move on. like reading in the sentence I like reading. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. First is koto. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. no problem.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. Here are some examples: . (I like reading. No. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. let's look at each part. it really doesn't change the verb." Does this help? If not.) Finally. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. Better than all this talk would be an example.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. It'll come. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. Like our ing. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. not good at something.. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. But first. I like reading as a thing to do. Next. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. In English. a lot. koto has no practical use by itself.. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. Well.

) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. For example. you can just omit suru." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. and adding the suru makes it a verb.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. meanings. long or short. essences.) Either way. (I can't read French. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. actually for review -.) Now." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives." Denwa is a noun. they're both used. actions. (Bob was able to call Junko. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. Again." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. etc. (I can read Japanese. it's a long ending for just "can. (Keiko can play the piano.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. for kicks -. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. It does not ." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. (I can translate French into Japanese. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings.no.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. expressions. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. in that case the suru is omitted. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). With "suru verbs. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. Kinou.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.let's try some other endings on dekiru. There is a short alternative for other verbs. (John wasn't able to study yesterday.

koto ni shimasu is the polite form. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. As I'm sure you know by now. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu.) . koto ni suru is the plain. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It shows that you have made a decision. and it shows that the decision was yours.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can.

) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. etc. periods. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. (Mr.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (We have to wait until Bob calls. watch (something) . to let (someone) see. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. Made means "until. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita. (Wait until dinner. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen.) As in English. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.

First."don't do's" -. Stay away from here!. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!.) Base 3 + na This. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. This is one that will probably not be used very often. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. be careful how. you use it. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. you could say.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. .yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. but if you do. as with English.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. and to whom. However.

) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara.sentences with "if.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. kuru deshou. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If he sees Yuko. watashi ni shirasemasu.) John ni denwa suru nara.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. which is just a slight variation. (If the kids eat a snack now. He thought he said. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ame ga furu nara. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. he'll let me know. they probably won't eat dinner. but nara is more common. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. (If you call John he'll probably come. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara.

things I'd like to explain.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to offer very general. a time. page. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. that's another story. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . there are no "relative pronouns. to make matters worse." Of course. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. I can see several things which need to be explained. which are examples involving a thing. As a quick review. explanations. as I sit here and look at these four phrases.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. respectively. and a person." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. a place. And. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life.. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. and lengthy. words that connect a noun to an action. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. In Japanese. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. For example. but hopefully sufficient for the present.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. But. like in the first example above.. Japanese English." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam.

One more point of interest is the word purezento here. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. especially in informal spoken Japanese. automatically designates a place. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. and is handled by the final verb. but since Japanese has no equivalent. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train.) Now. ga tells us who will take the train. so tokoro is used after the verb. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. No is often used in place of ga." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. the English "where. and so it would most likely be omitted. a truer English translation would be. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. a "sub-subject. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. For example. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. since he or she will surely be hearing both. or a noun which needs emphasis. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my)." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. they do not mean the same thing. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. back to the lesson: First. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. like our 's.) Since this is natural Japanese. The problem is that the rules are . As you may have noticed. and therefore omitted. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train.) In this sentence. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. Ga or no could be used here. Kobe is a place. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. Continuing with the above example.) In this one. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do." as a relative pronoun." you might say. As you can see. a substitute noun must be used. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. densha (train) is the main subject.

Please come back regularly to review as necessary. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. and vice versa.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences.) This one is pretty straightforward. and when trying to make sense of one.to high-intermediate Japanese.totally different in each language. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. I hope this lesson was clear enough. and shouldn't be too difficult. produce. . and are in the realm of mid. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Finally. (Spring is the season that brings new life. As a general. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. semi-accurate rule. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. you must forget all the rules of the other.

) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of).) Remember these? I hope so.) .) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. you need to review. fist pounding. stomping around. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. need.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. writhing. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. (Jim will read a comic book. If not. unexcited intonation. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. Japanese English. (I tell you. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. or habits of the speaker.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. (Jim will read a comic book.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. it IS going to rain tomorrow.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. etc. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) As in any other language. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". if you want to emphasize something. However. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. (Grandpa will return soon. (Grandpa will return soon. (She IS coming.

considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). meaning "in spite of. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. rather. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. Takamatsu-yuki. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji.) . Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. specifically. essential kanji: Chinese characters. etc. remember daibun (or daibu): quite.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. There's nothing really tricky about it." which we will cover later on. Please consult a dictionary for more. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary.) densha: train noru: to ride. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever).

(Jim's dictionary is blue. still not fukanou: not possible. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. mainly the one used for possessives. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]).Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. to not exist tabi: trip .) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. impossible saikou: great.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. (It really was a problem-free trip. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. like our 's. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. (Reading is enjoyable. (Speaking Japanese is easy.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. boku no wa aka desu.).) Word Check tanoshii: fun. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. mine is red. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. Wa is the subject indicator. the greatest.

(It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.prefix makes it "honorific.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In other words. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. If kara was used instead. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. use node. she'll probably find a good job. which is used to show reasons or causes. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. (Since Eiko can speak English.) So. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. the o. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. For example.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. In this lesson we will take a look at node. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context.

) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form.) annani: that much. rumors. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. etc. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. she won't listen. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (Despite my telling her to stop. for the plain past. (I was late even though I got up early. to follow rules or orders. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. which is used for plain past structures.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. this short lesson is about noni. understand to be.) asoko: there.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. kanojo wa kikimasen. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni.) kiku: to listen. For example: . Word Check yameru: to stop something.

" and is often followed by the optional ni." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It means "that's right" and often follows hai.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. Japanese English. They use a noun geared to their type of job. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school".) Tame is a very handy word.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan." (Yes. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. A full-time employee will use shigoto. The actual word is arubaito. it usually means "for the purpose of. sou desu. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". in order to.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. as in "Hai. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. Word Check hiru kara: from noon. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu.) As you have probably guessed.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. but is more often than not shortened to baito.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. Takada's quitting. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. Japanese German. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. a student will say baito. that's right.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. Here are some popular ones: .) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. (I heard that Mr.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo.

(If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. that's pronounced "toh. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. [Use no when putting a noun after tame.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. receive. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. or if. (Remember. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. have (an interview). here are your air tickets to Hawaii. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if.") It can mean and. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita.) .) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. [plain. (Okay.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.) For the curious. In this case. (This is for you. when. (Kimiko came with Bob. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. Mom.]) Hai. with. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. (This is for you. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. begin to want. (I think Koji will be late. of "party. (I think Ms. While not specifically covered. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.) . using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable.it's as simple as that. Japanese English. Sasaki will call us soon. (I think Eiko can speak English. meaning "come to want. It means simply "I think.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. to want to do. to go) + taku (tai.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. use umi. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. things you can do." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. Now that it's been explained. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. especially in the workplace." Iki (Base 2 of iku. but it is not generally used. and expected. When referring to the beach in Japanese. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. takunaru puts tai and naru together. to become to want to go -. It's okay to have an opinion.

(I think the kids want to go to the beach. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree).) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. care.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . or have some control. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. (I thought it would rain today [.) Again. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. Accordingly. (I thought/knew it would rain today [.As you can see from the last examples. towards me. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. this ending is a lot like deshou. (I didn't think that Koji would be late.]) In a way. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. which was covered in Lesson 19. but it didn't. goes back. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. omou can be used for plain speech. People will use to omoimasu even when they know.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. don't really care. (I think it would be better to go by train today. or don't really have any control over something. and it did.

(I plan to be back by three o'clock. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. Always use daigaku for university. to enter/enroll in (a school). College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. S.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. Deshita. that was a short one. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. add desu to make it polite. day. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. which means "to accumulate. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. so please be careful not to confuse them. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. however. yes. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. etc. is for past tense. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. hairu: to go inside (a room). to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. hear the other verb tsumoru. build up. While sounding alike. Well." used a lot. their meanings are completely different. You will. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. technically speaking. as you should know by now. In case you're wondering.) .

5. baka: idiot." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26.. etc.) Ame ga furu you desu. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. e as in red OH. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. 3. 4. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation.) mitai: it looks like. 2. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. e as in see OO.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. Simply put. a as in father EE. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. and show what Base 4 looks like. "you look like an idiot. sou desu means you heard. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples.. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to).) To be honest. o as in mode . I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. u as in mule EH. that something is or will be. AH. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. First. directly or indirectly.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. said so].) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse.

and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. it's where you start." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above." or "dictionary form.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 . Now.

koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. (If you call John he'll probably come. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba.) Handy. he'll let me know.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. they probably won't eat dinner. As we learned in the last lesson. Ii is Japanese for "good. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. Do you remember Base 3 + nara." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. (I want to call Grandma.) Ame ga fureba.) John ni denwa sureba. (If the kids eat a snack now. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu." as shown in these examples: . kuru deshou. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba... covered in Lesson 30? Well. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour. Here. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. (If he sees Yuko.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. watashi ni shirasemasu. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.. however.

(The weather's nice. so it would be good to play outside. [I still wish you would play outside. However. (I wish I had ordered the steak. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. soto de asobeba ii. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. (We want to watch TV. quirky ii does not. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. they are not completely interchangeable. no. (I wish we had gone to the park. (Now would be a good time to study. (Around five. yoi is not used with noni.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. yes.) Kids: Terebi mitai. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. is used after ba -.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro.) Mom. they both mean "good". Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. By this stage of Japanese study. yokatta. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. In those situations different constructions would be used.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . (We should have come at 8:00. (It would be good if you played outside. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.) • As you can see. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.) Naoko. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. (Even though it would be nice to play outside.• • • Soto de asobeba ii.

just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. just use Base 4. Actually. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. Or.very handy when you get used to it.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time." . and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. It's simple: no subject or object needed.and known to all concerned. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. If you do. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. and maybe even get into a fight. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) light shokuji: food. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. this is a form you really don't want to use.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj.

As such. very useful. Now. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru.) Now. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. No problem. (Keiko can play the piano. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. Take a good look. Simply put. (Keiko can play the piano. It's very.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. It shows ability to do something.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. too. (Keiko can't play the violin. just like most ichidans. . We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. (I can read Japanese. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. which was covered back in Lesson 26.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. they can be treated like plain ichidans. (He might be able to go next month. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. For example.it was like opening a new door. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. Here we realize an important point -. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. I remember when I first learned this one -.

which was covered in Lesson 13. there are other nai-related endings that will work here.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. It made sense to me." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. If it helps. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. (Jack probably won't be able to come. (As you remember.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. As you may have guessed. (Keiko can't play the piano. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. this form is only meant for yodans.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans.) . For example. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. (I can't read Japanese." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. the "cannot do" plain form. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. and I hope it will make sense to you.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. this is wasei eigo. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. there are many exceptions among the ichidans.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai.

So. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. energetic.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. you may wonder. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. this form is mainly for yodans. but there are exceptions like the last example above. so I do too. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.) . The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). but who cares? Everyone uses it.) Again. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. an example of which was included in the last lesson. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.

koyou . If you don't mind.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.oboeru oboerekime. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.oboe. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.taberu tabereoboe.kari.kime. First.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.tabe. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.

which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.) Yasumou. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. eh. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. but is converted as necessary: . so stretch it out a bit when you use it. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka.. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (I think I'll go shopping. (Let's take a break.. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara.. oh. (I wonder if I should go shopping. (I wonder if I should call Bob. oo." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. I just made that up. arukou ka na." Suru is shown plain." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou. (Let's eat. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. Also.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something)..) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. (Maybe I'll watch TV. ee.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka.) Terebi o miyou ka na. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice.) Tabeyou.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. (Let's go.

Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. (I think John will try to come.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. but he couldn't. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. miemasen deshita.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. As you have most likely guessed.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. (Naoto tried to see the airplane.

Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. nutte. It's important because it's used a lot. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. Yodan verbs that end in ku. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. like kasu (to lend). hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. nuide.asonde. tsunagu (to connect). right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out.atte. keshite. yobu (to call out). The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. like asobu (to play). tashite.e. Yodan verbs that end in gu. like matsu (to wait).matte. tsunaide.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary.aruite.isoide. to ask). katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. like aruku (to walk).kashite. motte. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. not iite. to put out [a fire]). Please note this one important exception: iku. tonde.. . like au (to meet). kesu (to turn off. not tsu). nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. katte. hataraite. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. katte. motsu (to hold). kau (to buy). kiite. Yodan verbs that end in bu. kiku (to listen. like isogu (to hurry). yonde. We'll cover pronunciation a little later.

tabete kudasai.) Matte.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. (Come at six o'clock.) . (Please come at six o'clock. totte. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. (Go ahead and eat. kiku (to listen). As you can see. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. tabete. kiite.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. depending on the tone of voice used. tsutsunde. like kaeru (to return)." There are several handy variations of kudasai. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -.) Kore o kiite. haitte. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. but in Japanese we do.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. (Come here. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. like yomu (to read).) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. please eat. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. (Please come at six o'clock.kaette." etc. It means "under.yonde. Yodan verbs that end in ru. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. When you start learning kanji. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. (Wait. (Go ahead. For practice let's use kuru (to come). (Please wait a bit. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. and kiru (to cut). humble me. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. hairu (to enter). there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here.) Chotto matte kudasai.) Douzo. monde. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. momu (to massage). (Listen to this. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai." "to lower (something). you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched." "to go down.

(Please give me that pen. (I'll call you later. (Cut this. to show respect. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. just like counting 1-2-3. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. you use the Te Form + kudasai. (If you don't want to eat it." but it means "to raise. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). showing a "humbler" position. to give (up to someone).) As you can see. as covered in the last lesson. (I'll wait for you. I'll eat it for you. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often.) . but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone." Ageru also means "to give. and kitte: KEET-TEH. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. (I'll give you this pen. Now.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. tabete ageru.). giving each equal time while making them short. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. kiite: KEE-EETEH. If you ask someone to do something for you." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give.) Tabetakunakereba.) Kono pen o agemasu.• Kore o kitte.

(Lend Bob your pen. and will work nicely in most cases. and." It is disrespectful at best. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. However. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. and showing contempt for others. string. It's for "talking down" to. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. as a general rule. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. in cases where there's a third person. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. laces musubu: to tie.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete.In Japanese. . Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. Don't use it. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. as these examples show.) Notes 1. Finally. the position of the giver or receiver. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. it's a great convenience besides. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. which are chosen depending on the situation.

) Tabete goran.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. You never use it on yourself.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. (It says he's 38. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. (Take a look. Yonde goran nasai. usually in short. Read it for yourself. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo.) That's how we use goran nasai. (Try calling Sanae. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. See for yourself. Mite goran nasai. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form." You use it to ask someone to try something.) Mite goran. Itte goran nasai. (There is salt on the shelf.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. mild command-like sentences. (Ask Bob and see what he says. which is used to prove a point.) Te Form + iru .) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. (Taste it and see if you like it. Go and see for yourself.

[We are living in Takamatsu. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . in English we would normally ask a person. to exist.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. (I am walking. (Yesterday I slept all day. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. (I am here. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. (Shizuko is eating. and masen deshita." So. and not shiru. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. (Bill is studying Japanese."). As you already know. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. mashita.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. we say "I know.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. when they really should use sunde iru.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. (We live in Takamatsu. [I wasn't watching TV today. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases.) Kinou nete imashita." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. it works like English.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. Because of this.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. in a way.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. masen." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. (I didn't watch TV today. Especially important are masu. as in the fourth example above. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something).) Watashi wa aruite iru. (She is eating sushi. (I'm reading the newspaper. For example. (He's not studying French. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. we can get away with using just "live" in English. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]).) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. "I'm knowing [it]. (They are reading a magazine.

like "kid" in English.) I know you're wondering. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. child Note: Strangely. (I was watching TV.imashita ka. there is no single. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. but. "woman-child" / "man-child"). simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. it is even written this way -.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. imouto: little (younger) sister .with the i in iru omitted -. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. so I'll tell you: "to play. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. to do (something) ko: kid. In fact. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. Finally." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. For example.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson.

(Sam's not here. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. First let's do some plain negative examples.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. (Bill isn't studying Japanese.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. present and past.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. (The kids probably aren't studying. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite." As such. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. infinitive and progressive: .) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. otouto for younger brother. (They aren't reading a magazine.Note: In Japanese. there are many that can. (We don't live in Okayama. ane for older sister. which makes them present or past progressive. and imouto for younger sister. (We don't live in Okayama.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Sam's not here. Nakatta is used for plain negative past.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. Please look at the following examples. (If they're not studying. to exist. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. (They aren't reading a magazine.) Benkyou shite inakereba. and adding ra makes it conditional. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. nani o shite iru deshou ka.

(I wasn't eating then. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. which can be convenient at times. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. (I'm not eating [now]. To make the meaning perfectly clear.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. but also a much- . (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. vague and troublesome at others. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. "we could" could be "he could. However.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. which appears in the last example. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. In either. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. (I haven't eaten yet. (I didn't eat an apple. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I didn't eat an apple. The last two above are good examples of this. and goes especially well with plain ones.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. to be able). (I wasn't eating then. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball." depending on the actual situation. (I'm not eating [now]. Dekita. It's for asking questions. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. since it is not only a Te Form ending.

used element of conversational Japanese. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. In fact. As I'm sure you know by now. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. (John was watching TV. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. but no real friends or family members -. Put simply. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita.are going to speak so grammatically correct. this would be two males speaking.]) Yes. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. Also.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. Soshite terebi miteta. (Really? I was washing my car. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. (Really? I washed my car. [I went shopping. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. ita is the plain past form of iru. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. I include the usual English translation. [Really? I washed my car. (They were reading a magazine. (I was doing shopping.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. upgrade ita to imashita. in settings where polite speech is called for. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really .) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. Just for the fun of it. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. (Bill was studying. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. Soshite terebi o mite ita. (I went shopping.) That's real Japanese.

meaning something like "I humbly partake. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. Oboete imasen ka. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. however. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. .) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. It can. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. as covered in Lesson 50. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka.) As in English.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Here are some examples. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. Because itadaku is a very polite word. (Would you please call Mr." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka.

Make no mistake. (I'm doing homework now. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. use morau instead of itadaku. Traditionally. this would be the best way to go. Also. As usual. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis.as itadakimasu. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. Get Ken to go." When there's no need to be very polite.) This is a family situation. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. However. even when the giver is not present. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. adding a masu ending makes it polite. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. (Ken's not here now. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.) . you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. it's just plain.) This is the same family. With kudasai. and it can be at times. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu." With itadakimasu. Morau is okay when referring to other things. morau works best when talking about a third party. No particular reservations are needed here. but not quite as polite -.not as "respectful" -. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. morau is not impolite.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Ken ni itte moratte. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. (I'm doing homework now. itadakimasu is always used with food.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. I'll get Grandpa to go. but since we can't do that now.

Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (Sure. customers. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide.) oshieru: to teach. (I had Ms. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. etc. but she already has one and doesn't want another. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka.) This is at the office. Murai go. I got one. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka.) Itadakimashita. moraimashita.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. company. They probably don't see each other every day. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two.prefix is used with strangers.Itadakimasu is always used with food. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. (I'll give you a pen. Just like anywhere else. tell shorui: forms.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. (Yes. office. (May I please have your name?) Hai. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. (I got one [already]. each home. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . clients. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. and these two are being courteous. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. documents.

." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. to come home owaru: to end.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. Simple and useful. You can't use it directly after nouns. such as those two common ones work and school. such as summer to mean "after summer. (After I eat I'm going shopping. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. Word Check kaeru: to return.. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou. (Let's go see a movie after work." There are other ways to do that.. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). (Let's eat after Naomi comes back.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). then add the Te Form of owaru. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou.) .) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. you just make them the subject/object with ga.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (John's coming over after he does his homework. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].) Te Form + kara This one's a snap.

a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. Kureru is used in generally the same way. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. Again. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. For example.) Matte kure. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. this is the "command" form of kureru. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request.) And finally.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. In fact. ogotte kureru no?. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. which literally means "Oh. It's good for family members and close friends. you might say Ah. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. repeated request.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. and it would be offensive in some cases. (Please come here. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. (Please wait. This is the simplest way to ask a favor.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka.

) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. expresses future plans." Usually upgraded with masu. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese.) Sono tame. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. (I have been studying German history. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru.sound nicer than with kure. (Because of that. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell." (If you say just ikimasu. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out.) As can be seen." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. dreams. depending on intonation. assumptions. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. you'll see what I mean. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. etc. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. I think that the number of PC users will increase. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know.

" See Lesson 40.) Shirabete kuru.. food. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. combined with naru: to become. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use."going away and not coming back.) Accordingly.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . but when uncertain. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). to examine. There are several "set combinations" where it is used.. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. (I ate before coming over.): cheap.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. asobi ni kite kudasai.) Douzo. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. or cuisine. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. inexpensive. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. (I came to borrow a textbook.) shiraberu: to check (something). (Let's go eat Chinese food. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. but should be easily understood. (I'll go check it [then come back]. (Please come over [sometime].

you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. For example." . (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I tried calling him.. Either way. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga.kariru: to borrow douzo: please.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. (I'll try to read these kanji. but don't take it literally. but it's not. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. Or. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form." which makes this one easy to remember." meaning that we'll give something a try. (I'll try to talk to John. go ahead asobu: to play. Well. and adding miru. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. In Japanese grammar. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit.. miru means "to see. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. it acts like a "quasi adjective. rusu deshita." but technically it's not one of those either.) Simple enough.) Te Form + miru As you know. but he wasn't in. (Let's give this new PC a try.. with its own set phrases." You may hear it often. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. to entertain oneself.

). or ka: ii desu ka (May I..) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. Yes." "it's okay if (someone does something)." "okay.) Hai. you can use my dictionary.." etc. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission..) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. (Yeah. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. positive response.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.." etc. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. terebi mite ii. in familiar situations as in the last example above. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. you can also get away with omitting particles. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. As with most Japanese. so you should be a little familiar with it. (You may go home early today. As I've probably mentioned before. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.) . In the workplace. There's usually something else added on. however.?). Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English.. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay.. that is the way it works grammatically. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. like the object indicator o." "fine. you can watch TV. as with all adjectives. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.) (Yes. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to." Accordingly. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). (Sure.. It's an adjective which means "good.. (You can use my PC.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission.

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

" fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. question-forming no -. you can say it. do not add the plain. If you do. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. You can omit the desu ka for plain. familiar talk. (Well." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. You can say dou ka.) Actually. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go .heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late].these don't use it. You can't just say "I broke my arm.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. Instead. of course. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. polite. but usually alone. If you break a bone in Japanese. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. if you're going to use it in this way. but not ikaga ka. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka.

" in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. "You mustn't do that!". ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. When placed after the Te Form with wa. like ikan (Takamatsu). no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. and you're bound to hear either of these. (Don't be late.. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. Also.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". In fact. "Thou shalt not. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. So. used in a normal. etc.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. "Naughty!". everyday setting. etc. especially ikenai. akan (Osaka). if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . (You can't take pictures. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this.. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. to make it even more colorful.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. iken (Okayama).

like "take a bath.) ." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning.) As you can see. and [then] made my dinner. choushoku o tabete. and I'm going shopping. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. heya o katazukete. then go shopping. some simple ones. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. heya o katazukete moratte. esa o ataete. However." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. fed him. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. straighten up the room. and left home at eight. hachiji ni ie o demashita. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. First.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. (I got up at seven o'clock. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. ate breakfast. to take (steal) something from someone. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. meaning "to pass (by/over something). (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. the kanji used for each meaning are different.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. which is easy to do. because tooru is a totally different vowel. to take a picture with a camera. (I've got to call Shizu.) Also. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.Note: The verb toru has many different usages.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it.

Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. and simple. Just for a quick check. past. whose major purpose is to make things plain. just start a new sentence. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. to straighten up.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. When you're not sure. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta .) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a house deru: to leave. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a.

you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. and only omit them when everyone else does. (My goldfish died. (I watched TV. . everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. (I read a book. (I did it. Let's do some real basic.) Boku no kingyo shinda. (I ate lunch. there are limits.) Kami kitta.) Ginkou itta. Once again.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. Also.) Ohiru tabeta. There are cases where particles would never be cut.) Hon yonda.) Terebi mita. (I got a haircut. (I went to the bank. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. In the long run.

(The things Bob studied were very helpful.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. I had someone cut my hair. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. For example.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. juu hachi man en deshita." and is less formal than chuushoku." There are a few of these. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. anywhere.) . Ke alone is hair — any hair. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese." Very handy. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. beforehand. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. (The cake Joy made was delicious.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole." it is used for "I got a haircut. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. Although it literally means "I cut my hair.) Boku ga katta PC wa. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. yonda modifies hon like an adjective.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. use kami. kiru: to cut. roku nen mae ni katta. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do." If we switch these around to yonda hon. literally "hairbug. hon becomes the subject. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. even on a caterpillar.) Shinda kingyo wa.

please click the lesson links. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. as in the last example above.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. root form of Japanese verbs. For a more detailed review. these two share many add-ons and endings.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. (He's supposed to come at six. Base 3 is used for the plain future. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. the rest really isn't too difficult. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. not deshita. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. use desu to make it polite. (He was supposed to come at six. And. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. because deshita is the past form of desu. .) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. Since we have already covered these. One past tense element is enough. which will serve as a nice review. Carefully note the similarities and differences. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. Instead. Again. Due to this. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. (If necessary.

) Hayaku okita noni okureta. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (It would be better to go by train today. sensei ga okotta. (It would be better to go by train today. For expressing regret. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) Beth wa okureta kara. (I heard that Mr. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. I was late. Takada quit.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.. I'm late every day. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. (Even though I get up early. sensei ga okoru..) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. Takada's quitting. (I should have taken the train today.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.) Note: Yes. (Even though I got up early. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) Kinou no ban. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (I heard that Mr.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou." Please don't make this mistake.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban.

) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. (Mom just got back.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. snow. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. etc. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) In fact. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari.) Sono kasa o katta bakari.) John wa deta bakari.) yameru: to quit a job. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. (It looks like it's going to rain. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. (I just ate. (I just bought that umbrella. (I just cleaned this room. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. not with people or objects.) Ame ga futta mitai.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. now that I think of it. (John just left. . while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. In other words.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. like something memorized from a grammar book. mai is used with units of time. (It looks like it rained.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari.

mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. arimasu. First. to go/come back deru: to leave. Nikai ikimashita. (All you ever do is eat. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. (All that kid does is play computer games. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. Once you get these sorted and memorized.. you'll find them very useful. This is used after the Te Form. you use the verb iku (to go) . let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. I haven't.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. I've been twice.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.. tabeta koto ga nai. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom." usually as a complaint." in Japanese. (Yes.. (Yes.. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there).) As you can see. to do (familiar. (No. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). that (subject we're talking about) ko: child.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. Tabete mitai kedo. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I'd like to try it. though. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. I have.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai.

First. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. The second is that in using this form. (If the kids eat a snack.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. As in B's reply above.. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. (If you call John he'll probably come. (If you call John he'll probably come.. but regular past tense. they probably won't eat lunch. (No. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. [No. I haven't read it yet. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) John ni denwa suru nara.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru.) Next. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko." which. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. See Lessons 7 and 60. mada yonde inai. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. not yet. kare wa kuru deshou. to me.) ." Finally.) kedo: however. you don't use this form. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai..) John ni denwa sureba." but "I went twice. kare wa kuru deshou.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.and literally ask "have you gone to. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice.

. Takada's quitting. (If the kids eat a snack. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group." etc. but I personally have never heard it." "I hear that.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. According to the books. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. making it more formal than rashii. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. Word Check oshieru: to tell.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. I think you'll find it easy enough to master.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. they probably won't eat lunch.) Desu is usually used after sou. (If you call John he'll probably come. Yes.) John ni denwa shitara..) .. they probably won't eat lunch. kare wa kuru deshou. (If the kids eat a snack.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. Takada's quitting.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42).. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (I heard that Mr. meaning "It seems that.) Again. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. to inform. (I heard that Mr. familiar conversation.. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.. this one seems to be preferred in everyday.

) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. yuushoku o tabeta. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Last night after dinner I .) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. (Last night I watched TV. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. listened to some music. It can also be used for present or future happenings. If you want. Word Check daibun: considerably. (I watched TV and stuff. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. (Jim buys and sells old things. terebi o mitari suru deshou. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. then ate dinner.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. souji shitari. (I read comics and stuff.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. and did some homework. ongaku o kiitari. some cleaning.That's all there is to it.) Now. and watch TV.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary.

(If Bob were to come tomorrow. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. then she made dinner. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. then did homework until one o'clock. I'd really be at a loss. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) . Please review Lessons 53 and 55. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. practiced the piano and things. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. chuushoku o tabete. ate lunch.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. listened to music for about two hours.watched TV. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. * Note: While unnatural in English. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements.

) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. Word Check hontou ni: really. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.) As you can see. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. In fact. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.. you'd probably regret it.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. dou shimashou ka. (Even if you studied Spanish. (If you were to go swimming now. without doubt komaru: to be confused.. you must remember that (something else).) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. tabun koukai suru deshou. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. snow. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: ." As usual. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form.

document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . (John's pants were torn when he fell. For example..) Kare wa ikura tabete mo.) While not covered before. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. After the Ta Form. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. (No matter how much he eats. he never gets full. (When I read that. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. zenzen ippai ni naranai.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta.. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.. (I laughed when I heard that. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. I was very surprised. (Even if I read the manual.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. I can't understand this software. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.

Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. (The kids just finished eating. it's still brand-new.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. to is usually used because of its flexibility. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. while tokoro really means just now. However. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. One similar to this. was already covered in Lesson 69. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. the Ta Form + bakari. in the least recent sense. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. For example. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . add desu to make a statement polite. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. (I just got back now. or. (I just cleaned this room. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking.) As usual.) However.

are. (That school is old." Generally speaking.) Ashita wa ame desu. Tanaka.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. (There's a big tree in the park.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: .) desu. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. iru is used for people and animals.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (The dictionary is on the desk. Tom wa iru yo.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.) The plain form of desu is da.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. (Tomorrow it will rain. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. is. etc.) Bob wa byouki desu. (There's a spider on the wall. [I don't want to. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. aru is a yodan. iru and aru As you know. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. (Carol is 25 years old. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain... (There's a big tree in the park. (Yes. (No. (He is Mr. desu makes things polite. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. (Bob's sick. After nouns and adjectives. Tom's here.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. like something from the masu group.

Tom's not here now. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). and is especially used by children. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. (Sorry. state or condition. unpleasant. If you're really interested in the technical background. This is one that is rarely used these days. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. Japanese is no exception.) Jisho wa arimasen. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. ima Tom wa inai. (I don't have a dictionary. (Sorry." So. Again. it is rarely used these days. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. one is "as. here it is: Among the several roles of de. (I don't have a dictionary.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry.• • Sumimasen." as in being in a certain position.. Connected with aru it means "to exist as.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen.) Jisho wa nai. ima Tom wa imasen. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. .. Use desu instead. Tom's not here now.) Now. getting back to desu.

(Please make up your mind quickly. (Wendy collects old stamps. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. agaru is used for "come inside. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. ageru.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. (Please come in. have close ties with Japanese culture. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. active/passive forms." When exchanging gifts. (Here. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). (Let's all meet at seven thirty. very rarely will they correct you. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like.) . It only represents the tip of the iceberg.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. This is certainly not a complete list. Accordingly. So that there is no misunderstanding. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. which is intransitive (has no direct object).) Hai. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. to give • • Agatte kudasai.What makes it worse is the fact that very. agaru and ageru. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form.) Note: These two. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. They are not conjugations. I'll give you this. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru.

» -su / -u . It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). (I found a pimple. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is).. like helping in the kitchen. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. For routine helping. as if it just found itself. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. to help • • Arigatou.. etc. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. Strangely. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. to arrive (a package. tasukaru: to be of help. when you find something that was lost..) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. Also." it's not.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. use tetsudau.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. (Please continue looking for it. You were really a great help.. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. (Thank you.

okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. (Please cut down on your spending. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne.) Kaigi ga owattara. Nokosanaide kudasai. (Eat all this. to put down oriru: to go/come down.) herasu: to decrease. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. (Be back by ten o'clock. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. (Let the dog out. (The copier is broken.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. Please don't leave any. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. to get off or get out of a vehicle .And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. (Grandpa went outside.

(Please get off at Takamatsu Station. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. but these should give you a good start. (The caterpillar moved. For most standard verbs. dress. kimono. a skirt. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. warawareru deshou. shoes. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. (This cake probably won't be eaten. hameru: to wear on a finger. like pants. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. obi. (Put it down here. like a name tag or pin . socks.) Kemushi ga ugoita. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body.) Of course there are others. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. like a shirt.• • Koko ni oroshite. you'll probably be laughed at. like a belt. etc. (Don't move that machine. jacket. etc. (If you wear those glasses.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. etc. necktie." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. (My hat got dirty.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai.

and especially when talking about accessories. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! .Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. This completes Japanese Verbs.

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