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Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + ageru 52. Base 4 + ru 47.44. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Base 5 50. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + goran nasai 53. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + mo ii 62. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + iru 54. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + oku 63.
which means "to walk. but to be more precise. Ta Form + rashii 73. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. not u. gu. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. desu. Ta Form + tokoro 78. Remembering this will make further study much easier.67. Ta Form + ra 72. which can end in u. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . Ta Form + to shitara 75. and irregular. Let's take the verb aruku. ichidan. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. ku. su. mu. bu. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. tsu. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. nu. Ta Form + bakari 70.
Some sources call these verbs godan." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru." Interestingly.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. (Grandpa will return soon. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu.) Jim wa manga o yomu. and also very juvenile or "familiar. (Jim will read a comic book. but there is no difference. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. unless it was from another foreigner. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (I'll eat an apple. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb . (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) This is very simple Japanese. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. (Naomi will watch TV. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look.
and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu .) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. (Grandpa will return soon. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. "adult" Japanese. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -.before the masu ending is added.their "Base 2" form -. the present polite ending. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. (Jim will read a comic book. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu.
A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. (I'll decide tomorrow.) . (Ayako watches the TV every day. (He won't wait. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2.) Now. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.) Jerry wa sugu demasu.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. and should not be worried about at this stage. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. let's try masen. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.) Kare wa machimasen. (Jerry will come out soon. which is the negative form of masu. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered.
) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (The children didn't play at the park. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. etc.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. (The children want to play. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (Bob wants to eat tempura.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. masen shows negative tense. To make them polite. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. . (I'm not going to eat now. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) The above examples are plain forms. (Miki wants to see that movie.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (I want to buy an umbrella.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) Easy enough.
(Let's go. (Let's take a break. (I'll fix your bicycle. and is never used alone with an object.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. but either way this one is easy to remember. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu." This structure will be covered later on. (I'll carry this/these [for you]." For example: • • • Ikimashou. In fact.) Simple enough. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. (Let's eat. It simply means "let's (do something). this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you).) As in English. Add desu to make it polite.) * In Japanese. and two use ichidan. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. For example. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.) Tabemashou. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o." you would use the adjective hoshii and say./I'll help you fix your bicycle.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. (Let's get you some food. (The children don't want to play.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou.) Yasumimashou. . right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. in this example.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
like Base 2 + masen. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. Depending on the situation. (Sachiko won't be coming.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. (I'm not going to watch TV. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. (Jim doesn't read comic books. . For example. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. Etc. kuru (come). kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. and suru (do). Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai.) Sachiko wa konai.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. shinai (won't do). and should only be used in very informal settings. As in English." as a matter of personal policy. which we already covered in Lesson 4. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. konai (won't come).) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all.
) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. (Sachiko will probably come. snow.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.what will happen if something doesn't happen. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.) Actually. hail.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Look at these examples: . Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. (Grandpa will probably return soon.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. etc. (It probably won't snow.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.
Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. Once a person's name is known.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. as in English. .) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. Additionally. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. sama. names are usually not used alone. so it is omitted. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). when speaking to that person. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it." Actually. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. especially when talking to an individual. chan.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. and kun. Generally speaking. The ones you'll hear the most are san. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. For example. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it.
Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. unless an individual prefers chan. time passes. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. of course. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. Again. at any rate. grandfather. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. Also. Customarily. real or pretended. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. older brother or sister (but not younger). and children add it to the words for father. adult male neighbor. more familiar (and. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. where anata is used for "you. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. but would also . names are often shortened before adding chan.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. After the sale is made. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. company. mother. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes." but is now a "san. uncle." This is normal and good. etc. and playmates. For those older. Now. however. let's get back to you. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. kun with boys. As a safe rule." This Japanese would be understood. aunt. cousins. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. chan to female students. Family. and chan with girls. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". because san shows that a closer. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. And. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. hopefully. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. For example. Parents add chan to their children's names. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. though san is probably more common for females. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service.for a while. grandmother. but to the title of those older. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. you can always ask. use san with colleague's names. adult female neighbor.
change it to Base 1 ika. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. Yes. (The children must eat. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi.. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka".) Looking at it literally. there's no problem. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone)." Let's take iku (to go). so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. This can be handy when . but it conveys a certain distance. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. So. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. the fact is that it is very rarely used. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. formal. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. mixed groups.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. (I have to go. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. and narimasen means "will not become". in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. and very odd.".sound very stiff. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). (Jim has to return now. I may as well say here that much. Accordingly. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. because it means "must do. the one left would be kimitachi. the nakereba means "if one does not. which is the best choice when talking to large. even some affection. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. toward the group concerned. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. It works fine.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. It's used quite a lot. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). however.. So. which shows familiarity. Anatatachi could be used.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. it's a bit of a tongue twister.
In Japanese.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. and saseru." can be conveyed. "I'll have him go to the store". are used for all of these. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. or feelings. as in "let him" or "make him. (Jim probably has to return now. Accordingly. (Grandpa lets the children play. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. for yodan verbs. (I'll have him come tomorrow.adding other endings." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . Good luck with nakereba narimasen. seru. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. More than memorizing its meaning. (The children probably need to eat.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. like deshou from Lesson 14.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. (I'll have John decide by next week. for the others. mastering a clean. "I'll let him go to the store". clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. however. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou.) With "suru verbs. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella.
) As you can see.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. (Dad will make Bob study. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come . by tomorrow. polite.) So. kimeru: to decide kare: he.) Kanojo ni saseru.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. (I'll have her do it. (Let's have John go to the store. although miru is an ichidan verb. like miseru. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. you won't hear or see "misaseru. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (He lets them watch TV every day.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. past tense." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. etc. (I want to have Kenji study English. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. which means "to show" or "to let see.
(I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. . Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru." For example. (It will probably rain tomorrow. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Naomi wa terebi o miru. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. But before we begin. As in English.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. Let's get back to deshou.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. Not only should you be able to translate these.the plain. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. means "to fall. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. making the verb unnecessary. the fact that the rain will fall is understood.) The verb furu. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. as explained in Lesson 1." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Mama wa mise de banana o kau. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. shown in the last example above. so it is often omitted. her karera: they.
a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. (John should be coming soon.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. (You ought to study English more. Please note that ka is not added at the end. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. (Bob will probably also want to go. as we would use tag questions in English. like . the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. etc." etc. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. snow..
) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. and according to the grammar books. (I should call her. (I'd rather get a dog.ni natte iru or beki. but. which was covered in Lesson 20.way is good/better. prefer -. should happen. (It would be better to go by train today. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables.should do.) When showing personal preference. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. Word Check . "had better do". frankly. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu.while hazu is more passive -.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. practice makes perfect. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii.) As with most verb endings. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. As usual. the hou means "way" or "method. (You should study Japanese more.should be..) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings." Actually. When you hear it. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -." and ii means "good" or "better.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.) Inu no hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. (We had better rest a little. (It would be better to eat later. (It would be better to do it next week..) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. "would rather do.
him dekiru: can. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. It's like using "whether or not" in English. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. Word Check kare: he. but connects two phrases which contain verbs.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. to understand inu: dog ima: now .kanojo: she.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.) As can be seen in the examples above. (I don't know yet if we are going.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know.
it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). perhaps. and is conjugated accordingly. so please be careful when pronouncing. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things).) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). Simply put.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. (It might rain tomorrow. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). As such. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. so you'll want to master it right away. look. (We may eat out tonight. this one is used frequently. Therefore. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. (It might snow tomorrow.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo." These are incorrect.) As you sharp ones have noticed. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen." Since this verb ending is rather long. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. meaning that.) . it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai.taberu: to eat miru: to see." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. where it is converted to shireru (can know). (Jack may also come. yes. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow.
so his English is good. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. (Since it will probably rain.I suggest. with its reason. given after. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. so I'm going to the store. eigo ga jouzu desu.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. Terebi o mitakunai kara. (I don't want to go to Mr. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary.) . (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. Tabun ame ga furu kara. grammatically speaking. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. In this case.) Ongaku o kikimasu. (Beth is always late. (We don't have any milk. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. signified by kara at the end. Word Check komban: this evening.) Jisho o kaitai kara. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. they each become separate sentences. Itsumo okureru kara. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. however." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. denwa shimasu.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. so I'll call her.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. mise ni ikimasu. honya ni ikimasu. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. you'll often hear the action stated first.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru.) In spoken Japanese. kasa o motte ikimashou. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. let's take umbrellas.
stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. nasty. Again. keredo and kedo. yoku byouki shimasu.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy." Just like English. disgusting mono: thing. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. no problem. etc. (Keiko practices the piano a lot.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23." so. but he's not good at it. jouzu ni narimasen. it comes between the contrasting phrases. home iya na: bad. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. it's used a lot. as well as its shorter forms. . Like "but" in English. (Although Jack is careful about his health. as you can imagine. but she doesn't get any better. snow. heta desu. which means "from. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (He speaks Japanese. he gets sick a lot.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. just like English.
not good at something. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3..) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. But first." Does this help? If not. like reading in the sentence I like reading. Like our ing. Well. In English. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. Here are some examples: .ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu.. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. let's look at each part.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. no problem. (I like reading. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. Better than all this talk would be an example. First is koto. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. I like reading as a thing to do.) Finally. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. koto has no practical use by itself. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. If you have to have a translation. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. a lot. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It'll come. Next. it really doesn't change the verb. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. No. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. Let's move on. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite.
) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. etc. long or short.let's try some other endings on dekiru. you can just omit suru. it's a long ending for just "can.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. and adding the suru makes it a verb. actions." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. (I can translate French into Japanese. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. expressions.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. It is generally not used for physical things or objects.) Either way." Denwa is a noun. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. for kicks -. (I can read Japanese. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu.) Now. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). in that case the suru is omitted. Again. they're both used. There is a short alternative for other verbs. For example. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. (Keiko can play the piano. meanings. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. (Bob was able to call Junko. (I can't read French. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. essences. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. With "suru verbs.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. Kinou. It does not .no." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. actually for review -.
Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It shows that you have made a decision. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. and it shows that the decision was yours. As I'm sure you know by now. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. (I'll go shopping tomorrow.) .) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. koto ni suru is the plain. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson.
(We have to wait until Bob calls. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. Made means "until.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. (Mr.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.) As in English.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. periods. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. watch (something) . (I've decided to study Japanese every day. to let (someone) see. etc. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. (Wait until dinner.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.
Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. but if you do. However. This is one that will probably not be used very often."don't do's" -. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. Stay away from here!. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. you use it. you could say. be careful how.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. and to whom.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. as with English. First. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. .) Base 3 + na This. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -.
(If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. they probably won't eat dinner.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. he'll let me know.) Ame ga furu nara.) John ni denwa suru nara. He thought he said. watashi ni shirasemasu. kuru deshou.sentences with "if. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If he sees Yuko.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. (If the kids eat a snack now. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. which is just a slight variation. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. but nara is more common.
the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. But.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. to offer very general. like in the first example above. but hopefully sufficient for the present.. there are no "relative pronouns. page. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . to make matters worse. which are examples involving a thing. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. And." Of course. I can see several things which need to be explained. things I'd like to explain. that's another story.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a time. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. and lengthy." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. In Japanese. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. explanations. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. As a quick review. a place. and a person." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. Japanese English. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. words that connect a noun to an action.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. For example." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan.. respectively.
One more point of interest is the word purezento here. For example. The problem is that the rules are . as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. especially in informal spoken Japanese.) Since this is natural Japanese. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. Kobe is a place. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. As you can see. Ga or no could be used here. automatically designates a place. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. densha (train) is the main subject.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense." as a relative pronoun. No is often used in place of ga. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. and therefore omitted. and so it would most likely be omitted. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. or a noun which needs emphasis. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above.) In this sentence. the English "where. so tokoro is used after the verb. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present.) In this one. a truer English translation would be. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. ga tells us who will take the train." you might say. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. Continuing with the above example. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. a substitute noun must be used. a "sub-subject. back to the lesson: First.) Now. they do not mean the same thing. since he or she will surely be hearing both. but since Japanese has no equivalent. As you may have noticed. like our 's. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. and is handled by the final verb. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu.
These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. and shouldn't be too difficult. (Spring is the season that brings new life. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive.) This one is pretty straightforward. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. As a general. semi-accurate rule. and are in the realm of mid.to high-intermediate Japanese. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. you must forget all the rules of the other. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. . and vice versa. I hope this lesson was clear enough. and when trying to make sense of one. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. produce. Finally.totally different in each language. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum".
sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. writhing. (Grandpa will return soon.) .) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. it IS going to rain tomorrow. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. unexcited intonation.) Remember these? I hope so. However. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. (I tell you. you need to review. or habits of the speaker.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. If not. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. Japanese English. if you want to emphasize something. need. (Jim will read a comic book.) As in any other language.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. (She IS coming. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you".We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. (Grandpa will return soon. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. etc. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. fist pounding. (Jim will read a comic book.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. stomping around. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu.
the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. specifically. rather.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question.) densha: train noru: to ride. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence.) . essential kanji: Chinese characters. Please consult a dictionary for more. meaning "in spite of. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time)." which we will cover later on.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. There's nothing really tricky about it. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. Takamatsu-yuki.
Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. (It really was a problem-free trip. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. to not exist tabi: trip . (Speaking Japanese is easy. still not fukanou: not possible. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. like our 's. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. the greatest.). mine is red. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. mainly the one used for possessives. impossible saikou: great. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. Wa is the subject indicator. (Jim's dictionary is blue. boku no wa aka desu. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. (Reading is enjoyable. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu.
(I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. which is used to show reasons or causes. For example. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) So. In other words. she'll probably find a good job. the o. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead.prefix makes it "honorific. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. (Since Eiko can speak English. If kara was used instead. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . In this lesson we will take a look at node. use node.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.
(Despite my telling her to stop. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. to follow rules or orders. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. which is used for plain past structures. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"].) Hayaku okita noni okureta. understand to be. this short lesson is about noni. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something.) annani: that much.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. (I was late even though I got up early. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. kanojo wa kikimasen. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. for the plain past. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. For example: . over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33. Word Check yameru: to stop something.) kiku: to listen. rumors.) asoko: there. etc. she won't listen.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
(I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. Takada's quitting. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. They use a noun geared to their type of job. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. Here are some popular ones: . as in "Hai. A full-time employee will use shigoto.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. it usually means "for the purpose of. (I heard that Mr. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". Japanese German. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time).) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. sou desu.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo.) As you have probably guessed. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week.) Tame is a very handy word. in order to. The actual word is arubaito.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. a student will say baito." and is often followed by the optional ni.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita." (Yes. that's right.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. Word Check hiru kara: from noon.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. but is more often than not shortened to baito. Japanese English.
[plain. have (an interview). or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. Mom. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. or if.) For the curious. (Kimiko came with Bob. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. (Okay. (Remember. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.) . that's pronounced "toh. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. when. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. with.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.") It can mean and. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. receive.]) Hai.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. (This is for you. In this case.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (This is for you.
) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. It's okay to have an opinion.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. but it is not generally used. (I think Ms. (I think Eiko can speak English. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable.it's as simple as that. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. to go) + taku (tai. use umi. takunaru puts tai and naru together. While not specifically covered.) . sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. (I think Koji will be late. of "party. especially in the workplace. meaning "come to want. Japanese English.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. begin to want.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). It means simply "I think.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). When referring to the beach in Japanese. to become to want to go -. Now that it's been explained." Iki (Base 2 of iku. to want to do.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. and expected. things you can do. Sasaki will call us soon. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.
in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. don't really care. Accordingly. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. or don't really have any control over something. care. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. goes back. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. and it did. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. or have some control. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. (I think the kids want to go to the beach.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita.As you can see from the last examples. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. (I think it would be better to go by train today.]) In a way. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. which was covered in Lesson 19. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). (I thought it would rain today [.) Again. omou can be used for plain speech. towards me. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. but it didn't. this ending is a lot like deshou.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita.
(I think Steve plans to go to Canada. Always use daigaku for university. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. While sounding alike. add desu to make it polite. Deshita.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. (I plan to be back by three o'clock." used a lot.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. day.) . however. etc. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. to enter/enroll in (a school). In case you're wondering. that was a short one. hairu: to go inside (a room). and other countries where the word college is used loosely. their meanings are completely different. so please be careful not to confuse them. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. S. is for past tense.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. technically speaking.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. hear the other verb tsumoru.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. You will. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. Well. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. as you should know by now. yes. build up. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. which means "to accumulate. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru.
AH. 5.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. and show what Base 4 looks like.. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to).. a as in father EE. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. 3. sou desu means you heard. 4.) To be honest. e as in see OO.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. baka: idiot. First. Simply put. u as in mule EH. o as in mode . Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1.) mitai: it looks like. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. 2. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. said so]." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. that something is or will be. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. "you look like an idiot. e as in red OH. directly or indirectly. etc.) Ame ga furu you desu.
it's where you start. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 . look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form." or "dictionary form. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. Now.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs.
yuushoku o tabenai deshou. covered in Lesson 30? Well..) Handy. (If the kids eat a snack now. however. (If he sees Yuko.. Ii is Japanese for "good. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.) Ame ga fureba.) John ni denwa sureba. he'll let me know. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30. As we learned in the last lesson. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. Here." as shown in these examples: . it's the equivalent of "Why don't you.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba.. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If you call John he'll probably come. (I want to call Grandma. watashi ni shirasemasu. kuru deshou.. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. they probably won't eat dinner.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler.
• • • Soto de asobeba ii. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. yoi is not used with noni. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. they both mean "good". ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (The weather's nice. yes.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. so it would be good to play outside.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. By this stage of Japanese study. soto de asobeba ii. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. quirky ii does not. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. (It would be good if you played outside. (We want to watch TV.) Kids: Terebi mitai.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. However. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. (We should have come at 8:00. In those situations different constructions would be used. (Around five. they are not completely interchangeable. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. (Now would be a good time to study. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied .) Naoko. is used after ba -.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. [I still wish you would play outside. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. yokatta. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi.) • As you can see.) Mom.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. (I wish we had gone to the park. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. no. (I wish I had ordered the steak.
" . just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. It's simple: no subject or object needed. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. Or. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs.and known to all concerned. just use Base 4. and maybe even get into a fight. If you do. Actually. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. if you look and act like you know what you're saying.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time.) light shokuji: food. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form.very handy when you get used to it. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. this is a form you really don't want to use.
As such. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. Simply put. I remember when I first learned this one -. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. (He might be able to go next month. very useful.) Now. (I can read Japanese.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. . Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. Take a good look.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. Now. (Keiko can't play the violin. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. just like most ichidans. which was covered back in Lesson 26. It's very. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. (Keiko can play the piano.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. For example. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. too. It shows ability to do something. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. No problem. (Keiko can play the piano.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. Here we realize an important point -.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.it was like opening a new door. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. they can be treated like plain ichidans.
As you may have guessed. (Keiko can't play the piano. (I can't read Japanese.) .) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. the "cannot do" plain form. this is wasei eigo. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. this form is only meant for yodans. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. It made sense to me. For example. (Jack probably won't be able to come.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. which was covered in Lesson 13." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. (As you remember.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. and I hope it will make sense to you.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. If it helps. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep).) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people.
to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't).) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. you may wonder. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese.) Again.) . an example of which was included in the last lesson. So. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but there are exceptions like the last example above. energetic. but who cares? Everyone uses it. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. so I do too. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. this form is mainly for yodans.
taberu tabereoboe.kime. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.kari. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.oboe.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.oboeru oboerekime. First.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.tabe. If you don't mind.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.koyou . I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.
(Let's eat. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka.) Tabeyou. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. ee. (I wonder if I should call Bob.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound.) Terebi o miyou ka na.. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. (Let's take a break. (Let's go.. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. I just made that up.) Yasumou.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something).) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. oo. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou.. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something)..) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. (Maybe I'll watch TV. (I wonder if I should go shopping. Also. arukou ka na. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na." Suru is shown plain. oh. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. but is converted as necessary: . (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. eh.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. (I think I'll go shopping.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. so stretch it out a bit when you use it.
) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. As you have most likely guessed.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. miemasen deshita. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. (I think John will try to come. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. but he couldn't. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs.
isoide. like kasu (to lend). Yodan verbs that end in gu. tsunaide. Yodan verbs that end in ku.aruite. Please note this one important exception: iku.atte. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. not iite. katte. kau (to buy). tonde. like matsu (to wait). motsu (to hold). tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. nuide.matte. tashite. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. tsunagu (to connect).e. . It's important because it's used a lot. The only yodan verb that ends in nu.kashite.asonde. not tsu). right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. nutte. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. to ask). like asobu (to play). kesu (to turn off. kiku (to listen. kiite. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. like aruku (to walk). nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -.. motte. Yodan verbs that end in bu. yobu (to call out). to put out [a fire]). like isogu (to hurry). yonde. like au (to meet). shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. hataraite. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. keshite. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. katte.
tabete kudasai. (Come at six o'clock. For practice let's use kuru (to come).) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. please eat. (Please come at six o'clock. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai.) Chotto matte kudasai.) Kore o kiite. hairu (to enter). momu (to massage).kaette.yonde.) Douzo.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. (Listen to this.) Matte. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. (Wait. tabete. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. (Go ahead and eat. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. totte. haitte." "to go down. tsutsunde. kiku (to listen). (Please wait a bit. like yomu (to read). So when you say chotto matte kudasai. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. like kaeru (to return). but in Japanese we do. Yodan verbs that end in ru. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. and kiru (to cut)." etc.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. (Come here. (Go ahead. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. kiite. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. monde." "to lower (something). Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. depending on the tone of voice used. It means "under. As you can see. humble me. When you start learning kanji. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo." There are several handy variations of kudasai. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. (Please come at six o'clock.) . which was introduced back in Lesson 10. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly.
tabete ageru. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible.) As you can see. kiite: KEE-EETEH." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. (I'll call you later.). but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often." Ageru also means "to give. to show respect." but it means "to raise. (Cut this." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. giving each equal time while making them short.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. (I'll wait for you. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. (If you don't want to eat it. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. just like counting 1-2-3. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6.) Kono pen o agemasu.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form.• Kore o kitte. (I'll give you this pen.) .) Tabetakunakereba. I'll eat it for you. (Please give me that pen. as covered in the last lesson. If you ask someone to do something for you. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. to give (up to someone). showing a "humbler" position. and kitte: KEET-TEH. Now. you use the Te Form + kudasai. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me).
It's for "talking down" to. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. Don't use it. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. Finally. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. string. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. . laces musubu: to tie. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. as a general rule. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. as these examples show. and will work nicely in most cases. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. in cases where there's a third person. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. and. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language." It is disrespectful at best. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. it's a great convenience besides. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Lend Bob your pen. which are chosen depending on the situation.) Notes 1. the position of the giver or receiver. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. However. and showing contempt for others. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies.In Japanese.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese.
mild command-like sentences.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. (Take a look. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something.) Te Form + iru . which is used to prove a point.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. See for yourself.) Tabete goran. usually in short. Go and see for yourself. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. (Ask Bob and see what he says. (It says he's 38.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. Itte goran nasai. Yonde goran nasai. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. Mite goran nasai. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. Read it for yourself.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look." You use it to ask someone to try something. You never use it on yourself. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Mite goran. (Taste it and see if you like it.) That's how we use goran nasai. (There is salt on the shelf. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. (Try calling Sanae.
it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. it works like English. "I'm knowing [it]. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made." So.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. when they really should use sunde iru. (We live in Takamatsu.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. in a way.").) Watashi wa aruite iru. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. and not shiru. masen.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. (Bill is studying Japanese. [We are living in Takamatsu." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). (I didn't watch TV today. Because of this. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. [I wasn't watching TV today. we can get away with using just "live" in English. For example. in English we would normally ask a person. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . (Yesterday I slept all day.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]).]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. (They are reading a magazine. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. (I am walking. to exist. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. and masen deshita. (I'm reading the newspaper. (Shizuko is eating. As you already know. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. Especially important are masu. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. as in the fourth example above. mashita." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard.) Kinou nete imashita. (He's not studying French. (I am here. (She is eating sushi. we say "I know.
there is no single. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU.imashita ka. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. it is even written this way -.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. to do (something) ko: kid. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. These can be shortened to ko in many situations.with the i in iru omitted -. "woman-child" / "man-child"). yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. so I'll tell you: "to play. imouto: little (younger) sister . there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. but. (I was watching TV. child Note: Strangely. In fact. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. like "kid" in English. For example. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. Finally.) I know you're wondering.
(The kids probably aren't studying. infinitive and progressive: . there are many that can. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite.Note: In Japanese." As such.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. Please look at the following examples.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. otouto for younger brother. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. (We don't live in Okayama. and adding ra makes it conditional. (We don't live in Okayama.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. (Sam's not here. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. ane for older sister. nani o shite iru deshou ka. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. First let's do some plain negative examples. (They aren't reading a magazine. to exist.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. (They aren't reading a magazine. (Sam's not here. and imouto for younger sister. present and past. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. (If they're not studying. which makes them present or past progressive.) Benkyou shite inakereba.
• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. vague and troublesome at others.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). (I wasn't eating then. which appears in the last example.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. and goes especially well with plain ones. to be able). [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. (I haven't eaten yet. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. "we could" could be "he could. (I'm not eating [now]. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet." depending on the actual situation. (I wasn't eating then. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. The last two above are good examples of this.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. but also a much- . However. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. (I didn't eat an apple.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. Dekita. since it is not only a Te Form ending. (I'm not eating [now]. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. It's for asking questions. To make the meaning perfectly clear. In either. which can be convenient at times. (I didn't eat an apple.
used element of conversational Japanese.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. I include the usual English translation. Soshite terebi o mite ita. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. Soshite terebi miteta. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really .) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. (Bill was studying. Just for the fun of it. Also. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. The above example conversation looks all proper when written.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. Put simply. (They were reading a magazine. this would be two males speaking. upgrade ita to imashita. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. in settings where polite speech is called for. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. [I went shopping. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. (Really? I was washing my car. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. As I'm sure you know by now. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. [Really? I washed my car. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. (I went shopping. (Really? I washed my car.) That's real Japanese.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -.]) Yes. (John was watching TV. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. (I was doing shopping. In fact. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. but no real friends or family members -. ita is the plain past form of iru.are going to speak so grammatically correct.
Don't you remember?) (If necessary. (Would you please call Mr. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. meaning something like "I humbly partake. however. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka.) As in English. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as covered in Lesson 50. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. Because itadaku is a very polite word. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. Oboete imasen ka. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. It can. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. Here are some examples. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. . (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka.
(I'm doing homework now. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. No particular reservations are needed here. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me." With itadakimasu.not as "respectful" -. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. I'll get Grandpa to go. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. use morau instead of itadaku.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. Get Ken to go. morau is not impolite.) This is the same family. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me.as itadakimasu. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. (Ken's not here now. However. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. it's just plain. Also.) . Morau is okay when referring to other things. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. Make no mistake.) This is a family situation. As usual. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis." When there's no need to be very polite. this would be the best way to go. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. but since we can't do that now. even when the giver is not present. Traditionally. and it can be at times. (I'm doing homework now. Ken ni itte moratte. adding a masu ending makes it polite. morau works best when talking about a third party.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. itadakimasu is always used with food. but not quite as polite -. With kudasai.
company. and these two are being courteous.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. tell shorui: forms.prefix is used with strangers. etc. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. (I got one [already]. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. but she already has one and doesn't want another. moraimashita. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. (Yes. (Sure. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. They probably don't see each other every day. I got one.) Itadakimashita.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. clients. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. (I'll give you a pen. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. Murai go. (May I please have your name?) Hai.) oshieru: to teach. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . office. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. Just like anywhere else. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka.Itadakimasu is always used with food. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. each home. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. (I had Ms.) This is at the office. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. customers. documents.
the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. such as summer to mean "after summer.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. Word Check kaeru: to return..) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. then add the Te Form of owaru. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject.) .. (After I eat I'm going shopping. to come home owaru: to end.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou." There are other ways to do that. (John's coming over after he does his homework. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou.. (Let's go see a movie after work. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). you just make them the subject/object with ga. You can't use it directly after nouns.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. such as those two common ones work and school. Simple and useful.
) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. which literally means "Oh. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka.) And finally. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. and it would be offensive in some cases. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. Again. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. It's good for family members and close friends. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. In fact.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. Kureru is used in generally the same way. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can .) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita.) Matte kure. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). you might say Ah. repeated request. (Please come here. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. ogotte kureru no?. For example. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. this is the "command" form of kureru. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. (Please wait. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation.
etc. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. you'll see what I mean. assumptions. depending on intonation. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. expresses future plans." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement." (If you say just ikimasu.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. dreams.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Because of that. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go.) Sono tame." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. I think that the number of PC users will increase.) As can be seen.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita." Usually upgraded with masu.sound nicer than with kure. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. (I have been studying German history. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time.
to examine.) Accordingly. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that.) shiraberu: to check (something). (I'll go check it [then come back]. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). or cuisine. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. asobi ni kite kudasai... There are several "set combinations" where it is used." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. (Please come over [sometime].) Shirabete kuru. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. (Let's go eat Chinese food.): cheap."going away and not coming back. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. but should be easily understood. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general." See Lesson 40. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. combined with naru: to become. food. (I ate before coming over. inexpensive. (I came to borrow a textbook. but when uncertain. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita.) Douzo. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook .) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no.
to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. miru means "to see. and adding miru." but technically it's not one of those either.. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. but he wasn't in." meaning that we'll give something a try. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu.) Te Form + miru As you know. Well." which makes this one easy to remember. but it's not." . (I'll try to talk to John. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. In Japanese grammar.kariru: to borrow douzo: please." You may hear it often. Or. with its own set phrases. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. (I tried calling him. but don't take it literally. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars.) Simple enough. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. it acts like a "quasi adjective. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. rusu deshita. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. (Let's give this new PC a try. Either way.. to entertain oneself. For example. (I'll try to read these kanji. go ahead asobu: to play.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou.
or ka: ii desu ka (May I.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. so you should be a little familiar with it. in familiar situations as in the last example above.) Hai. (You can use my PC...) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner." "fine. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay." etc. As with most Japanese. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. (Sure. (You may go home early today. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. as with all adjectives. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou.) (Yes. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. In the workplace. It's an adjective which means "good. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one." Accordingly." etc." "it's okay if (someone does something).) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii.?). as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo.." "okay. There's usually something else added on. positive response. (Yeah. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii.. terebi mite ii.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission.. like the object indicator o.. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. you can watch TV.). you can also get away with omitting particles.. you can use my dictionary. however.) . Yes. that is the way it works grammatically. As I've probably mentioned before.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
You can't just say "I broke my arm. familiar talk. of course. but usually alone. if you're going to use it in this way. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. If you break a bone in Japanese. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. you can say it.these don't use it." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . question-forming no -. polite. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. Instead. If you do." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. You can say dou ka. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return.) Actually. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. (Well. You can omit the desu ka for plain. but not ikaga ka. do not add the plain. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka.
everyday setting. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. used in a normal. Also. When placed after the Te Form with wa. (You can't take pictures.. especially ikenai. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. "You mustn't do that!". there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. to make it even more colorful. etc. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). iken (Okayama). "Thou shalt not. So. like ikan (Takamatsu).) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations.. "Naughty!". In fact. etc.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and you're bound to hear either of these. akan (Osaka). (Don't be late. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo.
there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. ate breakfast. to take a picture with a camera.) Also. (I got up at seven o'clock.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. straighten up the room. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. like "take a bath.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. heya o katazukete. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. heya o katazukete moratte. then go shopping. and [then] made my dinner. and I'm going shopping. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.) As you can see. First. which is easy to do. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. watashi wa kaimono ni iku.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. (I've got to call Shizu.) . so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. the kanji used for each meaning are different. meaning "to pass (by/over something). hachiji ni ie o demashita." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). fed him. choushoku o tabete. esa o ataete. some simple ones. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. because tooru is a totally different vowel. and left home at eight. to take (steal) something from someone. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. However.
It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. When you're not sure. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. past. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. whose major purpose is to make things plain. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . and simple. to straighten up. Just for a quick check. a house deru: to leave. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. just start a new sentence.
. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I watched TV. (My goldfish died.) Ginkou itta. There are cases where particles would never be cut. Once again. even by the fastest-talking Japanese.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. (I got a haircut. (I read a book. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita.) Boku no kingyo shinda. there are limits. Let's do some real basic. In the long run.) Ohiru tabeta. (I ate lunch. (I went to the bank.) Terebi mita. (I did it.) Kami kitta. Also. and only omit them when everyone else does.) Hon yonda. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang.
) Boku ga katta PC wa.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. kiru: to cut. juu hachi man en deshita. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. hon becomes the subject. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. anywhere. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier." it is used for "I got a haircut. even on a caterpillar. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi." Very handy. For example. (The cake Joy made was delicious.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. beforehand. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. Ke alone is hair — any hair. use kami. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. I had someone cut my hair.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. literally "hairbug.) ." If we switch these around to yonda hon.) Shinda kingyo wa. roku nen mae ni katta. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons." and is less formal than chuushoku. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago." There are a few of these.
They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. which will serve as a nice review. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. Due to this. the rest really isn't too difficult. Carefully note the similarities and differences. root form of Japanese verbs.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. Instead.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. as in the last example above. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. One past tense element is enough. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. And. . please click the lesson links. Base 3 is used for the plain future. these two share many add-ons and endings. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. (He's supposed to come at six.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. Again. Since we have already covered these.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. because deshita is the past form of desu. (If necessary.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. For a more detailed review. use desu to make it polite. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. (He was supposed to come at six. not deshita. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.
Takada's quitting. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. For expressing regret.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (I heard that Mr.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu.) Beth wa okureta kara. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (It would be better to go by train today. sensei ga okotta.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (Even though I got up early.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. (I heard that Mr. Takada quit.) Note: Yes.) Kinou no ban.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. (I should have taken the train today. sensei ga okoru.. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai. (It would be better to go by train today." Please don't make this mistake. I was late. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. (Even though I get up early. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. I'm late every day. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight.
(It looks like it rained.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. (Mom just got back. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. In other words. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. snow. (I just bought that umbrella. (John just left. mai is used with units of time.) In fact. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.) Ame ga futta mitai. now that I think of it. (I just cleaned this room." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. etc.) yameru: to quit a job. like something memorized from a grammar book.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. not with people or objects. (It looks like it's going to rain.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. . (I just ate.) John wa deta bakari. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.
(Yes. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. Tabete mitai kedo." in Japanese.) As you can see. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. I'd like to try it... (All you ever do is eat. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. though. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai...There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. Once you get these sorted and memorized. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. (All that kid does is play computer games.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. you'll find them very useful. you use the verb iku (to go) . First.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. (Yes.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari." usually as a complaint. This is used after the Te Form. (No. to go/come back deru: to leave.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. I've been twice. I have. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. I haven't. arimasu. to do (familiar. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. tabeta koto ga nai.. Nikai ikimashita. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports).) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced.
you don't use this form. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. [No.and literally ask "have you gone to. (If you call John he'll probably come. you're admitting having experienced something at least once..) John ni denwa suru nara. (If the kids eat a snack.. kare wa kuru deshou. they probably won't eat lunch. kare wa kuru deshou.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. As in B's reply above..]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been.) kedo: however. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice." but "I went twice.) Next. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. (No. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. The second is that in using this form. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. but regular past tense. to me.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. mada yonde inai. I haven't read it yet.) . If you want to mention how many times you've done that something." Finally. See Lessons 7 and 60." which. First. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. not yet. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. (If you call John he'll probably come.) John ni denwa sureba.
but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. meaning "It seems that. (If the kids eat a snack. (I heard that Mr.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. Word Check oshieru: to tell. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. familiar conversation. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. they probably won't eat lunch. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. According to the books. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37).) . this one seems to be preferred in everyday. (I heard that Mr.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. kare wa kuru deshou. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.) John ni denwa shitara. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Again. Takada's quitting.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. making it more formal than rashii... Now that all the explaining is out of the way. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. but I personally have never heard it. (If you call John he'll probably come. to inform..) Desu is usually used after sou.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba.." etc. they probably won't eat lunch.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii." "I hear that.. Yes. Takada's quitting. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight.. (If the kids eat a snack. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. desu can added after rashii to make it polite.
ongaku o kiitari. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. some cleaning. (Last night after dinner I . ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. and did some homework.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. (Last night I watched TV.That's all there is to it. souji shitari. Word Check daibun: considerably. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. listened to some music. It can also be used for present or future happenings.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and watch TV.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. yuushoku o tabeta. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. (I watched TV and stuff.) Now. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. (I read comics and stuff. If you want. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. then ate dinner. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. (Jim buys and sells old things. terebi o mitari suru deshou.
(If Bob were to come tomorrow. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. practiced the piano and things. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. then she made dinner. * Note: While unnatural in English.watched TV. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. I'd really be at a loss. listened to music for about two hours. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. then did homework until one o'clock. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. chuushoku o tabete.) . ate lunch. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara.
but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. you must remember that (something else). (Even if you studied Spanish. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. Word Check hontou ni: really. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food." As usual. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. snow.) As you can see. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.. In fact.. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. you'd probably regret it. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. tabun koukai suru deshou. dou shimashou ka. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. without doubt komaru: to be confused.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara.. etc. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. (If you were to go swimming now.
kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. he never gets full. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. (No matter how much he eats.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. (John's pants were torn when he fell. I can't understand this software..) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items..) Sore o kiita toki waratta. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. After the Ta Form. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Even if I read the manual. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. I was very surprised. For example." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. zenzen ippai ni naranai. (I laughed when I heard that. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book..) While not covered before.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. (When I read that. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: .
) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. (The kids just finished eating. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. in the least recent sense. while tokoro really means just now.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. or. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. add desu to make a statement polite. For example.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. to is usually used because of its flexibility. the Ta Form + bakari. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. was already covered in Lesson 69. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. (I just cleaned this room. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. (I just got back now. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally.) However. One similar to this. it's still brand-new. However.) As usual. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) .
[I don't want to.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. like something from the masu group.) The plain form of desu is da. (The dictionary is on the desk. iru is used for people and animals. You can add it to many statements to make them polite.) desu." Generally speaking.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. (There's a big tree in the park. (Yes. (That school is old. (Tomorrow it will rain.) Bob wa byouki desu. Tom wa iru yo. (There's a big tree in the park. (He is Mr.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. (Carol is 25 years old. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. After nouns and adjectives. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. are. iru and aru As you know. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. is.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (No.. (There's a spider on the wall. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. aru is a yodan.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru.. (Bob's sick. desu makes things polite. Tanaka. Tom's here.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Ashita wa ame desu.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: .) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. etc.
If you're really interested in the technical background.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. Japanese is no exception. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use." as in being in a certain position. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.. . No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. it is rarely used these days. (Sorry. here it is: Among the several roles of de. ima Tom wa imasen. and is especially used by children. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. Again. This is one that is rarely used these days.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. one is "as. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. (Sorry. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. Use desu instead. state or condition. (I don't have a dictionary. getting back to desu. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru.) Jisho wa nai. (I don't have a dictionary.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. ima Tom wa inai." So.) Jisho wa arimasen.. unpleasant.) Now. Tom's not here now. Tom's not here now.• • Sumimasen. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student)..
) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. (Let's all meet at seven thirty.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting." When exchanging gifts.) . even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). active/passive forms. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. This is certainly not a complete list.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. (Here. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. They are not conjugations. to give • • Agatte kudasai.) Hai. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage.) Note: These two. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. So that there is no misunderstanding. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. which is intransitive (has no direct object). (Please make up your mind quickly. agaru and ageru. have close ties with Japanese culture. Accordingly.What makes it worse is the fact that very. ageru. I'll give you this. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. agaru is used for "come inside. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. (Wendy collects old stamps. very rarely will they correct you. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. (Please come in.
Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). in Japanese you use mitsukaru. You were really a great help. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. Strangely.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. » -su / -u ." it's not. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. (Thank you. tasukaru: to be of help. as if it just found itself.. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. (I found a pimple.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling.. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. use tetsudau. to arrive (a package. to help • • Arigatou. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa.. (Please continue looking for it. etc. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. For routine helping. Also. like helping in the kitchen.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. when you find something that was lost..
(Grandpa went outside. (Be back by ten o'clock. (Eat all this. (Please cut down on your spending.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. Please don't leave any.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. Nokosanaide kudasai. (Let the dog out.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru.) herasu: to decrease. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai.) Kaigi ga owattara. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. (The copier is broken.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. to get off or get out of a vehicle . use okiwasureru (oku: to put. to put down oriru: to go/come down.
(Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. etc. necktie. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. (My hat got dirty. (Don't move that machine. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. dress. warawareru deshou. like a name tag or pin .) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. For most standard verbs. (If you wear those glasses. shoes. (The caterpillar moved. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. (Put it down here. a skirt. like a belt. like pants.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. hameru: to wear on a finger. etc. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. (This cake probably won't be eaten.• • Koko ni oroshite. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. obi. jacket. kimono.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. etc.) Kemushi ga ugoita. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. socks. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. but these should give you a good start. you'll probably be laughed at. like a shirt.) Of course there are others. (Don't get your new shoes dirty.
Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . and especially when talking about accessories. This completes Japanese Verbs. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.