Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46.44. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + miru 61. Base 5 50. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + kara 58. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + oku 63. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + kureru 59. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + iru 54.

it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. su. ku. Remembering this will make further study much easier. desu. gu. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u.67. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + toki 77." for example: it ends in ku. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. ichidan. Ta Form + rashii 73. Ta Form + tokoro 78. which can end in u. mu. tsu. bu. Let's take the verb aruku. which means "to walk. nu.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. not u. and irregular. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. Ta Form + bakari 70. Ta Form + ra 72. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. but to be more precise. Ta Form + to shitara 75.

Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. and also very juvenile or "familiar.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. (Grandpa will return soon." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan." Interestingly. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. unless it was from another foreigner.) Jim wa manga o yomu. but there is no difference. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb .) Naomi wa terebi o miru. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) This is very simple Japanese. (Naomi will watch TV. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. Some sources call these verbs godan. (I'll eat an apple. (Jim will read a comic book.

) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. "adult" Japanese.their "Base 2" form -. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . (Jim will read a comic book. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. the present polite ending.before the masu ending is added. (Grandpa will return soon. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Since masu requires the Base 2 form.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers.

and should not be worried about at this stage.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.) Kare wa machimasen. (He won't wait. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. let's try masen.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu.) Now. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. which is the negative form of masu.) . (Ayako watches the TV every day. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. (Jerry will come out soon. (I'll decide tomorrow.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen.

) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (The children didn't play at the park. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. (Miki wants to see that movie.) Easy enough. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) The above examples are plain forms. . (John didn't go to Hiroshima.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. (I'm not going to eat now. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. etc.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (Bob wants to eat tempura.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. masen shows negative tense.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. To make them polite.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (The children want to play. (I want to buy an umbrella.

" This structure will be covered later on.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. and two use ichidan.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. (I'll carry this/these [for you]. Add desu to make it polite. (The children don't want to play. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. In fact.) As in English./I'll help you fix your bicycle. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. (Let's take a break. and is never used alone with an object. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu.) Tabemashou.) * In Japanese. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie. but either way this one is easy to remember. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog.) Simple enough. (I'll fix your bicycle. For example.) Yasumimashou.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. (Let's get you some food. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). It simply means "let's (do something)." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. . hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient." you would use the adjective hoshii and say." For example: • • • Ikimashou. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. in this example. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. (Let's eat. (Let's go.

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

) Watashi wa terebi o minai. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. konai (won't come). (Jim doesn't read comic books. (I'm not going to watch TV.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. As in English. (Sachiko won't be coming. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. which we already covered in Lesson 4. like Base 2 + masen.) Sachiko wa konai. For example." as a matter of personal policy.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). shinai (won't do).) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. and should only be used in very informal settings. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. and suru (do). Depending on the situation. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. kuru (come). Etc. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. . Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy).

) Actually. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. snow.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. Look at these examples: . (Sachiko will probably come.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. (Grandpa will probably return soon. etc. hail.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.what will happen if something doesn't happen. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. (It probably won't snow.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.

as in English. sama. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. Generally speaking. . (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. Once a person's name is known. so it is omitted.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou." Actually. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). especially when talking to an individual. and kun. For example. chan. when speaking to that person. names are usually not used alone. The ones you'll hear the most are san. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Additionally. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it.

more familiar (and. grandmother. names are often shortened before adding chan. at any rate. uncle. hopefully. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know." This Japanese would be understood. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. As a safe rule. but would also . Also. Family. and playmates. After the sale is made. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. Now. grandfather. Parents add chan to their children's names. Customarily. unless an individual prefers chan. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. and children add it to the words for father. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. time passes. however. company.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. where anata is used for "you. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". Again. and chan with girls. real or pretended. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. adult male neighbor.for a while. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. And. of course. aunt. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. older brother or sister (but not younger). did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. mother. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. because san shows that a closer. use san with colleague's names. For those older. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. chan to female students. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. For example. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. cousins. let's get back to you. adult female neighbor. though san is probably more common for females. you can always ask." This is normal and good. kun with boys." but is now a "san. but to the title of those older. etc. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework.

The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". the one left would be kimitachi. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. which is the best choice when talking to large. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. there's no problem. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). (Jim has to return now. even some affection. Accordingly. Yes.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. (I have to go. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. (The children must eat. formal.". but it conveys a certain distance. Anatatachi could be used.sound very stiff. It works fine.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. It's used quite a lot. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. however. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. the nakereba means "if one does not." Let's take iku (to go). in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. This can be handy when . it's a bit of a tongue twister. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful.. I may as well say here that much.. because it means "must do. So. and very odd. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. toward the group concerned. mixed groups. change it to Base 1 ika. and narimasen means "will not become". but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here.) Looking at it literally. So.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. which shows familiarity. the fact is that it is very rarely used. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen)." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen.

as in "let him" or "make him. (Grandpa lets the children play. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. "I'll have him go to the store". and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. In Japanese. seru.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. are used for all of these. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. More than memorizing its meaning. like deshou from Lesson 14. mastering a clean. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings.adding other endings." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . Good luck with nakereba narimasen. "I'll let him go to the store". Accordingly. for the others. (I'll have John decide by next week.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru.) With "suru verbs. however. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella." can be conveyed.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. and saseru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. or feelings. (I'll have him come tomorrow. (Jim probably has to return now.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. for yodan verbs. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. (The children probably need to eat.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru.

in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. (I'll have her do it. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative.) As you can see. which means "to show" or "to let see. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. although miru is an ichidan verb. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. you won't hear or see "misaseru. (Dad will make Bob study.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. (Let's have John go to the store. kimeru: to decide kare: he.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. etc.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. past tense. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. by tomorrow.) So. polite. (I want to have Kenji study English.) Kanojo ni saseru. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (He lets them watch TV every day. like miseru. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb.

a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. them eigo: the English language mise: a store.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. her karera: they. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary.) The verb furu. As in English. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. means "to fall. But before we begin.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou.the plain. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. (It will probably rain tomorrow.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Let's get back to deshou. Not only should you be able to translate these." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Mama wa mise de banana o kau. as explained in Lesson 1. shown in the last example above.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. making the verb unnecessary. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store)." For example. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. so it is often omitted. . Naomi wa terebi o miru. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan.

" etc. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. (Bob will probably also want to go. Please note that ka is not added at the end.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. (John should be coming soon. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. like ..) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. (You ought to study English more. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. snow.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. etc. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. as we would use tag questions in English. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something.

prefer -. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. As usual." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". When you hear it.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.way is good/better. but. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii." Actually.. (I'd rather get a dog. (It would be better to eat later. "would rather do.should be. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do".ni natte iru or beki.) As with most verb endings.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. the hou means "way" or "method. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. (I should call her. (It would be better to go by train today.. Word Check .) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. (It would be better to do it next week. frankly.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii.) Inu no hou ga ii. "had better do". If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. and according to the grammar books. (We had better rest a little.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.while hazu is more passive -. (You should study Japanese more. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. which was covered in Lesson 20. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -.should do." and ii means "good" or "better.) When showing personal preference. should happen. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. practice makes perfect.

" It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.kanojo: she.) As can be seen in the examples above. (I don't know yet if we are going. to understand inu: dog ima: now . only the component order is opposite in Japanese. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. Word Check kare: he. him dekiru: can. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. ka dou ka does not end a sentence.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. It's like using "whether or not" in English. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.

this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. As such. yes. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. (We may eat out tonight." These are incorrect. so please be careful when pronouncing." Since this verb ending is rather long. where it is converted to shireru (can know). Therefore.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things).) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. perhaps.) As you sharp ones have noticed. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. so you'll want to master it right away.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. (It might rain tomorrow. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. (Jack may also come. and is conjugated accordingly. meaning that.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. (It might snow tomorrow. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known.) . Simply put. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). look.taberu: to eat miru: to see. this one is used frequently. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary).

) Ongaku o kikimasu. (Beth is always late. (Since it will probably rain.) Jisho o kaitai kara. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. they each become separate sentences.) . Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. Terebi o mitakunai kara. you'll often hear the action stated first. Tabun ame ga furu kara. denwa shimasu. grammatically speaking. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. eigo ga jouzu desu. let's take umbrellas.I suggest. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. Itsumo okureru kara.) In spoken Japanese. In this case." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. kasa o motte ikimashou. however. Word Check komban: this evening. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. so I'll call her. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. with its reason.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. honya ni ikimasu. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. (We don't have any milk. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. so I'm going to the store. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. mise ni ikimasu. (I don't want to go to Mr. given after. so his English is good. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. signified by kara at the end.

snow. no problem.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but. which means "from. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. heta desu. he gets sick a lot. (Keiko practices the piano a lot." Just like English. nasty. yoku byouki shimasu.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. it's used a lot. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. (He speaks Japanese. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. home iya na: bad. Again. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. as well as its shorter forms. just like English. (Although Jack is careful about his health. etc." so. it comes between the contrasting phrases.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. but he's not good at it. jouzu ni narimasen.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. but she doesn't get any better. Like "but" in English. disgusting mono: thing. as you can imagine. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. keredo and kedo. . helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But.

(Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. no problem. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. it really doesn't change the verb.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. Well.) Finally. In English.. like reading in the sentence I like reading. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . No. Here are some examples: . Next. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. I like reading as a thing to do." Does this help? If not. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. But first. (I like reading. not good at something. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. It'll come.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. let's look at each part. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. First is koto. If you have to have a translation. Let's move on. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Better than all this talk would be an example. a lot. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3..) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. Like our ing. koto has no practical use by itself.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick.

(I can't read French.no. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. (Richard couldn't eat the squid.) Now. (I can read Japanese. long or short. they're both used.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita." Denwa is a noun. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. (I can translate French into Japanese. expressions." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. (Bob was able to call Junko. Again. With "suru verbs. For example. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. actually for review -. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. etc. you can just omit suru.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. meanings. It does not . It is generally not used for physical things or objects.let's try some other endings on dekiru. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. (Keiko can play the piano. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. Kinou. essences.) Either way. There is a short alternative for other verbs. for kicks -. it's a long ending for just "can. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. in that case the suru is omitted. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). actions." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. and adding the suru makes it a verb.

to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. and it shows that the decision was yours. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. koto ni suru is the plain. It shows that you have made a decision. koto ni shimasu is the polite form.) . Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. As I'm sure you know by now.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can.

etc.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. (Mr. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. (I've decided to study Japanese every day.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. Made means "until.) As in English.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. watch (something) . (Wait until dinner.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy. periods." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. (We have to wait until Bob calls.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. to let (someone) see.

you could say. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. This is one that will probably not be used very often. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but if you do. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression."don't do's" -. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. and to whom.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai.) Base 3 + na This.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. you use it. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. as with English. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. Stay away from here!. However. be careful how. First. .

" We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but nara is more common. watashi ni shirasemasu.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look.) Ame ga furu nara. he'll let me know. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. they probably won't eat dinner.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. kuru deshou. He thought he said.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. (If you call John he'll probably come.sentences with "if. (If the kids eat a snack now. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara.) John ni denwa suru nara. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. (If he sees Yuko.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. which is just a slight variation. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked.

. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. which are examples involving a thing. Japanese English. And. like in the first example above. that's another story. For example. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. a place. and a person. but hopefully sufficient for the present. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. and lengthy. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. things I'd like to explain.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: ." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. But. to make matters worse.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. explanations. As a quick review.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. respectively. I can see several things which need to be explained.." Of course. there are no "relative pronouns. or omit them completely when they can get away with it." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. page. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. a time. to offer very general. words that connect a noun to an action. In Japanese.

ga tells us who will take the train. and therefore omitted. but since Japanese has no equivalent. a "sub-subject. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. Ga or no could be used here. Continuing with the above example. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. and is handled by the final verb. so tokoro is used after the verb. No is often used in place of ga." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase.) Now. automatically designates a place. As you may have noticed. As you can see.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. or a noun which needs emphasis. back to the lesson: First. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my)." as a relative pronoun. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. the English "where. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. Kobe is a place. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above.) In this one. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. For example.) In this sentence. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. especially in informal spoken Japanese." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. they do not mean the same thing. like our 's. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. since he or she will surely be hearing both. a truer English translation would be. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. densha (train) is the main subject. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu.) Since this is natural Japanese. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam." you might say. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. a substitute noun must be used. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. and so it would most likely be omitted. The problem is that the rules are .

to high-intermediate Japanese. As a general. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu.) This one is pretty straightforward. semi-accurate rule. and are in the realm of mid.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. and shouldn't be too difficult.totally different in each language. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. (Spring is the season that brings new life. I hope this lesson was clear enough. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. you must forget all the rules of the other. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. produce. and vice versa. . depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. Finally. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. and when trying to make sense of one.

) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. stomping around.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. need. if you want to emphasize something. (Grandpa will return soon. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. Japanese English. writhing.) As in any other language. However. (She IS coming. If not. etc.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (I tell you. (Jim will read a comic book. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. (Grandpa will return soon. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. (Jim will read a comic book.) Remember these? I hope so. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) .) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. fist pounding. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. unexcited intonation. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. you need to review. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. it IS going to rain tomorrow.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. or habits of the speaker. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you".

(We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever).) densha: train noru: to ride. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. essential kanji: Chinese characters. specifically. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. There's nothing really tricky about it. Takamatsu-yuki." which we will cover later on. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. etc. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. meaning "in spite of.) . rather. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. Please consult a dictionary for more. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). These are easy to keep straight when used in context.

Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]).). and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. Wa is the subject indicator. (It really was a problem-free trip. mainly the one used for possessives. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. still not fukanou: not possible. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. impossible saikou: great. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. like our 's.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. (Reading is enjoyable. boku no wa aka desu. the greatest.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. (Jim's dictionary is blue. (Speaking Japanese is easy. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. to not exist tabi: trip . as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. mine is red.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu.

) So. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. which is used to show reasons or causes. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. she'll probably find a good job. If kara was used instead. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. (Since Eiko can speak English.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. In this lesson we will take a look at node. In other words. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job .") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed.prefix makes it "honorific.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. the o. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. For example.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. use node. and is therefore preferred when people are involved.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.

) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. to follow rules or orders. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. this short lesson is about noni.) asoko: there. kanojo wa kikimasen.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I was late even though I got up early. etc. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. understand to be. (Despite my telling her to stop.) annani: that much. she won't listen. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. For example: . for the plain past. which is used for plain past structures. rumors.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard.) kiku: to listen. Word Check yameru: to stop something.

and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). a student will say baito. Takada's quitting. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. but is more often than not shortened to baito.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu.) As you have probably guessed. Japanese English. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". The actual word is arubaito.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. Here are some popular ones: . (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. sou desu." and is often followed by the optional ni. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. that's right.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay.) Tame is a very handy word. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. it usually means "for the purpose of. They use a noun geared to their type of job. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". A full-time employee will use shigoto. (I heard that Mr. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. as in "Hai. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. Word Check hiru kara: from noon.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. Japanese German. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. in order to. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo." (Yes.

[plain.") It can mean and. (Kimiko came with Bob. that's pronounced "toh. with. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. or if.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. (This is for you. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. (Okay. Mom. when. here are your air tickets to Hawaii.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. (Remember.]) Hai.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. In this case. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. have (an interview). (This is for you. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. receive. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to.) For the curious. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get.) .

(I think Eiko can speak English.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to want to do.it's as simple as that. especially in the workplace. While not specifically covered.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. of "party. and expected. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. takunaru puts tai and naru together.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. things you can do. Japanese English. It means simply "I think. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. but it is not generally used. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. (I think Ms.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou." Iki (Base 2 of iku.) . (I think it'll rain tomorrow. Now that it's been explained. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. to go) + taku (tai. meaning "come to want. use umi. begin to want. to become to want to go -. Sasaki will call us soon. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. (I think Koji will be late. It's okay to have an opinion. When referring to the beach in Japanese.

as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. (I think it would be better to go by train today.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . (I didn't think that Koji would be late. goes back.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. but it didn't.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. this ending is a lot like deshou.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. which was covered in Lesson 19. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. care. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). (I don't think Eiko can speak English. (I thought it would rain today [. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. Accordingly. or have some control. omou can be used for plain speech. or don't really have any control over something. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added.) Again.As you can see from the last examples. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. and it did. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou.]) In a way. towards me. don't really care. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

Always use daigaku for university. is for past tense. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. You will. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. technically speaking.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. add desu to make it polite.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. hear the other verb tsumoru. build up. however. Well. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. so please be careful not to confuse them. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to enter/enroll in (a school). Deshita. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. S. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. day." used a lot. In case you're wondering.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. as you should know by now. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. etc.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.) . hairu: to go inside (a room). that was a short one. their meanings are completely different. While sounding alike. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. which means "to accumulate. yes.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U.

baka: idiot. sou desu means you heard. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. "you look like an idiot." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai..) To be honest.. 5. u as in mule EH.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. 3. o as in mode . First.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. e as in see OO. and show what Base 4 looks like. Simply put. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. 4. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. AH." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.) Ame ga furu you desu. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. said so].) mitai: it looks like. a as in father EE. e as in red OH. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. etc. directly or indirectly. 2. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. that something is or will be. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples.

You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. Now. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 . it's where you start.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up." or "dictionary form.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb.

) Kare wa Yuko o mireba." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. he'll let me know.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. As we learned in the last lesson.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. Here.) John ni denwa sureba. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. (If the kids eat a snack now. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. covered in Lesson 30? Well.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you.. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. Ii is Japanese for "good. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Ame ga fureba. (I want to call Grandma.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. watashi ni shirasemasu. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. (If he sees Yuko.." as shown in these examples: . kuru deshou.. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.) Handy. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. however.. they probably won't eat dinner. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler.

]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. (We want to watch TV. is used after ba -. (Now would be a good time to study.) Naoko. (It would be good if you played outside.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.) Mom.) Kids: Terebi mitai.there is no such Japanese as ikatta.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. so it would be good to play outside. yokatta. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. yoi is not used with noni. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. (We should have come at 8:00. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. quirky ii does not. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. they are not completely interchangeable.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. soto de asobeba ii. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. (I wish we had gone to the park. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. (The weather's nice. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. [I still wish you would play outside. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. By this stage of Japanese study.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. yes. (Around five. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied .) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. In those situations different constructions would be used. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.) • As you can see. they both mean "good". no. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (I wish I had ordered the steak. However.

) light shokuji: food. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. If you do.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness.very handy when you get used to it. Or. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. It's simple: no subject or object needed." . and maybe even get into a fight.and known to all concerned. Actually. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. just use Base 4. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. this is a form you really don't want to use. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs.

Take a good look. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. Now.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. I remember when I first learned this one -. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. just like most ichidans. which was covered back in Lesson 26. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. (Keiko can't play the violin.) Now. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. (He might be able to go next month. As such. (Keiko can play the piano.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. too. It shows ability to do something. (I can read Japanese.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. very useful.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. .) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. It's very. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. For example. No problem. Simply put. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. they can be treated like plain ichidans.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. Here we realize an important point -.it was like opening a new door. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. (Keiko can play the piano.

As you may have guessed. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. For example.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. which was covered in Lesson 13. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. If it helps. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. the "cannot do" plain form. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. this is wasei eigo. and I hope it will make sense to you. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. (As you remember. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. (I can't read Japanese. this form is only meant for yodans. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. (Jack probably won't be able to come.) .) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep)." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. (Keiko can't play the piano. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. It made sense to me.

to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. you may wonder. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara.) Again.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. energetic. So. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). this form is mainly for yodans. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. an example of which was included in the last lesson. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. but who cares? Everyone uses it. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods.) . Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. so I do too.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. but there are exceptions like the last example above. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.taberu tabereoboe.kime.koyou .Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. First.oboeru oboerekime. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.tabe. If you don't mind. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.oboe.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.kari.

(Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. I just made that up. oh. (I think I'll go shopping.." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. (Let's eat. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. eh. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9." Suru is shown plain. (I wonder if I should call Bob.. oo. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. (Let's go.) Tabeyou. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound.. (I wonder if I should go shopping. (Maybe I'll watch TV. Also. but is converted as necessary: . It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something)..) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). (Let's take a break. ee.) Yasumou.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. arukou ka na. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah.) Terebi o miyou ka na.

but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. (I think John will try to come.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. miemasen deshita. but he couldn't. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. As you have most likely guessed.

right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. yobu (to call out). not tsu). motsu (to hold). hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. Yodan verbs that end in bu. to ask). . Please note this one important exception: iku. Yodan verbs that end in ku. It's important because it's used a lot.kashite.matte. hataraite. tonde.. like kasu (to lend). nutte. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. katte. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. like asobu (to play).asonde. to put out [a fire]). katte. tsunagu (to connect). Yodan verbs that end in tsu. like aruku (to walk). kiite. tsunaide. keshite. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. nuide.isoide. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. yonde. not iite. kiku (to listen.aruite. like au (to meet). The only yodan verb that ends in nu. like matsu (to wait). like isogu (to hurry). tashite. kesu (to turn off.e. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -.atte. motte. kau (to buy). Yodan verbs that end in gu.

yonde." "to go down. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. kiku (to listen). like kaeru (to return). which was introduced back in Lesson 10. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply.) . (Listen to this. (Please come at six o'clock. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. monde. please eat. It means "under. (Come at six o'clock. (Wait.kaette. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. like yomu (to read). Yodan verbs that end in ru. but in Japanese we do. depending on the tone of voice used. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. tabete. haitte. tsutsunde. momu (to massage). For practice let's use kuru (to come). (Go ahead and eat. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. (Please come at six o'clock. and kiru (to cut). (Go ahead." There are several handy variations of kudasai. When you start learning kanji. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. humble me.) Matte. (Come here.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect." "to lower (something)." etc. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. (Please wait a bit. As you can see. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. hairu (to enter).) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants.) Douzo. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. kiite. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo.) Chotto matte kudasai.) Kore o kiite. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. totte.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. tabete kudasai.

Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. showing a "humbler" position. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little.) As you can see. giving each equal time while making them short. (I'll give you this pen. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. Now. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. you use the Te Form + kudasai. to show respect. and kitte: KEET-TEH. tabete ageru. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. just like counting 1-2-3. (I'll call you later. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. as covered in the last lesson. (If you don't want to eat it. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru.) Tabetakunakereba." Ageru also means "to give. (Please give me that pen.) Ato de denwa shite ageru." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. I'll eat it for you.) .) Kono pen o agemasu. If you ask someone to do something for you.• Kore o kitte.). kiite: KEE-EETEH. (Cut this. to give (up to someone). (I'll wait for you." but it means "to raise. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables.

it's a great convenience besides. However." It is disrespectful at best. Don't use it. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. string. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. laces musubu: to tie. and showing contempt for others. the position of the giver or receiver.In Japanese. (Lend Bob your pen. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. as a general rule. and will work nicely in most cases. in cases where there's a third person. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. . Finally. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. as these examples show. It's for "talking down" to. which are chosen depending on the situation. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan.) Notes 1. and. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. whether or not he or she is in hearing range.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough.

) That's how we use goran nasai." You use it to ask someone to try something. Itte goran nasai.) Tabete goran. Read it for yourself.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. which is used to prove a point. See for yourself.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. (There is salt on the shelf. (Ask Bob and see what he says. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. Go and see for yourself. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be.) Mite goran. (It says he's 38. Mite goran nasai. (Taste it and see if you like it. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. (Try calling Sanae. You never use it on yourself.) Te Form + iru . and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. (Take a look. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. usually in short.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. mild command-like sentences. Yonde goran nasai.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look.

when they really should use sunde iru. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita." So. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. as in the fourth example above. mashita. As you already know.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. For example.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. (I am here. [I wasn't watching TV today." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. we say "I know.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. to exist. (I didn't watch TV today.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru."). it works like English. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . and masen deshita. "I'm knowing [it]. (Bill is studying Japanese. in English we would normally ask a person. (I'm reading the newspaper.) Watashi wa aruite iru. (They are reading a magazine. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. (I am walking.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. in a way." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. Especially important are masu. we can get away with using just "live" in English. (We live in Takamatsu. Because of this. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. (Shizuko is eating. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). Since iru is a plain ichidan verb.) Kinou nete imashita. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. masen. (She is eating sushi. [We are living in Takamatsu." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). (Yesterday I slept all day. (He's not studying French. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. and not shiru.

simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. so I'll tell you: "to play. In fact. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. "woman-child" / "man-child"). Finally. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. like "kid" in English.) I know you're wondering. to do (something) ko: kid. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. For example. there is no single.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together.imashita ka.with the i in iru omitted -. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. imouto: little (younger) sister . the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. (I was watching TV. it is even written this way -. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. but. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. child Note: Strangely. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu.

) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. Please look at the following examples. infinitive and progressive: .) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. and imouto for younger sister. (The kids probably aren't studying. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. otouto for younger brother. (If they're not studying." As such. to exist. which makes them present or past progressive. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. (We don't live in Okayama. First let's do some plain negative examples.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. nani o shite iru deshou ka. and adding ra makes it conditional. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Sam's not here.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.) Benkyou shite inakereba.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. (We don't live in Okayama. (They aren't reading a magazine. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. (They aren't reading a magazine. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. present and past. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. there are many that can. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu.Note: In Japanese. ane for older sister. (Sam's not here.

) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. In either. However. and goes especially well with plain ones. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. (I didn't eat an apple.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. to be able). which appears in the last example. Dekita. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou." depending on the actual situation. vague and troublesome at others. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. (I wasn't eating then. (I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. The last two above are good examples of this. It's for asking questions. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. (I haven't eaten yet. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. (I didn't eat an apple. (I'm not eating [now].) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. but also a much- . which can be convenient at times. (I wasn't eating then. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. To make the meaning perfectly clear. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. since it is not only a Te Form ending.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). "we could" could be "he could. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it.

there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. (I went shopping.are going to speak so grammatically correct.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. [Really? I washed my car.]) Yes. upgrade ita to imashita. Soshite terebi miteta. in settings where polite speech is called for.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. ita is the plain past form of iru. Males usually use boku in familiar settings.used element of conversational Japanese. [I went shopping. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. Put simply.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . (John was watching TV. (They were reading a magazine. Just for the fun of it. (Really? I was washing my car. but no real friends or family members -. (Really? I washed my car. this would be two males speaking. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. Also.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi.) That's real Japanese. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. In fact. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. I include the usual English translation. I decided to go ahead and cover it here.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. Soshite terebi o mite ita. As I'm sure you know by now. (I was doing shopping. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. (Bill was studying.

particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. Don't you remember?) (If necessary.) As in English. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. Because itadaku is a very polite word. Here are some examples. as covered in Lesson 50. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. Oboete imasen ka. It can." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. . please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. meaning something like "I humbly partake. however. (Would you please call Mr. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points.

Morau is okay when referring to other things. I'll get Grandpa to go. but since we can't do that now. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa." With itadakimasu.as itadakimasu. it's just plain.) This is a family situation. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu.) . if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. Ken ni itte moratte. (I'm doing homework now. even when the giver is not present. Also. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot.) This is the same family. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. morau works best when talking about a third party. this would be the best way to go. However. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. Traditionally. morau is not impolite. With kudasai. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. (Ken's not here now. Make no mistake. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. use morau instead of itadaku. (I'm doing homework now. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. No particular reservations are needed here. As usual.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. and it can be at times. Get Ken to go.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. but not quite as polite -. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal.not as "respectful" -. itadakimasu is always used with food. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. adding a masu ending makes it polite." When there's no need to be very polite. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.

Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. company. and these two are being courteous. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. (Yes.) Itadakimashita. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (I'll give you a pen.) oshieru: to teach. tell shorui: forms. I got one. Just like anywhere else. moraimashita. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. (May I please have your name?) Hai.prefix is used with strangers. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. customers. (I got one [already]. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . clients. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. but she already has one and doesn't want another. etc. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. documents.) This is at the office.Itadakimasu is always used with food. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. office. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. (Sure. even if all you're taking is a potato chip.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. (Did you get a pen?) Hai.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. Murai go. each home. (I had Ms. They probably don't see each other every day.

) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.." There are other ways to do that.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. to come home owaru: to end. Simple and useful.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). then add the Te Form of owaru.. (After I eat I'm going shopping. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). (Let's go see a movie after work. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject.. such as summer to mean "after summer. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.) . to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something).) Te Form + kara This one's a snap. such as those two common ones work and school. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. You can't use it directly after nouns. you just make them the subject/object with ga. Word Check kaeru: to return.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. (John's coming over after he does his homework.

Kureru is used in generally the same way.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. In fact. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot.) Matte kure. and it would be offensive in some cases. ogotte kureru no?. Again. (Please wait. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. repeated request. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. Some people add the question-forming no on the end.) And finally. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. this is the "command" form of kureru. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. which literally means "Oh. you might say Ah. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . For example.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. (Please come here. It's good for family members and close friends. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind).

sound nicer than with kure. (I have been studying German history.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. I think that the number of PC users will increase. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back." Usually upgraded with masu. you'll see what I mean. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. (Because of that. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. dreams. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. depending on intonation.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. etc.) Sono tame. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. expresses future plans. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. assumptions.) As can be seen. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together." (If you say just ikimasu. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as .

): cheap. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. food." See Lesson 40. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . (I came to borrow a textbook. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. (I ate before coming over.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita.) shiraberu: to check (something). (Let's go eat Chinese food."going away and not coming back.) Douzo." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. inexpensive. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history).. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. asobi ni kite kudasai. to examine. (I'll go check it [then come back]. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo..) Accordingly. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. (Please come over [sometime]. but should be easily understood. combined with naru: to become. or cuisine. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. but when uncertain. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita.) Shirabete kuru. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. There are several "set combinations" where it is used.

kariru: to borrow douzo: please. go ahead asobu: to play. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. (I'll try to talk to John. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. In Japanese grammar. but he wasn't in. (Let's give this new PC a try.) Te Form + miru As you know. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. Well.. Or." which makes this one easy to remember. (I'll try to read these kanji. to entertain oneself. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. but it's not.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. rusu deshita. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. (I tried calling him." You may hear it often." . as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu.. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Simple enough. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. but don't take it literally. with its own set phrases. it acts like a "quasi adjective. miru means "to see." meaning that we'll give something a try. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. Either way.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. and adding miru..) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. For example. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it." but technically it's not one of those either. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru.

." "okay. in familiar situations as in the last example above.). as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo..) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. As with most Japanese.) Hai.. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka." etc. As I've probably mentioned before. as with all adjectives. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. Yes.?). Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner. however. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can..." Accordingly. that is the way it works grammatically.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one." "it's okay if (someone does something). terebi mite ii. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. (You may go home early today. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44).. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. (Sure. (Yeah.. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. It's an adjective which means "good." etc.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. you can also get away with omitting particles. positive response. (You can use my PC. you can use my dictionary. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.) (Yes. In the workplace. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. so you should be a little familiar with it. There's usually something else added on. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. like the object indicator o.) . you can watch TV..) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission." "fine.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. but usually alone.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. You can't just say "I broke my arm.) Actually. but not ikaga ka." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone.these don't use it. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. Instead. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. familiar talk. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . question-forming no -. You can say dou ka. do not add the plain. polite. If you break a bone in Japanese. you can say it. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You can omit the desu ka for plain. of course. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. (Well. If you do. if you're going to use it in this way.

Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take .) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". akan (Osaka). there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. In fact. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. especially ikenai. like ikan (Takamatsu). (You can't take pictures. iken (Okayama).) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. (Don't be late. to make it even more colorful.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. "You mustn't do that!". if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. used in a normal. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). and you're bound to hear either of these. etc. When placed after the Te Form with wa. etc. Also. "Naughty!". everyday setting." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. "Thou shalt not. So. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen.. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this..

hachiji ni ie o demashita. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. First." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. and I'm going shopping. heya o katazukete moratte. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. which is easy to do. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. like "take a bath. meaning "to pass (by/over something). then go shopping. the kanji used for each meaning are different. and left home at eight. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. because tooru is a totally different vowel. some simple ones. (I've got to call Shizu. ate breakfast. to take a picture with a camera.) Also. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. However." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. heya o katazukete. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one.) . watashi wa kaimono ni iku. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. to take (steal) something from someone. and [then] made my dinner. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it.Note: The verb toru has many different usages.) As you can see. choushoku o tabete. (I got up at seven o'clock.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. esa o ataete. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. fed him. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. straighten up the room.

You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. past. and simple. whose major purpose is to make things plain.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. to straighten up. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . a house deru: to leave. When you're not sure. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. Just for a quick check.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. just start a new sentence. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form.

(I did it. Also. and only omit them when everyone else does. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. Once again.) Terebi mita.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. (I read a book. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. (I went to the bank. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. In the long run. (I got a haircut.) Hon yonda. (My goldfish died.) Ginkou itta.) Ohiru tabeta. there are limits.) Boku no kingyo shinda.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. Let's do some real basic. (I ate lunch. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I watched TV. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta.) Kami kitta. There are cases where particles would never be cut. . the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense.

" and is less formal than chuushoku.) Shinda kingyo wa. beforehand. (The things Bob studied were very helpful.) Boku ga katta PC wa. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. Ke alone is hair — any hair. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago." There are a few of these. I had someone cut my hair. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head.) . ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. hon becomes the subject.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier." If we switch these around to yonda hon." Very handy. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. For example. use kami.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. even on a caterpillar. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. anywhere. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. juu hachi man en deshita. literally "hairbug. (The cake Joy made was delicious. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. kiru: to cut." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. roku nen mae ni katta." it is used for "I got a haircut.

the rest really isn't too difficult. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. Due to this. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. (He was supposed to come at six. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. Instead. (If necessary.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. because deshita is the past form of desu. please click the lesson links. use desu to make it polite. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. root form of Japanese verbs. (He's supposed to come at six. as in the last example above. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. Again.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. Since we have already covered these. Base 3 is used for the plain future. Carefully note the similarities and differences. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. not deshita. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. And. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. these two share many add-ons and endings. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. which will serve as a nice review. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. One past tense element is enough. For a more detailed review. . There are a few "ta form only" combinations. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense.

Takada's quitting. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. (It would be better to go by train today. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late.) Note: Yes. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.. (Even though I get up early.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight.) Beth wa okureta kara. (Even though I got up early.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. (It would be better to go by train today. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. sensei ga okotta.) Kinou no ban. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai." Please don't make this mistake. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. (I should have taken the train today.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (I heard that Mr. (I heard that Mr. For expressing regret.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. I'm late every day. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. sensei ga okoru. Takada quit. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. I was late. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if..

In other words. snow.) John wa deta bakari. like something memorized from a grammar book. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. . to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. (I just ate.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. (It looks like it's going to rain. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. (Mom just got back. (I just bought that umbrella. not with people or objects.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) Sono kasa o katta bakari.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. etc. mai is used with units of time. now that I think of it. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it.) In fact.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) yameru: to quit a job.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. (It looks like it rained. (John just left. (I just cleaned this room. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.) Ame ga futta mitai.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari.

kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports).) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. to do (familiar. tabeta koto ga nai. I'd like to try it. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out." in Japanese. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. arimasu. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. you use the verb iku (to go) . use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. Nikai ikimashita.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.. (All you ever do is eat.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. (No." usually as a complaint. to go/come back deru: to leave..) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. This is used after the Te Form. Tabete mitai kedo. First. (Yes.. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. I haven't. (All that kid does is play computer games. I've been twice.. though. you'll find them very useful. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). The first is that when you ask "have you been to.. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. Once you get these sorted and memorized. I have. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai.) As you can see.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. (Yes.

let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. you're admitting having experienced something at least once." which. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. not yet. kare wa kuru deshou. See Lessons 7 and 60. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two.. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. As in B's reply above. The second is that in using this form.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru.) Next. you don't use this form.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. I haven't read it yet. First. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) John ni denwa sureba.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [No. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.and literally ask "have you gone to. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) kedo: however." Finally. mada yonde inai... If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. (If the kids eat a snack. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. (If you call John he'll probably come. but regular past tense. to me. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. (If you call John he'll probably come.) .) John ni denwa suru nara. kare wa kuru deshou. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. they probably won't eat lunch." but "I went twice. (No.

. making it more formal than rashii. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. (I heard that Mr. to inform.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.. but I personally have never heard it." "I hear that." etc. Yes. (If you call John he'll probably come. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC.) . Takada's quitting. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form..) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.. (I heard that Mr. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42)..) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. Word Check oshieru: to tell.) John ni denwa shitara. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. kare wa kuru deshou. familiar conversation.) Again.) Desu is usually used after sou.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba..) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. (If the kids eat a snack. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. they probably won't eat lunch.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. they probably won't eat lunch. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. (If the kids eat a snack. meaning "It seems that. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. Takada's quitting. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). I think you'll find it easy enough to master. According to the books.

shukudai o shitari shite imashita. souji shitari. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. (I watched TV and stuff. yuushoku o tabeta. and did some homework. terebi o mitari suru deshou. ongaku o kiitari.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. then ate dinner.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite.) Now. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Jim buys and sells old things. (Last night after dinner I .) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite.That's all there is to it. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. and watch TV. some cleaning. (Last night I watched TV. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. Word Check daibun: considerably. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. It can also be used for present or future happenings. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. (I read comics and stuff. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. listened to some music. If you want. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past.

hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. watashi wa hontou ni komaru.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. chuushoku o tabete. I'd really be at a loss. listened to music for about two hours.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Please review Lessons 53 and 55.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. ate lunch. practiced the piano and things. then she made dinner. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. then did homework until one o'clock.watched TV. * Note: While unnatural in English. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. (If Bob were to come tomorrow.) .

mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . Word Check hontou ni: really. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. (If you were to go swimming now. In fact." As usual.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. snow. (Even if you studied Spanish.. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. you'd probably regret it.) As you can see. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. tabun koukai suru deshou. you must remember that (something else). perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. dou shimashou ka. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. without doubt komaru: to be confused. etc. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow..

) While not covered before. (When I read that." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items. For example.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. (Even if I read the manual.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. (John's pants were torn when he fell. I can't understand this software. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen... he never gets full.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. zenzen ippai ni naranai. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred.. (No matter how much he eats. After the Ta Form. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. (I laughed when I heard that. I was very surprised.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives.

that the person had just arrived home from buying it. in the least recent sense. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. to is usually used because of its flexibility.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) .) As usual. the Ta Form + bakari. One similar to this. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now.) However.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. add desu to make a statement polite. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. was already covered in Lesson 69. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. or. it's still brand-new. However.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. while tokoro really means just now. (The kids just finished eating. (I just got back now. (I just cleaned this room. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. For example.

etc.. is.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: .) The plain form of desu is da.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. (That school is old. (Tomorrow it will rain. Tanaka.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. Tom's here.) desu. aru is a yodan. (There's a big tree in the park.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. iru and aru As you know. Tom wa iru yo.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (The dictionary is on the desk. desu makes things polite.) Ashita wa ame desu. (Carol is 25 years old.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.) Bob wa byouki desu. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. are.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. like something from the masu group. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. (There's a big tree in the park. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. (Yes. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. [I don't want to. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. (There's a spider on the wall.." Generally speaking. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. (He is Mr. (No.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. After nouns and adjectives. iru is used for people and animals. (Bob's sick.

one is "as.• • Sumimasen. unpleasant.) Now. and is especially used by children. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable." So. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). (Sorry. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I don't have a dictionary.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. If you're really interested in the technical background. (I don't have a dictionary. (Sorry. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature.. Tom's not here now. Again." as in being in a certain position. Tom's not here now. getting back to desu. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. here it is: Among the several roles of de.. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. it is rarely used these days. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. This is one that is rarely used these days. Japanese is no exception.) Jisho wa nai. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.) Jisho wa arimasen. state or condition. ima Tom wa inai. . No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. ima Tom wa imasen.. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. Use desu instead.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen.

) Hayaku kimete kudasai. This is certainly not a complete list. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru.What makes it worse is the fact that very. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. They are not conjugations. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. (Wendy collects old stamps. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise.) Hai.) .) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. agaru and ageru. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. ageru. have close ties with Japanese culture. agaru is used for "come inside. (Please come in. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. to give • • Agatte kudasai. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. (Here. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. I'll give you this. So that there is no misunderstanding. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. very rarely will they correct you. Accordingly. which is intransitive (has no direct object).) Note: These two. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. (Please make up your mind quickly. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). active/passive forms." When exchanging gifts. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru.

like helping in the kitchen. tasukaru: to be of help. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is).) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. etc. use tetsudau..) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. Strangely. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. » -su / -u . (I found a pimple. Also. as if it just found itself. For routine helping.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. You were really a great help. (Please continue looking for it. to arrive (a package.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. to help • • Arigatou." it's not. when you find something that was lost.. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble... (Thank you.

(The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. Please don't leave any.) herasu: to decrease. (Please cut down on your spending. (The copier is broken. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. use okiwasureru (oku: to put.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. (Grandpa went outside. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. (Eat all this.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. (Be back by ten o'clock. to put down oriru: to go/come down. Nokosanaide kudasai. to get off or get out of a vehicle . chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka.) Kaigi ga owattara.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. (Let the dog out.

kimono.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. (Don't move that machine. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. (If you wear those glasses. dress. a skirt. like a belt. jacket. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. warawareru deshou. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. shoes. (This cake probably won't be eaten. necktie.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. obi. (My hat got dirty. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station.) Of course there are others. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head.) Kemushi ga ugoita. like a name tag or pin .• • Koko ni oroshite. like a shirt. you'll probably be laughed at. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. (The caterpillar moved. but these should give you a good start. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. hameru: to wear on a finger. etc. socks.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. like pants. etc. For most standard verbs. (Put it down here.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. etc." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn.

suru is often used instead of the bottom four. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! .Besides these. and especially when talking about accessories. This completes Japanese Verbs. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.

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