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Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Te Form + ita 56. Te Form + shimau 64. Base 5 50. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + miru 61. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + kara 58.44. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + oku 63. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 4 + nai 48.
it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. nu. Ta Form + rashii 73. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + ra 72. and irregular. bu. Ta Form + to shitara 75. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. which can end in u. Remembering this will make further study much easier. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68.67. ku. Ta Form + bakari 70. desu. not u. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. Let's take the verb aruku. ichidan. mu.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. which means "to walk. gu. but to be more precise. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. su. Ta Form + tokoro 78. tsu." for example: it ends in ku. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) .
) This is very simple Japanese. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. (Naomi will watch TV.) Jim wa manga o yomu. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. (Grandpa will return soon. (I'll eat an apple. Some sources call these verbs godan. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. unless it was from another foreigner. (Jim will read a comic book. but there is no difference. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb ." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru." Interestingly. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. and also very juvenile or "familiar.) Naomi wa terebi o miru.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way.
because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. "adult" Japanese.before the masu ending is added.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu .) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. the present polite ending.their "Base 2" form -. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. (Jim will read a comic book. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.
but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru.) Now. let's try masen. (Jerry will come out soon.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (I'll decide tomorrow. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. (Ayako watches the TV every day.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu.) . which is the negative form of masu.) Kare wa machimasen. (He won't wait. and should not be worried about at this stage.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True.
add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. (Miki wants to see that movie.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. (The children didn't play at the park.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. .) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (Bob wants to eat tempura.) Easy enough.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. To make them polite. (I'm not going to eat now. masen shows negative tense. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (The children want to play. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen.) The above examples are plain forms. (I want to buy an umbrella. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. etc.
(I'll carry this/these [for you].) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog." For example: • • • Ikimashou.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. and is never used alone with an object. in this example. (Let's get you some food. For example. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. (Let's go.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou.) Yasumimashou. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.) As in English. (The children don't want to play. (I'll fix your bicycle.) Tabemashou. It simply means "let's (do something). hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient.) * In Japanese. (Let's eat." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. Add desu to make it polite. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou.) Simple enough. and two use ichidan. In fact. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie./I'll help you fix your bicycle. (Let's take a break.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you)." This structure will be covered later on. but either way this one is easy to remember. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something. .
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
) Sachiko wa konai. and suru (do). Etc. (Sachiko won't be coming. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. (Jim doesn't read comic books. . For example.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. shinai (won't do).) Jim wa manga o yomanai. (I'm not going to watch TV.) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu." as a matter of personal policy. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. which we already covered in Lesson 4. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. konai (won't come). Jim wa manga o yomimasen. like Base 2 + masen. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. and should only be used in very informal settings. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. Depending on the situation. As in English. kuru (come).taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy).
) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (It probably won't snow.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. Look at these examples: .Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one.) Actually. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. etc.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.what will happen if something doesn't happen. (Sachiko will probably come. snow. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. hail. (Grandpa will probably return soon.
Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. especially when talking to an individual. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. and kun.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. when speaking to that person.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. Generally speaking. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it).) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. The ones you'll hear the most are san. names are usually not used alone. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. For example. chan. Additionally." Actually.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. so it is omitted. as in English. Once a person's name is known. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. sama. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. .
adult male neighbor. time passes.for a while." This Japanese would be understood. company. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. of course. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. mother. aunt." This is normal and good. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. For example. As a safe rule. let's get back to you. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. And. and children add it to the words for father. grandmother. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. kun with boys. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. though san is probably more common for females. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. Customarily. For those older. real or pretended. and playmates. Parents add chan to their children's names. unless an individual prefers chan. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. more familiar (and. use san with colleague's names. but to the title of those older. but would also . Also. and chan with girls. adult female neighbor. you can always ask. grandfather. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. Now. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. chan to female students. because san shows that a closer. hopefully. Family. After the sale is made. however. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. at any rate. etc. where anata is used for "you. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka"." but is now a "san. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. uncle. names are often shortened before adding chan. cousins. Again. older brother or sister (but not younger). older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister.
I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. So. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here." Let's take iku (to go). which shows familiarity. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. the one left would be kimitachi. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. (The children must eat. Accordingly. change it to Base 1 ika.". but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students.. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. and very odd.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. This can be handy when . because it means "must do. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. and narimasen means "will not become". the fact is that it is very rarely used.) Looking at it literally. (I have to go. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. So. however. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. (Jim has to return now. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. but it conveys a certain distance. toward the group concerned. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen.sound very stiff. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). there's no problem. formal. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. It works fine. Anatatachi could be used.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. mixed groups. even some affection. It's used quite a lot.. Yes. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). which is the best choice when talking to large. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. the nakereba means "if one does not. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. I may as well say here that much. it's a bit of a tongue twister.
as in "let him" or "make him. mastering a clean.) With "suru verbs. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. like deshou from Lesson 14.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. and saseru. are used for all of these. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. In Japanese. (The children probably need to eat. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. (Jim probably has to return now. however. (I'll have John decide by next week. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru." can be conveyed.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. (Grandpa lets the children play. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part.adding other endings. or feelings.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. (I'll have him come tomorrow. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. "I'll have him go to the store". for yodan verbs. seru.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. Accordingly. "I'll let him go to the store". More than memorizing its meaning. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. for the others. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey.
Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. although miru is an ichidan verb. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. past tense." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. like miseru. (He lets them watch TV every day. (I want to have Kenji study English.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. (Dad will make Bob study. which means "to show" or "to let see. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come . you won't hear or see "misaseru. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of.) As you can see.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. (I'll have her do it.) So. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object.) Kanojo ni saseru. polite. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. etc. (Let's have John go to the store. kimeru: to decide kare: he. by tomorrow. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00.
) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). Let's get back to deshou. the fact that the rain will fall is understood.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. (It will probably rain tomorrow. so it is often omitted. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. Naomi wa terebi o miru. Not only should you be able to translate these. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou." For example. As in English. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. But before we begin.) The verb furu. shown in the last example above. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. . (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1.the plain. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. her karera: they. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. means "to fall.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. making the verb unnecessary.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. as explained in Lesson 1.
(Bob will probably also want to go. snow. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. as we would use tag questions in English. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. (John should be coming soon. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. Please note that ka is not added at the end." etc. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu.. (You ought to study English more. like . aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. etc.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.
) As with most verb endings. "had better do". but.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. frankly. "would rather do. should happen." and ii means "good" or "better.. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. (I should call her. practice makes perfect. (It would be better to do it next week. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.) Inu no hou ga ii. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings.. (I'd rather get a dog. Word Check .while hazu is more passive -. the hou means "way" or "method. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii.ni natte iru or beki.should do. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation.way is good/better. When you hear it. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do". (You should study Japanese more. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. and according to the grammar books. prefer -." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. As usual.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii." Actually. (It would be better to eat later.) When showing personal preference. which was covered in Lesson 20. (It would be better to go by train today. (We had better rest a little. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them.should be.
(I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. him dekiru: can." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. only the component order is opposite in Japanese.) As can be seen in the examples above.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. (I don't know yet if we are going. It's like using "whether or not" in English. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. Word Check kare: he.kanojo: she.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. to understand inu: dog ima: now . The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not.
and is conjugated accordingly. (We may eat out tonight.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). this one is used frequently.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. (Jack may also come. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. where it is converted to shireru (can know). it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. so please be careful when pronouncing. (It might rain tomorrow. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. perhaps. look. Therefore. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known." These are incorrect. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things).) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) As you sharp ones have noticed. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. meaning that." Since this verb ending is rather long. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. As such. (It might snow tomorrow." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen.taberu: to eat miru: to see. so you'll want to master it right away. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. yes. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen.) . people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. Simply put.
Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. kasa o motte ikimashou. In this case. so I'll call her. so I'm going to the store. mise ni ikimasu. however. so his English is good. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. honya ni ikimasu.) Ongaku o kikimasu.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. with its reason. (Beth is always late.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. signified by kara at the end. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. grammatically speaking. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. (Since it will probably rain. let's take umbrellas. Terebi o mitakunai kara.) In spoken Japanese.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. you'll often hear the action stated first. (We don't have any milk. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. Tabun ame ga furu kara." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies.I suggest. Itsumo okureru kara. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. (I don't want to go to Mr. given after.) . eigo ga jouzu desu.) Jisho o kaitai kara. Word Check komban: this evening. denwa shimasu.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. they each become separate sentences. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara.
just like English. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. he gets sick a lot. (He speaks Japanese. as you can imagine. etc. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. jouzu ni narimasen. no problem. nasty. keredo and kedo. but he's not good at it. Like "but" in English." so. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. but she doesn't get any better. .) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but." Just like English. as well as its shorter forms. (Although Jack is careful about his health. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. it's used a lot. Again.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. yoku byouki shimasu.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. home iya na: bad. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. which means "from. disgusting mono: thing. snow.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. heta desu. it comes between the contrasting phrases.
Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. it really doesn't change the verb. In English. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. not good at something. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. It'll come. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. (I like reading.. I like reading as a thing to do. First is koto. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. Well. No. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. let's look at each part. Next. But first.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. koto has no practical use by itself. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. Better than all this talk would be an example. Here are some examples: ." Does this help? If not. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. Let's move on. like reading in the sentence I like reading. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. a lot. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. no problem.) Finally." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. Like our ing. If you have to have a translation.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading..
It is generally not used for physical things or objects.no. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. etc. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru.let's try some other endings on dekiru. It does not . (John wasn't able to study yesterday. for kicks -. With "suru verbs. they're both used." Denwa is a noun. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. For example. you can just omit suru. essences.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. (Keiko can play the piano. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. and adding the suru makes it a verb. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. Again. meanings. (I can read Japanese.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. actions. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). (I can't read French. (Bob was able to call Junko. long or short. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. (I can translate French into Japanese. it's a long ending for just "can.) Now. actually for review -. in that case the suru is omitted. expressions." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. Kinou. There is a short alternative for other verbs.) Either way. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of.
but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. and it shows that the decision was yours. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It shows that you have made a decision. As I'm sure you know by now.) . (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. koto ni suru is the plain.
) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san. to let (someone) see.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen.) As in English.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. etc. watch (something) . (I've decided to study Japanese every day. Made means "until.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. (Wait until dinner.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (We have to wait until Bob calls.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. periods. (Mr. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.
It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. as with English. Stay away from here!. and to whom.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. you use it. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. be careful how. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. ."don't do's" -. This is one that will probably not be used very often. However. First. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months.) Base 3 + na This. but if you do. you could say. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!.") ni: two shuu kan: a week.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs.
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. (If he sees Yuko. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. watashi ni shirasemasu.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. but nara is more common. He thought he said. which is just a slight variation. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. (If the kids eat a snack now.) John ni denwa suru nara.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If you call John he'll probably come. he'll let me know. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara.) Ame ga furu nara. kuru deshou.sentences with "if. they probably won't eat dinner.
a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. and lengthy.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. explanations. I can see several things which need to be explained. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. respectively. that's another story. And. words that connect a noun to an action.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . As a quick review. to make matters worse. things I'd like to explain. or omit them completely when they can get away with it." Of course. and a person." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. But. For example. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. a time. In Japanese. there are no "relative pronouns.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. like in the first example above. Japanese English. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now.. page. a place. but hopefully sufficient for the present. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. which are examples involving a thing. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well.. to offer very general.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns.
which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. As you may have noticed. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. Ga or no could be used here. like our 's. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. No is often used in place of ga. they do not mean the same thing. especially in informal spoken Japanese. and is handled by the final verb. but since Japanese has no equivalent. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. ga tells us who will take the train. a truer English translation would be. and therefore omitted." you might say. densha (train) is the main subject. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. automatically designates a place. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. a "sub-subject. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. so tokoro is used after the verb." as a relative pronoun.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. Kobe is a place. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. Continuing with the above example. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. back to the lesson: First. the English "where. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu.) Now. and so it would most likely be omitted. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. For example. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam.) In this sentence. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. or a noun which needs emphasis." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English.) In this one. a substitute noun must be used. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. since he or she will surely be hearing both.) Since this is natural Japanese. As you can see. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. The problem is that the rules are . which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language.
and when trying to make sense of one. and vice versa. and shouldn't be too difficult. produce. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. (Spring is the season that brings new life.to high-intermediate Japanese.) This one is pretty straightforward. I hope this lesson was clear enough.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences.totally different in each language. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. As a general. you must forget all the rules of the other. . semi-accurate rule. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". Please come back regularly to review as necessary. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and are in the realm of mid. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. Finally. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult.
as well as supporting body language like hand waving.) As in any other language. unexcited intonation. (She IS coming. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. etc. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. need. (Jim will read a comic book. (Grandpa will return soon.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). or habits of the speaker.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.) Remember these? I hope so. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. (Jim will read a comic book. you need to review. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. fist pounding. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. If not. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Japanese English. stomping around. (Grandpa will return soon.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu.) .) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. (I tell you. if you want to emphasize something. However. it IS going to rain tomorrow.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. writhing.
the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn." which we will cover later on. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. There's nothing really tricky about it. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji.) . where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. meaning "in spite of.) densha: train noru: to ride. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. specifically. etc.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever).) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Please consult a dictionary for more. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. rather. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. Takamatsu-yuki. essential kanji: Chinese characters. remember daibun (or daibu): quite.
) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). the greatest. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. (Speaking Japanese is easy. mine is red. like our 's. mainly the one used for possessives. (Reading is enjoyable. (It really was a problem-free trip. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. Wa is the subject indicator. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role.). (Jim's dictionary is blue. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. boku no wa aka desu. still not fukanou: not possible.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. to not exist tabi: trip . enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. impossible saikou: great.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be.
and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. (Since Eiko can speak English.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey.) So. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. use node. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. If kara was used instead.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. In other words. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . which is used to show reasons or causes.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. In this lesson we will take a look at node.prefix makes it "honorific. and is therefore preferred when people are involved.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. For example. the o. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. she'll probably find a good job.
rumors. this short lesson is about noni. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.) asoko: there.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. she won't listen. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. Word Check yameru: to stop something.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. (I was late even though I got up early. (Despite my telling her to stop. understand to be.) kiku: to listen. etc. which is used for plain past structures. kanojo wa kikimasen.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. For example: .) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. for the plain past. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it.) annani: that much.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33. to follow rules or orders.
(I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week.) As you have probably guessed.) Tame is a very handy word.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. A full-time employee will use shigoto. Japanese English. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. in order to. The actual word is arubaito. but is more often than not shortened to baito. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. Here are some popular ones: ." (Yes.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). Word Check hiru kara: from noon. as in "Hai. that's right." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. Takada's quitting." and is often followed by the optional ni. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. They use a noun geared to their type of job.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. it usually means "for the purpose of. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". (I heard that Mr.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. Japanese German. a student will say baito.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. sou desu. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo.
(Remember. that's pronounced "toh. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.]) Hai. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. In this case. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park.) .) For the curious. (This is for you. when. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Okay. have (an interview). receive. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. or if.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.") It can mean and. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. (This is for you. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. with. Mom. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. [plain. (Kimiko came with Bob. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. [Use no when putting a noun after tame.
Japanese English. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. begin to want. especially in the workplace. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. Sasaki will call us soon. It means simply "I think.) .) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. Now that it's been explained. (I think Koji will be late. While not specifically covered.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. (I think Eiko can speak English." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. takunaru puts tai and naru together. to go) + taku (tai.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. things you can do. to become to want to go -. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. meaning "come to want. use umi. It's okay to have an opinion. and expected. of "party. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8.it's as simple as that.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse." Iki (Base 2 of iku. to want to do. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). (I think Ms. but it is not generally used. When referring to the beach in Japanese. When promoting your own ideas or opinions.
the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.As you can see from the last examples. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. don't really care. or have some control. towards me. which was covered in Lesson 19.]) In a way. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. (I thought/knew it would rain today [. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. or don't really have any control over something. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and it did. (I think it would be better to go by train today. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. but it didn't. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. omou can be used for plain speech. (I thought it would rain today [.) Base 3 + tsumori desu .) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. this ending is a lot like deshou. care. goes back. Accordingly.) Again.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita.
Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. technically speaking. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. their meanings are completely different.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori.) . (I plan to be back by three o'clock. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. build up. yes. You will. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. S.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. While sounding alike.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. Well. to enter/enroll in (a school). however. that was a short one. as you should know by now. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. which means "to accumulate. so please be careful not to confuse them. etc." used a lot.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. hear the other verb tsumoru. add desu to make it polite. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. hairu: to go inside (a room). In case you're wondering. Always use daigaku for university. day. is for past tense. Deshita. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university.
that something is or will be. "you look like an idiot. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.) To be honest. 4. AH. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. u as in mule EH.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms.) Ame ga furu you desu. 2." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. e as in red OH. First. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. 5. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. a as in father EE. directly or indirectly.) mitai: it looks like. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. baka: idiot.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. Simply put. e as in see OO. o as in mode ." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. said so].. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc. (It looks like Ken can play the piano.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3.. sou desu means you heard. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. and show what Base 4 looks like. 3.
) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 .and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form." or "dictionary form. Now. it's where you start. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs.
converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. watashi ni shirasemasu. kuru deshou. they probably won't eat dinner.. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour.. however.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her..) John ni denwa sureba. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. (I want to call Grandma. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. As we learned in the last lesson..) Ame ga fureba.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if.) Handy. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. he'll let me know. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. (If he sees Yuko. (If the kids eat a snack now.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba." as shown in these examples: . Ii is Japanese for "good. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If you call John he'll probably come. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Here. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. covered in Lesson 30? Well. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30.
) Mom. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. By this stage of Japanese study. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou.) • As you can see. (Now would be a good time to study.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. they are not completely interchangeable.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. soto de asobeba ii. is used after ba -.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. they both mean "good". It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. so it would be good to play outside. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. In those situations different constructions would be used. quirky ii does not. However. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. (I wish we had gone to the park. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta.) Naoko. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. no. (It would be good if you played outside. (The weather's nice. yes. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . (We want to watch TV.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision.) Kids: Terebi mitai. yoi is not used with noni. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. [I still wish you would play outside.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. (Around five. (We should have come at 8:00. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. yokatta.• • • Soto de asobeba ii. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. (I wish I had ordered the steak.
There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs." .) light shokuji: food. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -.and known to all concerned. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. just use Base 4. this is a form you really don't want to use. It's simple: no subject or object needed.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. Or.very handy when you get used to it. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. and maybe even get into a fight. Actually. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. If you do.
) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. No problem. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. Take a good look. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. For example.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru.it was like opening a new door. which was covered back in Lesson 26. Simply put. just like most ichidans. Here we realize an important point -. (He might be able to go next month. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. very useful. (Keiko can play the piano. It's very. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. (I can read Japanese. they can be treated like plain ichidans. . We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. I remember when I first learned this one -. (Keiko can't play the violin.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. too. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita.) Now. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. Now.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. It shows ability to do something.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. As such. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. (Keiko can play the piano.
you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai.) . which was covered in Lesson 13. As you may have guessed. this is wasei eigo. there are many exceptions among the ichidans.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. this form is only meant for yodans.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. (Keiko can't play the piano. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. (Jack probably won't be able to come. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). (I can't read Japanese." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. (As you remember. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. It made sense to me. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. the "cannot do" plain form. and I hope it will make sense to you.) See how that works? As mentioned last time.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. If it helps. For example.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.
(If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can).) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. So. but who cares? Everyone uses it. so I do too. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy.) . but there are exceptions like the last example above. energetic. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara.) Again. an example of which was included in the last lesson.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. you may wonder. this form is mainly for yodans.
Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.kime.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.tabe. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.oboe. If you don't mind. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.koyou .taberu tabereoboe.oboeru oboerekime.kari. First.
oh. (I think I'll go shopping. so stretch it out a bit when you use it." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na.) Tabeyou. (Let's go. oo. but is converted as necessary: .) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou.. Also. arukou ka na. (Let's eat.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. (Let's take a break.) Terebi o miyou ka na.. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see.) Yasumou... Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound." Suru is shown plain. (I wonder if I should go shopping. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. ee. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). eh. (I wonder if I should call Bob. (Maybe I'll watch TV.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. I just made that up." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.
) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. (I think John will try to come. miemasen deshita. As you have most likely guessed.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. but he couldn't. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.
hataraite. Yodan verbs that end in bu. tonde. motte. yonde. keshite. tsunaide. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. tsunagu (to connect). kiku (to listen. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. Please note this one important exception: iku. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. like aruku (to walk). katte.kashite. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. Yodan verbs that end in gu. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. like matsu (to wait). kesu (to turn off. to ask). katte.matte. like isogu (to hurry). kiite. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -.e. like kasu (to lend). tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. It's important because it's used a lot. kau (to buy). tashite.. Yodan verbs that end in ku. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. not iite. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. nutte. . not tsu). yobu (to call out). motsu (to hold).aruite.asonde.isoide. like au (to meet). nuide. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -.atte. to put out [a fire]). like asobu (to play).
When you start learning kanji.) Kore o kiite. haitte. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka.) Matte. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo.) Douzo.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. (Listen to this. (Please come at six o'clock. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. like yomu (to read). you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. (Please come at six o'clock. tabete. tabete kudasai.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. like kaeru (to return). It means "under.) .kaette." "to lower (something). tsutsunde." "to go down. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. momu (to massage). humble me. kiku (to listen).) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. please eat. but in Japanese we do. and kiru (to cut). Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. (Go ahead and eat.) Chotto matte kudasai. (Come here. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly." etc. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. (Please wait a bit. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. For practice let's use kuru (to come). monde. kiite. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -." There are several handy variations of kudasai. Yodan verbs that end in ru. (Come at six o'clock. hairu (to enter). totte. (Wait. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. As you can see. (Go ahead.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. depending on the tone of voice used.yonde. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -.
" Ageru also means "to give. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. Now. just like counting 1-2-3. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. (If you don't want to eat it. you use the Te Form + kudasai. (Cut this." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. (I'll call you later.).) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. to give (up to someone).) .) Kono pen o agemasu. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. (I'll wait for you. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give.) Tabetakunakereba.• Kore o kitte. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up.) As you can see. (I'll give you this pen. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6." but it means "to raise. (Please give me that pen. If you ask someone to do something for you. showing a "humbler" position.) Ato de denwa shite ageru." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. kiite: KEE-EETEH. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. to show respect. I'll eat it for you. as covered in the last lesson. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. and kitte: KEET-TEH. tabete ageru. giving each equal time while making them short.
which are chosen depending on the situation. in cases where there's a third person. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru.) Notes 1. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. . and. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. it's a great convenience besides. Don't use it. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces.In Japanese. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. as a general rule. the position of the giver or receiver. laces musubu: to tie. Finally. It's for "talking down" to. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. and will work nicely in most cases. (Lend Bob your pen. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. and showing contempt for others.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. string. as these examples show. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form." It is disrespectful at best. However. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough.
(Ask Bob and see what he says. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. Itte goran nasai. (Try calling Sanae.) Te Form + iru .) Tabete goran. Yonde goran nasai. See for yourself. Mite goran nasai.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. (There is salt on the shelf.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.) Mite goran. You never use it on yourself.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. which is used to prove a point.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look." You use it to ask someone to try something. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. (Taste it and see if you like it. mild command-like sentences. usually in short. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. (Take a look. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. (It says he's 38. Go and see for yourself. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. Read it for yourself.) That's how we use goran nasai.
) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. "I'm knowing [it]. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. as in the fourth example above. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. As you already know. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. (We live in Takamatsu. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. (I am walking. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. (I'm reading the newspaper. For example. (I am here." So. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. masen. (Bill is studying Japanese. Especially important are masu. (He's not studying French.) Kinou nete imashita. and not shiru. mashita. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . we say "I know.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. [I wasn't watching TV today. when they really should use sunde iru."). (Shizuko is eating." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). [We are living in Takamatsu. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. Because of this. (They are reading a magazine. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). Even though living in a place is present and progressive. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. to exist. (Yesterday I slept all day.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. we can get away with using just "live" in English.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. in a way.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. in English we would normally ask a person. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. it works like English." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. which were covered in the Base 2 endings.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. (She is eating sushi. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese. (I didn't watch TV today. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. and masen deshita.) Watashi wa aruite iru.
Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. to do (something) ko: kid. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. but.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally.) I know you're wondering. it is even written this way -. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. child Note: Strangely. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. Finally. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. "woman-child" / "man-child"). (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine.with the i in iru omitted -. For example. In fact. imouto: little (younger) sister . (I was watching TV. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. like "kid" in English. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly.imashita ka. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. so I'll tell you: "to play. there is no single.
(They aren't reading a magazine. First let's do some plain negative examples.) Benkyou shite inakereba. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. and imouto for younger sister. Nakatta is used for plain negative past.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. ane for older sister. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. and adding ra makes it conditional. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. (They aren't reading a magazine." As such. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. (If they're not studying. (Sam's not here. (The kids probably aren't studying.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. nani o shite iru deshou ka.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. infinitive and progressive: . (We don't live in Okayama. present and past. (We don't live in Okayama.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. to exist.Note: In Japanese. there are many that can. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. Please look at the following examples. (Sam's not here.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. which makes them present or past progressive. otouto for younger brother. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara.
(If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. vague and troublesome at others. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. (I haven't eaten yet. In either." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. (I wasn't eating then. to be able).) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (I didn't eat an apple. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. To make the meaning perfectly clear. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. It's for asking questions. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. since it is not only a Te Form ending." depending on the actual situation. but also a much- . [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. (I wasn't eating then. which can be convenient at times.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. Dekita. (I'm not eating [now]. However. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. and goes especially well with plain ones. "we could" could be "he could. The last two above are good examples of this. (I didn't eat an apple. (I'm not eating [now]. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. which appears in the last example.
(John was watching TV. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . Soshite terebi o mite ita. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. (Really? I was washing my car. (I was doing shopping. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. Just for the fun of it.]) Yes. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. In fact. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. [Really? I washed my car. this would be two males speaking.) That's real Japanese. but no real friends or family members -. Also. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. Soshite terebi miteta. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. (I went shopping.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. ita is the plain past form of iru. (They were reading a magazine. As I'm sure you know by now. upgrade ita to imashita.are going to speak so grammatically correct.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. in settings where polite speech is called for.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. [I went shopping. I include the usual English translation. Put simply.used element of conversational Japanese. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. (Really? I washed my car.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. (Bill was studying.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita.
it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. It can. meaning something like "I humbly partake. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. Here are some examples. Oboete imasen ka. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. however. Because itadaku is a very polite word. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary.) As in English. (Would you please call Mr. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. . as covered in Lesson 50.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes.
(I'm doing homework now. Also. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. morau is not impolite.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. No particular reservations are needed here. (I'm doing homework now. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. itadakimasu is always used with food. Traditionally.) Ima shukudai o shite iru.) This is the same family. this would be the best way to go. but not quite as polite -. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. even when the giver is not present. (Ken's not here now. As usual. Ken ni itte moratte. morau works best when talking about a third party. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. but since we can't do that now.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. it's just plain. Morau is okay when referring to other things. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. However. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. I'll get Grandpa to go." When there's no need to be very polite.as itadakimasu. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis.) ." With itadakimasu. and it can be at times.) This is a family situation. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. Get Ken to go.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. Make no mistake.not as "respectful" -. use morau instead of itadaku. With kudasai. adding a masu ending makes it polite. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.
(May I please have your name?) Hai. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. customers.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two.Itadakimasu is always used with food. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. and these two are being courteous. I got one. tell shorui: forms. but she already has one and doesn't want another. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. office.) oshieru: to teach.prefix is used with strangers. (I'll give you a pen. (I had Ms. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. They probably don't see each other every day. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. clients. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. moraimashita. (I got one [already]. Just like anywhere else. company.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. even if all you're taking is a potato chip.) This is at the office. (Sure. etc. (Yes. documents. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka. each home. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. Murai go.) Itadakimashita.
. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. such as summer to mean "after summer. Simple and useful. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain)..) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form." There are other ways to do that. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. (John's coming over after he does his homework.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou. such as those two common ones work and school. then add the Te Form of owaru. (After I eat I'm going shopping. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. Word Check kaeru: to return.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun)." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].) . You can't use it directly after nouns. you just make them the subject/object with ga. (Let's go see a movie after work.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). to come home owaru: to end.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou.. (Let's play baseball after school['s over].) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.
the "kure command": • • Kite kure. repeated request. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. and it would be offensive in some cases. Again.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure.) And finally. this is the "command" form of kureru. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind).Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can . (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. For example.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. you might say Ah. Kureru is used in generally the same way. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. which literally means "Oh. In fact. ogotte kureru no?. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka.) Matte kure. (Please wait. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. It's good for family members and close friends. (Please come here. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received.
with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know.) As can be seen. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. depending on intonation." (If you say just ikimasu.sound nicer than with kure. you'll see what I mean. etc. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. assumptions. expresses future plans. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. the literal equivalent of "I'm going.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou.) Sono tame." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. (I have been studying German history. dreams. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out." Usually upgraded with masu. I think that the number of PC users will increase. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. (Because of that. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time.
) Accordingly." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. but should be easily understood.. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . or cuisine." See Lesson 40. food."going away and not coming back. (I'll go check it [then come back]. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that.) Shirabete kuru.) shiraberu: to check (something). These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. (I ate before coming over. (I came to borrow a textbook.. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. to examine. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. but when uncertain. asobi ni kite kudasai. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. combined with naru: to become. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming.): cheap.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. (Let's go eat Chinese food. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. inexpensive. (Please come over [sometime].) Douzo.
(I tried calling him. Either way.) Simple enough.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. and adding miru. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru.. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. In Japanese grammar.) Te Form + miru As you know. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. but don't take it literally. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. (I'll try to read these kanji. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. but he wasn't in." ." You may hear it often. (Let's give this new PC a try. with its own set phrases. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now." meaning that we'll give something a try." but technically it's not one of those either. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing.. miru means "to see. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. Well. it acts like a "quasi adjective. For example. to entertain oneself." which makes this one easy to remember. go ahead asobu: to play. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can.. but it's not.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. (I'll try to talk to John. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. rusu deshita.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. Or.
but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka.. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. you can watch TV. like the object indicator o. (You may go home early today.. you can use my dictionary. that is the way it works grammatically. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission.) (Yes. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can.. as with all adjectives.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you.. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44).) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. As with most Japanese.) . in familiar situations as in the last example above. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. positive response.. terebi mite ii. As I've probably mentioned before." "okay. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. In the workplace. (Sure. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay.. however. It's an adjective which means "good. (You can use my PC." "fine.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Hai. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. (Yeah.. you can also get away with omitting particles. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. There's usually something else added on." Accordingly.." "it's okay if (someone does something).). Yes. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite." etc. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.?)." etc. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. so you should be a little familiar with it.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •
Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. Instead.) Actually." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. of course. You can't just say "I broke my arm. If you break a bone in Japanese. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. If you do. You can say dou ka. but usually alone. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. you can say it. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. if you're going to use it in this way.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. You can omit the desu ka for plain. do not add the plain. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. (Well. but not ikaga ka. question-forming no -. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka.these don't use it. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. familiar talk. polite. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka.
the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. iken (Okayama).) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. etc. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. especially ikenai. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. (You can't take pictures.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. Also.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". and you're bound to hear either of these. like ikan (Takamatsu). So. akan (Osaka). Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . etc. When placed after the Te Form with wa.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. "Naughty!". no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. to make it even more colorful.. used in a normal. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. In fact. everyday setting. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame).. (Don't be late. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. "You mustn't do that!". "Thou shalt not. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together.
the kanji used for each meaning are different. like "take a bath.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. esa o ataete. to take (steal) something from someone. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. fed him.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). hachiji ni ie o demashita. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. to take a picture with a camera. and [then] made my dinner. meaning "to pass (by/over something).) As you can see.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. First. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. some simple ones. heya o katazukete. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation.) . (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. However. and I'm going shopping.) Also. then go shopping. (I got up at seven o'clock. and left home at eight.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. which is easy to do. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. choushoku o tabete. (I've got to call Shizu. because tooru is a totally different vowel." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. ate breakfast. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. straighten up the room. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. heya o katazukete moratte.
) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. whose major purpose is to make things plain. past. and simple. Just for a quick check. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. just start a new sentence. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta .Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. a house deru: to leave. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to straighten up. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. When you're not sure. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a.
iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I got a haircut. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. (My goldfish died. Once again. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. (I ate lunch. and only omit them when everyone else does. (I read a book. Let's do some real basic. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples.) Ginkou itta. Also. (I watched TV. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita.) Ohiru tabeta. there are limits. .) Hon yonda. (I went to the bank.) Kami kitta.) Boku no kingyo shinda.) Terebi mita. In the long run. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. There are cases where particles would never be cut. (I did it.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form.
" If we switch these around to yonda hon." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. hon becomes the subject.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before." There are a few of these. even on a caterpillar. use kami. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. literally "hairbug.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. For example. juu hachi man en deshita. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. anywhere. (The things Bob studied were very helpful.) Boku ga katta PC wa. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. Ke alone is hair — any hair. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. yonda modifies hon like an adjective.) . where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. I had someone cut my hair.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. kiru: to cut. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. beforehand. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons." and is less formal than chuushoku. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta." it is used for "I got a haircut. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago." Very handy. (The cake Joy made was delicious.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. roku nen mae ni katta.) Shinda kingyo wa. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy.
Since we have already covered these. For a more detailed review.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. (He's supposed to come at six. One past tense element is enough. these two share many add-ons and endings. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. . it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. the rest really isn't too difficult. Instead. And. because deshita is the past form of desu. use desu to make it polite. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. please click the lesson links. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. Due to this. Base 3 is used for the plain future. (He was supposed to come at six. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. which will serve as a nice review. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. Again. root form of Japanese verbs. not deshita. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. (If necessary. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. as in the last example above.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. Carefully note the similarities and differences.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu.
(It would be better to go by train today. sensei ga okoru.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. Takada's quitting. I was late.. (I should have taken the train today. (Even though I got up early.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.) Note: Yes. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (Even though I get up early. For expressing regret.) Beth wa okureta kara.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru." Please don't make this mistake.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. (It would be better to go by train today.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. sensei ga okotta. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. I'm late every day.) Kinou no ban. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai. Takada quit. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. (I heard that Mr.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. (I heard that Mr. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night..
snow. now that I think of it.) Ame ga futta mitai.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It looks like it's going to rain. (I just bought that umbrella. (John just left." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari.) In fact. etc. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. mai is used with units of time.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. (I just cleaned this room. not with people or objects. In other words.) yameru: to quit a job. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day].) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. . like something memorized from a grammar book.) John wa deta bakari. (It looks like it rained. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. (I just ate. (Mom just got back.
you'll find them very useful. (No. (All you ever do is eat." usually as a complaint." in Japanese. you use the verb iku (to go) . kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). I've been twice. (Yes. First. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is.. This is used after the Te Form. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom.) As you can see. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. (All Shizuka ever does is study English.. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. I'd like to try it. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return..) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. tabeta koto ga nai. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. The first is that when you ask "have you been to.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. arimasu. (Yes. to do (familiar. to go/come back deru: to leave. Nikai ikimashita. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). Once you get these sorted and memorized. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. though.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. I have. I haven't.. Tabete mitai kedo.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (All that kid does is play computer games.
]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. (If the kids eat a snack.) Next." which. kare wa kuru deshou. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai.and literally ask "have you gone to. The second is that in using this form. not yet.) .. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. they probably won't eat lunch.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. kare wa kuru deshou.) John ni denwa suru nara. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. See Lessons 7 and 60. First.. to me. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. but regular past tense. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. (If you call John he'll probably come. (No. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) John ni denwa sureba. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals.. As in B's reply above. I haven't read it yet. [No. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures." but "I went twice. you don't use this form. (If you call John he'll probably come." Finally. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. mada yonde inai.) kedo: however.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara.
(I heard that Mr.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I heard that Mr. chuushoku o tabenai deshou.. According to the books. they probably won't eat lunch. Takada's quitting.) John ni denwa shitara. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight..) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. but I personally have never heard it..) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. Word Check oshieru: to tell.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. (If the kids eat a snack. I think you'll find it easy enough to master.. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.) . but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. meaning "It seems that.) Desu is usually used after sou. kare wa kuru deshou. chuushoku o tabenai deshou." etc. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Again. Now that all the explaining is out of the way.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. to inform.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42)." "I hear that. Takada's quitting. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. familiar conversation. making it more formal than rashii. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. (If the kids eat a snack. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). they probably won't eat lunch.. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. Yes.
shukudai o shitari shite imashita.) Now. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. If you want. (I watched TV and stuff. some cleaning. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. and watch TV. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. then ate dinner. ongaku o kiitari. (Jim buys and sells old things. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. Word Check daibun: considerably. terebi o mitari suru deshou.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. (Last night I watched TV. (I read comics and stuff. It can also be used for present or future happenings.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. listened to some music. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite.That's all there is to it.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. and did some homework. yuushoku o tabeta. souji shitari. (Last night after dinner I . ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita.
but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. practiced the piano and things. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. listened to music for about two hours. I'd really be at a loss. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. ate lunch. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. chuushoku o tabete.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. then she made dinner.watched TV. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta.) . * Note: While unnatural in English. then did homework until one o'clock.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara.
(Even if you studied Spanish. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. snow.. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. you must remember that (something else).) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form... (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen)." As usual. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. tabun koukai suru deshou. In fact. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . (Even if you were to eat lots of health food.) As you can see.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. etc. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. (If you were to go swimming now. you'd probably regret it. without doubt komaru: to be confused.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. Word Check hontou ni: really.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. dou shimashou ka. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara. (Supposing it rains this afternoon.
(When I read that. he never gets full.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. (No matter how much he eats. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.. For example.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. (I laughed when I heard that.) While not covered before. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. (Even if I read the manual. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. I can't understand this software.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. zenzen ippai ni naranai. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. I was very surprised..) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. (John's pants were torn when he fell.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. After the Ta Form. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.
add desu to make a statement polite. was already covered in Lesson 69. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari.) As usual. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. One similar to this.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. or. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. in the least recent sense. (I just cleaned this room. For example. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. it's still brand-new. to is usually used because of its flexibility. (I just got back now. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.) However. (The kids just finished eating.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. while tokoro really means just now. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the Ta Form + bakari. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) .• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. However.
) Ashita wa ame desu. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. iru and aru As you know. Tom wa iru yo.." Generally speaking.) Bob wa byouki desu. iru is used for people and animals. (No. aru is a yodan.) The plain form of desu is da. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. (Yes. are.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. After nouns and adjectives. (The dictionary is on the desk. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. (There's a spider on the wall. (There's a big tree in the park. (There's a big tree in the park. etc. [I don't want to. (Bob's sick. (That school is old.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. Tanaka.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. (Carol is 25 years old..) desu. desu makes things polite.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru.) (Iru is an ichidan verb. Tom's here. (Tomorrow it will rain. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . (He is Mr. like something from the masu group. is.
Tom's not here now. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. ima Tom wa imasen. (Sorry. unpleasant.. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. state or condition. ima Tom wa inai. here it is: Among the several roles of de. . (I don't have a dictionary." as in being in a certain position. getting back to desu. one is "as. Connected with aru it means "to exist as.) Jisho wa arimasen. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. Again. and is especially used by children. it is rarely used these days. Japanese is no exception. If you're really interested in the technical background. Use desu instead. Tom's not here now." So.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use..) Jisho wa nai. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. This is one that is rarely used these days. (I don't have a dictionary.) Now.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Sorry. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student)..• • Sumimasen.
one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. Accordingly. (Please make up your mind quickly.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. ageru.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). » -aru / -eru In these pairs. I'll give you this. active/passive forms. very rarely will they correct you. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form.) . to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru.What makes it worse is the fact that very. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. They are not conjugations. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like." When exchanging gifts. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. to give • • Agatte kudasai. (Here. (Please come in. have close ties with Japanese culture. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. agaru and ageru. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. which is intransitive (has no direct object). agaru is used for "come inside. This is certainly not a complete list. (Wendy collects old stamps.) Note: These two. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. So that there is no misunderstanding. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting.) Hai. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it.
like helping in the kitchen. in Japanese you use mitsukaru.. (I found a pimple. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. as if it just found itself. when you find something that was lost. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. to help • • Arigatou." it's not. etc. » -su / -u . Strangely.. You were really a great help. (Thank you. tasukaru: to be of help. Also. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. Hontou ni tasukarimashita.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa.. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. For routine helping. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. (Please continue looking for it.. use tetsudau. to arrive (a package.
(Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind.) herasu: to decrease.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. use okiwasureru (oku: to put.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. (Be back by ten o'clock.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. (The copier is broken. (Please cut down on your spending. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. (Grandpa went outside. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. to get off or get out of a vehicle .) Kaigi ga owattara. (Eat all this. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. Nokosanaide kudasai. Please don't leave any. (Let the dog out. to put down oriru: to go/come down.
) Kemushi ga ugoita. like a shirt. (Put it down here. etc. necktie. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. jacket. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. dress.• • Koko ni oroshite. kimono.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. like a name tag or pin . shoes. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. (If you wear those glasses.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. obi. but these should give you a good start. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. a skirt. like pants. (This cake probably won't be eaten. (My hat got dirty. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. hameru: to wear on a finger. socks.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. (Don't move that machine. like a belt. (The caterpillar moved. etc. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly.) Of course there are others. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. warawareru deshou. For most standard verbs. etc." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. you'll probably be laughed at.
Besides these. and especially when talking about accessories. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. This completes Japanese Verbs. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! .
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