Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests
Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.
© 2003 Tim R. Matheson
Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu
21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba
Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form for Continuing Statements
. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + kara 58. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + mo ii 62. Te Form + goran nasai 53. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Base 5 50. Te Form + kudasai 51. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + ita 56. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + inai 55. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46.44. Te Form + miru 61. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + kuru / iku 60.
Ta Form + to shite mo 76. but to be more precise. nu. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. su. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + tokoro 78. Ta Form + toki 77.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. ku. iru and aru
The Plain Form
Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + rashii 73. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. bu. desu. or ru:
• • • • • • • • •
kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
. ichidan.67. tsu. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. mu. Ta Form + to shitara 75. Ta Form + bakari 70. Ta Form + ra 72. Remembering this will make further study much easier." for example: it ends in ku. and irregular. which can end in u. not u. gu. which means "to walk.
Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. (Jim will read a comic book. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them.) Jim wa manga o yomu. but there is no difference.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. (Naomi will watch TV. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.Let's try some in sentences:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau." Interestingly. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb
. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. Some sources call these verbs godan. Some frequently used ones are:
• • • •
taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. and also very juvenile or "familiar.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. unless it was from another foreigner.)
This is very simple Japanese. watch) kariru (borrow)
Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (Grandpa will return soon. (I'll eat an apple.
instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2:
Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat)
Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu
. (Grandpa will return soon. the present polite ending.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. (Jim will read a comic book.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Since masu requires the Base 2 form.)
Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
Ichidan verbs are a snap. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.
Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate.before the masu ending is added.their "Base 2" form -. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change:
Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return)
Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri
Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu
Now we're ready to speak polite. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. "adult" Japanese. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu.
but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. watch) Here are some examples:
• • •
oboe kime de kari mi
oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu
Watashi wa ashita kimemasu.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave.)
.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. let's try masen. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella. and should not be worried about at this stage. (Ayako watches the TV every day.
Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day
Base 2 + masen
Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. (Jerry will come out soon.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. (I'll decide tomorrow.)
Now. which is the negative form of masu.) Kare wa machimasen. (He won't wait. Look at these yodan examples:
• • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.
) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. which is used to show that you want to do something:
• • • •
Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5:
• • •
John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (The children didn't play at the park. (I want to buy an umbrella.)
Base 2 + tai / tai desu
Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. etc. (Miki wants to see that movie. (The children want to play. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai.And some ichidan:
Watashi wa ima tabemasen. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow
Base 2 + masen deshita
As you recall from Lesson 4. To make them polite.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.)
. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai.)
The above examples are plain forms.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (I'm not going to eat now. masen shows negative tense.
(The children don't want to play. but either way this one is easy to remember.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. (I'll fix your bicycle.) Tabemashou. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). and is never used alone with an object. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie.)
Simple enough. Can you still tell them apart?
Base 2 + mashou
Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o. It simply means "let's (do something). (I don't want to buy an umbrella." For example:
• • •
Ikimashou. In fact." This structure will be covered later on. (Let's eat. and two use ichidan. For example. (Let's get you some food. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient.
As in English.)
Now let's make the next two polite:
Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu.) Yasumimashou. Add desu to make it polite. (Let's take a break. (Let's go. in this example./I'll help you fix your bicycle. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. We'll make the first two plain:
Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative.
Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu
These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.)
* In Japanese. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. (I'll carry this/these [for you].Please note that tai is only used with verbs." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa hakobimashou.
Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair
Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.
We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •
Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)
Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.
Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •
Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)
By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.
Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-
Base 3 (root form)
and should only be used in very informal settings. (I'm not going to watch TV.) Sachiko wa konai. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain." as a matter of personal policy. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. Depending on the situation. As in English.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. shinai (won't do).taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Base 3 (root form) kuru suru
Base 2 kishi-
Base 1 koshi-
Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai:
John wa kasa o kaimasen.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. (Sachiko won't be coming. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow).)
It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. konai (won't come).
Etc. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. and suru (do). (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. For example. which we already covered in Lesson 4. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. kuru (come). (Jim doesn't read comic books. like Base 2 + masen. Look at these example sentences:
• • • • •
John wa kasa o kawanai.
.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai.
) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. (It probably won't snow. etc. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.)
Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.)
Base 1 + nakereba
Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.)
Actually.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here?
Base 1 + nai deshou
Here's an easy one. (Grandpa will probably return soon. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (Sachiko will probably come. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.) Yuki wa furanai deshou. Look at these examples:
. snow.what will happen if something doesn't happen. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen:
• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. or that something is not likely to happen:
• • •
John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. hail.
Additionally. For example. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. Generally speaking. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. sama.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. chan.)
About You and Name Suffixes
In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you.• • •
Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu.)
A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. names are usually not used alone. The ones you'll hear the most are san.
. so it is omitted. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. and kun. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. when speaking to that person.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. especially when talking to an individual." Actually. Once a person's name is known. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. as in English. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day.
company. And. because san shows that a closer. let's get back to you. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. hopefully. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. Customarily." but is now a "san. Parents add chan to their children's names. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. and playmates. Family. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. grandfather.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to.for a while. older brother or sister (but not younger). older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. names are often shortened before adding chan. use san with colleague's names. After the sale is made. Again. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider." This is normal and good. you can always ask. mother. friend's mother)
Chan is also used with the names of pets. and children add it to the words for father." This Japanese would be understood. time passes. and chan with girls. chan to female students. however. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. For those older. Now. real or pretended. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. As a safe rule. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. For example. Also. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. aunt. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. but would also
. more familiar (and. adult male neighbor. etc. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. though san is probably more common for females. at any rate. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. these are commonly used:
• • • • • • • •
otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. cousins. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. of course. kun with boys. unless an individual prefers chan. where anata is used for "you. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. grandmother. adult female neighbor. but to the title of those older. uncle.
it's a bit of a tongue twister. there's no problem. It's used quite a lot. (The children must eat. and narimasen means "will not become". as you'll remember from Lesson 15. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction. the fact is that it is very rarely used. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. and very odd. which shows familiarity.. change it to Base 1 ika. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. (Jim has to return now. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. So.
Base 1 + nakereba narimasen
This verb ending is not only a long one. (I have to go. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. Yes. It works fine. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you. toward the group concerned. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). but it conveys a certain distance. I may as well say here that much.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. the one left would be kimitachi. even some affection.)
You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. Accordingly. Anatatachi could be used. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -." Let's take iku (to go). There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used.". and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen.sound very stiff. which is the best choice when talking to large. So.) Looking at it literally. (Laura has to buy an umbrella.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. This can be handy when
.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. however. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". which changes the whole sentence to its plain form.. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. mixed groups. because it means "must do. the nakereba means "if one does not." Let's look at some more examples:
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. formal. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone).
as in "let him" or "make him. "I'll have him go to the store". More than memorizing its meaning. for yodan verbs. like deshou from Lesson 14. (Jim probably has to return now. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. seru. and saseru. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened":
• • •
Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. Good luck with nakereba narimasen.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. "I'll let him go to the store". like this:
• • •
Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru." can be conveyed.)
As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. are used for all of these. Accordingly.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou.
Base 1 + seru / saseru
These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. (The children probably need to eat.adding other endings.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. (I'll have him come tomorrow." suru is simply replaced with saseru :
.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. (Grandpa lets the children play. In Japanese. (I'll have John decide by next week. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. however. or feelings. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella.)
And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru :
• • •
Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou.)
With "suru verbs. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. mastering a clean. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. for the others.
• • • • •
Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. polite. past tense. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?)
Please review any of these endings you're not sure of.)
So. you won't hear or see "misaseru." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions.) Kanojo ni saseru. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00.)
As you can see." as in:
Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. like miseru. (I'll have her do it. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. kimeru: to decide kare: he. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. (He lets them watch TV every day.• •
Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. which means "to show" or "to let see.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. although miru is an ichidan verb. (Let's have John go to the store. (Dad will make Bob study. by tomorrow. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come
. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. etc. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. (I want to have Kenji study English. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning.
Not only should you be able to translate these.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. a shop iku: to go
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Base 3 + deshou
Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. shown in the last example above. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks.)
The verb furu. as explained in Lesson 1. Let's get back to deshou.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou." For example. As in English. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. (It will probably rain tomorrow. making the verb unnecessary." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Let's do a few more:
• • •
Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. But before we begin.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. Naomi wa terebi o miru. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -.
. so it is often omitted.the plain. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary.) Remember these examples?
• • • • •
Jim wa manga o yomu. her karera: they. means "to fall. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week.
Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. like
. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on:
• • •
(Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. (Bob will probably also want to go. right?)
Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. a rising intonation is used instead:
• • •
Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka.. (John should be coming soon.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?)
While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework
Base 3 + hazu desu
When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. Please note that ka is not added at the end. as we would use tag questions in English. etc. (You ought to study English more. snow.)
Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms:
Bob mo ikitai hazu." etc.
When showing personal preference.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ".) Inu no hou ga ii. "had better do". "would rather do. When you hear it.. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii." Actually..) Hawaii no hou ga ii. frankly. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no:
• • •
Yakiniku no hou ga ii. Word Check
. (I'd rather get a dog. but.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. (It would be better to go by train today. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. should happen. and according to the grammar books.)
Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method:
• • •
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. which was covered in Lesson 20." Examples:
• • •
(Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.should be.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii.should do.while hazu is more passive -.ni natte iru or beki. practice makes perfect. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. (We had better rest a little.way is good/better. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -. (It would be better to do it next week. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. (I should call her.)
As with most verb endings. (You should study Japanese more." and ii means "good" or "better. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings.
Base 3 + hou ga ii
This one is used for "should do". (It would be better to eat later. the hou means "way" or "method. As usual.
to understand inu: dog ima: now
. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. Word Check kare: he. him dekiru: can.)
Base 3 + ka dou ka
Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not.)
As can be seen in the examples above." It's straightforward enough and easy to use:
• • •
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (I don't know yet if we are going. ka dou ka does not end a sentence.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou.kanojo: she. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. It's like using "whether or not" in English. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.
" Let's look at a few examples:
• • •
Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. yes.)
Base 3 + kamo shiremasen
Though a bit of a tongue twister.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. so please be careful when pronouncing." Since this verb ending is rather long. As such. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. as in:
Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. and is conjugated accordingly.)
. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite:
Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. this one is used frequently. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. perhaps. (It might snow tomorrow. Therefore.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen.)
Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). look. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). (It might rain tomorrow.)
As you sharp ones have noticed. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow." These are incorrect. (We may eat out tonight. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). Simply put.taberu: to eat miru: to see. where it is converted to shireru (can know). watch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. so you'll want to master it right away. meaning that. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. (Jack may also come.
Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. In this case.I suggest. Let's do this to the above examples:
Kasa o motte ikimashou. tonight soto: outside kara: from
Base 3 + kara
Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. with its reason. denwa shimasu. (I don't want to go to Mr. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. honya ni ikimasu. (Beth is always late. Terebi o mitakunai kara. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. given after. let's take umbrellas. mise ni ikimasu. so I'll call her. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. they each become separate sentences.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. the reason or cause of the action:
Tabun ame ga furu kara. kasa o motte ikimashou. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. so his English is good.) Jisho o kaitai kara.) Ongaku o kikimasu." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. Itsumo okureru kara. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Word Check komban: this evening.)
In spoken Japanese. signified by kara at the end.)
. eigo ga jouzu desu. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. however.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. (We don't have any milk. (Since it will probably rain. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. you'll often hear the action stated first. grammatically speaking. Let's look at a few examples:
• • • • •
Gyuunyuu ga nai kara. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. so I'm going to the store.
keredo and kedo. but he's not good at it. (Although Jack is careful about his health. home iya na: bad.
. disgusting mono: thing. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. jouzu ni narimasen. it comes between the contrasting phrases. etc. as you can imagine.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. snow. skilled
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. just like English. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. no problem. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. heta desu.)
Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at. which means "from.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. but she doesn't get any better. as well as its shorter forms. Let's try some examples:
• • •
Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. (He speaks Japanese. he gets sick a lot." Just like English. nasty." so. yoku byouki shimasu. it's used a lot.)
Base 3 + keredomo
This one is used for "although" or "but.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. Again. Like "but" in English.
. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. let's look at each part. If you have to have a translation.)
Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu
Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. not good at something. reading as a noun [gerund])
Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki.) Finally. (I like reading. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . First is koto.. In English. Better than all this talk would be an example. koto has no practical use by itself. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. it really doesn't change the verb. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. be sick
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. It'll come." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. a lot. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3.)
The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading." Does this help? If not. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. No. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. Here are some examples:
. But first. like reading in the sentence I like reading. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. no problem. I like reading as a thing to do. Let's move on. Well. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. Next.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. Like our ing.
(Keiko can play the piano. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. (I can translate French into Japanese. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. (Bob was able to call Junko. etc. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. Again. actually for review -. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. expressions. you can just omit suru. Here are a couple more:
Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. and adding the suru makes it a verb. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. they're both used.• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. for kicks -. Kinou.)
Either way. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. it's a long ending for just "can.)
Now." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. There is a short alternative for other verbs. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. meanings. It does not
.no. (I can read Japanese. and see what happens:
• • •
Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. actions. For example.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita.let's try some other endings on dekiru." Denwa is a noun. essences. long or short. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. With "suru verbs. (I can't read French." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). in that case the suru is omitted.)
And let's throw in one with a plain ending:
(one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!)
Yes. (John wasn't able to study yesterday." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples.
Here are some polite present and past tense examples:
Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka.)
Base 3 + koto ni shimasu
The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. As I'm sure you know by now.)
. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. koto ni suru is the plain. and it shows that the decision was yours. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. It shows that you have made a decision.
(It's two weeks until summer vacation. (Wait until dinner. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. to let (someone) see. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. Made means "until. (We have to wait until Bob calls. watch (something)
Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita. (Mr. periods. etc. (I've decided to study Japanese every day. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. or seasons:
• • •
Yuushoku made machinasai. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. made may be used with nouns which refer to times.• •
Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita.)
Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end.)
Base 3 + made
This one is very easy.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou.)
As in English." and is added after the plain form of a verb:
• • •
Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen.
. as with English. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months."don't do's" -. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. Stay away from here!. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. and to whom. be careful how. like:
• • •
Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)
In this lesson we will make short negative commands -.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. a week-long period haru: spring
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. This is one that will probably not be used very often.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after. let's make the above examples negative:
• • •
Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!.)
Base 3 + na
This. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. you could say. you use it. but if you do. First. However. Stay away from me!)
Now let's add a few more:
• • •
Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!)
And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan:
Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!)
This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it.") ni: two shuu kan: a week.
They are used the same way and mean the same thing. he'll let me know.) Ame ga furu nara. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. kuru deshou. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. He thought he said. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones:
• • • • •
Base 3 + nara
This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. (If he sees Yuko. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.)
Sooner or later you will run into naraba.sentences with "if. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. they probably won't eat dinner. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. but nara is more common. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train
. watashi ni shirasemasu.) John ni denwa suru nara.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. (If the kids eat a snack now. which is just a slight variation. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.
words that connect a noun to an action. to make matters worse. which are examples involving a thing. And. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. things I'd like to explain. as I sit here and look at these four phrases." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here:
. that's another story.) yuushoku: dinner
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. page. there are no "relative pronouns. Let's look at these simple phrases:
• • • •
watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet)
Now." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. I can see several things which need to be explained. or omit them completely when they can get away with it.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. and lengthy. respectively. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well.. But. explanations.. As a quick review. they are like:
• • •
which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. to offer very general.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. For example.)
Base 3 + (any noun)
In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. but hopefully sufficient for the present. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. like in the first example above. a time. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. a place. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. In Japanese."
Of course. and a person. Japanese English.
they do not mean the same thing. since he or she will surely be hearing both.)
Since this is natural Japanese. but since Japanese has no equivalent. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. so tokoro is used after the verb." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. or a noun which needs emphasis. Continuing with the above example.)
In this one. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. and therefore omitted." as a relative pronoun. a truer English translation would be.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. automatically designates a place. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page:
Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. the English "where. For example. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. and so it would most likely be omitted. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. As you can see. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. ga tells us who will take the train. let's translate the first example at the top of the page:
Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). Kobe is a place. The problem is that the rules are
." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. back to the lesson: First. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. No is often used in place of ga.) In this sentence. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. densha (train) is the main subject. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. (My train leaves at eight o'clock." you might say. One more point of interest is the word purezento here.) Now. like our 's. a substitute noun must be used. As you may have noticed. Ga or no could be used here. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do. especially in informal spoken Japanese. and is handled by the final verb. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. a "sub-subject.
These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. produce.totally different in each language. and vice versa. semi-accurate rule. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. and when trying to make sense of one. you must forget all the rules of the other.
. and shouldn't be too difficult. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. the last example from the top:
Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. Finally. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. to cause to happen kisetsu: season
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Base 3 + no desu
There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. I hope this lesson was clear enough. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other.to high-intermediate Japanese.)
This one is pretty straightforward. As a general. (Spring is the season that brings new life. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". and are in the realm of mid. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave.
Japanese English. it IS going to rain tomorrow. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation.) katsu: to win
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. stomping around. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.)
As in any other language.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations.)
Remember these? I hope so. However. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. (Jim will read a comic book. (Grandpa will return soon. need. (Jim will read a comic book. If not. etc.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. unexcited intonation. (Grandpa will return soon. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.)
The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. if you want to emphasize something. (She IS coming. writhing. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2:
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Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. you put stress on the verb before no desu:
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Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!)
A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. (I tell you. as well as supporting body language like hand waving.)
. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". like this:
• • •
Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. you need to review.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. or habits of the speaker. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo. fist pounding.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.
except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time).) densha: train noru: to ride. Please consult a dictionary for more. Takamatsu-yuki. These are easy to keep straight when used in context.)
. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works:
• • •
Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. meaning "in spite of. rather. essential kanji: Chinese characters. etc." which we will cover later on.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. it's usually found somewhere near the middle.Base 3 + no ni
No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). remember daibun (or daibu): quite. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. specifically. There's nothing really tricky about it.)
Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question.
(Speaking Japanese is easy.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!)
Please remember that there are other no's.)
Word Check tanoshii: fun. boku no wa aka desu. Wa is the subject indicator. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. still not fukanou: not possible. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. (Jim's dictionary is blue. mine is red. like our 's. as in:
Jim no jisho wa ao de.Base 3 + no wa
Do you remember koto. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. (It really was a problem-free trip. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. Look at these examples:
• • • • •
Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. mainly the one used for possessives.
and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.). impossible saikou: great. the greatest.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. (Reading is enjoyable. as in:
Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. to not exist tabi: trip
For example. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way:
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O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.prefix makes it "honorific.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. If kara was used instead.)
Base 3 + node
Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. which is used to show reasons or causes.)
But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. use node. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. In this lesson we will take a look at node. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job
.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. she'll probably find a good job. In other words. the o. and is therefore preferred when people are involved.)
So. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. as in:
Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. (Since Eiko can speak English.
so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. (I was late even though I got up early.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. for the plain past.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. she won't listen. kanojo wa kikimasen. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"].)
Base 3 + noni
As promised in Lesson 33.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form.)
Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome:
Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!)
Noni is used a lot. Word Check yameru: to stop something. understand to be.) kiku: to listen. rumors. For example:
. etc. over there (usually emphasizes distance)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. which is used to mean "in spite of":
"Yamenasai" to iu noni. (Despite my telling her to stop. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.) asoko: there. to follow rules or orders. this short lesson is about noni. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru.) annani: that much. which is used for plain past structures.)
Base 3 + sou desu
Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard.
Takada's quitting.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite. A full-time employee will use shigoto. Japanese German. The actual word is arubaito. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. (I heard that Mr. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. in order to. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. They use a noun geared to their type of job." and is often followed by the optional ni. It means "that's right" and often follows hai.• • •
Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. a student will say baito. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". sou desu. Here are some popular ones:
.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita.)
Base 3 + tame ni
When you see tame. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). Take a look at these:
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Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. Word Check hiru kara: from noon. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. Japanese English.) As you have probably guessed. as in "Hai.)
Tame is a very handy word." (Yes.)
Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay." hajimeru: to begin
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. but is more often than not shortened to baito. that's right. it usually means "for the purpose of.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita.
Base 3 + to
There are four basic uses for to. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. In this case. Mom.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu.]) Hai. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain])
Tame is used a lot. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach.") It can mean and. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. receive.)
. (Okay. that's pronounced "toh. or even both:
• • •
Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. have (an interview). here are sample sentences with to as and and with:
Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. (Remember. with.• • • •
Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. (This is for you. (Kimiko came with Bob.)
For the curious. or if. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. [plain. when. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. (This is for you. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something.
but it is not generally used.)
Base 3 + to omoimasu
For better or worse.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. things you can do. to go) + taku (tai. and expected. While not specifically covered. I think it can be applied very easily:
• • • • •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. begin to want.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. to become to want to go -. of "party.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama).")
(Verbs are shown in their plain form." Iki (Base 2 of iku. Now that it's been explained. to want to do. (I think Ms. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.)
. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. use umi. Sasaki will call us soon.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. takunaru puts tai and naru together. Japanese English. (I think Koji will be late. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). When referring to the beach in Japanese. especially in the workplace.it's as simple as that. meaning "come to want. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. (I think Eiko can speak English. It means simply "I think. It's okay to have an opinion. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on.
) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). but it didn't. (I think it would be better to go by train today.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. us
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible.])
In a way. and it did. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. which was covered in Lesson 19. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here.As you can see from the last examples. Accordingly. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. or don't really have any control over something.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. the other Base 2 endings also apply:
• • • •
Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. like:
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. this ending is a lot like deshou.)
Base 3 + tsumori desu
. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. or have some control. care. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. don't really care. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. (I thought it would rain today [. towards me. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. omou can be used for plain speech. goes back. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. (I thought/knew it would rain today [.)
Deshita. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. (I plan to be back by three o'clock.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. etc. as you should know by now. day. is for past tense. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. technically speaking. Always use daigaku for university. their meanings are completely different. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. build up. hear the other verb tsumoru. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. that was a short one. S. hairu: to go inside (a room). (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow.)
. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. Well.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. You will." used a lot. In case you're wondering. to enter/enroll in (a school). so please be careful not to confuse them.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention:
• • • •
Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. While sounding alike.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools.)
Base 3 + you desu
You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English:
Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. add desu to make it polite. yes. to join (a club)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. which means "to accumulate. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!)
As usual. however.
2. sou desu means you heard. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. 3. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). AH. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. u as in mule EH.. e as in see OO. o as in mode
." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai.•
Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. etc.) mitai: it looks like. 4. First. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. baka: idiot. that something is or will be. Simply put. said so].) Ame ga furu you desu. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot.)
Base 4 + ba
After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be:
Ame ga furu sou desu. "you look like an idiot. directly or indirectly. a as in father EE. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. e as in red OH. 5. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. and show what Base 4 looks like.)
To be honest. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. fool
(Verbs are shown in their plain form..)
You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like.
Now. it's where you start. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs:
Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi-
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru
Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire-
Base 3 (plain form)
.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it." or "dictionary form. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form.
he'll let me know.. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. Here. (If the kids eat a snack now. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning.. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. they probably won't eat dinner.) Ame ga fureba.) John ni denwa sureba. (If he sees Yuko. (If you call John he'll probably come. converted to Base 4 + ba:
• • • • •
Now that we know how to make Base 4. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.])
This form of suggestion does not include the speaker.. (I want to call Grandma. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. covered in Lesson 30? Well. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. As we learned in the last lesson.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba. kuru deshou. however. o'clock] + han [half])
Base 4 + ba ii
In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.?":
• • •
Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. Do you remember Base 3 + nara." as shown in these examples:
Handy." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. Ii is Japanese for "good.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi  + ji [hour.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her.. watashi ni shirasemasu. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.
and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. However. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice. no. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. they are not completely interchangeable. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. In those situations different constructions would be used.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied
. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. [I still wish you would play outside.)
Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. soto de asobeba ii.)
As you can see. quirky ii does not. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. (I wish I had ordered the steak. (Around five. (We should have come at 8:00.• • •
Soto de asobeba ii. yes.) Mom. (It would be good if you played outside.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. By this stage of Japanese study. (The weather's nice. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. they both mean "good". yokatta. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. as in these example conversations:
Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. (Even though it would be nice to play outside.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. yoi is not used with noni. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made:
• • •
Hachiji ni kureba yokatta.) Naoko.) Kids: Terebi mitai.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (Now would be a good time to study. (We want to watch TV. is used after ba -. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. so it would be good to play outside. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision.)
For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. (I wish we had gone to the park. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings.
Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative
If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness.and known to all concerned. If you do.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. Or. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. Actually.) light shokuji: food."
. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out:
• • •
Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!)
One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. this is a form you really don't want to use. It's simple: no subject or object needed. and maybe even get into a fight. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. if you look and act like you know what you're saying.very handy when you get used to it. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. just use Base 4. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj.
(Keiko can't play the violin. Take a good look. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. Now.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. very useful.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. No problem. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. I remember when I first learned this one -. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru:
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. Simply put.it was like opening a new door. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. (He might be able to go next month. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned:
• • • • •
Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. It's very. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru.)
Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. It shows ability to do something.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs.
. they can be treated like plain ichidans. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. (I can read Japanese.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. which was covered back in Lesson 26. too. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. For example.)
Now. Here we realize an important point -.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow.)
Base 4 + ru
You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. to not give up
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. just like most ichidans. (Keiko can play the piano. (Keiko can play the piano.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. As such.
(I can't read Japanese. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it.)
.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. and I hope it will make sense to you.) raigetsu: next month
Base 4 + nai
In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative:
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Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. For example.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. this form is only meant for yodans. this is wasei eigo." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it.)
See how that works? As mentioned last time.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. which was covered in Lesson 13." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. (As you remember. If it helps. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. the "cannot do" plain form.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. Here are two we've already covered:
Jack wa korenai deshou. there are other nai-related endings that will work here.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. It made sense to me. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep). As you may have guessed. (Jack probably won't be able to come. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes.)
Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. (Keiko can't play the piano. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending.
Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can":
• • •
Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. an example of which was included in the last lesson.)
Again. you may wonder. but who cares? Everyone uses it. so I do too. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can).) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. but there are exceptions like the last example above. So.noru: to ride aruku: to walk
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Base 4 + reba
To be frank. this form is mainly for yodans. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods.)
. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. energetic.
let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs:
Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs:
Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri-
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru
Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere-
Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.Base 5
I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.tabe.kime. If you don't mind. First. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.koyou
. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.oboeru oboerekime.oboe.taberu tabereoboe.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs:
Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.kari. I think we'll cover them all in this lesson.
. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated.) Base 5 + ka
Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions:
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Ikou ka.. (I wonder if I should go shopping. (I wonder if I should call Bob. (Let's take a break." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite:
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Ikou. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. arukou ka na.) Yasumou.shi-
As you can see. (Maybe I'll watch TV.." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. (Let's go.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.) Terebi o miyou ka na. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa
This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should." Suru is shown plain. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. I just made that up. (Let's eat. oh. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). oo. Also. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure:
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Kaimono ni ikou ka na.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka.) Tabeyou. eh. (I think I'll go shopping. ee.. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. but is converted as necessary:
.) Base 5 + to suru
This one is to express "try to do (something).
I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize.• •
John wa koyou to suru to omou. miemasen deshita.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga.)
Te Form + kudasai
Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
These are the more useful Base 5 forms. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added. but he couldn't. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu
Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde
. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. As you have most likely guessed. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. (I think John will try to come. (Naoto tried to see the airplane.
like matsu (to wait). tashite. yonde.e. to put out [a fire]). yobu (to call out).aruite.
. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. tsunaide.kashite. like aruku (to walk). like isogu (to hurry). hataraite. like kasu (to lend).matte. like asobu (to play). The only yodan verb that ends in nu. motsu (to hold). nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. katte. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde.atte. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. motte. to ask). Yodan verbs that end in gu. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. Yodan verbs that end in ku. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. Yodan verbs that end in bu. nutte. Please note this one important exception: iku. keshite.. Yodan verbs that end in tsu. tonde. katte. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. not tsu). Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:
Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs:
Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite
Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
Te Form kite shite
Those yodans look pretty scary. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. It's important because it's used a lot.isoide. not iite. Let's take a closer look:
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Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. like au (to meet). kesu (to turn off. kau (to buy). kiite. kiku (to listen. tsunagu (to connect).asonde. nuide.
kaette. momu (to massage). (Go ahead. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. hairu (to enter). Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. kiite. (Come here.) Matte. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. totte. (Come at six o'clock. please eat. (Listen to this." "to go down. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?)
I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. tabete kudasai. like kaeru (to return).) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. kiku (to listen). technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. depending on the tone of voice used. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request:
• • •
As you can see.yonde.) Douzo. and kitte:
Koko ni kite. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. haitte. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. mild commands in familiar settings:
• • •
Rokuji ni kite. Yodan verbs that end in ru. When you start learning kanji. humble me. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans.) Chotto matte kudasai. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars." There are several handy variations of kudasai.• •
Yodan verbs that end in mu. For practice let's use kuru (to come). (Please come at six o'clock. and kiru (to cut). tsutsunde. (Please come at six o'clock. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. monde. (Wait.)
Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect.) Kore o kiite. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities:
• • • •
Rokuji ni kite kudasai. tabete. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. (Please wait a bit." "to lower (something).)
.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. It means "under. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. like yomu (to read).)
In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. but in Japanese we do. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka. (Go ahead and eat.
it works the same way with verbs in Te Form.)." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give.) Kono pen o agemasu. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour])
Te Form + ageru
In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. to give (up to someone). (Please give me that pen. showing a "humbler" position.)
Kore o kitte. to show respect.) Tabetakunakereba. I'll eat it for you. If you ask someone to do something for you." Ageru also means "to give.)
The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. (Cut this. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little.) Ato de denwa shite ageru. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples:
Sono pen o kudasai. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. tabete ageru." but it means "to raise. Now. you use the Te Form + kudasai. (I'll call you later. giving each equal time while making them short. (I'll give you this pen. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. (I'll wait for you. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. kiite: KEE-EETEH. as covered in the last lesson. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. (If you don't want to eat it.)
As you can see. just like counting 1-2-3. and kitte: KEET-TEH. you use the Te Form + ageru:
• • •
Matte ageru. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible.
Finally.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. and. it's a great convenience besides. which are chosen depending on the situation. the position of the giver or receiver. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. Don't use it. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. laces musubu: to tie.)
Notes 1. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. and will work nicely in most cases. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else:
Bob ni pen o kashite agete. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. However. as a general rule. in cases where there's a third person.)
There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible.In Japanese. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. as these examples show.
. It's for "talking down" to." It is disrespectful at best. string. (Lend Bob your pen. to connect
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. and showing contempt for others.
Te Form + goran nasai
Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. (Ask Bob and see what he says. See for yourself. which is used to prove a point. (It says he's 38. Itte goran nasai.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.)
Te Form + iru
That's how we use goran nasai. Yonde goran nasai. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are):
• • • • • • •
Bob ni kiite goran." You use it to ask someone to try something. pretty
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. usually in short. Go and see for yourself.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.) Tabete goran.) Mite goran.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. (Taste it and see if you like it. mild command-like sentences. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. (There is salt on the shelf. (Try calling Sanae. Read it for yourself. You never use it on yourself. Mite goran nasai.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. (Take a look. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something.
) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. (She is eating sushi. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). (I am here.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. Because of this. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite
. (We live in Takamatsu.) Watashi wa aruite iru. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. masen. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. in a way. [We are living in Takamatsu. For example. and not shiru. it works like English. we say "I know. when they really should use sunde iru. As you already know. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. in English we would normally ask a person. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. (Bill is studying Japanese. Especially important are masu. Look at these examples:
• • • • • • •
Watashi wa koko ni iru. mashita.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. "I'm knowing [it]. as in the fourth example above." So. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied.").]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. (Yesterday I slept all day." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). (Shizuko is eating. Let's review these through some Te Form examples:
• • • •
Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. (I didn't watch TV today. to exist. (I am walking. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does.) Kinou nete imashita.)
These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb. and masen deshita.])
It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. (I'm reading the newspaper.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. (He's not studying French. (They are reading a magazine. we can get away with using just "live" in English. [I wasn't watching TV today.
there is no single. but.imashita ka. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. it is even written this way -. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. imouto: little (younger) sister
.with the i in iru omitted -. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. to do (something) ko: kid. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. Finally. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. child Note: Strangely. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally.)
I know you're wondering.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English:
Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. (I was watching TV. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. In fact. For example. "woman-child" / "man-child"). like "kid" in English. so I'll tell you: "to play. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu.
and imouto for younger sister. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. otouto for younger brother. (They aren't reading a magazine. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara.Note: In Japanese. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. (The kids probably aren't studying. which makes them present or past progressive. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (They aren't reading a magazine.) Benkyou shite inakereba. Please look at the following examples.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. (If they're not studying. nani o shite iru deshou ka. (Sam's not here. (Sam's not here. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. there are many that can. infinitive and progressive:
. to exist.)
Te Form + inai
As mentioned in the last lesson. what are they doing?)
Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. which were covered in the Base 1 endings:
Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. and adding ra makes it conditional. First let's do some plain negative examples. ane for older sister. (We don't live in Okayama.)
Remember to use masen for polite speech:
• • •
Sam wa koko ni imasen." As such.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. (We don't live in Okayama. which are based on those used in the last lesson:
• • • • •
Sam wa koko ni inai. present and past. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs.)
We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai.
Te Form + ita
Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. However. (I didn't eat an apple. (I'm not eating [now].• • • • • • • •
Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?)
The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka." depending on the actual situation. (I haven't eaten yet. (I didn't eat an apple.)
Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). but also a much-
.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. vague and troublesome at others. "we could" could be "he could." as in:
• • •
Watashi wa mada tabete inai. which appears in the last example. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. since it is not only a Te Form ending. (I wasn't eating then. (I'm not eating [now]. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. In either. and goes especially well with plain ones. To make the meaning perfectly clear. Dekita. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. It's for asking questions. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. The last two above are good examples of this.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. (I wasn't eating then. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. to be able). which can be convenient at times. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball.
there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. As I'm sure you know by now. but no real friends or family members -. this would be two males speaking.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita.are going to speak so grammatically correct. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form:
• • •
John wa terebi o mite ita. Also. Soshite terebi miteta. In fact.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. (Bill was studying.)
There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really
.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. [I went shopping.]) Yes. I include the usual English translation. Just for the fun of it. (I went shopping. in settings where polite speech is called for. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. (I was doing shopping. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. (Really? I washed my car. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English.used element of conversational Japanese. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. Put simply. (Really? I was washing my car. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. (John was watching TV. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. ita is the plain past form of iru.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. [Really? I washed my car.) That's real Japanese. (They were reading a magazine. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. Soshite terebi o mite ita. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. upgrade ita to imashita.
be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. (Would you please come at two o'clock?)
And here are a few more variations that are often used:
• • •
Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka.)
As in English. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. meaning something like "I humbly partake.
.kuruma: car arau: to wash
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. Here are some examples." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. Because itadaku is a very polite word. as covered in Lesson 50.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. (Would you please call Mr. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. It can. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka.)
Te Form + itadaku / morau
Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. Oboete imasen ka. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. however. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation:
• • •
Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka.
. adding a masu ending makes it polite. morau works best when talking about a third party.as itadakimasu.)
This is a family situation. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. (Ken's not here now.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. Traditionally. but since we can't do that now. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. Ken ni itte moratte. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.) Ima shukudai o shite iru." When there's no need to be very polite. (I'm doing homework now. No particular reservations are needed here.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. As usual. it's just plain.)
This is the same family.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis." With itadakimasu. Also. (I'm doing homework now. I'll get Grandpa to go. Get Ken to go. and it can be at times. Make no mistake. even when the giver is not present. Morau is okay when referring to other things. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. morau is not impolite. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. itadakimasu is always used with food. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you.not as "respectful" -. but not quite as polite -. However. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. use morau instead of itadaku. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. this would be the best way to go. With kudasai.
If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. (May I please have your name?) Hai. (I had Ms. Murai go. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (I got one [already]. and these two are being courteous.)
Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka.)
Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. each home.prefix is used with strangers. Just like anywhere else. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. tell shorui: forms. (I'll give you a pen. customers. They probably don't see each other every day. clients.Itadakimasu is always used with food.)
This is at the office. documents. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. I got one. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. but she already has one and doesn't want another. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. (Sure. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. moraimashita. office. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. company.) oshieru: to teach. (Yes. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o.)
Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens.) Itadakimashita. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms)
the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). then add the Te Form of owaru.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.." as in:
• • •
Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. (Let's play baseball after school['s over].)
Te Form + kara
This one's a snap. you just make them the subject/object with ga.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. such as those two common ones work and school. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). (John's coming over after he does his homework. to come home owaru: to end. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain).) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.. such as summer to mean "after summer. (Let's go see a movie after work. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. (After I eat I'm going shopping. You can't use it directly after nouns.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.)
Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). With nouns that require the active participation of the subject." There are other ways to do that. which means "to finish":
Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. Word Check kaeru: to return.)
Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form.. Simple and useful.
and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. ogotte kureru no?.) And finally. you might say Ah.)
I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. repeated request. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. this is the "command" form of kureru. (Please wait. (Please come here. especially one that's already been turned down:
Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. which literally means "Oh. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure.) Matte kure. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. Again. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can
Use plain negative nai for an urgent. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. In fact. For example. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. and it would be offensive in some cases. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences:
Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?)
You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others:
Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. Kureru is used in generally the same way. It's good for family members and close friends. (Won't you please come with us?)
(Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. Some people add the question-forming no on the end.Te Form + kureru
In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. the "kure command":
Kite kure. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected.
PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as
. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. expresses future plans.)
Te Form + kuru / iku
As you already know.)
As can be seen. dreams. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. you'll see what I mean. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come." (If you say just ikimasu. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. with matsu: to wait
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one:
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Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. I think that the number of PC users will increase." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement." Usually upgraded with masu.sound nicer than with kure. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. etc. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. assumptions. depending on intonation. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese.) Sono tame. (I have been studying German history. (Because of that. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back.
(I ate before coming over.) Accordingly. We'll finish up with a few examples of these:
• • • •
Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. but should be easily understood. inexpensive. (I came to borrow a textbook. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no.)
Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general.) shiraberu: to check (something). combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. (Please come over [sometime]." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. but when uncertain.) Shirabete kuru.. or cuisine. combined with naru: to become."going away and not coming back. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.)
Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj. asobi ni kite kudasai. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking. food." See Lesson 40. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook
.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita.. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming.): cheap.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. (Let's go eat Chinese food. to examine. (I'll go check it [then come back].) Douzo. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are:
to entertain oneself.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga." but technically it's not one of those either." which makes this one easy to remember. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. with its own set phrases.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. Or. (Let's give this new PC a try. (I'll try to talk to John.. and adding miru. but it's not.)
Simple enough. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit.kariru: to borrow douzo: please."
. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. it acts like a "quasi adjective. go ahead asobu: to play. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion:
• • • • •
Kono kanji o yonde miru. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. In Japanese grammar. (I'll try to read these kanji.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu. Either way. but he wasn't in. Well." meaning that we'll give something a try." You may hear it often. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb..)
Te Form + miru
As you know. (I tried calling him. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it.
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. but don't take it literally. rusu deshita. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. miru means "to see.. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. For example.
so you should be a little familiar with it..)
Te Form + mo ii
This one is used to ask or give permission. you can use my dictionary.. that is the way it works grammatically. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use.. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas:
Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.?). As I've probably mentioned before. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii. in familiar situations as in the last example above. you can watch TV. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. In the workplace. It's an adjective which means "good.) Hai. as with all adjectives." "fine.. Yes. (Sure. or ka: ii desu ka (May I." "okay. There's usually something else added on. As with most Japanese. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay." etc. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation:
Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo.)
You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. however." "it's okay if (someone does something)." etc. positive response. like the object indicator o.). like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can. (Yeah. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.)
(Yes." Accordingly. terebi mite ii.. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44).) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?)
There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. (You can use my PC. (You may go home early today.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. you can also get away with omitting particles. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English.. as in:
• • •
Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo.
Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.
All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
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Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)
Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:
Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)
Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)
One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •
Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)
And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •
Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)
Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast
but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. If you do. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka.) Actually.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. (What do you think about buying a new TV?)
These are." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. but usually alone. You can say dou ka." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. polite. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go
. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. If you break a bone in Japanese. question-forming no -. but not ikaga ka. Instead. you can say it. familiar talk. You can't just say "I broke my arm.)
Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka
These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?":
• • •
Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. of course. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. You can omit the desu ka for plain. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. if you're going to use it in this way.these don't use it. do not add the plain. (Well. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However.
A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame).) Okurete wa ikemasen yo.. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. In fact. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. "You mustn't do that!". everyday setting. Also. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. (You can't take pictures. and you're bound to hear either of these. So. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!)
Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. "Naughty!". akan (Osaka). especially ikenai. (Don't be late. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. When placed after the Te Form with wa. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take
.. like ikan (Takamatsu). ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. "Thou shalt not. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. iken (Okayama). to make it even more colorful.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!)
Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. used in a normal. etc. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. etc.)
Te Form + wa ikemasen
Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises:
• • •
Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten:
Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh.
esa o ataete. First. (I got up at seven o'clock. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. which is easy to do. straighten up the room. ate breakfast. heya o katazukete. then go shopping. However. because tooru is a totally different vowel. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. meaning "to pass (by/over something).) Also. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. and [then] made my dinner. the kanji used for each meaning are different. Let's combine three actions into one statement:
Shizu ni denwa shite. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. some simple ones. hachiji ni ie o demashita. to take a picture with a camera. to take (steal) something from someone. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. heya o katazukete moratte.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go].)
As you can see.)
. and I'm going shopping.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. and left home at eight. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. (I've got to call Shizu. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. fed him. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. choushoku o tabete.)
Te Form for Continuing Statements
Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. like "take a bath. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue:
Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so).) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days.
Just for a quick check. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. a house deru: to leave. and simple. whose major purpose is to make things plain. to straighten up. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. past. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. When you're not sure.)
Ta Form: The Plain Past
We finally arrive at the Ta Form. just start a new sentence. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta
) Boku no kingyo shinda. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru
shinda asonda yonda kaetta
Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita
Ta Form kita shita
As with the Te Form. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out:
• • • • • • •
Shita. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them.) Kami kitta. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. (I watched TV.) Ginkou itta. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. (I did it.) Hon yonda.)
Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. (I ate lunch. (My goldfish died. There are cases where particles would never be cut. Also.) Terebi mita. In the long run. and only omit them when everyone else does. Once again. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. Let's do some real basic. there are limits.) Ohiru tabeta.
. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I read a book. (I got a haircut. (I went to the bank.
) Boku ga katta PC wa. even on a caterpillar. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi." it is used for "I got a haircut. beforehand. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read.)
. literally "hairbug." If we switch these around to yonda hon." There are a few of these. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. right? Let's do some more:
• • • • •
Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. I had someone cut my hair.)
As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6. roku nen mae ni katta. use kami. juu hachi man en deshita. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. Ke alone is hair — any hair. hon becomes the subject. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often. anywhere.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. (The cake Joy made was delicious. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do." Very handy.) Shinda kingyo wa." and is less formal than chuushoku.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before. For example. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. kiru: to cut.
(He's supposed to come at six.
. And. Due to this. Again. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. (If necessary. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. Instead. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. which will serve as a nice review. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. (He was supposed to come at six. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. Carefully note the similarities and differences. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. » deshou (Lesson 19):
Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. Since we have already covered these. the rest really isn't too difficult. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense.)
Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. please click the lesson links.)
» hazu desu (Lesson 20):
Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. For a more detailed review. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. use desu to make it polite. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons.)
Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3
Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. Base 3 is used for the plain future. these two share many add-ons and endings. as in the last example above. not deshita. root form of Japanese verbs. because deshita is the past form of desu. One past tense element is enough. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary.
. sensei ga okotta.) Kinou no ban.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Beth wa okureta kara. (I should have taken the train today. (I heard that Mr. Takada quit. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. For expressing regret.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21):
Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.)
» sou desu (Lesson 37):
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.)
» kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23):
Konban. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.)
Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii.)
» noni (Lesson 36):
Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. sensei ga okoru. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40):
Note: Yes. (It would be better to go by train today. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. I'm late every day. I was late. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (Even though I got up early. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. (I heard that Mr. (Even though I get up early. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if.)
» kara (Lesson 24):
Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou. Takada's quitting." Please don't make this mistake. (It would be better to go by train today.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22):
Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.
" sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day].)
Ta Form + bakari
To express "(did something) just now. (It looks like it rained. (Mom just got back. (I just cleaned this room.• •
Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. (I just ate. In other words. not with people or objects.)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ame ga futta mitai. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella." put bakari after a verb in its ta form:
• • • • •
Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. mai is used with units of time.) yameru: to quit a job. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji.)
» mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42):
Ame ga furu mitai.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.)
Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. (I just bought that umbrella. like something memorized from a grammar book.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. (It looks like it's going to rain. etc.
.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. snow. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii. (John just left.) John wa deta bakari. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. now that I think of it.)
In fact.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain.
I haven't. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is." usually as a complaint. Tabete mitai kedo. Once you get these sorted and memorized. I've been twice. (No.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari.)
As you can see. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. I have.)
Ta Form + koto ga aru
To talk about things you or others have experienced. you use the verb iku (to go)
. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. to go/come back deru: to leave. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari.. This is used after the Te Form. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). I'd like to try it." in Japanese. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.. tabeta koto ga nai. though. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). to do (familiar. (Yes. Nikai ikimashita. (All you ever do is eat. you'll find them very useful.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. arimasu. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (All that kid does is play computer games. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari.. (Yes.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.. First. like this:
• • •
Tabete bakari. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain.. The first is that when you ask "have you been to.
As in B's reply above. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. See Lessons 7 and 60.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something.. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice." but "I went twice. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. you don't use this form.. but regular past tense. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. I haven't read it yet." which.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If you call John he'll probably come. The second is that in using this form.) kedo: however. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba:
Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai.)
Ta Form + ra
Simply said." Finally. kare wa kuru deshou. [No. (If the kids eat a snack. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. (No. mada yonde inai.) John ni denwa suru nara.)
. kare wa kuru deshou. First. (If you call John he'll probably come.and literally ask "have you gone to. they probably won't eat lunch.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. let's review Base 3 + nara:
• • •
Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. to me.. not yet. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.)
Next.) John ni denwa sureba. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.
(I heard that Mr. this one seems to be preferred in everyday.) John ni denwa shitara. kare wa kuru deshou. to inform. (If you call John he'll probably come..)
Again. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. familiar conversation. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu:
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight.. Yes. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If the kids eat a snack. Takada's quitting. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). Takada's quitting.)
. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples:
• • •
Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.•
Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba.)
And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra:
• • •
Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai. Word Check oshieru: to tell... making it more formal than rashii. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal... but I personally have never heard it.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. they probably won't eat lunch. I think you'll find it easy enough to master. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko." "I hear that.)
Ta Form + rashii
Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). (I heard that Mr." etc. meaning "It seems that. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. According to the books.)
Desu is usually used after sou. they probably won't eat lunch. (If the kids eat a snack.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii.
Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru.)
Ta Form + ri
Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. shukudai o shitari shite imashita.)*
This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense.)
Now. yuushoku o tabeta. ongaku o kiitari.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one:
Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. and did some homework. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. then ate dinner. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66):
Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite.)
If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer:
Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. (Jim buys and sells old things. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. It can also be used for present or future happenings. and watch TV. (I read comics and stuff.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. (Last night I watched TV. (Last night after dinner I
. listened to some music. right? This is where you control the tense:
Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. some cleaning.That's all there is to it. If you want. terebi o mitari suru deshou. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. Word Check daibun: considerably. souji shitari. (I watched TV and stuff. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita.
Ta Form + to shitara
For suppositional statements. practiced the piano and things. Please review Lessons 53 and 55.watched TV.)
I realize that this is a run-on sentence.)
. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready:
Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. I'd really be at a loss. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. use the Ta Form with to shitara:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. * Note: While unnatural in English. listened to music for about two hours. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. ate lunch. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language. chuushoku o tabete. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. then did homework until one o'clock. then she made dinner.
watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen.)
To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. In fact. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain.)
As you can see. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. snow. tabun koukai suru deshou. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. you'd probably regret it. dou shimashou ka.• •
Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food..) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check hontou ni: really. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. you must remember that (something else). let's look at some examples to help make it clear:
Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. without doubt komaru: to be confused.)
Ta Form + to shite mo
This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. etc. (Even if you studied Spanish. (If you were to go swimming now. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning:
. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow.. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea." As usual.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.
the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. I was very surprised.)
Ta Form + toki
There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. (John's pants were torn when he fell..) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. (Even if I read the manual. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. he never gets full. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective])
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. zenzen ippai ni naranai.)
While not covered before. After the Ta Form. I can't understand this software. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39:
. For example.)
Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes.." Here are some examples:
• • •
Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. (No matter how much he eats. (When I read that.. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. (I laughed when I heard that. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen.• •
Setsumeisho o yonde mo. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.
was already covered in Lesson 69. in the least recent sense. (I just got back now. However. (I just cleaned this room. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. while tokoro really means just now.)
However. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it.•
Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. the Ta Form + bakari. or. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event:
• • •
Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. For example. to is usually used because of its flexibility. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns])
. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. (The kids just finished eating. it's still brand-new.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. sickness
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. add desu to make a statement polite. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari.)
As usual. One similar to this.)
Ta Form + tokoro
This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return.
. and aru for everything else:
• • • • •
Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai:
. (Carol is 25 years old. Tom wa iru yo. is.) Ashita wa ame desu. (Yes. (The dictionary is on the desk.)
You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu:
Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective):
• • • • •
Kare wa Tanaka-san desu..) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. aru is a yodan.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru.])
Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean
(Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Tomorrow it will rain.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (No.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. After nouns and adjectives. (Bob's sick. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. [I don't want to. (There's a spider on the wall. iru is used for people and animals.)
(Iru is an ichidan verb. You can add it to many statements to make them polite. (He is Mr.)
The plain form of desu is da." Generally speaking. desu makes things polite.) Bob wa byouki desu. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings:
Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. are. iru and aru
As you know.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. like something from the masu group. (That school is old. (There's a big tree in the park. etc. Tom's here.)
desu. Tanaka. (There's a big tree in the park. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.
(I don't have a dictionary. This is one that is rarely used these days. here it is: Among the several roles of de. (Sorry. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use. it is rarely used these days. state or condition. ima Tom wa inai.
.) Jisho wa nai. Japanese is no exception..) Jisho wa arimasen. Use desu instead. Again. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable.. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. Connected with aru it means "to exist as.)
And the polite forms would be:
Sumimasen. (Sorry.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry.)
Sumimasen.. and is especially used by children. Tom's not here now. ima Tom wa imasen. unpleasant. (I don't have a dictionary. one is "as. getting back to desu. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru." as in being in a certain position.)
Notes on Japanese Verbs
In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. excuse me jisho: dictionary
(Verbs are shown in their plain form." So. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. Tom's not here now. If you're really interested in the technical background.
(Here. active/passive forms. ageru. So that there is no misunderstanding. (Wendy collects old stamps. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive.)
Note: These two. Accordingly.) Hai. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. which is intransitive (has no direct object). atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. agaru is used for "come inside." When exchanging gifts. very rarely will they correct you. (Please come in.What makes it worse is the fact that very. agaru and ageru. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. I'll give you this. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. This is certainly not a complete list.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. They are not conjugations.)
kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide
Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). to give
Agatte kudasai. to collect
Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou.)
. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. (Please make up your mind quickly. have close ties with Japanese culture. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. to go/come up ageru: to raise up.
etc. use tetsudau. You were really a great help.. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. (Please continue looking for it. not a person)
Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!)
tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own)
Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. (I found a pimple." it's not.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!)
Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. as if it just found itself.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find
Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. Hontou ni tasukarimashita... (Thank you. » -su / -u
. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for).. like helping in the kitchen. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. For routine helping.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?)
Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru. to arrive (a package. Also. Strangely. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. to help
Arigatou. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. when you find something that was lost. tasukaru: to be of help.)
Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling.
(Grandpa went outside.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own)
Shuppi o herashite kudasai. (Let the dog out. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. (Please cut down on your spending. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?)
Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind.)
nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind
herasu: to decrease. (The copier is broken.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. (Be back by ten o'clock. Nokosanaide kudasai. to place + wasureru: to forget):
Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!)
orosu: to lower. to force out deru: to come/go out
Inu o dashinasai. to get off or get out of a vehicle
. Please don't leave any. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka.)
Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong)
Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. to put down oriru: to go/come down. (Eat all this. okay?)
kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken
Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta.) Kaigi ga owattara.
socks. (Put it down here.) Kemushi ga ugoita. as in:
• • •
Sono megane o kaketara. kimono.)
yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty
Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. etc. etc. (If you wear those glasses. warawareru deshou.)
Of course there are others. Here they are:
• • • • • • •
kiru: to wear around one's body.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. jacket. (Don't get your new shoes dirty.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. shoes. obi. like a name tag or pin
.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka.)
ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own)
Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. conversion can be done by:
• • •
yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru
and then conjugate accordingly. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?)
Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. (Don't move that machine. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta.• •
Koko ni oroshite. but these should give you a good start. a skirt. like a shirt. like pants. (My hat got dirty. dress. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. (This cake probably won't be eaten. you'll probably be laughed at. like a belt. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. etc. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. necktie." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. (The caterpillar moved. hameru: to wear on a finger. For most standard verbs.
Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai!
. and especially when talking about accessories. This completes Japanese Verbs. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.