Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + ita 56. Base 5 50. Te Form + goran nasai 53.44. Te Form + miru 61. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + kara 58. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + mo ii 62. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + kudasai 51. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + kureru 59. Base 4 + reba 49.

tsu. which means "to walk. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. not u." for example: it ends in ku. Remembering this will make further study much easier. Ta Form + tokoro 78. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . nu.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Ta Form + to shitara 75. bu. and irregular. su. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + bakari 70. Ta Form + rashii 73.67. but to be more precise. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. ku. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. Ta Form + ri 74. Let's take the verb aruku. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. which can end in u. mu. ichidan. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. gu. Ta Form + ra 72. desu.

watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. unless it was from another foreigner. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Naomi wa terebi o miru.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2. and also very juvenile or "familiar. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1.) This is very simple Japanese. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. (Naomi will watch TV.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb ." Interestingly. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. Some sources call these verbs godan.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. (I'll eat an apple.) Jim wa manga o yomu. (Jim will read a comic book. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan. but there is no difference. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. (Grandpa will return soon.

(Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . "adult" Japanese. yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. the present polite ending. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu.before the masu ending is added. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. (Grandpa will return soon. Since masu requires the Base 2 form. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate.their "Base 2" form -. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. (Jim will read a comic book.

(I'll decide tomorrow. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.) Kare wa machimasen. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. (Ayako watches the TV every day. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave. (He won't wait.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. and should not be worried about at this stage.) Now.) . there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. which is the negative form of masu. (Jerry will come out soon. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. let's try masen. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.) Jerry wa sugu demasu.

) Easy enough.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. etc. (Miki wants to see that movie. masen shows negative tense. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai.) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai. (The children want to play. (Bob wants to eat tempura. (I'm not going to eat now. To make them polite.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (The children didn't play at the park. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.) The above examples are plain forms. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen. (I want to buy an umbrella. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. . Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai.

Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something./I'll help you fix your bicycle. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. in this example. (Let's get you some food.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. (Let's go. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. (The children don't want to play. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. Add desu to make it polite. (I'll fix your bicycle.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative." you would use the adjective hoshii and say.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. For example. (I'll carry this/these [for you]." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura." For example: • • • Ikimashou.) Tabemashou.) * In Japanese. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o.) Yasumimashou. (Let's take a break. (Let's eat. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. but either way this one is easy to remember. and two use ichidan.) As in English. ." This structure will be covered later on.) Simple enough. and is never used alone with an object. It simply means "let's (do something). In fact. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you).

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow).) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. (Sachiko won't be coming. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. and should only be used in very informal settings. For example. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. Etc. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen.) Jim wa manga o yomanai. As in English. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form." as a matter of personal policy.) Sachiko wa konai. (I'm not going to watch TV. and suru (do). (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. kuru (come). .) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. Depending on the situation.) Watashi wa terebi o minai.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). (Jim doesn't read comic books. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu. which we already covered in Lesson 4. konai (won't come). Jim wa manga o yomimasen. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer. like Base 2 + masen. shinai (won't do).

(Grandpa will probably return soon.) Actually. etc. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. hail. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou.what will happen if something doesn't happen. Look at these examples: .) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. (It probably won't snow.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -. snow. (Sachiko will probably come. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings.

) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. chan. names are usually not used alone. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. The ones you'll hear the most are san. Once a person's name is known.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. and kun. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. especially when talking to an individual. sama. ." Actually. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's. when speaking to that person.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. so it is omitted. Generally speaking. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. For example. Additionally.) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. as in English. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask.

let's get back to you. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. at any rate. Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. names are often shortened before adding chan. For example. uncle. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. grandfather. For those older. real or pretended. Parents add chan to their children's names. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. Customarily. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members." This Japanese would be understood. where anata is used for "you. adult male neighbor. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. After the sale is made. etc. within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. however. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. and chan with girls. use san with colleague's names. and playmates. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. you can always ask.Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. of course. but would also . And. aunt. chan to female students. mother. hopefully. company. and children add it to the words for father. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. but to the title of those older. more familiar (and. because san shows that a closer. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework. as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. cousins.for a while. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets." This is normal and good. Now. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt. kun with boys. grandmother. unless an individual prefers chan. older brother or sister (but not younger). A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. As a safe rule. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. Also." but is now a "san. though san is probably more common for females. Again. time passes. adult female neighbor. Family. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know.

and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen." Let's take iku (to go). the ending becomes nakereba naranai. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. It works fine. and narimasen means "will not become". (I have to go. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. Anatatachi could be used. the fact is that it is very rarely used.". toward the group concerned. however.sound very stiff. mixed groups. (Jim has to return now.) Looking at it literally.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. and very odd. So. change it to Base 1 ika. the nakereba means "if one does not. So. but it conveys a certain distance. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. (The children must eat. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you.) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). which shows familiarity. formal.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. it's a bit of a tongue twister. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do.. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful. there's no problem. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. Accordingly. I may as well say here that much. which is the best choice when talking to large. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. Yes. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. because it means "must do. It's used quite a lot. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. the one left would be kimitachi. This can be handy when .. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka". even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. even some affection. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen.

and saseru." can be conveyed. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances.adding other endings.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. seru. (The children probably need to eat. (I'll have him come tomorrow. Accordingly. like deshou from Lesson 14. (I'll have John decide by next week.) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. mastering a clean. as in "let him" or "make him.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. In Japanese. however. (Grandpa lets the children play. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. for the others. or feelings. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. "I'll let him go to the store". you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. More than memorizing its meaning. "I'll have him go to the store". Good luck with nakereba narimasen." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru.) With "suru verbs. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (Jim probably has to return now. for yodan verbs. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. are used for all of these.

" As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions.) As you can see. kimeru: to decide kare: he. like miseru. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. (I want to have Kenji study English. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. which is signified by adding ni afterwards. you won't hear or see "misaseru. polite." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb.) Kanojo ni saseru. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of. (He lets them watch TV every day. (Let's have John go to the store. etc. by tomorrow.) So.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. which means "to show" or "to let see. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. past tense. although miru is an ichidan verb. (Dad will make Bob study.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. (I'll have her do it. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .

a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -. But before we begin. (It will probably rain tomorrow. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. as explained in Lesson 1. the fact that the rain will fall is understood. Watashi wa ringo o taberu.the plain. shown in the last example above. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). Mama wa mise de banana o kau. As in English. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. making the verb unnecessary.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. Let's get back to deshou. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). so it is often omitted." For example. . Naomi wa terebi o miru. means "to fall. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. Not only should you be able to translate these.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu.) The verb furu. her karera: they. them eigo: the English language mise: a store.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou.

(Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. etc. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu." etc. snow.. (You ought to study English more.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain.) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu. as we would use tag questions in English. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. (Bob will probably also want to go. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. Please note that ka is not added at the end. (John should be coming soon.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. like .

but.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii.should do. the hou means "way" or "method. should happen. (You should study Japanese more. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. "had better do". just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them. (We had better rest a little. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do"." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii.way is good/better. practice makes perfect. (It would be better to go by train today. When you hear it. (It would be better to do it next week. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.) When showing personal preference.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.) Inu no hou ga ii. I hope to cover them in more detail later on. frankly. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii.. (I'd rather get a dog. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. "would rather do. As usual.) As with most verb endings.. and according to the grammar books." Actually. which was covered in Lesson 20.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. prefer -.) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii." and ii means "good" or "better. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. Word Check . (I should call her.while hazu is more passive -.should be.ni natte iru or beki. (It would be better to eat later.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.

) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. (I don't know yet if we are going. It's like using "whether or not" in English.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. him dekiru: can. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) As can be seen in the examples above. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. Word Check kare: he. to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. to understand inu: dog ima: now . The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear.kanojo: she.

as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. As such.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. so you'll want to master it right away.) ." Since this verb ending is rather long. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen.taberu: to eat miru: to see. (It might snow tomorrow. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). where it is converted to shireru (can know).) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai)." These are incorrect. so please be careful when pronouncing. and is conjugated accordingly. (We may eat out tonight. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo. meaning that. yes. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. perhaps.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. (It might rain tomorrow. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. (Jack may also come. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. look. Simply put. this one is used frequently. Therefore.) As you sharp ones have noticed.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known.

Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara.) Jisho o kaitai kara.) Ongaku o kikimasu. denwa shimasu. they each become separate sentences. (Since it will probably rain. let's take umbrellas. Tabun ame ga furu kara. Itsumo okureru kara. so I'm going to the store.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. (Beth is always late. grammatically speaking.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. you'll often hear the action stated first. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. (I'll call Beth because she's always late.) .) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. given after.) In spoken Japanese. In this case. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain. so I'll call her. with its reason. Terebi o mitakunai kara. kasa o motte ikimashou. mise ni ikimasu. (We don't have any milk.I suggest. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. honya ni ikimasu. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. (I don't want to go to Mr. however. eigo ga jouzu desu. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. so his English is good. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. signified by kara at the end. Word Check komban: this evening.

(Keiko practices the piano a lot. just like English. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. home iya na: bad. ." so. disgusting mono: thing. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. etc. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. he gets sick a lot. Again. (He speaks Japanese. which means "from. heta desu. no problem. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. yoku byouki shimasu. snow.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. nasty.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. it's used a lot.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but. keredo and kedo." Just like English. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. but he's not good at it. (Although Jack is careful about his health. jouzu ni narimasen. as well as its shorter forms. it comes between the contrasting phrases.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. Like "but" in English. as you can imagine. but she doesn't get any better.

Let's move on. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one.. not good at something. Here are some examples: . In English.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. a lot. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. let's look at each part.) Finally. Like our ing. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. But first. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . it really doesn't change the verb.. Better than all this talk would be an example." Does this help? If not. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. I like reading as a thing to do. no problem. No." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. If you have to have a translation. It'll come. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. Well.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. koto has no practical use by itself. like reading in the sentence I like reading. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. (I like reading. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at. First is koto. Next.

you can just omit suru. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. actually for review -. and adding the suru makes it a verb. (I can translate French into Japanese.) Either way. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. (Bob was able to call Junko.no. for kicks -.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita." Denwa is a noun. they're both used. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. Kinou. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. There is a short alternative for other verbs. (Keiko can play the piano.) Now. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. With "suru verbs. (I can read Japanese. Again. actions.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. it's a long ending for just "can. meanings." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. etc. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. essences.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. For example. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru.let's try some other endings on dekiru. in that case the suru is omitted. (I can't read French. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. expressions." It generally means intangible "things": ideas. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one).) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. long or short. (John wasn't able to study yesterday.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. It does not .

to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. and it shows that the decision was yours. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson. It shows that you have made a decision. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. koto ni suru is the plain. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru.mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. As I'm sure you know by now. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. koto ni shimasu is the polite form.) .

(We have to wait until Bob calls. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. periods. etc.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.) As in English. to let (someone) see.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (Wait until dinner.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita. Made means "until.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. watch (something) . (It's two weeks until summer vacation.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show. (I've decided to study Japanese every day.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (Mr.

in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. First.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. is the counterpart to Lesson 10."don't do's" -. . it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. you use it. Stay away from here!.) Base 3 + na This. However. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. but if you do. be careful how. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. as with English. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. and to whom. you could say. This is one that will probably not be used very often.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after.

They are used the same way and mean the same thing. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. (If you call John he'll probably come.sentences with "if. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. (If the kids eat a snack now. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara.) Ame ga furu nara. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. but nara is more common. (If he sees Yuko.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. which is just a slight variation. watashi ni shirasemasu.) John ni denwa suru nara. he'll let me know. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . (If it rains we're sure to get wet.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -. He thought he said. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. they probably won't eat dinner. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. kuru deshou.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.

noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. like in the first example above. a time. In Japanese. but hopefully sufficient for the present. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. to make matters worse. or omit them completely when they can get away with it. there are no "relative pronouns. I can see several things which need to be explained." Of course.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . words that connect a noun to an action. that's another story. explanations. But. And." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. respectively. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. As a quick review.. and lengthy." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life. a place. which are examples involving a thing. For example.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns. page.." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. things I'd like to explain. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. and a person. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. to offer very general. Japanese English. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well.

a "sub-subject. like our 's. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). so tokoro is used after the verb. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. and is handled by the final verb. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. automatically designates a place. and therefore omitted.) In this one. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. back to the lesson: First. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. (That is Kimiko's umbrella." as a relative pronoun. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. a substitute noun must be used. Ga or no could be used here. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. The problem is that the rules are . (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. but since Japanese has no equivalent. For example. a truer English translation would be. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu." you might say. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do.) In this sentence. and so it would most likely be omitted. No is often used in place of ga. since he or she will surely be hearing both. they do not mean the same thing. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. the English "where. or a noun which needs emphasis." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence. As you can see. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works. especially in informal spoken Japanese. densha (train) is the main subject." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. Kobe is a place.) Now. ga tells us who will take the train. As you may have noticed. Continuing with the above example.) Since this is natural Japanese. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu.

you must forget all the rules of the other. and vice versa. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones.totally different in each language. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. As a general. and are in the realm of mid. and when trying to make sense of one.to high-intermediate Japanese.) This one is pretty straightforward. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. I hope this lesson was clear enough. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. Finally. semi-accurate rule. Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". . and shouldn't be too difficult. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. (Spring is the season that brings new life. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. produce. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu.

) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. unexcited intonation. or habits of the speaker. (Jim will read a comic book. stomping around. writhing.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. etc. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. you need to review.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations.) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of). Word Check anta: familiar form of "you". you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. it IS going to rain tomorrow. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. Japanese English. as well as supporting body language like hand waving.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. (Jim will read a comic book. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. (Grandpa will return soon. if you want to emphasize something. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Remember these? I hope so. (I tell you. fist pounding. However.) As in any other language. (She IS coming.) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. If not. need. (Grandpa will return soon. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) .

Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. etc. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). remember daibun (or daibu): quite. meaning "in spite of. specifically. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. Takamatsu-yuki." which we will cover later on. Please consult a dictionary for more. rather. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. There's nothing really tricky about it. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. essential kanji: Chinese characters. (Verbs are shown in their plain form. These are easy to keep straight when used in context.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary.) densha: train noru: to ride.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn.) . where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question.

). difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. (It really was a problem-free trip.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. (Jim's dictionary is blue.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. to not exist tabi: trip . enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto. (Speaking Japanese is easy. mine is red. the greatest. mainly the one used for possessives.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. Wa is the subject indicator.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. boku no wa aka desu. like our 's. (Reading is enjoyable. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. impossible saikou: great. still not fukanou: not possible. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]).

as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. In other words.prefix makes it "honorific. (Since Eiko can speak English. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. which is used to show reasons or causes. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. use node. For example. In this lesson we will take a look at node. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question.) So. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context. she'll probably find a good job.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. If kara was used instead.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job . the o.

) Hayaku okita noni okureta. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. (I was late even though I got up early.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form. she won't listen.) asoko: there. which is used for plain past structures. to quit a job or habit iu: to say. rumors. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"]. For example: . etc.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot.) annani: that much. to follow rules or orders. (Despite my telling her to stop.) kiku: to listen. kanojo wa kikimasen. this short lesson is about noni. understand to be. Word Check yameru: to stop something.) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. for the plain past. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it.

meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". it usually means "for the purpose of. in order to. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. A full-time employee will use shigoto.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. Word Check hiru kara: from noon.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame." and is often followed by the optional ni. that's right. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. The actual word is arubaito. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. sou desu.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo." (Yes. a student will say baito. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". Takada's quitting. as in "Hai. Japanese German.) As you have probably guessed. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. They use a noun geared to their type of job. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. Japanese English. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. (I heard that Mr. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita.) Tame is a very handy word. but is more often than not shortened to baito. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns. Here are some popular ones: . and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. Mom. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. (This is for you.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. that's pronounced "toh. when. (This is for you. In this case. have (an interview). (Okay.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [Use no when putting a noun after tame.]) Hai.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. or if. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. with.") It can mean and.) . (Remember. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu. [plain. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. receive. here are your air tickets to Hawaii. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.) For the curious. (Kimiko came with Bob.

to become to want to go -.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. to go) + taku (tai. begin to want. When referring to the beach in Japanese. of "party. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. Sasaki will call us soon. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. (I think Eiko can speak English. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. (I think Koji will be late. (I think it'll rain tomorrow. Japanese English. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. things you can do. to want to do.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. Now that it's been explained. meaning "come to want. takunaru puts tai and naru together. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. While not specifically covered.it's as simple as that. It means simply "I think.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be).) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu. and expected.) ." Iki (Base 2 of iku.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). use umi. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. (I think Ms. It's okay to have an opinion. but it is not generally used. especially in the workplace. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on.

(I thought/knew it would rain today [.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. or have some control. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. (I don't think Eiko can speak English. (I didn't think that Koji would be late.) Again. (I think the kids want to go to the beach.]) In a way. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. goes back. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. don't really care. omou can be used for plain speech.As you can see from the last examples. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above. or don't really have any control over something. People will use to omoimasu even when they know. towards me. comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. which was covered in Lesson 19.) Base 3 + tsumori desu .) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. but it didn't. care. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree).) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. (I think it would be better to go by train today. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. Accordingly. (I thought it would rain today [. and it did. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. this ending is a lot like deshou.

to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. hear the other verb tsumoru.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. day. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. yes.Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. is for past tense. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh. however. their meanings are completely different. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. Well.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. that was a short one. add desu to make it polite. Always use daigaku for university. so please be careful not to confuse them. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. which means "to accumulate.) .) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. While sounding alike. In case you're wondering. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. to enter/enroll in (a school). technically speaking. S. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. Deshita. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. build up. hairu: to go inside (a room)." used a lot. as you should know by now. etc. You will.

(It's going to rain [because the weatherman.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. First. Simply put. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. e as in see OO." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1..) mitai: it looks like. sou desu means you heard. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. directly or indirectly. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. baka: idiot. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. said so].) Ame ga furu you desu.. u as in mule EH. 5. a as in father EE." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. AH. "you look like an idiot. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). 3. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. e as in red OH.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. 2. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. etc. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. that something is or will be. and show what Base 4 looks like. 4.) To be honest. o as in mode .

Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 ." or "dictionary form." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. it's where you start.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. Now. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form.

. (If he sees Yuko. covered in Lesson 30? Well. they probably won't eat dinner. however. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. kuru deshou. he'll let me know. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. (I want to call Grandma. As we learned in the last lesson.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba.) Ame ga fureba.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker. (If you call John he'll probably come.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba.) John ni denwa sureba. (If the kids eat a snack now. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour. (If it rains we're sure to get wet.. watashi ni shirasemasu. Ii is Japanese for "good.) Handy. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something..?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta.. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train." as shown in these examples: . Here. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning.

(The weather's nice. (Now would be a good time to study.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. is used after ba -. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. so it would be good to play outside. yokatta. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. However.) Kids: Terebi mitai. (We should have come at 8:00.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.) Naoko. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. By this stage of Japanese study. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. In those situations different constructions would be used. soto de asobeba ii. (Around five. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. yes.) Mom. [I still wish you would play outside. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. yoi is not used with noni. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. they both mean "good".) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. no.) • As you can see. quirky ii does not. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. they are not completely interchangeable. (I wish we had gone to the park. (It would be good if you played outside. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. (We want to watch TV. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal. (I wish I had ordered the steak. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense.• • • Soto de asobeba ii.

) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event.very handy when you get used to it. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. this is a form you really don't want to use. If you do. just use Base 4. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki.) light shokuji: food. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj. Actually.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. Or. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally." . please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. and maybe even get into a fight. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability.and known to all concerned. It's simple: no subject or object needed.

they can be treated like plain ichidans.it was like opening a new door. (Keiko can't play the violin. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. .) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. (Keiko can play the piano. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. (Keiko can play the piano.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. For example. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. just like most ichidans. too.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. (I can read Japanese. which was covered back in Lesson 26.) Now. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. Take a good look. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. Now. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. Here we realize an important point -. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. Simply put. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. It's very. As such.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. (He might be able to go next month. very useful. It shows ability to do something. No problem. I remember when I first learned this one -.

Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. this form is only meant for yodans. this is wasei eigo. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. (Keiko can't play the piano. and I hope it will make sense to you. which was covered in Lesson 13. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. (As you remember. there are other nai-related endings that will work here." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. there are many exceptions among the ichidans.) . the "cannot do" plain form. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. (I can't read Japanese. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. It made sense to me. As you may have guessed.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. (Jack probably won't be able to come. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep).) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. If it helps. For example. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow.) See how that works? As mentioned last time.

) Base 4 + reba To be frank.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. So. as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. but who cares? Everyone uses it. an example of which was included in the last lesson.) . this form is mainly for yodans. you may wonder. energetic.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better.) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou.) Again. so I do too. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. but there are exceptions like the last example above.

kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.kime.kimeru kimerededederu derekari.tabe.koyou . I think we'll cover them all in this lesson. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. If you don't mind.oboeru oboerekime. First.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.taberu tabereoboe.kari. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.oboe. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities.

. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. (Let's eat. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). I just made that up. Also." Suru is shown plain.) Tabeyou.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see.. (Let's take a break. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something). in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. (Let's go. arukou ka na. eh. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa.. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka.. (Maybe I'll watch TV. oh.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa. (I think I'll go shopping. (I wonder if I should call Bob.) Terebi o miyou ka na. ee.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. but is converted as necessary: . (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. oo.) Yasumou. so stretch it out a bit when you use it.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara. (I wonder if I should go shopping.

Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde .) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. but he couldn't. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. (I think John will try to come. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. miemasen deshita. As you have most likely guessed. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings.

asonde.aruite. to ask). Yodan verbs that end in tsu. kiite. hataraite.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. tsunagu (to connect). katte.isoide. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. Please note this one important exception: iku. kesu (to turn off. keshite. not iite. kau (to buy). nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. katte. like isogu (to hurry).atte. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. tonde. kiku (to listen. Yodan verbs that end in ku. like matsu (to wait). Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. The only yodan verb that ends in nu. yobu (to call out). Yodan verbs that end in bu. nuide.e. tsunaide. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. nutte. Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. like aruku (to walk). motte. like au (to meet). yonde. tashite. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte.kashite.matte.. Yodan verbs that end in gu. like kasu (to lend). not tsu). like asobu (to play). tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. to put out [a fire]). shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. . motsu (to hold). It's important because it's used a lot.

(Come at six o'clock. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. momu (to massage).) Matte. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. and kiru (to cut). please eat. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. like yomu (to read). technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly.) Chotto matte kudasai. (Come here. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. tabete. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu. When you start learning kanji. Yodan verbs that end in ru. (Go ahead. totte. (Listen to this. (Please wait a bit." etc.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -. humble me. As you can see. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time.yonde. the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars.) Douzo." There are several handy variations of kudasai. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here.) Kore o kiite. For practice let's use kuru (to come)." "to lower (something). mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite.kaette. (Wait.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. kiku (to listen). but in Japanese we do. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. monde. tsutsunde.) . and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. (Please come at six o'clock. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. hairu (to enter). Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. tabete kudasai. (Go ahead and eat. kiite. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. It means "under. depending on the tone of voice used." "to go down. (Please come at six o'clock. haitte. like kaeru (to return). you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched.

to show respect. I'll eat it for you. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6.) Ato de denwa shite ageru." but it means "to raise. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables.) Kono pen o agemasu. (I'll wait for you. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give. (If you don't want to eat it. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. (I'll call you later. showing a "humbler" position. tabete ageru.• Kore o kitte.) As you can see. (Please give me that pen." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. (Cut this.). Now. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. (I'll give you this pen.) Tabetakunakereba." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. giving each equal time while making them short. you use the Te Form + kudasai. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. and kitte: KEET-TEH. as covered in the last lesson. kiite: KEE-EETEH. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me)." Ageru also means "to give. just like counting 1-2-3. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. If you ask someone to do something for you.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. to give (up to someone).) .

1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. and showing contempt for others. as a general rule. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. Finally. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. (Lend Bob your pen. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. in cases where there's a third person.In Japanese. .) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. It's for "talking down" to. laces musubu: to tie. string. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. However. which are chosen depending on the situation. Don't use it. as these examples show.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese. and will work nicely in most cases." It is disrespectful at best. it's a great convenience besides.) Notes 1. the position of the giver or receiver. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. and.

) Te Form + iru . See for yourself." You use it to ask someone to try something.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. (Ask Bob and see what he says. Itte goran nasai.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now.) Mite goran. Go and see for yourself.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo.) That's how we use goran nasai. (It says he's 38. mild command-like sentences. (Try calling Sanae. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. (Taste it and see if you like it.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. usually in short. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.) Tabete goran.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. Read it for yourself. (Take a look. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. which is used to prove a point. You never use it on yourself. (There is salt on the shelf. Mite goran nasai. Yonde goran nasai.

we can get away with using just "live" in English. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. For example. in a way. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese.) Watashi wa aruite iru. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. "I'm knowing [it]. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]).) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. and not shiru. in English we would normally ask a person.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. as in the fourth example above. (They are reading a magazine. (We live in Takamatsu. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. and masen deshita." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard. This is probably the most used verb form of them all." So.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. [We are living in Takamatsu. (Bill is studying Japanese. Even though living in a place is present and progressive. it works like English. (Yesterday I slept all day. we say "I know." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb.) Kinou nete imashita. masen. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. (I am here. to exist. which were covered in the Base 2 endings. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. As you already know. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . [I wasn't watching TV today.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. (He's not studying French. it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. (I am walking. Especially important are masu. (She is eating sushi. (I'm reading the newspaper. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). (Shizuko is eating. mashita. (I didn't watch TV today. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. when they really should use sunde iru.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. Because of this.").]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru.

it is even written this way -. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. (I was watching TV.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. like "kid" in English. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. Finally. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. These can be shortened to ko in many situations.) I know you're wondering. child Note: Strangely. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy. so I'll tell you: "to play. In fact.imashita ka. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. but. For example.with the i in iru omitted -. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. imouto: little (younger) sister . "woman-child" / "man-child"). to do (something) ko: kid. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. there is no single.

(Sam's not here. and imouto for younger sister. (We don't live in Okayama.Note: In Japanese. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. (The kids probably aren't studying. there are many that can. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object.) Benkyou shite inakereba. Please look at the following examples.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai. (They aren't reading a magazine.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. (Sam's not here. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. infinitive and progressive: .) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. (They aren't reading a magazine. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. (We don't live in Okayama. present and past.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. nani o shite iru deshou ka. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. which makes them present or past progressive. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. and adding ra makes it conditional.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. otouto for younger brother." As such. (If they're not studying. ane for older sister. First let's do some plain negative examples. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. to exist. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be.

(I'm not eating [now]. To make the meaning perfectly clear. to be able). and goes especially well with plain ones.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. (I'm not eating [now]. (I didn't eat an apple. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu.) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. (I didn't eat an apple. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. In either. which can be convenient at times. (I wasn't eating then. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. (I haven't eaten yet. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. "we could" could be "he could. but also a much- . It's for asking questions.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. which appears in the last example. Dekita." depending on the actual situation. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. The last two above are good examples of this." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. vague and troublesome at others. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. (I wasn't eating then. since it is not only a Te Form ending. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). However. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou.

Also. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. Soshite terebi miteta. but no real friends or family members -. upgrade ita to imashita. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. [Really? I washed my car.are going to speak so grammatically correct. (I went shopping.) That's real Japanese. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . Put simply. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. (Really? I washed my car.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type.]) Yes. (Really? I was washing my car.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. this would be two males speaking.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. (They were reading a magazine. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. Soshite terebi o mite ita.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. Just for the fun of it.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. in settings where polite speech is called for. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. ita is the plain past form of iru.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. [I went shopping. I decided to go ahead and cover it here.used element of conversational Japanese. (John was watching TV. (I was doing shopping. I include the usual English translation. As I'm sure you know by now. (Bill was studying. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. In fact.

. Oboete imasen ka. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. Because itadaku is a very polite word. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. however.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Would you please call Mr. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. Here are some examples. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. as covered in Lesson 50. It can. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan.) As in English. meaning something like "I humbly partake. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes.

itadakimasu is always used with food. (I'm doing homework now. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. it's just plain." When there's no need to be very polite. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. Morau is okay when referring to other things. Ken ni itte moratte. As usual. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. Make no mistake. and it can be at times. use morau instead of itadaku.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. adding a masu ending makes it polite. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. Traditionally.) This is the same family. Get Ken to go. However. but since we can't do that now. morau works best when talking about a third party." With itadakimasu. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.) This is a family situation. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. (I'm doing homework now. this would be the best way to go.as itadakimasu. morau is not impolite.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai.not as "respectful" -. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. I'll get Grandpa to go. even when the giver is not present. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. No particular reservations are needed here. but not quite as polite -. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. With kudasai. (Ken's not here now. Also.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai.) .

Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka.) Itadakimashita. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. (I got one [already]. each home. etc. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities. tell shorui: forms.prefix is used with strangers. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Murai go. (Sure.) This is at the office. documents. They probably don't see each other every day. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. (Yes. office. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. I got one. Just like anywhere else.) oshieru: to teach. but she already has one and doesn't want another. moraimashita. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. and these two are being courteous. (May I please have your name?) Hai. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens. clients.Itadakimasu is always used with food. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. company. customers. (I'll give you a pen. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. (I had Ms.

to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun).) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou. such as summer to mean "after summer. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]..) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. (Let's go see a movie after work. You can't use it directly after nouns." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku." There are other ways to do that.. (After I eat I'm going shopping. to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). such as those two common ones work and school. which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. Simple and useful.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form. you just make them the subject/object with ga. the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something).) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. then add the Te Form of owaru.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later).) Te Form + kara This one's a snap. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back. (John's coming over after he does his homework. to come home owaru: to end..) .) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou. Word Check kaeru: to return. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. (Let's play baseball after school['s over].

) And finally. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. (Please wait. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. repeated request. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can .) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. Again. In fact. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. ogotte kureru no?.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. you might say Ah. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. Kureru is used in generally the same way. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. It's good for family members and close friends. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. and it would be offensive in some cases. this is the "command" form of kureru. which literally means "Oh. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. (Please come here. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room.) Matte kure. For example.

assumptions.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form. expresses future plans. dreams.) Sono tame." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou." Usually upgraded with masu. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. you'll see what I mean. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. I think that the number of PC users will increase. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. depending on intonation. (Because of that. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. (I have been studying German history. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou.sound nicer than with kure." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as . kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. etc." (If you say just ikimasu. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time.) As can be seen.

): cheap.) Douzo. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking.) shiraberu: to check (something). combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. to examine.."going away and not coming back. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj." See Lesson 40. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook .) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. asobi ni kite kudasai. (Let's go eat Chinese food. (I ate before coming over. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. but should be easily understood. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general..) Shirabete kuru. There are several "set combinations" where it is used. inexpensive." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. (Please come over [sometime]. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. combined with naru: to become. (I'll go check it [then come back].) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. (I came to borrow a textbook. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no. but when uncertain.) Accordingly. food. or cuisine.

to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu." which makes this one easy to remember. but don't take it literally. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it." . it acts like a "quasi adjective.) Simple enough. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. rusu deshita. (I tried calling him. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing. but he wasn't in. to entertain oneself. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. miru means "to see. (Let's give this new PC a try.." You may hear it often.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. In Japanese grammar.. (I'll try to talk to John.. go ahead asobu: to play. Either way. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. with its own set phrases." meaning that we'll give something a try." but technically it's not one of those either. For example.) Te Form + miru As you know. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. Well. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. and adding miru.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it. Or. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu. (I'll try to read these kanji. but it's not.

" etc.. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. you can watch TV. There's usually something else added on. so you should be a little familiar with it. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite." "okay." etc. you can also get away with omitting particles. like the object indicator o. It's an adjective which means "good.?). ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii.. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo. positive response. terebi mite ii." "fine. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can..." "it's okay if (someone does something). As I've probably mentioned before. As with most Japanese. you can use my dictionary. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka.)." Accordingly. in familiar situations as in the last example above..) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to..) Hai. (You can use my PC.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. In the workplace. (Yeah.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. Yes.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one.(Verbs are shown in their plain form.. (You may go home early today. as with all adjectives. (Sure..) (Yes. that is the way it works grammatically. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. however. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite.) .

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. question-forming no -. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . You can't just say "I broke my arm. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. do not add the plain. familiar talk. you can say it. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better.) Actually. Instead." fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. You can omit the desu ka for plain. if you're going to use it in this way. of course." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. (Well. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. You can say dou ka.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. but not ikaga ka. If you do. but usually alone. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka.these don't use it. If you break a bone in Japanese. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. polite.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late].

akan (Osaka). ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!"." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Don't be late. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). used in a normal. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. like ikan (Takamatsu). etc. etc. "You mustn't do that!".. (You can't take pictures. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. In fact. there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. When placed after the Te Form with wa. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. everyday setting. and you're bound to hear either of these. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take . especially ikenai.) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. "Thou shalt not.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. So. to make it even more colorful. iken (Okayama). the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. Also. "Naughty!".. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together.

(In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. hachiji ni ie o demashita. and left home at eight.) Also. However.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. (I got up at seven o'clock. watashi wa kaimono ni iku." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so).) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite.) . heya o katazukete moratte. which is easy to do. like "take a bath. and I'm going shopping. heya o katazukete." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. (I've got to call Shizu. ate breakfast. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. meaning "to pass (by/over something). kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen.) As you can see. fed him.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. some simple ones. and [then] made my dinner. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. the kanji used for each meaning are different. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. to take (steal) something from someone. then go shopping. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. because tooru is a totally different vowel. First. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. esa o ataete. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. straighten up the room. to take a picture with a camera. choushoku o tabete.

Just for a quick check. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. just start a new sentence. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta . It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. When you're not sure. whose major purpose is to make things plain. past. a house deru: to leave.) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. to straighten up.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. and simple.

(I read a book. Also. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. (I watched TV. (I ate lunch.) Hon yonda. (I went to the bank. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. . (I got a haircut.) Kami kitta. (My goldfish died.) Boku no kingyo shinda.) Ohiru tabeta. Let's do some real basic. There are cases where particles would never be cut.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. Once again.) Terebi mita. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. even by the fastest-talking Japanese. there are limits. In the long run. and only omit them when everyone else does. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang.) Ginkou itta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. (I did it.

) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before." it is used for "I got a haircut.) Shinda kingyo wa. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. roku nen mae ni katta. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. (The cake Joy made was delicious. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. Although it literally means "I cut my hair.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier." Very handy. and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read. (The things Bob studied were very helpful. I had someone cut my hair." If we switch these around to yonda hon. even on a caterpillar. anywhere. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. kiru: to cut. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often." There are a few of these." and is less formal than chuushoku. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen. juu hachi man en deshita.) Boku ga katta PC wa. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese.) . hon becomes the subject. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. For example. use kami. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. literally "hairbug." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. beforehand. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. Ke alone is hair — any hair.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta.

juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Base 3 is used for the plain future. root form of Japanese verbs. because deshita is the past form of desu. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. Since we have already covered these. not deshita. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. Due to this. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. Carefully note the similarities and differences. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. Again. (He was supposed to come at six. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. the rest really isn't too difficult. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. please click the lesson links.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. And. which will serve as a nice review. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. use desu to make it polite. (If necessary.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. Instead. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. For a more detailed review. One past tense element is enough. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. .) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. (He's supposed to come at six. as in the last example above. these two share many add-ons and endings.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu.

use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. Takada's quitting. (It would be better to go by train today. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. For expressing regret.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. (Even though I got up early.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.." Please don't make this mistake.) Note: Yes. sensei ga okoru. (I should have taken the train today. (I heard that Mr. I'm late every day.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) Kinou no ban.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii..) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) Beth wa okureta kara. Takada quit. (I heard that Mr.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai. (Even though I get up early. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. sensei ga okotta. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. I was late. (It would be better to go by train today. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii.

) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. In other words. (It looks like it's going to rain. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii.• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. now that I think of it. (I just bought that umbrella.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai. (Mom just got back. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. mai is used with units of time. (I just ate. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now.) John wa deta bakari." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. like something memorized from a grammar book. (It looks like it rained. (I just cleaned this room. (John just left.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can.) yameru: to quit a job.) In fact.) Ame ga futta mitai. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. etc. . not with people or objects.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari.) Sono kasa o katta bakari." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. snow.

" in Japanese. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. (Yes. to go/come back deru: to leave. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. First.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. (No.... that (subject we're talking about) ko: child.. though. I have. Nikai ikimashita. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. tabeta koto ga nai. (All that kid does is play computer games. This is used after the Te Form. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru.) As you can see. Tabete mitai kedo." usually as a complaint.. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). I've been twice.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. I haven't. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. arimasu. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. I'd like to try it. you'll find them very useful. (Yes. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return. you use the verb iku (to go) .) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. to do (familiar.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. Once you get these sorted and memorized. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. (All you ever do is eat.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced.

) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. not yet.and literally ask "have you gone to. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. they probably won't eat lunch.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. kare wa kuru deshou.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.) kedo: however. The second is that in using this form.. mada yonde inai. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo. As in B's reply above. but regular past tense.) John ni denwa sureba.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. (If you call John he'll probably come." Finally. kare wa kuru deshou. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai. First." which. (No. I haven't read it yet. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. (If you call John he'll probably come.) John ni denwa suru nara." but "I went twice. (If the kids eat a snack. you don't use this form.) . chuushoku o tabenai deshou. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai. to me.) Next. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something.. See Lessons 7 and 60. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. [No.

Word Check oshieru: to tell.) Desu is usually used after sou. but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. kare wa kuru deshou. Yes. they probably won't eat lunch. chuushoku o tabenai deshou." etc. making it more formal than rashii.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai.. (If the kids eat a snack... Takada's quitting. According to the books.) John ni denwa shitara. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. meaning "It seems that. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. familiar conversation.. to inform.) Again. (I heard that Mr.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu.. Takada's quitting. but I personally have never heard it. (I heard that Mr. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. Now that all the explaining is out of the way.) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). (If the kids eat a snack. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight. (If you call John he'll probably come. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC..) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form." "I hear that. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37). I think you'll find it easy enough to master. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal.) .) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. they probably won't eat lunch.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.

(Last night after dinner I . some cleaning. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. and did some homework. (I read comics and stuff. It can also be used for present or future happenings. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. then ate dinner.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. (I watched TV and stuff.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. souji shitari. just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. and watch TV. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. If you want.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite. yuushoku o tabeta. ongaku o kiitari. terebi o mitari suru deshou. (Last night I watched TV. Word Check daibun: considerably. (Jim buys and sells old things. listened to some music.That's all there is to it. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common.) Now.

use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. then did homework until one o'clock. * Note: While unnatural in English. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. listened to music for about two hours. then she made dinner. hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. ate lunch.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence. chuushoku o tabete. Please review Lessons 53 and 55.watched TV. practiced the piano and things. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. I'd really be at a loss. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.) .) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical.

you must remember that (something else). snow.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. In fact.. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen." As usual.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. (If you were to go swimming now. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. without doubt komaru: to be confused... (Supposing it rains this afternoon. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen).) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara.) As you can see. etc. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. dou shimashou ka. Word Check hontou ni: really.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise.• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. (Even if you studied Spanish. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. you'd probably regret it. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo. tabun koukai suru deshou.

. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. (No matter how much he eats.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I was very surprised. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita.. (I laughed when I heard that..) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. For example. (John's pants were torn when he fell.) While not covered before. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred.• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. (When I read that. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen. (Even if I read the manual. zenzen ippai ni naranai. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. he never gets full.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.) Sore o kiita toki waratta.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. After the Ta Form. I can't understand this software.

(I just cleaned this room.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru. was already covered in Lesson 69.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. add desu to make a statement polite. (The kids just finished eating. it's still brand-new. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro.) As usual.) However. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. in the least recent sense. (I just got back now. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. However. or. the Ta Form + bakari. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. For example. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. while tokoro really means just now. to is usually used because of its flexibility. One similar to this. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it.

Tom's here. (There's a big tree in the park. iru is used for people and animals.) (Iru is an ichidan verb.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. Tanaka. is..) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru.) The plain form of desu is da.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. iru and aru As you know.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. You can add it to many statements to make them polite.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. (The dictionary is on the desk. (There's a spider on the wall. etc. aru is a yodan.) Bob wa byouki desu.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: . (Bob's sick.) desu. like something from the masu group. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. (There's a big tree in the park.. [I don't want to. (Yes. After nouns and adjectives. (He is Mr. (Carol is 25 years old. (No." Generally speaking. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. Tom wa iru yo. desu makes things polite. (Tomorrow it will rain. (That school is old. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. are.) Ashita wa ame desu.

Tom's not here now. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. unpleasant.) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. Japanese is no exception. it is rarely used these days." as in being in a certain position. (Sorry. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru.. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. (Sorry. (I don't have a dictionary. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student). one is "as.. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. ima Tom wa imasen. Tom's not here now.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years.) Now. Again. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use." So. state or condition.) Jisho wa nai. . Use desu instead. This is one that is rarely used these days. If you're really interested in the technical background. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable.. getting back to desu. ima Tom wa inai. here it is: Among the several roles of de.• • Sumimasen. (I don't have a dictionary. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and is especially used by children.) Jisho wa arimasen.

This is certainly not a complete list. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. which is intransitive (has no direct object). (Here.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. have close ties with Japanese culture. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. I'll give you this." When exchanging gifts.) Note: These two. So that there is no misunderstanding.) Hai. Accordingly. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. (Please make up your mind quickly. They are not conjugations. agaru and ageru. It only represents the tip of the iceberg. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. to go/come up ageru: to raise up. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. very rarely will they correct you. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. (Please come in.) .What makes it worse is the fact that very. ageru. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). (Wendy collects old stamps. active/passive forms. agaru is used for "come inside. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. to give • • Agatte kudasai. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive.

Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. to help • • Arigatou. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). Also. use tetsudau. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. when you find something that was lost. tasukaru: to be of help. (Thank you. » -su / -u . etc. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. as if it just found itself. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for)... Strangely.. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai." it's not.. like helping in the kitchen. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. to arrive (a package. You were really a great help.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. (Please continue looking for it. in Japanese you use mitsukaru.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. (I found a pimple. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send. For routine helping.

chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. (The copier is broken. (Be back by ten o'clock.) Kaigi ga owattara. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. to get off or get out of a vehicle . Please don't leave any. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind.) herasu: to decrease.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. to put down oriru: to go/come down. (Please cut down on your spending. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. (Eat all this.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. (Grandpa went outside. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh. (Let the dog out. Nokosanaide kudasai.

like pants. (Don't get your new shoes dirty.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. hameru: to wear on a finger.) Kemushi ga ugoita. necktie. like a belt. obi.• • Koko ni oroshite. you'll probably be laughed at.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. (The caterpillar moved. shoes. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. For most standard verbs." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. (If you wear those glasses. jacket. socks. warawareru deshou. kimono. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. (My hat got dirty. dress. but these should give you a good start. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. etc. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. a skirt. etc. (Don't move that machine. like a name tag or pin . (This cake probably won't be eaten. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. like a shirt. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly.) Of course there are others. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. (Put it down here. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. etc.

Besides these. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . This completes Japanese Verbs. and especially when talking about accessories. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful