Japanese Verbs

Introduction Table of Contents
• • • • • • •

Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Bases 4 & 5 Te Form Ta Form Mini Tests

Notes on Japanese Verbs Introduction For more than two years I have been writing tutorials on the Japanese language for relatives and students of the language, and wish to convey my thanks to all those who have given me their compliments and support in making this online version possible. I sincerely hope that this is, and will continue to be, a clear, concise, and convenient resource for those learning or reviewing Japanese, especially the more commonly used verb conjugations with their various add-ons and combinations. Each lesson will be kept short, with a gradual and natural introduction of new words and phrases. Please have an English-Japanese/Japanese-English dictionary and notebook handy as you study. As new words are introduced, use your dictionary to learn or check their meanings, and make a word list in your notebook to add new vocabulary to. Write down the root word as well as any conjugated forms. It's a proven fact that the process of looking up and writing vocabulary will help the learning process, along with regular reviewing. A Word Check section will be added to the bottom of some lessons to aid the reviewing process. Please see A Bit of the Language for pronunciation guides and other relevant information. Questions and comments are welcome, and may be sent to me here. A downloadable version of this is here. Please note: In order to avoid technical explanations at an early stage of learning, only the simplest and most general translations of words are given. Also, romaji (romanized Japanese words) used herein are written in their true, romanized form: elongated vowels are shown as such, etc.

© 2003 Tim R. Matheson

Table of Contents
| Base 1 | Base 2 | Base 3 | Bases 4 & 5 | Te Form | Ta Form | Mini Tests | Notes | 1. Japanese Verbs - The Plain Form 2. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 3. Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu 4. Base 2 + masen 5. Base 2 + mashita 6. Base 2 + masen deshita 7. Base 2 + tai / tai desu 8. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu 9. Base 2 + mashou 10. Base 2 + nasai 11. Irregular Verbs kuru and suru 12. Forming Questions with ka 13. Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form 14. Base 1 + nai deshou 15. Base 1 + nakereba 16. About You and Name Suffixes 17. Base 1 + nakereba narimasen 18. Base 1 + seru / saseru 19. Base 3 + deshou 20. Base 3 + hazu desu

21. Base 3 + hou ga ii 22. Base 3 + ka dou ka 23. Base 3 + kamo shiremasen 24. Base 3 + kara 25. Base 3 + keredomo 26. Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu 27. Base 3 + koto ni shimasu 28. Base 3 + made 29. Base 3 + na 30. Base 3 + nara 31. Base 3 + (any noun) 32. Base 3 + no desu 33. Base 3 + no ni 34. Base 3 + no wa 35. Base 3 + node 36. Base 3 + noni 37. Base 3 + sou desu 38. Base 3 + tame ni 39. Base 3 + to 40. Base 3 + to omoimasu 41. Base 3 + tsumori desu 42. Base 3 + you desu 43. Base 4 + ba

Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka 65. Te Form + inai 55. Te Form + wa ikemasen 66. Te Form + ita 56. Base 4 + ba ii 45. Te Form + shimau 64. Te Form for Continuing Statements . Te Form + mo ii 62. Base 4 + ru 47. Te Form + iru 54. Te Form + kudasai 51. Base 4 + reba 49. Te Form + kureru 59. Te Form + kuru / iku 60. Te Form + oku 63. Te Form + miru 61. Base 5 50. Base 4 + nai 48. Te Form + ageru 52. Te Form + goran nasai 53.44. Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative 46. Te Form + itadaku / morau 57. Te Form + kara 58.

tsu. ichidan. which means "to walk. mu. Ta Form + rashii 73. Ta Form + ri 74. Ta Form + ra 72. Ta Form + to shitara 75. Ta Form + bakari 70. and irregular. Ta Form + toki 77. Ta Form + to shite mo 76. su." for example: it ends in ku. gu. Ta Form: The Plain Past 68. Remembering this will make further study much easier. it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. ku. or ru: • • • • • • • • • kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) . Ta Form + tokoro 78. nu.67. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan. iru and aru The Plain Form Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u. but to be more precise. Let's take the verb aruku. not u. Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 69. bu. Ta Form + koto ga aru 71. which can end in u. desu.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs.

The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb ." Interestingly. Word Check mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV Notes 1. and also very juvenile or "familiar. (Jim will read a comic book. watch) kariru (borrow) Example sentences: • • Watashi wa ringo o taberu. but there is no difference.) Jim wa manga o yomu. the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way. (Grandpa will return soon. unless it was from another foreigner. (Naomi will watch TV. Because of the difficulty in explaining the logic behind the names yodan and ichidan.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. (I'll eat an apple. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. I use the term yodan because it was the term used when I began studying Japanese thirty years ago. Some sources call these verbs godan." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Some frequently used ones are: • • • • taberu (eat) kimeru (decide) miru (look. many Japanese schools in Japan just call them "Type 1" and "Type 2.) Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. Asking your nativespeaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the "Base 2" forms and the polite endings that go with them.Let's try some in sentences: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau.) This is very simple Japanese.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs.

yodan verbs are changed so they end in i -. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu.) Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu Ichidan verbs are a snap. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb (English) kau (buy) aruku (walk) isogu (hurry) kasu (lend) matsu (wait) shinu (die) asobu (play) yomu (read) kaeru (return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu Now we're ready to speak polite. because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end.before the masu ending is added. (Grandpa will return soon. the present polite ending.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. Notice how the following yodan verbs change in order to add masu. "adult" Japanese. Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb (English) taberu (eat) Base 2 Form Polite Verb Form tabe tabemasu . Since masu requires the Base 2 form.instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to non-native speakers. (Jim will read a comic book.their "Base 2" form -.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.

A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one. Look at these yodan examples: • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen.) Now.) Kare wa machimasen. and should not be worried about at this stage.) Jerry wa sugu demasu. Word Check ashita: tomorrow mainichi: every day Base 2 + masen Now that you're a little familiar with Base 2. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. (Jerry will come out soon.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (I'll decide tomorrow. (Ayako watches the TV every day. (He won't wait. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.) . there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru.oboeru (remember) kimeru (decide) deru (leave.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. which is the negative form of masu. let's try masen. I'm sure you're thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. come out) kariru (borrow) miru (look. watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu.

(She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. (I want to buy an umbrella. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple. To make them polite. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. masen shows negative tense. (John didn't go to Hiroshima. .) Base 2 + tai / tai desu Another very useful Base 2 ending is tai.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. (I'm not going to eat now. right? In the next lesson we'll try past tense. Let's change a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5: • • • John wa Hiroshima ni ikimasen deshita.) Easy enough. To make that negative past tense we just add deshita. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he (him) matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she (her) kariru: to borrow Base 2 + masen deshita As you recall from Lesson 4. (Miki wants to see that movie.) The above examples are plain forms.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (The children didn't play at the park. etc.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (The children want to play.And some ichidan: • • Watashi wa ima tabemasen. (Bob wants to eat tempura.

(Let's go.) * In Japanese. (The children don't want to play. (Let's eat.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. (Let's take a break." you would use the adjective hoshii and say. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie./I'll help you fix your bicycle. and is never used alone with an object. (I'll fix your bicycle. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) (for you)/Let me do (something) (for you). Add desu to make it polite. (I'll carry this/these [for you].) As in English.) Yasumimashou. .) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou." This structure will be covered later on.) Now let's make the next two polite: • • Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu.) Simple enough.Please note that tai is only used with verbs. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura. We'll make the first two plain: • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. but either way this one is easy to remember. In fact. Base 2 + takunai / takunai desu These are used to show the opposite of tai and tai desu covered in the last lesson: that you don't want to do something.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. (Let's get you some food. It simply means "let's (do something). in this example. Can you still tell them apart? Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it's written masho with a line above the o. (I don't want to buy an umbrella." For example: • • • Ikimashou. For example. and two use ichidan. right? Two of these examples use yodan verbs. hakobimashou would be both natural and grammatically sufficient." as in: • • • Watashi wa hakobimashou.)* (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. Let's make the examples in Lesson 7 negative.) Tabemashou. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii desu. the object (as well as the subject) can be omitted when it is known or obvious.

Word Check iku: to go taberu: to eat yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take/have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair

Base 2 + nasai
Add nasai to verbs in Base 2 form for simple commands:
• • • • • •

Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!)

Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so, because it means you noticed that while it looks like a yodan verb, it conjugated like an ichidan. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.

We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. Besides these are the irregulars, but the good news is that there are only two: kuru, which means "to come"; and suru, which means "to do." These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating, but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:
• • • • •

Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.) Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.) John wa kimashita. (John came.) Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.) Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:
• • • • •

Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.) Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)

This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. Now that they've been introduced you'll see them pop up from time to time in future lessons. Just remember that they are irregular and don't follow the same rules as the other verbs.

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:
• • •

Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?)

By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see it used often, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark.

Base 1 + nai - The Plain Negative Form
Before we look at Base 1, let's quickly review the types of verbs. There are yodan, like kau, iku, matsu, and yomu; ichidan, like taberu and miru; and the two irregulars kuru and suru. If you don't remember the meanings of these please go back and review them. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. In other words, their Base 1 is the same as their Base 2. The yodan group are changed so they end in a: iku changes to ika, matsu to mata, yomu to yoma, and etc. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it, like kau, just change the u to wa; so kau becomes kawa. The irregular kuru changes to ko, and suru to shi, just like its Base 2 form. Below are some tables to help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Bases 1 and 2 from their plain forms, which happen to be Base 3. For the sake of simplification I didn't mention it then, but all the verbs introduced in Lesson 1 were in their Base 3 forms, which, again, is their true, unconjugated root form, and how they will usually look in a dictionary. Please note the changes carefully. Yodan verbs:

Base 3 (root form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs:

Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri

Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaera-

Base 3 (root form)

Base 2

Base 1

kuru (come). (Jim doesn't read comic books. Etc.) Watashi wa terebi o minai. (or) John wa kasa o kawanai desu. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. kariru (borrow) becomes karinai (won't borrow). which we already covered in Lesson 4. For example.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. (Grandpa isn't going to return soon. (or) Jim wa manga o yomanai desu.) Sachiko wa konai. (I'm not going to watch TV. Jim wa manga o yomimasen. and suru (do).) Jim wa manga o yomanai. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai: • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain." as a matter of personal policy. konai (won't come). Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. shinai (won't do). (Sachiko won't be coming. As in English. and should only be used in very informal settings. .) It will be noticed that this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form. Depending on the situation. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clearer.taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: tabeoboekimedekarimi- tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (root form) kuru suru Base 2 kishi- Base 1 koshi- Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (buy) becomes kawanai (won't buy). like Base 2 + masen.

) Sachiko wa kuru deshou.) Bill wa ika o tabemasen deshou. (Grandpa will probably return soon. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books. Look at these examples: .) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou.what will happen if something doesn't happen. etc. hail.) Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences -.) Actually. (Sachiko will probably come. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: comic book yomu: to read yuki: snow furu: to fall (from the sky: rain. snow. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. (It probably won't snow.Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. deshou is a handy add-on that works with other endings. (Bill probably won't/doesn't eat squid. like plain positive (Base 3) verbs and the Base 2 polite masu/masen: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou.) Yuki wa furanai deshou.) ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come ika: squid taberu: to eat (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

(If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's.you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar. San denotes friendliness and perhaps even familiarity while still including at least a touch of respectful distance. The ones you'll hear the most are san. .) Miki wa heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. Additionally. For example. Word Check iku: to go heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form. chan. (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. as in English. an English speaker wouldn't turn to his friend Bob and ask. Generally speaking. Remembering this will come in handy in future studies.) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. and kun. You will most likely want to use san with neighbors and business associates that you see regularly but perhaps not every day. so it is omitted. san is the "default" suffix for a person when none of the others are suitable. suffixes are attached depending on the person and situation. names are usually not used alone.) About You and Name Suffixes In Lesson 9 anata was introduced as meaning "you. the word "you" is not used in Japanese as often as in English. Please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. when speaking to that person. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it.• • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu." Actually.) A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious -. which may sound a bit childish until you get used to it. "What does Bob want to eat for lunch?" but in Japanese that's exactly how it's done. especially when talking to an individual. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element. In the last example above there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko. Once a person's name is known. it is usually used in place of "you" (as a native English speaker would consider it). sama.

Customers who go into new car dealerships will have the luxury of hearing sama added to their names -. etc. did you do your homework?" would be: "Hiroki. Being observant and attentive will be the best guide for mastering name suffixes for the people you work with or know. a girl named Emiko would probably be called Emiko-chan or Emi-chan by older family members. at any rate. friend's mother) Chan is also used with the names of pets. these are commonly used: • • • • • • • • otou-chan (dad) okaa-chan (mom) ojii-chan (grandpa) obaa-chan (grandma) onii-chan (elder brother. names are often shortened before adding chan. Family. cousins. Bosses add these to the names of subordinates sometimes. aunt. older neighbor girl) oji-chan (uncle. hopefully.for a while. and the car is brought in for routine checks or service. Also. where anata is used for "you. let's get back to you. uncle. Customarily. and children add it to the words for father. older neighbor boy) onee-chan (elder sister. kun with boys. adult female neighbor. For those older. though san is probably more common for females. Parents add chan to their children's names. older brother or sister (but not younger).Sama is an "honorific" suffix which is attached to the names of superiors or people you want to show special respect to. and personal preferences all come into play when choosing these suffixes. company. grandfather. Among male friends kun is used as the name suffix. For example. Among close friends and family members chan is usually heard. After the sale is made. A boy named Hiroki might go by Hiro-chan unless he's going by Hiroki-kun or Hiro-kun. and chan with girls. however. unless an individual prefers chan. because san shows that a closer. As a safe rule. time passes. You most likely won't use sama unless you meet a company president or owner." This is normal and good. you can always ask. the customer will find that he or she is no longer a "sama. "you" normally wouldn't be used when speaking to an individual when his or her name is known. and playmates. use san with colleague's names. friend's father) oba-chan (aunt." This Japanese would be understood. the literal translation of the English sentence "Hiroki. chan to female students. grandmother." but is now a "san. Now. but to the title of those older. And. a more trusting) relationship has been created between customer and service provider. Teachers add kun to the names of male students. Again. anata wa anata no shukudai o shimashita ka". within families chan is added to the first names of those younger than yourself and to the names of cousins. real or pretended. of course. adult male neighbor. more familiar (and. mother. but would also . as well as classmates and co-workers later in life. If I wanted to ask my student Hiroki if he did his homework.

Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. but the above should suffice for most students of Japanese for the first year or so. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. (I have to go. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here. So.sound very stiff. It works fine. and narimasen means "will not become". which shows familiarity. It's used quite a lot. There may be a certain feeling of "being talked down to" when kimi or kimitachi are used. if we use the the plain negative form of naru instead (naranai). but it conveys a certain distance. This can be handy when .". it's a bit of a tongue twister. much more could be said concerning all the various words and "levels" used when addressing others. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. So. (The children must eat. and very odd. but as long as the situation warrants it and the relationship between speaker and listener(s) makes it sound natural. as you'll remember from Lesson 15. even some affection. I may as well say here that much. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). so in the example above you're saying "If I don't go it won't do. toward the group concerned.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. I really didn't feel comfortable using kimitachi. (Jim has to return now.anata becomes the necessary "default" subject of the sentence. the nakereba means "if one does not. because it means "must do. I would not use this with a class of people my age or older. The natural Japanese would be:"Hiroki-kun wa shukudai o shimashita ka"..) You're probably clever enough to notice that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. the fact is that it is very rarely used. It's when speaking to groups that "you" becomes useful." Let's look at some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. where the name of the person is used in place of the subject you.. even displeasure: a teacher reprimanding a class might use this. even though I introduced anata in Lesson 9. mixed groups. Yes. change it to Base 1 ika. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. there's no problem. When I first came to Japan and was only several years older than my students. A native Japanese speaker would never use this kind of construction." Let's take iku (to go). which is the best choice when talking to large. Accordingly. however. formal. Anatatachi could be used.) Looking at it literally. but now that I'm old enough to be their father it feels very natural and fitting. in problem #4 of C of Mini Test 5 because there is no name connected with the "you" -. I'd probably use mina-san (everyone). the one left would be kimitachi.

) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. however. like deshou from Lesson 14.) With "suru verbs. "I'll let him go to the store".) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. More than memorizing its meaning. (I'll have John decide by next week. as in "let him" or "make him. for the others. and saseru. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou. I already mentioned it's a tongue twister. "I'll have him go to the store"." suru is simply replaced with saseru : . seru. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. Good luck with nakereba narimasen.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. (Jim probably has to return now. (The children probably need to eat. In Japanese. are used for all of these. or feelings.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. (I'll have him come tomorrow. Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru. like this: • • • Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru. mastering a clean. (Grandpa lets the children play. In English we fortunately have these three different words to conveniently adjust the meaning which we want to convey. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella. (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00." can be conveyed. clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. Accordingly.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru : • • • Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. for yodan verbs. and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru.adding other endings.

(Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. by tomorrow. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come .) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni candy o tabesasemasen. it should be easy for you to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons to make them negative. etc. (He lets them watch TV every day. (Dad will make Bob study. Another tricky thing is that some verbs already have a set form to convey this meaning.• • Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. kimeru: to decide kare: he. past tense. Word Check kodomotachi: children asobu: to play sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shimbun: newspaper yomu: to read yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a deadline): by 5:00.) As you can see. although miru is an ichidan verb. and etc: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. (Let's have John go to the store.) So. (I'll have her do it.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou.) Kanojo ni saseru. which means "to show" or "to let see." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru. in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) Please review any of these endings you're not sure of.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own "set forms" which are used instead. (I want to have Kenji study English. Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru can be conjugated like any other ichidan verb. which is signified by adding ni afterwards.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu. polite. like miseru. you won't hear or see "misaseru.

the fact that the rain will fall is understood. (It will probably rain tomorrow. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. her karera: they. Let's get back to deshou. unconjugated form used by kids or in very familiar situations. making the verb unnecessary. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. Naomi wa terebi o miru. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb -.the plain. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. Watashi wa ringo o taberu.benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. . (To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. As in English. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary. (I'll probably go to Kurashiki next week." For example. add it to kau (buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. as explained in Lesson 1. But before we begin.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. them eigo: the English language mise: a store. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (Kenji will probably buy a new car." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling (a falling object uses the verb ochiru). means "to fall. Not only should you be able to translate these. so it is often omitted.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou. shown in the last example above.) Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou has already been mentioned in Lesson 14.) The verb furu.

(I'm supposed to go to Osaka. (Bob will probably also want to go. as we would use tag questions in English. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. isn't she?) Tomoko wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoko will do her English homework. (Am I supposed to make Keiko study French?) While hazu can be used for "supposed to" in most straightforward situations as conveyed in the above examples. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: • • Bob mo ikitai hazu. snow. right?) Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. etc.) eigo: the English language shukudai: homework Base 3 + hazu desu When something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. the fundamental differences between Japanese and English may cause you to run into some structures where something other than hazu is preferred." etc. That's why you'll hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. (You ought to study English more. (John should be coming soon.) (Watashi wa) Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu ka. we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu desu (polite) or hazu (plain) added on: • • • (Watashi wa) Osaka ni iku hazu desu. Please note that ka is not added at the end.Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you aren't sure of something.. like .) Anata wa motto eigo o benkyou suru hazu desu.

Word Check .) (Watashitachi wa) sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. (We had better rest a little." Examples: • • • (Watashi wa) kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. but. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. the hou means "way" or "method.while hazu is more passive -. (It would be better to eat later. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings. and according to the grammar books.way is good/better.) (Anata wa) motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii. (You should study Japanese more. (I should call her.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active -.) As with most verb endings.should do. (I'd rather go to Hawaii.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. (I'd rather get a dog. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu." and ii means "good" or "better. I hope to cover them in more detail later on.) Inu no hou ga ii. (I'd rather have barbequed meat and vegetables. frankly. As usual. which was covered in Lesson 20.. "would rather do. As you gain experience in how these are used in natural conversation and literature you'll get a feel for them.) When showing personal preference. practice makes perfect. (It would be better to go by train today. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.. should happen. Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do"." so when you use hou ga ii you're literally saying ". "had better do".ni natte iru or beki. (It would be better to do it next week.) Hawaii no hou ga ii. prefer -.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii." Actually. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. When you hear it.should be.

to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet wakaru: to know. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. only the component order is opposite in Japanese.) Inu wa ima tabetai ka dou ka mimashou. to understand inu: dog ima: now . It's like using "whether or not" in English. (I don't know yet if we are going.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen. (Let's see if the dog wants to eat now. her denwa suru: call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study kyou: today densha: train iku: to go raishuu: next week suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat with vegetables inu: dog (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) As can be seen in the examples above. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. him dekiru: can. The color coding used in the examples above should make this clear. Word Check kare: he.) Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou.kanojo: she.

taberu: to eat miru: to see. this one is used frequently.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo.) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative (shiranai). Simply put. (Jack may also come. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. As such. yes. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary)." These are incorrect." Let's look at a few examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. watch (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Actually (for those who appreciate the technical aspect of things). so you'll want to master it right away. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. (We may eat out tonight. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. Therefore. so please be careful when pronouncing. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. meaning that.) Komban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe.) Base 3 + kamo shiremasen Though a bit of a tongue twister.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. perhaps. as in: • Ashita Bob kara e-mail ga kuru kamo. where it is converted to shireru (can know).) ." Since this verb ending is rather long. (It might rain tomorrow. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru: it's its "conditional" Base 4 form. and is conjugated accordingly.) As you sharp ones have noticed. look. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative (shirimasen). (It might snow tomorrow.

) In spoken Japanese. you'll often hear the action stated first. (Beth is always late. kasa o motte ikimashou. and familiar enough with the culture to know whether or not it's appropriate. denwa shimasu. let's take umbrellas. they each become separate sentences. (Since it will probably rain. In this case.) Jisho o kaitai kara. (I'll call Beth because she's always late. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou.) Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. (Kenji went to a Canadian school. given after.) Ongaku o kikimasu. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. Let's look at a few examples: • • • • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara.I suggest." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. Itsumo okureru kara. so I'm going to the store. so I'll call her. (Let's take umbrellas since it'll probably rain.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. Word Check komban: this evening. mise ni ikimasu. (I don't want to go to Mr. honya ni ikimasu. that you don't abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural. however. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. eigo ga jouzu desu. Tabun ame ga furu kara.) . with its reason. grammatically speaking. Terebi o mitakunai kara. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. (We don't have any milk. the reason or cause of the action: • • Tabun ame ga furu kara.) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara. so his English is good. tonight soto: outside kara: from Base 3 + kara Kara is the often-used equivalent to our "because" or "since. signified by kara at the end.

heta desu. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. nasty. helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. as you can imagine. Like "but" in English. . Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. keredo and kedo. (Although Jack is careful about his health.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house. no problem. but she doesn't get any better. Again. snow. home iya na: bad. skilled (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. it comes between the contrasting phrases. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo." Just like English." so. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. yoku byouki shimasu. just like English. as well as its shorter forms.) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. disgusting mono: thing.) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often.You may remember a different kara from Lesson 23. Word Check tabun: probably ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. which means "from. he gets sick a lot. it's used a lot. (He speaks Japanese. but he's not good at it.) Base 3 + keredomo This one is used for "although" or "but. etc. jouzu ni narimasen.

(I like reading. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form. a lot. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway. Next. In English.) Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. it is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun. frequently renshuu suru: to practice jouzu: be good at something. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. koto has no practical use by itself. I like reading as a thing to do. Like our ing. and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. Here are some examples: . no problem.Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at.. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. It'll come. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. reading as a noun [gerund]) • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. skilled (direct opposite of heta) . But first. but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading. First is koto.) Finally. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to. If you have to have a translation. let's look at each part. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. No. like reading in the sentence I like reading. Better than all this talk would be an example." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. not good at something.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care byouki suru: to get sick. Let's move on.. Well. this isn't the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music. unskilled yoku: (used before a verb) often. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. it really doesn't change the verb. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs to nouns." Does this help? If not.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading.

(John wasn't able to study yesterday. it's a long ending for just "can. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. With "suru verbs. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. For example.no. they're both used." Denwa is a noun. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. meanings. in that case the suru is omitted. essences.) Either way. It is generally not used for physical things or objects. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. (Bob was able to call Junko.let's try some other endings on dekiru. etc. long or short. and adding the suru makes it a verb. expressions.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. (I can't read French. After verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. so instead of adding koto to make it a noun again (and long one). "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita. actually for review -. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. you can just omit suru. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru.) Now. but that'll have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings." It generally means intangible "things": ideas." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives. actions. Kinou.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: • (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. (I can read Japanese. There is a short alternative for other verbs. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun as long as it's one that uses suru to change it to a verb.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. Again.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. (I can translate French into Japanese." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples.• • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. It does not . for kicks -. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita. (Keiko can play the piano." can be shortened to: "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita.

koto ni shimasu is the polite form. (Can you wait?) Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done yomu: to read suki: to like something dekiru: can. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things: mono.) Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. It shows that you have made a decision. Matsu koto ga dekimasu ka. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • Watashi wa ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu. and it shows that the decision was yours. but we'll have to save that one for a future lesson.) .mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. As I'm sure you know by now. (I'll go shopping tomorrow. koto ni suru is the plain. which was introduced long ago in Lesson 1. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow iku: to go furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone using a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. or seasons: • • • Yuushoku made machinasai. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class. be finished terebi: TV miseru: to show.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title to replace san.• • Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou o junbi suru koto ni shimashita. to let (someone) see. (I won't let you watch TV until you've finished your homework. (Mr. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. periods.) As in English. watch (something) . (We have to wait until Bob calls. (Wait until dinner.) Bob wa denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. (We can't eat until Yukiko comes." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko wa kuru made taberu koto ga dekimasen.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study (Verbs are shown in their plain form. etc.) Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end. (I've decided to study Japanese every day.) Natsu yasumi made ato ni shuu kan desu. Made means "until.) Base 3 + made This one is very easy.

However. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. First.yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after.) Base 3 + na This. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. but if you do."don't do's" -. be careful how. This is one that will probably not be used very often. you could say. is the counterpart to Lesson 10. let's make the above examples negative: • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here!. . as with English. Stay away from here!. like: • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands -. In Lesson 10 we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. a week-long period haru: spring (Verbs are shown in their plain form. and to whom.by simply adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. you use it. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. Stay away from me!) Now let's add a few more: • • • Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) And two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: • • Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored.

which is just a slight variation. (If the kids eat a snack now. kuru deshou. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. (If you call John he'll probably come.) John ni denwa suru nara.) Ame ga furu nara.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba. they probably won't eat dinner. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep gaijin: foreigner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. (If he sees Yuko. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch Note: Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train . but nara is more common. watashitachi wa nureru deshou.sentences with "if. he'll let me know. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look.) Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences -." We've already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 15. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. We've all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked if he could sit next to the girl. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. They are used the same way and mean the same thing.) Kare wa Yuko o miru nara. watashi ni shirasemasu.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. He thought he said. "Mind if I touch?" enki suru: to postpone.

the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives you the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English." that in "Spring is the season that brings new life.. words that connect a noun to an action. there are no "relative pronouns. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. a time." Of course. I can see several things which need to be explained.) Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns.) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: . explanations. like in the first example above.) yuushoku: dinner (Verbs are shown in their plain form. And. But." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. that's another story. most native English speakers tend to simply use that for all of them. Japanese English. As a quick review. things I'd like to explain. respectively. For example. but can't without going off on a tangent which would warrant a completely new. and a person. and lengthy. or omit them completely when they can get away with it.noru: to ride shiraseru: to notify nureru: to get wet kodomotachi: children ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. they are like: • • • which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. to make matters worse.. a place. to offer very general. which are examples involving a thing. In Japanese." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam. page. but hopefully sufficient for the present.

densha (train) is the main subject. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). As you may have noticed. and is handled by the final verb. the English "where. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in: Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu.) In this sentence. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. automatically designates a place. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. For example." as a relative pronoun. the watashi (I) telling who'll buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. which is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English and twisted to serve in the Japanese language. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. As you can see. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train. The problem is that the rules are . and therefore omitted. back to the lesson: First. (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. Ga or no could be used here. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. so tokoro is used after the verb. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. but since Japanese has no equivalent. a truer English translation would be. Now let's do the second example shown at the top of this page: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something is unnecessary and can be omitted. or a noun which needs emphasis. One more point of interest is the word purezento here. let's translate the first example at the top of the page: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu. Continuing with the above example." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. since he or she will surely be hearing both. Kobe is a place.) Now. a "sub-subject.) Since this is natural Japanese. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my [younger] brother's birthday present. ga tells us who will take the train.) In this one. and so it would most likely be omitted. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. especially in informal spoken Japanese. a substitute noun must be used. they do not mean the same thing. I've colored the main subject blue and the main verb red to help show how the Base 3 verb + noun relationship works." you might say. watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. No is often used in place of ga. like our 's. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do.Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence.

Please come back regularly to review as necessary. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. and are in the realm of mid.to high-intermediate Japanese. and when trying to make sense of one. semi-accurate rule. and vice versa. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult.totally different in each language. Finally. produce. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. (Spring is the season that brings new life. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about. and shouldn't be too difficult. the last example from the top: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. you must forget all the rules of the other. I hope this lesson was clear enough. to cause to happen kisetsu: season (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Base 3 + no desu There is two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. As a general. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday purezento: a present shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. . Practice makes perfect! Word Check noru: to ride densha: train tokoro: a place deru: to leave.) This one is pretty straightforward.

the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. (Jim will read a comic book.) As in any other language. like this: • • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Kanojo wa KURUN desu. etc. you need to review. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu instead: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. (Grandpa will return soon. (I tell you. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. If not.) . if you want to emphasize something. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. unexcited intonation.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu.We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences way back in Lessons 2 and 3.) Remember these? I hope so. stomping around. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. you put stress on the verb before no desu: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. sashimi: raw fish bokutachi: familiar form of "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) chiimu: team (This is wasei eigo.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. Care must be taken with this because it can be considered rude in some situations. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. it IS going to rain tomorrow.) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (Jim will read a comic book. writhing. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of).) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu.) The meanings are the same as long as they're said using a regular. fist pounding. Japanese English. need. Word Check anta: familiar form of "you".) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (She IS coming. However. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. or habits of the speaker. (Grandpa will return soon.

" which we will cover later on. These are easy to keep straight when used in context.) densha: train noru: to ride. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. Takamatsu-yuki. rather. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question.Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). meaning "in spite of.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. A look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen. to cost (money): Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. essential kanji: Chinese characters. specifically. the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence. it's usually found somewhere near the middle.) . Please consult a dictionary for more. There's nothing really tricky about it. (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. get on (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time). etc. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki. remember daibun (or daibu): quite.

) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]). impossible saikou: great.) Word Check tanoshii: fun.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu. and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. (Jim's dictionary is blue. to not exist tabi: trip . (Getting up early is sometimes difficult. (Reading is enjoyable. Wa is the subject indicator. boku no wa aka desu. mine is red. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. like our 's. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. which was introduced back in Lesson 26? The no in no wa plays the same role. (It really was a problem-free trip. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu.). as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de.Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto.) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. the greatest. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. enjoyable hanasu: to speak kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. the best jisho: dictionary ao: blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem nai: to not be. still not fukanou: not possible. (Speaking Japanese is easy. mainly the one used for possessives.

to sleep eigo: English hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job .) But remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. and is therefore preferred when people are involved.) So. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • O-kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen.") ima: now deru: go out ashita: tomorrow neru: to go to bed. For example. the o. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. (Since Eiko can speak English. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going. (A guest is coming so I can't go out now.) Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 24 we met kara. if you are talking about just a reason for something use kara. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. she'll probably find a good job. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. In this lesson we will take a look at node. If kara was used instead.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest whose visit is not exactly looked forward to. if you want to imply that a person is more than just a "reason" for something. use node.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. which is used to show reasons or causes. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned.prefix makes it "honorific. My grammar book says that node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason.(Verbs are shown in their plain form. In other words.) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. Word Check o-kyaku: guest (Just kyaku is "guest" out of context.

(Despite my telling her to stop. for the plain past. etc. to follow rules or orders.) okureru: to be late (This example also uses the Base 7 form. Word Check yameru: to stop something. kanojo wa kikimasen. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. to make efforts (Shita is the Base 7 form of suru. (I was late even though I got up early.mitsukeru: to find ame: rain (Verbs are shown in their plain form. so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. to quit a job or habit iu: to say.) Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 33. rumors.) annani: that much.) kiku: to listen. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. which is used for plain past structures.) asoko: there. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form [sometimes called the "ta form"].) Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. over there (usually emphasizes distance) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. For example: . understand to be. she won't listen. this short lesson is about noni. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example above is its Base 7 form.

While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. It means "that's right" and often follows hai. (I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita. They use a noun geared to their type of job. The actual word is arubaito.) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. in order to. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee". the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese hataraita. but is more often than not shortened to baito. sou desu. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu. Takada's quitting. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns.) Base 3 + tame ni When you see tame." and is often followed by the optional ni." (Yes. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. Here are some popular ones: . Japanese English.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita.) As you have probably guessed. (I heard that Mr. it usually means "for the purpose of.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. that's right. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (This is wasei eigo. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. Japanese German. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). a student will say baito. as in "Hai.) Note: An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan.• • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu.) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. A full-time employee will use shigoto. (I waited quite a while to buy tickets. Word Check hiru kara: from noon.) Tame is a very handy word. sou da can be used when you don't feel like being polite." hajimeru: to begin (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

here are your air tickets to Hawaii.• • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. or if. [Use no when putting a noun after tame. have (an interview). here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita.]) Hai. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. receive. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu.") It can mean and.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. It shows the thing which has the purpose of something. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu.) For the curious. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.) Sashimi o taberu to byouki ni naru. (Remember. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. Mom. that's pronounced "toh. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish. tickets whose purpose is going to Hawaii. (Okay. [plain. when. In this case. with. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. [The ni is deleted when the polite desu is added. talking down or very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. (This is for you.]) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting? [plain]) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot. (This is for you.) Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. (Kimiko came with Bob.) .

to want to do.Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become kodomotachi: children umi: the sea Note: There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). begin to want. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. Japanese English. meaning "come to want.) .) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. and expected. (I think Eiko can speak English. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. especially in the workplace. While not specifically covered. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou.) Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. of "party. but it is not generally used. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.it's as simple as that. sashimi: raw fish tanjou paateii: birthday party (Paateii is wasei eigo. Sasaki will call us soon. Now that it's been explained. (I think Ms. to become to want to go -. things you can do. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. It means simply "I think. When promoting your own ideas or opinions." Iki (Base 2 of iku. use umi. to go) + taku (tai. ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) Note: The above belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lessons 7 and 8. When referring to the beach in Japanese. (I think Koji will be late.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu.") (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It's okay to have an opinion. takunaru puts tai and naru together. (I think it'll rain tomorrow." and shows that you admit that what you're talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be).

comes back) eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here.) Base 3 + tsumori desu . (I thought/knew it would rain today [. Accordingly. (I don't think Eiko can speak English.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita.]) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita noni. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. which was covered in Lesson 19. but it didn't. omou can be used for plain speech. as in the "I think it'll rain tomorrow" example above.) Again. (I think it would be better to go by train today. goes back. towards me. like: • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii to omou.]) In a way. In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound very irresponsible. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. don't really care.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. us (Verbs are shown in their plain form.As you can see from the last examples. Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (5:00) (go [five] + ji [time]) kaeru: to return (intransitive: someone returns. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. or don't really have any control over something. this ending is a lot like deshou. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugations. The major difference is that deshou is used to show that you don't really know. and it did. care.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita. or have some control. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic. (I thought it would rain today [. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. People will use to omoimasu even when they know.

to join (a club) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. While sounding alike. so please be careful not to confuse them. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru. however.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu.) daigaku: university Note: Unlike in the U. to enter/enroll in (a school). but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori to omou. In case you're wondering. add desu to make it polite. Always use daigaku for university. Well. hairu: to go inside (a room).Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. yes. no! I meant to call Bob at five o'clock!) As usual. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. day. that was a short one. as you should know by now. is for past tense. (I plan to be back by three o'clock. build up. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow." used a lot. hear the other verb tsumoru. which means "to accumulate.) . Word Check sanji: three o'clock (3:00) (san [three] + ji [time]) made ni: (do something) by (a certain time. etc.) Base 3 + you desu You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • Mary wa ashita kuru you desu. You will. their meanings are completely different. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru. S. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada. Deshita. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. technically speaking.) Aa! Goji ni Bob ni denwa suru tsumori deshita! (Oh.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university.

3.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 37) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse.• Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman. e as in see OO. a as in father EE. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. let's borrow the tables used in Lesson 13 to review Bases 1 to 3. (It looks like Ken can play the piano. u as in mule EH. said so]. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples.) To be honest. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you'll often hear baka mitai. sou desu means you heard. AH. o as in mode . (It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming]. I think it's about time to start on Base 4. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. e as in red OH.. Simply put. 2. and show what Base 4 looks like. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation.) mitai: it looks like. baka: idiot.. 5." Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) (If you need to review koto ga dekiru go to Lesson 26. that something is or will be. directly or indirectly.) Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. which is a kind of "catch all" for you/sou desu statements. 4. etc. First.) Ame ga furu you desu. fool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. In its place you'll hear mitai a lot. meaning "it's going to rain" (because someone said so or there are signs that it's going to). "you look like an idiot.

(There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. look at these tables and notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. Now." or "dictionary form. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 1 tabeoboekimedekarimiIrregular verbs: Base 2 tabeoboekimedekarimi- Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabereoboerekimerederekariremire- Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 . You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other stuff as necessary. it's where you start. Also notice how the last letter of each "base" corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above.) Think of Base 3 as the "root.and that the verb changes to end with the vowel whose "base" it's of before anything is added to it.

it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. they probably won't eat dinner. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • • • Isogeba. watashi ni shirasemasu. (If it rains we're sure to get wet. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekimasu.. (If you call John he'll probably come.. however. covered in Lesson 30? Well.) John ni denwa sureba. watashitachi wa nureru deshou. (I want to call Grandma. let's do a simple and useful conjugation.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you? [Go ahead and call her.koshi- kishi- kuru suru kuresure- Now that we know how to make Base 4. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. Here are the example sentences from Lesson 30. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning. (If he sees Yuko. Here. (If the kids eat a snack now." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if.) Kare wa Yuko o mireba.) Handy. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. As we learned in the last lesson. o'clock] + han [half]) Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are actually going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta.) Ame ga fureba." as shown in these examples: ... huh? Another use for this is to suggest doing something. he'll let me know.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. Base 4 + ba does the same thing for you while being shorter and simpler. Ii is Japanese for "good. yuushoku o tabenai deshou.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? Word Check shichiji han: 7:30 (shichi [7] + ji [hour. kuru deshou.]) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker.

yokatta. I have done this with most of the examples on this page.) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara.) • As you can see. (It would be good if you played outside. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.) Naoko. (Now would be a good time to study. In those situations different constructions would be used.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 36) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. (I wish I had ordered the steak. they are not completely interchangeable. they both mean "good". (I wish we had gone to the park. soto de asobeba ii.there is no such Japanese as ikatta. When showing regret for mistakes the past tense of yoi. no.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro.) Ima benkyou sureba ii. is used after ba -. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied . (The weather's nice. especially when there's no chance of the decision being changed. quirky ii does not. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni.) Mom.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi. While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 21 but not quite as strong. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. [I still wish you would play outside. (We want to watch TV. (We should have come at 8:00. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou. (Even though it would be nice to play outside. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni.) Kids: Terebi mitai. so it would be good to play outside. yes. By this stage of Japanese study. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done. (Around five. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice.• • • Soto de asobeba ii.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta. Adding yokatta to Base + ba shows regret for a decision already made: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta. However. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. yoi is not used with noni.

) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [time. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. if you look and act like you know what you're saying. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: otenki. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adj.) Base 4 by itself: the plain imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where it can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone during a sports event.) light shokuji: food. Actually. It's simple: no subject or object needed. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. just use Base 4. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence -. hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adjectival form of hayai [fast]) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order (Verbs are shown in their plain form. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally. If you do." . and maybe even get into a fight. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look. this is a form you really don't want to use. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. You'll hear this form mostly while watching Japanese TV and movies. Or.very handy when you get used to it.and known to all concerned.

Now. Simply put. to not give up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. too. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. .so important I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen.) Base 4 + ru You are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. Take a good look. No problem. / Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru.it was like opening a new door. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru. For example. you should know that the original sentences are more polite with the masu ending.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. I remember when I first learned this one -. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru (I can go) using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. (He might be able to go next month. / Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru.Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. It shows ability to do something.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu. let's take three examples from Lesson 26 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. very useful. It's very.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. they can be treated like plain ichidans. (Keiko can't play the violin. We can put the masu ending on the others and make them polite. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. / Keiko wa piano o hikeru. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. Here we realize an important point -.) Now.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. just like most ichidans. As such. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu. (I can read Japanese. which was covered back in Lesson 26. (Keiko can play the piano. (Keiko can play the piano.

(As you remember.Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. For example. It made sense to me. there are many exceptions among the ichidans. I only mention the above because they act just like ichidans in many ways. the "cannot do" plain form.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai. (Keiko can't play the piano. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk. this is wasei eigo. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in Base 2 form.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou.) See how that works? As mentioned last time. there are other nai-related endings that will work here. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep)." (There's a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.) . and I hope it will make sense to you. which was covered in Lesson 13.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. (Jack probably won't be able to come. (I can't read Japanese. The irregulars kuru and suru cannot use this form.) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb." but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. If it helps. this form is only meant for yodans. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. As you may have guessed. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai.) raigetsu: next month Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 + ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai.

) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. this form is mainly for yodans.) . at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. an example of which was included in the last lesson.noru: to ride aruku: to walk (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (It would be nice if I could read Japanese. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). as in Iketara iku yo (I'll go if I can). but who cares? Everyone uses it. (physically) well (adjective or noun) ni naru: to get/become (adjective or noun) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. So. to see (someone) hachi: eight jikan: hour neru: to sleep genki: healthy. but there are exceptions like the last example above. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. energetic. Base 4 + reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii.) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru. so I do too. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark.) Base 4 + reba To be frank. I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. you may wonder. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet.) Again.

oboeru oboerekime. let's get out the tables from Lesson 43 and add Base 5 to them: Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawaarukaisogakasamatashinaasobayomakaeraIchidan verbs: Base 2 kaiarukiisogikashimachishiniasobiyomikaeri- Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Base 4 kaearukeisogekasemateshineasobeyomekaere- Base 5 kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 tabe.kime.oboe.kimeru kimerededederu derekari. If you don't mind.taberu tabereoboe.kariru kariremimimiru mireIrregular verbs: Base 5 tabeyou oboeyou kimeyou deyou kariyou miyou Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 kokikuru kure.tabe.kari.Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful.koyou . I think we'll cover them all in this lesson. First.

(Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (Maybe I'll watch TV. Also.. arukou ka na. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou.) Terebi o miyou ka na. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). ee. (I wonder if I should call Bob.. (I wonder if I should go shopping. (Let's take a break. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing needs no attachments. but is converted as necessary: . which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. oo. I just made that up.) Tabeyou. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice. the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • • • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. (I think I'll go shopping." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.) by changing verbs to end in an "oh" sound. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. (Do you want to take a break?) Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should.shi- shi- suru sure- shiyou As you can see. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka. (Let's go. eh.) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa.) Kyou wa o-tenki ga ii kara.) Yasumou. (Let's eat." Suru is shown plain.. so stretch it out a bit when you use it.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. oh..) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something).) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.

But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs. but he couldn't. miemasen deshita. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead. the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. As you have most likely guessed. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often. Word Check kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather (The honorific prefix o is often added.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga.• • John wa koyou to suru to omou. (Naoto tried to see the airplane. Let's take a look at the tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde . one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech.) Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. (I think John will try to come.) ii: good aruku: to walk hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. I have decided to begin the Te Form with it.

kashite.yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: yonde kaette Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru Te Form kite shite Those yodans look pretty scary. hataraite. tsunagu (to connect). Let's take a closer look: • • • • • • • Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. Please note this one important exception: iku. to put out [a fire]). nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte -. like kasu (to lend). like aruku (to walk). Yodan verbs that end in tsu. keshite. nuide. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite -. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de -shinde. to ask).e. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite -. nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide -. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. Yodan verbs that end in ku.. katte. like asobu (to play).matte. kesu (to turn off. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. tsunaide. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte -. not tsu). kiku (to listen.asonde. tonde. motte. tashite.atte.isoide. It's important because it's used a lot. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. . like matsu (to wait). kau (to buy). yonde. Yodan verbs that end in gu. nutte. like isogu (to hurry). Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (i. The only yodan verb that ends in nu.aruite. yobu (to call out). tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde -. motsu (to hold). like au (to meet). katte. not iite. kiite. Yodan verbs that end in bu.

the ichidans are easy and there are only the two irregulars. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte -." "to go down. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. Adding masu or masen further softens it and gives the listener room to reply. (Please come at six o'clock. tsutsunde. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain. When you start learning kanji.) . Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something." "to lower (something). please eat. (Come at six o'clock. like kaeru (to return). It means "under.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. kiite. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. (Go ahead. As you can see. momu (to massage). there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. technically you're saying something like "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly.yonde. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. kiku (to listen). like yomu (to read). tabete.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka. totte. monde. Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. but in Japanese we do. (Go ahead and eat.) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the order-giving nasai. haitte.• • Yodan verbs that end in mu.kaette.) Douzo. (Listen to this." There are several handy variations of kudasai. hairu (to enter). and kitte: • • Koko ni kite. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka.) Chotto matte kudasai. (Come here. For practice let's use kuru (to come). humble me.) In English we (thankfully) don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants. Yodan verbs that end in ru. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. (Please come at six o'clock." etc.) Matte. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. depending on the tone of voice used. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite. (Wait. (Please wait a bit. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde -. and kiru (to cut).) Kore o kiite. tabete kudasai.

a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Te Form + ageru In Lesson 50 we learned how kudasai means "to give (down to me). kiite: KEE-EETEH. (Cut this." putting the receiver on a higher level than the giver. Word Check douzo: go ahead chotto: a little. and kitte: KEET-TEH.) Kono pen o agemasu.) . while making each syllable as short as possible (Some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible. showing a "humbler" position.• Kore o kitte." but kudasai is used with "me" and brings the giving direction down.) Tabetakunakereba. to show respect. (Please give me that pen.) As you can see. If you ask someone to do something for you. I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. but when you want to state that you'll do something for someone. Now." Ageru also means "to give. (I'll wait for you. Let's set aside the Te Form for a minute and confirm the kudasai / ageru relationship with these simple examples: • • Sono pen o kudasai. (I'll give you this pen. kudasai and ageru (made polite here with the Base 2 + masu ending) both work with a noun (a pen) as "give.)." but it means "to raise. to give (up to someone). giving each equal time while making them short. Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. just like counting 1-2-3.) Ato de denwa shite ageru.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite: KEE-TEH. (If you don't want to eat it. as covered in the last lesson. it works the same way with verbs in Te Form. showing that someone is going to do something for someone else. (I'll call you later. you use the Te Form + ageru: • • • Matte ageru. tabete ageru. while ageru is used with "you" to take the giving direction up. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. I'll eat it for you. you use the Te Form + kudasai.

as these examples show. which are chosen depending on the situation. and will work nicely in most cases. laces musubu: to tie. whether or not he or she is in hearing range. It's for "talking down" to. to connect (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it's a great convenience besides. and showing contempt for others.) There are many more verbs and combinations that express "giving / doing for" in Japanese.) Shizuka no kutsu no himo o musunde agete. Finally. The ability to omit understood subjects and objects not only helps to make this possible. the Japanese used in manga is no model for everyday Japanese.) Notes 1." It is disrespectful at best. kudasai and ageru are the most basic and useful of them all. (Tie Shizuka's shoelaces.In Japanese. (Lend Bob your pen. and. use agete — the Te Form of ageru with nothing attached — when asking someone to do something for someone else: • • Bob ni pen o kashite agete. the position of the giver or receiver. Remember to use agemasu in situations where politeness is needed. . Don't use it. I have received inquiries about the Te Form with yaru as an alternative for ageru. as a general rule. However. Just as the English used in R-rated American movies cannot be thought of as a model for everyday speech in daily conversation in mixed company in America or elsewhere. You will not make any friends or impress anyone (except negatively) if you were to use it in Japan. but not in daily conversation except maybe among guys "talking tough. verbs and their conjugations are truly 80% of the language. It can be heard in Japanese manga (comics and cartoons) and samurai movies. string. 1 Word Check sono: that kono: this ato de: later kutsu: shoe(s) himo: rope. in cases where there's a third person.

You never use it on yourself. usually in short.) That's how we use goran nasai.) Tabete goran.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. (Taste it and see if you like it." You use it to ask someone to try something.) Te Form + iru . (Ask Bob and see what he says. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran. (There is salt on the shelf. Yonde goran nasai. (Take a look.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves ima: now kirei: beautiful.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. and goran nasai when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • • • • • • • Bob ni kiite goran. mild command-like sentences. Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight (38) kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be.Te Form + goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. Read it for yourself. (Try calling Sanae. which is used to prove a point.) Mite goran. Mite goran nasai. (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. Itte goran nasai. Use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome. pretty (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences to emphasize something. Go and see for yourself. See for yourself.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. (It says he's 38.

This is probably the most used verb form of them all. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. (They are reading a magazine. "I'm knowing [it].) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. (Yesterday I slept all day. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases. when they really should use sunde iru. As you already know. which were covered in the Base 2 endings.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. masen.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. and masen deshita. like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]). as in the fourth example above. and not shiru. we say "I know. (I am here. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day. (Bill is studying Japanese.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. For example. Especially important are masu." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard." So. (She is eating sushi." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). Because of this. (I am walking.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. [We are living in Takamatsu. these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. in a way. mashita."). it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. in English we would normally ask a person. "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. (Shizuko is eating. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb.A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. (He's not studying French. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. we can get away with using just "live" in English.]) It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. (We live in Takamatsu.) Kinou nete imashita. (I didn't watch TV today. it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. to exist.) Watashi wa aruite iru. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite . (I'm reading the newspaper." but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally.) These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. Let's review these through some Te Form examples: • • • • Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • Watashi wa koko ni iru. Even though living in a place is present and progressive.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. but thankfully doesn't change according to the subject like English does. it works like English. [I wasn't watching TV today.

"woman-child" / "man-child"). (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine. so I'll tell you: "to play. simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy.with the i in iru omitted -. Word Check koko: here aruku: to walk karera: they zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep furansugo: the French language sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game. the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. imouto: little (younger) sister .) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. to do (something) ko: kid.in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. For example. Finally. but. like "kid" in English. this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English: • • Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister. Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. it is even written this way -. (I was watching TV. yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. there is no single. In fact." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly.imashita ka. "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEHEERU or SHEET-TERU. there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents.) I know you're wondering. child Note: Strangely. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson. to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU. These can be shortened to ko in many situations. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here.

which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen.Note: In Japanese.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. which makes them present or past progressive. infinitive and progressive: . otouto for younger brother. While there are some negative endings that can't be used when it's combined with the Te Form. (Sam's not here. (We don't live in Okayama. (Bill isn't studying Japanese.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother. present and past. (Sam's not here. which were purposely not covered in the original Base 1 endings: nakatta and nakattara. (They aren't reading a magazine. to exist. ane for older sister. nani o shite iru deshou ka. (If they're not studying. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs.) Benkyou shite inakereba. iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. what are they doing?) Now I think it's time to introduce two other closely related negative endings. Please look at the following examples. Nakatta is used for plain negative past. and adding ra makes it conditional. sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object. and imouto for younger sister. First let's do some plain negative examples. as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (We don't live in Okayama.) We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. which are based on those used in the last lesson: • • • • • Sam wa koko ni inai." As such. (The kids probably aren't studying. there are many that can.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu.) Te Form + inai As mentioned in the last lesson.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: • • • Sam wa koko ni imasen. (They aren't reading a magazine.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.

) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o suru koto ga dekita deshou. In either. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form. However. Word Check sono: that toki: time yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives) kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta. since it is not only a Te Form ending. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet.) Mada Yumi ni denwa shite inai no? (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) The no in the last example above plays the same role as ka. which can be convenient at times. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita.) Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen. (I didn't eat an apple. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. To make the meaning perfectly clear." depending on the actual situation. (I haven't eaten yet. which appears in the last example.• • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. (I'm not eating [now]. (I didn't eat an apple. "we could" could be "he could. but also a much- . and goes especially well with plain ones. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. vague and troublesome at others. It's for asking questions. (I wasn't eating then. to be able).) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita. Dekita." as in: • • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o suru koto ga dekiru deshou. (I'm not eating [now].) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. The last two above are good examples of this. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. (I wasn't eating then. (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet.

]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. ita is the plain past form of iru. but have added what would be the direct translation from Japanese in blue type. (John was watching TV. (Bill was studying. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. Just for the fun of it. teenagers and old men occasionally use washi. As I'm sure you know by now.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same tense and used that way. Also. this would be two males speaking. Word Check soshite: also hontou: really . upgrade ita to imashita. in settings where polite speech is called for. (I was doing shopping. I decided to go ahead and cover it here.are going to speak so grammatically correct. [I went shopping. but no real friends or family members -.]) Yes. In fact. (I went shopping. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. [Really? I washed my car. I include the usual English translation. Soshite terebi miteta.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 53 that we'll review here. (Really? I was washing my car.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta.at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place -. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. (They were reading a magazine.used element of conversational Japanese. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. that's actually how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. Put simply.) That's real Japanese. Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. and then what I believe would be the natural English actually used between native speakers in black: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What were you doing yesterday? [What did you do yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. Soshite terebi o mite ita. (Really? I washed my car. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whaja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta.

(May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. . however.) As in English. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received." it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings. When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: • • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. (Please review Lesson 46 if necessary. Oboete imasen ka. please review Lesson 16 concerning subject name use and suffixes. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. (Would you please call Mr. Don't you remember?) (If necessary. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. Because itadaku is a very polite word. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. meaning something like "I humbly partake. as covered in Lesson 50. one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. Here are some examples.kuruma: car arau: to wash (Verbs are shown in their plain form. It can.) Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. The Te Form + itadaku can be used like the Te Form + kudasai to ask favors.

the important difference has to do with subject emphasis. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. morau is not impolite.) This is a family situation. Get Ken to go. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. Also. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot.not as "respectful" -. and it can be at times. (I'm doing homework now. Make no mistake. As usual.) This is the same family.) . Traditionally. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. but not quite as polite -. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. I'll get Grandpa to go. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me.as itadakimasu. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. With kudasai. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. (I'm doing homework now. Mom: Kimiko: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai." With itadakimasu." When there's no need to be very polite. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. Mom: Everyone: Tabemashou! (Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (I "humbly receive" this. it's just plain. this would be the best way to go. even when the giver is not present. (Ken's not here now.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. However. use morau instead of itadaku. No particular reservations are needed here. Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. morau works best when talking about a third party.) Ima shukudai o shite iru.While kudasai and itadakimasu and their relevant forms are often interchangeable. but since we can't do that now. itadakimasu is always used with food. Ken ni itte moratte. Shall I get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. adding a masu ending makes it polite. Morau is okay when referring to other things.

Moraimashita shows ample respect between these two. They probably don't see each other every day.) Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they're handing out free pens.Itadakimasu is always used with food.) Itadakimashita. documents. (Yes. (Shall I go to the bank?) Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. (Did you get a pen?) Hai. (May I please have your name?) Hai.prefix is used with strangers. It would be impossible to cover all the possibilities.) oshieru: to teach. and these two are being courteous. itadakimashita is the nicest reply. moraimashita. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. Kimiko: Grandpa: Pen moraimashita ka.) This is at the office. etc. customers. (I got one [already]. Word Check namae: name (The honorific o. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) . I got one. Just like anywhere else. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (Sure.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. Since the clerk represents the store that's giving them out. (I had Ms. but she already has one and doesn't want another. each home. company.) Here the sales clerk offers a free pen to Kimiko. tell shorui: forms. (I'll give you a pen. Murai go. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. clients. Sales Clerk: Kimiko: Pen o agemasu. Suzuki-san: Tanaka-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. office. but this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide.

) .) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou.. (John's coming over after he does his homework. (Let's go see a movie after work.) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru. you just make them the subject/object with ga. such as summer to mean "after summer." There are other ways to do that. (Let's play baseball after school['s over]. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back.) Te Form + kara This one's a snap.senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now (Verbs are shown in their plain form.. a job eiga: movie mi ni iku: go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go]. Word Check kaeru: to return.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku.. then add the Te Form of owaru. You can't use it directly after nouns. to play (games or sports) shigoto: work (noun). the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something). which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. to come home owaru: to end. such as those two common ones work and school. Simple and useful.) Please also remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 24) and the Ta Form (coming later). to be over gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain). (After I eat I'm going shopping.) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.

you might say Ah. repeated request.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. and it would be offensive in some cases.Te Form + kureru In Lesson 50 we did kudasai. are you kindly going to pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. it’s customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. For example. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. which literally means "Oh. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six o'clock?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. the polite "please" or "kindly" used for favors requested or received. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or greatness doesn't need to be worried about. Again.) Matte kure. this is the "command" form of kureru. Kureru is used in generally the same way. (Please wait. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. (You could say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. ogotte kureru no?.) And finally. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can .) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. (Please come here. It's good for family members and close friends. In fact. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. the "kure command": • • Kite kure. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka.

One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru.) Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. you'll see what I mean. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. etc. Word Check jitensha: a bicycle kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. dreams. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together. expresses future plans. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time. assumptions." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come.) As can be seen." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as ." (If you say just ikimasu." Usually upgraded with masu. (Because of that.) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita. with matsu: to wait (Verbs are shown in their plain form.sound nicer than with kure. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou.) Sono tame. (I have been studying German history. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go. depending on intonation. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. I think that the number of PC users will increase. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. the literal equivalent of "I'm going.

There are several "set combinations" where it is used. use the country name chuugoku followed by the possessive no.) Kyoukasho o kari ni kimashita. doubutsuen: zoo tora: tiger miru: to see kyoukasho: textbook . or cuisine. (I'll go check it [then come back].." See Lesson 40..): cheap. but should be easily understood. inexpensive. to examine. but when uncertain. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) chuuka ryouri: Chinese food Note: Please don't assume that chuuka can be used to mean "Chinese" in general. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. combined with naru: to become.) Shirabete kuru."going away and not coming back. We'll finish up with a few examples of these: • • • • Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. (I ate before coming over. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita.) Accordingly. as in chuugoku no rekishi (Chinese history). These were not covered in the Base 2 lessons. food. asobi ni kite kudasai.) Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui (adj.) shiraberu: to check (something). (I came to borrow a textbook." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. (Please come over [sometime].) Doubutsuen no tora o mi ni ikimashita. (I went to see the tiger in the zoo. which emphasize the purpose in going or coming. (Let's go eat Chinese food.) Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku.) Douzo. The word ryouri by itself means a certain type of cooking.

to entertain oneself. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out Note: Rusu looks and acts like a verb.kariru: to borrow douzo: please. it acts like a "quasi adjective. with its own set phrases. miru means "to see. to enjoy oneself Note: asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. but he wasn't in. Or.. but it's not. In Japanese grammar." but technically it's not one of those either. Either way.) Simple enough.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu.) Te Form + miru As you know. (I'll try to read these kanji. It's one of those words that reside on the pile of irregulars. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it." . (Verbs are shown in their plain form. For example. you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can." which makes this one easy to remember. right? Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing." You may hear it often.. and adding miru. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. rusu deshita. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu.. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form. (I'll try to talk to John. (I tried calling him." meaning that we'll give something a try. Well. made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. (Let's give this new PC a try.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. go ahead asobu: to play. but don't take it literally.

In the workplace. that is the way it works grammatically. in familiar situations as in the last example above. or ka: ii desu ka (May I. hayaku kaette mo yoroshii.) You'll really sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. however. (You may go home early today. (Yeah. you can watch TV. like the object indicator o. positive response. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou. so you should be a little familiar with it. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English." "okay. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to.. As I've probably mentioned before. terebi mite ii.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii." etc...(Verbs are shown in their plain form. It's an adjective which means "good. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo." "fine.?).. you can also get away with omitting particles. as with all adjectives. you can use my dictionary. (You can use my PC. the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use.) . so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii.. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. but I've never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite.). We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 21 and 44). (Sure. as in: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. There's usually something else added on. As with most Japanese. Yes." etc.) Hai. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can." "it's okay if (someone does something)." Accordingly.) Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission.) (Yes...

Now, I said above that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite, positive reply. It is used a lot, however, but has a different and negative meaning. If you hear people arguing, you may hear an II desu yelled out by one of the arguers. In this expression, the ii is always yelled much louder than the desu. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou II desu. Either way, it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that... (...or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis.) gohan: food Note: Gohan actually means "cooked rice," but is often used to loosely mean "food," especially "a meal" in general. When the time of day can be guessed, gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast," "lunch," or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette, gohan o tabeta. (We got back at seven, then ate a meal [=dinner]). jisho: dictionary kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) kyou: today hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home; to return
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + oku
By itself, oku means "to put," but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb)," or "will go ahead and do (that verb)." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do," but shite oku, or any verb in the Te Form with oku, expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. Also, it is normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something. It isn't used in the negative; we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. Remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite.

All right. We've got all that talk out of the way, so let's make some sentences:
• • • • •

Ron ni denwa shite oku. (I'll call Ron.) Mado o akete oku. (I'll open the window.) Kasa o katte okimasu. (I'm going to buy an umbrella.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu. (I'll tell her to be careful.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. (I [went ahead and] did my homework.)

Again, when not following a verb in the Te Form, oku means "to put," as in: Hon wa, tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk), so please don't confuse them. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kanojo: she, her; (a steady) girlfriend ki o tsukeru: to be careful; to take care Note: Ki is a noun with many meanings, like "heart," "mind," and "energy." In this idiom it means "attention." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply," so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention; to be careful. You'll hear it often. you ni: in order to; in order that; for (a certain purpose or result); so (something will take effect or happen) iu: to say; to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk (no) ue: the top (of something)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Te Form + shimau
Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something)," and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form, pointing towards the completion of a task. Since shimau is a standard verb, you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways. A few examples are:

Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. (Let's finish up our homework.)

• •

Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. (I've finished eating breakfast.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo. (You should finish cleaning up your room.)

One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do, doing something unexpected, or the happening of something unexpected:
• • •

Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. (I bought a car.) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm.) Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. (She [up and] went to Osaka.)

And that's not all. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened:
• • • •

Watashi no fuku wa yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku wa yogorete shimaimashita. (Oh, no! My clothes got dirty.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Finally, I guess I'll mention that in everyday, familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. I'll confess that at first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things, but then one of my readers mentioned it, which made me think it over again; and, since it is used a lot, I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau," and, borrowing two examples from above, it sounds like this:
• •

Densha ni noriokuretchau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu wa nakuschaimashita! (Oh, no! I lost my ticket!)

Yes, this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again, I realize that this complicates things, which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. Also, I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural -- grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way), just unnatural -- because you've got the slang with a polite masu ending. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. Word Check shimau: to put away; to finish choushoku: breakfast

" fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation.heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone oreru: to break Note: Here we must give English the nod for being smart. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. but usually alone.these don't use it. (Well. You can omit the desu ka for plain. Instead. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. If you do.) kippu: ticket (usually for a train or other type of ride) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go . You can say dou ka. you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. do not add the plain. you can say it.) Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to say "How about (doing something)?": • • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. of course. question-forming no -. polite. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return.) Actually. but not ikaga ka. if you're going to use it in this way. You can't just say "I broke my arm. If you break a bone in Japanese. but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. (What do you think about buying a new TV?) These are." you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka and Dou desu ka sound so much better. familiar talk.

etc.. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. In fact. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are together. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. akan (Osaka). there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear.) Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". (You can't take pictures. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. So. and you're bound to hear either of these. When placed after the Te Form with wa.. to make it even more colorful. Also. iken (Okayama).) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this. like ikan (Takamatsu). used in a normal. "You mustn't do that!". Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take ." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated (-te) wa naranai. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. especially ikenai. "Naughty!". (Don't be late. "Thou shalt not. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden before the temptation arises: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen. etc. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku koto o wasuremashita! (Oh. everyday setting.atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also.

straighten up the room. ate breakfast.) Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it.) . then go shopping.) Also. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuuro ni hairu. because tooru is a totally different vowel.) As you can see. However. First. meaning "to pass (by/over something). (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. watashi wa kaimono ni iku. (I've got to call Shizu. and I'm going shopping. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • • Shizu ni denwa shite." okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. to take (steal) something from someone. and left home at eight. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • • Bob ni Shizu ni denwa shite. like "take a bath. kaimono ni ikanakereba narimasen. there are actions that use take in English but not toru in Japanese. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]. many which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. choushoku o tabete. (I got up at seven o'clock. heya o katazukete moratte. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a new one. to take a picture with a camera. fed him. which is easy to do.) Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. (I'm going to have Bob call Shizu and straighten up the room. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation.) Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days. the kanji used for each meaning are different." so please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. heya o katazukete. esa o ataete. hachiji ni ie o demashita. some simple ones. and [then] made my dinner.Note: The verb toru has many different usages. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. when a conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.

because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a. to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside asobu: to play esa: pet food. When you're not sure. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up choushoku: breakfast ie: home. and simple. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. a house deru: to leave. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu Ta Form katta aruita isoida kashita matta .) Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. just start a new sentence. It will be a snap if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. to straighten up. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. Just for a quick check. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make (Verbs are shown in their plain form. whose major purpose is to make things plain.Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. past.

In the long run. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense.) Terebi mita.) Hon yonda.) Boku no kingyo shinda.shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita Ta Form kita shita As with the Te Form. (I got a haircut. It's what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. (I went to the bank. . Once again. (My goldfish died. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta.) Kami kitta. Let's do some real basic. you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. (I read a book. Also. (I ate lunch.) Ginkou itta. even by the fastest-talking Japanese.) Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples. there are limits. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them. (I watched TV.) Ohiru tabeta. there are a few weird ones among the yodans. (I did it. everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • • Shita. There are cases where particles would never be cut. and only omit them when everyone else does.

and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read." and is less formal than chuushoku. roku nen mae ni katta. literally "hairbug. For example. but since I hear it called the Ta Form more often.) As the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6.) Shinda kingyo wa. Word Check kami: the hair on one's head Note: Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. I had someone cut my hair." Very handy." If we switch these around to yonda hon. Another commonly used one is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built. hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book. right? Let's do some more: • • • • • Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no.) Joy ga tsukutta keeki wa oishikatta. Although it literally means "I cut my hair. ago tsukuru: to make keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense-forming conjugation -katta. where it's acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. even on a caterpillar. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole. the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. (The things Bob studied were very helpful.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. anywhere.) . (The cake Joy made was delicious. Ke alone is hair — any hair. kiru: to cut. use kami. hon becomes the subject.) ginkou: bank kingyo: goldfish roku: six nen: year(s) mae (ni): before." it is used for "I got a haircut. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi. (The goldfish that died I bought six years ago. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's. that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen." There are a few of these. to wear Note: Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese.) Boku ga katta PC wa.The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier." ohiru: lunch (This is the honorific o combined with "midday. juu hachi man en deshita. yonda modifies hon like an adjective. beforehand.

(Yumiko probably went to Kyoto. (If necessary. One past tense element is enough.) Note: We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite. use desu to make it polite. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. as in the last example above. .) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. please see Lesson 1 for a quick review. (He was supposed to come at six. For a more detailed review. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. these two share many add-ons and endings. Instead. the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past. not deshita. Since we have already covered these. » deshou (Lesson 19): • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou.juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s) (usually intangible ones) totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful (Verbs are shown in their plain form. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in my Base 3 lessons. Again. Carefully note the similarities and differences. Base 3 is used for the plain future. I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions. Due to this. because deshita is the past form of desu. (He's supposed to come at six. And. the rest really isn't too difficult. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense. and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative. There are a few "ta form only" combinations. I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary.) » hazu desu (Lesson 20): • • Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu.) Ta Form + Various Combinations Shared With Base 3 Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works. root form of Japanese verbs. please click the lesson links. and some examples in Lesson 20 included it. which will serve as a nice review.

For expressing regret..) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. I'm late every day. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (It would be better to go by train today. (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. Takada quit. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. Takada's quitting. I was late. (I should have taken the train today. (Even though I got up early.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) » kara (Lesson 24): • • Beth wa itsumo okureru kara.» hou ga ii (Lesson 21): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) » noni (Lesson 36): • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru. The bottom example in past tense can easily be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if. sensei ga okotta.) Note: Yes. sensei ga okoru. (I heard that Mr.) Hayaku okita noni okureta.) » ka dou ka (Lesson 22): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. (Even though I get up early. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. (It would be better to go by train today. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) Note: This sense of sou is not used without desu.) Beth wa okureta kara. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late." Please don't make this mistake.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 23): • • Konban. (I heard that Mr.) Kinou no ban. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) » sou desu (Lesson 37): • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta.. » to omoimasu (Lesson 40): . Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it.) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii.

• • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. like something memorized from a grammar book. (It looks like it's going to rain. . (Mom just got back.) furu: to fall as precipitation (rain. (I just cleaned this room.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 42): • • Ame ga furu mitai.) yameru: to quit a job.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. not with people or objects.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. now that I think of it. snow.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day].) Ta Form + bakari To express "(did something) just now. the present] + ban [evening]) kinou: yesterday itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. (It looks like it rained. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock.) John wa deta bakari. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. (I just ate.) In fact. (John just left.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. In other words. etc. to quit or end a task (Note to advanced learners: These two "quits" use different kanji. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use the adjective atarashii.) Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward.) Ame ga futta mitai.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. (I just bought that umbrella. mai is used with units of time.

I haven't. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai. First. Tabete mitai kedo. I'd like to try it. (All that kid does is play computer games. you use the verb iku (to go) .) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. to do (familiar. I have... (No. Nikai ikimashita.) A: Tako o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out. (Yes. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru.) As you can see. This is used after the Te Form." usually as a complaint.. Once you get these sorted and memorized. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. tabeta koto ga nai. I've been twice. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain. mother (familiar) kaeru: to return.There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. to go/come back deru: to leave.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. (Yes.. Word Check okaa-chan: Mom. like this: • • • Tabete bakari. though. you'll find them very useful.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari." in Japanese.. (All you ever do is eat. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. The first is that when you ask "have you been to. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (over there). that (subject we're talking about) ko: child.) Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. arimasu.

" which. in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice.) John ni denwa suru nara. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.and literally ask "have you gone to. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. (If you call John he'll probably come.) . I haven't read it yet. you're admitting having experienced something at least once. you don't use this form. The second is that in using this form.) Next. the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 30) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 43): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. they probably won't eat lunch.]) (The Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the bottom of Lesson 54. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • Yukiko o mireba oshiete kudasai.. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. kare wa kuru deshou.." but "I went twice.) Ta Form + ra Simply said. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. First.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko. not yet.. you should know that in everyday familiar conversation the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie.) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru. See Lessons 7 and 60. mada yonde inai. kare wa kuru deshou. (No. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Yukiko o miru nara oshiete kudasai.) John ni denwa sureba. [No.) kedo: however. but regular past tense. (If the kids eat a snack. to me. As in B's reply above. (If you call John he'll probably come. although (This is an abbreviated form of keredomo.) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara." Finally.

chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (If the kids eat a snack.• Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. to inform.. Now that all the explaining is out of the way. (I heard that Mr. kare wa kuru deshou. they probably won't eat lunch." "I hear that. I think you'll find it easy enough to master..) Kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada. but I personally have never heard it. you can make it plain by using da instead of desu.) . but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu: • • Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples: • • • Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii.) John ni denwa shitara. familiar conversation. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC." etc..) Ta Form + rashii Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 42). (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight.) Again. According to the books.. rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 37).) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. Takada's quitting. meaning "It seems that.) Desu is usually used after sou. desu can added after rashii to make it polite. Yes. Word Check oshieru: to tell. they probably won't eat lunch. (If you call John he'll probably come. but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. chuushoku o tabenai deshou. (I heard that Mr. (Please tell me if you see Yukiko.. to teach sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) chuushoku: lunch (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Yukiko o mitara oshiete kudasai.. (If the kids eat a snack. making it more formal than rashii. Takada's quitting.

just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense. listened to some music.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one: • Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari. ongaku o kiitari. yuushoku o tabeta. Word Check daibun: considerably. to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new (Verbs are shown in their plain form. ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite.) Ta Form + ri Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. If you want. and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. then ate dinner. (I read comics and stuff.) Now. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying. (Jim buys and sells old things. (I watched TV and stuff. (Last night after dinner I . Above I said to be sure to add a form of suru. (Last night I watched TV. shukudai o shitari shite imashita. and did some homework.That's all there is to it. use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 66): • Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite. right? This is where you control the tense: • • Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. It can also be used for present or future happenings.)* This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done. some cleaning. and watch TV. souji shitari. please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. terebi o mitari suru deshou. you can use just one action verb for a quick answer: • • Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita.) If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions. ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita.

hiru kara tomodachi no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite. use the Ta Form with to shitara: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping. Please review Lessons 53 and 55. but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.watched TV. ate lunch. approximately tomodachi: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make -te kureru: to kindly (do something) (Lesson 58) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 57) gurai: about. Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (physical. (If Bob were to come tomorrow.) Ta Form + to shitara For suppositional statements. then she made dinner. then in the afternoon went to a friend's house. it is common practice to use the past progressive shite ita / shite imashita in Japanese in constructions like this.) I realize that this is a run-on sentence.) How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready: • Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite. I'd really be at a loss. practiced the piano and things. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. * Note: While unnatural in English.) . listened to music for about two hours. chuushoku o tabete. then did homework until one o'clock.

) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used as substitutes for to shitara. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). Word Check hontou ni: really. let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.) As you can see. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. etc." As usual.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. (If you were to go swimming now.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form...• • Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo.. snow. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. dou shimashou ka. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: . without doubt komaru: to be confused. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. you'd probably regret it. (Supposing it rains this afternoon.) Ta Form + to shite mo This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. you must remember that (something else). In fact. (Even if you studied Spanish. tabun koukai suru deshou. shigoto de tsukaenai deshou.

) Word Check ashita: tomorrow asatte: the day after tomorrow (Yes. toki will also work with Base 3 for future events or infinitives. (Even if I read the manual. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand ikura: how much/many zenzen: not at all. never (used to emphasize or exaggerate negatives) ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. kono sofuto ga wakarimasen.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. the Japanese have one convenient word for that!) made: until au: to meet. it can be used in place of to in the third example given in Lesson 39: . he never gets full. (John's pants were torn when he fell. zenzen ippai ni naranai..• • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: Spanish (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job.) While not covered before. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook. I was very surprised. I can't understand this software. groceries takusan: a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.. (No matter how much he eats." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki totemo odorokimashita. After the Ta Form.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. (I laughed when I heard that. (When I read that. For example. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred.) Sore o kiita toki waratta.) Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. it is equivalent to "when" in "when I saw that..

add desu to make a statement polite.) Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to fall (as in to stumble and fall. One similar to this.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago — relatively speaking. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro. it's still brand-new. (The kids just finished eating. sickness (Verbs are shown in their plain form. while tokoro really means just now. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" sense to it. the Ta Form + bakari. (I just got back now. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. to trip and fall) zubon: pants yabureru: to get torn sashimi: specially prepared edible raw fish byouki: to be sick.• Sashimi o taberu toki byouki ni naru.) As usual.) However. or. However. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. (I just cleaned this room.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. For example. to is usually used because of its flexibility. in the least recent sense. Here are some examples where tokoro can be used naturally. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) . was already covered in Lesson 69. Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. (I get sick whenever I eat raw fish.

You can add it to many statements to make them polite. desu makes things polite. iru and aru As you know.) desu. (There's a big tree in the park. Tom wa iru yo. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. [I don't want to. aru is a yodan. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. like something from the masu group.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai: .. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: • • Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. (Tomorrow it will rain.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (That school is old.) You can make these polite by using Base 2 + masu: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. (He is Mr.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu.) The plain form of desu is da. (Bob's sick." Generally speaking. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here/there?) Hai. Tanaka. iru is used for people and animals. Tom's here. (The dictionary is on the desk.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru.) Ashita wa ame desu. After nouns and adjectives.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. (No. are. (Yes.]) Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist. (There's a big tree in the park. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am.) Bob wa byouki desu. is.taberu: to eat heya: a room souji suru: to clean (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Carol is 25 years old. (There's a spider on the wall..) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. etc.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru.) (Iru is an ichidan verb.

This is one that is rarely used these days. Again." as in being in a certain position. (I don't have a dictionary. ima Tom wa inai. (I don't have a dictionary. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. and is especially used by children. The only time you'll hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. Word Check gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: (adjective) disagreeable. Tom's not here now. Japanese is no exception. getting back to desu. No! (Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough." So.• • Sumimasen. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru.) And the polite forms would be: • • Sumimasen. (Sorry.. unpleasant..) kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree sumimasen: sorry. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature.. even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use.) Jisho wa nai. If you're really interested in the technical background. there is another form that I've been asked about: de aru.) Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries — things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. one is "as. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student).) Jisho wa arimasen. here it is: Among the several roles of de. Use desu instead. it is rarely used these days. ima Tom wa imasen. excuse me jisho: dictionary (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Now. . Tom's not here now. state or condition. (Sorry.

even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. the verbs listed in bold black are in their plain (Base 3) form. agaru is used for "come inside.What makes it worse is the fact that very. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. to give • • Agatte kudasai. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. So that there is no misunderstanding. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru." When exchanging gifts. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. » -aru / -eru In these pairs. They are not conjugations. which is intransitive (has no direct object). but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. I'll give you this. ageru. have close ties with Japanese culture. (Wendy collects old stamps. active/passive forms.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. (Please come in. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lesson 51). It only represents the tip of the iceberg. (Here. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together.) Note: These two.) Hai. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. Accordingly. agaru and ageru. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. very rarely will they correct you. (Please make up your mind quickly.) .) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. This is certainly not a complete list. to go/come up ageru: to raise up.

You were really a great help.mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa.. when you find something that was lost.) Note: These two cause a lot of stumbling. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai. Hontou ni tasukarimashita. » -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru.. Also.. For routine helping.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Note: Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. like helping in the kitchen. Strangely.. tasukaru: to be of help. to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. to arrive (a package. (Thank you. use tetsudau." it's not. (Please continue looking for it. It's usually used in life-or-death matters and when helping people in real trouble. as if it just found itself. to help • • Arigatou. » -su / -u . even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). etc. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally. (I found a pimple. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is).

to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh.) Kaigi ga owattara. (The copier is broken. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. (Please cut down on your spending. to get off or get out of a vehicle . to put down oriru: to go/come down. (Grandpa went outside.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta.And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. Please don't leave any.) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete. Nokosanaide kudasai. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (Eat all this.) Note: Heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Note: Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) • • Shuppi o herashite kudasai.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. (Let the dog out.) herasu: to decrease. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta. (Be back by ten o'clock.

like a belt. but these should give you a good start. dress.• • Koko ni oroshite. etc.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. etc. (My hat got dirty.) Of course there are others. where there is no special intransitive or passive form.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. (Don't move that machine. jacket.) Takamatsu eki ni orite kudasai. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station. warawareru deshou. (If you wear those glasses. (This cake probably won't be eaten. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) Note: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. conversion can be done by: • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru and then conjugate accordingly. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. kimono.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. hameru: to wear on a finger. like a shirt. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. like a name tag or pin . like pants. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. socks. as in: • • • Sono megane o kaketara.) Kemushi ga ugoita. obi. necktie. etc. a skirt. shoes. (Put it down here. (The caterpillar moved. For most standard verbs. you'll probably be laughed at.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck.

Besides these. and especially when talking about accessories. This completes Japanese Verbs. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies.

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