Preface

This Instructors¶ Manual provides solutions to most of the problems in ANTENNAS: FOR ALL APPLICATIONS, THIRD EDITION. All problems are solved for which answers appear in Appendix F of the text, and in addition, solutions are given for a large fraction of the other problems. Including multiple parts, there are 600 problems in the text and solutions are presented here for the majority of them. Many of the problem titles are supplemented by key words or phrases alluding to the solution procedure. Answers are indicated. Many tips on solutions are included which can be passed on to students. Although an objective of problem solving is to obtain an answer, we have endeavored to also provide insights as to how many of the problems are related to engineering situations in the real world. The Manual includes an index to assist in finding problems by topic or principle and to facilitate finding closely-related problems. This Manual was prepared with the assistance of Dr. Erich Pacht.

Professor John D. Kraus Dept. of Electrical Engineering Ohio State University 2015 Neil Ave Columbus, Ohio 43210 Dr. Ronald J. Marhefka Senior Research Scientist/Adjunct Professor The Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory 1320 Kinnear Road Columbus, Ohio 43212

iii

Table of Contents
Preface iii

Problem Solutions: Chapter 2. Antenna Basics ......................................................................................... 1 Chapter 3. The Antenna Family ............................................................................... 17 Chapter 4. Point Sources ......................................................................................... 19 Chapter 5. Arrays of Point Sources, Part I ............................................................... 23 Chapter 5. Arrays of Point Sources, Part II .............................................................. 29 Chapter 6. The Electric Dipole and Thin Linear Antennas ........................................ 35 Chapter 7. The Loop Antenna ................................................................................. 47 Chapter 8. End-Fire Antennas: The Helical Beam Antenna and the Yagi-Uda Array, Part I ........................................................................................... 53 Chapter 8. The Helical Antenna: Axial and Other Modes, Part II ............................ 55 Chapter 9. Slot, Patch and Horn Antennas ............................................................... 57 Chapter 10. Flat Sheet, Corner and Parabolic Reflector Antennas .............................. 65 Chapter 11. Broadband and Frequency-Independent Antennas ................................... 75 Chapter 12. Antenna Temperature, Remote Sensing and Radar Cross Section ........... 81 Chapter 13. Self and Mutual Impedances ................................................................. 103 Chapter 14. The Cylindrical Antenna and the Moment Method (MM) ...................... 105 Chapter 15. The Fourier Transform Relation Between Aperture Distribution and Far-Field Pattern ............................................................................ 107 Chapter 16. Arrays of Dipoles and of Aperture ........................................................ 109 Chapter 17. Lens Antennas ...................................................................................... 121 Chapter 18. Frequency-Selective Surfaces and Periodic Structures By Ben A. Munk .................................................................................. 125 Chapter 19. Practical Design Considerations of Large Aperture Antennas ................ 127 Chapter 21. Antennas for Special Applications......................................................... 135 Chapter 23. Baluns, etc. By Ben A. Munk ............................................................... 143 Chapter 24. Antenna Measurements. By Arto Lehto and Pertti Vainikainen ................................................................................. 147 Index 153

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1 Chapter 2. Antenna Basics
2-7-1. Directivity. Show that the directivity D of an antenna may be written
U U E

J max E  . .

J max r2 Z U U E . .

J E  . .

J ) max ! S (U . U av ´´ 4T U (U .5) ! 2 v 60o ! 120o . (b) Pn = cos2 U. Approximate directivities. so meter2 ! Sr 2 or (watts/steradian) = (watts/meter2) v D! ¤ ¢ . (c) Pn = cos3 U. (U . Calculate the approximate directivity from the half-power beam widths of a unidirectional antenna if the normalized power pattern is given by: (a) Pn = cos U. and (d) Pn = cosn U. S (U . Solution: (a) U HP ! 2 cos1 (0.J ) r 2 . J ) d U (U . ¥ Note that r 2 ! area/steradian. The patterns are independent of the azimuth angle J. J ) ! S (U . Z Solution: ! U Therefore 2-7-2. J ) ! E . J ) max r 2 . J 2 r d. In all cases these patterns are unidirectional (+z direction) with Pn having a value only for zenith angles 0r e U e 90r and Pn = 0 for 90r e U e 180r. .

J E  . .

,J U U Z

U U E

, J max E 

, J max 2 r Z D! 1 U U E

J E  . .

d. J av ) max 1 ! 4T q.e. . J 2 r d ´´ 4T 4T Z £   ¡ ! 1 4T ´´ 4T ( U U . 40.000 ! 278 (ans.) (120) 2 .

continued (d) U HP ! 2 cos 1 ( n 0. Calculate the approximate directivities from the half-power beam widths of the three unidirectional antennas having power patterns as follows: P(U.J) = Pm sin2 U sin3 J P(U. 40.5 ) ! 2 v 37.) (90)2 40.000 (cos 1(n 0.5 ) ! 2 v 45o ! 90 o .94 (ans.J) = Pm sin U sin2 J P(U.93o . D! 10.000 D! ! 7. U HP ! 2 cos 1 (3 0.47 o ! 74.J) has a value only for 0 e U e T and 0 e J e T and is zero elsewhere. Approximate directivities.) *2-7-3.000 ! 4.5 ) . @ HPBW ! 120o 2 2 ª 2º ª2º HPBW ¸ 1 ¨ For sin2 U pattern.J) = Pm sin U sin3 J P(U.) (75) 2 D! 2-7-2. 2 º 2 ª HPBW ¸ 1 ¨ sin © 90  . 2 º 2 ª HPBW 1 ¨ 1 ¸ HPBW 1 ¨ 1 ¸ sin © ¹ . @ HPBW ! 90o ¹! 2 º 2 ª . sin 2 U ! sin 2 © 90  ¹! .5 )) 2 (ans. Solution: To find D using approximate relations.  90  sin © ¹  90 .2 (b) (c) U HP ! 2 cos 1 ( 0. sin U ! sin © 90  ¹! . HPBW HPBW ! 90  U or U ! 90  2 2 HPBW ¸ 1 ¨ For sin U pattern.3 (ans. we first must find the half-power beamwidths.

0 v 10 4 or 40. JHP = 1r.3 HPBW ¸ 1 ¨ For sin3 U pattern.9) for P(U. Show that the directivity of an antenna may be expressed as 4T D! 2 P where E(x.) (2)(1) U HPJ HP G ! kD ! 0.) (120)(74.000 ! ! 3.45 (ans.12 $ ! 5.J) = sin2 U sin3J ! ´´ Ap E .93 (ans.) 2-9-1.5. and (b) find the gain of this antenna if efficiency k = 0.253 sq. continued Thus.9) (90)(74. §¦ §¦ ! 41.82 $ ! 3.J) = sin U sin3J 41. deg. Directivity and gain. Directivity and apertures. D! 41. @ HPBW ! 74.70 (ans.0 v 10 4 or 43. Solution: (a) (b) D! 40.9) for P(U.J) = sin U sin2J *2-7-4.5( 2.253 40. 41.) (120 )(90) U J (120 )(90) for P(U.000 ! 4.000 40.9) (120)(74. 2 º 2 ª HPBW ¸ 1 ¨ o sin © 90  ¹ ! 3 .) (90)(74.0 dB (ans.59 $ ! 4. (a) Estimate the directivity of an antenna with UHP = 2r.000 ! 6.000 ! ! 2.253 40.253 40.9 2 º 2 ª *2-7-3. y) is the aperture field distribution.0 v 10 4 ) ! 1.0 dB (ans. sin 3 U ! sin 3 © 90  ¹! .

x. y dxdy ´´ E  .

x. y dxdy Ap ´´ Ap E .

x . y E .

x. y dxdy  .

the directivity is D and the power radiated is P. the power radiated is Pd For an actual aperture distribution. Equating effective powers * Eav Eav Ap Pd 4T Z D ! Dm ! 2 Ap Dm P d D P . ! P P E . the directivity is a maximum (= Dm) and .4 Solution: If the field over the aperture is uniform.

y E  .x.

y dxdy ´´Ap Z 2-9-1. continued where E av ! 1 Ap ´´A Ap E ( x. y ) dxdy p therefore 4T D! 2 P ´´ E .x.

y dxdy ´´ E  . x.

y dxdy Ap ´´ Ap E . x.

y E  .x .

where  Eav Eav Ap ´´ Ap E .x . y dxdy  Eav Eav q.d.e.

y E  . x.

x . y dxdy ! 1 Ap ´´ E .

x. y E .

What is the maximum power received at a distance of 0. What is the maximum effective aperture (approximately) for a beam antenna having halfpower widths of 30r and 35r in perpendicular planes intersecting in the beam axis? Minor lobes are small and may be neglected. Solution: *2-9-3. 2 Aem 900 2 DP P ! 71. Received power and the Friis formula. A 30 35  . Effective aperture and beam area.6 P2 (ans.5 km over a free-space 1 GHz circuit consisting of a transmitting antenna with a 25 dB gain and a receiving antenna with  ©¨ ©¨ .32 $ o P 2 ! 3.A $ U J ! 30 o 35o . y dxdy  !  Eav A ! I ap ! e 2 Ap ( E )av 2-9-2. Effective aperture and directivity.x. What is the maximum effective aperture of a microwave antenna with a directivity of 900? Solution: D ! 4T Aem / P . Aem ! P2 57.) ! ! 4T 4T 2 2-11-1.1P 2 (ans.) o .

12 m.3 m.152      ! Pr r 2 (4T ) 2 1016 (4T )2 ! 10 10 6 ! 10966 W $ 11 kW (ans. Spacecraft link over 100 Mm.3 2 v 100 ( 4T ) 2 500 2 Aet ! Dt P 2 . Pr (required) ! 100 1012 ! 1010 W Pt ! Pr r 2P 2 (4T ) 2 r 2 P ! Pr Aet 2 D 2P 4 2 Aet ! Aer ! DP2 4T 2-11-3. Each has an antenna with D = 1000 operating at 2. Spacecraft link over 3 Mm. Two spacecraft are separated by 100 Mm.5 a 20 dB gain? The gain is with respect to a lossless isotropic source. Two spacecraft are separated by 3 Mm.) D 2P 2 10 0.) *2-11-2.8 mW (ans.15 m Pr ! 100 10 12 ! 10 10 W  Pt ! Pr r 2P 2 (4T ) 2 r 2 P ! Pr Aet Aer D 2P 2P 2 2 ! 10 10 (4T ) 2 9 1012 ! 158 W ( ans. If craft A's receiver requires 20 dB over 1 pW.5 GHz.5 109 ! 0. what transmitter power is required on craft B to achieve this signal level? Solution: P ! c / f ! 3 v108 / 2 v 109 ! 0. Solution: P ! c / f ! 3 v108 /109 ! 0. The transmitting antenna input is 150 W.122 Aet ! Aer ! DP2 4T  . 2-11-1. Each has an antenna with D = 200 operating at 2 GHz. what transmitter power is required on craft B to achieve this signal level? Solution: P ! c / f ! 3 108 / 2.0108 W ! 10. If craft A's receiver requires 20 dB over 1 pW.) 4 10 4 0. continued Aet Aer r 2P 2 Dt P 2 D r P 2 ( 4T ) 2 r 2 P 2 316 v 0. 4T Aer ! Dr P 2 4T Pr ! Pt ! Pt ! 150 ! 0.

continued Solution: (a) P ! c / f ! 3 108 / 2.5) Pt ( earth ) ! Pr ( Mars) r 2P 2 Aet (earth) Aet ( Mars) Pt ( earth ) ! 5 v 10 11 (360 v 3 v 10 8 ) 2 0.3.5 GHz with a 5 MHz bandwidth.9 v 10 6 (15 / 50) 2 ! 620 kW (ans.5 v 350 To reduce the required earth station power.6 2-11-4.5) Pt ( Mars) ! 1 kW Ae (earth) ! (1/2)T 152 ! 350 m 2 (I ap ! 0. The required 5 x 1013 W could be obtained by increasing the Mars transmitter power by a factor of 6. A power of 10-19 W Hz-1 is to be delivered to the earth receiver and 10-17 W Hz-1 to the Mars receiver. (a) Design a two-way radio link to operate over earth-Mars distances for data and picture transmission with a Mars probe at 2.5 v 3930 ! 103 ! 8 v 1014 W 2 2 8 2 2 r P (360 v 3 v 10 ) 0. 2-11-4.12 2 ! 6. (b) Repeat (a) for an earth-Jupiter link. Take the earth-Jupiter distance as 40 light-minutes.9 MW 3.12 m Pr (earth) ! 10 19 5 106 ! 5 1013 W Pr ( ars) ! 1017 5 106 ! 5 1011 W Take Take Take Ae ( ars) ! (1/2) T 1.) Pr (earth ) ! Pt ( ars) Aet ( ars) Aer (earth) 3. Take earth-Mars distance as 6 light-minutes. Mars and Jupiter links.12 which is about 16% of the required 5 x 1013 W. Specify effective aperture of Mars and earth antennas and transmitter power (total over entire bandwidth) at each end. take the earth station antenna Ae ! (1 / 2) T 50 2 ! 3927 m 2 (ans. The Mars antenna must be no larger than 3 m in diameter.5 m 2 (I ap ! 0.5 109 ! 0.52 ! 3.) so Pt (earth) ! 6. Other alternatives         .

the noise power of a receiving system is a function of its system temperature T and bandwidth B as given by P = kTB. with a 50 K receiving system temperature at the earth station. Neither appears feasible. *2-11-5. As discussed in Sec. continued The received power (8 x 1014 W) is about 20 times this noise power. Solution: P ! c / f ! 3 v 108 /1. which is probably sufficient for satisfactory communication. Moon link.7 would be (1) to reduce the bandwidth (and data rate) reducing the required value of Pr or (2) to employ a more sensitive receiver. which makes the required transmitter powers 6. But a practical solution would be to reduce the bandwidth for the Jupiter link by a factor of about 50.38 v 10 23 v 50 v 5 v 10 6 ! 3. (8-3-7)) and a 2 W transmitter operating at 1.7 times that to Mars. From (8-3-7) the directivity of the moon helix is given by D ! 12 v 5 ! 60 and Aet (moon ) ! D P2 4T From Friis formula .38 x 1023 JK1. P ( noise) ! 1.5 GHz. Accordingly.72 = 45 times as much or the required receiver powers 1/45 as much.5 v 10 15 W 2-11-4. For B = 5 x 106 Hz (as given in this problem) and T = 50 K (an attainable value). where k = Boltzmann¶s constant = 1.5 v 109 ! 0.2 m. making B = (5/50) x 106 = 100 kHz. 12-1. (b) The given Jupiter distance is 40/6 = 6. What should the polarization state and effective aperture be for the earth-based antenna in order to deliver 10-14 W to the receiver? Take the earth-moon distance as 1.27 light-seconds. a Mars transmitter power of 1 kW is adequate. A radio link from the moon to the earth has a moon-based 5P long right-handed monofilar axial-mode helical antenna (see Eq.

) (d) How many photons per unit area per second fall on the earth from the spaceship transmitter? 2-16-1.3 v 10 2-16-2.63 v 10 34 v 2 v 10 9 ! 1.2 v 10 6 m  2 s 1 (ans.) 24 1.) (c) t ! r / c ! 380 v 10 6 / 3 v 10 8 ! 1.63 v 10 34 Js This is the energy of a 2. continued Solution: (a) PV (at earth) ! Pt 10 ! ! 5. A spaceship at lunar distance from the earth transmits 2 GHz waves.) 2 6 2 4T r 4T (380 v 10 ) or E ! (SZ )1 / 2 or E ! (5.8 Aer ! Pr r 2P2 Pt Aet ! Pr (4T ) r 2 P2 10 14 (3 v 108 v 1.3 v 10 24 J .) 2-16-1.) (b) ! S ! E2 / Z (d) Photon = hf ! 6.27) 2 4T ! ! 152 m 2 RCP or 2 2 v 60 Pt DP about 14 m diameter (ans. From (a).5 v 10 18 v 377 )1/ 2 ! 45 v 10 9 ! 45 nVm 1 (ans.5 aWm 2 (ans.27 s (ans. More power with CP. number of photons = 5.5 v 10 18 Js 1m 2 Therefore.5 v 1018 Wm  2 ! 5. This means that a medium can handle twice as much power before breakdown with circular polarization (CP) than with linear polarization (LP). If a power of 10 W is radiated isotropically.5 v 10 18 ! 4. PV ! 5. (Take the earth-moon distance as 380 Mm. (b) the rms electric field E at the earth and (c) the time it takes for the radio waves to travel from the spaceship to the earth. find (a) the average Poynting vector at the earth.5 MHz photon. Solution: From (2-16-3) we have for rms fields that ! S av ! 2 E12  E 2 Zo . where h ! 6. Show that the average Poynting vector of a circularly polarized wave is twice that of a linearly polarized wave if the maximum electric field E is the same for both waves. Spaceship near moon.

Crossed dipoles for CP and other states. Find the average power conveyed through an area of 5 m2 normal to the direction of propagation. EP wave power An elliptically polarized wave in a medium with constants W = 0. what is the polarization of the radiation perpendicular to the plane of the dipoles if the currents are (a) in phase. continued ECP ! ( Eo2 cos 2 [ t  Eo2 sin 2 [ t )1/ 2 ! Eo (cos 2 [ t  sin 2 [ t )1/ 2 ! Eo (a constant) 2 Eo or S (instantaneous) ! Z Therefore *2-16-4. Two P/2 dipoles are crossed at 90r. Show that the instantaneous Poynting vector (PV) of a plane circularly polarized traveling wave is a constant.) .9 For LP. Solution: ECP ! E x cos [t 2-16-3. If the two dipoles are fed with equal currents. Ir = 5 has H-field components (normal to the direction of propagation and normal to each other) of amplitudes 3 and 4 A m-1. Solution: S av ! 1 1 1 2 2 Z ( H12  H 2 ) ! 377 ( Q r / I r )1 / 2 ( H 12  H 2 ) ! 377 ( 2 / 5)1 / 2 (32  4 2 ) ! 2980 Wm  2 2 2 2 P ! AS av ! 5 v 2980 ! 14902 W ! 14. For CP. S CP ! 2S LP (ans. E1 ! E2 . (b) phase quadrature (90r difference in phase) and (c) phase octature (45r difference in phase)?  E y sin [t where E x ! E y ! Eo (a constant) (ans.9 kW 2-17-1.) (ans. Qr = 2.) E12 so S av ! Zo 2 E12 so S av ! Zo 2-16-3. Therefore E2 (or E1 ) ! 0. PV constant for CP.

A wave traveling normally out of the page (toward the reader) has two linearly polarized components E x ! 2 cos [t E y ! 3 cos .) From (2-17-3) H ! 45o I ! 22 1 2 o ! cot I ! 1/ tan I ! 2.41 ( ).) CP (ans.(ans.10 Solution: (a) (b) (c) LP (ans. Polarization of two LP waves..) sin 2I ! sin 2K sin H 1 here K ! tan ( E2 / E1 ) ! 45o *2-17-2..

Superposition of two EP waves.) ! 3 / 2 ! 1. E ! Ex .) 2-17-3. therefore rotation is CW (ans. t  90 Q [ (a) What is the axial ratio of the resultant wave? (b) What is the tilt angle X of the major axis of the polarization ellipse? (c) Does E rotate clockwise or counterclockwise? Solution: (a) (b) (c) From (2-15-8) . X = 90o (ans. E !  E y .5 (ans. at t ! T / 4. A wave traveling normally outward from the page (toward the reader) is the resultant of two elliptically polarized waves.) At t ! 0. one with components of E given by E d 2 cos [t y ! and d E x ! 6 cos .

t  [ d E d 1 cos [t y ! T 2 and d E xd 3 cos .

t  T ! [ 2 and the other with components given by (a) What is the axial ratio of the resultant wave? (b) Does E rotate clockwise or counterclockwise? .

17 (ans. therefore sin 2 ! tan 2I / tan H ! 1 / tan I ! 1. (b) What is the axial ratio? (c) What is the angle X between the major axis and the x-axis? Solution: (b) K ! tan 1 ( E2 / E1 ) ! 45o . Two circularly polarized waves intersect at the origin. I ! 36o . Two LP components and Poincaré sphere.) Ö Ö At t ! 0.) *2-17-6. (a) Calculate and sketch the polarization ellipse. at t ! / 4. An elliptically polarized plane wave traveling normally out of the page (toward the reader) has linearly polarized components Ex and Ey. Solution: (b) K ! tan 1 2 ! 63. therefore rotation is CCW (ans. Given that Ex = Ey = 1 V m-1 and that Ey leads Ex by 72r. H ! 72 o From (2-17-3).4 o H ! 72 o I ! 24.11 Solution: d E y ! E d E d 2 cos [ t  cos [ t ! 3cos [ t y  y ! d d E x ! E x  E xd 6 cos([ t  T / 2)  3cos([ t  T / 2) !  6 sin [ t  3sin [ t !  3sin [ t ! (a) (b) Ex and Ey are in phase quadrature and ! 3/ 3 ! 1 ( ) (ans. E ! y3 . Two CP waves. Answer the same questions as in Prob. Two LP components.) .) *2-17-4.) 2-17-5.) (c) ! 11. One (y-wave) is traveling in the positive y direction with E rotating clockwise as observed from a point on the positive y-  or ! 45 o (ans.8o and ! 2. E ! x3 .2o (ans.38 (ans. 2-17-4 for the case where Ey leads Ex by 72r as before but Ex = 2 V m-1 and Ey = 1 V m-1. (c) From (2-17-3).

E for the y-wave is in the positive z direction at the same instant that E for the x-wave is in the negative z direction. The other (x-wave) is traveling in the positive x direction with E rotating clockwise as observed from a point on the positive x-axis. CP waves. *2-17-7. What is the locus of the resultant E vector at the origin? Solution: Resolve 2 waves into components or make sketch as shown. At the origin. continued Locus of E is a straight line in xy plane at an angle of 45o with respect to x (or y) axis. A wave traveling normally out of the page is the resultant of two circularly polarized [ components E right ! 5e j[t and Eleft ! 2e j . It is assumed that the waves have equal magnitude.12 axis. *2-17-6.

Find (a) the axial ratio AR. (b) Q the tilt angle X and (c) the hand of rotation (left or right). t  90 (V m-1). Solution: .

(ans. A wave traveling normally out of the page (toward the reader) is the resultant of two linearly polarized components E x ! 3 cos [t and E y ! 2 cos .33 (ans.) 25 From diagram.) 2-17-8.13 (a) (b) (c) 25 ! 7 / 3 ! 2. X ! 45o (ans.) AR ! [Note minus sign for RH (right-handed polarization)] Since E rotates counterclockwise as a function of time. RH. EP wave.

For the resultant wave find (a) AR. Solution: (a) (b) (c) AR = 3/2 = 1.) 2-3 . Two circularly polarized waves traveling normally out of the page have fields given by E left ! 2 e  j[t and E right ! 3e j[t (V m-1) (rms).) CW. (b) the tilt angle X and (c) the hand of rotation (left or right). Solution: (a) ! 23 ! 5 (ans. t  90 Q . (b) the hand of rotation and (c) the Poynting vector.5 (ans. LEP (ans.) X = 0o (ans.) *2-17-9. For the resultant [ wave find (a) the axial ratio AR. CP waves.

I ! tan 1 (1 / AR ) ! 9. CP waves. E y ! 2 Therefore rotation is CCW.) PV ! 2 2 E L  ER 4  9 ! ! 0.) Z 377 2-17-10.034 Wm  2 ! 34 mWm 2 (ans.14 (b) (c) REP (ans. X = 0o. Solution: (a) E x ! 5 cos [ t  3 cos [ t  4 cos [ t ! 12 cos [ t E y ! 3 sin [ t  3 sin [ t  4 sin [ t ! 2 sin [ t 2-17-10. E y ! 0 At t ! / 4 ([ t ! 90o ).46 o but H ! 90o so tan H ! g Therefore ! 0o (ans.) (c) At t ! 0. find (a) AR. A wave traveling normally out of the page is the resultant of two circularly polarized [ components E r ! 2 e j[t and El ! 4e  j . A wave traveling normally out of the page is the resultant of two elliptically polarized (EP) waves. For the resultant wave. *2-17-11. so polarization is right elliptical. E x ! 12. sin 2 ! tan 2I / tan H . continued AR ! 12 / 2 ! 6 (ans.) (b) Since Ex and Ey are in time-phase quadrature with Ex(max) > Ey(max). EP waves. one with components E x ! 5 cos [t and E y ! 3 sin [t and another with components E r ! 3e j[t and E l ! 4 e  j[t . E x ! 0. (b) X and (c) the hand of rotation. Or from (2-17-3).

t  45 .) . For the resultant wave. Q E at t = T/4 CCW E at t = 0 Solution:  REP (ans. find (a) AR. (b) X and (c) the hand of rotation.

continued Since from (a) AR = 3. Circular-depolarization ratio.95 ’16. the tilt angle ! 22.4 o and CC E y ! 2. AR  1 R! AR  1 Thus. for pure circular polarization AR = 1 and R = 0 (no depolarization) but for linear polarization AR = g and R = 1. Solution: Any wave may be resolved into 2 circularly-polarized components of opposite hand. Er ! 2’ 22 1 2 o and E1 ! 4’ 22 1 2 o CC E1  Er = Emax ! 6 ’ 22 1 2 o or When so that ! 22 1 2 o (ans.5 o ( ans. Er ! 2’ 0 and E1 ! 4’ 45 CC CC [ t ! 22 1 2 o .60 ’  30.) (c) E1 > Er so rotation is CW (LEP) (ans. I can be determined and from (2-17-3). show that the circular-depolarization ratio of the wave is given by.7o *2-17-11.3 o from which H ! 46. Er and E1 for an axial ratio .) 2-17-12. CC CC Er ! 2’ [ t but E1 ! ’  [ t Also. If the axial ratio of a wave is AR.15 (a) (b) AR ! E1  Er 4  2 6 ! ! ! 3 (ans.) E1  Er 4  2 2 CC o CCo  When [ t ! 0.) Note that the rotation directions are opposite for Er and E1 so that for  [ t . X can be determined analytically by combining the waves into an Ex and Ey component with values of CC E x ! 5.

When AR = 3. while for pure linear polarization AR = g and the depolarization ratio is unity (R =1). .16 AR ! E max E  E1 ! r E min E r  E1 from which the circular depolarization ratio R! E1 AR  1 ! E r AR  1 Thus for pure circular polarization. AR = 1 and there is zero depolarization (R = 0). R = ½.

.

16 .

If d = transmission line spacing. what is the bandwidth? Solution: D = opened end spacing.1. If d = 2 mm and the open-end spacing = 1000 d. Referring to Fig. Alpine-horn antenna.) *3-4-2. or D ! 200 d Pmin d 2 (ans. what open-end spacing is required for a 200-to-1 bandwidth? Solution: If d = transmission line spacing ! Pmin / 2 and D = open-end spacing = P max / 2 . d = transmission line spacing P max D Bandwidth = 2 ! ! 1000 P min d 2 (ans. The Antenna Family 3-4-1. the low frequency limit occurs when the open-end spacing > P/2 and the high frequency limit when the transmission line spacing d } P/4. What is the required aperture area for an optimum rectangular horn antenna operating at 2 GHz with 16 dBi gain? Solution: From Fig. P2 z (P ! 0.17 Chapter 3. Rectangular horn antenna.) 7. @ wh ! 63.19 m2 (ans.1P 2 ! 0.) *3-5-2. Alpine-horn antenna.15 m) . 3-4a. Pmax D for 200-to-1 bandwidth. we must have ! 2 ! 200. 3-5 for f ! 2 D! 7.5 .5wh ! 18 d i ! 63.

09 m 2. depending on the filed amplitude taper across the antenna. Solution: From Fig.8. where P is the operating wavelength.5T r 2 ! 12 d i ! 15.) Turn diameter = P / T ! 0.8P 2 ! 0.0596 } 6 cm (ans. D! 6.) 2n 20 . Using this approximation. G ! 17 dBi ! 50 ! D (for 100% efficiency) (a) D! 15 L ! 50. the half-power beamwidth (HPBW) may be estimated as HPBW = OP/D. Beamwidth and directivity For most antennas. number of turns ! n ! (b) (c) (ans.1875 m). Assume O = 1 and 50 percent efficiency in each case. 3-5 for f ! 3 GHz (P ! 0. P so L ! 50 P ! 3.18 *3-5-3. and O is a factor which varies from 0.5T d ! 2 r ! 0.9 to 1.) 3-7-2.4.5 } 10 P /T If spacing = P / T . Conical horn antenna. 6.05 (ans. What is the required diameter of a conical horn antenna operating at 3 GHz with 14 dBi gain? Solution: From Fig.33 P 15 L ! 10.18 m (ans.) Axial ratio AR ! 2 n  1 21 ! ! 1. (b) elliptical parabolic dish with dimensions of 1 m v 10 m operated at 1 GHz.1 m) . D is the antenna dimension in the plane of interest. 3-9 for f ! 1600 MHz (P ! 0. P2 @ r! 15. find the directivity and gain for the following antennas: (a) circular parabolic dish with 2 m radius operating at 6 GHz.

D } 4.) or n 3.0 d i exact D ! 6   7.9 d  (a) I U ! U m cos n U . Solar power The earth receives from the sun 2.94   6. distance earth to sun = 149 Gm.) 14. ! 0. D! ! 2 T 2 0 ! 2(n 1) (ans.3 g cal min-1.8 d i exact Dexact  Dapprox . (a) What is the corresponding Poynting vector in watts per square meter? (b) What is the power output of the sun. ! 1. D } 2.3   8.6 d Dexact  Dapprox .78   4.2 g cal min-1 cm-2. Solution: 2T ´ sin U cos n U dU cos n 1 U  n 1 4T T 2 0 (b) or n 1.29 v 10 26 W (ans.4 d .0 d i exact Dexact  Dapprox . assuming that it is an isotropic source? (c) What is the rms field intensity at the earth due to the sun¶s radiation.4 d i approx . The patterns are independent of the azimuth angle J. or n 2.3 g cal min 1 P(sun) ! S v 4T r 2 ! 1539 v 4T v 1.) 4-5-1. (a) Show that the directivity for a source with at unidirectional power pattern given by U = Um cosn U can be expressed as D = 2(n+1).492 v 1022 W ! 4. ! 0.19 Chapter 4. assuming all the sun¶s energy is at a single frequency? Note: 1 watt = 14.9 d i approx . Point Sources *4-3-1.6 d i approx . U has a value only for 0r e U e 90r. Solution: (a) (b) (c) S! 2. D ! 4   6. D } 7. 27-2 and find the dB difference from the exact values.1539 W cm 2 ! 1539 W m 2 (ans. D ! 8   9. Approximate directivities. E ! ( SZ o )1 2 ! (1539 v 377)1 2 ! 762 V m 1 (ans.) S ! E 2 / Z o . (b) Compare the exact values calculate from (a) with the approximate values for the directivities of the antennas found in Prob.2g cal min 1cm 2 ! 0.

(b) Tabulating.6. we find. (b) Compare the exact values in (a) with the approximate values found in Prob. Prove the following theorem: if the minor lobes of a radiation pattern remain constant as the beam width of the main lobe approaches zero.) sin 2 U sin 3 J dU dJ ¨ T ¸ ¨ 4 ¸ ´0 ´0 © ¹© ¹ ª 2 ºª 3 º 4T 4T ! ! 7. D! 4T ! 6. ! sinU dU d J 4T 4T ! T T 2 2 2 Pm sin U sin J sin U dU dJ ´0 ´0 sin U sin J dU dJ Pm 4T 16 ! ! 5.09 (ans.J) = Pm sin2 U sin3 J P(U.J) = Pm sin U sin2 J P(U.J) = Pm sin U sin2 J.1 (ans. Pn (U . 3.1 vs.) ¨ T ¸¨ T ¸ T © ¹© ¹ ª 2 ºª 2 º ! For P(U. Directivity and minor lobes.) D! T T 3 3 ¨ 4 ¸¨ 4 ¸ ´0 ´0 sin U sin J dU dJ © 3 ¹ © 3 ¹ ª ºª º T T 4T for P(U. 2-7-3. . then the directivity of the antenna approaches a constant value as the beam width of the main lobes approaches zero. J )d . Solution: (a) D! 4T ! . 6. Exact versus approximate directivities. D ! ´ ´ 0 0 ´ T 0 ¨U 1 sin 2 U dU ! ©  sin 2U ª2 4 T 0 ¸ T ¹! .1 vs.J) has a value only for 0 e U e T and 0 e J e T and is zero elsewhere.20 *4-5-2.A 4T .8. we have 5.0 (ans.0 vs. for P(U. (a) Calculate the exact directivities of the three unidirectional antennas having power patterns as follows: P(U.1 (ans.J) = Pm sin U sin3 J P(U.J) = Pm sin U sin3 J. ´´ 4T T T d . 6. º 2 @D ! Using the same approach. 4.J) = Pm sin2 U sin3 J.) 4-5-3. and 7.

M ! main lobe beam area . D ! 24 (ans. A p . Directivity. A . M p 0.) . . m (a constant) (ans.M  . 6. U has a value only for 0r e U e 90r and 0r e J e 360r and is zero else where. Compare this directivity value with the exact value from Prob.) 4-5-4. (b) Repeat for a unidirectional power pattern given by U = cos2 U.21 4-5-3. (c) Repeat for a unidirectional power pattern given by U = cos3 U. Solution: Assuming a unidirectional pattern. (0 e U e T ). A ! total beam area . continued Solution: D! here 4T 4T ! . Directivity by integration. m . (ans. and (c) are: 4-5-5. so D ! 4T .m . (a) Calculate by graphical integration or numerical methods the directivity of a source with a unidirectional power pattern given by U = cos U.) 2 4. Calculate the directivity for a source with relative field pattern E = cos 2U cos U. Solution: Exact values for (a). m ! minor lobe beam area as . and 8. 4-5-1. (b).

22 .

Part I 5-2-4. the relative field pattern being given by ¸ ¨T E ! sin © cosU ¹ 2 º ª where U is the polar angle. (b) Show that the directivity for an ordinary end-fire array of two identical isotropic point sources spaced a distance d is given by 2 D! . 1  . spaced P/2 apart along the polar axis. Arrays of Point Sources.23 Chapter 5. (a) Calculate the directivity of an end-fire array of two identical isotropic point sources in phase opposition. Two-source end-fire array.

P 4Td sin .

Sources 1 and 2 are in-phase. (b) Plot. P5-2-8. Four sources in square array. Figure P5-2-8.) . Solution: (a) En (J ) ! cos ( F d cos J )  cos ( F d sin J ) (ans.) 5-2-8. (a) Derive an expression for E(J) for an array of 4 identical isotropic point sources arranged as in Fig.4Td P Solution: (a) D ! 2 (ans. approximately. Four sources in square array. The spacing d between each source and the center point of the array is 3P/8. the normalized pattern. and sources 3 and 4 in opposite phase with respect to 1 and 2.

Calculate and plot the field and phase patterns of an array of 2 nonisotropic dissimilar sources for which the total field is given by E ! cos J  sin J ’] where ] ! d cos J  H ! T . Field and phase patterns.24 5-5-1.

cos J  1 2 Take source 1 as the reference for phase. See Fig. P5-5-1.

Figure P5-5-1. Field and phase patterns. Solution: See Figures 5-16 and 5-17. 5-6-5. Twelve-source end-fire array. (a) Calculate and plot the field pattern of a linear end-fire array of 12 isotropic point sources of equal amplitude spaced P/4 apart for the ordinary end-fire condition. (b) Calculate the directivity by graphical or numerical integration of the entire pattern. Note that it is the power pattern (square of field pattern) which is to be integrated. It is most convenient to make the array axis coincide with the polar or z-axis of Fig. 2-5 so that the pattern is a function of U. (c) Calculate the directivity by the approximate half-power beamwidth method and compare with that obtained in (b). Solution: (b) D ! 17 (ans.) (c) D ! 10 (ans.)

25

5-6-7. Twelve-source end-fire with increased directivity. (a) Calculate and plot the pattern of a linear end-fire array of 12 isotropic point sources of equal amplitude spaced P/4 apart and phased to fulfill the Hansen and Woodyard increased-directivity condition. (b) Calculate the directivity by graphical or numerical integration of the entire pattern and compare with the directivity obtained in Prob. 5-6-5 and 5-6-6. (c) Calculate the directivity by the approximate half-power beamwidth method and compare with that obtained in (b). Solution: (b) D ! 26 ( ans.) (c) D ! 35 ( ans.)

5-6-9. Directivity of ordinary end-fire array. Show that the directivity of an ordinary end-fire array may be expressed as
D! n 1 

P 2Tnd § ?

n  k k Asin .

4Tkd P k !1 2 n 1 Note that n 1 « sin .

n] 2 » ] ! n  § 2.

n  k cos 2k ¬ .

It is assumed that the array has a uniform spacing d between the isotropic sources. The beam area 1 .A ! 2 n ´ ´ 0 2T T 0 « sin . 2 ¼ 2 k !1 ­ ] ½ Solution: Change of variable.

n] 2 » ¬ ¼ sin U dU d J ­ sin .

] 2 ½ 2 (1) where U ! angle rom array axis . The pattern is not a unction o J so (1) reduces to 2T .A ! 2 n ´ T 0 « sin .

n] 2 » ¬ ¼ sin U dU ­ sin .

] 2 ½ 2 (2) .

continued Differentiating (3) or (4) and introducing (4) in (2) 2 .A ! 2 n dP d ] ! T d P sin U dU 2 sin U dU ! 1 ] T dP 2 ´ 2T d P 0 « sin .1) 5-6-9.26 where ] / 2 ! T d P (cos U  1) (2.

n] 2 » ] ¬ ¼ d sin .

] / 2 ! 0 and when U ! T .] 2 ½ 2 ­ 2 (5) Note new limits with change of variable from U to ] / 2.A ! 2 2 n dP n 1 nk « » 2T nd P  § sin(4T kd P ) ¼ ¬ k ­ ½ k !1 n 1 « sin . ] / 2 ! 2T d P .A 2T n 2 d P n 1 nk 2T nd P  § sin(4T kd P ) k k !1 . Since (6) (5) can be expressed (7) Integrating (7) (8) or (9) and (10) D! 4T ! . When U ! 0.

n] 2 » ! n  § 2( n  k ) cos(2k] / 2) ¬ ¼ k !1 ­ .

A ! 2 2 n dP ´ 2T d P 0 [n  § 2(n  k ) cos(2k] / 2)] d k !1 n 1 ] 2 2 .A ! 2 n dP « ] n 1 2(n  k ) » ¬ n 2  § 2 k sin(2k] / 2)¼ k !1 ­ ½0 2T dP .] 2 ½ 2 .

or a multiple thereof. The final form for D in (11) above is well adapted for a computer program. . This problem and the next one are excellent examples of integration with change of variable and change of limits. the summation term is zero and D ! n exactly. (11) We note that when d ! P / 4.e.d.27 Therefore D! n P nk § 1 sin(4T kd / P ) 2T nd k !1 k n 1 q.

Show that the directivity of a broadside array may be expressed as D! n 1  . Directivity of broadside array.28 5-6-10.

P Tnd § ?.

n  k k Asin .

Note that when d ! P / 2. See application of the above relations to the evaluation of D and of the main beam area . 16-6-7 (c) and (d).e. the summation term is zero and D ! n exactly.2Tkd P k !1 n 1 Solution: ] ! T d P cos U 2 where U ! 0. ] / 2 ! T d P and when U T . 5-6-9 becomes The solution is similar to that for Prob. .A ! 2 n 2 dP « ] n 1 (n  k ) » ¬ n 2  § k sin(2k] / 2)¼ k !1 ­ ½  T dP n 1 nk « » 2T nd P  2 § sin(2T kd P ) ¼ ¬ k ­ ½ k !1  T dP . A of an array of 16 point sources in Prob.A ! 4 2 n dP n 1 nk « » T nd P  § sin(2T kd P ) ¼ ¬ k ­ ½ k !1 4T ! D! . or a multiple thereof.d. ] /2  T d P so that (8) of Prob.A T n2 dP n ! n 1 n 1 nk ¨ P ¸ nk sin(2T kd P ) 1  © T nd P  § sin(2T kd / P ) ¹§ k ª T nd º k !1 k k !1 q.A ! 2 n dP . 5-6-9 with 2 .

29 .

the phase of one end source +90r and phase of the other end source -90r. It follows that . Solution: Phasor addition En 0. The ratio of the minor-lobe solid angle . Three unequal sources.6 South 0.2 East 1. Three isotropic in-line sources have P/4 spacing.A = 1.96 North-West 5-8-7. The ratio of the main beam solid angle . making it a function of angle with the maximum value equal to D. If the phase of the middle source is 0r. Show that the average directivity gain over the minor lobes of a highly directive antenna is nearly equal to the stray factor.6 North 0. Part II 5-8-1.0 West 0.M/.24 North-East 0.J)].m to the (total) beam solid angle . The directive gain is equal to the directivity multiplied by the normalized power pattern [= D Pn(U. make a graph of the normalized field pattern.A + . Solution: Stray factor = .M to (total) beam solid angle . Arrays of Point Sources. Stray factor and directive gain.m .A is called the stray factor.A is called the main beam efficiency.A . The middle source has 3 times the current of the end sources.m/.30 Chapter 5.

The source spacing d = P/2.d. where D ! 4T / . M ´´ 4T Pn (U . 2 2 xo  1 ! 10 T2 (x ) ! 2x 2  1 ! R 2 2xo ! 11 xo2 ! 5.31 5-8-7. Three-source array. M 4T . . M ! main lobe beam area . M . find the Dolph-Tchebyscheff value of the amplitude of the end sources. continued here .m . J ) d . n ´´ P (U . A ! total beam area . The center source of a 3-source array has a (current) amplitude of unity.1 of the main lobe maximum field. For a sidelobe level 0. DGav (minor) $ . 1 4T  . M . J ) d .A 4T . A DGav (minor) 1 4T  . m ! minor lobe beam area . J )d . J ) d .e. M Average directive gain over minor lobes = DGav (minor) = 4 T .5 xo ! s 2. R ! 10 Let amplitude of center source ! 1 ! 2 Ao n  1 ! 2.m 4T 4T  .m ! . M ´´ DPn (U .A ! Therefore If . A 4T (antenna highly directive).345 . *5-9-2.A (stray factor) q. M ´´ 4T Pn (U . Solution: Let the amplitudes (currents) of the 3 sources be as in the sketch A1 P/2 2AO A1 P/2 d ! P / 2.

64 10 0. s132o. 0.61 Pattern has 4 minor lobes.14 (b) Max.61 (ans. s36o. s61o. s27o.5 ! 0.59 15 0.) Amplitude distribution is 0. 0. s109o. approximately. 0. s126o.75. 1. continued E3 ! 2 Ao  2 A1 cos 2 ] ] ! 2 Ao  2 A1 (2 cos 2  1) ! 2 Ao  2 A1 (2 w2  1) 2 2 Let w ! x / xo so x2 A1 E3 ! 2 Ao  2 A1 (2 2  1) ! 2 Ao  4 2 x 2  2 A1 ! 2 x 2  1 xo xo E3 ! 0. 0. (b) Locate the nulls and the maxima of the minor lobes.75 4. amplitude ! 1 The side source amplitudes for different R values are: R A1 8 0. 0. (d) What is the half-power beam width? Solution: (a) 0.728A1 ! 2 and A1 ! 2.5  1 ! 4. s71o.14. normalizing 2 Ao ! 1 and A1 ! 2. s42o.42.61 12 0. s23o.728 A1 x 2  ( Ao  2 A1 ) ! 2 x 2  1 There ore. Take J = 0 in the broadside direction. s153o. s159o Nulls at: s18o.42. s144o.61 1.32 5-9-2. Eight source D-T distribution. (c) Plot. (a) Find the Dolph-Tchebyscheff current distribution for the minimum beam width of a linear in-phase broadside array of eight isotropic sources. s84o.00.00 0. The spacing between the elements is P/4 and the sidelobe level is to be 40 dB down. s138o. 1.75 2Ao ! 5.5 2 o  2 1 !  1 and A A Thus. For center source. the normalized field pattern (0r e J e 360r). s162o (d) HPBW ! 12o (ans. s148o. s54o.57 5-9-4. s32o. 0.00. s48o. s96o.) . at: s21o. s157o. s119o.75.

In three dimensions the pattern is a figure-of-revolution around the array axis (0o and 180o axis) so that the broadside beam is a flat disk. . The four lobes between broadside and end-fire are intermediate in beam width. Two isotropic point sources of equal amplitude and same phase are spaced 2P apart. Two sources in phase. The accompanying figure is simply a cross section of the three-dimensional space figure. (a) Plot a graph of the field pattern. (b) Tabulate the angles for maxima and nulls. while the widest beam width lobes are end-fire (0o and 180o). the endfire lobes are thick cigars. while the intermediate lobes are cones. Solution: (a) 2 Power pattern Pn ! En In Instructional comment to pass on to students: The lobes with narrowest beam widths are broadside (s90o).33 *5-18-1.

s131. s109. s70. Two isotropic sources of equal amplitude and opposite phase have 1. Find the angles for all maxima and nulls. 180o. Two sources in opposite phase.34 5-18-2. Solution: Maximum at: 0o.5o.5o.2o.8o . Nulls at: s48.5P spacing. s90o.

35 .

Short dipole fields. (b) EUand (c) HJ. V ! Ö (b) E ! “V ! r 1 xV QL ¨ 2 cosU Ö 1 sin U xV Ö 1 xV ¸ Ö  Ö !   Ö 0¹ © r 3 2 4TI ª xr r xU r sin U xJ r r r º QL cos U Ö QL sin U Ö !r  2TI r 3 4TI r 3 QL cos U . The Electric Dipole and Thin Linear Antennas *6-2-1. (b) Find the vector value of the electric field E at a large distance from a static electric dipole by taking the gradient of the potential expression in part (a).d. find (a) Er. Show that the electric potential at a distance r from such a dipole is given by QL cos U V ! 4TIr 2 where Q is the magnitude of each charge and U is the angle between the radius r and the line joining the charges (axis of dipole). angle U = 45r. V! Q 4TI ¨ ¸ 1 1  © ¹ ª r  ( L / 2) cos U r  ( L / 2) cosU º Q ¨ r  ( L / 2) cosU  r  ( L / 2) cosU ¸ ! © ¹ r 2  ( L / 2) 2 cos 2 U 4TI ª º QL cos U 4TI r 2 q. Electric dipole. Solution: L cos U 2 U L/2 L L/2 Q L cos U 2 r2 U Q r1 (a) V (at r ) ! r Q Q . 4TI r 3 EJ ! 0 or Er ! (ans. It is assumed that r is very large compared to L.  4TI r1 4TI r2 r2 ! r  (L / 2) cosU r1 ! r  ( L / 2) cosU .) *6-2-2. For r "" L. At time t = 1 s. 2TI r 3 EU ! QL sin U .e. A dipole antenna of length 5 cm is operated at a frequency of 100 MHz with terminal current Io = 120 mA. .36 Chapter 6. and distance r = 3 m. (a) Two equal static electric charges of opposite sign separated by a distance L constitute a static electric dipole.

37 *6-2-2. continued Solution: (a) Er ! From (6-2-12) I o le j ([ t  F r ) cos U ¨ 1 1 ¸ © 2 ¹ 2TI o j[ r 3 º ª cr e « ¨ (2 T )100 v10 6 j ¬.

Er ! 282 m /m EU ! 242 m /m H J ! 784 m /m .41 10 2  j (8. we find for r ! 1 m. Solution: Using the same approach for Er .39 v 10 ’ 81 A/m ( ans.36 v 10 4 ) © 4T cr r 2 º ª o 4 CC ! 2.5 v 103 ) ! 2.65 v 102 ) EU ! o © 2  2 3 ¹ j[ r º 4TI o ª c r cr 2 o CC ! 8. and H J as in solution to Prob. 6-2-2. Short dipole quasi-stationary fields. For the dipole antenna of Prob.86 v 102 ’  9o V/m (ans . (b) EUand (c) HJ.75 v 10 5  j (2.83 v 10 2  j (4.) (c) *6-2-4.85 v 10 ) ª 3 v 10 (3 ) j (2T )100 v 10 (3 ) º CC ! 2.) From (6-2-15) HJ ! I o le j ([ t  F r ) sin U ¨ j[ 1 ¸  ¹ ! 3.77 v 10 ’ 81 /m (ans. 6-2-2. EU . Compare these results to those obtained using the quasi-stationary expressions of Table 6-1.2 T 100 v10 6 (1)  © © 3v108 ¬ ª ­ 12 ¸ » ¹(3) ¼ ¹ ¼ º ½ ! (120 v 103 )(0.) (b) From (6-2-13) I le j ([ t  F r ) sin U ¨ j[ 1 1 ¸ ! 1. use the general expressions of Table 6-1 to find (a) Er.05) ¨ ¸ 1 1 cos 45o ©  8 2 6 3 ¹ 2T (8. at a distance r = 1 m.

) qol sin U I ol sin U ! ! 0  j (61v 10 3 ) ! 61 m /m ( ans. continued Using quasi-stationary equations. Therefore I 2 R ! 4T r 2 S and R! 1 100 I 2 400 4T r 2 2 ! ! 3.1¹ © 8 2 3 v 10 Qo ( F I av l ) º ! 2. (ans. Find the radiation resistance.) 2 I r 120T 120 *6-3-2.33 . Isotropic antenna.) ! 377 ª P! I o 12T 12T 2 .38 v1 0 4 ! 338 4T r 2 EU ! HJ ! /m ( ans. Solution: E! 10 I r so S ! E 2 100 I 2 ! 2 Z r Z Let P ! power over sphere ! 4T r 2 S .) *6-3-1. Short dipole power. which must equal power I 2 R to the antenna terminals. An omnidirectional (isotropic) antenna has a field pattern given by E = 10I/r (V m-1). (a) Find the power radiated by a 10 cm dipole antenna operated at 50 MHz with an average current of 5 mA.74 v 106 W ! 2. Radiation resistance. Er ! qol cos U I l cos U 120 v 103 (0.38 *6-2-4.85 v 10 12 )13 2TI o r 3 ! 121 m m ( ans. (b) How much (average) current would be needed to radiate power of 1 W? Solution: (a) ¨ (2T )50 v 106 ¸ (5 v103 )0.) 3 3 j[ (4TI o r ) 4TI o r I o l sin U ! 3. where I = terminal current (A) and r = distance (m).05 cos 45o ) ! o ! ! 0  j (121v 10 3 ) j[ (2TI o r 3 ) j (2T ) 2 (100 v 10 6 )(8.74 W (ans.

! 4T ´ ´ 0 2T T 0 sin U sin U dU d . (c) effective aperture Ae. 2 ! 4T 2T ´ sin3 U dU 0 T (d) 4T 3 ! ! 1. (d) beam solid .) 2 2 2 ¨I ¸ ¨1¸ ¨ 1 ¸ (e) rom (6-3-14).878 .54 dBi (ans.878 3 Therefore Ae ! v ! 0.878  1 8T *6-3-5.5 or 1. Rr ! 790 © av ¹ L2 ! 790 © ¹ © ¹ ! 0. continued (b) 1 ¨ ¸ For P ! 1 W.) .) 6-3-4.878  1 P2 3 2 ! P here Aem ! (c) Ae ! kAem . The loss resistance is 1 .5 ! 0.70 or 1.) P ª 2 º ª 15 º ª Io º 0.76 d i ( ans. For a thin center-fed dipole P/15 long find (a) directivity D.A ! 4T ´´ sin 4T 2 U d.0 A (ans. Find exactly (a) the beam solid angle and (b) directivity.39 *6-3-2.7 v 10 º 12 ! 3. A ! 8T / 3 ! 8. Conical pattern.A ! ´ 360 o 0 ´ 60 o 0 d .. The pattern is independent of the azimuth angle (J). Short dipole. Solution: (a) .) 0.) 0. Solution: (a) En (U ) ! sin U 4T D! ! . A 8T 0. ! 2T ´ 60 o 0 sin U dU ! 2T cosU 60 o 0 ! T sr (ans. An antenna has a conical field pattern with uniform field for zenith angles (U) from 0 to 60r and zero field from 60 to 180r.) 4 2 2T 3 From (a). I av ! 5 v 103 © 6 ¹ ª 2. .38 sr (ans.A and (e) radiation resistance Rr.058 P 2 (ans. (b) gain G. (ans. The antenna current tapers linearly from its value at the terminals to zero at its ends.878 (b) G ! kD ! v 1.

A ! ´ 120 o 0 ´ 90 o 45 o sin U dU d J !  2T cos U 3 90 o 45 o ! 1. (d) Find the radiation resistance if the E = 5 V m-1 at a distance of 50 m for a terminal current I = 2 A (rms).) .84v 502 ! 76. continued (b) D! 4T 4T ! ! 4 (ans. E = 0 except within the angles given above. Ar 2 ! 2 1.) . Directional pattern in UandJ An antenna has a uniform field pattern for zenith angles (U) between 45 and 90r and for azimuth (J) angles between 0 and 120r. Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) . find the radiation resistance of the antenna.) D! 4T 4T ! ! 6.84 sr (ans.) 377 I2 Z 5 .83 (ans.) 22 377 *6-3-7.40 *6-3-5. An antenna has a conical field pattern with uniform filed for zenith angles (U) from 0 to 45r and zero field from 45 to 180r.) .543 P 2 (ans. If E = 3 V m-1 at a distance of 500 m from the antenna and the terminal current is 5 A. (b) directivity and (c) effective aperture.) (c) Rr ! 1 32 E2 1 . (ans. A r 2 E2 . (ans.A T 6-3-6. Z Rr ! 1 52 1.48 v 5002 ! 354 . A 1.3 . The pattern is independent of the azimuth angle (J).84 Ae ! Aem ! I 2 Rr ! .84 P2 P2 ! ! 0. Find exactly (a) the beam solid angle.48 sr (ans. A ! 2T ´ 45 o 0 sin U dU ! 1. Conical pattern. A 1. Solution: (a) .

(b) effective aperture and (c) radiation resistance.16 (ans. find the radiation resistance.111) ! 2T (0.9 ( ans.575 Rr ! 1 22 E2 1 . The pattern is independent of azimuth angle (J). Solution: (a) . Directional pattern with back lobe. (a) Find the exact directivity. Find (a) directivity.245)200 ! 653 . (ans. Ar 4 120T I Z D! 6-3-10.) (b) (c) 4T ! 21. (ans.41 *6-3-8. A 0. The field pattern of an antenna varies with zenith angle (U) as follows: En (=Enormalized) = 1 between U = 0r and U = 30r (main lobe).) 2T (0.) 0. A ! 2T ´ 30 o 0 sin U dU  2T 32 ´ 180 o 90 o sin U dU ! 2T (0.245) 4T ! 8.134  0.575 v1002 ! 6.) 377 I2 Z 3 *6-3-9.) . Short dipole. En = 0 between U = 30r and U = 90r and En = 1/3 between U = 90r and U = 180r (back lobe). (b) If the field equals 8 V m-1 (rms) for U = 0r at a distance of 200 m with a terminal current I = 4 A (rms).245) 2 2 1 1 2 E 2 8 ! 2 2T (0. Ar 2 ! 2 0.575 sr ( ans.575 P2 P2 Ae ! Aem ! ! ! 1. Solution: (a) .74 P 2 (ans.) (b) Rr ! 2 . Directional pattern in UandJ An antenna has a uniform field E = 2 V m-1 (rms) at a distance of 100 m for zenith angles between 30 and 60r and azimuth angles J between 0 and 90r with E = 0 elsewhere.A ! ´ D! 90 o 0 ´ 60 o 30 o sin U dU d J !  T cos U 2 60 o 30 o ! 0.78 . The antenna terminal current is 3 A (rms). The radiated field of a short-dipole antenna with uniform current is given by E ! 30 F l .

I r sin U , where l = length, I = current, r = distance and U = pattern angle. Find the radiation resistance.

42
6-3-10. continued Solution: The current I given in the problem is a peak value, so we put 1 2 I Rr ! Sr 2 d ; 2 Power ´´ Power 4T
input radiated

where S ! so

E2 and E is as given Z 2 302 F 2l 2 I 2 2 T 3 Rr ! 2 2T 2 r ´ sin U dU ! 80T 2 (l / P )2 ! 790(l / P )2 ; (ans.) 0 I r 120T

6-3-11. Relation of radiation resistance to beam area. Show that the radiation resistance of an antenna is a function of its beam area ;A as given by Sr 2 Rr ! 2 ; A I where S = Poynting vector at distance r in direction of pattern maximum I = terminal current. Solution: Taking I as the rms value we set I 2 Rr ! Sr 2 ; A ,
Power input Power radiated

therefore Rr !

Sr 2 ; A q.e.d. I2

*6-3-12. Radiation resistance. An antenna measured at a distance of 500 m is found to have a far-field pattern of |E| = Eo(sinU)1.5 with no J dependence. If Eo = 1 V/m and Io = 650 mA, find the radiation resistance of this antenna. Solution: From (6-3-5) 120T Rr ! 2 Io

´
s

E 120T ds ! 2 Zo (0.65)2 (377) 2
T 0

2

´ ´
0

2T

T 0

sin 2 U r sin U dU dJ

! (6.28 v 103 )(500)2T ´ sin 4 U dU « 3 x sin(2 x ) sin(4 x ) » ¨ 3T ¸ ! 19.7 ¬   ¼ ! 19.7 © 8 ¹ ! 23.2 ; (ans .) 4 32 ½ 0 ­8 ª º
T

43
*6-5-1. P/2 antenna. Assume that the current is of uniform magnitude and in-phase along the entire length of a P/2 thin linear element. (a) Calculate and plot the pattern of the far field. (b) What is the radiation resistance? (c) Tabulate for comparison: 1. Radiation resistance of part (b) above 2. Radiation resistance at the current loop of a P/2 thin linear element with sinusoidal in-phase current distribution 3. Radiation resistance of a P/2 dipole calculated by means of the short dipole formula (d) Discuss the three results tabulated in part (c) and give reasons for the differences. Solution: (a) (b) (c)
En (U ) ! tan U sin[(T / 2) cos U ] (ans.) R ! 168 ; (ans.)

R [from (b)] = 168 ; (ans.) R (sinusoidal I ) ! 73 ; (ans .) R (short dipole) = 197 ; (ans .) 168 ; is appropriate for uniform current. 73 ; is appropriate for sinusoidal current. 197 ; assumes uniform current, but the short dipole formula does not take into account the difference in distance to different parts of the dipole (assumes P >>L ) which is not appropriate and leads to a larger resistance (197 ;) as compared to the correct value of 168 ;.

(d)

6-6-1. 2P antenna. The instantaneous current distribution of a thin linear center-fed antenna 2P long is sinusoidal as shown in Fig. P6-6-1. (a) Calculate and plot the pattern of the far field. (b) What is the radiation resistance referred to a current loop? (c) What is the radiation resistance at the transmission-line terminals as shown? (d) What is the radiation resistance P/8 from a current loop?

(ans. Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) En (U ) ! cos(2T cosU )  1 (ans. continued Figure P6-6-1. Assume sinusoidal current distributions. P6-7-1. (ans. P/2 antennas in echelon. P/2 antennas in echelon. (ans.44 6-6-1.) R (at terminals) ! g . 2P antenna. Figure P6-7-1. Calculate and plot the radiation-field pattern in the plane of two thin linear P/2 antennas with equal in-phase currents and the spacing relationship shown in Fig.) R (at P /8 rom I max ) ! 518 .) sin U R (at I max ) ! 259 .) 6-7-1. Solution: En (U ) ! ¨ 2T ¸ cos[(T / 2) cos U ] cos © cos[(T / 4)  U ] ¹ © 4 ¹ sin U ª º .

6-8-2. Also multiplying by the source factor sinJ and taking the constant F d / 2 ! 1 in the denominator. 1  p cos J p patterns have 4 lobes.5. carrying a single uniform traveling wave for 2 cases of the relative phase velocity p = 1 and 0. (6-8-5) for a long linear conductor with traveling wave for p = 1. 1P and 10P antennas with traveling waves. (a) Calculate and plot the far-field pattern in the plane of a thin linear element 1P long. Equivalence of pattern factors. nd $ b. Pattern has 40 lobes. Solution: (a) (b) From (6-8-5). ] ! F d (cos J  1) ¨ F nd ¸ sin © (1  cos J ) ¹ ª 2 º Also if d is small (1) becomes Fd (1  cos J ) 2 For larger n. (b) Repeat for the single case of an element 10P long and p = 1. En (J ) ! sin J 1 [sin T (  cos J )] .45 *6-8-1. multiplied by the dipole pattern sin J is equivalent to Eq. Solution: (1) 8) where ] ! F d cos J  H sin[ [b (1  p cos J )] 2 pc 1  p cos J 5) n] 2 Field pattern= ] sin 2 sin (5-6- (2) Field pattern = sin J (6-8- For ordinary end-fire. Show that the field pattern of an ordinary end-fire array of a large number of collinear short dipoles as given by Eq. (5-6-8). (1) becomes .

continued which is the same as (2) for p ! 1 since [ b 2T fb F b ! ! 2 pc 2 f P 2 q.46 ¨ Fd ¸ sin © (1  cos J ) ¹ ª 2 º sin J 1  cos J 6-8-2. .d. the number n is assumed to be sufficiently large that d can be small enough to allow sin] / 2 in (1) to be replaced by] / 2 . Note that for a given length b.e.

47 .

Solution: Uniform currents are assumed. 120T 2 IA sin U EJ (U )(loop) rP 2 (1) EU (U )(dipole)= j60T IL sin U rP (2) ¨ A¸ Rr (loop) 320 T 4 © 2 ¹ . ªP º 2 (3) Rr (dipole)=80 T 2 L2 P (4) For equal power inputs. show that the radiation is everywhere circularly polarized with a pattern as in Fig.1P diameter loop. 2 2 I loop Rr (loop) ! I dipole Rr (dipole) 2 I loop 2 I dipole Rr (dipole) L2 80T 2 L2 P P ! ! ! Rr (loop) 320T 4 ( A / P 2 ) 2 4T 2 ( A / P 2 ) 2 I loop I dipole ! LP 2T ( A / P 2 ) (5) (6) Therefore EJ (U )(loop)= 120T 2 LP I dipole A sin U r P 2T ( A / P ) 2 2 ! 60T Idipole L sin U rP (7) . 7-3) and both dipole and loop are fed in phase with equal power. 7-7 for the 0. The Loop Antenna 7-2-1.48 Chapter 7. Loop and dipole for circular polarization. If a short electric dipole antenna is mounted inside a small loop antenna (on polar axis. Fig.

the condition for CP is L A ! 4T 2 P P (12) and and the loop diameter d! . for a short dipole P /10 long.14P T or 1. the total field of the loopdipole combination is everywhere circularly polarized with a sinU pattern. q.d.45P ! 0. Thus. are equal in magnitude and are in time-phase quadrature. the loop circumference must be CP ! (2 v 0. where d ! loop diameter in (8) and putting C ! T d L T d 2 1 C2 ! 2T ! 4P 2 2 P 2 P (9) we obtain (10) CP ! (2 LP )1 2 as another expression of the condition for circular polarization.1)1 2 ! 0.45 (11) 0. 7-2-1. If the dipole current tapers to zero at the ends of the dipole. continued Equating the magnitude of (1) and (2) (fields equal and currents equal) we obtain L A ! 2T 2 P P (8) which satisfies (6) for equal loop and dipole currents.e.4 times the dipole length. Thus (8) is a condition for circular polarization. Since the 2 linearly polarized fields ( EJ of the loop and EU of the dipole) are at right angles.49 which is equal in magnitude to EU (U ) (dipole) but in time-phase quadrature (no j). Substituting A ! T ( d 2 / 4) .

50
CP ! ( LP )1 2

(13) For a P /10 dipole the circumference must now be CP ! (0.1)1 2 ! 0.316 and the loop 0.316P $ 0.1P or approximately the same as the dipole length. diameter d ! T The condition of (10) is applied in the Wheeler-type helical antenna. See Section 8-22, equation (8-22-4) and Prob. 8-11-1.

51

7-4-1. The 3P/4 diameter loop. Calculate and plot the far-field pattern normal to the plane of a circular loop 3P/4 in diameter with a uniform in-phase current distribution. Solution:
3 ! 2.36 4 From (7-3-8) or Table 7-2, the EJ pattern is given by CP ! T J1 (CP sin U )

See Figure 7-6.

*7-6-1. Radiation resistance of loop. What is the radiation resistance of the loop of Prob. 7-4-1? Solution: From (7-6-13) for loop of any size Rr ! 60T 2 CP ´ where CP ! T 3 4 ! 2.36, From (7-6-16),
2 CP ! 4.71
2 CP 0

J 2 ( y) dy

´

2 CP 0

J 2 ( y) dy ! ´

2 CP 0

J o ( y) dy  2 J1 (2CP )

By integration of the J o ( y ) curve from 0 to 2CP ( ! 4.71) ,

´

2 CP 0

J o ( y )dy ! 0.792

From tables (Jahnke and Emde), J1 (2CP ) ! J1 (4.71) ! 0.2816 and

´

2 CP 0

J 2 ( y )dy !! 0.7920  2 v 0.2816 ! 1.355

Therefore Rr ! 60T 2 2.36 v 1.355 ! 1894 ; (Round off to 1890 ; ) (ans.)

52

7-6-2. Small-loop resistance. where A = area of loop (m2). (b) Show that the effective is equal to 320T 4

What is the maximum effective aperture of a thin loop antenna 0. A Emax r 2. A is the same as for a short dipole (! 8T / 3 sr). Aem ! P2 ¨ 3 ¸ 2 2 !© ¹ P ! 0. radiation resistance and directivity of loops.1P in diameter with a uniform in-phase current distribution? Solution: . (b) . Pattern. 2 (a) Using a Poynting vector integration. show that the radiation resistance of a small loop Solution: (a) From (7-5-2) and Table 7-2. Therefore. (2) d = 1. 7-7-1.d.119P (ans.e.5P and (3) d = 8P? .) .A P2 aperture of an isotropic antenna equals P2/4T. A ! 4T . A Rr ! ! I2 ZI 2 . A 4T q.d. The P/10 diameter loop. (b) the radiation resistance and (c) the directivity for each of three cases where (1) d = P/4. q. Rr ! 2 4 2 120T I 3 r P ªP º Ae ! P2 P2 ! . 6-3-4a. What is (a) the far-field pattern (calculate and plot). A ! 2T ´ sin 2 U sin U dU ! 2T 0 4 8 ! T 3 3 2 Therefore. A ª 8T º 7-8-1. See Prob. EJ ! 120T 2 IA sin U ! Emax sin U rP 2 T 2 Sr 2.e. 120 2 T 4 I 2 A2 r 2 8T ¨ A¸ 4 ! 320T 4 © 2 ¹ . A circular loop antenna with uniform in-phase current has a diameter d. ! 197CP .

(2) d = 0. the general expression for EJ in Table 7-2 must be used.2 3.5 1. The loop is 1P on a side.05 2. 4100 .36 6. From Table 7-2 and Figures 7-10 and 7-11.75P and (3) d = 2P.1 76 .5 3. 2340 .28 180 . A circular loop antenna with uniform in-phase current has a diameter d. Solution: See Probs. *7-9-1.53 7-8-1. Find (a) the farfield pattern (calculate and plot).82 17. Calculate and plot the far-field pattern in a plane normal to the plane of a square loop and parallel to one side. 14800 .1 0. Assume uniform in-phase currents.6 1. *7-8-2. . the radiation resistance and directivity values are: Diameter P/4 1. The 1P square loop. Diameter P/3 0.5P 8P CP Rr Directivity 1. continued Solution: Since all the loops have CP " 1/ 3.71 25.785 4. (b) the radiation resistance and (c) the directivity for the following three cases: (1) d = P/3. 7-4-1 and 7-8-1.75P 2P Radiation resistance and directivity values are: CP Rr Directivity 1. Circular loop. 1550 .

2) ! cos 2 J The pattern of sides 3 and 4 is the same rotated through 90o or in terms of J is given by En (3. En (J ) ! sin(T cos J ) resulting in a 4-lobed pattern with maxima at J ! s60o and s 120o and nulls at 0 o . continued Solution: Pattern is that of 2 point sources in opposite phase. 2) of sides 1 and 2 of the small square loop is the product of the pattern of 2 point sources in opposite phase separated by d as given by sin[( d r / 2) cos J ] and the pattern of short dipole as given by cosJ or For small d this reduces to E (1. 2)  En (3.54 *7-9-1. 7-9-2. Solution: The field pattern E (1. s90 o and 180 o . 4) ! sin 2 J The total pattern in the plane of the square loop is then En (J ) ! En (1. 2) ! cos J sin[( d r / 2) cos J ] En (1. Referring to Case 2 of Section 5-2. we have for d r / 2 ! 2T (P / 2) ! T . Small square loop. show that the far-field pattern in the plane of the loop is a circle. 4) ! cos 2 J  sin 2 J ! 1 . Resolving the small square loop with uniform current into four short dipoles.

q. .e.d.55 Therefore E (J ) is a constant as a function of J and the pattern is a circle.

32. A right-handed monofilar helical antenna has 10 turns.7 or 14.047 0.) At 300 MHz.3o CP ( nS P )1 2 T (30 v 0. CP ! 0. Find (a) HPBW.314 SP ! 0.3 P! C ! T (0. This is too small for the axial mode which requires that 0.3 From (8-3-4) W! 52 O 52 O ! ! 32. (a) What is the HPBW? (b) What is the gain? (c) What is the polarization state? (d) Repeat the problem for a frequency of 300 MHz. (b) gain and (c) polarization state. G ! D . P/3 diameter and P/5 turn spacing. D ! ! 38.9 dBi or 1 dB higher. A 30-turn helix. Solution: (a) 3 v108 ! 0.7 CP 1.52 The lower value is more realistic 8-3-2. 2 D $ 12CP nS P ! 30. Part I 8-3-1.07 ! 0.9 dBi (ans.) For zero losses.5o (ans. 41000 From Table A-1. 100 mm diameter and 70 mm turn spacing.314.) CP ( nS P )1 2 1.314 /1 ! 0. End-Fire Antennas: The Helical Beam Antenna and the Yagi-Uda Array. (ans.314 CP ! ! 1.233 0. The frequency is 1 GHz. P ! 3 v108 / 300 v 106 ! 1 m .3 m 109 0.2)1 2 3 (ans. Solution: (a) (b) From (8-3-4).8 or 15. A right-handed monofilar axial-mode helical antenna has 30 turns.56 Chapter 8. HPBW $ 52 o 52 o ! ! 20.1) ! 0. A 10-turn helix. (c) (d) Polarization is RCP.4.047(10 v 0.233)1 2 (b) From (8-3-7).) If losses are negligible the gain = D.

left and right.57 8-3-2. Helices. (a) LHP (ans.) (c) RCP (ans.) .) (b) LVP (ans. The antennas are identical except that one is wound left-handed and the other right-handed.) 8-3-3.2 ! 79 or 19 dBi (ans. Two monofilar axial-mode helical antennas are mounted side-by-side with axes parallel (in the x direction). continued 2 From (8-3-7). What is the polarization state in the x direction if the two antennas are fed (a) in phase and (b) in opposite phase? Solution: Assuming that x is horizontal. D $ 12CP nS P ! 12(T / 3) 2 30 v 0.

and the linear conductor of length H is vertical. (a) What is p at 400 MHz for (1) in-phase fields and (2) increased directivity? (b) Calculate and plot the field patterns for p = 1.5 and also for p equal to the value for in-phase fields and increased directivity.0. The Helical Antenna: Axial and Other Modes. Introducing it and the given values of E and n p ! 0. A monofilar helical antenna has E = 12r. and assume the current is of uniform magnitude and in phase over the system. The loop is circular and is horizontal. An 8-turn helix. (a) What is the approximate relation required between the diameter D and height H of an antenna having the configuration shown in Fig. in order to obtain a circularly polarized far-field at all points at which the field is not zero.763 for increased directivity *8-11-1. D = 225 mm. n = 8. and 0. Solution: (a) The relative phase velocity for in-phase fields is given by (8-8-9) as p! 1 sin E  cos E CP The relative phase velocity for increased directivity is given by (8-8-12) p! LP 2n  1 SP  2n From the given value of frequency and diameter D . P8-11-1. Normal-mode helix. CP can be determined. 0. Assume D and H are small compared to the wavelength. Assume each turn is an isotropic point source. (b) What is the pattern of the far circularly polarized field? .58 Chapter 8. (c) Repeat (b) assuming each turn has a cosine pattern.9. Part II *8-8-1.802 for in-phase fields p ! 0.

29P spacing the effective aperture for the array is 5. (a) (b) DP ! (2 H P )1 2 / T E ! sin U (ans.26P ! 2.26 v 4 ! 21. shown in Fig. can be used for communications with satellites. 8-54. Normal mode helix.29 P At 2.26P 2 4T 5.04 ! 264 (24. 7-2-1.) 8-15-1.15 The spacing is then (b) 66P 2 Ae ! ! 5.) . Determine (a) the best spacing based on the effective apertures of the helixes.59 *8-11-1. (b) the directivity of the array.05) 2 v 20 v 0. continued Figure P8-5-3. Solution: (a) From (8-3-7) the directivity of each helix is D $ 12 v (1.25 ! 66.) (ans.2 dBi) P2 so for the array D! (ans. Assume the number of turns is 20 and the spacing between turns is 0.25 P.04P 2 4T v 21. Design of quad-helix earth station antenna. An array of four right-handed axial-mode helical antennas. Solution: See solution to Prob.

Note that the H plane coincides with the line of the slots. Boxed-slot impedance. Two P/2-slot antennas are arranged end-to-end in a large conducting sheet with a spacing of 1P between centers. If the slots are fed with equal in-phase voltages. Slot. H H J measured in plane perpendicular to page The pattern in the E plane is a circle (E not a function of angle) or E (J ) ! 1 (ans.) In the H-plane we have by pattern multiplication that the pattern is the product of 2 inphase isotropic sources spaced 1P and the pattern of a P / 2 slot. Solution: d !P U Thin slots are assumed. .) *9-5-1. What is the terminal impedance of a slot antenna boxed to radiate only in one half-space whose complementary dipole antenna has a driving-point impedance of Z = 150 +j0 . Patch and Horn Antennas 9-2-1. Solution: From (9-5-12) the impedance of an unboxed slot is Zs ! 35476 Rd  jX d where Rd is the resistance and X d is the reactance of the complementary dipole.60 Chapter 9.? The box adds no shunt susceptance across the terminals. calculate and plot the far-field pattern in the 2 principal planes. The pattern of the P / 2 slot is the same as for a P / 2 dipole but with E and H interchanged. The pattern of the 2 isotropic sources is given by E or H ! e  j ( F d / 2)cosU  e  j ( F d / 2)cos U ! 2 cos[( F d / 2) cosU ] ! 2 cos(T cosU ) The total normalized pattern in the H-plane is then En (U ) ! cos(T cos U ) cos[(T / 2) cosU ] sin U (ans. Two P/2 slots.

Boxed slot. . as other shapes meeting the impedance requirement are possible.5 ! 473. bottom two patterns) but with E and H interchanged. The complementary dipole of a slot antenna has a terminal impedance Z = 90 + j10 . If the slot antenna is boxed so that it radiates only in one half-space. Open-slot impedance. 150  j 0 Z s ! 2 v 236.) 90  j10 9-5-3. What dimensions are required of a slot antenna in order that its terminal impedance be 75 + j0 . At 4th resonance the dipole is : 2P long and the slot should be the same length. Zd ! 35476 35476 ! ! 473 . (ans. what is the terminal impedance of the slot antenna? The box adds no shunt susceptance at the terminals. 14-8 a center-fed cylindrical dipole with length-to-diameter ratio of : 37 has a resistance at 4th resonance of : 473 . Solution: From (8-5-12) we have a boxed slot Z s ! 2 v 35476 ! 779  j87 . The above dimensions do not constitute a unique answer.? The slot is open on both sides. Nothing is mentioned in the problem statement about pattern so the question is left open as to whether this pattern would be satisfactory. (or twice that of a cylindrical stub antenna of a length-to-radius ratio of 37).0 $ 473 . The width of the complementary slot should be twice the dipole diameter. 14-9 (right-hand column. Solution: From (8-5-11).) Boxing the slot doubles the impedance so *9-5-2.5 . (ans. The pattern will be midway between those in Fig.. Zs ! 35476 ! 236.61 *9-5-1. so it should have a length-to-width ratio of : 181 . continued Thus. Zs 75 From Fig.

62Po 9-7-3. or Rr ! 100 .49 v 9. Microstrip line.7 . microstrip transmission line? Solution: From (9-7-4) (see Fig.88Po W ! 0.22 Po 1.49Po Ir Ir Po Rr (I r  1) W ! 0. and (b) a 100 ..) t Zc Ir 50 2. 2.27 Rr Rr (a) (b) W ! 0.27 W ! 4. For a polystyrene substrate (Ir = 2.62 9-7-1. What value of the patch length W results in (a) a 50 ..27 1 1 Po ! 6.1). 50 and 100 . patches. Zc ! Zo I r [(W / t )  2] or Zo W 377 !  2!  2 ! 2.49 With I r ! 2. 9-22a? Solution: From (9-7-7.6 (ans. Solving for W W !L 90I r2 Rr (I r  1) ¨ I 2 ¸¨ L ¸ Rr ! 90 © r ¹ © ¹ ª I r 1 º ª W º 2 Since L! 0.65 or Rr ! 50. 9-21).7) what width-substrate thickness ratio results in a 50. input resistance for a rectangular patch as in Fig.

63 9-7-3. 19-1-7.6 ! 50 . and with phase everywhere the same. Assuming no losses. 9-29a to 10P . Power gain = D ! 4T Ae P2 where and Ae ! I ap Aem ! I ap Ap ! 0.81 ( E ) av A more detailed evaluation of I ap for a similar distribution is given in the solution to Prob.81 v10 2 P 2 ! 81P 2 D ! 4T 81 ! 1018 or 30 d i The same gain is obtained by extrapolating the aE P line in Fig. continued Strip line W t Ground plane 2. Optimum horn gain.6 field cells under strip plus 2 fringing cells = 4. the aperture efficiency from (19-1-50) is E2 2 2 I ap ! 2av ! (2 / T ) 2 Eo /( Eo / 2) ! 8 / T 2 ! 0. as in the sketches. this makes aH P " aE P and not equal as in this problem. What is the approximate maximum power gain of an optimum horn antenna with a square aperture 9P on a side? Solution: E E E Eo Eo Assuming a uniform E in the E -direction and cosine distribution in the H -direction. *9-9-1. .7 v 4.6 cells giving Z c !! 377 2. However.

25 rad in the E -plane and 144o ! 2T v 0.5 Using (5-7-7) and setting ndP ! aP for a continuous aperture. which assumes 60% aperture efficiency. 9-9-2.08o (ans.81) as in the initial solution above.64 *9-9-1. This results in less gain than calculated above.6) .08o is the true HPBW since Pn ! En2 ! 0. continued In an optimum horn. where uniform phase is assumed over the aperture. (b) What is the half-power beamwidth and the angle between first nulls? Solution: (a) From (5-12-18) the pattern of a uniform aperture of length a is ]d 2 ! sin(T aP sin U ) En ! ]d T aP sin U 2 sin (1) here a ! aperture length 10P U ! angle rom broadside HPBW ! 50.08 / 2 ! 2.5 v Ap / P 2 ! 7. the length (which is not specified in this problem) is reduced by relaxing the allowable phase variation at the edge of the mouth by arbitrary amounts ( 90o ! 2T v 0. D ! 750 or 29 d i.8 /10 ! 5.) (b) From Table 5-8. 9-9-1. D ! 1018 or 30 d i but for an optimum (shorter) horn (I ap ! 0. From (9-9-2). Horn pattern. . the directivity of the 10P square horn is D ! 7. Introducing 5. assuming uniform illumination over the aperture.5 v10 2 ! 750 or 29 dBi To summarize: when uniform phase is assumed (I ap ! 0.4 rad in the H -plane). (a) Calculate and plot the E-plane pattern of the horn of Prob.54o into (1) yields En ! 0.707 2 ! 0.707 which confirms that 5.

48o (ans.46o for a difference of 0.) 9-9-2. What is the required aperture area for an optimum rectangular horn antenna operating at 2 GHz with 12 dBi gain? Solution: From (9-9-2) or Fig.5 Ap P 2 . but we have not assumed that their product nd P is necessarily very large. we could write W ! 2 / aP rad and obtain BWFN ! 2 /10 rad = 11. continued Setting nd P ! aP assumes n very large and d P very small. 3-5b.15) 2 ! 0.15 m The diameter d ! 2 r is .65 BWFN ! 2 sin 1 (1/ aP ) ! 2 sin 1 (1/10) ! 11.5T D ! 101.85. 6. D$ 6.2 ! 15.85 .2 ! 15.02o. P ! 0. 3-5b.15 m 15.5 9-9-4.5T r 2 P2 d !2 D P. D$ 7. If we had.5 D ! 101.85 v (0. Rectangular horn antenna. Conical horn antenna. What is the required diameter of a conical horn antenna operating at 2 GHz with a 12 dBi gain? Solution: From Fig. 9-9-3. Ap ! D 2 P 7.0475 m2 7. Ap ! P =0.

25 UH / 2 80 aH P / 2 2 From which L2  aE P / 4 ! L2  0.33/ 80 ! 4. (a) Determine the length L. LP  0. . for the conditions of this problem which are between an optimum horn and uniform phase.5T 9-9-5. The horn is fed with a rectangular waveguide with TE10 mode. which is appropriate for an optimum horn.81 (see solution to Probs.5 d i 0. resulting in reduced aperture efficiency.8 ! 80 (ans.8. Take H = P/10 in the E plane and H = P/4 in the H plane.1 UE / 2 LP 80. D ! 4T v 8 v 12. Taking (ans.4 cm 6.7 v 0. 2 LP ! a E P / .7 U E / 2 ! tan 1 4 / 80 ! 2. aperture aH and half-angles in E and H planes for a pyramidal electromagnetic horn for which the aperture aE = 8P. Thus.25 rad in the H-plane.15 ! 26. (b) What are the HPBWs in both E and H planes? (c) What is the directivity? (d) What is the aperture efficiency? Solution: (a) For a 0.1P tolerance in the E-plane.5o ( ans.2 LP  0.8.7 v 0.01 P P aE P / 2 with aE P ! 8 (given).9 o ( ans. However.7 .1 d i and 9-9-1).81 ! 1034 or 30.) U H / 2 ! tan 1 6. 19-1-7 D ! 4T v 8 v 12. so I ap must be less than 0. the phase has been relaxed to 36o ! 2T v 0.1 rad in the E-plane and to 90o ! 2T v 0. If the E-plane phase is relaxed to 90o and the H-plane phase to 144o .66 d !2 15.) (b) Assuming uniform phase in the E-plane.) (c) If the phase over the aperture is uniform I ap ! 0.6 I ap I ap $ 0. 0. Pyramidal horn.) In the H-plane we have from the sketch that aH P / 2 ! 6.7 ! 894 or 29.6 .85 v 0.33 and aH P ! 12. I ap : 0. the relation with dimensions in wavelengths is shown in the sketch.

3 .7 ( 41000 41000 ! ! 894 W) E ( W) H 6.4o . (d) I ap ! 0.35o $ 6.) and from the approximation 9-9-5.7 from part (c). ( ( 56 o W) E $ ! 7o 8 67 o ! 5.2o From Table 9-1 for an optimum horn. (ans.4o aE P 8 (ans.3o W) H ! 12.67 (HPBW) E $ 50. continued D! so (HPBW) H $ 7.) .8o 50.8o ! ! 6.) The true ( W) E for this problem is probably close to 6. While the true ( o W) H is probably close to 5.4( W) H (ans.

Calculate and plot the radiation pattern of a P/2 dipole antenna spaced 0.4 º and for RL ! 0 G f (J ) ! 2. results in about 0. loss resistance.3 dB. S ! spacing o dipole rom re lector J ! angle rom perpendicular to re lector (See Fig.15P ) . Note that RL ! 10 . Corner and Parabolic Reflector Antennas 10-2-1.52 dB (= 7.) Note that G f (J ) is the gain with respect to a reference P / 2 dipole and more explicitly can be written G f (J )[ A / HW ].) Note that R12 is for a spacing of 0.1 G f (J ) ! 2 © ¹ sin(2T v 0.) Note that (1) differs from (10-2-1) in that RL ! 0 in the numerator under the square root sign since the problem requests the gain to be expressed with respect to a lossless reference antenna. the gain reduction is about 0.67 dBi) (ans.56 dBi) 12 12 sin( Sr cos J ) (ans. Express the patterns in gain over a P/2 dipole antenna in free space with the same power input (and zero loss resistance).41 dB (= 8. The loss resistance RL ! 10 . 10-2. See Table 13-1.68 Chapter 10.. If the reference dipole also has 10 . .1  RL  29. Solution: From (10-2-1) the gain over a P / 2 reference dipole is given by ¨ ¸ R11 G f (J ) ! 2 © ¹ ª R11  RL  R12 º (1) where.9 dB reduction in gain with respect to a lossless reference dipole. Flat sheet reflector.. G f (J ) ! 1. Maximum radiation is at J ! 0.3P (! 2 v 0.15P from an infinite flat sheet for assumed antenna loss resistance RL = 0 and 5 . Flat Sheet. ¨ ¸ 73.15) ª 73.09 or 6. so (1) becomes.89 or 5.

1  3. Solution: From (10-3-6) the gain of a lossless corner reflector over a reference P / 2 dipole is given by ¨ ¸ R11 G f (J ) ! 2 © ¹ [cos( Sr cos J )  cos(Sr sin J )] ª R11  R14  2 R12 º For S ! P / 2 and maximum radiation direction (J ! 0o ) this becomes 73. 10-3-1. 10-12a. is smaller than the one for RL ! 0 but of the same shape (radius vector differing by a constant factor). The pattern for RL ! 10 . A square-corner reflector has a driven P/2 dipole antenna space P/2 from the corner.9 dBi) See Table 13-1 and Fig.15P in Fig. 13-13 for the mutual resistance values for R14 at 1P separation and R12 at 0. 10-3 for spacings of 0. The pattern should be identical to the one in Fig. Note that in Fig. Square-corner reflector.707P separation. Calculate and plot the radiation pattern in a plane at right angles to the driven element.1 ¨ ¸ G f (J ) ! 4 © ¹ ª 73. (a) Show that the relative field pattern in the plane of the driven P/2 element of a squarecorner reflector is given by cos 90QcosU E ! ?  cos. 10-4 an equal loss resistance is assumed in the reference antenna. The above calculated gain agrees with the value shown by the curve in Fig.25 P (= P/4).8  2 v 24 º 12 12 ! 3. The pattern for RL ! 0 should be intermediate to those in Fig. 10-4. 10-3-2. Square-corner reflector.7 dB (=11. Assume perfectly conducting sheet reflectors of infinite extent (ideal reflector). continued The above gains agree with those shown for RL ! 0 and extrapolated for RL ! 10 . at S ! 0.69 10-2-1. 10-11.06 or 9.125P (=P /8) and 0.

Assume that the corner-reflector sheets are perfectly conducting and of infinite extent.S r sin U A 1 sin U where U is the angle with respect to the element axis. .

.

d. I ! 1 S U I ! 2 S I ! 1 2cos(Sr sinU ) CC 1’ Sr sinU CC 2’0o Phasor sketch CC 1’ Sr sinU By pattern multiplication the pattern is the product of the pattern of an array of 3 isotropic sources with amplitudes and phasing 1: 2 : 1 and the pattern of P / 2 dipole (6-4-4). Solution: (a) The pattern in the plane of the dipole (E plane) is that of an array of three P / 2 elements arranged as in the sketch with amplitudes 1:2:1 and phasing as indicated. . Assume that losses are negligible.35P from the corner. CC E ! (2  1’ S r sin U CC  1’  S r sin U ) cos(90 o cos U ) sin U or. 10-3-1). continued (b) Calculate and plot the field pattern in the plane of the driven element for a spacing of P/2 to the corner.e. Compare with the pattern at right angles (Prob. cos(90o cos U ) E ! 2[1  cos(S r sin U )] sin U Dropping the scale factor 2 yields the results sought. Assume that the corner reflector is of infinite extent. Square-corner reflector. Thus. *10-3-4. q. (b) Calculate the radiation resistance of the driven antenna. see phasor sketch.70 10-3-2. (c) Calculate the gain of the antenna and corner reflector over the antenna alone. (a) Calculate and plot the pattern of a 90r corner reflector with a thin center-fed P/2 driven antenna spaced 0.

what is (a) the gain of the array over a single P/2 antenna and (b) the half-power beam width in the H plane? .588 (b) (c) Rr ! R11  R14  2 R12 ! 73. (b) Calculate the radiation resistance at the center of one of the antennas. 10-3-4 is removed and that in its place the three images used in the analysis are present physically. 10-9 with shape of pattern of Prob.588 ! 3.) since power is fed to all 4 elements instead of to only one (Power gain down by a factor of 4 or by 6 dB).1 dBi) (ans. resulting in 4-element driven array. (ans.59 or 4. All antennas are energized in phase and have equal current amplitude.71 *10-3-4.0 dB (=12. The corner edges are parallel and side-by-side as in Fig.) From (10-3-6) for J ! 0 and S ! 0.35P is En (J ) ! [cos(126o cos J )  cos(126o sin J )] 1.17 or 10.1  24.) 10-3-5. (ans. Assuming that the properties of each corner are the same as if its sides were of infinite extent.3 .) G f (J ) ! 1.1/ 73.0 dB (= 6.4P from the corner. *10-3-6. (a) Calculate and plot the pattern of this array. (c) Calculate the gain of the array over one of the antennas alone. continued Solution: (a) From (10-3-6) the normalized field pattern for S ! 0. 10-3-4a.8  25 ! 73.35P G f (J ) ! 2(73. P10-3-6.3 . Solution: (a) (b) (c) 4-lobed pattern as in Fig. Square-corner reflector versus array of its image elements. The spacing between corners is 1P. The driven antenna in each corner is a P/2 element spaced 0.1 dBi) (ans.3)1 2 v1. Square-corner reflector array. Assume that the corner reflector of Prob. Four 90r corner-reflector antennas are arranged in line as a broadside array. Rr ! 73.

4P is given by 12 73.6  42 º ª ! 2 v 0.870 v 1.72 *10-3-6. Square-corner reflector array. Solution: (a) From (10-3-6) the gain of one corner reflector with S ! 0.1 d i) Under lossless conditions. continued Figure P10-3-6.1  18.1 ¨ ¸ o o G f (J ) ! 2 © ¹ (cos144  cos 0 ) 73.81 ! 3.15 or $ 10 d ( 12. D ! .

3P as in the sketch below. the maximum effective aperture of one corner is DP 2 16.3P 1P terminals Aem P / 2 dipole P 90o corner reflector 0.4P . 1.3 2 Thus.3P 2 4T 4T The effective aperture of a single corner may then be represented by a rectangle 1P v 1.3P 2 Aem ! $ ! 1.64 ! 16.G f (J ) v1.

7o / 2 ! 6.30 ! 12.8T cos J )  cos(0. Note that J must approach zero in the limit in the array factor to avoid an indeterminate result. J 6.8T sin J )] 4 sin(T sin J ) 1. With wider spacing (! 1.) The 4-source array factor is much sharper than the corner reflector pattern and largely determines the HPBW.707 HPBW ! 2 v 6.3 v 4 ! 65 or 18 d i.73 *10-3-6. the HP W is given approximately from Table 5-8 by HP W = 50. P10-3-6 the edges of the apertures overlap 0.30o Thus.703 0.809 The ¼ is the normalizing factor for the array and 1/1.8o / 4 ! 12.707 as tabulated below.30 o . For J ! 6. let us calculate its value with the approximate relation of (2-7-9) using the HPBW of part (b) for the H-plane and the HPBW of 78o for the E-plane from Example 6-4.35o. By pattern multiplication it is equal to the product of an array of 4 in-phase isotropic point sources with 1P spacing and the pattern of a single corner reflector as given by En (J ) ! 1 sin(4T sin J ) 1 [cos(0. continued In an array of 4 reflectors as in Fig. when J ! 0 o . En (J ) ! 0. let us use the total antenna pattern.3P so that the reflectors are too close. However.) No interaction between corner reflectors has been assumed. at the 1P spacing the total aperture is 4P v 1P ! 4P 2 and the total gain of the array under lossless conditions is G!D! 4T Aem ! 4T v 4 $ 50 or 17 dBi P2 (ans.7o To determine the HPBW more accurately. Returning to part (a) for the directivity. o En (J ) 0. En (J ) ! 1. .6o (ans. Half of the above approximate HPBW is 12.3P ) the expected gain ! 16.35 6. (b) Assuming a uniform aperture distribution.8o / LP ! 50.703. Thus.809 for the corner reflector.1. Introducing it into the above equation yields En (J ) ! 0.

P/4 to the driven element. Nevertheless.7 (= 16 dBi) 12. ____________________________ *Assuming infinite sides 10-3-7. the directivity of 50 for the array of 4 corner reflectors involves some uncertainty (apertures overlapping). since it is determined from the pattern via the impedances*.8 dBi.8 as compared to D $ 50 (= 17 dBi) as calculated in part (a). D$ 40000 ! 40.3 for a single corner reflector should be accurate.74 *10-3-6. A square-corner reflector has a spacing of P/4 between the driven P/2 element and the corner. Show that the directivity D = 12. D ! .6 v 7. continued Thus. Solution: For the case of no losses. Although the directivity of 16. the two methods agree within 1 dB. Corner reflector.

64.1 ¨ ¸ G f (J ) ! 2 © ¹ ª 73. D ! . and for S ! P / 4 and J ! 0.G f (J ) v1.7  35 º 12 ! 3. 2 (10-3-6) becomes 73.1  12.39 Therefore.

8 d i 2 (ans. (a) Calculate and plot the far-field pattern in both principal planes. A square-corner reflector has a driven P/2 element P/2 from the corner.9 or 12. (b) What are the HPBWs in the two principal planes? (c) What is the terminal impedance of the driven element? (d) Calculate the directivity in two ways: (1) from impedances of driven and image dipoles and (2) from HPBWs.64 ! 18. .) 10-3-8.G f (J ) v1. Corner reflector. Assume perfectly conducting sheet reflectors of infinite extent. and compare. P/2 to the driven element.

(c) HPBW(J ) $ 2 v 21o ! 42 o (ans. 10-3-1 solution. Therefore. 10-3-1 solution). 10-11 that for (b) Assuming initially that S ! P / 2 the directivity is about 12 dBi. we obtain En (U ) $ 0. continued Solution: (a) From Prob. D ! . Therefore.707 when J ! 21o.) The terminal impedance of the driven element is (see Prob. By trial and error. By trial and error.) Introducing J ! 25o in (2) yields En (J ) ! 0. RT ! 73. we obtain En (J ) $ 0.707 when U =34.5o ! 69o (ans.5 o . (ans.75 10-3-8. HPBW(U ) $ 2 v 34.) From Prob.8  2 v 24 ! 125 . W(U ) $ W(J ) and noting from Fig.1  3. we have from (2-7-9) that D$ 40000 $ 16 or HPBW(U ) $ 50 o 2 HPBW(U ) and HPBW(U ) 50o ! ! 25o 2 2 Introducing U ! 90o  25o ! 65o in (1) yields En (U ) which is too high. 10-3-2 the pattern in the E-plane is given by 1 cos(90o cos U ) En (U ) ! [1  cos(T sin U )] 2 sin U (1) From (10-3-6) the pattern in the H-plane is given by En (U ) ! 1 [cos(T cos J )  cos(T sin J )] 2 (2) Note that En (U ) = maximum for U ! 90o while En (J ) = maximum for J ! 0o.60 which is too low.

4 ( 11.G f (J ) v1.64 ! 15.9 d i) by impedance 2 (ans.) .

) . Assuming that the dish characteristics are independent of angle (J ). A circular parabolic dish antenna has an effective aperture of 100 m2. However. *10-7-2. The rest of the antenna.6 m 2 (ans. therefore.76 D$ 40000 ! 13. however. its efficiency is down to 7/8. find the new effective aperture. Solution: 45o Sector removed J J The full dish has an effective aperture Ae ! 100 m 2 . including the feed. Parabolic reflector with missing sector. removing one 45o sector reduces the effective aperture to 7/8 of its original value provided the feed is modified and so as not to illuminate the area of the missing sector. more accurate since it is based on the pattern via the impedances.4 dB. the net aperture efficiency is (7/8)2 and the net effective aperture is (7 / 8) 2 v100 ! 76. the feed is not modified and.4 value is.8 (= 11. is unchanged. If one 30r sector of the parabola is removed. The two methods differ. Therefore.4 dBi) by beam widths 69o v 42o (ans. of course. continued The D ! 15.) 10-3-8. by only 0.

77 .

) 11-5-1. Solution: High frequency limit = 10 GHz. The 2r cone. Make a drawing with dimensions in millimeters. Log spiral. Broadband and Frequency-Independent Antennas *11-2-2. 11-11 to operate at frequencies from 1 to 10 GHz. (ans. Solution: From (11-2-2) for Z k . so Z i ! 270  j 350. Design a planar log-spiral antenna of the type shown in Fig. Low frequency limit = 1 GHz. and noting that when U is small (U Then ¨U ¸ 4 cot © ¹ $ ª4º U Z k ! 120 ln 4 U 20 o ) or and with (11-2-4) and (11-2-5) for Z m and (11-2-3) for Z i .6o (see ig.78 Chapter 11. r ! antiln (U /tan F ) = antiln ( U /4. The length l of the cone is 3P/8. Take F ! 77.55) P ! 3 v 108 /10 v 109 ! 30 mm P ! 300 mm . 11-10) rom (11-5-5). Calculate the terminal impedance of a conical antenna of 2r total angle operating against a very large ground plane.

0 34.6 32.55ln(75 /1. Connect the feed across the gap at the innermost ends of the spirals as in Fig. If gap d at center is equal to P /10 at high frequency limit. 11-10.7T For good measure we make U ! 6T .0 R 1. 11-11. Calling the above spiral number 1.5) ! 17. . leaving the remaining areas open. a third rotated through T rad and a fourth rotated through 3T / 2 rad. continued U r 1 1.5 mm 2.8 ! 5.23 6.3 16.2 64.0 68. then the actual spiral radius should be 300 /(2 v 2) ! 75 mm. the spiral has 3 turns ( U ! 6T ).00 4. draw an identical spiral rotated through T / 2 rad.0 24.66 8.00 2.0 96.00 8.41 2. The overall diameter of the spiral is 96 v 2 ! 192 mm which at 1 GHz is 192/300 = 0.12 3.00 11.82 4. Metalize the areas between spirals 1 and 4 and between spirals 2 and 3.0 0 rad T /2 T 3T / 2 2T 5T / 2 3T 7T / 2 4T 9T / 2 5T 11T / 2 6T Spiral is like one in Fig.5 mm. The table gives data for the actual spiral radius R in mm versus the angle U in rad.00 5.0 45.0 48.79 11-5-1. If diameter of spiral is P / 2 at low frequency limit.0 17. This requires that U ! 4.0 22.50 12. then gap should be 30/10 = 3 mm and radius R of actual spiral = 3/2 = 1. Thus.64P .

) If element 1 is 0. (ans.6 in long.80 11-7-1. k=1. P ! 6 m. Give (a) length of longest element. Solution: From Fig. then element 10 (= n+1) is 0.] Finally. Adding a director in front of element 1 and a reflector in back of element 10 brings the total number of elements to 12. Design an ³optimum´ log-periodic antenna of the type shown in Fig.364 l 2 tan E 2 tan15o (ans.) From (11-7-5) (note geometry of Fig.0 log k log1.6 m (ans. P ! 1. 11-19 let us select the point where E ! 15o intersects the optimum design line which should result in an antenna with slightly more than 7 dBi gain. 11-17. (b) length of shortest element.195 (ans.195l ! ! 0. Thus. The desired frequency ratio is 5 = F = 250/50. P / 2 ! 0.) [Note that (11-7-6) gives s with respect to adjacent longer elements.1959 = 2. the spacing s between any two elements is related to the length l of the adjacent shorter element by s! l ( k  1) 0.98 m or approximately 3 m as required. . Log periodic.) The length l 2 of any element with respect to the length l .2 m. from (7) the required number of elements musts be at least equal to n! log F log 5 ! ! 9. connect the elements as in Fig. P / 2 ! 3 m (ans. and (c) gain. 11-17 to operate at frequencies from 100 to 500 MHz with 11 elements.195. of the next shorter element is given by l 2 / l 1 ! k ! 1.195 at 250 MHz.) at 50 MHz.6 v 1. From the figure. 11-18).

625 P . Consider that Pmin ! 1 m and Pmax ! 4 m. Two LP arrays like in the worked example of Sec. Stacked LPs. 11-21a.5 v1.557 0. (b) What is the gain? Solution: From the worked example of Sec.387 0.81 11-7-2.187 0.5 m 2 tan E n !0 and 0. ! ! 4.08 m . Element 1 is P / 2 resonant at 1 m wavelength and element 9 is P / 2 resonant at 4 m wavelength. k ! 1.669 o n ! 0 4 tan15 7 n 2 The stacked LPs are shown in side view in the sketch below.224 0.5 m or P / 2 at 1 m wavelength and 3.5 m and l n 1 ! l 1k n ! 0.91P at 4 m wavelength. 11-7. (a) Calculate and plot the vertical plane field pattern.25 m or 0.6 (8) and n 1 ! 9 3.65 m or 0. l 1 ! 0. A director element is added ahead of element 1 and a reflector element is added after element 9 making a total of 11 elements. Note that pattern multiplication cannot be applied. E ! 15o .2. At the geometric mean wavelength (2 m) the stacking distance is 1.2 n S !§ 0. n ! 7.2 v 1.322 0.2 8 ! l 9 ! 2 m From (11-7-6) the distance between elements 1 and 9 is (k  1)k n S ! §l 1 where l 1 ! 0.464 0. 11-7 are stacked as in Fig. In the 60o angle stacking arrangement the stacking distance is 0.268 0. Elements 1 through 9 are included in the calculation. Therefore.

4 and 5 of the upper and lower LPs are active.2  1 ! ! 0. For element 4 we take l 4 ! P / 2 . continued Let us calculate the vertical plane pattern at 2 m wavelength where elements 3. As an approximation. Then from (11-7-6) S 45 ! k 1 1.82 11-7-2. let us consider that the 3 active elements are a uniform ordinary end-fire array with spacing equal to the average of the spacing between elements 3 and 4 and between 4 and 5.187P 4 tan E 4 tan15o .

From the approximate directivity relation. . neglecting minor lobes. Numerical addition of the LP patterns and multiplication of the resultant by the broadside pattern yields the total field pattern for P ! 2 m shown in the sketch.171P 2 The end-fire array field pattern is given by where ] /2! E! 1 sin n] / 2 3 sin ] / 2 n!3 2T v 0. From the equation of Prob.9 dBi (ans.171 (cos J  1) ! 30.) Actual directivity is probably : 10 d i. 11-21a with one pattern directed up 30o and the other down 30o.6 dBi 47 v 76 (ans.83 11-7-2.5 or 10.187 ! 0.5o sin J ) This pattern is shown in Fig. At P ! 1 m the up-and-down minor lobes disappear but the main beam is about the same. At P ! 4 m the main beam is narrower but the up-and-down minor lobes are larger. 5-2-3.) At both P ! 1 m and P ! 4 m the gain may be less than this.155  .625P spacing is 2.625 / 2) sin J ] ! cos(112. the gain may be as much as 7  3.9 $ 10.187 /1. the directivity of 2 in-phase isotropic sources with 0. 2 Each LP (end-fire array) has a broad cardiod-shaped pattern like the ones shown in Fig.8o (cos J  1).625P with pattern given by E ! cos[(2T v 0. So for P ! 2 m . 16-11.44 or 3.9 dBi. we have. continued and S 34 ! 0.155P S av ! 0. The total field pattern in the resultant of these patterns and a broadside array of 2 in-phase isotropic sources stacked vertically and spaced 0. D! 41000 ! 11. The HPBW in the vertical plane is about 47o and in the horizontal plane about 76o.2 ! 0. (b) Each LP has a gain $ 7 dBi.

The sky brightness temperature is 5 K between the zenith and 45r from the zenith.9.8. TA ! 1 2 1 [6 v 0.02 . A is at 300 K 1 [5 v 0.8  0. A ] ! 4.A between 45r and the horizon calculate the antenna temperature.08. A  50 v 0.08. A  300 v v 0. The array is located over flat nonreflecting ground. Take the ground temperature equal to 300 K and assume that 1/3 of the minor-lobe beam area is in the back direction.84 Chapter 12.) *12-2-2.9. TA ! 0. An end-fire array is directed at the zenith. Remote Sensing and Radar Cross Section *12-2-1. A  6 v v 0. The wavelength is 75 mm and the beam efficiency is 0. Solution: 0. Antenna Temperature. If 0. The antenna is 99 percent efficient and is at a physical temperature of 300K. Earth-station antenna temperature. Antenna temperature.5 K .A is within 45r of the zenith and 0. Solution: From (12-1-8).08 .9 .A (ans. Calculate the antenna temperature assuming that the sky temperature is uniform and equal to 6 K. A  300 v 0. A is at 5 K 0.8.) . 50 K between 45r from the zenith and the horizon and 300 K for the ground (below the horizon).6 K . A is at 50 K Therefore From (12-1-8).8  20 ! 25. An earth-station dish of 100 m2 effective aperture is directed at the zenith.02.2.A 3 3 (ans.5  4  6 ! 14. A ] ! 4.2.

Assume the antenna s a parabolic reflector (dish-type) of 50 percent efficiency.) (b) If only 10 dB S/N ratio is acceptable.53 ! ! 16. .2 dB (! 12.52 = 7. the receiver temperature 75 K and the bandwidth 30 MHz. The output units are proportional to power. A transmitter (transponder) on a Clarke orbit satellite produces an effective radiated power (ERP) at an earth station of 35 dB over 1 W isotropic.52 ! 3. Therefore acceptable area ! 7.85 *12-3-4.24 m 2 ! T r 2 For a diameter ! 2r ! 2(4.38 v 10 v 100 v 3.24 / T )1 2 ! 2. Take the satellite distance as 36. the antenna temperature 25 K. Satellite TV downlink.07 v 0. (See Example 12-3.000 km.53 m 2 .6 or 12. From (12-3-3). N kTsys r P 2 B 4T kTsys r 2 P 2 B 1 1 Aer ! T r 2 ! T 1.6 2 v 1014 v 3 v 107 (ans. PA A P 2 ERP Aer S ! t et2 er ! .4 GHz radio telescope gives the following values (arbitrary units) as a function of the sidereal time while scanning a uniform brightness region. The integration time is 14 s. 2 2 Pt Aet ! P 2 ERP / 4T ERP = 35 dB or 3162 Tsys ! 25  75 ! 100 K S 3162 v 3. The digital output of a 1. what is the required diameter of the earth station antenna? Solution: (a) Satellite ERP = 35 dB (over 1 W isotropic) ERP = Pt Dt ! Pt 4T Aet / P 2 .2  10 dB) less or 60% of the T 1. (a) Determine the S/N ratio (dB) if the earth station antenna diameter is 3m.6 ! 4. (b) If a 10-dB S/N ratio is acceptable. System temperature.07 m2 area specified in part (a).3 m (ans. the dish aperture could be 2. with 1 s idle time for printout.1).2 dB 23 N 4T v 1.) *12-3-5.

71.9 ! 0. are squared.) 170 (b) Transmission line attenuation = 0. The receiver bandwidth is 7 MHz. averaged and then square rooted for root-mean-square (rms) noise value 4.71 v 2.09(7 v 106 v 14)1 2 ! ! 445 kd 2 (ans. (c) From (12-2-3).08 / 0. The transmission line from the antenna to the receiver has 0. The receiver =2.09 ! ! 497 mJy $ 500 mJy (rounded off) 500 Ae (S min ! " ( min ((ft )1 2 0. (b) the minimum detectable temperature. ! (Tmin ! 0.08 K (ans. (c) the system temperature and (d) the minimum detectable flux density. The antenna effective aperture is 500 m2. 2 k (Tmin 2 v 1. constant k d Solution: (a) Noise output readings 234.38 v 1023 v 0.5 dB attenuation.) " (ans. Therefore. The rms noise at receiver is then 4. continued Time 31m30s 31 45 32 00 32 15 32 30 Output 234 235 224 226 239 Time 32m45s 33 00 33 15 33 30 33 45 Output 229 236 233 230 226 If the temperature calibration gives 170 units for 2. with respect to average value (231).89. The calibration signal is introduced at the receiver.9 K applied.89 ! 0.) sys (d) From (12-1-7).5 dB for efficiency of 0. etc. find (a) the rms noise at the receiver.) .09 K (ans.86 *12-3-5. 235.

000 K. Take the suns diameter as 0. find the sun¶s signal-tonoise ration (in decibels) for an earth station with a 3-m parabolic dish antenna at 4 GHz. A typical forecast notice appearing on U.9  2. 100 200 ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ 1 ¨ Tsys ! 15  300 © 1¹   © 75  ¹ 40 40 º ª .95 ª ! 15  15.5r and the earth-station system temperature as 100 K.95 º . A ! P2 Ae gives the solid beam angle in steradians and not in square degrees. Solar interference to earth station. Find the system temperature of a receiving system with 15 K antenna temperature. (b) Compare this result with that for the carrier-to-nose ratio calculated in Example 12-3. Each receiver stage has 16 dB gain.6  5. (d) Why do the outages occur between October 15 and 26 and not at the autumnal equinox around September 20 when the sun is crossing the equator? (e) How can satellite services work around a solar outage? .S. satellite TV screens reads: ATTENTION CHANNEL USERS: WE WILL BE EXPERIENCING SOLAR OUTAGES FROM OCTOBER 15 TO 26 FROM 12:00 TO 15:00 HOURS (a) If the equivalent temperature of the sun at 4 GHz is 50. 0. (c) How long does the interference last? Note that the relation .1 for a typical Clarke-orbit TV transponder. Twice a year the sun passes through the apparent declination of the geostationary Clarkeorbit satellites.95 transmission-line efficiency.8  78. causing solar-noise interference to earth stations.) *12-3-7. 75 K receiver first-stage temperature. System temperature. 100 K receiver second-stage temperature and 200 K receiver third-stage temperature.6 K ( ans. 300 K transmission-line temperature.87 12-3-6. Solution: From (12-2-1) and (12-2-2).3 ! 117.

075) ! 1.5 2 2 T.A ! S S sun ! N S min P 2 0. 5 v 10 4 v T (.25o ) 2 ! s s ! ! 18.22 sq. s ! ! ! Ae Ae . deg. 12-3-4.7 dB Tsys .2 min o (ans. A 2kTs .22 sq.7  12. (c) At half-power. Ae 1 T 1.5 ! 2. the solar interference should not last more than the time it takes the sun to drift between first nulls. A P2 Ssun Assuming 50% aperture efficiency as in Prob.59 v10 3 sr ! 5. resulting in degradation of TV picture quality.65 ! 13. The phenomenon may be described as noise jamming by the sun.8 or 12.5 dB more than satellite carrier. Using this criterion we have Time ! 4(min/ deg)v BWFN (deg) Solar drift rate From Table 15-1. deg. 12.) Allowing for the angular extent of the sun (approx. Assuming low side-lobes. . (b) (ans. continued Solution: (a) Earth station S min ! 2kTsys Ae 2k (TA 2k (TA .2 ! 0.5 dB below carrier. solar noise will be reduced to only 3  0.88 *12-3-7.65o and Time $ 4 v 2 v 1. Therefore. 12-3-4. HPBW ! 66o / DP ! 66 o /(3 0. 1 2 ) increases the time by about 2 minutes.) From Prob. .0752 ! ! 1. A 100 v 5.

Figure P12-3-9.25 v 10 ! f o / cos J ! 6.477. a useful simplification for some situations is to assume that the wave is reflected as though from a horizontal perfectly conducting surface situated at a (virtual) height h. MUF. For waves at oblique incidence (J>0 in Fig. where N = electron density (number m-3). where J = angle of incidence.] The highest frequency at which this layer reflects a vertically incident wave back to the earth is called the critical frequency fo. season. (a) f o ! 9 N ! 9(6 v 1011 )1 2 ! 6. (b) a distance d = 1. [Although the wave actually may be bent gradually along a curved path in an ionized region of considerable thickness.97 / 0. Both fo and h vary with time of day.447 !15. ¨ 6. and (c) a distance d = 1 Mm by sporadic E-layer (h = 100 km) reflection N = 8 x 1011 m-3. Neglect earth curvature.43 º . cos J ! 0.5 Mm by F2-layer (h = 275 km) reflection with N = 1012 m-3. Solution: MUF = Maximum Usable Frequency for communication via ionospheric reflection. Find the MUF for (a) a distance d = 1.) ¸ o ¹ ! 63.89 *12-3-9. latitude and phase of the 11-year sunspot cycle. The critical frequency f o ! 9 N . P12-3-9) the maximum usable frequency (MUF) for point-to-point communication on the earth is given by MUF = fo/cos J. Higher frequencies at the vertical incidence pass through.3 Mm by F2-layer (h = 3 25 km) reflection with F2-layer electron density N = 6 x 1011 m-3. 6 z (ans. Communication path via reflection from ionospheric layer. N is a function of solar irradiation and other factors.97 M z. Critical frequency. Layers may be said to exist in the earth¶s ionosphere where the ionization gradient is sufficient to refract radio waves back to earth.5 v 105 J ! tan1 [(d / 2) / h ] ! tan1 © 5 ª 3.

5 v 105 J ! tan-1 © 5 ª 2.90 *12-3-9.344 ! 26. continued (b) f o ! 9(1012 )1 2 ! 9 MHz. This is far above the ionosphere.) . ¨ 7. 12-3-10. mUF for Clarke-orbit satellites. Solution: mUF = minimum usable frequency for transmission through ionosphere (a) mUF ! 9( N )1 2 ! 9(1012 )1 2 ! 9 z (ans.69 .) co J ! 0. If the ionosphere consists of a layer 200 m thick between heights of 200 and 400 km with a uniform electron density N = 1012 m-1.196 ! 41. find the lowest frequency (or minimum usable frequency.86 . what is the mUF for a satellite 15r above the eastern or western horizon? Figure P12-3-10. Since frequencies of 2 GHz and above are usually used the ionosphere has little effect.0 MHz cosJ ! 0.75 v 10 ! 9 / 0. (c) For an earth station on the equator.196 12-3-10. so that the transmission path passes completely through the ionosphere twice.05 v 106 / 0.1 z. Communication path via geostationary Clarke-orbit relay satellite. 5 ª 10 º MUF ! 8.05 ¨ 5 v 105 ¸ o J ! tan-1 © ¹ ! 78. as in Fig. Stationary communication (relay) satellites are placed in the Clarke orbit at heights of about 36 Mm. The high frequency also permits wide bandwidths. º z (ans. mUF) which can be used with a communication satellite (a) for vertical incidence and (b) for paths 30r from the zenith.344 s (c) f o ! 9(8 v 1011 )1 2 ! 8. ¸ o ¹ ! 69.

wave is reflected.) A typical Clarke orbit satellite frequency is 4 GHz.) where n = number of records averaged (b) From (12-1-7). receiver noise temperature 50 K.058 K $ 0.4 M z m !9 z/ cos 75o ! 34. continued Although MUF = mUF. (S min ! 2 kTmin 2 v 1. depends on the point of view.06 K (rounded off) 12 2 (5 v10 v 5 v 2) 6 (ans.) (ans.79 From (12-2-3). which is 115 ( ! 4 v 109 / 34. transmission-line between antenna and receiver 1 dB loss and 270 K physical temperature. Below critical frequency. Minimum detectable temperature.8  63. Solution: (a) For 1 dB loss. whether it is one or the other. so that at 4 GHz. above critical frequency.26 ! 0.79 From (12-2-1). If two records are averaged.8 z (ans. (b) (c) mUF ! 9 M z/ cos 30o ! 10. receiver integration time 5 s.8 v 106 ) times higher in frequency than the mUF. find (a) the minimum detectable temperature and (b) the minimum detectable flux density.058 ! ! 320 mJy 500 Ae (ans. wave is transmitted.3 ! 185 K ª . I 2 ! 1/1. A radio telescope has the following characteristics: antenna noise temperature 50 K. It is MUF for reflection and mUF for transmission. *12-3-11.79 º . receiver bandwidth 5 MHz. transmission through the ionosphere can occur at much lower elevation angles than 15o. ¨ 1 ¸ 50 Tsys ! 50  270 ©  1¹  ! 50  71. (Tmin ! kd Tsys ( (f t n ) 12 ! T 185 ! 0.) . ! receiver (system) constant k d T / 2 and antenna effective aperture 500 m2.91 12-3-10.38 v 1023 v 0.

Minimum detectable temperature.5] ! ! 1. If an extraterrestrial civilization (ETC) transmits 106 W. Solution: (Note: Problem statement should specify S/N =3.) (ans.38 v 10 )(10)(3) Therefore.2 v 50 ! 0. r2 ! PA A S ! 2 t 2 er et .02 v 1019 m $ 1000 light years (ans. Find (a) the minimum detectable temperature and (b) the minimum detectable flux density. 10 s pulses of right-hand circularly polarized 5 GHz radiation with a 100 m diameter dish.015 ! 52 mJy 800 0.) .6) (0.06 m f 5 v 10 9 Pt Aer Aet 10 6 [T (50) 2 0. what change results in (a) and (b)? Solution: (a) (b) (Tmin ! (S min ! (Tmin ! (S min ! 2. postdetection time constant 5 s. (c) If four records are averaged.03 v 1038 m 2 23 2 2 P BkTsys ( S / N ) (0. what is the maximum distance at which the ETC can be received with an SNR = 3. and that the earth station has a system temperature of 10 K and bandwidth of 0.) From (12-3-3). N r P BkTsys P! c 3 v 108 ! ! 0. predetection bandwidth 100 MHz.) 2 v 1.5][T (50) 2 0.008 K (c) (ans.38 v 1023 v 0. that both antennas (theirs and ours) have 50 percent aperture efficiency. Interstellar wireless link. A radio telescope operates at 2650 MHz with the following parameters: system temperature 150 K.015 4 52 4 ! 0.015 (108 v 5)1 2 (ans. system constant k¶ = 2.2 and effective aperture of antenna 800 m2.) ! 26 mJy *12-3-13. r ! 1. Assume the receiving antenna on the earth also has a 100 m diameter antenna responsive to right circular polarization.1)(1.1 Hz.92 12-3-12.

what is the maximum range? The transmitting and receiving antennas are P/4 stubs. Antarctic backpacking penguin.5P 2 ¸ ¨ 1. This penguin (Fig. Find the full-circuit C/N if the transmitting earth station ERP is 60dBW and the satellite ERP is 25 dBW. Solution: From (12-3-3).6 v 105 m $ 960 km *12-3-17.38 v10 )(1000)(10 ) Therefore. Low earth orbit communications satellite.25 GHz and a down link frequency of 12 GHz.5 P 2 ¸ Pt © ¹© ¹ 4T º ª 4T º Pt Aer Aet ! ª2 kTsys ( S / N ) P BkTsys ( S / N ) P! c 3 v 108 ! !3m f 100 v 10 6 P2 ¨ 1.kHz of tone-modulated data signals. Backpacking penguin.3 v 1011 m 2 2 3 3 23 (3) (10 v10 )(1. Assume the satellite receiver G/T is 5 dB/K and the earth-station G/T is 30 dB/K. P12-3-14) participated in a study of Antarctic penguin migration habits. It also provided information on its location as it moved with its flock across the ice cap.5(3) 2 ¸ 1© ¹ ª 4T º ! ! 9.93 *12-3-14. The backpack operated at 100 MHz with a peak power of 1 W and a bandwidth of 1. If Tsys = 1000 K and SNR = 30 dB. Figure P12-3-14. with an uplink frequency of 14. Its backpack radio with P/4 antenna transmitted data on its body temperature and its heart and respiration rates. r ! 9. N r P BkTsys ¨ 1.) . # r2 ! (ans. PA A S ! 2 t 2 er et . A communications satellite in low earth orbit (LEO) has rup = 1500 km and rdown = 1000 km.

So Similarly.6  30 ! 109.38 v10 23 ) ! 228. From Prob.4 dB 11 N 1. ERPup = 60 dBW.) ! 5 dB K -1 Tsys (sat. we have ! 2t 2et er and using G ! ! t 2t 2r P2 N r P kTsys N (4T ) r kTsys We now define effective radiated power = ERP = PGt .89 v 1010 ! 108. 4T Ae C PA A C PG G P 2 .6 dB.1 dB 0.5 dB ª N º up C 1 ! ! 6.96 ! 1.45  1 10 10.) k ! 10 log(1.94 *12-3-17. Direct broadcast satellite services provide CD quality audio to consumers via satellites in geosynchronous orbit.1  228. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS). 12-3-15. t This gives For the uplink. continued Solution: From Prob. ¨C ¸ © ¹ ! 60  179. ¨ 4T (1.021 ª º Gr (sat.5 v10 6 ) ¸ Lup ! 10log © ¹ ! 179. % ¨C¸ ¨C¸ ¨C¸ © N ¹ !© N ¹ © N ¹ ª º ª º up ª ºdo 1 $ ¨C¸ © ¹ ª N º do ! 25  174  228. Pup ! c 3 v108 ! ! 0. 12-3-1.45 v 10 *12-3-18. The World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) has established these requirements for such services.45 v 1011 (ans. f up 14.6  5 ! 114.6 n 1 1 ! n 1 10 11.021 m.25 v 109 and ¨C ¸ © ¹ !( ª N º up C !( N ¨ 1 ¸¨ 1 ¸ ¨ G ) © ¹© ¹ © r ª ºª k º © Tsys ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º Power loss ! L ! (4T ) 2 r 2 / P 2 ¨ 1 )up © ©L ª up ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ ¨ Gr (sat) ¸ ¹© ¹© ¹ ª k º © T (sat) ¹ ¹ º ª sys º 2 Working in dB.) .

what size circular parabolic dish antenna must be used to achieve the required ERP? Assume 50 percent efficiency.2 GHz (Ku band) Channel bandwidth 27 MHz Minimum power flux density -103 dBW/m2 Receiver figure of merit (G/T) 6 dB/K Minimum carrier-to-noise ratio 14 dB (a) Find the effective radiated power (ERP) over 1 W isotropic needed to produce the specified flux density at the Earth¶s surface from a DBS satellite in a 36.6 v10 7 ) 210 10.5 ! 5.000 km orbit.6 v 107 )2 (ans.16 v 10 © 23 ¹ 7 ¹ © 7 ¹ ª L ºª k ºª T ºª B º ª 2.6 v10 ) º ª 1.38 v10 º ! 52.3 ! 8. continued Frequency band 11.) For a 1-m receive antenna and 1000 K noise temperature.5) (ans.5) © © ¹ © ¹ © ¹ © ¹ ! 8.) (d) C ! N The C/N for a channel bandwidth B is ¸ ¨ 0. (c) Does a consumer receiver with circular 1 m dish antenna with 50 percent efficiency and system noise temperature of 1000 K meet the specified G/T? (d) By how much does the system specified in parts (a) through (c) exceed the required carrier-tonoise ratio? Solution: (a) Since ERP ! PGt and the power flux density ] ( r ) ! t 103 d Wm2 ! @ PGt t .7 to 12.03 1 1 ¨ 1 ¸¨ 1 ¸¨ G ¸¨ 1 ¸ ¸ ¨ ¸ 5¨ (5.7 v10 º ª 4T (3.16 v 105 W G!k 4T A ! P2 Pt !k 4T (T )( d / 2) 2 P2 (b) d! (c) ERP(P 2 )4 8. (b) If the satellite has a 100 W transmitter and is operated at 12 GHz.0 m Pt 4T 2 k (100)(4)(3.2 d 2 .16 v 105 (0.95 *12-3-18.48 K 1 ! 7.025)2 4 ! ! 1. 4T r 2 we have 4T (3.03) (1000) (ans.14)2 (0.9 ! 17. G 4T Ae 4T (T )(1/ 2)2 ! k 2 ! 0.4 dB K1 (yes) 2 T PT (0.) ! 4T (3.

5 dB ( ans.2 dB (ans.6 v 10 ) ¸ 19 L !© !© ¹ ! 8. This ratio. The expression for C/N provided in P12-3-15 may be simplified by making the following substitutions: Effective isotropic radiated power = ERP = PtGt (W) Link path loss = Llink = 4Tr2/P2 The carrier-to noise ratio may then be written as C ! N 1 1 Gr Llink k Tsys where Gr/Tsys is the receive antenna gain divided by the system noise temperature. 7 ¨ 4T r ¸ ¨ 4T (3. Simplified expression for C/N.) 12-3-19.3) ! (1.18 v10 º ª 1. referred to as ³G over T. continued Therefore C/N exceeds requirement (14 dB) by 17. Assume that the transmitting earth station utilizes a 1 kW transmitter and a 50 percent efficient 10 m dish antenna and operates at a frequency of 6 GHz.2  14 ! 3.97 v10 8) © 19 ¹ © 23 ¹ N ª 8.000 km) equipped with a 1 m parabolic dish antenna with efficiency of 50 percent and a receiver with noise temperature of 1500 K.05)2 ª Therefore.3 v1011 ! 113.96 *12-3-18.05 m.05)2 ! 1. Find the C/N ratio for the uplink to a satellite at the Clarke orbit (r = 36.18v 10 P ¹ ª 0.97 v 10 W.5 4T (T )(5) 2 (0. º Gr ! Tsys 0.38 v10 º ! 2.05 ª º º 2 2 ¨ 4T (T )(5) 2 ! PGt ! 1000 © 0.´ is commonly used as a figure of merit for satellite and earth station receivers.) . ¸ 8 ¹ ! 1.3 1500 1 1 1 C ¨ ¸¨ ¸ (1.5 t (0. ¹ º P ! 0. Solution: C ¨ 1 ¸¨ 1 ¸ ¨ G ! ERP © ¹© ¹ © r N ª L ºª K º © Tsys ª ¸ ¹.

The cloud is of uniform thickness and has an angular extent of 5 square degrees. distance to Earth of 7. Antenna temperature with absorbing cloud. ¹ 0. Galileo¶s uncooperative antenna.38 v 10 º ª C ! 1. A radio source is occulted by an intervening emitting and absorbing cloud of unity optical depth and brightness temperature 100 K.5) 2 ¸ 6 For the 5-m X-band antenna. 1 1 C ¨ ¸¨ ¸ ! (2.6 v10 ) ¸ 29 L!© !© ¹ ! 1. For a spacecraft transmit power of 20 W.44 (ans. ERP ! PGt ! 20 © 0. The source has a uniform brightness distribution of 200 K and a solid angle of 1 square degree. Solution: C !E N (a) ¨ 1 ¸¨ 1 ¸ ¨ Gr © ¹© ¹ © ª L ºª K º © Tsys ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º ¨ 4T (T )(2.37 v 104 500 1 Therefore.5 t ¹ ! 2. Unable to deploy this antenna because of prelaunch loss of lubricant. find (a) the maximum achievable data rate if the 5 m Xband antenna had deployed and (b) the maximum data rate using the 1 m S-band antenna.74 v10 6 ) © (5.05 v10 5 ) $ 152 kBits/s N The maximum data rate M ! 1.01 v10 . which was to operate at 10 GHz (X band).6 x 1011 m.05 v10 5 29 ¹© 23 ¹ N 1.03 ª P º ª º 2 2 Gr ! Tsys 0. .37 v10 4 ) ! 1.01v 10 ºª 1.74 v 10 W 2 (0.) *12-4-1. When the Galileo spacecraft arrived at Jupiter in 1995. ground controllers had been struggling for 3 years to open the spacecraft¶s 5 m high-gain communications dish.03)2 ! 5.97 12-3-22. find the antenna temperature when the radio telescope is directed at the source. Assume that the antenna has uniform response over the source and cloud. The radio telescope has an effective aperture of 50 m2.44(1. a low-directivity (G = 10 dB) S-band antenna operating at 2 GHz had to be used to relay all pictures and data from the spacecraft to the Earth. If the wavelength is 50 cm. and 70 m dish with 50 percent efficiency at the receiving station.5 4T (T )(35) 2 (0.03) ª º 11 ¨ 4T r ¸ ¨ 4T (7.

Forest absorption. Jupiter signals.005 (TA ! .c . Flux densities of 10-20 W m-2 Hz-1 are commonly received from Jupiter at 20 MHz.1 kW Hz1 (f (f (ans. .00152 sr .52 / 50 ! 0.693 300  288 *12-4-4.A .0003 100(1  e 1 )  200e 1 ! 23. Solution: r ! 40 light min v 60 s min 1 v 3v 108 m s1 ! 7. What is the power per unit bandwidth radiated at the source? Take the earth-Jupiter distance as 40 light-minutes and assume that the source radiates isotropically.20 v 1011 m P Pr 1 ! t v (f (f 4T r 2 or Pt P ! r v 4T r 2 ! 1020 v 4T v 7.00030 sr .32 ! 0. Tc (1  e X c )  s Ts e X c . A ! P 2 / Aem ! 0.A (ans.22 v 1022 ! 65. s ! 1/ 57. continued Solution: From (12-4-1) and (12-1-6).32 ! 0.) .6 K . Solution: From (12-4-2).005 sr Therefore. An earth-resource satellite passive remote-sensing antenna directed at the Amazon River Basin measures a night-time temperature TA = 21rC.5 and X f ! 0.98 *12-4-1.) 12-4-3. c ! 5 / 57.005 . If the earth temperature Te = 27rC and the Amazon forest temperature Tf = 15rC.00152 . (ans. find the forest absorption coefficient Xf.) e X f ! (TA  T f T f  Te ! 294  288 ! 0. (TA ! .

l ! m[ 2 ¨ eE ¸ [ (e[ ) © o2 ¹ sin U ª m[ º Since I o ! e[ . P12-5-3). Show that the ratio of the power scattered per steradian to the incident Poynting vector is given by ( Q o e 2 sin U / 4T m )2 . EU ! 4TI o c 2 r Thus.) *12-5-3. The alternating electric field of a passing electromagnetic wave causes an electron (initially at rest) to oscillate (Fig. where e and m are the charge and mass of the electron and U is the angle of the scattered radiation with respect to the direction of the electric field E of the incident wave. If the radar antenna effective aperture is 1 m2 and the wavelength is 10 cm. Solution: Pt ! Pr 4T r 4 P 2 1012 v 4T v (103 )4 (0. This ratio times 4T is the radar cross section of the electron. Radar detection A radar receiver has a sensitivity of 10-12 W.5.1)2 ! ! 25 mW (1)2 v 5 A2W (ans. This oscillation of the electron makes it equivalent to a short dipole antenna with D = 1. the scattered power density S scat 4T r 2 EU ! Z 2 ¨ e 2 Eo sin U ¸ 1 ! 4T © ¹ 2 ª 4TI o c m º Z 2 . Figure P12-5-3. the magnitude of the electric dipole far-field is EU ! [ I o l sin U 4TI o c 2 r The force on the electron due to the incident field Eo is F ! eEo ! ma ! m[ 2 l eEo So. find the transmitter power required to detect an object with 5 m2 radar cross section at a distance of 1 km.99 12-5-1. Solution: From (6-2-17). Such reradiation is called Thompson scatter. RCS of electron.

continued and since the incident power density Sinc ! ¨ e 2 Eo sin U 4T © 2 ª 4TI o c m ! Eo2 Z Eo2 .100 *12-5-3. the ratio of scattered to incident power is Z W! S scat S inc ¸1 2 2 2 ¹ 2 2 ¸ 1 ¨ Q o e2 sin U ¸ º Z ! 1 ¨ e sin U ¸ ! 1 ¨ e sin U © ¹ ! © ¹ © ¹ © ¹ m 4T ª I o c 2 m º 4T ª I o .

Detecting one electron at 10 km. 100 v 106 Gt ! Aer ! 0. Figure P12-5-5. (4T ) 2 r 4 kTB ( S / N ) (4T ) 2 (10 4 ) 4 (1. W $ 1 v 10 28 m 2 (ans.) Thus.93 v 104 2 2 P 3 (ans.5T (150) 2 ! 3.38 v 10 23 )(100)(1)(1) Pt ! ! ! 1.93 v 10 )(3. If the Arecibo ionospheric 300 m diameter antenna operates at 100 MHz.53 v10 )(1 v10 ) Gt AerW . Solution: PG A W S . how much power is required to detect a single electron at a height (straight up) of 10 km with an SNR ± 0 dB? See Fig.1/ Q oI o m º 4T ª º For sin U ! 1. Tsys = 100 K and the aperture efficiency = 50 percent. P12-5-5.53 v10 4 ) ! ! 4. ! t 2t 4er N (4T ) r kTB 3 v 108 P! ! 3 m.25 v 1016 W 4 4  28 (4.53 v10 4 m 2 4T Ae 4T (3.) *12-5-5. The bandwidth is 1 Hz.

(See Secs. 14-12). where L is (b) Calculate the radar cross section of the same dipole from 4 2 P ?ln .101 12-5-6. 2-9. (a) Calculate the radar cross section of a lossless resonant dipole (ZL = -jXA) with length = P/10 and diameter = P/100. 34 L6 . Effect of resonance on radar cross section of short dipoles.

5P 2 (ans.L 2b  1A the dipole length and b is its radius.1P ) is resonated by making Z L !  jX A .47 P ). & .) (ans. Z L !  jX A ) Summary and comparison: Case (a) (b) (c) W 0. resulting in a very small radar cross section. length 0.47P (with Z L ! 0.714P 2 ) approaches the cross section of a resonant P / 2 dipole (length =0.83P 2 0. Comment on results. provided it is lossless.) As ! W t (resonant dipole.) (ans.1P ) is much less than the resonant length (0. In (b) the dipole is non-resonant because Z L ! 0 (terminals short-circuited) and the length (0. its radar cross section (0.47P ).119v 1. 12-9.1P (Z L !  jX A ) Non-resonant 0. regardless of how short it is. It appears that if a short dipole (length e 0.1P dipole ( Z L ! 0) Resonant 0.714P 2 2 v 105 P 2 0. Aem (matched dipole.714P 2 ! 4 v 0. Z L ! Z * ) A Solution: Directivity Aem (matched dipole.47P dipole (Z L ! 0) In (a) resonance is obtained by making Z L !  j A .83P 2 Condition Resonant short dipole. In (c) resonance is obtained ( X A ! 0) by increasing the length to 0. The cross section in (c) is larger than in (a) because the dipole is physically longer. (c) Compare both values with the maximum radar cross section shown in Fig. A short dipole may be resonated ( Z L !  jX A ) by connecting a stub of appropriate length across its terminals. terminals short-circuited). Z L ! Z * ) A (a) (b) (c) 2 v 105 P 2 0.

What is the fastball¶s velocity? Solution: ( f 2v ! .6 . f c v! c(f (3 v 108 )(6 v 103 ) ! ! 45 m/s ! 162 km/h ! 101 mi/h 2f 2(20 v 109 ) (ans. 20 v 109 W ! 0. Radar power for fastball measurement.) *12-5-13.5 ! 72.04)2 ! 0.5T (0.5. what power is required for an SNR = 30 dB? The radar uses a conical horn with diameter = 8 cm and aperture efficiency Iap = 0. Dipole Stub or by connecting lumped inductance. 12-5-12 with the 20 GHz radar at a distance of 100 m. Solution: PG G W S .5T (0.102 12-5-6. P2 (0. A 20 GHz radar measures a Doppler shift of 6 kHz on a baseball pitcher¶s fastball.015) 2 .5T r 2 6. To measure the velocity of the fastball of Prob. The ball diameter = 7 cm and it has a radar cross section (RCS) half that of a perfectly conducting sphere of the same diameter. thus *12-5-12 Fastball velocity.035) 2 ! 1. ! t 3t 4r N (4T ) r kTB P! 3 v 108 ! 0.015 m. continued Thus.9 v10 3 m 2 Gt ! Gr ! kD ! k 6.

To provide anticollision warnings.6) 2 (1. v ! 9 m/s. f c (f ! P! 3 v 108 c ! ! 0.015 m. R is the range and c is the velocity in the media. The brake light on the vehicle ahead may not be working or it may be obscured by poor visibility. trucks and other vehicles (see Fig. Note that it takes t = 2R/c seconds for a signal to travel from the transmitter to a target and return.38 v10 23 )(600)(10 6 )(10 3) ! } 160 mW (72. A pulsed speed measuring radar must be able to resolve the returns form two cars separated by 30 m.9 v10 3 ) Gt GrW Pt ! (ans. where t is the time.) c P 0. Anticollision radar. P12-5-14) can alert the driver of vehicles ahead that are decelerating too fast or have stopped. Police radar. forward-looking radars on automobiles. then it can be shown that the range resolution (the minimum range difference between objects for which the returns do not overlap in time) is given by . To warn of clear-distance decrease rates of 9 m/s or more. If X is the pulse width.103 *12-5-13. Solution: ( f 2v ! .015 *12-5-18.2 kHz (ans . f 20 v 109 2vf 2v 2(9) ! ! ! 1. what doppler shift must a 20 GHz radar be able to detect? Figure P12-5-14. continued (4T ) 3 r 4 kTB( S / N ) (4T ) 3 (100) 4 (1. Find the maximum pulse width that can be used to prevent overlapping of the returns from the two vehicles.) *12-5-14.

P12-5-20. Search-and-rescue aircraft using radar to locate lost vessels must contend with backscatter from the surface of the ocean. The scattering geometry is shown in Fig.) *12-5-20. the radar equation is written Pr ! Pt Ae2 P 2 W o Apatch .104 *12-5-18. Solution: (R ! cX 2 or X! 2 (R c The pulse width must be less than X ! 2(10) ! 6. The radar equation may therefore be written as Pr ! Pt Ae2 P 2 ¨ cX ¸ A2 P 2W o cXU W o © ¹ . the illuminated area for low grazing angle is approximately (cX/2)(rU). the size of the illuminated patch on the surface. 4T r 4 For a pulsed radar with pulse width X and 3 dB antenna beamwidth of U rad. the scattering cross section of the ocean may be specified per unit area.6 v 108 s ! 66 ns 8 3 v 10 (ans. designated Wo. and the sea state. To characterize sea cluster independently on the radar footprint on the surface. For area scattering. The total RCS of a patch of ocean surface is found by multiplying Wo by the area of the patch. The amplitude of these returns (know as sea clutter) depends on the frequency and polarization of the radar waveform. has dimensions of square meters of dB above a square meter (dBsm). the angle of incidence. Sea clutter. This parameter. continued (R ! R2  R1 ! cX 2 where the subscripts denote the different objects.

find the receiver noise power. (c) If this radar used to search for a ship with RCS = 33 . Assume a 1. (b) For a receiver bandwidth of 10 kHz and noise figure of 3.5 dB.5 m circular dish antenna with 50 percent efficiency and sea state 4 (Wo = -30 dBsm/m2 at C band).rU ! Pr e 4T r 4 ª 2 º 8T r 3 (a) Determine the received power from sea clutter at a range of 10 km for a monostatic pulsed radar transmitting a 1 Qs pulse with 1 kW peak power at a frequency of 6 GHz.

what signal-to-noise and signal-to-clutter ratios can be expected? Figure P12-5-20.) . continued dBsm under these conditions.) (c) For a ship with W ! 33 dB m 2 at r ! 10 km.1 v10 15 ( ans.24 v 103 ! ! 1384 ! 31. Solution: Pt ! Pr U 3 dB $ Ae2P 2W ocXU .05)2 (1030 10 )(3 v108 )(1v 106 )(0.1v 1015 W 4 3 8T (10 ) (ans. S 1. the signal-to-noise (S/N) and signal-to-clutter (S/C) ratios are: S 1.033) ! 3.05 m 6 v 109 (a) P 0.75) 2 ]2 (0.2 v 103 ! ! 40 ! 16 d C 3.033 radians D 1.5 10 )(1.5 Pr ! (1000) (b) [T (0.05 ! ! 0. 8T r 3 P! 3 v 108 ! 0.4 d N 8.75)2 ]2 (0. Pr ! Pt Ae2 P 2W [T (0.38 v 1023 )(290)104 ! 8.24 v 103 W 4T r 4 4T (104 )4 Thus.).96 v10 17 (ans.) The receiver noise power is Pn ! N f kTB ! (103. Sea search-and-rescue geometry.05) 2 (1033 10 ) ! 1000 ! 1.96 v 1017 W (ans.105 *12-5-20.

106 Chapter 13.539 2 10T 2 10T and R11 ! 30[0.1 . (ans. Solution: From (13-5-2).539 ! 46. X 11 ! 30 v 1. 13-13) .15P . Calculate the mutual resistance and mutual reactance for two parallel side-by-side thin linear P/2 antennas with a separation of 0.7 . Calculate the self-resistance and self-reactance of a thin.942)  Ci(6. 13-5 and from (13-3-18).) (ans. Parallel side-by-side P/2 antennas.) 13-6-1. Solution: From (13-7-6). symmetrical center-fed linear antenna 5P/2 long.577  ln(10T )  0] ! 120. where n ! 5 sin(10T ) Ci(10T ) ! !0 10T Since 2T n ! 2T 5 ! 10T "" 1. we have R21 ! 30(0.15P.577  ln 0.42)  Ci(0.) (compare with Fig.2 .138)] i table or from Fig. Z11 ! 30[0. A 5P/2 antenna. And from (13-3-22).60  0  0.577  ln(2T n)  Ci(2T n)  jSi(2T n)]. Self and Mutual Impedances *13-4-1. and From (13-3-16) or L ! 0. (ans. R21 ! 30{2 i(F d )  i[F ( d 2  L2  L )]  i[F ( d 2  L2  L )]} where d ! 0.138) ! 60. Si(10T ) ! T cos(10T ) T 1  !  ! 1. we have from (13-3-18).5P R21 ! 30[2Ci(0.

but the current in (b) is in anti-phase. 13-16).25P (see Fig. (ans... What is the radiation resistance of each of the antennas? The resistances are referred to the terminals. Three side-by-side antennas.8  1.25P and h = 1. (ans. Rb ! Rs  2 Rab ! 100  80 ! 20 . Solution: Ra ! Rs  Rab  Rac ! 100  40  10 ! 50 .) 13-8-1.) (compare with Fig. Rc ! Ra ! 50 . 13-13) *13-6-3.42)  Si(0. Three antennas are arranged as shown in Fig. Figure P13-6-3. which are in the same location in all antennas. The self-resistance of each antenna is 100 . (13-3-16) and (13-3-20) where h ! 1. X 21 ! 30{2 i( F d )  i[ F ( d 2  L2  L)]  i[ F ( d 2  L2  L)]} and X 21 ! 30[2Si(0. and Rac = -10 .138) ! 7.25P and d ! 0. (13-9-2). P13-6-3. The currents are of the same magnitude in all antennas.42  0. we have X 11 ! 30(1. Three side-by-side antennas.942)  Si(6. The currents are in-phase in (a) and (c).138)] From (13-3-20) or Si table or from Fig. Solution: Use (13-9-1).107 13-6-1.25 P . while the mutual resistances are: Rab = Rbc = 40 . Two P/2 antennas in echelon. Calculate the mutual resistance and reactance of two parallel thin linear P/2 antennas in echelon for the case where d = 0. continued From (13-7-7).3 . 13-5 and from (13-3-21).

108 .

Determine the electrostatic charge distribution on a cylindrical conducting rod with a length-diameter ratio of 6. Solution: .109 Chapter 14. The Cylindrical Antenna and the Moment Method (MM) 14-10-1. Charge distribution.

) 14-12-2. Calculate Rs for larger values of N than 7.852-j1895 . . Show that the convergence or true value of the self impedance Zs of the dipole of Table 14-4 is 1. Solution: Using Z s values of Table 14-4. the potential at point P12 is V (P12 ) ! Q Q3 Q Q2 Q1 ¸ 1 ¨ Q1  2  3    © ¹ 4TI ª 2 a 2a 10 a 26a 50a 82a º Writing similar expression for V ( 23 ) and V ( 34 ).582 :1. plot Rs vs. equating them (since the potential is constant along the rod) and solving for the charges yields: Q1 : Q2 : Q3 ! 1.. N to suitable large scale and suppressed zero and note that Rs approaches a constant (convergence) value as N becomes large which should agree with Richmond¶s value given following (14-12-34). P/10 dipole impedance. Neglecting end faces. if desired. Do same for X s .110 Q1 Q 2 Q3 Q3 Q2 Q1 Divide rod into 6 equal segments.000 (ans. By symmetry charges are as shown.062 :1.

111 .

Pattern smoothing. Number of elements.112 Chapter 15.) 15-6-1. (b) What is the maximum ratio of the observed to the actual total flux density (2S)? Figure P15-3-1. An idealized antenna pattern-brightness distribution is illustrated by the 1-dimensional diagram in Fig. Solution: Ratio = 1/2 (ans. 15-15 how many elements n have been assumed? Solution: From Fig. or 2 1 1 ! v nd P 4 d P n=8 . Pattern smoothing. (a) Draw an accurate graph of the observed flux density as a function of angle from the center of the 2r source. P15-3-1. 15-15. also of flux density S. The antenna pattern is triangular (symmetrical) with a 2r beam width between zero points and with zero response beyond. The point source is 2r from the center of the 2r source. In Fig. The Fourier Transform Relation Between Aperture Distribution and Far-Field Pattern *15-3-1. The brightness distribution consists of a point source of flux density S and a uniform source 2r wide.

113 .

(b) What spacing results in the largest gain? (c) Calculate and plot the radiation field patterns for P/2 spacing.8 0. Two P/2-element broadside array. and R12 is a function of the spacing as given in Table 13-1 (p. A few values of the gain for spacings from 0 to 1 P are listed below: Spacing P 0.74 1. Note that D (P / 2) ! 4T Aem (P / 2) / P 2 ! 4T (30 / 73.64 1.0 0.0 etc. Assume all elements are 100 percent efficient.3 0.114 Chapter 16. Express the gain with respect to a single P/2 element.1 .38 .64 or 2.02 1.36 1.6 0.08 1. (a) Calculate and plot the gain of a broadside array of 2 side-by-side P/2 elements in free space as a function of the spacing d for values of d from 0 to 2P. G f (J )( A / HW ) ! [2 R00 /( R11  R12 )]1 2 cos[( d r cos J ) / 2] In broadside direction J ! T / 2 so G f (J )( A / HW ) ! [2 R00 /( R11  R12 )]1 2 where R00 ! R11 ! 73.19 1.72 1.1 0. Arrays of Dipoles and of Apertures *16-2-1. Show also the patterns of the P/2 reference antenna to the proper relative scale.1T ) ! 1.9 1. 453).15 dBi Gain over P / 2 reference 1.5 0.2 0. Solution: (a) From (16-2-27).49 1.56 1.7 0.00 1.4 0.

67 P for which the gain is about 1.1 . sin[(T / 2) cos J )] ! 1/1. G f (J )( A / HW ) ! [2 R00 /( R11  R12 )]1 2 sin[(T / 4) cos J ] where R00 ! R11 ! 73.7 . and from Table 13-1. A 2-element end-fire array in free space consists of 2 vertical side-by-side P/2 elements with equal out-of-phase currents. so G f (J )( A / HW ) ! 1.9 dB (= 7.8o / 90o ! 0. continued so D of 2 in-phase P / 2 elements at 0.67 P spacing is equal to 4.15 ! 7. At what angles in the horizontal plane is the gain equal to unity: (a) When the spacing is P/2? (b) When the spacing is P/4? Solution: (a) From (16-3-18). Two P/2-element end-fire array.1 dBi as above. s 124o (ans. . G f (J )( A / HW ) ! [2 R00 /( R11  R12 )]1 2 sin[( d r cos J ) / 2] When d ! P / 2.9  2.31sin[(T / 2) cos J )] For unit gain.553 and J ! s56 o .76 or 4.9 .1 dBi). the highest gain occurs for a spacing of about 0. At spacings over 1P no gains exceed this. (b) By interpolation. 16-3-1. R12 ! 40.115 *16-2-1. G f (J )( A / HW ) ! [2 R00 /( R11  R12 )]1 2 sin[(T / 2) cos J )] where R00 ! R11 ! 73.1 . R12 ! 12.763 or (b) cos J ! 49.) When P / 4. and from Table 13-1.31 ! 0.

continued so G f (J )( A / HW ) ! 2. a = ½ and H = 120r. sin[(T / 4) cos J ] ! 1/ 2. Z12 ! 52  j 21 . (a) Calculate the mutual impedance of the antennas. (b) (ans.116 16-3-1.64 v 0. Two thin center-fed P/2 antennas are driven in phase opposition.47 cos J ! 28o / 45o ! 0.13sin[(T / 4) cos J ] For unit gain.2P. ¨ 2 v 73 ¸ o G f (J )(max)( A / HW ) ! © ¹ sin 36 ª 73  52 º ! 2.0 d i) (ans .588 ! 1. Assume that the current distributions are sinusoidal. Solution: (a) G f (U ) ! { R11 /[ R11 (1  a 2 )  2 aR12 cos H ]}1 2 v (1  a 2  2 a cos] )1 2 . If the antennas are parallel and spaced 0. Two-element array with unequal currents. 13-7. (b) Plot the field patterns in both planes and also show the field pattern of the reference antenna in proper relative proportion for the case where d = P/4.8 d ( 6.) From (16-5-8) and assuming losses.) 12 16-4-3. From Sec. Impedance and gain of 2-element array.62 and J ! s 52o . (16-4-13) when a = 1.) *16-3-2. taking a vertical P/2 element with the same power input as reference (0 e a e 1). s 128o (ans. (a) Consider two P/2 side-by-side vertical elements spaced a distance d with currents related by I2 = aI1/H. Check that these reduce to Eq. Develop the gain expression in a plane parallel to the elements and the gain normal to the elements.13 ! 0. (16-4-15) and Eq. Solution: (a) This is a single-electron W8JK array.55 or 3. (b) Calculate the gain of the array in free space over one of the antennas alone.

8  3.90 1. determine and plot the farfield patterns.00 5 0.9(1  j10)  1  j 3 ! 73  10. If the phases are as indicated by the arrows.9( 12  j 29)  1.) R3 ! R4 ! 53  j10 . (a) Calculate the driving-point impedance at the center of each element of an in-phase broadside array of 6 side-by-side P/2 elements spaced P/2 apart.00 4 1. (b) Design a feed system for the array. R2 ! R5 ! 46  j 2 . The currents have a Dolph-Tchebyscheff distribution such that the minor lobes have 1/5 the field intensity of the major lobe. . Impedance of D-T array.90 1. P16-6-3.. the driving point impedance of element 1 is R1 ! 73  j 43  0. as in Fig.117 16-4-3.84 3 1. continued where ] ! d r sin U  H G f (J ) ! G f (U ) but with ] ! d r cosJ  H *16-6-1.08( 2  j12)  0.93 Normalizing the current for element 1. (ans..4  13  9  3) ! 63  j 29 . Square array. 13 and assuming thin elements.) 16-6-3.00 0. R6 (ans.) In like manner. Four isotropic point sources of equal amplitude are arranged at the corners of a square. (ans.9  1  j (43  26  19.08 0.2  2  0. 5-9-5 and the 6 sources have the distribution: 1 0. Solution: (a) From Prob.00 Using impedance data from Chap.84 6 0.08(3  j18)  1. the distribution is 1.08 1.93 2 0.

Solution: The dipoles are assumed to be aligned collinearly so that the pattern of a single dipole is proportional to sinJ where J is the angle from the array.00 at J ! 0 o . the maximum field is at J ! 90 o or J (Emax ) ! 90o. Find the angle from the maximum field for which the field is 4 dB (to nearest 0.35P Since the dipoles are in-phase. continued Figure 16-6-3. Seven short dipoles. 4-dB angle. En ! 1.895 at J ! s45 o . s 135o *16-6-4. Thus J 0. 180o En ! 0.35P between dipoles. s 90o . Solution: Pattern is a rounded square.1r). The normalized pattern is given by En ! where n = 7 1 sin n] / 2 sin J n sin] / 2 (1) . Square array. A linear broadside (in-phase) array of 7 short dipoles has a separation of 0.118 16-6-3.

Calculate exactly (a) the half-power beam width. K = 1 (first minor lobe) 1 sin(1440o cos J ) 16 sin(90o cos J ) J ! 86. continued Therefore. n = 7 and solving (see note below) yields J ( 4 d ) ! 78.631 Setting (1) equal to 0.707 ! By trial and error. (e) the directivity and (f) the effective aperture. Four identical short dipoles (perpendicular to page) are arranged at the corners of a square P/2 on a side.3o ! 11. 4 ! 20log x.82 o ) ! 6.36 o ! 6 o22 d( ans.119 ] ! (2T / P ) v 0.82 o and BW ! 2(90 o  86. (c) the beam solid angle. The upper left and lower right dipoles are in the same phase while the 2 dipoles at the other corners are in the opposite phase. Solution: (a) From (5-6-9).7 o (ans. s 135o Pattern minima at J ! 0o .631. A uniform linear array has 16 isotropic in-phase point sources with at spacing P/2. s 90o . Sixteen-source broadside array.585 *16-6-4.3o Angle from J ( Emax ) is 90o  78. (b) From (5-18-10). Square array. En ( 4 d ) ! 1/1. 16-6-5. x ! 1. (b) the level of the first sidelobe. 180o *16-6-7. E (HP) ! 0. find the angles J for all maxima and minima of the field pattern in the plane of the page. (d) the beam efficiency.585 ! 0.35P cos J .) Note: Use trial and error to solve (1) for J (4 dB) or calculate pattern with small increments in J . Solution: Pattern maxima at J ! s45o .) . If the direction to the right (x direction) corresponds to J = 0r.

A ).2o and find that E peaks at 79. For an exact evaluation.5) ! 1/ 8 rad in J direction . the summation term is zero for d ! P / 2 so that D = 16 exactly. See discussion of Sec. we have from Prob.2o 1 2nd P 2 v 16 v 2 Then from (5-6-9) we calculate E at angles close to 79.215 or -13. we find the approximate angle for the maximum of the first minor lobe from (5-18-5). 100). A . s (2 K  1) s3 ! cos 1 ! 79.15 d ( ans.120 EML $ *16-6-7.22012 or -13. 5-47 (p. To determine the level more accurately. continued This is only approximate (becomes exact only for very large n).3 dB 16sin[(2  1)T / 32] (d) HPBW $ 1/ nd P ! 1/(16 v 0.5)] ! sin 1 (1/ 8) ! 7. 5-18 (p.) Jm $ cos 1 Although (5-18-5) locates the angle where the numerator of (5-18-5) is a maximum (= 1).7o with E ! 0. (c) From equation for D in Prob. BW in U direction ! 2T rad Therefore.M ! 2 n dP where U1 ! 90 o  K o U 2 ! 90o  K o K o ! angle to first null From (5-7-7). 5-6-10. .18 o n 1 nk « » sin(2T kd P cos U )¼ nT d P cos U  § ¬ k ­ ½ U1 k !1 U2 . 5-6-10 that 2 . A ! 1 or 100% This result is too large since with any minor lobes I M must be less than unity (or .M / . 159) and also Fig. Since D ! 4T / . . K o ! sin 1 (1/ nd P ) ! sin 1[1/(16 v 0. M ! 2T v (1/ 8) ! T / 4 sr and I M ! . the denominator is not constant.) 1 ! 0. A ! 4T / D ! 4T /16 ! T / 4 sr (ans. M .

455 ± 0.625T )  sin(1.25T )  sin(1. (e) (f) As noted in (c). U 1 ! 82.82o and U 2 ! 97. in good agreement with the above result.702 /(T / 4) ! 0.25T )  sin(0. The graphical integration took a fraction of the time of the above analytical integration and although less accurate.308 ± 0.554 ± 0.492 + 0 ± 0.6 and Fig.033 + 1.75T )  sin(1.125nT d P  § sin(0.03125 [5.179 + 0.894 (ans. There can be other nulls and .950 + 4. Find (a) d and (b) H so that there is a maximum field at J =45r (northeast) and a null at J =90r (north). M ! 0.125T ) ¬ k 16 16 v 0.) By graphical integration (see Example 4-5.5 ¬ 1 ­ ­ ½ k !1 10 14 13 12 11 sin(0.5T )  sin(0.000 + 2. continued Thus 4 .M ! 2 n dP .550 ± 0. provided confidence in the result because it is much less susceptible to gross errors. D ! 16 From D ! 4T Aem / P 2 .055 +0] = 0.03125 v 19.163 ± 0.375T )  sin(0. A broadcast array has 4 identical vertical towers arranged in an east-west line with a spacing d and progressive phase shift H.875T )  sin(1.75T ) 6 2 3 4 5 9 8 7 6 5  sin(0.0982 + 0.875T )  sin(2.375T )  sin(1.740 + 4.702 sr = .003 + 3.90.625T )  sin(0.5T «15  2 0.18o *16-6-7.M ! 2 2 n dP n 1 nk « » sin(2T kd P cos U ) ¼ nT d P cos U  § ¬ k ­ ½ 90o k !1 97. M / .) *16-8-6. Four-tower broadcast array.5T ) 7 8 9 10 11 4 3 2 1 »  sin(1.00T )  sin(1.0982 +0. (ans. M I M ! . A ! 0. 4-8b) I M was found to be approximately 0.18 o n 1 nk 4 « » 0.27P 2 (ans.) Aem ! DP 2 / 4T ! 16P 2 / 4T ! 1.312 ! 0.25T kd P )¼ ! sin(0.121 Therefore.00T )¼ 12 13 14 15 ½  .

H ! 90o T ! 0. (b) 10r and (c) 15r from the broadside direction.707P .122 maxima. A linear broadside array has 8 sources of equal amplitude and P/2 spacing. (d) Find BWFN when all sources are in phase.) . The distance d must be less than P/2. continued (a) Null at J ! 90 o requires that H ! s90o or s 180o For maximum field (fields of all towers in phase) set ] ! F d cos J max  H ! 0 and H ! 90 o ! T / 2 rad so d ! H T /2 ! ! 0.7 o P P 2 (ans. Solution: J ! 90 o K ! 0o K J d d Broadside is set at J ! 90o.) 16-10-1. Find the progressive phase shift required to swing the beam (a) 5r. but no maximum can exceed the one at 45r. but this exceeds 0. (b) Therefore. Solution: W d J E *16-8-6.354P F cos Jmax (2T / P ) cos 45o d! (ans. Eight-source scanning array.5P (2T / P ) cos 45o (ans. H ! 2T 2T P d cos J max !  cos 95o ! 15.) If H ! 180o ! T rad. Set ] ! F d cos Jmax  H ! 0 Therefore.

5o *16-16-1. Traveling wave.155) that HPBW ! 50.) From the long broadside array equation (5-7-10).48o Therefore. Terminated V.96 $ 29o (ans. the beam is 5o left or right of broadside.) for beam 10o left or right of broadside H ! s46. Minor lobes are neglected except for the principal side lobe of the V.48 ! 28. (b) What is the HPBW? Solution: (a) The field pattern for each leg of the V is shown at the left and the combined field pattern at the right.6 o ( ans. is given by the complementary angle K o ! 90  Jo ! sin 1 (P / nd ) ! sin 1 (1/ 4) ! 14.65o The HPBW is a bit less than BWFN/2.8o / LP ! 50. (a) Calculate and plot the far-field pattern of a terminated-V antenna with 5P legs and 45r included angle. BWFN $ 2P / nd ! 1/ 2 rad ! 180o / 2T ! 28. depending on whether H is +15.8 / 3. For long broadside arrays. BWFN ! 2 v 14.) for beam 15o left or right of broadside (d) From (5-7-7) the angle of the first null from broadside. when the sources are inphase (H ! 0). . we have 16-10-1.123 H ! 180o cos85o ! 15.5 ! 14. we have from Table 5-8 (p. In the same way.3o ( ans.7 o or  15. continued (b) (c) H ! s31.7 o .7 o Thus.

124 (b) HPBW $ 17o (ans.) .

H P ! 0.) 16-16-3.) ¸ tan[(T LP ) sin 2 17.5o ! 72.) J ! 90o  17. E-type rhombic. Solution: From Table 16-1 (p. Solution: From Table 16-1 (p.5  LP ! © o o o ¹ sin17.1 (ans . Design an alignment-type rhombic antenna for an elevation angle E = 17. H P ! 1/(4sin17.5o ) ! 0.5 (ans .5o (ans.5 ª 2T sin17. 590) for an alignment rhombic. H P ! 1/(4sin E ) ! 1/(4sin17.83 (ans .5 / sin 2 E ! 5.5 (ans.) J ! 90o  E ! 72.) J ! 90o  E ! 72.) LP ! 0.5o (ans.5o ) ! 0.) *16-16-4.5 tan(T sin17.5 ) º .5o ] ¨ 1 0.125 *16-16-2.5r.83 (ans . Compromise rhombic.5r at a height above ground of P/2. 590) for a compromise rhombic.371/ sin 2 E ! 4. Solution: From Table 16-1 (p. Design a compromise-type rhombic antenna for an elevation angle E = 17.5r.) LP ! 0.5o (ans. Alignment rhombic. 590) for a maximum E rhombic. Design a maximum E-type rhombic antenna for an elevation angle E = 17.

Compromise rhombic.) .371 J ! sin 1 © o ª 3cos17. 590).5 ¸ o ¹ ! 67 (ans. Compromise rhombic.3o LP ) By trial and error.5r at a height above ground of P/2 and a leg length of 3P. Solution: From Table 16-1 (p.) ¨ 3  0. Design a compromise-type rhombic antenna for an elevation angle E = 17. 590.5r with leg length of 3P.) 16-16-5.5o ) ! 0. Design a compromise-type rhombic antenna for an elevation angle E = 17. J $ 60o (ans.83 ( ans.126 *16-16-4. LP ! 5.14 (ans. Solution: From Table 16-1 (p. HP LP 1 !  sin J tan E tan(2T H P sin E ) 4T] tan(] 2T LP ) where ] ! (1  sin J cos E ) / 2 By trial and error.) º *16-16-6. H P ! 1/(4 sin17. bottom entry). continued or LP ! 0.56 tan(16.

35 or 4.6 dB down S o (1.4 (see Table 17-1) ( d ! diameter) Therefore from (17-2-7).4  1)2 (1.4 cos 22o  1)3 ! ! 0. Dielectric lens.4 cos U  1 R sin U 0 mm 110 260 : 300 ! d / 2 R 600 mm 634 761 805 R U ! 22 Focus o d / 2 ! 300 mm L ! 600 mm Lens (lower-half mirror image) (b) From (17-2-14). The lens material is to be paraffin and the F number is to be unity. Lens Antennas 17-2-1.4  1)600 1. (b) What type of primary antenna pattern is required to produce a uniform aperture distribution? Solution: (a ) P ! 3 v 108 /(5 v 109 ) ! 0.4  cos 22o ) . Draw the lens cross section.06 m ! 60 mm F ! 1 so L ! d ! 10P ! 600 mm n ! 1. power density at edge of lens is SU (1. R! U 0o 10o 20o 22o (1. (a) Design a plano-convex dielectric lens for 5 GHz with a diameter of 10P.127 Chapter 17.

This is difficult to achieve without unacceptable spillover unless the lens is enclosed in a conical horn.59 v 102 ! 15.6 dB) at 22o off axis than on axis.4  1 0. there is 15. continued To reduce side lobes. 000 m 3 3 3 3 4T a 4T (5 v10 ) (ans.4 N! ! ! 255.9 10 ! 5. (b) copper disks.9 mm between adjacent spheres in a cubical lattice so there is room for the spheres without touching. volume of dielectric 4 v10 6 ! ! 7.128 17-2-1. this much or even more taper may be desirable.000 ! 4 v 106 m3 While the volume of each sphere is given by (4 / 3)T a 3 ! (4 / 3)T (5 v10 3 ) 3 ! 5.2 v10 7 m 3 Therefore. except that at edge locations where E is parallel to the edge. To obtain a uniform aperture distribution. Design an artificial dielectric with relative permittivity of 1. (c) copper strips. provided the lattice uniform. Solution: From Table 17-2. . P ! 3 v108 ms 1 / 3 v109 Hz ! 0.4 for use at 3 GHz when the artificial dielectric consists of (a) copper spheres.7 volume of sphere 5. take a (radius) ! 5 mm rom hich 1. To reduce this effect a corrugated horn could be used.1 m ! 100 mm For a P . as requested in the problem. Artificial dielectric. E must be zero.) The dielectric volume per sphere = 1/255.9 mm = side of cube versus sphere diameter = 2 v 5 ! 10 mm Thus.2 v10 7 (4 v 106 )1 3 ! 1. 17-3-1. requires a feed antenna at the focus with more radiation (up about 4. (a) I r (sphere) ! 1  4T Na 3 ! 1.4 At 3 GHz.

85Nw2 Taking w (width) = 10 mm. Cross section This is less than the strip width. if the square is changed to a rectangle of the same area with side length ratio of 9 as in the sketch. 000 ! 1. 17-8a). 000 m 2 2 3 7.7 v106 m3 for a cube side length of (1. the edges of the strips are separated by 3.5 mm and the flat sides by 1.) The dielectric volume per disc ! 1/ 600. (a) What should the spacing between the plates be? (b) Draw the shape of the lens and give dimensions. The source is to be 20P from the lens (F = 2).85(10 ) (ans.5 mm.6. Unzoned metal-plate lens. However.) as viewed in cross section (see Fig.5 mm.129 17-3-1. Strip 10 mm Rectangular area *17-4-1.4  1 ! 51. 000 m 3 3 3 5. 000 ! 2 v 10 5 m 2 for a cross-sectional area side length (2 v 10 5 )1 2 ! 4. (c) What is the bandwidth of the lens if the maximum tolerable path difference is P/4? . Make the index of refraction 0.7 v10 6 )1 3 $ 12 mm . continued (b) I r (discs)=1+5. and taking a(radius) ! 5 mm (diameter = 10 mm).33Na 3 .4  1 ! 600. The above answers are not unique and are not necessarily the best solutions. so that there is 12  10 ! 2 mm minimum spacing between adjactent discs in a uniform lattice. Design an unzoned plano-concave E-plane type of metal plate lens of the unconstrained type with an aperture 10P square for use with a 3 GHz line source 10P long. (c) I r (strips) 1 7.33(5 v10 ) (ans. N! 1. N! 1. The square area per strip is then 1/ 51.

67 (ans.0 0 3.6 19.6.67 (a) From (17-4-2).6 cos U RP RP sin U 0o 10o 15.0 n ! [1  ( Po / 2b) 2 ]1 2 or b ! Po / 2(1  n 2 )1 2 t R 5P Lens (lower-half mirror image) 2nH P Bandwidth (1  L 2!t20P n )P E U ! 15.17-13) (b) Expressing dimensions in P . For (ans. F ! 2 so A ! L / 2 (Fig.62 )1.130 *17-4-1.) Line source ith (c)E From line B to (17-4-12). b ! 0. continued Solution: P ! 3 v108 /(3 v109 ) ! 0.6 cos U 1  0.25o o tP ! LP  RP cos U ! 20  19 cos15.625Po ! 62.6. 20 19.) .25 ! 1. n ! [1  ( Po / 2b) 2 ]1 2 or b ! Po / 2(1  n 2 )1 2 For n ! 0. Bandwidth ! 2 v 0.4 5.28 or 28 (1  0.6 v 0.5 mm (b) From (17-4-12).67 Therefore.) Bandwidth ! 2nH P /(1  n 2 )tP tP ! LP  RP cos U ! 20  19 cos15.1 m ! 100 mm n ! 0.25o (a)From (17-4-2). we have from (17-4-4) RP ! U (1  n ) LP (1  0.25 ! 0.6)20 8 ! ! 1  n cos U 1  0. (ans.25o ! 1.

) 18-9-2..35 cm 2. Determine the approximate dimensions for a four legged loaded element operating at f = 15 GHz with (a) No dielectric substrate.) 4 4 (c) For the scattering case.) (b) I eff ! 2. . Li ! 90 o ! Ls and m ! 1 So 2 ! P / Dx . Determine the approximate length of the legs of an unloaded trislot operating at f = 15 GHz with (a) No dielectric substrate.e. (b) Dielectric substrate Ir = 2.50 mm located on both sides of the FSS (use arithmetic average of Ir and Io for Ieff). Munk 18-9-1.2 and thickness 0.5 cm 4 4 (ans. Solution: (a) For one leg of the tripole.2 1.0 ! ! 0.35 ! ! 0. i. the monopole length P 2. Unloaded tripole.50 mm located on only one side the FSS (estimate Ieff). By Ben A.2 and thickness 0. (15-6-1) can be written as m sin Li  sin Ls ! Dx / P Since grating lobes start in the plane of the array.2 since it is the same on both sides 2 2 Peff ! ! ! 1. (c) Determine Dx just short enough that no grating lobes are present when scanning in the xy ± plane for any angle of incidence.48 Peff 1.337 cm (ans. Frequency-Selective Surfaces and Periodic Structures. (b) Dielectric substrate Ir = 2. Four-Legged loaded element. Dx ! P / 2 ! 2 / 2 ! 1 cm (ans.131 Chapter 18.

0 / 4 ! 0.6 ! 2 /1.58 cm (ans. 2 2 Pe / 4 ! 0.2 cm.) .2 ! ! 1.6 cm f ! 3 v 108 ! 25 1.132 18-9-2. 18-9-1. P ! 1.4  0.) Pe ! 2 / 1. Solution: So (b) I eff ! P / 4 ! 2.) (c) As in Prob.2 v 102 Dx ! 0.2  1.) z (ans. continued (c) Leave a separation of 1 mm between adjacent elements (rectangular grid). (( (( z (ans. the condition we want to meet is 2 ! P / Dx or P ! 2 Dx With no dielectric.265 ! 1. the size should be Pe / 4 across.1 ! 0.4 cm (ans.1 ! 0. determine the lowest onset frequency for grating lobes for any angle of incidence.0 3.5  0. so P ! 1 cm.50 cm 2. Dx ! 0.6 .5 cm 3 v 108 ! 30 f ! 1v 102 '' (a) For a loop type element. so With dielectric.

) D ! 4T v 10 v 20 v 0. in the actual aperture distribution there is a plus-and-minus-30r sinusoidal phase variation in the x direction with a phase cycle per wavelength. Solution: Referring to Sec.133 Chapter 19. Solution: From Prob. Solution: From Prob.) (ans.657 ! 1651 or 32 d i 19-1-5. Efficiency of rectangular aperture with partial taper.) D ! 4T v 10 v 20 v 0. . maximum at center) if x1 = 20P and y1 = 10P. 19-1-7 solution. (a) (b) I ap ! 0. Repeat Prob. (a) (b) I ap ! 0.657 $ 66% (ans. 19-1-3 for the case where the aperture field has a cosine distribution in both the x and y directions. (c) the actual directivity. (d) the achievement factor. (e) the effective aperture and (f) the aperture efficiency. However. Efficiency of aperture with phase ripple. A square unidirectional aperture (x1y1) is 10P on a side and has a design distribution for the electric field which is uniform in the x direction but triangular in the y direction with maximum at the center and zero at the edges.81 or 81% (ans.) (ans. Calculate the aperture efficiency and directivity of an antenna with rectangular aperture x1y1 with a uniform field distribution in the y direction and a cosine field distribution in the x direction (zero at edges. 19-1. 19-1-6 solution. (b) the utilization factor. Practical Design Considerations of Large Aperture Antennas *19-1-3. Design phase is constant across the aperture.81 ! 2036 or 33 d i *19-1-4. Efficiency of rectangular aperture with full taper. Calculate (a) the design directivity.

y ) max ! E ( x . y)dxdy ! 2 Ap y Note: This result can be deduced directly from the figure by noting that average height of triangle is ½ max. y) ¸ ¨ E d . ku : ku ! 1 1 Ap * ¨ E d . continued Let E d . 10P x (b) Utilization factor. y) ¸ (x (x ´´ © Eav ¹ © Eav ¹ dxdy d ºª d º ª 1 3 ! ! 2 10 P 5 P ¨ y ¸ 4 1 2 © ¹ dxdy Ap (1/ 2) 2 ´ 0 ´ 0 ª 5P º Note that for in-phase fields (19-1-50) is a simplified form of (2) giving 2 Eav (1/ 2)2 ! ! 3/ 4 ! ku as in (3) . y ) max ! 1 (x esign ield Design: E 10P d Eav ! 1 Ap (x ´´ E d .134 19-1-5.

) 2 P P Turning attention now to the effect of the phase variation: Eav ! 2 Ap ´ 10 P 0 5P y 2T x ¸ 1 ¨T cos © sin dy ! (0.) (3) (4) (5) (6) .E 2 1/ 3 av (a) Design directivity.933) ¹ dx ´ 0 5P 2 P º ª6 0 1 0 0 ) ctual ield (1) 1 y dxdy ! 5P 2 ´ ´ 10 P 5P 0 (2) ( ans. D (design): D (design) ! 4T 4T Ap ku ! 2 (100P 2 )(3 / 4) ! 940 ( ans.

y ) Eav Note that from figures above.135 19-1-5. y) ¸ ¨ Ed . y ) ¸ ¨ E ( x. (d) Achievement factor. y) ¸ (x (x ´´ © Eav ¹ © Eav ¹ dxdy d ºª d º ª   ¨ E ( x.707 21. Pº ª 2 H d 30o v 0.87 ! ka as in (7) . continued E x E ( x.2o where ! ! P 360o 360o or k g ! cos 2 21.87 ( ans.933 2 ka ! ¨ Ed .933] 2 ´´ (7) where E ( x ) E * ( x ) ! 1 Note that gain loss due to total phase variation across aperture (not surface deviation) is from (19-2-3) Hd ¨ ¸ k g ! cos © 360o ¹ .2 o ! 0. ka : 1 Ap 1 Ap 2 Eav $ 1  0.866 ! 0.) 1 1 2 2 ( y / 5P ) dxdy Ap [(1/ 2)0. y ) ¸ ´´ © Eav ¹ © Eav ¹ dxdy ª ºª º 4/3 ka ! ! 0.

calculate (a) the aperture efficiency and (b) the directivity. increase .) 4 Effective aperture. *19-1-6. maximum at center).) Note: Although phase errors with small correlation distance ($ P ) as in Prob. continued (c) Directivity: D! (e) 4T Ap P 2 3 ku ka ! 4T v 100 v v 0. causing the near side lobes to increase and ultimately the main beam and the HPBW may be affected.87 ! 818 ( ans. Solution: y y1 E y1 ! 8P x1 ! 16P x1 Eo E Eo x E ( x ) ! Eo sin Tx x1 . Rectangular aperture. Ae : Ae ! P2 D ! Ap ku k a ! 65. An antenna with rectangular aperture x1y1 has a uniform field in the y direction and a cosine field distribution in the x direction (zero at edges. Cosine taper.2P 2 (ans. the HPBW is not affected appreciable.) 4T I ap ! ka ku ! 0. A . I ap : (ans. 19-1-5 reduce the directivity and. hence.136 19-1-5.65 (f) Aperture efficiency. for larger correlation distances ("" P ) the scattered radiation becomes more directive. If x1 = 16P and y1 = 8P. However.

let us represent it by a sine function as follows: (a) From (19-1-50).137 *19-1-6. continued Although the taper in the x-direction is described as a cosine taper. I ap ! .

E ( x )av 2 .

Cosine tapers.7P 2 (b) D! 4T Ae ! (4T v 103.E ´ x1 0 2 ( x) av where 1 E ( x ) av ! x1 ´ x1 0 E E ( x )dx ! o x1 E ¨ x ¸ Tx Tx dx ! o © 1 ¹ cos sin x1 x1 ª T º x1 x1 ! 0 2 Eo T [ E 2 ( x )]av ! E2 1 x1 2 E ( x )dx ! o x1 ´ 0 x1 2 ´ x1 0 sin 2 E2 Tx dx ! o x1 2 Therefore. Rectangular aperture.7 P 2 ) / P 2 ! 1304 or 31.2 dBi 2 P 19-1-7. y ) ! Eo sin Tx Tx sin x1 y1 . 19-1-6 for the case where the aperture field has a cosine distribution in both the x and y directions. Repeat Prob. I ap ¨2 ¸ © Eo ¹ 8 T º !ª ! 2 ! 0.811 or $ 81% 1 2 T Eo 2 Ae ! I ap Aem ! 0.81 v 8P v 16P ! 103. Solution: Let the distribution be represented by E ( x.

2 d i P2 P2 *19-1-8. y )av ! x1 y1 E Tx Ty 1 x1 y1 E (x .657 v 8P v 16 P ! 84.1P 2 ! ! 1057 or 30. y )dxdy ! 2 Eo2 x1 y1 ´ x1 0 sin 2 y1 E2 Tx Ty dx ´ sin 2 dy ! o 0 x1 y1 4 Therefore. Cosine-squared taper. y )dxdy ! o ´ sin dx ´ sin dy ´0 ´0 0 0 x1 y1 x1 y1 x1 y1 x1 y1 4 Eo E « x Tx» « y T y» ! o ¬  1 cos ¼ ¬  1 cos ¼ ! 2 x1 y1 ­ T x1 ½ 0 ­ T y1 ½ 0 T [ E 2 ( x. y )]av ! 1 x1 y1 ´ ´ 0 x1 y1 0 E 2 ( x. E (U ) ! ´  x1  x1 E ( x )e j (2T x / P )cos U dx ! ´ 10 P 10 P cos2 [(T / 2)( x /10P )]e j(2 T x / P )cos U dx . Thus. (b) What is the HPBW? Solution: E(x)  x1 +x1 20P The field along the line may be represented by Tx E ( x ) ! cos 2 2 x1 (a) The field pattern E (U ) is the Fourier transform of the distribution E ( x ) along the line. I ap ¨ 4 ¸ © 2 Eo ¹ 16 v 4 T º ! !ª ! 0.138 19-1-7. (a) Calculate and plot the far-field pattern of a continuous in-phase line source 20P long with cosine-squared field distribution. continued (a) E (x .657 or $ 66% 1 2 T4 Eo 4 Ae ! I ap Aem ! 0. A 20P line source.1 P 2 (b) D! 4T Ae 4T v 84.

W ! 2(90 o  87. but its side lobes are much lower with first side lobe down 31 dB as compared to only 13 dB down for a 20P uniform aperture distribution. W 50. . the cosine-squared aperture distribution has nearly twice the HPBW of the uniform aperture.) From Table 4-3 for a 20P uniform aperture.139 *19-1-8. continued Let s ! x / P from which dx ! P ds Then E (U ) ! P ´ ! and En (U ) ! sin(20T cos U ) 1 « sin(20 cosU  1)T sin(20 cosU  1)T »  ¬  2T cos U 2 ­ [2 cos U  (1/10)]T [2 cos U  (1/10)]T ¼ ½ ¸ sin(20T cosU ) ¨ 4 cos 2 U 1 © ¹ 2 2T cos U ª 4 cos U  0.8/LP ! 50.2 o (ans.) (1) (b) From graph or by trial and error from (1).8 / 20 ! 2.5 o Thus.01 º 10 10 cos 2 (T s / 20)e j 2T s cosU ds ! P ´ 10 10 1  cos(T s /10) j 2T s cosU e ds 2 P 10 j 2T s cosU P 10 ds  ´ cos(T s /10)e j 2T s cos U ds ´ 10 e 2 2 10 ! (ans.9 o ) 4.

140 .

d I r ! 12. but with the actual ground of the problem. (a) d At 100 kHz. 1m 1 .36 at 100 MHz [I o 2T 108 8.85 v10 12 I r ! I rd jI rd 12  j 0. it is reduced to about 1. 2 3 3 . h !P/4 sin E  (I r  cos 2 E )1 2 sin E  (I r  cos 2 E )1 2 (1) (2) E ! 1  V ’CC F h sin E )  j sin(2 F h sin E ) cos(2 (b) d I rd ! W 2 v 10 3 ! ! 0. V ! W ! 2 v 10 3 .-1 m-1 at (a) 100 kHz and (b) 100 MHz. The pattern for perfectly conducting ground (W ! g) is also shown for comparison (same as pattern of 2 isotropic sources in phase opposition and spaced P / 2 ). Horizontal dipole above imperfect ground. Calculate the vertical plane field pattern broadside to a horizontal P/2 dipole antenna P/4 above actual homogeneous ground with constants Ir¶ = 12 and W = 2 x 10-3 . Antennas for Special Applications 21-4-2. Solution: Q ! Qo . I rd 360 and V B $ 1 .55 (down 2. For perfectly conducting ground the field doubles ( E ! 2 ) at the zenith ( E ! 90o ).2 dB) because of partial absorption of the wave reflected from the ground. (1) into (2) and evaluating (2) as a function of E results in the pattern shown. so the pattern is approximately the same as for ! W ! g in the sketch.141 Chapter 21.4 $ 12  d ! Introducing I r into (1).

(b) Repeat for E = 50r. as in Fig. . To resolve the 180r ambiguity of the loop pattern. P21-9-3c. as in Fig. P21-9-3a. The maximum of a beam antenna pattern. P21-9-3b. Maximum-to-minimum field ratio = 1. then if P2 > P1 the bearing is to the right.14 *21-9-3.142 21-9-1.) (a) If the power pattern is proportional to cos4 U. a large power-pattern change can be combined with a high S/N ratio. Solution: Squarish pattern with rounded edges. an auxiliary antenna may be used with the loop to give a cardiod pattern with broad maximum in the signal direction and null in the opposite direction. determine P2/P1 if the interbeam (squint) angle E = 40r for (U = 5 and 10r. An arrangement of this kind for receiving radar echo signals can give bearing information on a single pulse (monopulse radar). Square loop. Many direction-finding (DF) antennas consist of small (in terms of P) loops giving a figure-of-eight pattern as in Fig. (d) Tabulate the results for comparison and indicate any improvement of the double over the single beam. as in Fig. P21-9-3c. DF and monopulse. if 2 receivers and 2 displace beams are used. Although the null is sharp the bearing (direction of transmitter signal) may have considerable uncertainty unless the S/N ratio is large. can be employed to obtain a bearing with the advantage of a higher S/N ratio but with reduced pattern change per unit angle. However. Calculate and plot the far-field pattern in the plane of a loop antenna consisting of four P/2 center-fed dipoles with sinusoidal current distribution arranged to form a square P/2 on a side. (c) Determine the P0/P1 of the single power pattern of Fig. (With 4 antennas. If P1 > P2 the bearing is to the left and if P1 = P2 the bearing is on axis (boresight). The dipoles are all in phase around the square. If the power received on beam 1 is P1 and on beam 2 is P2. P21-9-3b for (U = 5 and 10r if the power pattern is also proportional to cos4 U. bearing information left-right and updown can be obtained.

143 *21-9-3.4 dB P cos 4 (25o  5o ) 1 P2 cos 4 (25o  10 o ) ! ! 1. Direction finding: (a) with loop mull.290 or 1.386 or 1. (U ! 10 o . (U ! 10 o .1 d P cos 4 (20o  5o ) 1 P2 cos 4 (20 o  10 o ) ! ! 1. (c) E !5 . E ! 10 o .015 or 0.672 or 2. o (d) Over 1 dB more at 5o and about 2 dB more at 10o. P2 cos 4 (20 o  5o ) ! ! 1. . continued Figure P21-9-3.9 dB P cos 4 (25o  10o ) 1 P0 cos 4 0 o ! ! 1.933 or 2.063 or 0. (b) with beam maximum and (c) with double beam (monopulse). Solution: (a) E ! 40o (U ! 5 o .26 dB P cos 4 10 o 1 (b) E ! 50o (U ! 5 o .06 dB P cos 4 5 o 1 P0 cos 4 0o ! ! 1.2 d P cos 4 (20o  10o ) 1 P2 cos 4 (25o  5o ) ! ! 1.

Figure P21-10-1. Overland microwave communication circuit. the images on the TV screen may be objectionable because the time difference via the 2 paths produces a double image (a direct image and its ghost). P21-10-1. Consider that the ground is flat and perfectly conducting. FM or TV between a transmitter on a tall building and a distant receiver involves 2 paths of transmission. as suggested in Fig. (c) The effect of reflection from other buildings or structures (or from aircraft) can be minimized by the use of CP transmit and receive antennas of the same hand.144 *21-10-1. 919-920. particularly when these structures are many wavelengths in size and reflection is specular. (a) A typical overland microwave communications circuit for AM. Solution: (a) and (b) answers in Appendix F. . (b) Compare the results for the 3 types of polarization. and show that circular polarization is best from the standpoint of both the noncriticalness of the height h2 and the absence of echo or ghost signals. Plot these results in decibels as abscissa versus h2 as ordinate for 3 cases with transmitting and receiving antennas both (1) vertically polarized. where they reinforce. Overland TV for HP. Troublesome reflections can be reduced by placing non-reflecting absorbers on the structure. (c) Extend the comparison of (b) to consider the effect of other buildings or structures that may produce additional paths of transmission. one direct path (length ro) and one an indirect path with ground reflection (length r1 + r2). (2) horizontally polarized and (3) right-circularly polarized for h2 values from 0 to 100 m. VP and CP. Let h1 = 300 m and d = 5 km. for horizontal or vertical polarization the direct and groundreflected waves may cancel at certain heights while at other heights. For a frequency of 100 MHz calculate the ratio of the power received per unit area to the transmitted power as a function of the height h2 of the receiving antenna. Assume that the transmitting antenna is isotropic and that the receiving antennas are also isotropic (all have the same effective aperture). Note that direct satellite-to-earth TV downlinks are substantially free of these reflection and ghost image effects. pg. Thus.

What combination of frequency and antennas is most suitable? Solution: From Table A-6. take I rd 80 and W ! 4 for sea water. W "" [I . from (21-2-3) the radiation resistance of a monopole antenna as a function of its height ( hp ) is ¨ hp ¸ Rr ! 400 © ¹ . E! 2T v 103 v 4T v 10 7 v 4 ! 0.145 *21-12-1. Eo and at 1 kHZ. .8 log e ! E E From the standpoint of frequency. at 100 kHz. 100 and 1000 kHz.5 m (ans. However. At the highest frequency (1000 ! kHz). At 1 kHz. and submarine antenna efficiency as a function of the frequency. land (transmitting) antenna effective height. 1 kHz gives greatest depth. so that E ! [QW / 2 can be used at all four frequencies. ) With such a small radiation resistance.13 Npm 1 2 Since E ! 106 ! e E y . radiation efficiency will be poor. A practical choice involves a compromise of sea water loss. Calculate the depths at which a 1 QV m-1 field will be obtained with E at the surface equal to 1 V m-1 at frequencies of 1.) y! 6 13. Signaling to submerged submarines. at 10 kHz. 5 ¹ ª 3 v 10 º 2 2 (or 400 . ªP º For h p ! 300 m at 1 k z ¨ 300 ¸ Rr ! 400 © ! 4 v 104 . at 1000 kHz depth y ! 106 m y ! 35 m y ! 11 m y ! 3. 10. At 10 kHz the radiation resistance is a hundred times greater.

A 100-MHz wave is traveling parallel to a copper sheet (|Zc| = 3. Solution: Sint o sheet ! H 2 Re Z c ! Re Z c ! Q o[ ! 2W E2 Re Z c Z o2 4T v 10 7 2T v 3 v 109 ! 0. If E is perpendicular to the sheet and equal to 150 V m-1 (rms).) 21-13-2. Surface-wave powers.02 .1 m-1 and Qr = Ir =1.034 . 2 v 107 .) *21-13-3..146 *21-13-1. Surface-wave powers.) 2 (b) Sint o sheet 2 E2 ¨ 150 ¸ 2 v 10 ! H Re Z c ! 2 Re Z c ! © ! 2. Solution: (a) S P to sheet ! 2 Ey Zo 2 ! 150 2 ! 59. find (a) watts per square meter traveling parallel to the sheet and (b) watts per square meter into the sheet.) 2 3 E2 ¨ 100 ¸ 3. The constants for the conducting medium are W = 107 .24 mWm2 ¹ Zo 377 º 2 ª (ans. Surface-wave power. A 100-MHz wave is traveling parallel to a conducting sheet for which |Zc| = 0.7 v 10 ! H Re Z c ! 2 Re Z c ! © ! 182 Wm 2 ¹ Zo 377 º 2 ª (ans. Find (a) the Poynting vector (watts per square meter) parallel to sheet and (b) the Poynting vector into the sheet.5 Wm 2 Z o 377 2 2 Ey (ans. Solution: (a) (b) S P to sheet S int o sheet 100 2 ! ! ! 26.) with E ( = 100 V m-1 rms) perpendicular to the sheet. A plane 3-GHz wave in air is traveling parallel to the boundary of a conducting medium with H parallel to the boundary.7 Wm 2 377 (ans. find the average power per unit area lost in the conducting medium.7 x 10-3 . If the traveling-wave rms electric field E = 75 mV m-1.

integral of H around strip of width w equals current enclosed or ÑHgds = I ! wK ´ wH ! wK and H ! K (note that H B K ) (ans. Sint o sheet (ans.75 ¸ 2 !© ¹ 0.034 ! 1.) fc ! 0 (ans. Solution: K ! V sv ! Q m Q 1 ! ! A m 1 ! I m 1 2 m s s m By Amperes¶s law.) *21-13-6. Show that if K = Vsv. A TEM wave is traveling in air parallel to the plane boundary of a conducting medium. Vs is the surface charge density in coulombs per square meter and v the velocity of the wave in meters per second. continued ¨ 0.) 21-13-4. where H is the magnitude of the H field of the wave. Surface-wave current sheet. it follows that K = H.147 *21-13-3.) . Find the cutoff frequency for the TMo (dominant) mode and its attenuation per unit distance. A perfectly conducting flat sheet of large extent has a dielectric coating (Ir = 3) of thickness d = 5 mm.35 nWm 377 º ª 2 Therefore.89 Np m1 Po (ans. Solution: E! 2T Po 3 1 ! 8. where K is the sheet-current density in amperes per meter. Coated-surface wave cutoff.

148 .

) jX p !  j 200 .0) and ZA = 70 . 1.125 60 7. Balun 200 .. by moving the number of wavelengths around from the short (zero) position. Alternatively. X p ! g. 5 v 108 3 v 108 ! 30 cm. or 250 ..5 v 109 l p PL l p ! 7.149 Chapter 23. the transmission line equation can be used.375 20 PM ! PM l p ! PH ! PH ! From the Smith Chart.5 ! 0. (b) Z A P jX p ! Z A jX p Z A  jX p ! 2 Z A X 2  jZ A X p p 2 ZA  X 2 p For mid frequency. Solution: (a) PL ! 3 v 108 ! 60 cm. etc. Baluns. (b) Calculate the parallel impedances ZA || jXp at 500 1000 and 1500 MHz and plot them in a Smith Chart normalized to Zo = 50 . jX p ! j 200 ... 1 v 109 3 v 108 ! 20 cm. jX p ! jg . Check that all these impedances lie on a circle with a diameter spanning over (0. By Ben A. z. you may determine ZA || jXp graphically in a Smith Chart. (ans.) (ans. and the electrical length is equal to lp = 7. 1000 and 1500 MHz. A Type III balun has the characteristic impedance equal to Zcp = 200 . z.5 cm..5 ! 0.. ZA PX p ! ZA . It is connected to an antenna with impedance ZA = 70 . (a) Find the balun impedance jXp at f = 500. Alternatively. antenna 70 . it is found that for for for f ! 500 f ! 1000 f ! 1500 z.5 ! 0. (c) Explain what effect it would have on the bandwidth if we changed Zcp to 150 .) (ans. Munk 23-3-1.250 30 7.

Z A P jX p Zo ! 1. continued For low frequency.25  j 0.36  j 21.36  j 21.150 23-3-1. Z A P jX p ! 70 v 2002  j 702 v 200 ! 62.83 702  2002 Normalized to Z o ! 50.25  j 0. Z A P jX p Zo ! 1.83 Similarly. for high frequency. X p ! 200.44 See accompanying figure of Smith Chart . X p ! 200.44 Z A P jX p ! 62.

continued To find these values by the Smith Chart. (a) What is the terminal impedance of a ground-plane mounted stub antenna fed with a 50.48 s j 26. This is accomplished by finding their position as impedances. then projecting the added values an equal distance to the other side of the origin.30 s j 0.91s j 18..82 ! 1. (c) For Z cp ! 150 .15 s j 0.17P from the terminals? (b) Design a transformer so that the VSWR = 1.5 Zo = 50 . air-filled coaxial line if the VSWR on the line is 2. it is a matter of adding the values as admittances. it is found that Z A P s jX p ! 57.17P ZT VSWR = 2. the better the VSWR. it is ound that Z A P s jX p ! 64. value increases the bandwidth. Z T ! stub antenna terminal impedance = RT  jX T Rearranging (1) in terms of real and imaginary parts: . adding them.5 and the first voltage minimum is 0.36 It is easily seen that the 150 .54 or normalized as For Z cp ! 250 . projecting the values through the origin an equal distance. Z m ! Zo ZT  jZ o tan F x Z o  jZT tan F x (1) Vmin where Z m ! impedance on line at Vmin ! Rm  j 0 Z o ! line impedance ! 50  j 0 ..151 23-3-1. value decreases the bandwidth and the 250 . 23-3-5 Stub impedance. Note: The closer the values are to the origin. Solution: .18 or normalized as ! 1.

From (3).82 ! 0. 50 Z T ! RT  jX T ! 56  j 50 .17) ! 1.82 (3) From (2).5 ! 20. (ans.) .728 X T 50 20 0.728RT ! X T  91 v1. From which. º (2) and RT Rm tan F x ! X T  Ro tan F x by equating imaginaries Ro Rm ! 50 / 2. 20  RT ! X T RT 20 v 1.82.152 23-3-5 continued ¨X R Rm  RT ! © T m ª Ro ¸ ¹ tan F x by equating reals.82 ! X T  50 v 1. Ro ! 50. tan F x ! tan(360o v .

3162 or +2.0056 .38 dB 0.0056 ! 1.) (ans.0056 ! 1.049 d 1  0.0178 0.3 GHz.2238  0.30 dB 0.9749 or  0. By Arto Lehto and Pertti Vainikainen 24-3-1.0056 ! 0.22 dB 0.0178  0. The level of a wave reflected from the ground is 45 dB below the level of the direct wave. .0056 or 0. Antenna Measurements. 24-3b and since the reflected wave is 45 d or 10 (45/ 20) ! 0.) (b) so 13 dB side lobes provides 10  (13 / 20) ! 0.0056 ! 0.0178  0. The width of the antenna is 8 m and it operates at 5.) (ans.0251 or +0.) 24-3-2.6838 or  3.) (ans.22 dB 0.2238 (ans.9944 or  0.2238 0. Uncertainty of pattern measurement due to reflected wave. The maximum allowed phase curvature in the measurement of a very low-sidelobe antenna is 5r. (a) 1  0. Find the required separation between the source and AUT.2238  0. (c) -35 dB sidelobe? Solution: From Sec. (b) -13 dB sidelobe. How large of errors (in dB) are possible in the measurement of: (a) main lobe peak.153 Chapter 24.0178 (ans. Range length requirement due to allowed phase curvature.049 d (ans.0056 ! 1.) (c) so 35 dB side lobes provides 10  (35 / 20) ! 0.0178 0.0056 ! 0.2238 0.

013 P (ans. d 5 1 ! ! P 360 72 Therefore.3 v 1010 so.154 24-3-2.013 m 2.0566 Since. let d be the distance causing the phase error. R! 1 D2 9 D2 72 ! 8 P P Ru 9 v 64 ! 10.2) 2 ! ! 221 m 0. Solution: 3 v108 P! ! 0. 5.) . D2 . antenna heights. Design an elevated range (range length. Design of elevated range. Ru 2 D 2 2 v (1.0566 m. continued Solution: R R d D/2 Similar to Fig. 24-5. P! 3 v108 ! 0. 4 R$ D2 8d kd ! 2T 5 d! T (rad) P 180 so. source antenna diameter) for the measurement of a 1.3 v109 24-4-1.2 m reflector antenna operating at 23 GHz.176 m 0. Then ¨D¸ ( R  d )2 ! R 2  © ¹ ª2º 2 R 2  2dR  d 2 ! R 2  For a 5o phase error.

so samples = 4000 per line per side Total samples = 2 v (4 v 103 ) 2 ! 32 v 10 6 32 v 106 t! ! 3.5P R 1.2 ! 6 m (ans. The separation between the antennas is 200 m. continued From combining requirements in (24-4-1) and (24-4-2) H R $ 5 v D ! 5 v 1. The AUT has a gain of 40 dBi at 10 GHz. Find the minimum transmitted power that is needed for a dynamic range of 60 dB. The receiver sensitivity (signal level that is sufficient for measurement) is ±105 dBm.001 m Sample at 2 per wavelength. 3 v 1011 D! 2m ! 2000P 0.155 24-4-1.72 m 6 HR (ans. DT u 1. Power requirement for certain dynamic range. Solution: From (24-5-2) and since ¨ P ¸ ¨ 0. The gain of the source antenna is 20 dBi. Solution: 3 v 108 P! ! 0.2 v 106 sec ! 888 hrs 54min $ 37 days 10 samples/sec (ans.) and similarly for H T ! H R From (24-4-1).5 v 0.) 24-4-2.) 24-5-1. Time required for near-field scanning.001 m. Estimate the time needed for a planar near-field measurement of a 2 m antenna at 300 GHz. The sampling speed is 10 samples per second.42 v 10 ! 98 dB ª 4T R º ª 4T v 200 º 2 2 .03 ¸ 10 © ¹ !© ¹ ! 1.013v 221 ! ! 0.

continued ¨ PR ¸ © ¹ ! 40 d i ª PT ºd 20 d i  98 d !  38 d With 105 d m needed at a minimum for the reception and a 60 d dynamic range. 36 dBm. and -28 dBm for antennas pairs AB. and C are measured in pairs at 12 GHz.156 24-5-1. The received powers are -31 dBm. ª 4T R º 2 2 P! 3 v108 ! 0.18 v 10 or  72 dB 4T R º ª 4T 8 º ª then G AGB ! C AB ! 31 dBm  3 dBm  72 dB ! 38 dB G AGC ! C AC ! 36 dBm  3 dBm  72 dB ! 33 dB GB GC ! C BC ! 28 dBm  3 dBm  72 dB ! 41 dB GB C AB ! .) 24-5-2. The transmitted power is +3 dBm. A.025 ¸ 8 © ¹ !© ¹ ! 6. C AC ¨ C AB ¸ 2 © ¹ GC ! CBC ª C AC º So GC ! C BC C AC 1 ! (41 dB + 33 dB  38 dB) ! 18 dBi 2 C AB 4 P GT GR ! T PR ¨ P ¸ © ¹ .2 mW (ans . Three horn antennas.) . AC. B. 2 ¨ P ¸ ¨ 0. Gain measurement using three unknown antennas. then Pt ! 105 d m  38 d  60 d !  7 d m Pt ! 0. and BC. The separation of antennas is 8 m. GC C AC GB ! C AB GC . respectively. Find the gains of the antennas. Solution: From (24-5-2).025 m 1.2 v 1010 (ans.

5 m 2 4T 4T Ae 175.7 GHz the antenna temperature increases 50 K as a 20 m reflector is pointed to Cygnus A.38 v 1023 v 50 ! ! 1. Find the antenna gain and aperture efficiency.111) 2 ! ! 175. I ap ! 24-5-4.) 24-5-3. You try to measure the impedance of a horn antenna with 15 dBi gain at 10 GHz in a normal laboratory room by pointing the main lobe of the antenna perpendicularly towards a wall 2 m away.5 dBi 785 v 10 26 v (0. Solution: From (24-5-7).79 v 105 ! 52.5 ! ! 0. At 2. Solution: The normalized received power from the horn to the wall and back into the horn PR ¨ P ¸ ! V GT GR © ¹ P ª 4T R º T 2 .157 GA ! C AC ! 33 dB  18 dB ! 15 dBi GC (ans. continued GB ! C BC ! 41 dB  18 dB ! 23 dBi GC (ans.79 v 105 v (0.111)2 SP 2 Ae ! GP 2 1. Estimate the uncertainty of the measurement of the reflection coefficient of the AUT due to the reflection of the wall.3 and it can be assumed to cover practically the whole beam of the AUT. G! 8T k (TA 8T v 1. Impedance in laboratory.56 or 56% Ap T (10) 2 For a 20 m circular reflector.) 24-5-2. Gain measurement using celestial radio source. The power reflection coefficient of the wall is 0.

03 m. ¨ P ¸ ¨ 0. P ! 0.03 ¸ 7 © ¹ !© ¹ ! 3.6 v 10 !  64 d ª 4T º ª 4T v 2 v 2 º 2 2 24-5-4.000126 in po er 0. continued PR ! 5 d  15 d i  15 d i  64 d ! 39 d P T ! 0.3 ! 5 d .158 V ! 0. .01122 in voltage So the uncertainty is about 1%.

(5-6-7) 25 two-element. (19-1-7) 131. (19-1-6) 130. (6-2-4) 36. (19-1-8) 132 Array broadside (5-6-10) 27.159 INDEX Index reads as follows: Entry (Problem number) page A Aperture with phase ripple (19-1-5) 127 with tapered distribution (19-1-3) 127. (6-3-10) 40 Direction finding (21-9-3) 136 Directional pattern. (6-3-2) 37. (6-3-4) 38. artificial (17-3-1) 122 Dipole electric (6-2-1) 35 short (6-2-2) 35. (16-2-1) 109 seven short dipoles (16-6-4) 113 sixteen source (16-6-7) 114 end-fire (16-3-1) 110 four sources in square (5-2-8) 23 ordinary end-fire (5-6-9) 25 square-corner reflector (10-3-6) 68 three-source (5-9-2) 30 three unequal sources (5-8-1) 29 twelve-source end-fire (5-6-5) 24. with back lobe (6-3-9) 40 Directional pattern in UandJ . unequal currents (16-4-3) 111 two-source end-fire (5-2-4) 23 two-sources in opposite phase (5-18-2) 33 Artificial dielectric (17-3-1) 122 B Backpacking penguin (12-3-4) 90 Balun (23-3-1) 143 Beamwidth (3-7-2) 18 Broadcast array. (19-1-4) 127. four-tower (16-8-6) 116 Broadside array two element (16-2-1) 109 seven short dipoles (16-6-4) 113 sixteen source (16-6-7) 114 D Depolarization ratio (2-17-2) 15 Detecting one electron (12-5-5) 97 Dielectric.

 39. .

(5-6-5) 24 two-sources in phase (5-18-1) 32 Forest absorption (12-4-3) 95 Friis formula (2-11-1) 4 G Gain (2-7-4) 3. (5-6-9) 25. (4-5-5) 21. (2-17-8) 13. (5-6-5) 24. (2-16-3) 8. (2-17-11) 14. power requirement (24-5-1) 149 E Echelon array (6-7-1) 43 Eelevated range design (24-4-1) 148 Effective aperture (2-9-2) 4. (2-9-3) 4. (2-9-1) 3. (2-17-6) 11. Coated-surface wave cutoff (21-13-6) 141 Conical antenna (11-2-2) 75 Conical pattern (6-3-5) 38. (5-2-4) 23. (4-5-3) 20. (2-9-3) 4 Elliptically polarized wave (2-16-4) 9. 40 Directive gain (5-8-7) 29 Directivity (2-7-1) 1. (3-7-2) 18. (2-17-10) 13 End-fire array. (2-17-3) 10. . (2-17-9) 13. (9-9-1) 60 Gain measurement using celestial radio source (24-5-3) 151 using three unknown antennas (24-5-2) 150 Galileo spacecraft (12-3-22) 94 C Carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N) (12-3-19) 93 Circularly polarized wave (2-16-2) 8. (2-17-7) 12. (16-6-1) 112 Dynamic range. (5-610) 27 Dolph-Tchebyscheff array (5-9-4) 31. (2-74) 3. two element (16-3-1) 110 F Field pattern (5-5-1) 24. (6-3-6) 39 Critical frequency (12-3-9) 86 . (2-7-3) 2. (2-7-2) 1. (4-5-2) 20. (4-5-1) 19. (2-17-4) 11. (4-5-4) 21.

(9-9-4) 62. (8-15-1) 56 normal mode (8-11-1) 55 Horn antenna (3-4-1) 17. (9-9-2) 61. (3-5-2) 17. (3-4-2) 17.160 Low earth orbit satellite (12-3-17) 90 H Helical antennas axial mode (8-3-1) 53. (17-4-1) 123 Linearly polarized waves (2-17-2) 10 Link interstellar wireless (12-3-13) 89 Mars and Jupiter (2-11-4) 5 Moon (2-11-5) 7 satellite (12-3-4) 82 spacecraft (2-11-2) 5. (13-6-3) 104 slot (9-5-1) 57 stub antenna (23-3-5) 145 Isotropic antenna (6-3-1) 37 J Jupiter signals (12-4-4) 95 L Lenses (17-2-1) 121. (11-7-2) 78 Log-spiral antenna (11-5-1) 75 Loop P/10 (7-7-1) 50 3P/4 (7-4-1) 49 circular (7-8-2) 51 directivity (7-8-1) 50 radiation resistance (7-6-1) 49. (8-3-2) 53. (8-3-3) 54. (2-11-3) 5 spaceship near moon (2-16-1) 7 Loaded element (18-9-2) 125 Log-periodic antenna (11-7-1) 77. (9-9-5) 63 I Impedance 2-element array (16-3-2) 111 5P/2 antenna (13-4-1) 103 antennas in echelon (13-8-1) 104 dipole (14-12-2) 105 Impedance Dolph-Tchebyscheff array (16-6-1) 112 in laboratory (24-5-4) 151 open-slot (9-5-3) 58 side-by-side antennas (13-6-1) 103. (9-9-3) 62. (8-8-1) 55. (7-9-2) 52 Loop-dipole for CP (7-2-1) 47 . (7-8-1) 50 square (7-9-1) 51. (3-5-3) 18 Horns (9-9-1) 60.

(12-5-13) 99. (2-17-9) 13. (2-17-10) 13. (9-5-2) 58. (10-3-4) 67. (10-3-7) 71. (2-176) 11. (2-16-3) 8 Q Quad-helix antenna (8-15-1) 56 R Radar cross section (12-5-6) 98 Radar detection (12-5-1) 96. (9-5-3) 58 Solar interference (12-3-7) 84 Solar power (4-3-1) 19 Square array (16-6-3) 112. (10-3-6) 68. (2-17-11) 14. (16-16-6) 120 E-type (16-16-2) 119 S Satellite downlink (12-3-4) 82. (6-3-11) 41. charged rod (14-10-1) 105 Monopulse (21-9-3) 136 N Near-field scanning.161 M Maximum useable frequency (MUF) (12-3-9) 86 Microstrip line (9-7-3) 59 Minimum usable frequency (mUF) (12-3-10) 87 Moment method. See also Link direct-broadcast (DBS) (12-3-18) 91 low earth orbit (LEO) (12-3-17) 90 Scanning array eight-source (16-10-1) 117 Slots (9-2-1) 57. (9-5-1) 57. (10-3-8) 71 Rhombic alignment (16-16-3) 119 compromise (16-16-4) 119. (2-17-7) 12. (12-5-12) 99. Poynting vector (2-16-2) 8. (2-17-2) 10. (2-17-1) 9. (12-5-14) 100. (16-16-5) 120. (16-6-5) 114 Square loop (21-9-1) 136 Stray factor (5-8-7) 29 Stub impedance (23-3-5) 145 Submarines. (6-3-12) 41. time required (24-4-2) 149 O Overland TV (21-10-1) 138 P Patches. (10-3-5) 68. (12-5-20) 101 Radiation resistance (6-3-1) 37. uncertainty (24-3-1) 147 smoothing (15-3-1) 107 Patterns over imperfect ground (21-4-2) 135 Phase pattterns (5-5-1) 24 Poincaré sphere (2-17-5) 11 Polarization (2-16-4) 9. (2-17-3) 10. (2-17-5) 11. (9-7-1) 59 Pattern directional with back lobe (6-3-9) 40 directional in UandJ (6-3-7) 39. 50 and 100 . (6-6-1) 42. (6-5-1) 42. (7-6-1) 49 Range length (24-3-2) 147 RCS of electron (12-5-3) 96 Reflector flat sheet (10-2-1) 65 parabolic with missing sector (10-7-2) 73 square-corner (10-3-1) 66. (2-17-4) 11. (6-3-8) 40 elements (15-6-1) 107 factors (6-8-2) 44 horn (9-9-2) 61 measurement. (2-17-8) 13. (10-3-2) 66. (12-5-18) 100. communication with (21-12-1) 139 .

(21-13-2) 140.162 Surface-wave current sheet (21-13-4) 141 cutoff (21-13-6) 141 powers (21-13-1) 140. (21-13-3) 140 T Temperature with absorbing cloud (12-4-1) 94 antenna (12-2-1) 81. (12-3-6) 84 Traveling wave antennas (6-8-1) 44 U Unloaded tripole (18-9-1) 125 V V antenna (16-16-1) 118 . (12-3-12) 89 system (12-3-5) 82. (12-2-2) 81 minimum detectable (12-3-11) 88.

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