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13
DC Choppers
A dc chopper is a dctodc voltage converter. It is a static switching electrical appliance that in one
electrical conversion, changes an input fixed dc voltage to an adjustable dc output voltage without
inductive or capacitive intermediate energy storage. The name chopper is connected with the fact that
the output voltage is a ‘chopped up’ quasirectangular version of the input dc voltage.
In chapters 11 and 12, thyristor devices were used in conjunction with an ac supply that forces thyristor
turnoff at ac supply current reversal. This form of thyristor natural commutation, which is illustrated in
figure 13.1a, is termed line or source commutation.
When a dc source is used with a thyristor circuit, energy source facilitated commutation is clearly not
possible. If the load is an RC or LC circuit as illustrated in figure 13.1b, the load current falls to zero
whence the thyristor in series with the dc supply turns off. Such a natural turnoff process is termed load
commutation.
If the supply is dc and the load current has no natural zero current periods, such as with the RL load, dc
chopper circuit shown in figure 13.1c, the load current can only be commutated using a self
commutating switch, such as a GTO thyristor, GCT, IGBT or MOSFET. An SCR is not suitable since once
the device is latched on in this dc supply application, it remains on.
The dc chopper in figure 13.1c is the simplest of the five dc choppers to be considered in this chapter.
This singleended, groundedload, dc chopper will be extensively analysed. See example 13.3.
13.1 DC chopper variations
There are five types of dc choppers, of which four are a subset of the fifth  the flexible but basic, four
quadrant Hbridge chopper shown in the centre of figure 13.2. Notice that the circuits in figure 13.2 are
highlighted so that the derivation of each dc chopper from the fundamental Hbridge fourquadrant, dc
chopper can be seen. Each chopper can be categorized depending on which output I
o
V
o
quadrant or
quadrants it can operate in, as shown in figure 13.2. The five different choppers in figure 13.2 are
classified according to their output I
o

V
o
capabilities as follows:
(a) First quadrant  I +V
o
+I
o
(b) Second quadrant  II +V
o
I
o
(c) Two quadrant  I and II +V
o
±I
o
(d) Two quadrant  I and IV ±V
o
+I
o
(e) Four quadrant  I, II, III, and IV ±V
o
±I
o
In the five choppers in the parts a to e of figure 31.2, the subscript of the active switch or switches and
diodes specify in which quadrants operation is possible. For example, the chopper in figure 13.2d uses
switches T
1
and T
3
, so can only operate in the first (+I
o
,+V
o
) and third (I
o
,V
o
) quadrants.
The firstquadrant chopper in figure 13.2a (and figure 13.1c) can only produce a positive voltage
across the load since the freewheel diode D
1
prevents a negative output voltage. Also, the chopper can
only deliver current from the dc source to the load through the unidirectional switch T
1
. It is therefore a
single quadrant chopper and only operates in the first quadrant (+I
o
,+V
o
).
The secondquadrant chopper, (I
o
,+V
o
), in figure 13.2b is a voltage boost circuit and current flows
from the load to the supply, V
s
. The switch T
2
is turned on to buildup the inductive load current. Then
when the switch is turned off current is forced to flow through diode D
2
into the dc supply. The two
current paths (when the switch on and when its is off) are shown in figure 13.2b.
DC choppers
376
I o
V o
T
i o
i o
i o
i o
i o
o n
o f f
i o
Q1
Figure 13.1. Three basic types of switch commutation techniques:
(a) source commutation; (b) load commutation; and (c) switch commutation.
In the twoquadrant chopper, quadrants I and II chopper, (±I
o
,+V
o
), figure 13.2c, the load voltage is
clamped to between 0V and V
s
, because of the freewheel diodes D
1
and D
2
. Because this chopper is a
combination of the firstquadrant chopper in figure 13.2a and the secondquadrant chopper in figure
13.2b, it combines the characteristics of both. Bidirectional load current is possible but the average
output voltage is always positive. Energy can be regenerated into the supply V
s
due to the load inductive
stored energy which maintains current flow from the back emf source in the load.
The twoquadrant chopper, quadrants I and IV chopper, (+I
o
,±V
o
), figure 13.2d, can produce a positive
voltage, negative voltage or zero volts across the load, depending on the duty cycle of the switches and
the switching sequence. When both switches are switched simultaneously, an onstate duty cycle of
less than 50% (δ
<
½) results in a negative average load voltage, while δ
>
½ produces a positive
average load voltage. Since V
o
is reversible, the power flow direction is reversible, for the shown current
i
o
. Zero voltage loops are created when one of the two switches is turned off.
The fourquadrant chopper in the centre of figure 13.2 combines all the properties of the four subclass
choppers. It uses four switched and is capable of producing positive or negative voltages across the
load, whilst delivering current to the load in either direction, (±I
o
,±V
o
).
The stepup chopper, or boost converter, considered in Chapter 15.4, may be considered a dc chopper
variation, which has first quadrant characteristics.
13.2 FirstQuadrant dc chopper
The basic firstquadrant dc chopper circuit reproduced in figure 13.3a can be used to control a dc load
such as a dc motor. As such, the dc load has a backemf component, E kφω = , the magnitude and
polarity of which are dependant on the fluxφ , (field current i
f
) and its direction, and the speed ω and its
direction. If the RL load (with time constant τ = L
/R) incorporates an opposing back emf, E, then when
the switch T
1
is off and the diode D
1
is conducting, the load current can be forced to zero by the
opposing back emf. Therefore two output load current modes (continuous and discontinuous load
current) can occur depending on the relative magnitude of the back emf, load time constant, and the
switch onstate duty cycle. Continuous load current waveforms are shown in figure 13.3b, while
waveforms for discontinuous load current, with periods of zero current, are shown in figure 13.3c.
Power Electronics
377
Figure 13.2. Fundamental fourquadrant chopper (centre) showing derivation of four subclass dc
choppers: (a) firstquadrant chopper  I; (b) secondquadrant chopper  II; (c) first and second
quadrants chopper – I and II; (d) first and fourth quadrants chopper – I and IV; and
(e) fourquadrant chopper.
In both conduction cases, the average voltage across the load can be controlled by varying the ontooff
time duty cycle of the switch, T
1
. The onstate duty cycle, δ, is normally controlled by using pulsewidth
modulation, frequency modulation, or a combination of both. When the switch is turned off the inductive
load current continues and flows through the load freewheel diode, D
1
, shown in figure 13.2a
The analysis to follow assumes
• No source impedance
• Constant switch duty cycle
• Steady state conditions have been reached
• Ideal semiconductors and
• No load impedance temperature effects.
I
vo
io
vo
io
II
vo
io IV
I
vo
io
I II
LOAD
Vs
T2
D2
LOAD
Vs
T2
T1
D2
D1
LOAD
Vs
D1
T1
T4
D4
LOAD
Vs
D1
T1
LOAD
Vs
T2
T1
T4
T3
D2
D1
D4
D3
vo
io
II I
III IV
(a)
(b) (c)
(d)
io
vo
on
on
off
off
(e)
vo
vo
vo
vo
DC choppers
378
Figure 13.3. Firstquadrant dc chopper and two basic modes of chopper output current operation:
(a) basic circuit and current paths; (b) continuous load current; and
(c) discontinuous load current after t = t
x
.
13.2.1 Continuous load current
Load waveforms for continuous load current conduction are shown in figure 13.3b.
The output voltage v
o
, or load voltage is defined by
( )
0
0
≤ ≤ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
≤ ≤
¹ )
for
for
s T
o
T
V t t
v t
t t T
(13.1)
The mean load voltage (hence mean load current) is
LOAD
Vs
D1
T1
I
vo
io
on
off
(a)
t
t t
t
tx
T
I
∧
I
∨
T
vo
iℓ
tT tT
iℓ
Vs
vo
I
∧
I
∧
I
∧
I
∧
I
∨
Vs
E
E
conducting devices
T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1
(b) (c)
io io
on
(a)
vo
Vs
R L + E
T1
io
Vs
(b)
vo
R L + E
D2
io
off
(b) (c)
o
V
o
V
o
I
o
I
D1
Power Electronics
379
( )
0 0
1 1
δ
= =
−
= = =
∫ ∫
whence
T T t t
o o s
T
o
o s s
V v t dt V dt
T T
t
V E
V V I
R
T
(13.2)
where the switch onstate duty cycle δ = t
T
/T is defined in figure 13.3b.
The rms load voltage is
( )
½ ½
2 2
0 0
1 1 T T t t
rms o s
T
s s
V v t dt V dt
T T
t
V V
T
δ
( (
= =
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
= =
∫ ∫
(13.3)
The output ac ripple voltage is
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
1
r rms o
s s s
V V V
V V V δ δ δ δ
= −
= − = −
(13.4)
The maximum rms ripple voltage in the output occurs when δ
=
½ giving an rms ripple voltage of ½V
s
.
The output voltage ripple factor is
2
2
1
1 1
1 1
δ δ
δ δ δ
 
= = −

\ .
 
−
= − = − = 

\ .
rms r
o o
s
s
V V
RF
V V
V
V
(13.5)
Thus as the duty cycle 1 δ → , the ripple factor tends to zero, consistent with the output being dc, that is
V
r
= 0.
Steadystate time domain analysis of firstquadrant chopper
 with load back emf and continuous output current
The time domain load current can be derived in a number of ways.
• First, from the Fourier coefficients of the output voltage, the current can be
found by dividing by the load impedance at each harmonic frequency.
• Alternatively, the various circuit currents can be found from the time domain
load current equations.
i. Fourier coefficients: The Fourier coefficients of the load voltage are independent of the circuit and
load parameters and are given by
( )
sin 2
1 cos 2 1
π δ
π
π δ
π
=
= − ≥ for
s
n
s
n
V
a n
n
V
b n n
n
(13.6)
Thus the peak magnitude and phase of the n
th
harmonic are given by
2 2
1
tan
n n n
n
n
n
c a b
a
b
φ
−
= +
=
Substituting expressions from equation (13.6) yields
1
2
sin
sin2
tan ½
1 cos2
s
n
n
V
c n
n
n
n
n
π δ
π
π δ
φ π π δ
π δ
−
=
= = −
−
(13.7)
where
( ) sin
n n n
v c n t ω φ = + (13.8)
such that
( ) ( )
1
sin ω φ
∞
=
= + +
∑ o o n n
n
v t V c n t (13.9)
The load current is given by
( )
( )
0 1 1
sin ω φ
∞ ∞ ∞
= = =
−
= = + = +
∑ ∑ ∑
n n o o n
o n
n n n n n
c n t v V V
i t i
R Z R Z
(13.10)
DC choppers
380
1
¾
Ipp ½
Vs / R
¼
0
0 ¼ ½ ¾ 1
δ
onstate duty cycle
T/ τ
25
5
2
1
½
0 ¼ ½ ¾ 1
onstate duty cycle δ
1
¾
½
¼
0
pu
dc output
mean
1
st
harmonic
2
nd
harmonic
3
rd
harmonic
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
r
m
s
a
s
%
o
f
d
c
s
u
p
p
l
y
V
s
where the load impedance at each harmonic frequency is given by
( )
2
2
ω = +
n
Z R n L
ii. Time domain differential equations: By solving the appropriate time domain differential equations, the
continuous load current shown in figure 13.3b is defined by
During the switch onperiod, when v
o
(t)
=
V
s
o
o s
di
L Ri E V
dt
+ + =
which yields
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∨
−  
= − + ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t t
s
o T
V E
i t e I e t t
R
(13.11)
During the switch offperiod, when v
o
(t)
= 0
0
o
o
di
L Ri E
dt
+ + =
which, after shifting the zero time reference to t
T
, in figure 13.3a, gives
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∧
 
= − − + ≤ ≤ −

\ .
for
t t
o T
E
i t e I e t T t
R
(13.12)
1
(A)
1
1
(A)
1
T
T
t
s
T
t
s
T
V e E
I
R R
e
V e E
I
R R
e
τ
τ
τ
τ
−
∧
−
∨
−
= −
−
−
= −
−
where
and
(13.13)
The output ripple current, for continuous conduction, is independent of the back emf E and is given by
(1 ) (1 )
1
T T t T t
s
T p p o
V e e
I i I I
R
e
τ τ
τ
− − +
∧ ∨
− −
− −
= ∆ = − =
−
(13.14)
which in terms of the onstate duty cycle, δ=t
T
/T, becomes
( ) 1
(1 ) (1 )
1
T T
s
T p p
V e e
I
R
e
δ δ
τ τ
τ
− − −
− −
− −
=
−
(13.15)
Figure 13.4. Harmonics in the output voltage and ripple current as a function of duty cycle δ
=
t
T
/T
and ratio of cycle period T (switching frequency, f
s
=1/T) to load time constant τ=L
/R.
Valid only for continuous load current conduction.
The peaktopeak ripple current can be extracted from figure 13.4, which shows a family of curves for
equation (13.15), normalised with respect to V
s
/
R. For a given load time constant τ
=
L
/R, switching
frequency f
s
=
1/T, and switch onstate duty cycle δ, the ripple current can be extracted. This figure
shows a number of important features of the ripple current.
• The ripple current I
pp
reduces to zero as δ
→0 and δ
→1.
• Differentiation of equation (13.15) reveals that the maximum ripple current p p I −
occurs at δ
= ½.
Power Electronics
381
• The longer the load L
/R time constant, τ, the lower the output ripple current I
pp
.
• The higher the switching frequency, 1/T, the lower the output ripple.
If the switch conducts continuously (δ
=
1), then substitution of t
T
=T into equations (13.11) to (13.13)
gives a load voltage V
s
and a dc load current is
(A)
∧ ∨
− −  
= = = = =

\ .
o s
o o
V E V E
i I I I
R R
(13.16)
The mean output current with continuous load current is found by integrating the load current over two
consecutive periods, the switch conduction given by equation (13.11) and diode conduction given by
equation (13.12), which yields
( )
( )
( )
0
1
(A)
T
o
o o
s
V E
i t dt I
R
T
V E
R
δ
−
= =
−
=
∫
(13.17)
The input and output powers are related such that
( )
( ) ( )
0
2 2
1
in out
s
i in s S
T
out o o
s
o o rms o rms
P P
V E
P V I V I I
R T
P v t i t dt
T
V E
I I R EI R E
R
δ τ
δ
∧ ∨
=
  −
 
= = − −

\ .
\ .
=
−  
= = + +

\ .
∫
(13.18)
from which the average input current can be evaluated.
Alternatively, the average input current, which is the average switch current,
switch
I , can be derived by
integrating the switch current which is given by equation (13.11), that is
( )
( )
0
0
1
1
1
T
T
t
i switch o
t t
t
s
s
I I i t dt
T
V E
e I e dt
T R
V E
I I
R T
τ τ
δ τ
− −
∨
∧ ∨
= =
  −  
= − +
 
\ . \ .
−
 
= − −

\ .
∫
∫
(13.19)
The term p p I I I
∧ ∨
−
− = is the peaktopeak ripple current, which is given by equation (13.15). By Kirchhoff’s
current law, the average diode current
diode
I is the difference between the average output current
o
I and
the average input current,
i
I , that is
( ) ( )
( ) 1
diode o i
s s
I I I
V E V E
I I
R
R T
E
I I
T R
δ τ δ
δ τ
∧ ∨
∧ ∨
= −
− −
 
= − + −

\ .
−
 
= − −

\ .
(13.20)
Alternatively, the average diode current can be found by integrating the diode current given in equation
(13.12), as follows
( )
0
1
1
1
T
t t
T t
diode
E
I e I e dt
T R
E
I I
T R
τ τ
δ τ
− −
∧ −
∧ ∨
   
= − − +
 
\ . \ .
−
 
= − −

\ .
∫
(13.21)
If E represents motor back emf, then the electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency is given by
o o
in i s
EI EI
P V I
η = = (13.22)
The chopper effective (dc) input impedance at the dc source is given by
s
in
i
V
Z
I
= (13.23)
For an RL load without a back emf, set E = 0 in the foregoing equations. The discontinuous load
current analysis to follow is not valid for an RL, with E=0 load, since the load current never reaches
zero, but at best asymptotes towards zero during the offperiod of the switch.
DC choppers
382
13.2.2 Discontinuous load current
With an opposing emf E in the load, the load current can reach zero during the offtime, at a time t
x
shown in figure 13.3c. The time t
x
can be found by
• deriving an expression for I
∧
from equation (13.11), setting t
=
t
T
,
• this equation is substituted into equation (13.12) which is equated to zero, having substituted for t
=
t
x
:
yielding
ln 1 1 (s)
T t
s
x T
V E
t t e
E
τ
τ
−
  −  
= + + −
 
\ . \ .
(13.24)
This equation shows that t
x
>
t
T
. Figure 13.5 can be used to determine if a particular set of operating
conditions involves discontinuous load current.
Figure 13.5. Bounds of discontinuous load current with E>0.
The load voltage waveform for discontinuous load current conduction shown in figure 13.3c is defined by
( )
0
0
s T
o T x
x
V t t
v t t t t
E t t T
≤ ≤ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= ≤ ≤
´ `
¦ ¦
≤ ≤
¹ )
for
for
for
(13.25)
If discontinuous load current exists for a period T  t
x
, from t
x
until T, then the mean output voltage is
( )
0
1
0
(V) δ
 
−
= + + =

\ .
−
= + ≥
∫ ∫ ∫
thence
for
T x
T x
t t T
o o
o s
t t
x
o s x T
V E
V V dt dt Edt I
R
T
T t
V V E t t
T
(13.26)
The rms output voltage with discontinuous load current conduction is given by
( )
½
2 2 2
0
2 2
1
0
(V)
T x
T x
t t T
rms s
t t
x
s
V V dt d E dt
T
T t
V E
T
δ
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
−
= +
∫ ∫ ∫
(13.27)
The ac ripple voltage and ripple factor can be found by substituting equations (13.26) and (13.27) into
2 2
r rms o
V V V = − (13.28)
1
¾
½ E / Vs
¼
0
0 ¼ ½ ¾ 1
δ
switch onstate duty
T/τ 0 1 2 5 10 ?
n
o
t
p
o
s
s
ib
le
c
o
n
t
in
u
o
u
s
d
is
c
o
n
t
in
u
o
u
s
∞
E/ Vs
δ
Power Electronics
383
and
2
1
 
= = −

\ .
r rms
o o
V V
RF
V V
(13.29)
Steadystate time domain analysis of firstquadrant chopper
 with load back emf and discontinuous output current
i. Fourier coefficients: The load current can be derived indirectly by using the output voltage Fourier
series. The Fourier coefficients of the load voltage are
( )
sin 2 sin 2
1 cos 2 1 cos 2 1
π δ π
π π
π δ π
π π
= −
 
= − − − ≥

\ .
s
x
n
s
x
n
V E t
a n n
T
n n
V E t
b n n n
T
n n
(13.30)
which using
2 2
1
tan
n n n
n
n
n
c a b
a
b
φ
−
= +
=
give
( ) ( )
1
sin
o o n n
n
v t V c n t ω φ
∞
=
= + +
∑
(13.31)
The appropriate division by ( )
2
2
n
Z R n L ω = + yields the output current.
ii. Time domain differential equations: For discontinuous load current, 0. I
∨
= Substituting this condition
into the time domain equations (13.11) to (13.14) yields equations for discontinuous load current,
specifically:
During the switch onperiod, when v
o
(t)
=
V
s
,
( ) 1 0
τ
−
−  
= − ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t
s
o T
V E
i t e t t
R
(13.32)
During the switch offperiod, when v
o
(t)
=
0, after shifting the zero time reference to t
T
,
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∧
 
= − − + ≤ ≤ −

\ .
for
t t
o x T
E
i t e I e t t t
R
(13.33)
where from equation(13.32), with t
=
t
T
,
1 (A)
T t
s
V E
I e
R
τ
−
∧
−  
= −

\ .
(13.34)
After t
x
, v
o
(t)
=
E and the load current is zero, that is
( ) 0 = ≤ ≤ for
o x
i t t t T (13.35)
The output ripple current, for discontinuous conduction, is dependent of the back emf E and is given by
equation (13.34), that is
1
T t
s
p p
V E
I I e
R
τ
−
∧
−
−  
= = −

\ .
(13.36)
Since 0 I
∨
= , the mean output current for discontinuous conduction, is
( )
( )

0 0 0
1 1
1 1
x T x T
t t t
t t t t
s
o
o
o
V E E
I i t dt e dt e I e dt
R R T T
V E
R
τ τ τ
− − −
∧
− ( −    
= = − + − +
(  
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
−
=
∫ ∫ ∫
1
(A)
x x
s s
o
t t
V E V E
T E
T
I
R
R R
δ δ
   
+ − −
 
\ . \ .
= − = (13.37)
The input and output powers are related such that
2
= = = + o i in s out in out o rms
P V I P I P P R EI (13.38)
from which the average input current can be evaluated.
DC choppers
384
Alternatively the average input current, which is the switch average current, is given by
( )
0
0
1
1
1
1
T
T
T
t
i switch o
t
t
s
t
s s
I I i t dt
T
V E
e dt
T R
V E V E
e I
R T R T
τ
τ
τ τ
δ δ
−
−
= =
−  
= −

\ .
  − −  
= − − = −
 
\ . \ .
∫
∫
(13.39)
The average diode current
diode
I is the difference between the average output current
o
I and the average
input current,
i
I , that is
diode o i
x
I I I
t
E
T
I
T R
δ
τ
∧
= −
 
−

\ .
= −
(13.40)
Alternatively, the average diode current can be found by integrating the diode current given in equation
(13.33), as follows
0
1
1
x T
t t
t t
diode
x
E
I e I e dt
T R
t
E
T
I
T R
τ τ
δ
τ
− −
∧ −
∧
   
= − − +
 
\ . \ .
 
−

\ .
= −
∫
(13.41)
If E represents motor back emf, then electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency is given by
o o
in i s
EI EI
P V I
η = = (13.42)
The chopper effective input impedance is given by
s
in
i
V
Z
I
= (13.43)
Example 13.1: DC chopper (first quadrant) with load back emf
A firstquadrant dctodc chopper feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance, 50mH inductance, and
back emf of 55V dc, from a 340V dc source. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with a 25% onstate
duty cycle, determine, with and without (rotor standstill, E = 0) the back emf:
i. the load average and rms voltages;
ii. the rms ripple voltage, hence ripple factor;
iii. the maximum and minimum output current, hence the peaktopeak output ripple in the current;
iv. the current in the time domain;
v. the average load output current, average switch current, and average diode current;
vi. the input power, hence output power and rms output current;
vii. effective input impedance, (and electromagnetic efficiency for E > 0); and
viii. sketch the output current and voltage waveforms.
Solution
The main circuit and operating parameters are
• onstate duty cycle δ = ¼
• period T = 1/f
s
= 1/200Hz = 5ms
• onperiod of the switch t
T
= 1.25ms
• load time constant τ = L
/R = 0.05mH/10Ω = 5ms
Figure Example 13.1.
Circuit diagram.
R L E
T1
10Ω 50mH
+
D1 55V
340V
Vs
δ=¼
T=5ms
Power Electronics
385
i. From equations (13.2) and (13.3), assuming continuous load current, the average and rms output
voltages are both independent of the back emf, namely
= ¼×340V = 85V
T
o s s
t
V V V
T
δ = =
¼ 240V = 120V
δ = =
= × rms
T
r s s
t
V V V
T
ii. The rms ripple voltage hence ripple factor are given by equations (13.4) and (13.5), that is
( )
( )
2 2
1
= 340V ¼ 1  ¼ 147.2V
δ δ = − = −
× = ac
r rms o s
V V V V
and
1
1
1
 1 3 1.732
¼
r
o
V
RF
V δ
= = −
= = =
No back emf, E = 0
iii. From equation (13.13), with E = 0, the maximum and minimum currents are
1.25ms
5ms
5ms
5ms
1 340V 1
11.90A
10
1 1
T t
s
T
V e e
I
R
e e
τ
τ
−
∧
−
− −
= = × =
Ω
− −
1
4
1
1 340V 1
5.62A
10 1
1
T t
s
T
V e e
I
R e
e
τ
τ
∨
− −
= = × =
Ω −
−
The peaktopeak ripple in the output current is therefore
=11.90A  5.62A = 6.28A
p p
I I I
∧ ∨
−
= −
Alternatively the ripple can be extracted from figure 13.4 using T/τ =1 and δ = ¼.
iv. From equations (13.11) and (13.12), with E = 0, the time domain load current equations are
( )
5 5ms
5ms
1
34 1 5.62
34 28.38 (A) 0 1.25ms
τ τ
− −
∨
− −
−
 
= − +

\ .
 
= × − + ×

\ .
= − × ≤ ≤ for
t t
s
o
t t
ms
o
t
V
i e I e
R
i t e e
e t
( )
5ms
11.90 (A) 0 3.75ms
τ
−
∧
−
=
= × ≤ ≤ for
t
o
t
o
i I e
i t e t
v. The average load current from equation (13.17), with E = 0, is
85V
= = 8.5A
10Ω
o
o
V
I
R
=
The average switch current, which is the average supply current, is
( )
( )
( )
¼ 340V  0 5ms
 11.90A  5.62A = 2.22A
10Ω 5ms
s
i switch
V E
I I I I
R T
δ τ
∧ ∨ −
 
= = − −

\ .
×
= ×
The average diode current is the difference between the average load current and the average input
current, that is
DC choppers
386
= 8.50A  2.22A = 6.28A
diode o i
I I I = −
vi. The input power is the dc supply voltage multiplied by the average input current, that is
=340V×2.22A = 754.8W
754.8W
i in s
out in
P V I
P P
=
= =
From equation (13.18) the rms load current is given by
754.8W
= = 8.7A rms
10Ω
rms
out
o
P
I
R
=
vii. The chopper effective input impedance is
340V
= =153.2 Ω
2.22A
s
in
i
V
Z
I
=
Load back emf, E = 55V
i. and ii. The average output voltage (85V), rms output voltage (120V rms), ac ripple voltage (147.2V
ac), and ripple factor (1.732) are independent of back emf, provided the load current is continuous.
The earlier answers for E = 0 are applicable.
iii. From equation (13.13), the maximum and minimum load currents are
1.25ms
5ms
5ms
5ms
1 340V 1 55V
 = 6.40A
10 10Ω
1 1
T t
s
T
V e E e
I
R R
e e
τ
τ
−
∧
−
− −
= − = ×
Ω
− −
1
1 340V 1 55V
0.12A
10 1 10
1
T t
s
T
V e E e
I
R R e
e
τ
τ
∨
− −
= − = × − =
Ω − Ω
−
1
4
The peaktopeak ripple in the output current is therefore
= 6.4A  0.12A = 6.28A
∧ ∨
−
= −
p p
I I I
The ripple value is the same as the E = 0 case, which is as expected since ripple current is independent
of back emf with continuous output current.
Alternatively the ripple can be extracted from figure 13.4 using T/τ
=
1 and δ
=
¼.
iv. The time domain load current is defined by
( )
5 5ms
5ms
1
28.5 1 0.12
28.5 28.38 (A) 0 1.25ms
τ τ
− −
∨
− −
−
−  
= − +

\ .
 
= × − +

\ .
= − ≤ ≤ for
t t
s
o
t t
ms
o
t
V E
i e I e
R
i t e e
e t
( )
5ms 5
5ms
1
5.5 1 6.4
5.5 11.9 (A) 0 3.75ms
τ τ
− −
∧
− −
−
 
= − − +

\ .
 
= − × − +

\ .
= − + ≤ ≤ for
t t
o
t t
ms
o
t
E
i e I e
R
i t e e
e t
v. The average load current from equation (13.37) is
85V55V
= = 3A
10Ω
o
o
V E
I
R
−
=
Power Electronics
387
E = 0 E = 55V
I
∨
Conducting device
T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1
I
∧
tT
t
io
Vs
340V
o 1¼ms 5ms
t
vo
tT
t
io
Vs
340V
o 1¼ms 5ms
t
vo
I
∧
I
∨
E
E=55V
T tT
o
I
o
I
11.9A
8.5A
5.62A
6.4A
0.12A
3A
o V
o V 85V 85V
∆io=6.28A
∆io=6.28A
The average switch current is the average supply current,
( )
( )
( )
¼ 340V  55V 5ms
 6.40A  0.12A = 0.845A
10Ω 5ms
s
i switch
V E
I I I I
R T
δ τ
∧ ∨ −
 
= = − −

\ .
×
= ×
The average diode current is the difference between the average load current and the average input
current, that is
= 3A  0.845A = 2.155A
diode o i
I I I = −
vi. The input power is the dc supply voltage multiplied by the average input current, that is
=340V×0.845A = 287.3W
287.3W
i in s
out in
P V I
P P
=
= =
From equation (13.18) the rms load current is given by
287.3W  55V×3A
= = 3.5A rms
10Ω
rms
o out
o
P EI
I
R
−
=
vii. The chopper effective input impedance is
340V
= = 402.4 Ω
0.845A
s
in
i
V
Z
I
=
The electromagnetic efficiency is given by equation (13.22), that is
55V×3A
= 57.4%
287.3W
o
in
EI
P
η =
=
viii. The output voltage and current waveforms for the firstquadrant chopper, with and without back emf,
are shown in the figure to follow.
Figure Example 13.1. Circuit waveforms.
♣
DC choppers
388
Example 13.2: DC chopper with load back emf  verge of discontinuous conduction
A firstquadrant dctodc chopper feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance, 50mH inductance, and
back emf of 55V dc, from a 340V dc source. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with a 25% onstate
duty cycle, determine:
i. the maximum back emf before discontinuous load current conduction commences with δ=¼;
ii. with 55V back emf, what is the minimum duty cycle before discontinuous load current
conduction; and
iii. minimum switching frequency at E
=
55V and t
T
= 1.25ms before discontinuous conduction.
Solution
The main circuit and operating parameters are
• onstate duty cycle δ = ¼
• period T = 1/f
s
= 1/200Hz = 5ms
• onperiod of the switch t
T
= 1.25ms
• load time constant τ = L
/R = 0.05mH/10Ω = 5ms
First it is necessary to establish whether the given conditions represent continuous or discontinuous load
current. The current extinction time t
x
for discontinuous conduction is given by equation (13.24), and
yields
1.25ms
5ms
1 1
340V  55V
1.25ms + 5ms 1 + 1  e = 5.07ms
55V
T t
s
x T
V E
t t n e
E
n
τ
τ
−
  −  
= + + −
 
\ . \ .
   
= × ×
 
\ . \ .
A
A
Since the cycle period is 5ms, which is less than the necessary time for the current to fall to zero
(5.07ms), the load current is continuous. From example 13.1 part iv, with E = 55V the load current falls
from 6.4A to near zero (0.12A) at the end of the offtime, thus the chopper is operating near the verge of
discontinuous conduction. A small increase in E, decrease in the duty cycle δ, or increase in switching
period T, would be expected to result in discontinuous load current.
i. E
∧
The necessary back emf can be determined graphically or analytically.
Graphically:
The bounds of continuous and discontinuous load current for a given duty cycle, switching period, and
load time constant can be determined from figure 13.5.
Using δ = ¼, T/τ = 1 with τ
=
5ms, and T = 5ms, figure 13.5 gives E / V
s
=
0.165. That is, E = 0.165×V
s
=
0.165×340V = 56.2V
Analytically:
The chopper is operating too close to the boundary between continuous and discontinuous load current
conduction for accurate readings to be obtained from the graphical approach, using figure 13.5.
Examination of the expression for minimum current, equation (13.13), gives
1
0
1
T t
s
T
V e E
I
R R
e
τ
τ
∨
−
= − =
−
Rearranging to give the back emf, E, produces
1.25ms
5ms
5ms
5ms
1
1
e 1
= 340V = 56.2V
e 1
T t
T s
e
E V
e
τ
τ
−
=
−
×
That is, if the back emf increases from 55V to 56.2V then at and above that voltage, discontinuous load
current commences.
ii. δ
∨
Again, if equation (13.13) is solved for 0 I
∨
= then
1
0
1
T t
s
T
V e E
I
R R
e
τ
τ
∨
−
= − =
−
Rearranging to isolate t
T
gives
Power Electronics
389
5ms
5ms
1 1
55V
= 5ms 1 + e  1
340V
= 1.226ms
T
T
s
E
t n e
V
n
τ
τ
   
= + −
 
\ . \ .
   
×
 
\ . \ .
A
A
If the switch onstate period is reduced by 0.024ms, from 1.250ms to 1.226ms (δ = 24.52%), operation
is then on the verge of discontinuous conduction.
iii. T
∧
If the switching frequency is decreased such that T = t
x
, then the minimum period for discontinuous load
current is given by equation (13.24). That is,
1.25ms
5ms
1 1
340V  55V
1.25ms + 5ms 1 + 1  e = 5.07ms
55V
T t
s
x T
V E
t T t n e
E
T n
τ
τ
−
  −  
= = + + −
 
\ . \ .
   
= × ×
 
\ . \ .
A
A
Discontinuous conduction operation occurs if the period is increased by more than 0.07ms.
In conclusion, for the given load, for continuous conduction to cease, the following operating conditions
can be changed
• increase the back emf E from 55V to 56.2V
• decrease the duty cycle δ from 25% to 24.52% (t
T
decreased from 1.25ms to 1.226ms)
• increase the switching period T by 0.07ms, from 5ms to 5.07ms (from 200Hz to 197.2Hz), with
the switch ontime, t
T
, unchanged from 1.25ms.
Appropriate simultaneous smaller changes in more than one parameter would suffice.
♣
Example 13.3: DC chopper with load back emf – discontinuous conduction
A firstquadrant dctodc chopper feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance, 50mH inductance, and
an opposing back emf of 100V dc, from a 340V dc source. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with a
25% onstate duty cycle, determine:
i. the load average and rms voltages;
ii. the rms ripple voltage, hence ripple factor;
iii. the maximum and minimum output current, hence the peaktopeak output ripple in the current;
iv. the current in the time domain;
v. the load average current, average switch current and average diode current;
vi. the input power, hence output power and rms output current;
vii. effective input impedance, and electromagnetic efficiency; and
viii. sketch the circuit, load, and output voltage and current waveforms.
Figure Example 13.3. Circuit diagram:
(a) with load connected to ground and (b) load connected so that machine flashover to ground (0V),
bypasses the switch T
1
.
R L E
T1
10Ω 50mH
+
D1 100V
340V
Vs
δ=¼
T=5ms
R L E
T1
10Ω 50mH
+ D1
100V
340V
Vs
δ=¼
T=5ms
(a) (b)
0V
0V
DC choppers
390
Solution
The main circuit and operating parameters are
• onstate duty cycle δ = ¼
• period T = 1/f
s
= 1/200Hz = 5ms
• onperiod of the switch t
T
= 1.25ms
• load time constant τ = L
/R = 0.05mH/10Ω = 5ms
Confirmation of discontinuous load current can be obtained by evaluating the minimum current given by
equation (13.13), that is
1
1
T t
s
T
V e E
I
R R
e
τ
τ
∨
−
= −
−
1.25ms
5ms
5ms
5ms
340V e 1 100V
=  = 5.62A  10A =  4.38A
10Ω 10Ω
e 1
I
∨
×
The minimum practical current is zero, so clearly discontinuous current periods exist in the load current.
The equations applicable to discontinuous load current need to be employed.
The current extinction time is given by equation (13.24), that is
1.25ms
5ms
1 1
340V  100V
= 1.25ms + 5ms 1 + 1  e
100V
= 1.25ms + 2.13ms = 3.38ms
T t
s
x T
V E
t t n e
E
n
τ
τ
−
  −  
= + + −
 
\ . \ .
   
× ×
 
\ . \ .
A
A
i. From equations (13.26) and (13.27) the load average and rms voltages are
5ms  3.38ms
= ¼×340V + 100V = 117.4V
5ms
x
o s
T t
V V E
T
δ
−
= +
×
2 2
2 2
5ms  3.38ms
= ¼ 340 + 100 = 179.3V rms
5ms
x
rms s
T t
V V E
T
δ
−
= +
× ×
ii. From equations (13.28) and (13.29) the rms ripple voltage, hence voltage ripple factor, are
2 2
2 2
= 179.3  117.4 = 135.5V ac
r rms o
V V V = −
135.5V
= = 1.15
117.4V
r
o
V
RF
V
=
iii. From equation (13.36), the maximum and minimum output current, hence the peaktopeak output
ripple in the current, are
1.25ms
5ms
1
340V100V
= 1  e = 5.31A
10Ω
T t
s
V E
I e
R
τ
−
∧
−  
= −

\ .
 
×

\ .
The minimum current is zero so the peaktopeak ripple current is
o
i ∆ =
5.31A.
iv. From equations (13.32) and (13.33), the current in the time domain is
( )
5ms
5ms
1
340V  100V
1
10Ω
24 1 (A) 0 1.25ms
τ
−
−
−
−  
= −

\ .
 
= × −

\ .
 
= × − ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t
s
o
t
t
V E
i t e
R
e
e t
Power Electronics
391
( )
5ms 5ms
5ms
1
100V
1 5.31
10Ω
15.31 10 (A) 0 2.13ms
τ τ
− −
∧
− −
−
 
= − − +

\ .
 
= − × − +

\ .
= × − ≤ ≤ for
t t
o
t t
t
E
i t e I e
R
e e
e t
( ) 0 3.38ms 5ms = ≤ ≤ for
o
i t t
Figure Example 13.3. Chopper circuit waveforms.
v. From equations (13.37) to (13.40), the average load current, average switch current, and average
diode current are
117.4V  100V
= = 1.74A
10Ω
o
o
V E
I
R
−
=
3.38ms
100V  0.25
5ms 5ms
×5.31A  = 1.05A
5ms 10Ω
x
diode
t
E
T
I I
T R
δ
τ
∧
 
−

\ .
= −
 
×

\ .
=
=1.74A  1.05A = 0.69A
i o diode
I I I = −
vi. From equation (13.38), the input power, hence output power and rms output current are
C o n d u c t i n g d e v i c e
T D T D T
v
o
i
o
i
D
i
T
v
T
0 1 . 2 5 3 . 3 7 5 6 . 2 5 8 . 3 7 1 0 1 1 . 2 5
t i m e ( m s ) t
5 . 3 1 A
V s = 3 4 0 V
E = 1 0 0 V
2 4 0 V
V s = 3 4 0 V
5 . 3 1 A
5 . 3 1 A
117.4V
E=100V
o
V
o
I
1.05A D
I
0.69A T I
1.74A
DC choppers
392
2
340V×0.69A = 234.6W
i in s
o in out o rms
P V I
P P I R EI
= =
= = +
Rearranging gives
/
= 234.6W  100V×0.69A / 10Ω = 1.29A
rms
o o in
I P R EI = −
vii. From equations (13.42) and (13.43), the effective input impedance and electromagnetic efficiency,
for E > 0 are
340V
= 493Ω
0.69A
s
in
i
V
Z
I
= =
100V×1.74A
= = 74.2%
340V×0.69A
o o
in i s
EI EI
P V I
η = =
viii. The circuit, load, and output voltage and current waveforms are plotted in figure example 13.3.
♣
13.3 SecondQuadrant dc chopper
The secondquadrant dctodc chopper shown in figure 13.2b transfers energy from the load, back to the
dc energy source V
s
, a process called regeneration. Its operating principles are the same as those for
the boost switch mode power supply analysed in chapter 15.4. The two energy transfer stages are
shown in figure 13.6. Energy is transferred from the back emf E to the supply V
s
, by varying the switch
T
2
onstate duty cycle. Two modes of transfer can occur, as with the firstquadrant chopper already
considered. The current in the load inductor can be either continuous or discontinuous, depending on
the specific circuit parameters and operating conditions.
In this analysis, and all the choppers analysed, it is assumed that:
• No source impedance;
• Constant switch duty cycle;
• Steadystate conditions have been reached;
• Ideal semiconductors; and
• No load impedance temperature effects.
Figure 13.6. Stages of operation for the secondquadrant chopper:
(a) switchon, boosting current and (b) switchoff, energy into V
s
.
13.3.1 Continuous load inductor current
Load waveforms for continuous load current conduction are shown in figure 13.7a.
The output voltage v
o
, load voltage, or switch voltage, is defined by
( )
0 0
≤ ≤ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
≤ ≤
¹ )
for
for
T
o
s T
t t
v t
V t t T
(13.44)
The mean load voltage is
(a) (b)
R L
R L
Vs
T2
D2 ioff
ion
+
+
E E
vo
io io
Vo
Io
II
Power Electronics
393
( )
( )
0
1 1
1
T
T T
o o s
t
T
s s
V v t dt V dt
T T
T t
V V
T
δ
= =
−
= = −
∫ ∫
(13.45)
where the switch onstate duty cycle δ = t
T
/T is defined in figure 13.7a.
Alternatively the voltage across the dc source V
s
is
1
1
o s
V V
δ
=
−
(13.46)
Since 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1, the stepup voltage ratio, to regenerate into V
s
, is continuously adjustable from unity to
infinity.
The average output current is
( ) 1 o s
o
E V E V
I
R R
δ − − −
= = (13.47)
The average output current can also be found by integration of the time domain output current i
o
. By
solving the appropriate time domain differential equations, the continuous load current i
o
shown in figure
13.7a is defined by
During the switch onperiod, when v
o
=
0
o
o
di
L Ri E
dt
+ =
which yields
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∨
 
= − + ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t t
o T
E
i t e I e t t
R
(13.48)
During the switch offperiod, when v
o
=
V
s
o
o s
di
L Ri V E
dt
+ + =
which, after shifting the zero time reference to t
T
, gives
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∧
−  
= − + ≤ ≤ −

\ .
for
t t
s
o T
E V
i t e I e t T t
R
(13.49)
where (A)
1
1
and (A)
1
T
T
t T
s
T
T t
s
T
E V e e
I
R R
e
E V e
I
R R
e
τ τ
τ
τ
τ
− −
∧
−
− +
∨
−
−
= −
−
−
= −
−
(13.50)
Figure 13.7. Secondquadrant chopper output modes of current operation:
(a) continuous inductor current and (b) discontinuous inductor current.
t
t
T
tT
io
Vs
vo
E
E
I
∧
t
t
T
I
∨
vo
io
tT
I
∧
I
∨
Vs
I
∧
I
∧
I
∧
tx
(a) (b)
Conducting devices
T2 D2 T2 D2 T2 D2 T2 D2 T2 D2
o V
o V
o
I
o
I
DC choppers
394
The output ripple current, for continuous conduction, is independent of the back emf E and is given by
(1 ) ( )
1
T T T t T t
s
T p p
V e e e
I I I
R
e
τ τ τ
τ
− − − +
∧ ∨
− −
+ − +
= − =
−
(13.51)
which in terms of the onstate duty cycle, δ
=
t
T
/
T, becomes
(1 ) (1 )
1
T T
s
T p p
V e e
I
R
e
δ
τ τ
τ
− −
− −
− +
=
−
(13.52)
This is the same expression derived in 13.2.1 for the firstquadrant chopper. The normalised ripple
current design curves in figure 13.3 are valid for the secondquadrant chopper.
The average switch current,
switch
I , can be derived by integrating the switch current given by equation
(13.48), that is
( )
0
0
1
1
1
T
T
t
switch o
t t
t
I i t dt
T
E
e I e dt
T R
E
I I
R T
τ τ
δ τ
− −
∨
∧ ∨
=
   
= − +
 
\ . \ .
 
= − −

\ .
∫
∫
(13.53)
The term p p I I I
∧ ∨
−
− = is the peaktopeak ripple current, which is given by equation (13.51). By Kirchhoff’s
current law, the average diode current
diode
I is the difference between the average output current
o
I and
the average switch current,
switch
I , that is
( )
( )( )
1
1
switch diode o
s
s
I I I
E V E
I I
R R T
V E
I I
T R
δ δ τ
δ τ
∧ ∨
∧ ∨
= −
− −
 
= − + −

\ .
− −
 
= − −

\ .
(13.54)
The average diode current can also be found by integrating the diode current given in equation (13.49),
as follows
( )( )
0
1
1
1
T
t t
T t
s
diode
s
E V
I e I e dt
T R
V E
I I
T R
τ τ
δ τ
− −
∧ −
∧ ∨
  −  
= − +
 
\ . \ .
− −
 
= − −

\ .
∫
(13.55)
The power produced (provide) by the back emf source E is
( ) 1
s
o E
E V
P EI E
R
δ   − −
= =

\ .
(13.56)
The power delivered to the dc source V
s
is
( )( ) 1
s
V s s diode s
V E
P V I V I I
T R
δ τ
∧ ∨   − −
 
= = − −
 
\ .
\ .
(13.57)
The difference between the two powers is the power lost in the load resistor, R, that is
2
rms
rms
E V o s
o s diode
o
P P I R
EI V I
I
R
= +
−
=
(13.58)
The efficiency of energy transfer between the back emf E and the dc source V
s
is
s
diode V s
o E
P V I
P EI
η = = (13.59)
13.3.2 Discontinuous load inductor current
With low duty cycles, δ, low inductance, L, or a relatively high dc source voltage, V
s
, the minimum output
current may reach zero at t
x
, before the period T is complete (t
x
<
T), as shown in figure 13.7b. Equation
(13.50) gives a boundary identity that must be satisfied for zero current,
1
0
1
T T t
s
T
E V e
I
R R
e
τ
τ
−
∨
−
−
= − =
−
(13.60)
Power Electronics
395
That is
1
1
T T t
T
s
E e
V
e
τ
τ
− +
−
−
=
−
(13.61)
Alternatively, the time domain equations (13.48) and (13.49) can be used, such that
∨
I =
0. An
expression for the extinction time t
x
can be found by substituting t
=
t
T
into equation (13.48). The resulting
expression for I
∧
is then substituted into equation (13.49) which is set to zero. Isolating the time variable,
which becomes t
x
, yields
1
0 1 1
T
x x T
t
t t t
s
E
I e
R
E V E
e e e
R R
τ
τ τ τ
−
− − −
 
= −

\ .
−    
= − + −
 
\ . \ .
which yields
1 1
T t
x T
s
E
t t n e
V E
τ
τ
−
   
= + + −
 
−
\ . \ .
A (13.62)
This equation shows that
x T
t t ≥ . Load waveforms for discontinuous load current conduction are shown
in figure 13.7b.
The output voltage v
o
, load voltage, or switch voltage, is defined by
( )
0 0
≤ ≤ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= ≤ ≤
´ `
¦ ¦
≤ ≤
¹ )
for
for
for
T
o s T x
x
t t
v t V t t t
E t t T
(13.63)
The mean load voltage is
( )
( )
0
1 1 x
T x
T t T
o o s
t t
V v t dt V dt E dt
T T
= = +
∫ ∫ ∫
( )
1
x T x x x
s s
x
o s s
t t T t t t
V E V E
T T T T
t
V E V V E
T
δ
δ
− −    
= + = − + −
 
\ . \ .
= − + −
(13.64)
where the switch onstate duty cycle δ = t
T
/T is defined in figure 13.7b.
The average output current is
( )
x
s s
o
o
t
V V E
E V
T
I
R R
δ − −
−
= = (13.65)
The average output current can also be found by integration of the time domain output current i
o
. By
solving the appropriate time domain differential equations, the continuous load current i
o
shown in figure
13.7a is defined by
During the switch onperiod, when v
o
= 0
o
o
di
L Ri E
dt
+ =
which yields
( ) 1 0
τ
−
 
= − ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t
o T
E
i t e t t
R
(13.66)
During the switch offperiod, when v
o
=
V
s
o
o s
di
L Ri V E
dt
+ + =
which, after shifting the zero time reference to t
T
, gives
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∧
−  
= − + ≤ ≤ −

\ .
for
t t
s
o x T
E V
i t e I e t t t
R
(13.67)
1 (A)
0 (A)
τ
−
∧
∨
 
= −

\ .
=
where
and
T t
E
I e
R
I
(13.68)
After t
x
, v
o
(t)
=
E and the load current is zero, that is
( ) 0 = ≤ ≤ for
o x
i t t t T (13.69)
DC choppers
396
The output ripple current, for discontinuous conduction, is dependent of the back emf E and is given by
equation (13.68),
1
T t
p p
E
I I e
R
τ
−
∧
−
 
= = −

\ .
(13.70)
The average switch current,
switch
I , can be derived by integrating the switch current given by equation
(13.66), that is
( )
0
0
1
1
1
T
T
t
switch o
t
t
I i t dt
T
E
e dt
T R
E
I
R T
τ
δ τ
−
∧
=
   
= −
 
\ . \ .
= −
∫
∫
(13.71)
The term p p I I
∧
−
= is the peaktopeak ripple current, which is given by equation (13.70). By Kirchhoff’s
current law, the average diode current
diode
I is the difference between the average output current
o
I and
the average switch current,
switch
I , that is
( )
( )
switch diode o
x
s s
x
s
I I I
t
V V E
E
T
I
R R T
t
V E
T
I
T R
δ
δ τ
δ
τ
∧
∧
= −
− −
= − +
 
− −

\ .
= −
(13.72)
The average diode current can also be found by integrating the diode current given in equation (13.67),
as follows
( )
0
1
1
x T
t t
t t
s
diode
x
s
E V
I e I e dt
T R
t
V E
T
I
T R
τ τ
δ
τ
− −
∧ −
∧
  −  
= − +
 
\ . \ .
 
− −

\ .
= −
∫
(13.73)
The power produced by the back emf source E is
o E
P EI = (13.74)
The power delivered to the dc source V
s
is
V s diode s
P V I = (13.75)
Alternatively, the difference between the two powers is the power lost in the load resistor, R, that is
2
rms
rms
E V o s
o s diode
o
P P I R
EI V I
I
R
= +
−
=
(13.76)
The efficiency of energy transfer between the back emf and the dc source is
s
diode V s
o E
P V I
P EI
η = = (13.77)
Example 13.4: Secondquadrant DC chopper – continuous inductor current
A dctodc chopper capable of secondquadrant operation is used in a 200V dc battery electric vehicle.
The machine armature has 1 ohm resistance in series with 1mH inductance.
i. The machine is used for regenerative braking. At a constant speed downhill, the back emf is
150V, which results in a 10A braking current. What is the switch onstate duty cycle if the
machine is delivering continuous output current? What is the minimum chopping frequency
for these conditions?
ii. At this speed, (that is, E
=
150V), determine the minimum duty cycle for continuous inductor
current, if the switching frequency is 1kHz. What is the average braking current at the critical
duty cycle? What is the regenerating efficiency and the rms machine output current?
iii. If the chopping frequency is increased to 5kHz, at the same speed, (that is, E
=
150V), what is
the critical duty cycle and the corresponding average dc machine current?
Power Electronics
397
Solution
The main circuit operating parameters are
• V
s
=
200V
• E
=
150V
• load time constant τ = L
/R = 1mH/1Ω = 1ms
Figure Example 13.4. Circuit diagram and waveforms.
i. The relationship between the dc supply V
s
and the dc machine back emf E is given by equation
(13.47), that is
( )
( )
1
150V  200V 1  δ
10A =
1Ω
= 0.3 30% and = 140V
δ
δ
− − −
= =
×
≡
that is
o s
o
o
E V E V
I
R R
V
The expression for the average dc machine output current is based on continuous armature inductance
current. Therefore the switching period must be shorter than the time t
x
predicted by equation (13.62)
for the current to reach zero, before the next switch onperiod. That is, for t
x
=
T and δ
=
0.3
1 1
T t
x T
s
E
t t n e
V E
τ
τ
−
   
= + + −
 
−
\ . \ .
A
This simplifies to
0.3
1ms
0.7 0.3
1ms 150V
1 0.3 1 1
200V  150V
4 3
T
T T
n e
T
e e
−
−
   
= + + −
 
\ . \ .
= −
A
Iteratively solving this transcendental equation gives T
= 0.4945ms. That is the switching frequency
must be greater than f
s
=1/T = 2.022kHz, else machine output current discontinuities occur, and equation
(13.47) is invalid. The switching frequency can be reduced if the onstate duty cycle is increased as in
the next part of this example.
ii. The operational boundary condition giving by equation (13.61), using T=1/
f
s
=1/1kHz = 1ms, yields
( ) 1 ×1ms
1ms
1ms
1ms
1
1
150V 1  e
200V
1  e
T T t
T
s
E e
V
e
τ
τ
δ
− +
−
−
=
−
=
Solving gives δ
=
0.357. That is, the onstate duty cycle must be at least 35.7% for continuous machine
output current at a switching frequency of 1kHz.
R L
Vs = 200V
T2
D2
1Ω 1mH +150V
io
I
∨
vo
io
I
∧
I
∨
Vs =200V
t
t
T
tT
Conducting devices
T2 D2 T2 D2 T2 D2
=0 =0
vo
io
II
E=150V
o
I
o
V
DC choppers
398
For continuous inductor current, the average output current is given by equation (13.47), that is
( )
( )
1
150V  200V× 1  0.357 150V 
= = = 21.4A
1Ω 1Ω
=150V  21.4A×1Ω = 128.6V
o s
o
o
o
E V E V
I
R R
V
V
δ − − −
= =
The average machine output current of 21.4A is split between the switch and the diode (which is in
series with V
s
).
The diode current is given by equation (13.54)
( )( ) 1
switch diode o
s
I I I
V E
I I
T R
δ τ
∧ ∨
= −
− −
 
= − −

\ .
The minimum output current is zero while the maximum is given by equation (13.68).
0.357×1ms
1ms
150V
1 1  e = 45.0A
1Ω
T t
E
I e
R
τ
−
∧
   
= − = ×
 
\ . \ .
Substituting into the equation for the average diode current gives
( )
( ) ( ) ms
ms
200V  150V 1  0.357 1
= 45.0A  0A  = 12.85A
1 1Ω
diode
I
×
×
The power delivered by the dc machine back emf E is
= 150V×21.4A = 3210W
o E
P EI =
while the power delivered to the 200V battery source V
s
is
200V×12.85A = 2570W
s
diode
V s
P V I = =
The regeneration transfer efficiency is
2570W
= = 80.1%
3210W
s V
E
P
P
η =
The energy generated deficit, 640W (3210W  2570W)), is lost in the armature resistance, as I
2
R heat
dissipation. The output rms current is
640W
= = 25.3A rms
1Ω
rms o
P
I
R
=
iii. At an increased switching frequency of 5kHz, the duty cycle would be expected to be much lower
than the 35.7% as at 1kHz. The operational boundary between continuous and discontinuous
armature inductor current is given by equation (13.61), that is
( ) 1+δ 0.2ms
1ms
0.2ms
1ms
1
1
150V 1  e
=
200V
1  e
T T t
T
s
E e
V
e
τ
τ
− +
−
×
−
=
−
which yields δ = 26.9% .
The machine average output current is given by equation (13.47)
( )
( )
1
150V  200V× 1  0.269 150V
= 3.8A
1 1Ω
o s
o
o
E V E V
I
R R
V
δ − − −
= =
−
= =
Ω
such that the average output voltage
o V is 146.2V.
♣
13.4 Twoquadrant dc chopper  Q I and Q II
Figure 13.8 shows the basic twoquadrant dc chopper, which is a reproduction of the circuit in figure
13.2c. Depending on the load and operating conditions, the chopper can seamlessly change between
and act in two modes
• Devices T
1
and D
1
form the firstquadrant chopper shown in figure 13.2a, and is analysed in
section 13.2. Energy is delivered from the dc source V
s
to the RLE load.
Power Electronics
399
• Devices T
2
and D
2
form the secondquadrant chopper shown in figure 13.2b, which is analysed
in section 13.3. Energy is delivered from the generating load dc source E, to the dc source V
s
.
The two independent choppers can be readily combined as shown in figure 13.8a.
The average output voltage
o V and the instantaneous output voltage v
o
are never negative, whilst the
average source current of V
s
can be positive (Quadrant I) or negative (Quadrant II). If the two choppers
are controlled to operate independently, with the constraint that T
1
and T
2
do not conduct
simultaneously, then the analysis in sections 13.2 and 13.3 are valid. Alternately, it is not uncommon
the unify the operation of the two choppers, as follows.
Figure 13.8. Twoquadrant (I and II) dc chopper circuit where v
o
>
0:
(a) basic twoquadrant dc chopper; (b) operation and waveforms for quadrant I; and (c) operation
and waveforms for quadrant II, regeneration into V
s
.
0
0
0
o
I
I
I
∨
<
<
<
(b) (c)
Vs
I
∨
t
vo
io
is
t
t
Vs
E
I
∨
I
∨
I
∧
I
∧
o V
o V
o I
s I
s I
E
I
∧
I
∧
t
t
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
Conducting devices
D2 T1 D1 T2 D2 T1 D2 T2 D2 T2
o I
I
∨
tT T
txT
txD
tT T
on
T1
vo
Vs
R L + E
D1
off
D2
vo
Vs
R L + E
T2
on
off
I
Vo
Io
Vo
Io
II
T1 D2
vo
Vs
R L + E
Q I io
Q II io
T2 D1
(a)
Vo
Io
I II
0
0
0
o
I
I
I
∨
>
<
>
DC choppers
400
If the chopper is operated such that the switches T
1
and T
2
act in a complementary manner, that is either
T
1
or T
2
is on, then some of the independent flexibility offered by each chopper is lost. Essentially the
consequence of complementary switch operation is that no extended zero current periods exist in the
output, as shown in figures 13.8a and b. Thus the equations describing the features of the firstquadrant
chopper in section 13.2.1, for continuous load current, are applicable to this chopper, with slight
modification to account for the fact that both the minimum and maximum currents can be negative.
The analysis for continuous inductor current in section 13.2 is valid, but the minimum current is not
restricted to zero. Consequently four possible output modes can occur, depending on the relative
polarity of the maximum and minimum currents shown in figure 18.8b and c.
i. I
∨
> 0, I
∧
> 0 and
o
I > 0
When the minimum current (hence average output current) is greater than zero, the chopper is active
in the firstquadrant. Typical output voltage and current waveforms are shown in figure 13.3a. The
switch T
2
and diode D
2
do not conduct during any portion of the operating period.
ii. I
∨
< 0, I
∧
> 0 and
o
I > 0
When the minimum current is negative but the maximum positive current is larger in absolute
magnitude, then for a highly inductive load, the average output current is greater than zero, and the
chopper operates in the firstquadrant. If the load is not highly inductive the boundary is determined
by the average output current
o
I >
0. The various circuit waveforms are shown in figure 13.8b.
iii. I
∨
< 0, I
∧
> 0 and
o
I < 0
For a highly inductive load, if the magnitude of the negative peak is greater than the positive
maximum, the average is less than zero and the chopper is operating in the regenerative mode,
quadrant II. If the load is not highly inductive the boundary is determined by the average output
current
o
I < 0.
iv. I
∨
< 0, I
∧
< 0 and
o
I < 0
When the maximum current and the average current are both negative, the chopper is operational in
the secondquadrant. Since the load current never goes positive, switch T
1
and diode D
1
never
conduct, as shown in figure 13.8c.
In all cases the average output voltage is solely determined by the switch T
1
ontime duty cycle, since
when this switch is turned on the supply V
s
is impressed across the load, independent of the direction of
the load current. When i
o
> 0, switch T
1
conducts while if i
o
< 0, the diode in parallel to switch T
1
, namely
D
1
conducts, clamping the load to V
s
.
The output voltage, which is independent of the load, is described by
( )
0
0
≤ ≤ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
≤ ≤
¹ )
for
for
s T
o
T
V t t
v t
t t T
(13.78)
Thus
0
1 T t
T
o s s s
t
V V dt V V
T T
δ = = =
∫
(13.79)
The rms output voltage is also determined solely by the duty cycle,
½
2
0
1 T t
rms s
s
V V dt
T
V δ
(
=
(
¸ ¸
=
∫
(13.80)
The output ac ripple voltage, hence voltage ripple factor are given by equations (13.3) and (13.5), and
are independent of the load:
( )
2 2
1
r rms o s
V V V V δ δ = − = − (13.81)
and
1 1
1
δ
δ δ
−
= = − =
r
o
V
RF
V
(13.82)
The Fourier series for the load voltage can be used to determine the load current at each harmonic
frequency as described by equations (13.6) to (13.10).
The time domain differential equations from section 13.2.1 are also valid, where there is no zero
restriction on the minimum load current value.
In a positive voltage loop, when v
o
(t)
=
V
s
and V
s
is impressed across the load, the load circuit
condition is described by
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∨
−  
= − + ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t t
s
o T
V E
i t e I e t t
R
(13.83)
Power Electronics
401
During the switch offperiod, when v
o
=
0, forming a zero voltage loop
( ) 1 for 0
t t
o T
E
i t e I e t T t
R
τ τ
− −
∧
 
= − − + ≤ ≤ −

\ .
(13.84)
where
1
(A)
1
1
(A)
1
τ
τ
τ
τ
−
∧
−
∨
−
= −
−
−
= −
−
where
and
T
T
t
s
T
t
s
T
V e E
I
R R
e
V e E
I
R R
e
(13.85)
The peaktopeak ripple current is independent of E,
( ) 1
(1 ) (1 )
1
T T
s
T p p
V e e
I
R
e
δ δ
τ τ
τ
− − −
− −
− −
=
−
(13.86)
The average output current,
o
I , may be positive or negative and is given by
( )
( )
( )
0
1
(A)
T
o
o o
s
V E
i t dt I
R
T
V E
R
δ
−
= =
−
=
∫
(13.87)
The direction of the net power flow between E and V
s
determines the chopper operating quadrant. If
o
V > E then average power flow is to the load, as shown in figure 13.8b, while if
o
V < E, the average
power flow is back into the source V
s
, as shown in figure 13.8c.
2
rms
o s s o
V I R EI I = ± + (13.88)
Thus the sign of
o
I determines the direction of net power flow, hence quadrant of operation.
Calculation of individual device average currents in the time domain is complicated by the fact that the
energy may flow between the dc source V
s
and the load via the switch T
1
(energy to the load) or diode
D
2
(energy from the load). It is therefore necessary to ascertain the zero current crossover time,
when I
∧
and I
∨
have opposite signs, which will then specify the necessary bounds of integration.
Equations (13.83) and (13.84) are equated to zero and solved for the time at zero crossover, t
xT
and t
xD
,
respectively, shown in figure 13.8b.
1 0
1
τ
τ
∨
 

= − =
 −
\ .
 
= + = 

\ .
with respect to
with respect to
A
A
xT
s
xD T
I R
t n t
V E
IR
t n t t
E
(13.89)
The necessary integration for each device can then be determined with the aid of the device conduction
information in the parts of figure 13.8 and Table 13.1.
Table 13.1 Device average current ratings
Device and integration bounds, a to b 0, 0 I I
∧ ∨
> > 0, 0 I I
∧ ∨
> < 0, 0 I I
∧ ∨
< <
1
1
1
τ τ
− −
∨
−  
= − +

\ .
∫
t t
b
s
T
a
V E
I e I e dt
T R
0 to
T
t to
xT T
t t 0 0 to
1
0
1
1
τ τ
− −
∨
−  
= − +

\ .
∫
t t
b
s
D
V E
I e I e dt
T R
0 0 to 0 to
xT
t 0 to
T
t
2
1
1
τ τ
− −
∧
 
= − − +

\ .
∫
t t
b
T
a
E
I e I e dt
T R
0 0 to  to
xD T
t T t 0  to
T
T t
2
0
1
1
τ τ
− −
∧
 
= − − +

\ .
∫
t t
b
D
E
I e I e dt
T R
0  to
T
T t 0 to
xD
t 0 0 to
DC choppers
402
T1 D2
vo
Vs=340V
δ=¼
T=5ms
T2 D1
10Ω 50mH +100V
δ=¾
T=5ms
R L +E
vo
io
I
II
The electromagnetic energy transfer efficiency is determined from
> 0
< 0
η
η
=
=
for
for
o
o
i s
i s
o
o
EI
I
V I
V I
I
EI
(13.90)
Example 13.5: Twoquadrant DC chopper with load back emf
The twoquadrant dctodc chopper in figure 13.8a feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance, 50mH
inductance, and back emf of 100V dc, from a 340V dc source. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with
a 25% onstate duty cycle, determine:
i. the load average and rms voltages;
ii. the rms ripple voltage, hence ripple factor;
iii. the maximum and minimum output current, hence peaktopeak output ripple in the current;
iv. the current in the time domain;
v. the current crossover times, if applicable;
vi. the load average current, average switch current and average diode current for all devices;
vii. the input power, hence output power and rms output current;
viii. effective input impedance and electromagnetic efficiency; and
ix. sketch the circuit, load, and output voltage and current waveforms.
Subsequently determine the necessary change in
x. duty cycle δ to result in zero average output current and
xi. back emf E to result in zero average load current.
Solution
The main circuit and operating parameters are
• onstate duty cycle δ = ¼
• period T = 1/f
s
= 1/200Hz = 5ms
• onperiod of the switch t
T
= 1.25ms
• load time constant τ = L
/R = 0.05mH/10Ω = 5ms
Figure Example 13.5. Circuit diagram.
i. From equations (13.79) and (13.80) the load average and rms voltages are
1.25ms
×340V = ¼×340V = 85V
5ms
T
o s
t
v V
T
= =
= ¼ ×340V = 170V rms
rms s
V V δ =
ii. The rms ripple voltage, hence voltage ripple factor, from equations (13.81) and (13.82) are
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
1
= 170  85 = 340V ¼ 1  ¼ = 147.2V
r rms o s
V V V V δ δ = − = −
×
1 1
1=  1 = 1.732
¼
r
o
V
RF
V δ
= = −
iii. From equations (13.85) and (13.86), the maximum and minimum output current, hence the peakto
peak output ripple in the load current are given by
Power Electronics
403
1.25ms
5ms
5ms
5ms
1.25ms
5ms
5ms
5ms
1 340V 1  e 100V
= ×  = 1.90A
10Ω 10Ω
1 1  e
1 340V e  1 100V
= ×  =  4.38A
10Ω 10Ω
1 e  1
τ
τ
τ
τ
∧
∨
−
−
−
= −
−
−
= −
−
T
s
T
s
t
T
t
T
V e E
I
R R
e
V e E
I
R R
e
The peaktopeak ripple current is therefore
o
i ∆ = 1.90A   4.38A = 6.28A pp.
iv. The current in the time domain is given by equations (13.83) and (13.84)
( )
 
5ms 5ms
 
5 5ms

5ms
1
340V100V
= × 1  4.38×
10Ω
= 24× 1  4.38×
= 24  28.38 0 1.25ms
τ τ
− −
∨
−  
= − +

\ .
 

\ .
 

\ .
× ≤ ≤ for
t t
s
o
t t
t t
ms
t
V E
i t e I e
R
e e
e e
e t
( )
5ms 5ms
5ms 5ms
5ms
1
100
1 1.90
10
10 1 1.90
10 11.90 0 3.75ms
τ τ
− −
∧
− −
− −
−
 
= − − +

\ .
 
= − × − + ×

Ω
\ .
 
= − × − + ×

\ .
= − + × ≤ ≤ for
t t
o
t t
t t
t
E
i t e I e
R
V
e e
e e
e t
v. Since the maximum current is greater than zero (1.9A) and the minimum is less that zero ( 4.38A),
the current crosses zero during the switch ontime and offtime. The time domain equations for the load
current are solved for zero to give the cross over times t
xT
and t
xD
, as given by equation (13.89), or
solved from the time domain output current equations as follows.
During the switch ontime
( )

5ms
24  28.38 0 0 1.25ms
28.38
= 5ms× = 0.838ms
24
= × = ≤ = ≤ where
A
o xT
xT
t
i t e t t
t n
During the switch offtime
( )
5ms
10 11.90 0 0 3.75ms
11.90
=5ms× = 0.870ms
10
(1.250ms + 0.870ms = 2.12ms )
−
= − + × = ≤ = ≤
1
where
with respect to switch T turn on
A
o xD
xD
t
i t e t t
t n
vi. The load average current, average switch current, and average diode current for all devices;
( ) ( )
( ) 85V  100V
= 1.5A
10Ω
o
s
o
V E
V E
I
R R
δ
−
−
= =
When the output current crosses zero current, the conducting device changes. Table 13.1 gives the
necessary current equations and integration bounds for the condition 0, 0 I I
∧ ∨
> < . Table 13.1 shows that
all four semiconductors are involved in the output current cycle.
1
1.25ms
0.838ms

5ms
1
1
1
24  28.38 0.081A
5ms
τ τ
∨
− −
−  
= − +

\ .
= × =
∫
∫
T
xT
t
s
T
t
t t
t
V E
I e I e dt
T R
e dt
DC choppers
404
1
0

0.84ms
5ms
0
1
1
1
24  28.38 0.357A
5ms
τ τ
− −
∨
−  
= − +

\ .
= × = −
∫
∫
xT
t t
t
s
D
t
V E
I e I e dt
T R
e dt

2
3.75ms
5ms
0870ms
1
1
1
10 11.90 1.382A
5ms
τ τ
− −
∧
−
 
= − − +

\ .
= − + × = −
∫
∫
T
xD
t t
T t
T
t
t
E
I e I e dt
T R
e dt
2
0
0.870
5ms
0
1
1
1
10 11.90 0.160A
5ms
τ τ
− −
∧
−
 
= − − +

\ .
= − + × =
∫
∫
xD
t t
t
D
t
ms
E
I e I e dt
T R
e dt
Check 1 1 2 2  1.5A + 0.080A  0.357A  1.382A + 0.160A = 0 o T D T D I I I I I + + + + =
vii. The input power, hence output power and rms output current;
( )
( )
1 1
340V× 0.080A  0.357A = 95.2W, ( )
= = = +
= charging
s
i
T D in V s s
s
P P V I V I I
V
( ) 100V 1.5A = 150W, 150W o
out E
P P EI = = = × that is generating
From
2
150W  92.5W
2.34A rms
10Ω
rms
rms
o s s o
out in
o
V I I R EI
P P
I
R
= +
−
= = =
Figure Example 13.5. Circuit waveforms
I
∨
I
∧
t
t
t
1.9A
vo
io
is
4.38A
I
∧
txD o
I
1.5A
340V
o
E
100V
o
V
85V
0.28A
s
I
I
∨
o
o
Conducting devices
D2 T1 D1 T2 D2 T1 D1 T2
tT
T
txT
4.38A
1.9A
=1.25ms
=5ms
=0.383ms
2.12ms
=0.87ms
Power Electronics
405
viii. Since the average output current is negative, energy is being transferred from the back emf E to the
dc voltage source V
s
, the electromagnetic efficiency of conversion is given by
< 0
95.2W
= = 63.5%
150W
η = for
i s
o
o
V I
I
EI
The effective input impedance is
1 1
340V
= 1214Ω
0.080A  0.357A
s s
in
i T D
V V
Z
I I I
= = =
+
ix. The circuit, load, and output voltage and current waveforms are sketched in the figure for example
13.5.
x. Duty cycle δ to result in zero average output current can be determined from the expression for the
average output current, equation (13.87), that is
0
s
o
V E
I
R
δ −
= =
that is
100V
= 29.4%
340V
s
E
V
δ = =
xi. As in part x, the average load current equation can be rearranged to give the back emf E that results
in zero average load current
0
s
o
V E
I
R
δ −
= =
that is
¼×340V = 85V
s
E V δ = =
♣
13.5 Twoquadrant dc chopper  Q 1 and Q IV
The unidirectional current, twoquadrant dc chopper, or asymmetrical half Hbridge shown in figure
13.9a incorporates two switches T
1
and T
4
and two diodes D
1
and D
4
. In using switches T
1
and T
4
the
chopper operates in the first and fourth quadrants, that is, bidirectional voltage output v
o
but
unidirectional current, i
o
.
The chopper can operate in two quadrants (I and IV), depending on the load and switching sequence.
Net power can be delivered to the load, or received from the load provided the polarity of the back emf E
is reversed. Because of this need to reverse the back emf for regeneration, this chopper is not
commonly used in dc machine control. On the other hand, the chopper circuit configuration is commonly
used to meet the converter requirements of the switched reluctance machine, which only requires
unipolar current to operate. Also see chapter 15.5 for an smps variation.
The asymmetrical half Hbridge chopper has three different output voltage states, where one state has
redundancy (two possibilities). Both the output voltage v
o
and output current i
o
are with reference to the
first quadrant arrows in figure 13.9a.
State #1
When both switches T
1
and T
4
conduct, the supply V
s
is impressed across the load, as shown in
figure 13.10a. Energy is drawn from the dc source V
s
.
T
1
and T
4
conducting: v
o
= V
s
State #2
If only one switch is conducting, and therefore also one diode, the output voltage is zero, as shown
in figure 13.10b. Either switch (but only one on at any time) can be the onswitch, hence providing
redundancy, that is
T
1
and D
4
conducting: v
o
= 0
T
4
and D
1
conducting: v
o
= 0
State #3
When both switches are off, the diodes D
1
and D
4
conduct load energy back into the dc source V
s
,
as in figure 13.10c. The output voltage is V
s
, that is
T
1
and T
4
are not conducting: v
o
= V
s
DC choppers
406
Figure 13.9. Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper
(a) circuit where io>0: (b) operation in quadrant IV, regeneration into Vs; and (c) operation in quadrant I.
Figure 13.10. Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper operational current paths: (a) T1 and T4 forming a +Vs
path; (b) T1 and D4 (or T4 and D1) forming a zero voltage loop; and (c) D1 and D4 creating a Vs path.
o V
I
∧
I
∨
o V
I
∨
I
∧
1
δ
½
o
T1
T4
vo
io
is
1
½
δ
o
T1
T4
vo
io
is
tT o
+Vs
T
o tT T
2T
2T
Vs
o
I
o
I
s
I
s
I −
(c) (b)
T1 on T1 on
T4 on T4 on T4 off
T1 off T1 off T1 on
T4 off T4 off T4 on
T1 off
LOAD
Vs
D1
T1
T4
D4
vo
io IV
I
(a)
Conducting devices
T1 T1 D1 T1 T1 T1 D1 T1 D1 D1 D1 T1 D1 D1
D4 T4 T4 T4 D4 T4 T4 D4 D4 T4 D4 D4 D4 T4
io
+ vo
LOAD
Vs
D2
T1
T3
D4
LOAD
Vs
D2
T1
T3
D4
LOAD
Vs
D2
T1
T3
D4
(a) (b) (c)
+Vs
0V
Vs
0V
D3 D3
D3
T4 T4 T4
+ Vs   Vs +
D1 D1 D1
Power Electronics
407
The two zero output voltage states can most effectively be used if alternated during any switching
sequence. In this way, the load switching frequency (load ripple current frequency) is twice the
switching frequency of the switches. This reduces the output current ripple for a given switch operating
frequency (which minimises the load inductance necessary for continuous load current conduction).
Also, by alternating the zero voltage loop, the semiconductor losses are evenly distributed. Specifically,
a typical sequence to achieve these features would be
T
1
and T
4
V
s
T
1
and D
4
0
T
1
and T
4
V
s
T
4
and D
1
0 (not T
1
and D
4
again)
T
1
and T
4
V
s
T
1
and D
4
0, etc.
The sequence can also be interleaved in the regeneration mode, when only one switch is on at any
instant, as follows
D
1
and D
4
V
s
(that is T
1
and T
4
off)
T
1
and D
4
0
D
1
and D
4
V
s
T
4
and D
1
0 (not T
1
and D
4
again)
D
1
and D
4
V
s
T
1
and D
4
0, etc.
In switched reluctance motor drive application there may be no alternative to using only ±V
s
control loops
without the intermediate zero voltage state.
There are two basic modes of chopper switching operation.
• Multilevel switching is when both switches are controlled independently to give all three output
voltage states (three levels), namely ±V
s
and 0V.
• Bipolar switching (or two level switching) is when both switches operate in unison, where they
turn on together and off together. Only two voltage output states (hence the term bipolar), are
possible, +V
s
and – V
s
.
13.5.1 dc chopper:– Q I and Q IV – multilevel output voltage switching (three level)
The interleaved zero voltage states are readily introduced if the control carrier waveforms for the two
switches are displaced by 180°, as shown in figure 13.9b and c, for continuous load current. This
requirement can be realised if two updown counters are displaced by 180°, when generating the
necessary triangular carriers. As shown in figures 13.9b and c, the switching frequency 1/T
s
is
determined by the triangular wave frequency 1/2T, whilst advantageously the load experiences twice
that frequency, 1/T, hence the output current has reduced ripple, for a given switch operating frequency.
i. 0 ≤ δ ≤ ½
It can be seen in figure 13.9b that when δ ≤ ½ both switches never conduct simultaneously hence the
output voltage is either 0 or V
s
. Operation is in the fourth quadrant. The average output voltage is load
independent and for 0 ≤ δ ≤ ½, using the waveforms in figure 13.9b, is given by
( )
1
1
T
T
s T
s T s o
t
V t
V V dt T t V
T T T
−  
= − = − = − −

\ .
∫
(13.91)
Examination of figure 13.9b reveals that the relationship between t
T
and δ must produce
0 :
½: 0 0
δ
δ
= = = −
= = =
when and
when and
T o s
T o
t T v V
t v
that is
½
T
t
T
δ =
(the period of the carrier, 2T, is twice the switching period, T) which after substituting for t
T
/T in equation
(13.91) gives
( ) ( )
1
1 2 2 1 0 ½ δ δ δ
 
= − −

\ .
= − − = − ≤ ≤ for
T
s o
s s
t
V V
T
V V
(13.92)
Operational analysis in the fourth quadrant, δ ≤ ½, is similar to the analysis for the secondquadrant
chopper in figure 13.2b and analysed in section 13.3. Operation is characterised by first shorting the
output circuit to boost the current, then removing the output short forces current back into the supply V
s
,
via a freewheel diode. The characteristics of this mode of operation are described by the equations
DC choppers
408
(13.48) to (13.77) for the secondquadrant chopper analysed in 13.3, where the output current may
again be continuous or discontinuous. The current and voltage references are both reversed in
translating equations applicable in quadrants Q II to Q IV.
ii. ½ ≤ δ ≤ 1
As shown in figure 13.9c, when δ ≥ ½ and operation is in the first quadrant, at least one switch is
conducting hence the output voltage is either +V
s
or 0. For continuous load current, the average output
voltage is load independent and for ½ ≤ δ ≤ 1 is given by
0
1 T t
s
s T o
V
V V dt t
T T
= =
∫
(13.93)
Examination of figure 13.9c reveals that the relationship between t
T
and δ must produce
½: 0 0
1:
δ
δ
= = =
= = =
when and
when and
T o
T o s
t v
t T v V
that is
½ 1
T
t
T
δ
 
= +

\ .
which on substituting for t
T
/T in equation (13.93) gives
( ) 2 1 ½ 1 δ δ = = − ≤ ≤ for
T
s s o
t
V V V
T
(13.94)
Since the average output voltage is the same in each case, equations (13.92) and (13.94) for (0 ≤ δ ≤ 1),
the output current mean is given by the same expression, namely
(2 1) δ − − −
= =
o
s
o
V E V E
I
R R
(13.95)
Operation in the first quadrant, δ ≥ ½, is characterised by the firstquadrant chopper shown in figure
13.2a and considered in section 13.2 along with the equations within that section. The load current can
be either continuous, in which case equations (13.6) to (13.23) are valid; or discontinuous in which case
equations (13.24) to (13.43) are applicable. Aspects of this mode of switching are extended in section
13.5.3.
In applying the equations for the chopper in section 13.2 for the firstquadrant chopper, and the
equations in section 13.3 for the secondquadrant chopper, the duty cycle in each case is replaced by
• 2δ 1 in the case of δ ≥ ½ for the firstquadrant chopper and
• 2δ in the case of δ ≤ ½ for the fourthquadrant chopper.
This will account for the scaling and offset produced by the triangular carrier signal decoding.
13.5.2 dc chopper: – Q I and Q IV – bipolar voltage switching (two level)
When both switches operate in the same state, that is, both switches are on simultaneously or both are
off together, operation is termed bipolar or two level switching.
From figure 13.11 the chopper output states are (assuming continuous load current)
• T
1
and T
4
on v
o
= V
s
• T
1
and T
4
off v
o
=  V
s
From figure 13.11, the average output voltage is
( )
( ) ( )
0
1
2 1
T
T
t T
o
s s
t
s
T T s
V V dt V dt
T
V
t T t V
T
δ
= + −
= − + = −
∫ ∫
(13.96)
The rms output voltage is independent of the duty cycle and is V
s
.
The output ac ripple voltage is
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2
2 1 2 1 δ δ δ
= −
= − − = −
r rms o
s s s
V V V
V V V
(13.97)
which is a maxima at δ = ½ and a minima for δ = 0 and δ = 1.
The output voltage ripple factor is
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
s
r
o s
V
V
RF
V V
δ δ δ δ
δ δ
− −
= = =
− −
(13.98)
Although the average output voltage may reverse, the load current is always positive but can be
discontinuous or continuous. Equations describing bipolar output are presented within the next section,
13.5.3, which considers multilevel (two and three level) output voltage switching states.
Power Electronics
409
Figure 13.11. Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper operation in the bipolar output mode:
(a) circuit showing load components and (b) chopper output waveforms.
13.5.3 Multilevel output voltage states, dc chopper
In switched reluctance machine drives it is not uncommon to operate the asymmetrical half Hbridge
shown in figure 13.9 such that
• both switches operate in the onstate together to form +V voltage loops;
• switches operate independently the give zero voltage loops; and
• both switches are simultaneously off, forming –V voltage output loops.
The control objective is to generate a current output pulse that tracks a reference shape which starts
from zero, rises to maintain a fixed current level, with hysteresis, then the current falls back to zero. The
waveform shown in figure 13.12 fulfils this specification.
The switching strategy to produce the current waveform in figure 13.12 aims at:
• For rising current: use +V loops (and zero volt loops only if necessary)
• For near constant current: use zero voltage loops (and ±V loops only if necessary to increase
or decrease the current)
• For falling current: use – V loops (and zero volts loops only if necessary to reduce the fall rate)
Operation is further characterised by continuous load current during the pulse.
Energy is supplied to the load from the source during +V loops, and returned to the supply during –V
loop periods.
The chopper output current during each period is described by equations previously derived in this
chapter, but reproduced as follows.
In a positive voltage loop, (T
1
and T
4
are both on), when v
o
(t)
=
V
s
and V
s
is impressed across the load,
the load circuit condition is described by
o
o s
di
L Ri E V
dt
+ + =
which yields
(a)
L O A D
V s
D1
T1
T4
D4
R L + E
vo
io
(b)
t
I
∨
vo
io
I
∧
I
∨
Vs
t
T
tT
Conducting devices
T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1
T4 D4 T4 D4 T4 D4
o
Vs
o
V
o
o
I
DC choppers
410
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∨
+
−  
= − + ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t t
s
o
V E
i t e I e t t
R
(13.99)
During the first switching cycle the current starts from zero, so I
∨
=
0. Otherwise I
∨
is the lower
reference, I
−
, from the end of the previous cycle.
The current at the end of the positive voltage loop period is the reference level I
+
, whilst the time to rise
to I
+
is derived by equating equation (13.99) to I
+
and solving for time t
+
at the end of the period. Solving
i
o
(t
+
)
= I
+
for t
+
, gives
ln
s
s
V E I R
t
V E I R
τ
∨
+
+
 
− −

=
− − 
\ .
(13.100)
Figure 13.12. Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper operation in a multilevel output voltage mode.
In a zero voltage loop, when v
o
(t)
=
0, such as circuit loops involving T
1
and D
4
(or T
4
and D
1
), the
circuit equation is given by
0
o
o
di
L Ri E
dt
+ + =
which gives
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∧
 
= − − + ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t t
o
o
E
i t e I e t t
R
(13.101)
where I
∧
equals the reference current level, I
+
from the previous switching period.
The current at the end of the period is the reference level I
−
, whilst the time to fall to I
−
is given by
equating equation (13.101) to I
−
and solving for time, t
o
at the end of the period.
o
E I R
t n
E I R
τ
∧
−
 
+

=
 +
\ .
A (13.102)
In a negative voltage loop, when both switches T
1
and T
4
are off, the current falls rapidly and the circuit
equation, when v
o
(t)
= V
s,
is
o
o s
di
L Ri E V
dt
+ + = −
which gives
Conducting devices
T1 T1 T1 D1 T1 T1 T1 D1
T4 D4 T4 T4 T4 D4 T4 D4
Vs
t
t
t
is
Vs
vo
io
o
o I
o I
o
I −
o
I
∨
I
+
I

o
o
o
o
o
energy
recovered
t
o
t
+
t
o
t
+
t
o
t
+
Power Electronics
411
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∧
−
− −  
= − + ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t t
s
o
E V
i t e I e t t
R
(13.103)
where I
∧
equals the reference current level, I
+
from the previous switching period.
The current at the end of the period is I
−
, whilst the time to reach I
−
is given by equating equation
(13.101) to I
−
and solving for time t
−
at the end of the period.
s
s
V E I R
t n
V E I R
τ
∧
−
−
 
+ +

=
 + +
\ .
A (13.104)
The same equation is used to determine the time for the final current period when the current decays to
zero, whence I
−
= 0.
The characteristics and features of the three output voltage states are illustrated in the following
example, 13.6.
Example 13.6: Asymmetrical, half Hbridge, dc chopper
The asymmetrical half Hbridge, dctodc chopper in figure 13.9 feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms
resistance, 50mH inductance, and back emf of 55V dc, from a 340V dc voltage source. The chopper
output current is controlled in a hysteresis mode within a current band between limits 5A and 10A.
Determine the period of the current shape shown in the figure example 13.6:
i. when only ±V
s
loops are used and
ii. when a zero volt loop is used to maintain tracking within the 5A band.
In each case calculate the switching frequency if the current were to be maintained within the hysteresis
band for a prolonged period.
How do the onstate losses compare between the two control approaches?
Solution
The main circuit and operating parameters are
• E = 55V and V
s
= 340V
• load time constant τ = L
/R = 0.05mH/10Ω = 5ms
• I
+
= 10A and I
−
= 5A
Examination of the figure shows that only one period of the cycle differs, namely the second period, t
2
,
where the current is required to fall to the lower hysteresis band level, 5A. The period of the other three
regions (t
1
, t
3
, and t
4
) are common and independent of the period of the second region, t
2
.
t
1
: The first period, the initial rise time, t
+
= t
1
is given by equation (13.100), where I
+
=10A and I
∨
= 0A.
τ
∨
+
+
 
− −

=
 − −
\ .
A
s
s
V E I R
t n
V E I R
1
340V  55V  0A×10Ω
= 5ms = 2.16ms
340V  55V  10A×10Ω
t n
 
×

\ .
A that is
t
3
: In the third period, the current rises from the lower hysteresis band limit of 5A to the upper band limit
10A. The duration of the current increase is given by equation (13.100) again, but with I
∨
= I
−
= 5A.
3
340V  55V  5A×10Ω
= 5ms = 1.20ms
340V  55V  10A×10Ω
τ
∨
+
+
 
− −

=
 − −
\ .
 
×

\ .
that is
A
A
s
s
V E I R
t n
V E I R
t n
t
4
: The fourth and final period is a negative voltage loop where the current falls from the upper band
limit of 10A to I
−
which equals zero. From equation (13.104) with I
∧
=I
+
=10A and I
−
= 0A
4
340V + 55V + 10A×10Ω
= 5ms = 1.13ms
340V + 55V + 0A×10Ω
τ
∧
−
−
 
+ +

=
 + +
\ .
 
×

\ .
that is
A
A
s
s
V E I R
t n
V E I R
t n
The current pulse period is given by
DC choppers
412
1 2 3 4
2
2
2.16ms + + 1.20ms + 1.13ms
= 4.49ms +
p
T t t t t
t
t
= + + +
=
Figure Example 13.6. Circuit waveforms.
i. t
2
: When only V
s
paths are used to decrease the current, the time t
2
is given by equation (13.104),
with I
−
=5A and I
∧
=10A,
2
340V + 55V + 10A×10Ω
= 5ms = 0.53ms
340V + 55V + 5A×10Ω
τ
∧
−
−
 
+ +

=
 + +
\ .
 
×

\ .
that is
A
A
s
s
V E I R
t n
V E I R
t n
The total period, T
p
, of the chopped current pulse when a 0V loop is not used, is
1 2 3 4
= 2.16ms + 0.53ms + 1.20ms + 1.13ms = 5.02ms
p
T t t t t = + + +
ii. t
2
: When a zero voltage loop is used to maintain the current within the hysteresis band, the current
decays slowly, and the period time t
2
is given by equation (13.102), with I
−
= 5A and I
∧
=10A,
2
55V + 10A×10Ω
= 5ms = 1.95ms
55V + 5A×10Ω
τ
∧
−
 
+

=
 +
\ .
 
×

\ .
that is
A
A
o
E I R
t n
E I R
t n
The total period, T
p
, of the chopped current pulse when a 0V loop is used, is
1 2 3 4
= 2.16ms + 1.95ms + 1.20ms + 1.13ms = 6.44ms
p
T t t t t = + + +
The current falls significantly faster within the hysteresis band if negative voltage loops are employed
rather that zero voltage loops, 0.53ms versus 1.95ms.
The switching frequency within the current bounds has a period t
2
+ t
3
, and each case is summarized in
the following table. For longer current chopping, t
2
and t
3
dominate the switching frequency.
10A
5A
Conducting devices
T1 D1 / T1 T1 D1
T4 D4 T4 D4
Vs
t
t
t
is
Vs
vo
io
o
o
o
o
o
o
t1 t2 t3 t4
t1 t2 t3 t4
5A
10A
+340V
340V
E=55V
10A
V 0.53ms
0V 1.95ms
1.13ms
1.2ms 2.16ms
Tp
0V
loop
V
loop
Power Electronics
413
Using zero voltage current loops reduces the switching frequency of the Hbridge switches by a factor of
over three, for a given peaktopeak ripple current.
If the onstate voltage drop of the switches and the diodes are similar for the same current level, then
the onstate losses are similar, and evenly distributed for both control methods. The onstate losses are
similar because each of the three states always involves the same current variation flowing through two
semiconductors. The principal difference is in the significant increase in switching losses when only ±V
loops are used (1:3.42).
Table Example 13.6. Switching losses.
Voltage
loops
t2 + t3
Current ripple
frequency
Switch
frequency
Switch loss
ratio
±V 0.53ms+1.20ms =1.73ms 578Hz 578Hz
578
169
= 3.42
+V and zero 1.95ms+1.20ms = 3.15ms 317Hz 169Hz 1
♣
13.6 Fourquadrant dc chopper
The fourquadrant Hbridge dc chopper is shown in figure 13.13 where the load current and voltage are
referenced with respect to T
1
, so that the quadrant of operation with respect to the switch number is
persevered.
The Hbridge is a flexible basic configuration where its use to produce singlephase ac is considered in
chapter 14.1.1, while its use in smps applications is considered in chapter 15.8.2. It can also be used as
a dc chopper for the fourquadrant control of a dc machine.
With the flexibility of four switches, a number of different control methods can be used to produce four
quadrant output voltage and current (bidirectional voltage and current). All practical methods should
employ complementary device switching in each leg (either T
1
or T
4
on but not both and either T
2
or T
3
on, but not both) so as to minimise distortion by ensuring current continuity around zero current output.
One control method involves controlling the Hbridge as two virtually independent twoquadrant
choppers, with the overriding restriction that no two switches in the same leg conduct simultaneously.
One chopper is formed with T
1
and T
4
grouped with D
1
and D
4
, which gives positive current i
o
but
bidirectional voltage ±v
o
(QI and QIV operation). The second chopper is formed by grouping T
2
and T
3
with D
2
and D
3
, which gives negative output current i
o
, but bidirection voltage ±v
o
(QII and QIII
operation).
Figure 13.13. Fourquadrant dc chopper circuit, showing first quadrant i
o
and v
o
references.
The second control method is to unify the operation of all four switches within a generalised control
algorithm.
With both control methods, the chopper output voltage can be either multilevel or bipolar, depending on
whether zero output voltage loops are employed or not. Bipolar output states increase the ripple current
magnitude, but do facilitate faster current reversal, without crossover distortion. Operation is
independent of the direction of the output current i
o
.
Since the output voltage is reversible for each control method, a triangular based modulation control
method, as used with the asymmetrical Hbridge dc chopper in figure 13.9, is applicable in each case.
Two generalised unified Hbridge control approaches are considered – bipolar and threelevel output.
LOAD
Vs
T2
T1
T4
T3
D2
D1
D4
D3
vo
io
II
I
III
IV
vo
I
−
io
DC choppers
414
13.6.1 Unified fourquadrant dc chopper  bipolar voltage output switching
The simpler output to generate is bipolar output voltages, which use one reference carrier triangle as
shown in figure 13.14 parts (c) and (d). The output voltage switches between + V
s
and – V
s
and the
relative duration of each state depends on the magnitude of the modulation index δ.
If δ = 0 then T
1
and T
4
never turnon since T
2
and T
3
conduct continuously which impresses – V
s
across the load.
At the other extreme, if δ = 1 then T
1
and T
4
are on continuously and V
s
is impressed across the
load.
If δ = ½ then T
1
and T
4
are turned on for half of the period T, while T
2
and T
3
are on for the remaining
half of the period. The output voltage is – V
s
for half of the time and + V
s
for the remaining half of any
period. The average output voltage is therefore zero, but disadvantageously, the output current
needlessly ripples about zero (with an average value of zero).
The chopper output voltage is defined in terms of the triangle voltage reference level v
∆
by
• v
∆
> δ, v
o
= V
s
• v
∆
< δ, v
o
= +V
s
From figure 13.14c and d, the average output voltage varies linearly with δ such that
( )
( )
T
0
1
1
2 2 1
T
T
t
o s s
t
T
T s s
V V dt V dt
T
t
t T V V
T T
= + + −
 
= − = −

\ .
∫ ∫
(13.105)
Examination of figures 13.14c and d reveals that the relationship between t
T
and δ must produce
0 : 0
½: ½ 0
1:
δ
δ
δ
= = = −
= = =
= = = +
when and
when and
when and
T o s
T o
T o s
t v V
t T v
t T v V
that is
T
t
T
δ =
which on substituting for t
T
/T in equation (13.105) gives
( )
2 1
2 1 0 1 δ δ
 
= −

\ .
= − ≤ ≤ for
T
s o
s
t
V V
T
V
(13.106)
The average output voltage can be positive or negative, depending solely on δ. No current discontinuity
occurs since the output voltage is never actually zero. Even when the average voltage is zero, ripple
current flows though the load, with an average value of zero amps.
The rms output voltage is independent of the duty cycle and is V
s
.
The output ac ripple voltage is
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2
2 1 2 1 δ δ δ
= −
= − − = −
r rms o
s s s
V V V
V V V
(13.107)
The ac ripple voltage is zero at δ = 0 and δ = 1, when the output voltage is pure dc, namely  V
s
or V
s
,
respectively. The maximum ripple voltage occurs at δ = ½, when V
r
= V
s
.
The output ripple factor is
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
s
r
o s
V
V
RF
V V
δ δ
δ
δ δ
δ
−
= =
−
−
=
−
(13.108)
Circuit operation is characterized by two time domain equations:
During the onperiod for T1 and T4, when v
o
(t)
=
V
s
o
o s
di
L Ri E V
dt
+ + =
which yields
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∨
−  
= − + ≤ ≤

\ .
for
t t
s
o T
V E
i t e I e t t
R
(13.109)
Power Electronics
415
Conducting devices
T1
D1
T2
D2 T1 D1 T1 D1 T2 D1 T1 D1
T4 D4 T3 D3 T4 D4 T4 D4 T3 D3 T4 D4
(c) (d)
1
δ
½
o
T1/2
T3/4
vo
io
is
1
½
δ
o
T1/2
T3/4
vo
io
is
I
∧
I
∨
I
∧
+Vs
T
T1 on T1 on
T4 on T4 on T3 on
T2 on
T3 on
Vs
I
∧
−
I
∨
−
I
∨
o V
o
tT
I
∨
I
∧
I
∧
o
tT T
Vs
T2 on T1 on
T4 on T4 on T3 on
T2 on
+Vs
T1 on
T3 on
I
∨
o V
I
∧
−
I
∨
−
o I
o I
(a) (b)
1
δ
½
o
T1/2
T3/4
vo
io
is
1
½
δ
o
T1/2
T3/4
vo
io
is
o V
I
∧
I
∨
I
∧
Conducting devices
D2 D2 T1
D1
T2
D2 T1 T1 D2 D2 T1 D1 T1 D1 T2 T2 D1D1 T2 D2 T1 D1 T2 T2
T3 D3 T4 T4 D3 D3 T4 D4 T3 D3 T4 T4 D4 D4 T3 D3 T4 D4 T3 T3 D4 D4 T3 D3
tT o
+Vs
T
o tT T
2T
2T
Vs
T1 on T1 on
T4 on T4 on T3 on
T2 on T1 on
T3 on T3 on T4 on
T2 on T2 on
o V
I
∨
I
∧
I
∨
−
o I
o I
o
o
Figure 13.14. Fourquadrant dc chopper circuit waveforms:
multilevel (threelevel) output voltage (a) with
o
V > 0 and o I > 0; (b) with
o
V < 0 and o I < 0;
bipolar (twolevel) output voltage (c) with
o
V > 0 and o I > 0; (d) with
o
V < 0 and o I < 0.
DC choppers
416
During the onperiod for T2 and T3, when v
o
(t)
=

V
s
o
o s
di
L Ri E V
dt
+ + = −
which, after shifting the zero time reference to t
T
, gives
( ) 1 0
τ τ
− −
∧
+  
= − − + ≤ ≤ −

\ .
for
t t
s
o T
V E
i t e I e t T t
R
(13.110)
The initial conditions I
∧
and I
∨
are determined by using the steadystate boundary conditions:
1 2
(A)
1
2 1
(A)
1
T
T
t T
s
T
t T
s
T
V e e E
I
R R
e
V e e E
I
R R
e
τ τ
τ
τ τ
τ
− −
∧
−
−
∨
−
− +
= −
−
− +
= −
−
where
and
(13.111)
The peaktopeak ripple current is independent of load emf, E, and twice that given by equation (13.15).
The mean output current is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2
(A)
o
s
o
V E V E
I
R R
δ − − −
= = (13.112)
which can be positive or negative, as seen in figure 13.14c and d.
Figures 13.14c and d show chopper output voltage and current waveforms for conditions of positive
average voltage and current in part (c) and negative average voltage and current in part (d). Each part
is shown with the current having a positive maximum value and a negative minimum value. Such a load
current condition involves activation of all possible chopper conducting paths (sequences) as shown at
the top of each part in figure 13.14 and transposed to table 13.3A. The table shows how the conducting
device possibilities (states) decrease if the minimum value is positive or the maximum value is negative.
Table 13.3A. Fourquadrant chopper bipolar (twolevel) output voltage states
Conducting devices sequences
0 V < 0 V >
T1 D1 T1 D1
T4 D4
0 I
∨
>
T4 D4
0 V <
0 V >
T1 D1 T2 D2 T1 D1 T2 D2
T4 D4 T3 D3
0
0
I
I
∧
∨
>
<
T4 D4 T3 D3
0 V <
0 V >
T2 D2 T2 D2
T3 D3
0 I
∧
<
T3 D3
If the minimum output current is positive, that is, I
∨
is positive, then only components for a first and fourth
quadrant chopper conduct. Specifically T
2
, T
3
, D
2
, and D
3
do not conduct. Examination of figure 12.14c
shows that the output current conduction states are as shown in table 13.3A for 0 I
∨
> .
If the output current never goes positive, that is I
is negative, then T
1
, T
4
, D
1
, and D
4
do not conduct.
The conducting sequence becomes as shown in table 13.3A for 0 I
∧
< . Because the output is bipolar
(±V
s
), the average chopper output voltage,
o
V does not affect the three possible steady state
sequences. Table 13.3A shows that the conducting devices are independent of the average output
voltage polarity. That is, the switching states are the same on the left and right sides of table 13.3A.
The transition between these three possible sequences, due to a current level polarity change, is
seamless. The only restriction is that both switches in any leg do not conduct simultaneously. This is
ensured by inserting a brief deadtime between a switch turning off and its leg complement being turned
on. That is, deadtime between the switching of the complementary pair (T
1
T
2
), and in the other leg the
complementary pair is (T
3
T
4
).
13.6.2 Unified fourquadrant dc chopper  multilevel voltage output switching
In order to generate three output states, specifically ±V
s
and 0V, two triangular references are used
which are displaced by 180° from one another as shown in figure 13.14a and b. One carrier triangle is
Power Electronics
417
used to specify the state of the leg formed by T
1
and T
2
(the complement of T
1
), while the other carrier
triangle specifies the state of leg formed by switches T
3
and T
4
, (the complement of T
3
). The output
voltage level switches between +V
s
, 0V, and –V
s
depending on the modulation index δ, such that 0 ≤ δ
≤ 1. A characteristic of the output voltage is that, depending on δ, only a maximum of two of the three
states appear in the output, in steadystate. An alternative method to generate the same switching
waveforms, is to us one triangular carrier and two references, δ and 1δ.
If δ = 0 then T
1
and T
4
never turnon since T
2
and T
3
conduct continuously which impresses –V
s
across
the load. As δ increases from zero, the 0V state appears as well as the – V
s
state, the later of which
decreases in duration as δ increases.
At δ = ½ the output is zero since T
2
and T
3
(or T
1
and T
4
) are never on simultaneously to provide a path
involving the dc source. The output voltage is formed by alternating 0V loops (T
1
and T
3
on, alternating
to T
2
and T
4
on, etc.). The average output voltage is therefore zero. The ripple current for zero voltage
output is therefore minimised and independent of any load emf.
At the extreme δ
=
1, T
1
and T
4
are on continuously and V
s
is impressed across the load. As δ is reduced
from one, the 0V state is introduced, progressively lengthening to all of the period as δ falls to ½.
The voltage output in terms of the triangular level v
∆
reference is defined by
For 0 ≤ δ < ½
• v
∆
> δ, v
o
= V
s
• v
∆
< δ, v
o
= 0
For δ = ½
• v
∆
> δ, v
o
= 0
• v
∆
< δ, v
o
= 0
For ½ > δ ≥ 1
• v
∆
> δ, v
o
= 0
• v
∆
< δ, v
o
= V
s
# From figure 13.14b for δ < ½, the average output voltage varies linearly with δ such that
( )
( )
T
0
1
0
1
1
T
T
t
o s
t
T
T s s
V dt V dt
T
t
t T V V
T T
= + −
 
= − = −

\ .
∫ ∫
(13.113)
Examination of figure 13.14b reveals that the relationship between t
T
and δ must produce
0 : 0
½: 0
δ
δ
= = = −
= = =
when and
when and
T o s
T o
t v V
t T v
that is
½
T
t
T
δ =
which on substituting for t
T
/T in equation (13.113) gives
( )
1
2 1
T
s o
s
t
V V
T
V δ
 
= −

\ .
= −
(13.114)
# From figure 13.14a for δ > ½, the average output voltage varies linearly with δ such that
( )
T
0
1
0
T
T
t
o s
t
T
s
V V dt dt
T
t
V
T
= +
=
∫ ∫
(13.115)
Examination of figure 13.14a reveals that the relationship between t
T
and δ must produce
½: 0 0
1:
δ
δ
= = =
= = =
when and
when and
T o
T o s
t v
t T v V
that is
½ 1
T
t
T
δ
 
= +

\ .
which on substituting for t
T
/T in equation (13.115) gives
DC choppers
418
( ) 2 1
s o
V V δ = − (13.116)
Since the same expression results for δ ≤ ½ with bipolar switching, the average output current is the
same for the range 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1, that is
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1
(A)
o
s
o
V E V E
I
R R
δ − − −
= = (13.117)
which can be positive or negative, depending on δ and the load emf, E.
Although the average voltage equations of the multilevel and bipolar controlled dc choppers are the
same, the rms voltage and ripple voltage differ, as does the peaktopeak output ripple current. Unlike
the bipolar controlled chopper, the rms voltage for the multilevel controlled chopper is not a single
continuous function.
# For δ ≤ ½ the rms load voltage is
( )
½
2
1
1 2
T
T
rms s
t
s
V V dt
T
V δ
(
=
(
¸ ¸
= −
∫
(13.118)
The output ac ripple voltage is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2
1 2 2 1
2 1 2
r rms o
s s
s
V V V
V V
V
δ δ
δ δ
= −
= − − −
= −
(13.119)
The output voltage ripple factor is
2
1
2
1 2
δ
δ
 
= = −

\ .
= ×
−
rms r
o o
V V
RF
V V
(13.120)
Thus as the duty cycle 0 δ → , the ripple factor tends to zero, consistent with zero output voltage, that is
V
r
= 0. The ripple factor is undefined when the average output voltage is zero, at δ = ½.
The minimum rms ripple voltage in the output occurs when δ=½ or 0 giving an rms ripple voltage of
zero, since the average is a dc value at the extremes (0V and V
s
respectively). The maximum ripple
occurs at δ = ¼, when V
r
= ½V
s
, which is the same as when δ = ¾, (but half that obtained with the
bipolar output control method, V
s
).
# For δ ≥ ½ the rms load voltage is
( )
½
2
1
2 1
T
T
rms s
t
s
V V dt
T
V δ
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
= −
∫
(13.121)
The output ac ripple voltage is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
2 2
2 2
2 1 2 1
2 2 1 1
r rms o
s s
s
V V V
V V
V
δ δ
δ δ
= −
= − − −
= − −
(13.122)
The minimum rms ripple voltage in the output occurs when δ
=
½ or 1 giving an rms ripple voltage of
zero, since the average is a dc value at the extremes (0V and V
s
respectively). The maximum ripple
occurs at δ
=
¾, when V
r
=
½V
s
, which is half that obtained with the bipolar output control method.
The output voltage ripple factor is
2
1
1
2
2 1
r rms
o o
V V
RF
V V
δ
δ
 
= = −

\ .
−
= ×
−
(13.123)
Thus as the duty cycle 1 δ → , the ripple factor tends to zero, consistent with the output being dc, that is
V
r
= 0. The ripple factor is undefined when the average output voltage is zero, at δ = ½.
Circuit operation is characterized by three time domain equations.
Power Electronics
419
During the onperiod for T1 and T4, when v
o
(t) =
V
s
o
o s
di
L Ri E V
dt
+ + =
which yields
( ) 1 0 ½
τ τ
δ
− −
∨
−  
= − + ≤ ≤ ≥

\ .
for and
t t
s
o T
V E
i t e I e t t
R
(13.124)
During the onperiod for T2 and T3, when v
o
(t) = V
s
o
o s
di
L Ri E V
dt
+ + = −
which, after shifting the zero time reference to t
T
, gives
( ) 1 0 ½
τ τ
δ
− −
∧
+  
= − − + ≤ ≤ − ≤

\ .
for and
t t
s
o T
V E
i t e I e t T t
R
(13.125)
The third equation is for a zero voltage loop.
During the switch offperiod, when v
o
(t) = 0
0
o
o
di
L Ri E
dt
+ + =
which, after shifting the zero time reference, in figure 13.14a or b, gives
( ) 1
0 ½
0 ½
t t
o
T
T
E
i t e I e
R
t t
t T t
τ τ
δ
δ
− −
∧
 
= − − +

\ .
≤ ≤ ≤
≤ ≤ − ≥
and
and
(13.126)
The initial conditions I
∧
and I
∨
are determined by using the usual steadystate boundary condition
method and are dependent on the transition states. For example, for continuous steadystate
transitions between +V
s
loops and 0V loops, the boundary conditions are given by
1
(A)
1
1
(A)
1
T
T
t
s
T
t
s
T
V e E
I
R R
e
V e E
I
R R
e
τ
τ
τ
τ
−
∧
−
∨
−
= −
−
−
= −
−
where
and
(13.127)
Figures 13.14a and b show output voltage and current waveforms for conditions of positive average
voltage and current in part (a) and negative average voltage and current in part (b). Each part is shown
with the current having a positive maximum value and a negative minimum value. Such a load current
condition involves the activation of all possible chopper conducting paths, which are shown at the top of
each part in figure 13.14 and transposed to table 13.3B. The conducting device possibilities decrease if
the minimum value is positive or the maximum value is negative.
Table 13.3B. A Fourquadrant chopper multilevel (threelevel) output voltage states
Conducting devices sequences
0 V > 0 V <
T1 D1 T1 T1 T1 D1 D1 D1
T4 T4 T4 D4
0 I
∨
>
D4 D4 T4 D4
0 V > 0 V <
D2 D2 T1 D1 T2 D2 T1 T1 T1 D1 T2 T2 D1 D1 T2 D2
T3 D3 T4 T4 D3 D3 T4 D4
0
0
I
I
∨
∧
<
>
D4 D4 T3 D3 T4 D4 T3 T3
0 V > 0 V <
D2 D2 T2 D2 T2 T2 T2 D2
T3 D3 D3 D3
0 I
∧
<
T3 D3 T3 T3
If the minimum output current is positive, that is, I
∨
is positive, then only components for a first and fourth
quadrant chopper conduct. Specifically T
2
, T
3
, D
2
, and D
3
do not conduct, thus do not appear in the
output sequence. Examination of figure 12.14c shows that the output current conduction states are as
shown in table 13.3B for 0 I
∨
> .
DC choppers
420
If the output current never goes positive, that is I
is negative, then T
1
, T
4
, D
1
, and D
4
do not conduct,
thus do not appear in the output device sequence. The conducting sequence is as shown in table 13.3B
for 0 I
∧
< .
Unlike the bipolar control method, the output sequence is affected by the average output voltage level,
as well as the polarity of the output current swing. The transition between the six possible sequences
due to load voltage and current polarity changes, is seamless. The only restriction is that both switching
devices in any leg do not conduct simultaneously. This is ensured by inserting a brief deadtime
between a switch turning off and its leg complement being turned on.
Example 13.7: Fourquadrant dc chopper
The Hbridge, dctodc chopper in figure 13.13 feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance, 50mH
inductance, and back emf of 55V dc, from a 340V dc source. If the chopper is operated with a 200Hz
multilevel carrier as in figure 13.14 a and b, with a modulation depth of δ = ¼, determine:
i. the average output voltage and switch T
1
ontime
ii. the rms output voltage and ac ripple voltage, hence voltage ripple factor
iii. the average output current, hence quadrant of operation
iv. the electromagnetic power being extracted from the back emf E.
If the mean load current is to be halved, what is
v. the modulation depth, δ, requirement
vi. the average output voltage and the corresponding switch T
1
ontime
vii. the electromagnetic power being extracted from the back emf E?
Solution
The main circuit and operating parameters are
• modulation depth δ = ¼
• period T
carrier
= 1/f
carrier
= 1/200Hz = 5ms
• E
=
55V and V
s
=
340V dc
• load time constant τ = L
/R = 0.05mH/10Ω = 5ms
i. The average output voltage is given by equation (13.114), and for δ < ½,
( )
( )
1 2 1
= 340V× 2×¼  1 = 170V
T
s s o
t
V V V
T
δ
 
= − = −

\ .
where
( ) 2 = 2×¼× ½×5ms = 1.25ms
T
t T δ =
Figure 13.14 reveals that the carrier frequency is half the switching frequency, thus the 5ms in the above
equation has been halved. The switches T
1
and T
4
are turned on for 1.25ms, while T
2
and T
3
are
subsequently turned on for 3.75ms.
ii. The rms load voltage, from equation (13.118), is
1 2
= 340V× 1  2×¼ = 240V rms
rms s
V V δ = −
From equation (13.119), the output ac ripple voltage, hence voltage ripple factor, are
( )
( )
2 1 2
= 2 ×340V× ¼ 1  2×¼ = 170V ac
r s
V V δ δ = −
×
170V
1
170V
r
o
V
RF
V
= = =
−
iii. The average output current is given by equation (13.117)
( )
( )
2 1
340V× 2×¼  1  55V
= = 22.5A
10Ω
s o
o
V E V E
I
R R
δ − − −
= =
Since both the average output current and voltage are negative (170V and 22.5A) the chopper with a
modulation depth of δ = ¼, is operating in the third quadrant.
Power Electronics
421
iv. The electromagnetic power developed by the back emf E is given by
( ) 55V× 22.5A = 1237.5W
o E
P EI = =
v. The average output current is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 o
s
o
V E V E
I
R R
δ − − −
= =
when the mean current is 11.25A, δ = 0.415, as derived in part vi.
vi. Then, if the average current is halved to 11.25A
=55V  11.25A×10Ω = 57.5V
o o
V E R I = +
The average output voltage rearranged in terms of the modulation depth δ gives
½ 1
57.5V
= ½× 1 + = 0.415
340V
o
s
V
V
δ
 
= +


\ .
 

\ .
The switch ontime when δ < ½ is given by
( ) 2 = 2×0.415× ½×5ms = 2.07ms
T
t T δ =
From figure 13.14b both T
1
and T
4
are turned on for 2.07ms, although, from table 13.3B, for negative
load current,
o I = 11.25A, the parallel connected freewheel diodes D
2
and D
3
conduct alternately, rather
than the switches (assuming 0
o
I
∧
< ). The switches T
1
and T
4
are turned on for 1.25ms, while T
2
and T
3
are subsequently turned on for 2.93ms.
vii. The electromagnetic power developed by the back emf E is halved and is given by
( ) 55V× 11.25A = 618.75W
o E
P EI = =
♣
Reading list
Dewan, S. B. and Straughen, A., Power Semiconductor Circuits,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975.
Dubey, G.K., Power Semiconductor Controlled Drives,
PrenticeHall International, 1989.
Mohan, N., Undeland, T. M., & Robbins, W.P., Power Electronics: Converters, Applications & Design,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2003.
Problems
13.1. The dc GTO thyristor chopper shown in figure 13.1c operates at 1 kHz and supplies a series 5 Ω
and 10 mH load from an 84 V dc battery source. Derive general expressions for the mean load
voltage and current, and the load rms voltage at an ontime duty cycle of δ. Evaluate these
parameters for δ = 0.25.
[21 V, 4.2 A; 42 V]
13.2. The dc chopper in figure 13.1c controls a load of R = 10 Ω, L = 10 mH and 40 V battery. The
supply is 340 V dc and the chopping frequency is 5 kHz. Calculate (a) the peaktopeak load
ripple current, (b) the average load current, (c) the rms load current, (d) the effective input
resistance, and (e) the rms switch current.
DC choppers
422
Blank
377
Power Electronics
on
DC choppers
vo I io LOAD D1 off (a)
378
on
Vs
T1
vo
Vs
T1
vo
D4
Vs
T1
LOAD
io
LOAD D1 T4
D1
off
vo I io
(a)
vo II III I IV io
(d)
vo I IV io
Vs T1 io on Vs io R vo L
Vs
T1
D2
vo
D4 LOAD
T3
+ E
D2 D1
vo
R off
L
+ E
T2 vo II io
D1
D3
T4 vo II I io
iio ℓ T1
∧
(b) (a) conducting devices D1 T1
∧
(c) (b)
(e)
D1
T1
∧
D1 ioℓ i
T1
D1
T1
D1
I
I
∨
I
I
∨
I
Io
off
I
∧
I
Io
∧
Vs
D2
vo
Vs LOAD
T1
D2
vo
LOAD T2 D1
vo Vs
t vo Vs tx
t
T2
on
Vo
(b) (c) tT T (b) t tT T (c)
E
E t
Vo
Figure 13.2. Fundamental fourquadrant chopper (centre) showing derivation of four subclass dc choppers: (a) firstquadrant chopper  I; (b) secondquadrant chopper  II; (c) first and second quadrants chopper – I and II; (d) first and fourth quadrants chopper – I and IV; and (e) fourquadrant chopper.
In both conduction cases, the average voltage across the load can be controlled by varying the ontooff time duty cycle of the switch, T1. The onstate duty cycle, δ, is normally controlled by using pulsewidth modulation, frequency modulation, or a combination of both. When the switch is turned off the inductive load current continues and flows through the load freewheel diode, D1, shown in figure 13.2a The analysis to follow assumes • No source impedance • Constant switch duty cycle • Steady state conditions have been reached • Ideal semiconductors and • No load impedance temperature effects.
Figure 13.3. Firstquadrant dc chopper and two basic modes of chopper output current operation: (a) basic circuit and current paths; (b) continuous load current; and (c) discontinuous load current after t = tx.
13.2.1 Continuous load current Load waveforms for continuous load current conduction are shown in figure 13.3b. The output voltage vo, or load voltage is defined by for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT Vs vo ( t ) = for tT ≤ t ≤ T 0 The mean load voltage (hence mean load current) is
(13.1)
14) I p− p = harmonic rms as % of dc supply Vs 1 Vs (1 − e τ ) (1 − e −T R 1− e τ − (1−δ )T τ ) (13. • First.6) yields 2V cn = s sin π nδ n −1 an ¼ ¼ ½ π 0 0 0 ¼ ½ ¾ 1 onstate duty cycle δ 0 ¼ ½ ¾ 1 φn = tan −1 where such that sin 2π nδ = ½π − π nδ 1 − cos 2π nδ (13.with load back emf and continuous output current The time domain load current can be derived in a number of ways.15) reveals that the maximum ripple current I p − p occurs at δ = ½.4.4) The maximum rms ripple voltage in the output occurs when δ = ½ giving an rms ripple voltage of ½Vs. for continuous conduction. δ=tT /T. Valid only for continuous load current conduction.379 Power Electronics DC choppers 380 1 t 1 t vo ( t ) dt = Vs dt T 0 T 0 t V −E = T Vs = δ Vs whence I o = o R T where the switch onstate duty cycle δ = tT /T is defined in figure 13. This figure shows a number of important features of the ripple current. the various circuit currents can be found from the time domain load current equations. after shifting the zero time reference to tT.12) io ( t ) = − 1 − e τ + I e τ R where I = ∧ δ Vs 1 1−δ = −1 = −1 = δ Vs δ δ Thus as the duty cycle δ → 1 . vo ( t ) = Vo + ∑ cn sin ( n ωt + φn ) n=1 ∞ The load current is given by io ( t ) = ∑ in = n=0 ∞ ∞ ∞ cn sin ( n ωt − φn ) v Vo V +∑ n = o +∑ R n =1 Z n R n =1 Zn (13. when vo(t) = 0 di L o + R io + E = 0 dt which. For a given load time constant τ = L /R.15) T/τ 25 1 pu dc output mean 1 harmonic 2 harmonic 3 harmonic rd nd st ¾ ¾ 5 ½ Ipp Vs / R ½ 2 1 φn = tan bn Substituting expressions from equation (13.5) (13. (13. Harmonics in the output voltage and ripple current as a function of duty cycle δ = tT /T and ratio of cycle period T (switching frequency. . Fourier coefficients: The Fourier coefficients of the load voltage are independent of the circuit and load parameters and are given by V an = s sin 2π nδ nπ (13. • Alternatively. when vo(t) = Vs di L o + R io + E = Vs dt which yields −t V −E ∨ −t for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT 1− e τ + I e τ io ( t ) = s (13.11) R During the switch offperiod. fs=1/T) to load time constant τ=L /R. the ripple current can be extracted. the current can be found by dividing by the load impedance at each harmonic frequency. and switch onstate duty cycle δ. The output voltage ripple factor is RF = V = rms − 1 Vo Vo Vr 2 2 ii.4. the continuous load current shown in figure 13.7) δ onstate duty cycle vn = cn sin ( n ωt + φn ) (13. The rms load voltage is ½ ½ 1 tT 2 1 tT 2 Vrms = vo ( t ) dt = Vs dt T 0 T 0 Vo = ∫ T ∫ T where the load impedance at each harmonic frequency is given by (13. normalised with respect to Vs / R. becomes I p − p = ∆io = I − I = −δ T ∧ ∨ − tT − T + tT τ ) (13.8) (13.15).3a.3b. Time domain differential equations: By solving the appropriate time domain differential equations.9) Figure 13. from the Fourier coefficients of the output voltage.10) The peaktopeak ripple current can be extracted from figure 13. gives −t E ∧ −t for 0 ≤ t ≤ T − tT (13. • The ripple current Ipp reduces to zero as δ →0 and δ →1. that is Vr = 0. is independent of the back emf E and is given by T Vs 1 − e τ −T R 1− e τ − tT − E R (A) and I = ∨ Steadystate time domain analysis of firstquadrant chopper .3) The output ac ripple voltage is 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = ( δ Vs − (δ Vs ) = Vs δ (1 − δ ) 2 ) 2 (13. the ripple factor tends to zero. in figure 13. switching frequency fs = 1/T.6) V for n ≥ 1 bn = s (1 − cos 2π nδ ) nπ Thus the peak magnitude and phase of the nth harmonic are given by cn = an2 + bn2 Vs (1 − e τ ) (1 − e −T R 1− e τ which in terms of the onstate duty cycle.2) Zn = R2 + ( n ω L ) 2 ∫ ∫ t = T Vs = δ Vs T (13. consistent with the output being dc. • Differentiation of equation (13.3b is defined by During the switch onperiod. i. which shows a family of curves for equation (13.13) t Vs e τ − 1 E − (A) T R τ R e −1 The output ripple current.
28) .11) and diode conduction given by equation (13.17) This equation shows that tx > tT.381 Power Electronics DC choppers 382 • • The longer the load L /R time constant.5. 13. The load voltage waveform for discontinuous load current conduction shown in figure 13. that is Idiode = Io − Ii = ∧ δ (Vs − E ) 0 0 ¼ ½ δ switch onstate duty ¾ 1 = = (δ V s − E) R − δ (Vs − E ) R + τ ∧ ∨ E (1 − δ ) I− I − T R Alternatively. at a time tx shown in figure 13. which yields Io = = 1 T ( ∫ i ( t ) dt = T Vo − E ) With an opposing emf E in the load. then the electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency is given by EI EI η= o = o (13. that is 1 t I i = I switch = io ( t ) dt T 0 −t t V − E 1 ∨ −t s (13. τ. having substituted for t = tx: yielding −t V −E τ t x = tT + τ ln 1 + s (s) (13. which is given by equation (13.2. set E = 0 in the foregoing equations. 1/T.22) Pin Vs I i T τ ∧ ∨ I− I T (13.26) and (13. the lower the output ripple current Ipp. then the mean output voltage is t T 1 t thence I o = Vo − E Vo = Vs dt + ∫ 0 dt + ∫ Edt R t t T ∫0 (13.12).16) (A) = R = Io R The mean output current with continuous load current is found by integrating the load current over two consecutive periods. the load current can reach zero during the offtime. which is the average switch current. Iswitch . The chopper effective (dc) input impedance at the dc source is given by V (13.27) T − tx 2 (V) = δ Vs2 + E T The ac ripple voltage and ripple factor can be found by substituting equations (13.18) ¾ ½ E / Vs ∫ T T/τ 0 1 2 5 10 ∞ ? ∫ T ¼ τ ∧ ∨ − I− I R T ∨ The term I − I = I p − p is the peaktopeak ripple current.23) Z in = s Ii For an RL load without a back emf.11).21) τ ∧ ∨ E (1 − δ ) = I− I − T R If E represents motor back emf. Bounds of discontinuous load current with E>0.2 Discontinuous load current If the switch conducts continuously (δ = 1).11). The time tx can be found by ∧ • deriving an expression for I from equation (13.25) vo ( t ) = 0 for tT ≤ t ≤ t x E for t x ≤ t ≤ T If discontinuous load current exists for a period T .3c is defined by for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT Vs (13. the lower the output ripple. then substitution of tT=T into equations (13. as follows −t 1 T −t E ∧ −t Idiode = ∫ − 1 − e τ + I e τ dt T 0 R (13.12) which is equated to zero. Figure 13. the switch conduction given by equation (13. the average input current. By Kirchhoff’s current law.26) T − tx Vo = δ Vs + E (V) for t x ≥ tT T The rms output voltage with discontinuous load current conduction is given by ½ t T 1 t Vrms = ∫ Vs2 dt + ∫ 02 d + ∫ E 2 dt t t T 0 (13.24) 1 − e E T 0 o R (A) ∫ δV −E = I o2rms R + E I o = I o2 rms R + E s R from which the average input current can be evaluated. but at best asymptotes towards zero during the offperiod of the switch.11) to (13.5 can be used to determine if a particular set of operating conditions involves discontinuous load current.3c.13) gives a load voltage Vs and a dc load current is ∧ ∨ V − E Vo − E io = I = I = s (13. the average diode current Idiode is the difference between the average output current Io and the average input current. Ii . can be derived by integrating the switch current which is given by equation (13. setting t = tT. with E=0 load.27) into ( T x T x ) ( T x T x ) 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 (13. from tx until T. since the load current never reaches zero.20) Figure 13.15).tx.19) = 1 − e τ + I e τ dt T 0 R δ co nt in uo us δ (Vs − E ) τ ∧ ∨ Pin = Vs I i = VS − I − I R T 1 T Pout = v ( t ) io ( t ) dt T 0 o po n ss o t ib le R The input and output powers are related such that Pin = Pout (δ V s − E) (13. The discontinuous load current analysis to follow is not valid for an RL. 1 di sc on tin uo us E / Vs (13.12). • this equation is substituted into equation (13. The higher the switching frequency. the average diode current can be found by integrating the diode current given in equation (13. Alternatively.
34). average switch current.32) for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT io ( t ) = s 1 − e R During the switch offperiod. that is Idiode = Io − Ii = T φn = tan −1 an b give ∞ n vo ( t ) = Vo + ∑ cn sin ( n ωt + φn ) n =1 (13. and viii. the maximum and minimum output current.11) to (13. is −t −t t t − 1 t 1 t V −E ∧ −t E I o = ∫ io ( t ) dt = ∫ s 1 − e τ dt + ∫ 1 − e τ + I e τ dt 0 R T 0 T 0 R x T x T ∨ = R tx tx δ Vs + 1 − E δVs − T E T −E = Io = R R R (V o −E ) (A) (13. sketch the output current and voltage waveforms. (13. when vo(t) = 0. Ii . with t = tT. the mean output current for discontinuous conduction. specifically: During the switch onperiod. The Fourier coefficients of the load voltage are V E t sin 2π n x an = s sin 2π nδ − T nπ nπ (13. and average diode current.1. is dependent of the back emf E and is given by equation (13. that is −t ∧ V −E (13. the load average and rms voltages. vi. (and electromagnetic efficiency for E > 0).25ms • load time constant τ = L /R = 0. when vo(t) = Vs. v. the input power. the average load output current. and back emf of 55V dc.37) Vs 340V δ=¼ T=5ms T1 10Ω 50mH R L + E 55V Figure Example 13. for discontinuous conduction.43) Z in = s Ii = τ I− ∧ ∫ Example 13. the current in the time domain. as follows −t 1 tx −tT E ∧ −t Idiode = 1 − e τ + I e τ dt − T 0 R (13. Substituting this condition into the time domain equations (13. which is the switch average current.05mH/10Ω = 5ms T Since I = 0 .34) 1− e τ (A) R After tx. determine.29) Alternatively the average input current. the average diode current can be found by integrating the diode current given in equation (13.14) yields equations for discontinuous load current.33) R where from equation (13. Solution The main circuit and operating parameters are • onstate duty cycle δ = ¼ • period T = 1/fs = 1/200Hz = 5ms • onperiod of the switch tT = 1. vii. hence the peaktopeak output ripple in the current.33).40) E x −δ T T R Alternatively.32). is given by 1 t Ii = I switch = ∫ io ( t ) dt T 0 −t 1 t V −E = ∫ s 1 − e τ dt T 0 R T T (13.42) Pin Vs I i The chopper effective input impedance is given by V (13. from a 340V dc source. −t Vs − E (13.39) Steadystate time domain analysis of firstquadrant chopper . that is io ( t ) = 0 for t x ≤ t ≤ T (13.1: DC chopper (first quadrant) with load back emf I= ∧ T A firstquadrant dctodc chopper feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance. after shifting the zero time reference to tT.36) 1− e τ I p− p = I = s R ∨ t (13. the rms ripple voltage.35) The output ripple current. −t V −E τ (13. then electromagnetic energy conversion efficiency is given by EI EI η= o = o (13. The input and output powers are related such that Pin = Vs I i Pout = Io2rms R + E I o Pin = Pout from which the average input current can be evaluated.41) t E x −δ τ ∧ T = I− T R If E represents motor back emf. Time domain differential equations: For discontinuous load current. −t E ∧ −t io ( t ) = − 1 − e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ t x − tT (13. hence ripple factor. ii. with and without (rotor standstill.30) Vs E bn = n ≥1 (1 − cos 2π nδ ) − 1 − cos 2π n tx T nπ nπ which using cn = an2 + bn2 −t Vs − E τ τ Vs − E τ δ− I δ − 1 − e = R T R T The average diode current Idiode is the difference between the average output current Io and the average input current. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with a 25% onstate duty cycle. Fourier coefficients: The load current can be derived indirectly by using the output voltage Fourier series. iv.with load back emf and discontinuous output current i. hence output power and rms output current.38) D1 . I = 0. vo(t) = E and the load current is zero. Circuit diagram. 2 ii. E = 0) the back emf: i.383 Power Electronics DC choppers 384 and V RF = = rms − 1 Vo Vo Vr 2 (13. 50mH inductance. iii.31) The appropriate division by Z n = R 2 + ( nω L ) yields the output current. effective input impedance.
90A −T = 5ms R 1− e τ 10Ω 1 − e 5ms tT 1 4 ∧ V e τ − 1 340V e − 1 I= s T = × 1 = 5. namely t Vo = T Vs = δ Vs T = ¼×340V = 85V t Vr = T Vs = δ Vs T = ¼ × 240V = 120V rms Idiode = Io − Ii = 8.4e 5 ms = −5.2 Ω 2.5.8W Pout = Pin = 754. From equation (13.4) and (13. that is v. that is 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = Vs δ (1 − δ ) = = 340V ¼ × (1 . ac ripple voltage (147.90 × e 5ms (A) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 3.12A = 6.25ms v.12A T R eτ −1 R 10Ω e −1 10Ω The peaktopeak ripple in the output current is therefore I= I p− p = I − I ∧ ∨ iv.17). Vs e τ − 1 E 340V e − 1 55V − = × 1 − = 0. which is as expected since ripple current is independent of back emf with continuous output current.5 × 1 − e 5 ms −t 5ms + 0.38 × e io = I e ∧ −t (A) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. From equations (13. rms output voltage (120V rms).0 ) 5ms = × (11. with E = 0.22A = 6.40A −T 5ms R 1− e τ R 10Ω 10Ω 1 − e 5ms 1 4 − tT 1. the time domain load current equations are −t V ∨ −t io = s 1 − e τ + I e τ R −t io ( t ) = 34 × 1 − e 5 ms −t 5ms + 5.5A R 10Ω The average switch current.75ms = 28.13).4 using T/τ =1 and δ = ¼.¼ ) = 147. From equations (13.2V ac). The rms ripple voltage hence ripple factor are given by equations (13.25ms i.5 × 1 − e 5ms + 6.7A rms and RF = = Vr 1 = −1 δ Vo 1 1 = ¼ 3 = 1.22A 10Ω 5ms ∧ −t τ + I e −t −t io ( t ) = −5. From equation (13.385 Power Electronics DC choppers 386 i. The time domain load current is defined by −t V −E ∨ −t io = s 1− e τ + I e τ R −t io ( t ) = 28.732) are independent of back emf. The average load current from equation (13.62A R e τ − 1 10Ω e −1 The peaktopeak ripple in the output current is therefore I p− p = I − I ∧ ∨ Vs 1 − e τ E 340V 1 − e 5ms 55V − = × = 6.0.28A Alternatively the ripple can be extracted from figure 13.75ms The average diode current is the difference between the average load current and the average input current.8W From equation (13. the maximum and minimum load currents are I= tT ∨ Vs 1 − e τ 340V 1 − e 5ms × = 11.2V ac 754.5. and ii.37) is I o = Vo − E R = 85V55V = 3A 10Ω .5 − 28.25ms iv.22A Load back emf. the maximum and minimum currents are I= ∨ ∧ − tT 1.4A . E = 0 iii.5).3).732 vii. with E = 0.18) the rms load current is given by P I o = out R rms ii. The earlier answers for E = 0 are applicable. that is Pin = Vs I i =340V×2.2.38e 5ms −t E io = − 1 − e τ R (A) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. The average output voltage (85V). which is the average supply current. The input power is the dc supply voltage multiplied by the average input current.2) and (13.62 × e −t 5ms = 6.11) and (13. and ripple factor (1.5 + 11.28A vi. is δ (Vs − E ) τ ∧ ∨ I i = Iswitch = − I− I R T ¼ × ( 340V .25ms =11.50A .9e 5ms −t (A) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 3. assuming continuous load current. the average and rms output voltages are both independent of the back emf. is I o = V o = 85V = 8.28A The ripple value is the same as the E = 0 case. The average load current from equation (13.12).62A = 6. iii. = 34 − 28. provided the load current is continuous.90A .12e −t τ −t io ( t ) = 11.90A .22A = 754. with E = 0. E = 55V No back emf.13).4 using T/τ = 1 and δ = ¼. Alternatively the ripple can be extracted from figure 13. The chopper effective input impedance is V Z in = s Ii 340V = = 153.8W 10Ω = 8.62A ) = 2.
from a 340V dc source. and T = 5ms. figure 13.07ms 55V Since the cycle period is 5ms. are shown in the figure to follow.5. 50mH inductance.5 gives E / Vs = 0.3W From equation (13.40A . Using δ = ¼. E The necessary back emf can be determined graphically or analytically. switching period.25ms + 5ms × n 1 + × 1 .845A = 287. A small increase in E.24). decrease in the duty cycle δ.5A rms 10Ω vii.0. and back emf of 55V dc. and iii.845A 10Ω 5ms The average diode current is the difference between the average load current and the average input current. That is.165×340V = 56.4 Ω 0.18) the rms load current is given by Io rms = Pout − E I o R The main circuit and operating parameters are • onstate duty cycle δ = ¼ • period T = 1/fs = 1/200Hz = 5ms • onperiod of the switch tT = 1.12A) at the end of the offtime.3W 1.2V 5ms e 5ms 1 That is.22).2V then at and above that voltage. thus the chopper is operating near the verge of discontinuous conduction. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with a 25% onstate duty cycle. equation (13. Examination of the expression for minimum current.05mH/10Ω = 5ms First it is necessary to establish whether the given conditions represent continuous or discontinuous load current.07ms). and yields −t V −E t x = tT + τ n 1 + s 1− e τ E T 287. that is EI η= o Pin = 55V×3A = 57. The output voltage and current waveforms for the firstquadrant chopper. produces I= ∨ ∧ Io ∆io=6. Graphically: The bounds of continuous and discontinuous load current for a given duty cycle. Circuit waveforms. E = 0. gives Vs e τ − 1 E − =0 T R eτ −1 R Rearranging to give the back emf.25ms • load time constant τ = L /R = 0.155A Example 13. The chopper effective input impedance is V Z in = s Ii 340V = = 402.12A ∆io=6.55V×3A = = 3. minimum switching frequency at E = 55V and tT = 1.387 Power Electronics DC choppers 388 The average switch current is the average supply current.28A∨ I t vo Vs Vo tT 340V T E = Vs e τ −1 eτ −1 e 1. the maximum back emf before discontinuous load current conduction commences with δ=¼. the load current is continuous.1 part iv.verge of discontinuous conduction A firstquadrant dctodc chopper feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance. From example 13.55V ) 5ms = × ( 6.28A I t ∨ I Io vo Vs 340V 85V o 1¼ms 5ms E = 55V ∧ tT 6. Vs e τ − 1 E − =0 T R eτ −1 R tT ♣ Rearranging to isolate tT gives .4A to near zero (0.4A 3A 0. that is Idiode = Io − Ii = 3A . with 55V back emf. would be expected to result in discontinuous load current. viii. that is Pin = Vs I i =340V×0. determine: i.62A ∧ i. discontinuous load current commences.845A = 2. ii.5A 5.25ms 340V .12A ) = 0. and load time constant can be determined from figure 13. The input power is the dc supply voltage multiplied by the average input current.9A T1 D1 T1 D1 io T1 D1 T1 D1 T1 D1 I 8.2: DC chopper with load back emf . Conducting device T1 io D1 11.13) is solved for I = 0 then = 340V × I= ∨ Figure Example 13. T/τ = 1 with τ = 5ms. E.4% 287.1.3W Pout = Pin = 287. ∨ ii.13).25ms 5ms T tT 85V t o 1¼ms 5ms E=0 E E=55V tT Vo t tT 1 = 56. which is less than the necessary time for the current to fall to zero (5. or increase in switching period T.165×Vs = 0. Solution vi. if equation (13. using figure 13. if the back emf increases from 55V to 56. what is the minimum duty cycle before discontinuous load current conduction. δ ∨ Again. with and without back emf.5.2V Analytically: The chopper is operating too close to the boundary between continuous and discontinuous load current conduction for accurate readings to be obtained from the graphical approach.845A The electromagnetic efficiency is given by equation (13.3W . The current extinction time tx for discontinuous conduction is given by equation (13.165.55V = 1.25ms before discontinuous conduction. δ (Vs − E ) τ ∧ ∨ I i = Iswitch = − I− I R T ¼ × ( 340V .0.e 5ms = 5. with E = 55V the load current falls from 6.
hence the peaktopeak output ripple in the current. with the switch ontime.15 117. from 1.07ms. the maximum and minimum output current.4 2 = 135.25ms 340V .25ms • load time constant τ = L /R = 0. the current in the time domain. The equations applicable to discontinuous load current need to be employed.07ms T = 1. from 5ms to 5.29) the rms ripple voltage.3. hence ripple factor. and electromagnetic efficiency.32) and (13. and viii. From equations (13.36).2V • decrease the duty cycle δ from 25% to 24.07ms.25ms 340V .3.10A = . average switch current and average diode current.31A 10Ω The minimum current is zero so the peaktopeak ripple current is ∆io = 5.55V × 1 . −t V −E 1− e τ t x = T = tT + τ n 1 + s E T ∧ Vs e τ − 1 E − T R eτ −1 R 1.226ms If the switch onstate period is reduced by 0.226ms (δ = 24. the rms ripple voltage. Appropriate simultaneous smaller changes in more than one parameter would suffice. Solution The main circuit and operating parameters are • onstate duty cycle δ = ¼ • period T = 1/fs = 1/200Hz = 5ms • onperiod of the switch tT = 1.28) and (13.25ms tT 1.05mH/10Ω = 5ms Confirmation of discontinuous load current can be obtained by evaluating the minimum current given by equation (13. that is I= ∨ ∨ iii.3.5V ac V 135.52% (tT decreased from 1.389 Power Electronics DC choppers 390 E T tT = τ n 1 + e τ − 1 Vs 55V 5ms = 5ms × n 1 + e 5ms . the load average current.62A . the following operating conditions can be changed • increase the back emf E from 55V to 56. i. hence the peaktopeak output ripple in the current.25ms + 5ms × n 1 + × 1 . tT.e 5ms = 5.38A 10Ω 10Ω e 5ms 1 The minimum practical current is zero. are 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = 179. for the given load.13ms = 3. and an opposing back emf of 100V dc. 50mH inductance.27) the load average and rms voltages are T − tx Vo = δ Vs + E T 5ms . determine: i. From equation (13.3V rms 5ms ii. from a 340V dc source.e 5ms 100V = 1. load. effective input impedance. and output voltage and current waveforms.25ms to 1. for continuous conduction to cease.25ms.13).2Hz).07ms (from 200Hz to 197.38ms A firstquadrant dctodc chopper feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance. the maximum and minimum output current. the load average and rms voltages. so clearly discontinuous current periods exist in the load current. From equations (13. Circuit diagram: (a) with load connected to ground and (b) load connected so that machine flashover to ground (0V). hence voltage ripple factor. ii. From equations (13. 340V e 5ms 1 100V × 5ms = 5.100V = 1.024ms. the input power.1 340V = 1. The current extinction time is given by equation (13. operation is then on the verge of discontinuous conduction.25ms + 2. vii.250ms to 1. ♣ Example 13. hence output power and rms output current.e 5ms = 5. unchanged from 1. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with a 25% onstate duty cycle.25ms + 5ms × n 1 + 55V Discontinuous conduction operation occurs if the period is increased by more than 0. v. vi.100V × 1 − e 5ms 10Ω Figure Example 13.52%).32 . sketch the circuit.4V = ¼×340 V + 5ms T − tx 2 Vrms = δ Vs2 + E T = ¼ × 3402 + 5ms .33). iii.25ms 340V100V × 1 . bypasses the switch T1.117.38ms × 1002 = 179.24). T If the switching frequency is decreased such that T = tx. −t = 24 × 1 − e 5ms (A) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.31A.24).4. iv. are −t ∧ V −E 1− e τ I= s R T 10Ω 50mH T1 = R D1 0V L 1. that is −t V −E 1− e τ t x = tT + τ n 1 + s E I= T In conclusion.26) and (13.25ms . then the minimum period for discontinuous load current is given by equation (13.5V RF = r = = 1.3: DC chopper with load back emf – discontinuous conduction 1. That is. the current in the time domain is −t V −E 1− e τ io ( t ) = s R = −t 340V .4V Vo Vs 340V δ=¼ T=5ms T1 10Ω 50mH Vs 340V E+ 100V (a) (b) 0V D1 + 100V E R δ=¼ T=5ms L iii.38ms × 100V = 117.226ms) • increase the switching period T by 0. iv.
and average diode current are Io =V o − E R = 117. as with the firstquadrant chopper already considered.2 5 8 .1 Continuous load inductor current Load waveforms for continuous load current conduction are shown in figure 13.05A ×5.69A The secondquadrant dctodc chopper shown in figure 13. hence output power and rms output current are (a) (b) Figure 13.31× e io ( t ) = 0 T D −t 5ms = Pin − E I o / R = 234.4V .69A / 10Ω = 1. Energy is transferred from the back emf E to the supply Vs. load voltage.38). • Steadystate conditions have been reached.6.37) to (13. ion E T2 v.3 1 A I T 0. load.2 5 tim e (m s ) t Figure Example 13.31A = 5ms 10Ω Ii = Io − Idiode =1. The two energy transfer stages are shown in figure 13. Its operating principles are the same as those for the boost switch mode power supply analysed in chapter 15. average switch current. the effective input impedance and electromagnetic efficiency.100V×0.3.05A = 0. From equations (13. the average load current. it is assumed that: • No source impedance. depending on the specific circuit parameters and operating conditions.3. In this analysis.38ms 100V × .43).3 1 A 1.3 7 5 6 .42) and (13.40).69A = 234.3 7 10 1 1 .6W . a process called regeneration. 13.74A = = = 74. the input power.74A 13.31e 5ms 10Ω Pin = Vs I i = 340V×0. The circuit.391 Power Electronics DC choppers 392 io ( t ) = − −t E ∧ −t 1− e τ + I e τ R −t −t 100V =− × 1 − e 5ms + 5.2 5 3 . by varying the switch T2 onstate duty cycle.29A − 10 (A) C o n d u c tin g d e v ic e T D T vo Vo vii. or switch voltage. From equation (13.4. • Constant switch duty cycle. and all the choppers analysed.74A . energy into Vs.3.2b transfers energy from the load.3 1 A 1.13ms for 3.6W Pin = Pout = Io2rms R + E I o Rearranging gives Io for 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. boosting current and (b) switchoff.100V = 1. Chopper circuit waveforms.69A vi.44) .7a. and • No load impedance temperature effects.3 SecondQuadrant dc chopper iD ID 5 .1. From equations (13.0.6.4V η= E =100V E=100V E Io E I o 100V×1.69A Vs I i io Io viii. back to the dc energy source Vs.74A 10Ω t E x −δ τ ∧ T Idiode = I − T R 3. • Ideal semiconductors.38ms ≤ t ≤ 5ms rms = 15. The output voltage vo.25 5ms 5ms = 1. is defined by for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT 0 vo ( t ) = for tT ≤ t ≤ T Vs The mean load voltage is (13. for E > 0 are V 340V Z in = s = = 493Ω I i 0.05A iT 5 . The current in the load inductor can be either continuous or discontinuous. Vo II Io Vs io R L + D2 io R vo L E + vT V s= 3 4 0 V 240V ioff 0 1 . Two modes of transfer can occur. and output voltage and current waveforms are plotted in figure example 13. Stages of operation for the secondquadrant chopper: (a) switchon. ♣ 5 .69A V s= 3 4 0 V 117.2% Pin 340V×0.
as follows −t 1 T −t E − Vs ∧ −t Idiode = 1 − e τ + I e τ dt T 0 R (13.7b.3. which is given by equation (13.60) . or a relatively high dc source voltage. By solving the appropriate time domain differential equations.58) (13. to regenerate into Vs. before the period T is complete (tx < T).7a. the stepup voltage ratio.54) + I− I R T ∧ ∨ Vs − E )(1 − δ ) ( τ = I− I − T R The average diode current can also be found by integrating the diode current given in equation (13. E Vs 1 − e τ − −T R R 1− e τ T −tT = 0 (13.3 are valid for the secondquadrant chopper.51) Alternatively the voltage across the dc source Vs is 1 Vs = Vo (13. becomes I p− p = I − I = ∧ ∨ T (13. Vo = The output ripple current. the minimum output current may reach zero at tx.53) T 0 R T T τ ∧ ∨ − I− I R T ∧ ∨ The term I − I = I p − p is the peaktopeak ripple current. the average diode current Idiode is the difference between the average output current Io and the average switch current. is continuously adjustable from unity to infinity. By Kirchhoff’s current law. can be derived by integrating the switch current given by equation (13. R.2. Secondquadrant chopper output modes of current operation: (a) continuous inductor current and (b) discontinuous inductor current. when vo = Vs di L o + R io + Vs = E dt which. Vs. Equation (13.50) (A) Conducting devices and I= T2 io D2 T2 D2 T2 io D2 T2 D2 I ∧ I ∧ I ∧ I ∧ I ∧ Io I vo Vs ∨ I ∨ τ ∧ ∨ (13. after shifting the zero time reference to tT. that is 1 t Iswitch = ∫ io ( t ) dt T 0 −t 1 t E ∨ −t = ∫ 1 − e τ + I e τ dt (13.47) Io = = R R The average output current can also be found by integration of the time domain output current io. as shown in figure 13. the continuous load current io shown in figure 13. δ. gives −t E − Vs ∧ −t io ( t ) = 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ T − tT (13.55) τ ∧ ∨ (Vs − E )(1 − δ ) = I− I − T R The power produced (provide) by the back emf source E is E − Vs (1 − δ ) (13. The normalised ripple current design curves in figure 13. that is PE = P s + I o2rms R V = R − E − Vs (1 − δ ) δE ∫ T t vo Vs Vo Io tx t Vo E E t E Io − Vs I diode R The efficiency of energy transfer between the back emf E and the dc source Vs is P V I diode η= V = s PE E Io Io = rms s (13.50) gives a boundary identity that must be satisfied for zero current.52) This is the same expression derived in 13. low inductance.393 Power Electronics DC choppers −T − tT − T + tT 394 1 T 1 T vo ( t ) dt = ∫ Vs dt T ∫0 T t T − tT = Vs = (1 − δ ) Vs T where the switch onstate duty cycle δ = tT /T is defined in figure 13.57) PVs = Vs I diode = Vs I − I − s R T The difference between the two powers is the power lost in the load resistor. that is Idiode = Io − I switch = δE E Vs e τ − e τ − −T R R 1− e τ E Vs 1 − e τ − −T R R 1− e τ D2 T2 − T + tT − tT −T (A) (13. is independent of the back emf E and is given by (13. The average output current is E − V o E − Vs (1 − δ ) (13.49) R where I = ∨ ∧ I p− p = Vs (1 − e τ ) (1 + e τ ) −T R 1− e τ −δ T −T (13.46) 1−δ Since 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1.49).51). δ = tT / T. I= ∨ Figure 13.2 Discontinuous load inductor current With low duty cycles.7a is defined by During the switch onperiod. when vo = 0 di L o + R io = E dt which yields −t E ∨ −t for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT (13.1 for the firstquadrant chopper. Iswitch . The average switch current. L. I switch . for continuous conduction.48).48) io ( t ) = 1 − e τ + I e τ R During the switch offperiod.45) Vs (1 + e τ ) − ( e τ + e τ ) −T R 1− e τ which in terms of the onstate duty cycle.7.59) t tT T (a) tT T (b) 13.56) PE = E Io = E R The power delivered to the dc source Vs is τ ∧ ∨ (V − E )(1 − δ ) (13.
70). after shifting the zero time reference to tT. What is the average braking current at the critical duty cycle? What is the regenerating efficiency and the rms machine output current? iii. (that is. gives −t E − Vs ∧ −t io ( t ) = 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ t x − tT (13.75) Alternatively.66) for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT io ( t ) = 1 − e τ R During the switch offperiod. An expression for the extinction time tx can be found by substituting t = tT into equation (13.67). that is PE = P s + I o2 R V E Io − Vs I diode Io = R The efficiency of energy transfer between the back emf and the dc source is P V I diode η= V = s PE E Io rms s (13. I switch . What is the switch onstate duty cycle if the machine is delivering continuous output current? What is the minimum chopping frequency for these conditions? ii. (13.70) I p− p = I = 1 − e τ R Iswitch . can be derived by integrating the switch current given by equation The average switch current. that is io ( t ) = 0 for t x ≤ t ≤ T (13.73) tx − δ (Vs − E ) τ ∧ T = I− T R The power produced by the back emf source E is PE = E Io (13. that is 1 t Iswitch = ∫ io ( t ) dt T 0 −t 1 t E (13. load voltage. Isolating the time variable. yields −t E I = 1 − e τ R T 0= E − Vs E 1 − e τ + 1 − e τ e τ R R − tx − tT − tx The output ripple current.68). The machine armature has 1 ohm resistance in series with 1mH inductance. such that I = 0. what is the critical duty cycle and the corresponding average dc machine current? . which is given by equation (13. By solving the appropriate time domain differential equations.68) and I = 0 (A) After tx. i. the back emf is 150V.7b. is dependent of the back emf E and is given by equation (13.7b. The machine is used for regenerative braking.4: Secondquadrant DC chopper – continuous inductor current (A) (13. The average output current is tx E − V o δ Vs − T (Vs − E ) Io = = (13.72) R R T tx − δ (Vs − E ) τ ∧ T = I− T R The average diode current can also be found by integrating the diode current given in equation (13. or switch voltage.64) tx Vo = E − δ Vs + (Vs − E ) T where the switch onstate duty cycle δ = tT /T is defined in figure 13. The resulting ∧ expression for I is then substituted into equation (13. At a constant speed downhill.63) vo ( t ) = Vs for tT ≤ t ≤ t x E for t x ≤ t ≤ T The mean load voltage is T 1 T 1 t Vo = ∫ vo ( t ) dt = Vs dt + ∫ E dt t T 0 T ∫t − I R T ∧ The term I = I p − p is the peaktopeak ripple current. E = 150V).395 Power Electronics − T + tT DC choppers 396 That is E 1− e τ (13.67) R = where I = ∨ ∧ −t E 1− e τ R T ∫ The power delivered to the dc source Vs is P s = Vs I diode V rms (13. which becomes tx. If the chopping frequency is increased to 5kHz. (that is.48) and (13.49) can be used. at the same speed. −t ∧ E (13.62) t x = tT + τ n 1 + Vs − E This equation shows that t x ≥ tT .77) Example 13. the difference between the two powers is the power lost in the load resistor. which results in a 10A braking current. Load waveforms for discontinuous load current conduction are shown in figure 13.69) A dctodc chopper capable of secondquadrant operation is used in a 200V dc battery electric vehicle. the time domain equations (13. At this speed. if the switching frequency is 1kHz. as follows −t 1 tx −tT E − Vs ∧ −t Idiode = 1 − e τ + I e τ dt T 0 R (13. is defined by for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT 0 (13.74) = = δE τ ∧ δ Vs − ( x T x ) t x − tT T − tx t t Vs + E = x − δ Vs + 1 − x E T T T T (13. when vo = Vs di L o + R io + Vs = E dt which. the continuous load current io shown in figure 13.61) = −T Vs 1− e τ ∨ Alternatively. vo(t) = E and the load current is zero. when vo = 0 di L o + R io = E dt which yields −t E (13.65) R R The average output current can also be found by integration of the time domain output current io. R. for discontinuous conduction.49) which is set to zero. By Kirchhoff’s current law.66). the average diode current Idiode is the difference between the average output current Io and the average switch current. E = 150V).7a is defined by During the switch onperiod. The output voltage vo.48). determine the minimum duty cycle for continuous inductor current.76) (13. that is Idiode = Io − I switch tx (Vs − E ) δ E τ ∧ T − + I (13.71) = ∫ 1 − e τ dt T 0 R T T T which yields − tT E 1− e τ (13.
200V×(1 .2ms 150V 1 .200V×(1 .397 Power Electronics DC choppers 398 Solution The main circuit operating parameters are • Vs = 200V • E = 150V • load time constant τ = L /R = 1mH/1Ω = 1ms vo II io io Conducting devices T2 D2 T2 D2 T2 D2 I D2 Vs = 200V io R 1Ω L 1mH +150V vo Vs =200V E=150V ∧ For continuous inductor current.200V × (1 . the onstate duty cycle must be at least 35.7% as at 1kHz.4 Twoquadrant dc chopper . The operational boundary between continuous and discontinuous armature inductor current is given by equation (13.54) Idiode = Io − I switch Io I =0 ∨ I =0 ∨ t T2 Vo tT t T Figure Example 13. The output rms current is P 640W Io = = = 25.357 ) 1ms Idiode = × ( 45.2c.7T = 4 − 3e −0.357×1ms ∧ E 150V × 1 .8A 1Ω 1Ω such that the average output voltage Vo is 146. is lost in the armature resistance.4. Figure 13.3T Iteratively solving this transcendental equation gives T = 0.47).21.4A 1Ω 1Ω Vo =150V .85A = 2570W = T s i.0.357.6V The average machine output current of 21.61).61).022kHz.2V.3 ≡ 30% and V o = 140V The expression for the average dc machine output current is based on continuous armature inductance current.e 1ms = 0. the chopper can seamlessly change between and act in two modes • Devices T1 and D1 form the firstquadrant chopper shown in figure 13.4945ms.150V T T iii. The relationship between the dc supply Vs and the dc machine back emf E is given by equation (13.62) for the current to reach zero. The operational boundary condition giving by equation (13. the average output current is given by equation (13. That is the switching frequency must be greater than fs =1/T = 2. that is E − Vs (1 − δ ) E − Vo Io = = R R 150V . The machine average output current is given by equation (13.0.9% . before the next switch onperiod.150V ) × (1 .0.357 ) 150V . That is.4A = 3210W while the power delivered to the 200V battery source Vs is PV = Vs I diode = 200V×12. That is. Depending on the load and operating conditions.e 1ms = 1ms 200V 1 .3A rms R 1Ω s rms δ = 0.e 1ms e0. that is E 1− e τ = −T Vs 1− e τ − T + tT ( 1+δ )×0. τ ∧ ∨ (Vs − E )(1 − δ ) I− I − T R The minimum output current is zero while the maximum is given by equation (13. as I2R heat dissipation.e 1ms Solving gives δ = 0. for tx = T and δ = 0. that is E − V o E − Vs (1 − δ ) Io = = R R 150V . and equation (13.2570W)).68).3 + 1 − e 1ms n 1 + 200V .3T 1ms 150V 1 = 0. 640W (3210W . the duty cycle would be expected to be much lower than the 35.85A 1ms 1Ω The power delivered by the dc machine back emf E is PE = E Io = 150V×21. −t 0.3 −t E τ t x = tT + τ n 1 + 1 − e Vs − E This simplifies to −0.2.47) E − V o E − Vs (1 − δ ) Io = = R R 150V − Vo 150V .7% for continuous machine output current at a switching frequency of 1kHz. The switching frequency can be reduced if the onstate duty cycle is increased as in the next part of this example.2a.8 shows the basic twoquadrant dc chopper.Vo = = = 21.0A I = 1 − e τ = R 1Ω Substituting into the equation for the average diode current gives ( 200V .269 ) = = = 3.Q I and Q II (δ 1)×1ms 150V 1 .4A×1Ω = 128. ♣ 13. At an increased switching frequency of 5kHz. Energy is delivered from the dc source Vs to the RLE load.47) is invalid. using T=1/ fs =1/1kHz = 1ms. else machine output current discontinuities occur. ii. and is analysed in section 13.0A .δ ) 10A = 1Ω that is The regeneration transfer efficiency is P 2570W = 80.4A is split between the switch and the diode (which is in series with Vs). The diode current is given by equation (13.47). .1% η= V = PE 3210W The energy generated deficit. Circuit diagram and waveforms.2ms 200V 1 . yields E 1− e τ = −T Vs 1− e τ − T + tT which yields δ = 26.0A ) = 12. which is a reproduction of the circuit in figure 13.e 1ms = 45. Therefore the switching period must be shorter than the time tx predicted by equation (13.
namely D1 conducts. Since the load current never goes positive. the average is less than zero and the chopper is operating in the regenerative mode.80) tT I ∧ T I >0 I <0 Io > 0 ∨ t o tT ∧ T t io o I <0 I <0 Io < 0 t ∨ Io txT is I o ∧ I Io I ∨ = δ Vs The output ac ripple voltage.79) ∫ (13. The various circuit waveforms are shown in figure 13. The average output voltage Vo and the instantaneous output voltage vo are never negative. Vo II Vs T1 D2 Q I io Q II io R T2 D1 vo L I Io • If the chopper is operated such that the switches T1 and T2 act in a complementary manner. when vo(t) = Vs and Vs is impressed across the load. the average output current is greater than zero. it is not uncommon the unify the operation of the two choppers. independent of the direction of the load current.83) io ( t ) = s R RF = Is I ∨ Is o I ∧ t I ∨ (b) (c) Figure 13. ∨ ∧ + E (a) Vo I Io Vo II Io Vs T1 on R D1 vo off L Vs D2 off + E T2 R vo L + E on In all cases the average output voltage is solely determined by the switch T1 ontime duty cycle. depending on the relative polarity of the maximum and minimum currents shown in figure 18.5).2b. If the load is not highly inductive the boundary is determined by the ∧ average output current I o > 0. If the load is not highly inductive the boundary is determined by the average output current ∧ o < 0.8b. as shown in figures 13. then the analysis in sections 13. which is analysed in section 13.82) δ δ Vo The Fourier series for the load voltage can be used to determine the load current at each harmonic frequency as described by equations (13. i. I < 0.3. hence voltage ripple factor are given by equations (13. I < 0.8a and b. then for a highly inductive load. that is either T1 or T2 is on. as shown in figure 13. I > 0 and I o < 0 For a highly inductive load. I < 0. for continuous load current. If the two choppers are controlled to operate independently. I ∨ iv.2 is valid.2. the chopper is operational in the secondquadrant. whilst the average source current of Vs can be positive (Quadrant I) or negative (Quadrant II). since when this switch is turned on the supply Vs is impressed across the load.8a. is described by for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT Vs vo ( t ) = 0 for tT ≤ t ≤ T (13.1 are also valid. (b) operation and waveforms for quadrant I. the load circuit condition is described by −t V −E ∨ −t 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT (13. Essentially the consequence of complementary switch operation is that no extended zero current periods exist in the output. Alternately. I < 0 and I o < 0 When the maximum current and the average current are both negative. I > 0 and I o > 0 When the minimum current is negative but the maximum positive current is larger in absolute magnitude. with the constraint that T1 and T2 do not conduct simultaneously. which is independent of the load. The switch ∧ 2 and diode D2 do not conduct during any portion of the operating period. Consequently four possible output modes can occur. The two independent choppers can be readily combined as shown in figure 13. and the chopper operates in the firstquadrant. T ∨ ii. I > 0. clamping the load to Vs. the chopper is active in the firstquadrant.8. When io > 0.8b and c. as follows. I > 0 and I o > 0 When the minimum current (hence average output current) is greater than zero. quadrant II. The output voltage. The analysis for continuous inductor current in section 13. where there is no zero restriction on the minimum load current value.3 are valid. Twoquadrant (I and II) dc chopper circuit where vo > 0: (a) basic twoquadrant dc chopper. regeneration into Vs. ½ 1 tT 2 Vrms = Vs dt T 0 Vo = vo Vs Vo E o Vs E Vo o t ∫ (13. Typical output voltage and current waveforms are shown in figure 13.3) and (13.2 and 13. Thus the equations describing the features of the firstquadrant chopper in section 13.8c.78) D2 T1 D1 T2 D 2 Conducting devices T1 D2 T2 D2 T2 Thus 1 tT t Vs dt = T Vs = δ Vs T 0 T The rms output voltage is also determined solely by the duty cycle.399 Power Electronics DC choppers 400 Devices T2 and D2 form the secondquadrant chopper shown in figure 13. switch T1 and diode D1 never conduct. are applicable to this chopper.3a. if the magnitude of the negative peak is greater than the positive maximum. In a positive voltage loop. .10). switch T1 conducts while if io < 0. to the dc source Vs.81) and Vr 1 1− δ = −1 = (13. ∨ iii.1.2. and (c) operation and waveforms for quadrant II. the diode in parallel to switch T1. The time domain differential equations from section 13. then some of the independent flexibility offered by each chopper is lost. Energy is delivered from the generating load dc source E.6) to (13. and are independent of the load: 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = Vs δ (1 − δ ) txD I ∨ t (13. but the minimum current is not restricted to zero. with slight modification to account for the fact that both the minimum and maximum currents can be negative.
iv. forming a zero voltage loop −t E ∧ −t io ( t ) = − 1 − e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ T − tT R where where I = ∨ ∧ (13.82) are 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = Vs δ (1 − δ ) IT 1 = I D1 = 1 T 1 T ∫ ∫ b a b −t Vs − E ∨ −t 1 − e τ + I e τ dt R −t −t 0 to tT t xT to tT 0 to 0 0 to tT 0 to T . the maximum and minimum output current. average switch current and average diode current for all devices. the load average and rms voltages. viii.86). as shown in figure 13.¼ ) = 147. Calculation of individual device average currents in the time domain is complicated by the fact that the energy may flow between the dc source Vs and the load via the switch T1 (energy to the load) or diode D2 (energy ∨ from the load).401 Power Electronics DC choppers 402 During the switch offperiod. and ix.8 and Table 13. If Vo > E then average power flow is to the load. ii. and output voltage and current waveforms.80) the load average and rms voltages are t 1. Vs (1 − e τ ) (1 − e τ ) −T R 1− e τ The average output current.86) ( ∫ i ( t ) dt = T 0 o Vo − E ) R (A) R The direction of the net power flow between E and Vs determines the chopper operating quadrant.732 ¼ ∧ −t τ + I e dt 0 to t xD iii. duty cycle δ to result in zero average output current and xi. hence the peaktopeak output ripple in the load current are given by .25ms • load time constant τ = L /R = 0. the load average current. v. the current in the time domain. Circuit diagram. hence ripple factor. 50mH inductance.79) and (13.8b.25ms vo = T Vs = ×340V = ¼ ×340V = 85V T 5ms Vrms = δ Vs = ¼ ×340V = 170V rms ii.8b.5. I < 0 ∧ ∨ I < 0. if applicable. determine: i. Equations (13. from a 340V dc source. If the chopper is operated at 200Hz with a 25% onstate duty cycle. hence voltage ripple factor. while if Vo < E. hence output power and rms output current. the current crossover times.8a feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance. back emf E to result in zero average load current. sketch the circuit.05mH/10Ω = 5ms vo δ=¼ T=5ms T1 D2 R Vs=340V 10Ω δ=¾ T=5ms T2 D1 vo 50mH L II I io Thus the sign of I o determines the direction of net power flow. ∨ IR with respect to t = 0 t xT = τ n 1 − Vs − E (13. may be positive or negative and is given by I p− p = Io = 1 T −δ T −(1−δ )T (13.2V RF = Vr Vo = 1 IT 2 = ID2 = 1 T 1 T ∫ ∫ b a b 0 − − E 1 − e τ + I e τ dt R −t ∧ −t −t E 1− e τ R δ − 1= 1 .tT = 1702 . Table 13.84) The electromagnetic energy transfer efficiency is determined from EI η = o for I o > 0 Vs I i Vs 1 − e −T R 1− e τ τ tT − tT − E R E R η= (13.85) Vs I i E Io (13. From equations (13. hence peaktopeak output ripple in the current.852 = 340V ¼ × (1 . The rms ripple voltage.87) The twoquadrant dctodc chopper in figure 13. I o .84) are equated to zero and solved for the time at zero crossover. respectively. I > 0. Vs I s = ± I o2 R + E I o (13. the average power flow is back into the source Vs. the rms ripple voltage. vi. from equations (13. the input power. Subsequently determine the necessary change in x.81) and (13. load. I > 0 ∧ ∨ +E +100V Figure Example 13. ∧ when I and I have opposite signs.88) rms (δ V = − E) s (13. and back emf of 100V dc. vii.8c.5: Twoquadrant DC chopper with load back emf V e τ −1 − and I = s T R τ e −1 (A) The peaktopeak ripple current is independent of E. Solution The main circuit and operating parameters are • onstate duty cycle δ = ¼ • period T = 1/fs = 1/200Hz = 5ms • onperiod of the switch tT = 1.83) and (13. the maximum and minimum output current. From equations (13.89) IR t xD = τ n 1 + with respect to t = tT E The necessary integration for each device can then be determined with the aid of the device conduction information in the parts of figure 13. a to b I > 0. hence quadrant of operation. effective input impedance and electromagnetic efficiency. shown in figure 13.90) for I o < 0 (A) Example 13.tT 0 to 0 Vs − E ∨ 1 − e τ + I e τ dt 0 R 0 to 0 0 to 0 0 to T .85) and (13. iii. It is therefore necessary to ascertain the zero current crossover time. I < 0 ∧ ∨ i. when vo = 0.1 Device average current ratings Device and integration bounds. which will then specify the necessary bounds of integration.tT 0 to t xT t xD to T .1 = 1.1. as shown in figure 13. txT and txD.
84ms 0 V e τ −1 E 340V e 5ms .25ms − E 340V 1 .38 × e 5ms io ( t ) = − −t −t t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.1 100V I= s T − = × 5ms = .5A 10Ω Io 4.e 5ms = × 5ms R 10Ω 1 . Table 13.28.90 × e 5ms 10Ω ( ) From Pout = PE = E I o = 100V × ( 1.12ms with respect to switch T1 turn .1.38 × e 5ms dt = − 0.9A) and the minimum is less that zero (.90 × e 5ms dt = 0.e 5 ms . the current crosses zero during the switch ontime and offtime.870ms = 2.83) and (13.75ms 0870ms −10 + 11.1. During the switch ontime io ( t ) = 24 .89).25ms 0.25ms  100V = 1.28.382A ∧ −t τ + I e dt ID2 = = ∫ t xD 0 − −t E τ 1 − e R −t 0.9A I ∧ t 0.25ms 4.. I < 0 .357A ) = 95.2W.5A ( ) I ∨ is o 1. and average diode current for all devices.34A rms R 10Ω T1 D1 Conducting devices T2 D2 T1 D1 T2 v.5A + 0.e 5ms .28A When the output current crosses zero current.081A t Figure Example 13.1 gives the ∧ ∨ necessary current equations and integration bounds for the condition I > 0.90A 10Ω I D1 = = 1 T ∫ t xT 0 −t Vs − E ∨ −t 1 − e τ + I e τ dt R 0.838ms 24 −t E 100V 85V o During the switch offtime io ( t ) = −10 + 11.38A).38A T =5ms = 1 5ms ∫ 1.28. Vo − E (δ Vs − E ) = Io = R R (85V .4.92.e 5ms 1.0.0.1 shows that all four semiconductors are involved in the output current cycle.90 × e 5ms dt = −1.4.383ms tT =1.25ms vii.160A = 0 ∫ = 24 . average switch current.90 × e 5ms = 0 t xD =5ms× n Vo where 0 ≤ t = t xD ≤ 3. (charging Vs ) −t −t = −10 × 1 − e 5ms + 1. 1 5ms 1 T ∫ 24 . or solved from the time domain output current equations as follows.28.080A .250ms + 0.38 × e 5ms dt = 0.9A t vi.38A R τ R 10Ω 10Ω 5ms e −1 e 1 The peaktopeak ripple current is therefore ∆io = 1. that is generating 150W Vs I s = I o2 R + E I o rms = 340V× ( 0. The current in the time domain is given by equations (13.75ms t 11.25ms 28.90 × e 5ms = −10 + 11. hence output power and rms output current. Table 13.38×e 5ms 1 5ms 1 T ∫ 3.870ms 10 (1.4. Circuit waveforms . Pin = P = Vs I i = Vs I T 1 + I D1 V s E ∧ 1− e τ + I e τ R −t −t 100V =− × 1 − e 5ms + 1. −t 1 t Vs − E ∨ −t 1 − e τ + I e τ dt IT1 = ∫ T t R T xT Is I ∨ 2.403 Power Electronics DC choppers 404 I= ∨ ∧ Vs 1 − e τ −T R 1− e τ tT − tT 1.38 × e 5ms = 0 t xT = 5ms× n t vo 340V where 0 ≤ t = t xT ≤ 1. The input power.on) io I o ∧ 1.38A txD =0. as given by equation (13.87ms 1. The load average current.870 ms 1 −10 + 11. the conducting device changes.90 × e −t 5ms Io = rms for 0 ≤ t ≤ 3.90 = 0.38 = 0.100V ) = 1.38×e 5ms 10Ω t t = 24× 1.357A ∧ −t τ + I e dt −t t IT 2 = = ∫ T tT t xD − −t E 1− e τ R iv.38A = 6.160A 0 5ms Check I o + I T 1 + I D1 + I T 2 + I D 2 = .357A .28A pp.4. Since the maximum current is greater than zero (1.84) −t V −E ∨ −t io ( t ) = s 1− e τ + I e τ R t t 340V100V = × 1.4.12ms txT =0. The time domain equations for the load current are solved for zero to give the cross over times txT and txD.75ms D2 Pout − Pin 150W .838ms 24 .90A .5.5A ) = 150W.080A .5W = = 2.382A + 0.
depending on the load and switching sequence.10. regeneration into Vs. Both the output voltage vo and output current io are with reference to the first quadrant arrows in figure 13. In using switches T1 and T4 the chopper operates in the first and fourth quadrants. Because of this need to reverse the back emf for regeneration. or received from the load provided the polarity of the back emf E is reversed. State #1 When both switches T1 and T4 conduct.9a incorporates two switches T1 and T4 and two diodes D1 and D4.5% 150W The effective input impedance is V Vs 340V Z in = s = = = 1214Ω I i I T 1 + I D1 0. load. hence providing redundancy. that is vo = 0 T1 and D4 conducting: vo = 0 T4 and D1 conducting: State #3 When both switches are off.10b.080A .0. the average load current equation can be rearranged to give the back emf E that results in zero average load current δ Vs − E =0 Io = R that is E = δ Vs = ¼×340V = 85V ♣ 13. As in part x.2W = = 63.5.10c. energy is being transferred from the back emf E to the dc voltage source Vs. 0V Vs T1 +Vs D3 D4 Vs T1 LO D A D3 D4 Vs T1 Vs D3 D4 LO D A + Vs  LO D A Vs + D1 D2 T3 T4 D1 D2 0V T T4 3 D2 D1 T4 T3 (a) (b) (c) Figure 13. Duty cycle δ to result in zero average output current can be determined from the expression for the average output current. io. The output voltage is Vs. .Q 1 and Q IV io 1 δ ½ o T1 T1 on vo I IV io Vs T1 io LOAD D1 + vo D4 T4 (a) T1 D4 T1 T4 D1 T4 T1 T4 T1 D4 T1 T4 Conducting devices D1 T1 D1 T4 D4 D4 1 ½ δ o D1 T4 D1 D4 T1 D4 D1 D4 D1 T4 T1 off T1 on T1 T4 T1 off T1 on T1 off T4 T4 on T4 off T4 on T4 off T4 on T4 off vo +Vs vo o tT T 2T Vo Vo o tT T 2T io Vs I ∧ Io I ∨ The unidirectional current.9a. or asymmetrical half Hbridge shown in figure 13. and therefore also one diode. where one state has redundancy (two possibilities).5 for an smps variation.9.405 Power Electronics DC choppers 406 viii. and (c) D1 and D4 creating a Vs path. and output voltage and current waveforms are sketched in the figure for example 13.357A ix.4% δ= = Vs 340V xi. Energy is drawn from the dc source Vs. The asymmetrical half Hbridge chopper has three different output voltage states. Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper (a) circuit where io>0: (b) operation in quadrant IV. equation (13. bidirectional voltage output vo but unidirectional current. On the other hand. Since the average output current is negative. Net power can be delivered to the load.87). the supply Vs is impressed across the load. that is vo = Vs T1 and T4 are not conducting: Io I ∧ ∨ is is I Is −Is (c) (b) Figure 13. Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper operational current paths: (a) T1 and T4 forming a +Vs path. that is.10a. as shown in figure 13. Either switch (but only one on at any time) can be the onswitch. vo = Vs T1 and T4 conducting: State #2 If only one switch is conducting. this chopper is not commonly used in dc machine control. The chopper can operate in two quadrants (I and IV). the electromagnetic efficiency of conversion is given by VI η = s i for I o < 0 E Io 95. the diodes D1 and D4 conduct load energy back into the dc source Vs. as in figure 13. the output voltage is zero. twoquadrant dc chopper.5 Twoquadrant dc chopper . that is δ Vs − E =0 Io = R that is E 100V = 29. (b) T1 and D4 (or T4 and D1) forming a zero voltage loop. Also see chapter 15. x. The circuit. the chopper circuit configuration is commonly used to meet the converter requirements of the switched reluctance machine. which only requires unipolar current to operate. as shown in figure 13. and (c) operation in quadrant I.
is twice the switching period.2 dc chopper: – Q I and Q IV – bipolar voltage switching (two level) when δ = ½ : that is tT = 0 and vo = 0 tT T (the period of the carrier. Operation is characterised by first shorting the output circuit to boost the current.91) gives t Vo = − Vs 1 − T (13.11 the chopper output states are (assuming continuous load current) • T1 and T4 on vo = Vs • T1 and T4 off vo = . operation is termed bipolar or two level switching. the average output voltage is t T 1 Vo = Vs dt + ∫ −Vs dt t T ∫0 (13.9c. .5.2b and analysed in section 13.5. or discontinuous in which case equations (13. As shown in figures 13. both switches are on simultaneously or both are off together. In applying the equations for the chopper in section 13. This will account for the scaling and offset produced by the triangular carrier signal decoding.91) Vo = ∫ − Vs dt = (T − tT ) = − Vs 1 − T T t T T Examination of figure 13. is given by − Vs 1 T t (13.9c reveals that the relationship between tT and δ must produce when δ = ½ : tT = 0 and vo = 0 T when δ = 1: tT = T and vo = Vs t that is δ = ½ T + 1 T which on substituting for tT /T in equation (13. namely ±Vs and 0V.2 along with the equations within that section. where they turn on together and off together.77) for the secondquadrant chopper analysed in 13.9b. T) which after substituting for tT /T in equation (13.6) to (13.11. Operation is in the fourth quadrant.24) to (13. and the equations in section 13. the average output voltage is load independent and for ½ ≤ δ ≤ 1 is given by 1 t V Vo = ∫ Vs dt = s tT (13.97) which is a maxima at δ = ½ and a minima for δ = 0 and δ = 1.5. The characteristics of this mode of operation are described by the equations (13.94) for (0 ≤ δ ≤ 1). the semiconductor losses are evenly distributed.92) and (13. as follows Vs (that is T1 and T4 off) D1 and D4 T1 and D4 0 Vs D1 and D4 0 (not T1 and D4 again) T4 and D1 Vs D1 and D4 0. Also.3 for the secondquadrant chopper. The output voltage ripple factor is RF = Vr 2Vs δ (1 − δ ) 2 δ (1 − δ ) = = Vo ( 2δ − 1)Vs ( 2δ − 1) = − Vs (1 − 2δ ) = Vs ( 2δ − 1) for 0 ≤ δ ≤ ½ Operational analysis in the fourth quadrant. δ ≥ ½. T1 and D4 In switched reluctance motor drive application there may be no alternative to using only ±Vs control loops without the intermediate zero voltage state. For continuous load current. which considers multilevel (two and three level) output voltage switching states. This reduces the output current ripple for a given switch operating frequency (which minimises the load inductance necessary for continuous load current conduction).9b reveals that the relationship between tT and δ must produce when δ = 0 : tT = T and vo = −Vs T 13.48) to (13. Specifically. Only two voltage output states (hence the term bipolar). In this way. i. Aspects of this mode of switching are extended in section 13.98) Although the average output voltage may reverse. when generating the necessary triangular carriers. 13.43) are applicable. when only one switch is on at any instant. that is. when δ ≥ ½ and operation is in the first quadrant. • Multilevel switching is when both switches are controlled independently to give all three output voltage states (three levels). in which case equations (13.407 Power Electronics DC choppers 408 The two zero output voltage states can most effectively be used if alternated during any switching sequence.23) are valid. From figure 13. the load current is always positive but can be discontinuous or continuous. The load current can be either continuous. for continuous load current.95) R R Operation in the first quadrant.3. is similar to the analysis for the secondquadrant chopper in figure 13. a typical sequence to achieve these features would be Vs T1 and T4 0 T1 and D4 Vs T1 and T4 0 (not T1 and D4 again) T4 and D1 Vs T1 and T4 0. Vo = Vs The interleaved zero voltage states are readily introduced if the control carrier waveforms for the two switches are displaced by 180°. the load switching frequency (load ripple current frequency) is twice the switching frequency of the switches. the switching frequency 1/Ts is determined by the triangular wave frequency 1/2T.3. using the waveforms in figure 13.93) T 0 T Examination of figure 13.9b that when δ ≤ ½ both switches never conduct simultaneously hence the output voltage is either 0 or Vs. the duty cycle in each case is replaced by • 2δ 1 in the case of δ ≥ ½ for the firstquadrant chopper and • 2δ in the case of δ ≤ ½ for the fourthquadrant chopper. by alternating the zero voltage loop. 13.5. This requirement can be realised if two updown counters are displaced by 180°. the output current mean is given by the same expression. ½ ≤ δ ≤ 1 As shown in figure 13. δ ≤ ½.3. hence the output current has reduced ripple. at least one switch is conducting hence the output voltage is either +Vs or 0.1 dc chopper:– Q I and Q IV – multilevel output voltage switching (three level) (13.2 for the firstquadrant chopper. namely V o − E Vs (2δ − 1) − E Io = = (13.96) V = s ( tT − T + tT ) = ( 2δ − 1)Vs T The rms output voltage is independent of the duty cycle and is Vs.Vs From figure 13. 1/T. whilst advantageously the load experiences twice that frequency.94) T Since the average output voltage is the same in each case.9b and c. etc. where the output current may again be continuous or discontinuous. for a given switch operating frequency. There are two basic modes of chopper switching operation. as shown in figure 13. Equations describing bipolar output are presented within the next section.9b and c.2a and considered in section 13.3. then removing the output short forces current back into the supply Vs. is characterised by the firstquadrant chopper shown in figure 13. +Vs and – Vs. equations (13. via a freewheel diode. ii.93) gives tT = Vs ( 2δ − 1) for ½ ≤ δ ≤ 1 (13. 0 ≤ δ ≤ ½ It can be seen in figure 13. The current and voltage references are both reversed in translating equations applicable in quadrants Q II to Q IV. • Bipolar switching (or two level switching) is when both switches operate in unison. The output ac ripple voltage is ( T T ) 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = Vs2 − ( 2δ − 1) Vs2 = 2 Vs δ (1 − δ ) 2 (13. 2T. T1 and D4 The sequence can also be interleaved in the regeneration mode. The average output voltage is load independent and for 0 ≤ δ ≤ ½. are possible. etc.92) T δ =½ When both switches operate in the same state.
99) to I+ and solving for time t+ at the end of the period.102) E + I−R In a negative voltage loop. the circuit equation is given by di L o + R io + E = 0 dt which gives −t E ∧ −t for 0 ≤ t ≤ t o (13. − − The current at the end of the period is the reference level I . when vo(t) = 0. The control objective is to generate a current output pulse that tracks a reference shape which starts from zero.3 Multilevel output voltage states.use – V loops (and zero volts loops only if necessary to reduce the fall rate) Operation is further characterised by continuous load current during the pulse. to at the end of the period. 13. the current falls rapidly and the circuit equation. but reproduced as follows. Energy is supplied to the load from the source during +V loops.409 Power Electronics DC choppers 410 Vs T1 io LOAD R L vo + E D4 −t Vs − E ∨ −t 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ t + (13. from the end of the previous cycle.use zero voltage loops (and ±V loops only if necessary to increase or decrease the current) • For falling current:. forming –V voltage output loops. gives ∨ V −E−IR t + = τ ln s (13. (T1 and T4 are both on). and • both switches are simultaneously off. such as circuit loops involving T1 and D4 (or T4 and D1). when vo(t) = Vs and Vs is impressed across the load. I .11. The waveform shown in figure 13. with hysteresis. dc chopper Vs In switched reluctance machine drives it is not uncommon to operate the asymmetrical half Hbridge shown in figure 13.100) Vs − E − I + R Conducting devices D1 T1 T1 T4 T4 D4 T1 T4 io D1 D4 T1 T4 D1 D4 ∧ T1 T4 D1 D4 io T1 T4 T1 D4 T1 T4 T1 T4 D1 D4 Io I+ I  I Io I o vo Vs o Vs tT (b) T ∨ I ∨ t t is o o t + t o t + t o t + o Io ∨ t Io Vo t o o t energy recovered − Io Vs vo o o t Figure 13. when both switches T1 and T4 are off.5.12 fulfils this specification. The chopper output current during each period is described by equations previously derived in this chapter. Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper operation in a multilevel output voltage mode. and returned to the supply during –V loop periods.101) io ( t ) = − 1 − e τ + I e τ R ∧ + where I equals the reference current level. rises to maintain a fixed current level. • switches operate independently the give zero voltage loops. is di L o + R io + E = −Vs dt which gives . then the current falls back to zero. whilst the time to rise to I+ is derived by equating equation (13. The switching strategy to produce the current waveform in figure 13. In a positive voltage loop.99) R ∨ ∨ During the first switching cycle the current starts from zero. whilst the time to fall to I is given by − equating equation (13.12. In a zero voltage loop. io ( t ) = D1 T4 (a) Conducting devices The current at the end of the positive voltage loop period is the reference level I+. the load circuit condition is described by di L o + R io + E = Vs dt which yields Figure 13.101) to I and solving for time. so I = 0. ∧ E+IR to = τ n (13.12 aims at: • For rising current:. Otherwise I is the lower − reference. Solving io(t+) = I+ for t+ . Twoquadrant (I and IV) dc chopper operation in the bipolar output mode: (a) circuit showing load components and (b) chopper output waveforms.use +V loops (and zero volt loops only if necessary) • For near constant current:.9 such that • both switches operate in the onstate together to form +V voltage loops. when vo(t) = Vs. I from the previous switching period.
with I = 5A and I =10A. t2: = 2. dc chopper The asymmetrical half Hbridge.16ms + 1. ∨ V −E−I R t+ = τ n s Vs − E − I + R 340V . half Hbridge. whence I = 0. t2.20ms + 1. t2 and t3 dominate the switching frequency. is Tp = t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 ii. From equation (13. the initial rise time. How do the onstate losses compare between the two control approaches? Solution Vs vo o o t 10A +340V 0V loop E=55V t3 t4 o t o t1 t2 V loop The main circuit and operating parameters are • E = 55V and Vs = 340V • load time constant τ = L /R = 0. t2: = 2.0A×10Ω that is t1 = 5ms × n = 2. t2. − − The current at the end of the period is I .104). where the current is required to fall to the lower hysteresis band level.16ms 340V .53ms 0V 1.411 Power Electronics DC choppers 412 −t − E − Vs ∧ −t 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ t − (13. Determine the period of the current shape shown in the figure example 13. when only ±Vs loops are used and ii. and the period time t2 is given by equation (13. 5A. In each case calculate the switching frequency if the current were to be maintained within the hysteresis band for a prolonged period.95ms 55V + 5A×10Ω The total period.05mH/10Ω = 5ms − • I+ = 10A and I = 5A Examination of the figure shows that only one period of the cycle differs.53ms 340V + 55V + 5A×10Ω The total period.10A×10Ω t4: The fourth and final period is a negative voltage loop where the current falls from the upper band ∧ − − limit of 10A to I which equals zero.55V . ∧ V +E+IR t− = τ n s Vs + E + I − R 340V + 55V + 10A×10Ω that is t2 = 5ms × n = 0.103) R ∧ + where I equals the reference current level.2ms V 0. The switching frequency within the current bounds has a period t2 + t3.10A×10Ω t3: In the third period.104) with I =I+=10A and I = 0A ∧ V +E+IR t− = τ n s Vs + E + I − R 340V + 55V + 10A×10Ω that is t4 = 5ms × n = 1.55V . and each case is summarized in the following table.6. t1: The first period.101) to I and solving for time t − at the end of the period. 13. The period of the other three regions (t1.95ms + 1.55V .5A×10Ω that is t3 = 5ms × n = 1.95ms.20ms + 1.13ms 2. ∨ V −E−I R t+ = τ n s Vs − E − I + R 340V .49ms + t2 T1 T4 io 5A t1 t2 t3 10A is 5A 1.6. when a zero volt loop is used to maintain tracking within the 5A band. Tp.55V . The characteristics and features of the three output voltage states are illustrated in the following example.53ms + 1.100).13ms = 6. from a 340V dc voltage source.16ms + 0. 50mH inductance.02ms When a zero voltage loop is used to maintain the current within the hysteresis band. 0.100) again.95ms Conducting devices D1 / T1 T1 D1 D4 T4 D4 10A o t4 o t Example 13.102). Circuit waveforms. When only Vs paths are used to decrease the current. The duration of the current increase is given by equation (13.9 feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance. namely the second period. io ( t ) = Tp = t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 = 2.6: Asymmetrical.16ms + t2 + 1.13ms 340V + 55V + 0A×10Ω The current pulse period is given by ∨ Vs 340V Tp Figure Example 13.104) t− = τ n s Vs + E + I − R The same equation is used to determine the time for the final current period when the current decays to − zero. whilst the time to reach I is given by equating equation − (13.20ms + 1. . dctodc chopper in figure 13. where I+=10A and I = 0A. ∧ V +E+IR (13. Tp. I from the previous switching period. t3.13ms = 4.16ms 1.20ms 340V . the current rises from the lower hysteresis band limit of 5A to the upper band limit ∨ − 10A. ∧ E+IR to = τ n E + I −R 55V + 10A×10Ω that is t2 = 5ms × n = 1. of the chopped current pulse when a 0V loop is used.13ms = 5. is Tp = t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 i. of the chopped current pulse when a 0V loop is not used. but with I = I = 5A. t+ = t1 is given by equation (13.∧ the current − decays slowly.53ms versus 1.6: i. For longer current chopping. and t4) are common and independent of the period of the second region. and back emf of 55V dc. ∧ − with I =5A and I =10A.44ms The current falls significantly faster within the hysteresis band if negative voltage loops are employed rather that zero voltage loops. The chopper output current is controlled in a hysteresis mode within a current band between limits 5A and 10A. the time t2 is given by equation (13.
Operation is independent of the direction of the output current io. a triangular based modulation control method. so that the quadrant of operation with respect to the switch number is persevered. All practical methods should employ complementary device switching in each leg (either T1 or T4 on but not both and either T2 or T3 on. but do facilitate faster current reversal.1. The maximum ripple voltage occurs at δ = ½.14c and d reveals that the relationship between tT and δ must produce when δ = 0 : tT = 0 and vo = −Vs ♣ 13. Switching losses. The output voltage switches between + Vs and – Vs and the relative duration of each state depends on the magnitude of the modulation index δ. with the overriding restriction that no two switches in the same leg conduct simultaneously. without crossover distortion. when vo(t) = Vs di L o + R io + E = Vs dt which yields −t V −E ∨ −t io ( t ) = s 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT R (13. If δ = 0 then T1 and T4 never turnon since T2 and T3 conduct continuously which impresses – Vs across the load. Voltage loops ±V +V and zero 13. then the onstate losses are similar.106) Vs D2 io LOAD D4 The average output voltage can be positive or negative.6 Fourquadrant dc chopper ( T T ) The fourquadrant Hbridge dc chopper is shown in figure 13. and evenly distributed for both control methods.95ms+1. but disadvantageously.6. With the flexibility of four switches. It can also be used as a dc chopper for the fourquadrant control of a dc machine.108) Figure 13. but not both) so as to minimise distortion by ensuring current continuity around zero current output.9. Circuit operation is characterized by two time domain equations: During the onperiod for T1 and T4. The onstate losses are similar because each of the three states always involves the same current variation flowing through two semiconductors. which gives positive current io but bidirectional voltage ±vo (QI and QIV operation). showing first quadrant io and vo references. Two generalised unified Hbridge control approaches are considered – bipolar and threelevel output.105) 1 t = ( 2tT − T )Vs = 2 T − 1Vs T T Examination of figures 13. while T2 and T3 are on for the remaining half of the period. Even when the average voltage is zero.413 Power Electronics DC choppers 414 Using zero voltage current loops reduces the switching frequency of the Hbridge switches by a factor of over three. the average output voltage varies linearly with δ such that T 1 t Vo = +Vs dt + ∫ −Vs dt t T ∫0 (13. as used with the asymmetrical Hbridge dc chopper in figure 13.bipolar voltage output switching t2 + t3 0. is applicable in each case. The second chopper is formed by grouping T2 and T3 with D2 and D3. depending solely on δ. If δ = ½ then T1 and T4 are turned on for half of the period T. the chopper output voltage can be either multilevel or bipolar.1.6. Since the output voltage is reversible for each control method. for a given peaktopeak ripple current. if δ = 1 then T1 and T4 are on continuously and Vs is impressed across the load. With both control methods.20ms = 3. when the output voltage is pure dc. The output ac ripple voltage is 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 III IV io = Vs2 − ( 2δ − 1) Vs2 = 2 Vs δ (1 − δ ) 2 (13. respectively.42 1 The simpler output to generate is bipolar output voltages. depending on whether zero output voltage loops are employed or not. Bipolar output states increase the ripple current magnitude. which gives negative output current io. The output ripple factor is RF = = Vr 2 Vs δ (1 − δ ) = Vo ( 2δ − 1)Vs 2 δ (1 − δ ) (13.2.Vs or Vs. The average output voltage is therefore zero.1 Unified fourquadrant dc chopper . with an average value of zero amps. If the onstate voltage drop of the switches and the diodes are similar for the same current level. vo = Vs • v∆ < δ. One control method involves controlling the Hbridge as two virtually independent twoquadrant choppers.109) . No current discontinuity occurs since the output voltage is never actually zero.13. One chopper is formed with T1 and T4 grouped with D1 and D4. At the other extreme. when Vr = Vs.73ms 1. ripple current flows though the load.20ms =1. vo T1 T3 II I when δ = ½ : when δ = 1: tT = ½T and vo = 0 tT = T and vo = +Vs that is tT T which on substituting for tT /T in equation (13.13 where the load current and voltage are referenced with respect to T1.14c and d. Fourquadrant dc chopper circuit. while its use in smps applications is considered in chapter 15. The principal difference is in the significant increase in switching losses when only ±V loops are used (1:3.8. namely . which use one reference carrier triangle as shown in figure 13. Table Example 13. but bidirection voltage ±vo (QII and QIII operation). The rms output voltage is independent of the duty cycle and is Vs.15ms Current ripple frequency 578Hz 317Hz Switch frequency 578Hz 169Hz Switch loss ratio 578 169 = 3. The chopper output voltage is defined in terms of the triangle voltage reference level v∆ by • v∆ > δ. the output current needlessly ripples about zero (with an average value of zero). The Hbridge is a flexible basic configuration where its use to produce singlephase ac is considered in chapter 14. vo = +Vs From figure 13.14 parts (c) and (d). ( 2δ − 1) The second control method is to unify the operation of all four switches within a generalised control algorithm.105) gives t Vo = 2 T − 1 Vs T = ( 2δ − 1) Vs for 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1 δ= (13.107) I T2 − vo D1 D3 T4 The ac ripple voltage is zero at δ = 0 and δ = 1.53ms+1.42). a number of different control methods can be used to produce fourquadrant output voltage and current (bidirectional voltage and current). The output voltage is – Vs for half of the time and + Vs for the remaining half of any period.
Because the output is bipolar (±Vs). and twice that given by equation (13. deadtime between the switching of the complementary pair (T1 T2). The table shows how the conducting device possibilities (states) decrease if the minimum value is positive or the maximum value is negative. Figures 13. the switching states are the same on the left and right sides of table 13.15). That is. Fourquadrant dc chopper circuit waveforms: multilevel (threelevel) output voltage (a) with Vo > 0 and I o > 0.415 D2 D2 T1 T3 D 3 T4 D 1 T2 D 2 T1 T4 D3 D3 T4 T1 D4 D2 D2 T3 D3 Power Electronics C onducting devices T1 D1 T1 D 1 T2 T4 T4 D 4 D 4 T3 T 2 D 1D 1 T 2 D 3 T4 D 4 T3 D2 T3 T1 D 1 T2 D 4 D 4 T3 T2 D3 DC choppers 416 1 δ ½ o T 1/2 T 3/4 T4 on T 3 on T 4 on T1 on T2 on T 1 on 1 ½ δ o T 1/2 T 3/4 T2 on T1 on T 2 on During the onperiod for T2 and T3.3A shows that the conducting devices are independent of the average output voltage polarity. then only components for a first and fourth quadrant chopper conduct. and D4 do not conduct. One carrier triangle is .Vs di L o + R io + E = − Vs dt which. when vo(t) = . The mean output current is given by T Vs 1 − 2e τ + e τ −T R 1− e τ − tT −T − E R (A) o io o tT T I I ∨ ∧ 2T io V s I I ∨ Io ∧ is I ∧ is Io −I ∨ ( (1 − 2δ )Vs − E ) = (A) (13. Fourquadrant chopper bipolar (twolevel) output voltage states D1 T1 D3 T4 D1 D4 T1 T4 D1 D4 T1 T4 D 1 T2 D 2 D4 T3 D3 T1 T4 T2 T3 Conducting devices sequences V <0 I >0 V <0 T1 T4 D1 D4 T2 T3 D2 D3 ∨ V >0 T1 T4 D1 D4 1 δ ½ o T 1/2 T 3/4 T 1 on T 2 on T1 on 1 ½ δ o T 1/2 T 1 on T 2 on T 1 on T 2 on V >0 I > 0 I < 0 ∨ ∧ T1 T4 D1 D4 T2 T3 D2 D3 V <0 T2 T3 D2 D3 V >0 I <0 ∧ T2 T3 D2 D3 T 4 on T 3 on T4 on T 3 on T 3/4 T o 4 on T3 on T 4 on T 3 on vo +V s o Vo tT vo tT +V s T Vo V s io I ∧ T V s io I ∨ ∨ ∧ Io I ∨ is I ∧ I Io −I is −I ∨ I ∧ −I ∧ I ∨ −I ∧ I ∨ If the minimum output current is positive.112) R R which can be positive or negative. D2. after shifting the zero time reference to tT.110) 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ T − tT R ∨ ∧ The initial conditions I and I are determined by using the steadystate boundary conditions: where I = ∨ ∧ T 3 on T 4 on T3 on vo +V s Vo vo o tT T Vo 2T o (13. Examination of figure 12. the average chopper output voltage. The transition between these three possible sequences. as seen in figure 13. D1. due to a current level polarity change. then T1.3A for I > 0 . Io = o (V −E ) (a) C onducting devices D1 T1 D 1 D4 T4 D 4 (b) Table 13. T4.14c and d.3A for I < 0 .111) −T t Vs 2e τ − 1 + e τ E and I = (A) − −T R R 1− e τ The peaktopeak ripple current is independent of load emf. that is.14c ∨ shows that the output current conduction states are as shown in table 13. that is I is negative. I is positive. The only restriction is that both switches in any leg do not conduct simultaneously.3A. gives −t V +E ∧ −t io ( t ) = − s (13. T3.14c and d show chopper output voltage and current waveforms for conditions of positive average voltage and current in part (c) and negative average voltage and current in part (d). Vo does not affect the three possible steady state sequences.14a and b. If the output current never goes positive. Each part is shown with the current having a positive maximum value and a negative minimum value. (d) with Vo < 0 and I o < 0.14. bipolar (twolevel) output voltage (c) with Vo > 0 and I o > 0.multilevel voltage output switching ∨ (c) (d) Figure 13. This is ensured by inserting a brief deadtime between a switch turning off and its leg complement being turned on.14 and transposed to table 13. In order to generate three output states. and in the other leg the complementary pair is (T3 T4 ). (b) with Vo < 0 and I o < 0. specifically ±Vs and 0V. 13. E.6. That is.3A. Such a load current condition involves activation of all possible chopper conducting paths (sequences) as shown at the top of each part in figure 13. and D3 do not conduct. ∧ The conducting sequence becomes as shown in table 13. two triangular references are used which are displaced by 180° from one another as shown in figure 13. Specifically T2. is seamless. Table 13.2 Unified fourquadrant dc chopper .3A.
the 0V state appears as well as the – Vs state. since the average is a dc value at the extremes (0V and Vs respectively). the rms voltage and ripple voltage differ.417 Power Electronics DC choppers 418 used to specify the state of the leg formed by T1 and T2 (the complement of T1). At δ = ½ the output is zero since T2 and T3 (or T1 and T4) are never on simultaneously to provide a path involving the dc source. The output voltage ripple factor is RF = Vr V = rms − 1 Vo Vo 2 when δ = 1: that is tT = T and vo = Vs tT + 1 T which on substituting for tT /T in equation (13. when Vr = ½Vs. which is half that obtained with the bipolar output control method. progressively lengthening to all of the period as δ falls to ½.115) The minimum rms ripple voltage in the output occurs when δ = ½ or 1 giving an rms ripple voltage of zero. T1 and T4 are on continuously and Vs is impressed across the load. The ripple factor is undefined when the average output voltage is zero. ( ) # For δ ≤ ½ the rms load voltage is ½ 2 1 T Vrms = ∫ (Vs ) dt T t T (13. at δ = ½. the average output current is the same for the range 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1. the later of which decreases in duration as δ increases.115) gives δ = ½ (13.116) Since the same expression results for δ ≤ ½ with bipolar switching. vo= Vs # From figure 13. If δ = 0 then T1 and T4 never turnon since T2 and T3 conduct continuously which impresses –Vs across the load. vo= 0 For ½ > δ ≥ 1 • v∆ > δ. that is Vr = 0. vo= 0 • v∆ < δ. the 0V state is introduced. that is Vr = 0.120) when δ = ½ : that is tT = T and vo = 0 tT T which on substituting for tT /T in equation (13. The maximum ripple occurs at δ = ¾. As δ increases from zero.114) 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = ( 2δ − 1 Vs ) − ( ( 2δ − 1)V ) 2 2 s (13.14b reveals that the relationship between tT and δ must produce when δ = 0 : tT = 0 and vo = −Vs Vo = ( 2δ − 1)Vs (13. The average output voltage is therefore zero. Vs). (but half that obtained with the bipolar output control method. depending on δ and the load emf. as does the peaktopeak output ripple current. and –Vs depending on the modulation index δ. the ripple factor tends to zero. the average output voltage varies linearly with δ such that T 1 t 0 dt + ∫ −Vs dt Vo = t T ∫0 1 t = ( tT − T )Vs = T − 1Vs T T Examination of figure 13. δ and 1δ. = 2× . The output voltage is formed by alternating 0V loops (T1 and T3 on. E. only a maximum of two of the three states appear in the output. the ripple factor tends to zero. 0V. the rms voltage for the multilevel controlled chopper is not a single continuous function. Circuit operation is characterized by three time domain equations. while the other carrier triangle specifies the state of leg formed by switches T3 and T4. when Vr = ½Vs. Unlike the bipolar controlled chopper. The ripple current for zero voltage output is therefore minimised and independent of any load emf.118) = 1 − 2δ Vs The output ac ripple voltage is 2 Vr = Vrms − Vo2 = ( Vr 1 − 2δ Vs ) − ( ( 2δ − 1)V ) 2 2 s (13.123) 1−δ 2δ − 1 Thus as the duty cycle δ → 1 . vo= 0 For δ = ½ • v∆ > δ. in steadystate. depending on δ. alternating to T2 and T4 on. Although the average voltage equations of the multilevel and bipolar controlled dc choppers are the same. As δ is reduced from one. The maximum ripple occurs at δ = ¼.119) = 2 Vs δ (1 − 2δ ) The output voltage ripple factor is RF = V = rms − 1 Vo Vo 2 ( T T ) (13.117) (A) Io = R R which can be positive or negative.14a for δ > ½. consistent with the output being dc. (the complement of T3). since the average is a dc value at the extremes (0V and Vs respectively).14a reveals that the relationship between tT and δ must produce when δ = ½ : tT = 0 and vo = 0 ( T T ) = 2 Vs ( 2δ − 1)(1 − δ ) (13. the average output voltage varies linearly with δ such that T 1 t Vo = Vs dt + ∫ 0 dt t T ∫0 t = Vs T T Examination of figure 13. The ripple factor is undefined when the average output voltage is zero.122) # From figure 13. is to us one triangular carrier and two references. The minimum rms ripple voltage in the output occurs when δ=½ or 0 giving an rms ripple voltage of zero. at δ = ½. A characteristic of the output voltage is that. The output voltage level switches between +Vs . that is Vo − E ( ( 2δ − 1)Vs − E ) = (13. δ (13. etc. which is the same as when δ = ¾. vo= Vs • v∆ < δ. vo= 0 • v∆ < δ. such that 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1.14b for δ < ½.113) = 2× 1 − 2δ Thus as the duty cycle δ → 0 . The voltage output in terms of the triangular level v∆ reference is defined by For 0 ≤ δ < ½ • v∆ > δ. consistent with zero output voltage. At the extreme δ = 1.113) gives t Vo = T − 1 Vs T = ( 2δ − 1) Vs δ =½ # For δ ≥ ½ the rms load voltage is ½ 2 1 T Vrms = ∫ ( −Vs ) dt T t T (13.121) = 2δ − 1 Vs The output ac ripple voltage is (13.). An alternative method to generate the same switching waveforms.
126) The Hbridge. which are shown at the top of each part in figure 13.118). as well as the polarity of the output current swing.3B. from equation (13. determine: i. when vo(t) = Vs di L o + R io + E = Vs dt which yields −t V −E ∨ −t io ( t ) = s 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ tT and δ ≥ ½ R During the onperiod for T2 and T3.7: Fourquadrant dc chopper (13.3B.1) .14c shows that the output current conduction states are as ∨ shown in table 13. The switches T1 and T4 are turned on for 1. the modulation depth. and for δ < ½. D2.2×¼ = 240V rms From equation (13. δ.117) V − E ( 2δ − 1)Vs − E = Io = o R R 340V× ( 2×¼ . Each part is shown with the current having a positive maximum value and a negative minimum value. For example. dctodc chopper in figure 13. The transition between the six possible sequences due to load voltage and current polarity changes. the rms output voltage and ac ripple voltage.14 a and b. is seamless.14 reveals that the carrier frequency is half the switching frequency. for continuous steadystate transitions between +Vs loops and 0V loops. The rms load voltage.25ms. then T1. the output sequence is affected by the average output voltage level. hence quadrant of operation iv. the average output voltage and the corresponding switch T1 ontime vii. that is.114). gives −t E ∧ −t io ( t ) = − 1 − e τ + I e τ R 0 ≤ t ≤ tT and δ ≤ ½ 0 ≤ t ≤ T − tT and δ ≥ ½ ∧ ∨ (13.13 feeds an inductive load of 10 ohms resistance. Unlike the bipolar control method.14 and transposed to table 13. the boundary conditions are given by where I = ∨ ∧ Vs 1 − e τ −T R 1− e τ tT − tT − E R E R (A) (13. that is I is negative. The average output voltage is given by equation (13. The conducting sequence is as shown in table 13. The only restriction is that both switching devices in any leg do not conduct simultaneously. and D3 do not conduct. the electromagnetic power being extracted from the back emf E. thus do not appear in the output sequence. This is ensured by inserting a brief deadtime between a switch turning off and its leg complement being turned on. If the chopper is operated with a 200Hz multilevel carrier as in figure 13. the average output voltage and switch T1 ontime ii. in figure 13. the electromagnetic power being extracted from the back emf E? Solution The main circuit and operating parameters are • modulation depth δ = ¼ • period Tcarrier = 1/fcarrier = 1/200Hz = 5ms • E = 55V and Vs = 340V dc • load time constant τ = L /R = 0.25ms Figure 13. after shifting the zero time reference to tT. The conducting device possibilities decrease if the minimum value is positive or the maximum value is negative. A Fourquadrant chopper multilevel (threelevel) output voltage states Conducting devices sequences where tT = 2δ T = 2×¼× (½×5ms ) = 1. T3.419 Power Electronics DC choppers 420 During the onperiod for T1 and T4. the average output current. Examination of figure 12. Table 13. 50mH inductance.127) (A) V e τ −1 − and I = s T R τ e −1 Figures 13.3B ∧ for I < 0 . requirement vi. thus the 5ms in the above equation has been halved. while T2 and T3 are subsequently turned on for 3. are Vr = 2 Vs δ (1 − 2δ ) V >0 T1 T4 D1 T4 T1 T4 T1 D4 V <0 I >0 ∨ ∨ T1 D4 D1 D4 D1 T4 D1 D4 V >0 D2 T3 D2 D3 T1 T4 D1 T4 T2 D3 D2 D3 T1 T4 T1 D4 V <0 I < 0 I >0 ∧ T1 D4 D1 D4 T2 T3 T2 D3 D1 T4 D1 D4 T2 T3 D2 T3 = 2 ×340V× ¼ × (1 .75ms. ii.125) (13. with a modulation depth of δ = ¼. Such a load current condition involves the activation of all possible chopper conducting paths.119). when vo(t) = 0 di L o + R io + E = 0 dt which. The average output current is given by equation (13. .14a or b. and back emf of 55V dc. If the mean load current is to be halved. after shifting the zero time reference. I is positive. and D4 do not conduct. from a 340V dc source.14a and b show output voltage and current waveforms for conditions of positive average voltage and current in part (a) and negative average voltage and current in part (b). t Vo = T − 1Vs = ( 2δ − 1)Vs T = 340V×( 2×¼ . hence voltage ripple factor iii.55V = = 22. then only components for a first and fourth quadrant chopper conduct. Specifically T2.5A) the chopper with a modulation depth of δ = ¼. when vo(t) = Vs di L o + R io + E = −Vs dt which.124) If the output current never goes positive. Example 13. ∨ iii.3B for I > 0 .2×¼ ) = 170V ac RF = Vr Vo = V >0 D2 T3 D2 D3 T2 D3 D2 D3 V <0 I <0 ∧ 170V =1 −170V T2 T3 T2 D3 T2 T3 D2 T3 If the minimum output current is positive.1) = 170V The initial conditions I and I are determined by using the usual steadystate boundary condition method and are dependent on the transition states. is Vrms = 1 − 2δ Vs = 340V× 1 . the output ac ripple voltage. gives −t V +E ∧ −t io ( t ) = − s 1− e τ + I e τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ T − tT and δ ≤ ½ R The third equation is for a zero voltage loop. T4. thus do not appear in the output device sequence. is operating in the third quadrant.5A 10Ω Since both the average output current and voltage are negative (170V and 22.05mH/10Ω = 5ms i. During the switch offperiod. what is v. D1. hence voltage ripple factor.
The average output current is given by Vo − E ( ( 2δ − 1)Vs − E ) = Io = R R when the mean current is 11.. The switches T1 and T4 are turned on for 1. 1975.07ms From figure 13.. John Wiley & Sons.93ms.25A.75W ♣ Reading list Dewan.25.P.3B. (d) the effective input resistance.14b both T1 and T4 are turned on for 2. vii.1c controls a load of R = 10 Ω. δ = 0. from table 13. rather ∧ than the switches (assuming I o < 0 ). Blank ( ) vi. and (e) the rms switch current.25A Vo = E + I o R =55V . The supply is 340 V dc and the chopping frequency is 5 kHz. 4.415. The electromagnetic power developed by the back emf E is halved and is given by PE = E I o = 55V× ( 11. Power Electronics: Converters. Power Semiconductor Controlled Drives. [21 V. S.25A×10Ω = 57. and the load rms voltage at an ontime duty cycle of δ. PrenticeHall International.2 A.1. although. if the average current is halved to 11.11.5W v.. N.K. New York.25ms.415 340V The switch ontime when δ < ½ is given by tT = 2δ T = 2×0. 13. B. M.5V The average output voltage rearranged in terms of the modulation depth δ gives V δ = ½ 1 + o V s 57. Calculate (a) the peaktopeak load ripple current.5V = ½× 1 + = 0. & Robbins.. Derive general expressions for the mean load voltage and current. 2003. (b) the average load current.2. for negative load current. Problems 13.25A ) = 618.5A ) = 1237.25A. Then. New York. Dubey. The dc GTO thyristor chopper shown in figure 13. John Wiley & Sons. and Straughen. 1989. The electromagnetic power developed by the back emf E is given by PE = E I o = 55V× ( 22. L = 10 mH and 40 V battery. Undeland. Applications & Design. I o = 11. 42 V] The dc chopper in figure 13. Power Semiconductor Circuits.. G.421 Power Electronics DC choppers 422 iv. A. . the parallel connected freewheel diodes D2 and D3 conduct alternately. while T2 and T3 are subsequently turned on for 2.1c operates at 1 kHz and supplies a series 5 Ω and 10 mH load from an 84 V dc battery source. Evaluate these parameters for δ = 0. T. (c) the rms load current.07ms. W. as derived in part vi. Mohan.415× (½×5ms ) = 2.
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