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6. TDMA FDMA CDMA

6. TDMA FDMA CDMA

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Sections

  • Communication Networks
  • Frequency Division Multiplexing (As covered earlier)
  • Satellite Communication
  • Cellular Communication
  • Approaches to Media Sharing
  • Why Channelization?
  • Channelization Approaches
  • Guardbands
  • CDMA Spread Spectrum Signal
  • CDMA Demodulation
  • Channelization in Code Space
  • Example: CDMA with 3 users
  • Sum signal is input to receiver
  • Interim Standard 54/136
  • IS-54 TDMA frame structure
  • GSM TDMA Structure
  • GSM Spectrum Efficiency
  • Interim Standard 95 (IS-95)
  • Base-to-Mobile Channels
  • Pilot Tone & Synchronization
  • Mobile-to-Base Channels
  • IS-95 Spectrum Efficiency
  • Scheduling & Random Access
  • Scheduling: Polling
  • Scheduling: Token-Passing
  • Random Access
  • MAC protocol features
  • Delay Performance of Channelization Schemes
  • TDMA Average Transfer Delay

Communication Networks

Topic 6: TDMA FDMA CDMA Objective: Explain and Analyze Multi-access Communication Protocols . (Refer T1-Ch.4; T2-Ch. 4 & 6 + Class Notes)
ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA

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• Shared media basis for broadcast networks

Medium Access Control Protocols
– Inexpensive: radio over air; copper or coaxial cable – M users communicate by broadcasting into medium

• Key issue: How to share the medium?
3 1 2 4

Shared multiple access medium
M

5

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ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA

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Please Recall “Multiplexing” (As studied earlier) in the context of Switching

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ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA

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allows sharing to take place.• Allow sharing of expensive network resources.1 Multiplexing (As covered earlier) (b) A B C MUX A Trunk MUX group B C a. such as Bandwidth (analog) or bits per second (digital). 3 pairs of users communicate using 3 separate set of wires   Dedicates network resources An unwieldy and inefficient approach as no. by several connections or information flows. etc. of users grow. (a) A B C A B C Figure 4.. Multiplexer approach   08/29/11 . Resources allocated for only for the call duration ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 4 a.

Frequency Division Multiplexing (As covered earlier) 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 5 .

Time Division Multiplexing (As covered earlier) 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 6 .

Multiplexing (As studied earlier) in the context of Switching • NOTE that: FDMA & TDMA are a Generalization of FDM /TDM schemes ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 08/29/11 7 .

Satellite Communication Satellite Channel uplink fin downlink fout 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 8 .

downlink f2 uplink f3 .Cellular Communication uplink f1 . downlink f4 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 9 .

• So. CDMA 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 10 . • Channelization Schemes: FDMA. TDMA.MAC: Channelization Schemes • Let M Stations that produce the same steady flow of information (say digital voice or audio streams). it makes sense to divide the transmission medium into M Channels that can be allocated for the transmission of information from each station. are sharing a medium “the Channel”.

Approaches to Media Sharing Medium sharing techniques Static / “Semi-static” Channelization Dynamic medium access control • Partition medium • Dedicated allocation to users • Satellite transmission • Cellular Telephone Scheduling Random access • Polling: take turns • Request for slot in transmission schedule • Token ring • Wireless LANs ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA • Loose coordination • Send. retry if necessary • Aloha • Ethernet 11 08/29/11 . wait.

Why Channelization? • Channelization – Semi-static bandwidth allocation of portion of shared medium to a given user • Highly efficient for constant-bit rate traffic • Preferred approach in – Cellular telephone networks – Terrestrial & satellite broadcast radio & TV • Considered as “Static” MAC algorithms 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 12 .

Time = L/R L: Frame length. Token-passing Rings Average Delay for TDMA X=Frame Tx. CSMACD – Scheduling MACs: Reservation System. R Tx bit rate. of stations/users 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 13 . Polling. CSMA.• requirements • Inefficient for bursty traffic • Does not scale well to large numbers of users Channelization: Why not ? Inflexible in allocation of bandwidth to users with different – Average transfer delay increases with number of users M (fig. Slotted ALOHA. E[T]: Avg. below) • much better at handling bursty traffic are the Dynamic MAC • Other MAC algorithms are – Random Access schemes: ALOHA. Frame Transfer Delay M: no.

Channelization Approaches • Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) – Frequency band allocated to users – Broadcast radio & TV. GSM digital cellular phone • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) – Code allocated to users – Cellular phones. 3G cellular ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 08/29/11 14 . analog cellular phone • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) – Periodic time slots allocated to users – Telephone backbone.

each station supports R bps. leading towards dynamic sharing techniques.Channelization: Freq. Then each station transmits at most R/M bps Good for stream traffic. Frequency 1 … Guard bands W 2 M–1 M • • • Time Let W is total bandwidth available. then needed to allocate same band to multiple stations. Used in connection-oriented systems Inefficient for bursty traffic. ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 15 08/29/11 . Division Multiple Access (FDMA) • Divide channel into M frequency bands • Each station transmits and listens on assigned bands (implemented via BPFs) • Guard bands reduce co-channel interference.

for synchronizing receiver with Tx. Guard time are required to ensure avoid overlap Tx times TDMA requires a preamble signal. – Spends most of the time accumulating frames and preparing them for transmission in burst during the assigned time slot. TDMA stations take turns in making use of entire channel.. M 1 Time • Each station – transmits at R bps 1/M of the time for an average rate of R/M bits/second.Used in connection-oriented systems. different stations in different locations may experience different prop. One cycle • • • • 08/29/11 Unlike TDM (where multiplexing occurs at a single location). delay estimates. To allow for inaccuracy in the prop. Stations transmit data burst at full channel bandwidth Frequency Guard time W 1 2 3 . Excellent for stream traffic.Channelization: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • • Dedicate 1 slot per station in transmission cycles. Delays.. bit stream. variable rates/slots ECE C394 Communication Networks Inefficient for bursty traffic due to unused dedicated slots Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 16 .

form of overhead • TDMA – Stations must be synchronized to common clock – Time gaps between transmission bursts from different stations to prevent collisions.Guardbands • FDMA – Frequency bands must be non-overlapping to prevent interference – Guardbands ensure separation. form of overhead – Must take into account propagation delays 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 17 .

• TDMA is more flexible than FDMA in handling flows of various bit rates. the bit rate of the flow must be some multiple of a basic bit rate. • In the first method. where M is the total number of stations. In the second method. – But for stations with lower bit rate. 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 18 . but does not necessarily does this efficiently – .Compare FDMA and TDMA in terms of their ability to handle groups of stations that produce information flows that are produced at constant but different bit rates. each time slot gives an average bit rate of R/M. FDMA is inflexible and inefficient in handling flows with different bit rates. FDMA would need to be modified to allocate bands of different bandwidth to different users to accommodate differences in bit rate requirements. and this adds overhead. because it can accommodate flows of different bit rates in two ways: • assign multiple slots to each flow according to their bit rate. In the typical FDMA. – TDMA is more flexible than FDMA. – each station can transmit at a rate of R/M on its assigned frequency. • In TDMA. a means of identifying the endpoints of the variable length frame must be provided. • • Let the total bit rate supported by the transmission medium is R. The bit rate R/M is fixed for each station. where M is the number of time slots. and must satisfy the highest bit rate generated by the group. unused bandwidth is wasted. or allow the slot to be variable in duration.

Code Division Multiple Access • • Channelization: CDMA Channels determined by a code used in modulation and demodulation Stations transmit over entire frequency band all of the time! – Frequency 1 2 W 3 Time 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 19 .

random binary pattern of G “chips” of +1’s and -1’s Resulting spread spectrum signal occupies G times more bandwidth: W = GW1 Modulate the spread signal by sinusoid at appropriate fc 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 20 .CDMA Spread Spectrum Signal Transmitter from one user Binary information R1 bps W1 Hz × R >> R1bps W >> W1 Hz × Digital modulation Radio antenna Unique user binary random sequence • • • • User information mapped into: +1 or -1 for T sec. Multiply user information by pseudo.

we should recover the original +1 or -1 of user information • Other transmitters using different codes appear as residual noise 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 21 .CDMA Demodulationresidual Signal and interference Signals from all transmitters × Digital demodulation × Correlate to user binary random sequence Binary information • Recover spread spectrum signal • Synchronize to and multiply spread signal by same pseudo-random binary pattern used at the transmitter • In absence of other transmitters & noise.

Pseudorandom pattern generator • Feedback shift register with appropriate feedback taps can be used to generate pseudorandom sequence g0 R0 R1 g2 R2 output g(x) = x3 + x2 + 1 g3 Time R0 R1 R2 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 3 1 1 0 4 1 1 1 5 0 1 1 6 0 0 1 7 1 0 0 Sequence repeats from here onwards 22 The coefficients of a primitive generator polynomial determine the feedback taps 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA .

effect of other users on a given receiver increases as additive noise • CDMA has gradual increase in BER due to noise as number of users is increased • Interference between channels can be eliminated is codes are selected so they are orthogonal and if receivers and transmitters are synchronized – Shown in next example 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 23 .Channelization in Code Space • Each channel uses a different pseudorandom code • Codes should have low cross-correlation – If they differ in approximately half the bits the correlation between codes is close to zero and the effect at the output of each other’s receiver is small • As number of users increases.

-1. {-1.+1.+1}. +1.-1.+1.+1}.-1}. {-1. -1 -1 +1 x Receiver +1 User 2 -1 +1 x + User 1 +1 User 3 +1 -1 x Shared Medium 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 24 .+1.-1}.-1.• • Example: CDMA with 3 users Assume three users share same medium Users are synchronized & use different 4-bit orthogonal codes: {-1. {-1.-1.

-1.-1.-1}. +1.-1).-1).+1.-3).-1.(-1.+1.+1} respectively.-1.(-1.-1).(+1.(+1.+1}.(+1.+1.-3.-1.Channel 1: 110 -> +1+1-1 -> (-1. 2 & 3: {-1.(-1.(+1.+1.+1) Sum Signal: (+1.-1.-1.+1.+1.-1.+1.-1.+1).-1) Channel 3: 001 -> -1-1+1 -> (+1.-1).-1.+1) Channel 2: 010 -> -1+1-1 -> (+1.-1).(-1.-1.-1.+1) Sum signal is input to receiver Codes for channels 1.-1.-1. {-1. Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Sum Signal 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 25 .-1).+1.-1.+1. {-1.+1.-1.-1.+3.

Example: Receiver for Station 2 • Each receiver takes sum signal and integrates by code sequence of desired transmitter • Integrate over T seconds to smooth out noise Decoding signal from station 2 + x Integrate over T sec Shared Medium ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 08/29/11 26 .

(+1. 2 & 3: {-1.(+1.+1.(-1.+1.-1.-1}.+1.+3. -4 0.Decoding at Receiver 2 Sum Signal: Channel 2 Sequence: Correlator Output: Integrated Output: Binary Output: (+1.+1) (-1. +4. 0 Codes for channels 1. +1.+1.-1. {-1.+1).-1.-1.-1).-1.+1) (-1.-1.+1.-3).+1) -4.-1.+1} Sum Signal X Channel 2 Sequence Correlator Output = +4 Integrator Output -4 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA -4 27 .+1.+1}.+1.-3).-1.+3.-1.+1).(-1.-1.-3. {-1. 1.(-1.(-1.-1.-1.-1).-3.

• Walsh functions are provide orthogonal code sequences by mapping 0 to -1 and 1 to +1 m • Walsh matrix provides orthogonal spreading sequences of length n=2 . These matrices have binary coeffs. And are defined recursively. • Walsh matrices constructed recursively as follows: Walsh Functions W2n = Wn W n Wn Wnc W1= 0 W2= 0 0 0 1 W8= W 4= 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 28 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA .

in terms of their ability to handle groups of stations that produce information flows that are produced at constant but different bit rates. then the integration period for each bit time (in Figure 6. for example by 2. CDMA can efficiently handle flows of different bit rates as long as the inter-flow interference is below an acceptable level. TDMA. and cause lower interference to other flows. In CDMA. If the bit rate is reduced by some integer factor. In general CDMA assumes that the bit rate of the information source is fixed. Unlike TDMA and FDMA where transmission bandwidth is statically allocated to different stations in terms of time or frequency. and the symbol rate of the spreading sequence is an integer multiple of the information bit rate. The extra capacity can be used to handle more flows. the signal of every flow occupies the entire frequency band at the same time. Thus flows of lower bit rate require lower transmission power.33) is twice as long. This means that the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver will be higher. • • • • • Let the total bit rate supported by the transmission medium is R.Compare CDMA with FDMA. and hence the transmitter can reduce its transmitted power. ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 29 • 08/29/11 . The capacity of the CDMA system is limited by the interference between different flows.

Channelization in Cellular Telephone Networks • Cellular networks use frequency reuse – Band of frequencies reused in other cells that are sufficiently far that interference is not a problem – Cellular networks provide voice connections which is steady stream • FDMA used in Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) • TDMA used in IS-54 and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) • CDMA used in Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 30 .

Advanced Mobile Phone System • Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) – – – – First generation cellular telephone system in US Analog voice channels of 30 kHz Forward channels from base station to mobiles Reverse channels from mobiles to base • Frequency band 50 MHz wide in 800 MHz region allocated to two service providers: “A” and “B” A 824 MHz 08/29/11 A B AB 849 MHz A 869 MHz A B A B Frequency 894 MHz 31 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA .

so each cell has 395/7 voice channels • AMPS spectrum efficiency: #calls/cell/MHz =395/(7*25) = 2.26 calls/cell/MHz 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 32 .AMPS Spectral Efficiency • 50 MHz @ 30kHz gives 832 2-way channels • Each service provider has – 416 2-way channels – 21 channels used for call setup & control – 395 channels used for voice – AMPS uses 7-cell frequency reuse pattern.

and later IS-136.6 kbps stream Stream arranged in 6-slot 40 ms cycles 1 slot = 324 bits → 8.Interim Standard 54/136 • IS-54. developed to meet demand for cellular phone service • Digital methods to increase capacity • A 30-kHz AMPS channel converted into several TDMA channels – – – – 1 AMPS channel carries 48.9 GHz PCS band 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 33 .1 kbps per slot 1 full-rate channel: 2 slots to carry 1 voice signal • 1 AMPS channel carries 3 voice calls • 30 kHz spacing also used in 1.

IS-54 TDMA frame structure Base to mobile 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 Time Mobile to base 1 2 3 40 ms 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 Time • 416 AMPS channels x 3 = 1248 digital channels • Assume 21 channels for calls setup and control • IS-54 spectrum efficiency: #calls/cell/MHz – (1227/7)/(25 MHz) = 7 calls/cell/MHz 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 34 .

) Hybrid TDMA/FDMA – Carrier signals 200 kHz apart – 25 MHz give 124 one-way carriers Existing services 890 MHz Initial GSM 915 MHz Existing services 935 MHz Initial GSM 960 MHz 905 MHz 950 MHz reverse 08/29/11 forward 35 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA .Am.Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) • • • • European digital cellular telephone system 890-915 MHz & 935-960 MHz band PCS: 1800 MHz (Europe). 1900 MHz (N.

25 bits total ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 36 .8 kbps Traffic Channels #0-11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Slow Associated Control Channel Traffic Channels #13-24 Slow Associated Control Channel 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 GSM TDMA Structure 1 multiframe = 26 frames 120 ms long 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 08/29/11 1 TDMA frame = 8 slots 1 slot = 114 data bits / 156.• Each carrier signal carries traffic and control channels • 1 full rate traffic channel = 1 slot in every traffic frame 24 slots x 114 bits/slot / 120 ms = 22.

61 calls/cell/MHz 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 37 .GSM Spectrum Efficiency • Error correction coding used in 22.8 kbps to carry 13 kbps digital voice signal • Frequency reuse of 3 or 4 possible • 124 carriers x 8 = 992 traffic channels • Spectrum efficiency for GSM: – (992/3)/50MHz = 6.

23 MHz – 41 AMPS signals • All base stations are synchronized to a common clock – Global Positioning System accuracy to 1 µ sec • Forward channels use orthogonal spreading • Reverse channels use non-orthogonal spreading 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 38 .Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) • CDMA digital cellular telephone system • Operates in AMPS & PCS bands • 1 signal occupies 1.

2288 Mcps I short code spreading sequence baseband filter baseband filter Q short code spreading sequence I(t) Q(t) • • • • Basic user information rate is 9. 19.6 kbps Doubled after error correction coding Converted to +1s Multiplied by 19.2 ksym/sec stream derived from 42-bit register long-code sequence generator which depends on electronic serial number ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 39 08/29/11 .200 sym/s repetition. User info interleaving 19200 sym/s User mask (ESN) Long code generator Decimator 1.Base-to-Mobile Channels Walsh channel j sequence 9600 bps Error coding.

19.200 sym/s repetition.2288 Mcps I short code spreading sequence baseband filter baseband filter Q short code spreading sequence I(t) Q(t) • Each symbol multiplied by 64-bit chip Walsh orthogonal sequence (19200 x 64 = 1.Base-to-Mobile Channels Walsh channel j sequence 9600 bps Error coding. User info interleaving 19200 sym/s User mask (ESN) Long code generator Decimator 1.2288 Msym/sec) • Each base station uses the same 15-bit register short sequence to spread signal prior to transmission • Base station synchronizes all its transmissions 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 40 .

Pilot Tone & Synchronization Walsh channel 0 sequence Pilot channel all 1s I short code spreading sequence baseband filter baseband filter Q short code spreading sequence I(t) Q(t) • • • • • All 0’s Walsh sequence reserved to generate pilot tone Short code sequences transmitted to all receivers Receivers can then recover user information using Walsh orthogonal sequence Different base stations use different phase of same short sequence Mobiles compare signal strengths of pilots from different base stations to decide when to initiate handoff ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 08/29/11 41 .

200 sym/s 1/2 chip delay baseband filter baseband filter I(t) Q(t) D Q short code spreading sequence User mask (ESN) Long code generator 1. User info interleaving 307.Mobile-to-Base Channels I short code spreading sequence 9600 bps Error coding.6 kbps user information coded and spread to 307. repetition.2 kbps Spread by 4 by multiplying by long code sequence Different mobiles use different phase of long code sequence Multiplied by short code sequence Transmitted to Base 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 42 .2288 Mcps • • • • • 9.

• Spread spectrum reduces interference IS-95 Spectrum Efficiency – Signals arriving at a base station from within or from outside its cell are uncorrelated because mobiles have different long code sequences – Signals arriving at mobiles from different base stations are uncorrelated because they use different phases of the short code sequence • Enables reuse factor of 1 • Goodman [1997] estimates spectrum efficiency for IS95 is: – between 12 & 45 call/cell/MHz • Much higher spectrum efficiency than IS-54 & GSM 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 43 .

Scheduling & Random Access (Other than Channelization) And Performance Measures 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 44 .

wait.Approaches to Media Sharing Medium sharing techniques Static / “Semi-static” Channelization Dynamic medium access control • Partition medium • Dedicated allocation to users • Satellite transmission • Cellular Telephone Scheduling Random access • Polling: take turns • Request for slot in transmission schedule • Token ring • Wireless LANs ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA • Loose coordination • Send. retry if necessary • Aloha • Ethernet 45 08/29/11 .

Scheduling: Polling Data from 1 from 2 Data Poll 1 Poll 2 1 2 Inbound line Data to M Host computer Outbound line 3 M Stations 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 46 .

Scheduling: Token-Passing Ring networks token Data to M token Station that holds token transmits into ring 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 47 .

Random Access Multitapped Bus Crash!! Transmit when ready Transmissions can occur. need retransmission strategy 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 48 .

Wireless LAN
AdHoc: station-to-station Infrastructure: stations to base station Random access & polling

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Selecting a Medium Access Control
• Applications
– – – – What type of traffic? Voice streams? Steady traffic, low delay/jitter Data? Short messages? Web page downloads? Enterprise or Consumer market? Reliability, cost

• Scale
– How much traffic can be carried? – How many users can be supported?

• Current Examples:
– Design MAC to provide wireless DSL-equivalent access to rural communities – Design MAC to provide Wireless-LAN-equivalent access to mobile users (user in car travelling at 130 km/hr)
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• Delay-bandwidth product key parameter

Delay-Bandwidth Product

– Coordination in sharing medium involves using bandwidth (explicitly or implicitly) – Difficulty of coordination commensurate with delaybandwidth product

• Simple two-station example
– Station with frame to send listens to medium and transmits if medium found idle – Station monitors medium to detect collision – If collision occurs, station that begin transmitting earlier retransmits (propagation time is known)

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Two-Station MAC Example Two stations are trying to share a common medium A transmits at t = 0 Distance d meters tprop = d / ν seconds A B B does not transmit before t = tprop & A captures channel B transmits before t = tprop and detects collision soon thereafter Case 1 A B Case 2 A A detects collision at t = 2 tprop B B A 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 52 .

MaxThrough put = Reff Efficiency = ρ max Normalized Delay-Bandwidth Product 08/29/11 L 1 1 = = = L + 2t prop R 1 + 2t prop R / L 1 + 2a L 1 = = R bits/secon d L / R + 2t prop 1 + 2a a= t prop L/R Propagation delay Time to transmit a frame 53 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA . so.• Efficiency requiresTwo-Station Example of 2t of quiet time Each frame transmission pp ro – Station B needs to be quiet tprop before and after time when Station A transmits. Waiting time=2tprop – R transmission bit rate (Note is different from Effe. – Effe.) – L bits/frame. • Normalized delay-b/w product (a) = ratio of 1-way delay b/w product to avg. Throughput. sent over channel • Efficiency is Normalized Maximum throughput (= Reff. Sending station requires X=L/R secs for transmitting its frame./R). Reff . frame length. Throughput is Actual rate (bps) at which info.

01. the medium can be used very efficiently by using the above protocol. (if a=0.5) 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 54 . • If a = 0.Summary of Two Stations example • When a is much larger than 1. • As a becomes larger.02 = 0. channel becomes more inefficient.98. efficiency =0.5. then the efficiency = 1/1.

Typical MAC Efficiencies Two-Station Example: 1 Efficiency = 1 + 2a CSMA-CD (Ethernet) protocol: 1 Efficiency = 1 + 6. the efficiency becomes low 1 Efficiency = 1 + a′ a΄= latency of the ring (bits)/average frame length 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 55 .44a Token-ring network • If a<<1. then efficiency close to 100% • As a approaches 1.

33 x 100 Desk area network 100 m 3.33 x 1003 3.33 x 10-01 3.33 x 1006 3.33 x 1003 Local area network 10 km 3.33 x 1002 3.33 x 1001 3.Distance Typical Delay-Bandwidth Products 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps Network Type 1 m 3.33 x 1004 Metropolitan area network 1000 km 3.33 x 1002 3.33 x 1004 3.33 x 1007 3.33 x 10-02 3.33 x 1008 Global area network • Max size Ethernet frame: 1500 bytes = 12000 bits • Long and/or fat pipes give large a 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 56 .33 x 1005 3.33 x 1006 Wide area network 100000 km 3.

MAC protocol features • • • • • • • • Delay-bandwidth product Efficiency Transfer delay Fairness Reliability Capability to carry different types of traffic Quality of service Cost ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 57 08/29/11 .

MAC Delay Performance • Frame transfer delay • Throughput – From first bit of frame arrives at source MAC – To last bit of frame delivered at destination MAC – Actual transfer rate through the shared medium – Measured in frames/sec or bits/sec R bits/sec & L bits/frame X=L/R seconds/frame λ frames/second average arrival rate Load ρ = λ X. rate at which “work” arrives Maximum throughput (@100% efficiency): R/L fr/sec • Parameters 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 58 .

only frame transmission time • At high arrival rates. increasingly longer waits to access channel • Max efficiency ρ typically less than 100% 59 Transfer delay ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA .E[T]/X Normalized Delay versus Load E[T] = average frame transfer delay X = average frame transmission time 1 ρ Load 08/29/11 m a x 1 • At low arrival rate.

Dependence on Rtprop /L E[T]/X a′ > a a′ a Transfer Delay 1 ρ ′ max Load 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 60 ρ mx a 1 ρ .

Delay Performance of Channelization Schemes 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 61 .

• traffic onto a shared line • Packets are encapsulated in frames and queued in a buffer prior to transmission • Central control allows variety of service disciplines Statistical Multiplexing & Random Access allows sharing of a broadcast Multiplexing concentrates bursty • MAC medium • Packets are encapsulated in frames and queued at station prior to transmission • Decentralized control “wastes” bandwidth to allow sharing A A Shared Medium B Buffer B R bps C Input lines 08/29/11 R bps C Input lines 62 Output line ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA .

& QoS A A Shared Medium B Buffer B R bps C Input lines 08/29/11 R bps C Input lines 63 Output line ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA .Performance Issues in Statistical Multiplexing & Multiple Access Application Properties • How often are packets generated? • How long are packets? • What are loss & delay requirements? System Performance • Transfer Delay • Packet/frame Loss • Efficiency & Throughput • Priority. scheduling.

exponential.M/G/1 Queueing Model for Statistical Multiplexer Poisson Arrivals rate λ buffer General service time X server • Arrival Model – Independent frame interarrival times: – Average 1/λ – Exponential distribution – “Poisson Arrivals” • Frame Length Model – Independent frame transmission times X – Average E[X] = 1/µ – General distribution – Constant.… • Load ρ = λ /µ – Stability Condition: ρ <1 • Infinite Buffer – No Blocking We will use M/G/1 model as baseline for MAC performance 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 64 .

M/G/1 Performance Results Total Delay = Waiting Time + Service Time Average Waiting Time: 2 ρ σX E[W ] = (1 + ) E[ X ] 2 2(1 − ρ ) E[ X ] (From Appendix A) Average Total Delay: E[T ] = E[W ] + E[ X ] Example: M/D/1 ρ E[W ] = E[ X ] 2(1 − ρ ) ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 65 08/29/11 .

• In M/G/1 model. there is a delay before transmission can begin • M/G/1 Vacation Model: when system empties. server goes away on vacation for random time V M/G/1 Vacation Model 2 ρ σX E[V 2 ] E[W ] = (1 + ) E[ X ] + 2 2(1 − ρ ) E[ X ] 2 E[V ] Extra delay term 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 66 . a frame arriving to an empty multiplexer begins transmission immediately • In many MACs.

ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 67 .Performance of FDMA & CDMA Channelization Bursty Traffic • • • • 1 2 R/M R/M Channelized Medium R/M M M stations do not interact Poisson arrivals λ /M fr/sec Constant frame length L bits Transmission time at full rate – X=L/R • Station bit rate is R/M – Neglect guardbands • Transmission time from station – L/(R/M)=M(L/R) =MX – M times longer • Load at one station: ρ = (λ /Μ )Μ X= = λ X 08/29/11 ...

Transfer Delay for FDMA and CDMA ML/R ML/R ML/R ML/R Time-slotted transmission from each station • When station becomes empty. transmitter goes on vacation for 1 time slot of constant duration V=MX • ρ V ρ MX E[WFDMA ] = MX + = MX + 2(1 − ρ ) 2 2(1 − ρ ) 2 • Average Total Transfer Delay is: ρ MX E[TFDMA ] = E[TFDMA ] + MX = MX + + MX 2(1 − ρ ) 2   The delay increases in proportion with M. the number of stations Allocated bandwidth to a given station is wasted when other stations have data to send ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 68 08/29/11 .

Transfer Delay of TDMA & CDMA FDMA Our frame arrives and finds two frames in queue First frame transmitted 0 3 Second frame transmitted 6 Our frame finishes transmission 9 t TDMA FDMA & TDMA have same waiting time Our frame arrives and finds two frames in queue Last TDMA frame finishes sooner Our frame finishes transmission 0 1 First frame transmitted 08/29/11 3 4 Second frame transmitted 6 7 9 t ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 69 .

Transfer Delay for TDMA • Time-slotted transmission from each station • Same waiting time as FDMA ρ MX E[WTDMA ] = MX + 2(1 − ρ ) 2 • Frame service time is X • Average Total Transfer Delay is: ρ MX E[TTDMA ] = MX + +X 2(1 − ρ ) 2 Better than FDMA & CDMA  Total Delay still grows proportional to M  08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 70 .

TDMA Average Transfer Delay 08/29/11 ECE C394 Communication Networks Topic 6: TDMA FDMA and CDMA 71 .

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